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Sample records for metabolically activated role

  1. Role of the AMP-activated protein kinase in regulating fatty acid metabolism during exercise.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Gregory R

    2009-06-01

    During moderate-intensity exercise, fatty acids are the predominant substrate for working skeletal muscle. The release of fatty acids from adipose tissue stores, combined with the ability of skeletal muscle to actively fine tune the gradient between fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism, depending on substrate availability and energetic demands, requires a coordinated system of metabolic control. Over the past decade, since the discovery that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased in accordance with exercise intensity, there has been significant interest in the proposed role of this ancient stress-sensing kinase as a critical integrative switch controlling metabolic responses during exercise. In this review, studies examining the role of AMPK as a regulator of fatty acid metabolism in both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle during exercise will be discussed. Exercise induces activation of AMPK in adipocytes and regulates triglyceride hydrolysis and esterfication through phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl-transferase, respectively. In skeletal muscle, exercise-induced activation of AMPK is associated with increases in fatty acid uptake, phosphorylation of HSL, and increased fatty acid oxidation, which is thought to occur via the acetyl-CoA carboxylase-malony-CoA-CPT-1 signalling axis. Despite the importance of AMPK in regulating fatty acid metabolism under resting conditions, recent evidence from transgenic models of AMPK deficiency suggest that alternative signalling pathways may also be important for the control of fatty acid metabolism during exercise.

  2. The roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity and its association with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, collectively known as the metabolic syndrome or syndrome X, is one of the most challenging health problems facing industrialized countries. The nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs alpha (α), beta (β) also known as delta (δ), and gamma (γ)), have well-documented roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. Pharmacologically, PPARα is activated by fibrate hypolipidemic drugs, whereas PPARγ is activated by insulin sensitizers thiazolidinediones (TZDs). No marketed drug is yet available for PPARβ(δ). The identification of fibrates and TZDs as respective ligands for PPARα and PPARγ was a groundbreaking finding that sparked notable pharmaceutical interest in PPARs as potential drug targets for treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Limiting side effects associated with clinical use of TZDs have emerged in recent years. New and novel PPAR drugs with broad safety margins and therapeutic potentials for the metabolic syndrome are in development. These include partial, dual, or pan PPAR agonists; PPAR antagonists; and selective PPAR modulators. The objective of this chapter is to highlight the therapeutic benefits of targeting more than one PPAR subtype in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. The pros and cons observed during clinical use of TZDs and the strategies and progress made in the production of new generations of safe and effective PPAR ligands are discussed. PMID:24373239

  3. Potential role for snoRNAs in PKR activation during metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Osama A; Safran, Sarah A; Nakamura, Takahisa; Nix, David A; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S; Bass, Brenda L

    2015-04-21

    Protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) has long been known to be activated by viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as part of the mammalian immune response. However, in mice PKR is also activated by metabolic stress in the absence of viral infection, and this requires a functional kinase domain, as well as a functional dsRNA-binding domain. The endogenous cellular RNA that potentially leads to PKR activation during metabolic stress is unknown. We investigated this question using mouse embryonic fibroblast cells expressing wild-type PKR (PKRWT) or PKR with a point mutation in each dsRNA-binding motif (PKRRM). Using this system, we identified endogenous RNA that interacts with PKR after induction of metabolic stress by palmitic acid (PA) treatment. Specifically, RIP-Seq analyses showed that the majority of enriched RNAs that interacted with WT PKR (≥twofold, false discovery rate ≤ 5%) were small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). Immunoprecipitation of PKR in extracts of UV-cross-linked cells, followed by RT-qPCR, confirmed that snoRNAs were enriched in PKRWT samples after PA treatment, but not in the PKRRM samples. We also demonstrated that a subset of identified snoRNAs bind and activate PKR in vitro; the presence of a 5'-triphosphate enhanced PKR activity compared with the activity with a 5'-monophosphate, for some, but not all, snoRNAs. Finally, we demonstrated PKR activation in cells upon snoRNA transfection, supporting our hypothesis that endogenous snoRNAs can activate PKR. Our results suggest an unprecedented and unexpected model whereby snoRNAs play a role in the activation of PKR under metabolic stress.

  4. Potential role for snoRNAs in PKR activation during metabolic stress

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Osama A.; Safran, Sarah A.; Nix, David A.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Bass, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) has long been known to be activated by viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as part of the mammalian immune response. However, in mice PKR is also activated by metabolic stress in the absence of viral infection, and this requires a functional kinase domain, as well as a functional dsRNA-binding domain. The endogenous cellular RNA that potentially leads to PKR activation during metabolic stress is unknown. We investigated this question using mouse embryonic fibroblast cells expressing wild-type PKR (PKRWT) or PKR with a point mutation in each dsRNA-binding motif (PKRRM). Using this system, we identified endogenous RNA that interacts with PKR after induction of metabolic stress by palmitic acid (PA) treatment. Specifically, RIP-Seq analyses showed that the majority of enriched RNAs that interacted with WT PKR (≥twofold, false discovery rate ≤ 5%) were small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). Immunoprecipitation of PKR in extracts of UV–cross-linked cells, followed by RT-qPCR, confirmed that snoRNAs were enriched in PKRWT samples after PA treatment, but not in the PKRRM samples. We also demonstrated that a subset of identified snoRNAs bind and activate PKR in vitro; the presence of a 5′-triphosphate enhanced PKR activity compared with the activity with a 5′-monophosphate, for some, but not all, snoRNAs. Finally, we demonstrated PKR activation in cells upon snoRNA transfection, supporting our hypothesis that endogenous snoRNAs can activate PKR. Our results suggest an unprecedented and unexpected model whereby snoRNAs play a role in the activation of PKR under metabolic stress. PMID:25848059

  5. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chen; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Chong; Yu, Lu-Gang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the serious public health problems worldwide. Moreover, it is estimated that MetS patients have about five-fold greater risk of the T2DM development compared with people without the syndrome. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors which play an important role in the pathogenesis of MetS and T2DM. All three members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear receptor subfamily, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ are critical in regulating insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. Recently, more and more studies indicated that the gene polymorphism of PPARs, such as Leu162Val and Val227Ala of PPARα, +294T > C of PPARβ/δ, Pro12Ala and C1431T of PPARγ, are significantly associated with the onset and progressing of MetS and T2DM in different population worldwide. Furthermore, a large body of evidence demonstrated that the glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism were influenced by gene-gene interaction among PPARs genes. However, given the complexity pathogenesis of metabolic disease, it is unlikely that genetic variation of a single locus would provide an adequate explanation of inter-individual differences which results in diverse clinical syndromes. Thus, gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions associated with T2DM and MetS need future comprehensive studies. PMID:25987964

  6. Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic depression in animals.

    PubMed

    Rider, Mark H

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein serine/threonine kinase that controls cellular and whole body energy homoeostasis. AMPK is activated during energy stress by a rise in AMP:ATP ratio and maintains energy balance by phosphorylating targets to switch on catabolic ATP-generating pathways, while at the same time switching off anabolic ATP-consuming processes. Metabolic depression is a strategy used by many animals to survive environmental stress and has been extensively studied across phylogeny by comparative biochemists and physiologists, but the role of AMPK has only recently been addressed. This review first deals with the evolution of AMPK in eukaryotes (excluding plants and fungi) and its regulation. Changes in adenine nucleotides and AMPK activation are described in animals during environmental energy stress, before considering the involvement of AMPK in controlling β-oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, triacylglycerol mobilization and protein synthesis. Lastly, strategies are presented to validate the role of AMPK in mediating metabolic depression by phosphorylating downstream targets.

  7. Role of HDL in cholesteryl ester metabolism of lipopolysaccharide-activated P388D1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Uda, Sabrina; Spolitu, Stefano; Angius, Fabrizio; Collu, Maria; Accossu, Simonetta; Banni, Sebastiano; Murru, Elisabetta; Sanna, Francesca; Batetta, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Infections share with atherosclerosis similar lipid alterations, with accumulation of cholesteryl esters (CEs) in activated macrophages and concomitant decrease of cholesterol-HDL (C-HDL). Yet the precise role of HDL during microbial infection has not been fully elucidated. Activation of P388D1 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggered an increase of CEs and neutral lipid contents, along with a remarkable enhancement in 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-HDL uptake. Similar results were found in human monocyte-derived macrophages and monocytes cocultured with phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes. Inhibition of cholesterol esterification with Sandoz-58035 resulted in 80% suppression of CE biosynthesis in P388D1. However, only a 35% decrease of CE content, together with increased scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-B1) protein expression, was found after 72 h and thereafter up to 16 passages of continuous ACAT suppression. Chronic inhibition blunted the effect of LPS treatment on cholesterol metabolism, increased the ratio of free cholesterol/CE content and enhanced interleukin 6 secretion. These results imply that, besides de novo biosynthesis and acquisition by LDL, HDL contributes probably through SR-B1 to the increased CE content in macrophages, partly explaining the low levels of C-HDL during their activation. Our data suggest that in those conditions where more CEs are required, HDL rather than removing, may supply CEs to the cells. PMID:23956443

  8. Role of lipids in the metabolism and activation of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Hubler, Merla J; Kennedy, Arion J

    2016-08-01

    Immune cell plasticity has extensive implications in the pathogenesis and resolution of metabolic disorders, cancers, autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory disorders. Over the past decade, nutritional status has been discovered to influence the immune response. In metabolic disorders such as obesity, immune cells interact with various classes of lipids, which are capable of controlling the plasticity of macrophages and T lymphocytes. The purpose of this review is to discuss lipids and their impact on innate and adaptive immune responses, focusing on two areas: (1) the impact of altering lipid metabolism on immune cell activation, differentiation and function and (2) the mechanism by which lipids such as cholesterol and fatty acids regulate immune cell plasticity.

  9. Water at Biological Phase Boundaries: Its Role in Interfacial Activation of Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Many life-sustaining activities in living cells occur at the membrane-water interface. The pertinent questions that we need to ask are, what are the evolutionary reasons in biology for choosing the membrane-water interface as the site for performing and/or controlling crucial biological reactions, and what is the key physical principle that is very singular to the membrane-water interface that biology exploits for regulating metabolic processes in cells? In this chapter, a hypothesis is developed, which espouses that cells control activities of membrane-bound enzymes through manipulation of the thermodynamic activity of water in the lipid-water interfacial region. The hypothesis is based on the fact that the surface pressure of a lipid monolayer is a direct measure of the thermodynamic activity of water at the lipid-water interface. Accordingly, the surface pressure-dependent activation or inactivation of interfacial enzymes is directly related to changes in the thermodynamic activity of interfacial water. Extension of this argument suggests that cells may manipulate conformations (and activities) of membrane-bound enzymes by manipulating the (re)activity of interfacial water at various locations in the membrane by localized compression or expansion of the interface. In this respect, cells may use the membrane-bound hormone receptors, lipid phase transition, and local variations in membrane lipid composition as effectors of local compression and/or expansion of membrane, and thereby local water activity. Several experimental data in the literature will be reexamined in the light of this hypothesis.

  10. Mitochondrial metabolism during daily torpor in the dwarf Siberian hamster: role of active regulated changes and passive thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jason C L; Gerson, Alexander R; Staples, James F

    2007-11-01

    During daily torpor in the dwarf Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, metabolic rate is reduced by 65% compared with the basal rate, but the mechanisms involved are contentious. We examined liver mitochondrial respiration to determine the possible role of active regulated changes and passive thermal effects in the reduction of metabolic rate. When assayed at 37 degrees C, state 3 (phosphorylating) respiration, but not state 4 (nonphosphorylating) respiration, was significantly lower during torpor compared with normothermia, suggesting that active regulated changes occur during daily torpor. Using top-down elasticity analysis, we determined that these active changes in torpor included a reduced substrate oxidation capacity and an increased proton conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane. At 15 degrees C, mitochondrial respiration was at least 75% lower than at 37 degrees C, but there was no difference between normothermia and torpor. This implies that the active regulated changes are likely more important for reducing respiration at high temperatures (i.e., during entrance) and/or have effects other than reducing respiration at low temperatures. The decrease in respiration from 37 degrees C to 15 degrees C resulted predominantly from a considerable reduction of substrate oxidation capacity in both torpid and normothermic animals. Temperature-dependent changes in proton leak and phosphorylation kinetics depended on metabolic state; proton leakiness increased in torpid animals but decreased in normothermic animals, whereas phosphorylation activity decreased in torpid animals but increased in normothermic animals. Overall, we have shown that both active and passive changes to oxidative phosphorylation occur during daily torpor in this species, contributing to reduced metabolic rate.

  11. Deciphering the Role of Aspartate and Prephenate Aminotransferase Activities in Plastid Nitrogen Metabolism1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Fernando; El-Azaz, Jorge; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplasts and plastids of nonphotosynthetic plant cells contain two aspartate (Asp) aminotransferases: a eukaryotic type (Asp5) and a prokaryotic-type bifunctional enzyme displaying Asp and prephenate aminotransferase activities (PAT). We have identified the entire Asp aminotransferase gene family in Nicotiana benthamiana and isolated and cloned the genes encoding the isoenzymes with plastidic localization: NbAsp5 and NbPAT. Using a virus-induced gene silencing approach, we obtained N. benthamiana plants silenced for NbAsp5 and/or NbPAT. Phenotypic and metabolic analyses were conducted in silenced plants to investigate the specific roles of these enzymes in the biosynthesis of essential amino acids within the plastid. The NbAsp5 silenced plants had no changes in phenotype, exhibiting similar levels of free Asp and glutamate as control plants, but contained diminished levels of asparagine and much higher levels of lysine. In contrast, the suppression of NbPAT led to a severe reduction in growth and strong chlorosis symptoms. NbPAT silenced plants exhibited extremely reduced levels of asparagine and were greatly affected in their phenylalanine metabolism and lignin deposition. Furthermore, NbPAT suppression triggered a transcriptional reprogramming in plastid nitrogen metabolism. Taken together, our results indicate that NbPAT has an overlapping role with NbAsp5 in the biosynthesis of Asp and a key role in the production of phenylalanine for the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The analysis of NbAsp5/NbPAT cosilenced plants highlights the central role of both plastidic aminotransferases in nitrogen metabolism; however, only NbPAT is essential for plant growth and development. PMID:24296073

  12. Alcoholic liver disease and the potential role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Beier, Juliane I; Arteel, Gavin E

    2012-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a major player in fibrinolysis due to its classical role of inhibiting plasminogen activators. Although increased fibrinolysis is common in alcoholic cirrhosis, decreased fibrinolysis (driven mostly by elevated levels of PAI-1) is common during the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, whether or not PAI-1 plays a causal role in the development of early ALD was unclear. Recent studies in experimental models have suggested that PAI-1 may contribute to the development of early (steatosis), intermediate (steatohepatitis) and late (fibrosis) stages of ALD. For example, fatty liver owing to both acute and chronic ethanol was blunted by the genetic inhibition of PAI-1. This effect of targeting PAI-1 appears to be mediated, at least in part, by an increase in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) synthesis in the genetic absence of this acute phase protein. Results from a two-hit model employing ethanol and lipopolysaccharide administration suggest that PAI-1 plays a critical role in hepatic inflammation, most likely due to its ability to cause fibrin accumulation, which subsequently sensitizes the liver to ensuing damaging insults. Lastly, the role of PAI-1 in hepatic fibrosis is less clear and appears that PAI-1 may serve a dual role in this pathological change, both protective (enhancing regeneration) and damaging (blocking matrix degradation). In summary, results from these studies suggest that PAI-1 may play multiple roles in the various stages of ALD, both protective and damaging. The latter effect is mediated by its influence on steatosis (i.e. decreasing VLDL synthesis), inflammation (i.e. impairing fibrinolysis) and fibrosis (i.e. blunting matrix degradation), whereas the former is mediated by maintaining hepatocyte division after an injury.

  13. Alcoholic liver disease and the potential role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrin metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Juliane I; Arteel, Gavin E

    2016-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a major player in fibrinolysis due to its classical role of inhibiting plasminogen activators. Although increased fibrinolysis is common in alcoholic cirrhosis, decreased fibrinolysis (driven mostly by elevated levels of PAI-1) is common during the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, whether or not PAI-1 plays a causal role in the development of early ALD was unclear. Recent studies in experimental models have suggested that PAI-1 may contribute to the development of early (steatosis), intermediate (steatohepatitis) and late (fibrosis) stages of ALD. For example, fatty liver owing to both acute and chronic ethanol was blunted by the genetic inhibition of PAI-1. This effect of targeting PAI-1 appears to be mediated, at least in part, by an increase in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) synthesis in the genetic absence of this acute phase protein. Results from a two-hit model employing ethanol and lipopolysaccharide administration suggest that PAI-1 plays a critical role in hepatic inflammation, most likely due to its ability to cause fibrin accumulation, which subsequently sensitizes the liver to ensuing damaging insults. Lastly, the role of PAI-1 in hepatic fibrosis is less clear and appears that PAI-1 may serve a dual role in this pathological change, both protective (enhancing regeneration) and damaging (blocking matrix degradation). In summary, results from these studies suggest that PAI-1 may play multiple roles in the various stages of ALD, both protective and damaging. The latter effect is mediated by its influence on steatosis (i.e. decreasing VLDL synthesis), inflammation (i.e. impairing fibrinolysis) and fibrosis (i.e. blunting matrix degradation), whereas the former is mediated by maintaining hepatocyte division after an injury. PMID:22238286

  14. The role of sebaceous gland activity and scalp microfloral metabolism in the etiology of seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff.

    PubMed

    Ro, Byung In; Dawson, Thomas L

    2005-12-01

    Most common scalp flaking disorders show a strong correlation with sebaceous gland (SG) activity. Early SG activity in the neonate results in microfloral colonization and cradle cap. After maternal hormonal control subsides, there is little SG activity until puberty, when the SG turns on under sex hormone control. When the SG activity increases, the present but low Malassezia population has a new food source and proliferates, resulting in the scalp itching and flaking common to greater than 50% of adults. Dry scalp flaking, dandruff, and seborrheic dermatitis are chronic scalp manifestations of similar etiology differing only in severity. The common etiology is a convergence of three factors: (1) SG secretions, (2) microfloral metabolism, and (3) individual susceptibility. Dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD) are more than superficial stratum corneum disorders, including alteration of the epidermis with hyperproliferation, excess lipids, interdigitation of the corneal envelope, and parakeratosis. The pathogenic role of Malassezia in D/SD has recently been elucidated, and is focused on their lipid metabolism. Malassezia restricta and M. globosa require lipids. They degrade sebum, free fatty acids from triglycerides, consume specific saturated fatty acids, and leave behind the unsaturates. Penetration of the modified sebaceous secretions results in inflammation, irritation, and scalp flaking.

  15. The role of sebaceous gland activity and scalp microfloral metabolism in the etiology of seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff.

    PubMed

    Ro, Byung In; Dawson, Thomas L

    2005-12-01

    Most common scalp flaking disorders show a strong correlation with sebaceous gland (SG) activity. Early SG activity in the neonate results in microfloral colonization and cradle cap. After maternal hormonal control subsides, there is little SG activity until puberty, when the SG turns on under sex hormone control. When the SG activity increases, the present but low Malassezia population has a new food source and proliferates, resulting in the scalp itching and flaking common to greater than 50% of adults. Dry scalp flaking, dandruff, and seborrheic dermatitis are chronic scalp manifestations of similar etiology differing only in severity. The common etiology is a convergence of three factors: (1) SG secretions, (2) microfloral metabolism, and (3) individual susceptibility. Dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD) are more than superficial stratum corneum disorders, including alteration of the epidermis with hyperproliferation, excess lipids, interdigitation of the corneal envelope, and parakeratosis. The pathogenic role of Malassezia in D/SD has recently been elucidated, and is focused on their lipid metabolism. Malassezia restricta and M. globosa require lipids. They degrade sebum, free fatty acids from triglycerides, consume specific saturated fatty acids, and leave behind the unsaturates. Penetration of the modified sebaceous secretions results in inflammation, irritation, and scalp flaking. PMID:16382662

  16. Role of metabolic activation and the TRPA1 receptor in the sensory irritation response to styrene and naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Lanosa, Michael J; Willis, Daniel N; Jordt, Sven; Morris, John B

    2010-06-01

    The current study was aimed at examining the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activation and the electrophile-sensitive transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptor (TRPA1) in mediating the sensory irritation response to styrene and naphthalene. Toward this end, the sensory irritation to these vapors was measured in female C57Bl/6J mice during 15-min exposure via plethysmographic measurement of the duration of braking at the onset of each expiration. The sensory irritation response to 75 ppm styrene and 7 ppm naphthalene was diminished threefold or more in animals pretreated with the CYP450 inhibitor metyrapone, providing evidence of the role of metabolic activation in the response to these vapors. The sensory irritation response to styrene (75 ppm) and naphthalene (7.6 ppm) was virtually absent in TRPA1-/- knockout mice, indicating the critical role of this receptor in mediating the response. Thus, these results support the hypothesis that styrene and naphthalene vapors initiate the sensory irritation response through TRPA1 detection of their CYP450 metabolites. PMID:20176620

  17. HIV and Cocaine Impact Glial Metabolism: Energy Sensor AMP-activated protein kinase Role in Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Epigenetic Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Samikkannu, Thangavel; Atluri, Venkata S. R.; Nair, Madhavan P. N.

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection and cocaine use have been identified as risk factors for triggering neuronal dysfunction. In the central nervous system (CNS), energy resource and metabolic function are regulated by astroglia. Glia is the major reservoir of HIV infection and disease progression in CNS. However, the role of cocaine in accelerating HIV associated energy deficit and its impact on neuronal dysfunction has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HIV associated neuropathogenesis in cocaine abuse and how it accelerates the energy sensor AMPKs and its subsequent effect on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), BRSKs, CDC25B/C, MAP/Tau, Wee1 and epigenetics remodeling complex SWI/SNF. Results showed that cocaine exposure during HIV infection significantly increased the level of p24, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP-utilization and upregulated energy sensor AMPKs, CDC25B/C, MAP/Tau and Wee1 protein expression. Increased ROS production subsequently inhibits OCR/ECAR ratio and OXPHOS, and eventually upregulate epigenetics remodeling complex SWI/SNF in CHME-5 cells. These results suggest that HIV infection induced energy deficit and metabolic dysfunction is accelerated by cocaine inducing energy sensor AMPKs, mitochondrial biogenesis and chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF activation, which may lead to neuroAIDS disease progression. PMID:27535703

  18. HIV and Cocaine Impact Glial Metabolism: Energy Sensor AMP-activated protein kinase Role in Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Epigenetic Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Samikkannu, Thangavel; Atluri, Venkata S R; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection and cocaine use have been identified as risk factors for triggering neuronal dysfunction. In the central nervous system (CNS), energy resource and metabolic function are regulated by astroglia. Glia is the major reservoir of HIV infection and disease progression in CNS. However, the role of cocaine in accelerating HIV associated energy deficit and its impact on neuronal dysfunction has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HIV associated neuropathogenesis in cocaine abuse and how it accelerates the energy sensor AMPKs and its subsequent effect on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), BRSKs, CDC25B/C, MAP/Tau, Wee1 and epigenetics remodeling complex SWI/SNF. Results showed that cocaine exposure during HIV infection significantly increased the level of p24, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP-utilization and upregulated energy sensor AMPKs, CDC25B/C, MAP/Tau and Wee1 protein expression. Increased ROS production subsequently inhibits OCR/ECAR ratio and OXPHOS, and eventually upregulate epigenetics remodeling complex SWI/SNF in CHME-5 cells. These results suggest that HIV infection induced energy deficit and metabolic dysfunction is accelerated by cocaine inducing energy sensor AMPKs, mitochondrial biogenesis and chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF activation, which may lead to neuroAIDS disease progression. PMID:27535703

  19. The pivotal role of uridine-cytidine kinases in pyrimidine metabolism and activation of cytotoxic nucleoside analogues in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    van Kuilenburg, André B P; Meinsma, Rutger

    2016-09-01

    Uridine-cytidine kinase (UCK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine as well as the pharmacological activation of several cytotoxic pyrimidine ribonucleoside analogues. In this study, we investigated the functional role of two isoforms of UCK in neuroblastoma cell lines. Analysis of mRNA coding for UCK1 and UCK2 showed that UCK2 is the most abundantly expressed UCK in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines. Transient and stable overexpression of UCK2 in neuroblastoma cells increased the metabolism of uridine and cytidine as well as the cytotoxicity of 3-deazauridine. Knockdown of endogenous UCK2 as well as overexpression of UCK1 resulted in decreased metabolism of uridine and cytidine and protected the neuroblastoma cells from 3-deazauridine-induced toxicity. Subcellular localization studies showed that UCK1-GFP and UCK2-GFP were localized in the cell nucleus and cytosol, respectively. However, co-expression of UCK1 with UCK2 resulted in a nuclear localization of UCK2 instead of its normal cytosolic localization, thereby impairing its normal function. The physical association of UCK1 and UCK2 was further demonstrated through pull-down analysis using his-tagged UCK. The discovery that UCK2 is highly expressed in neuroblastoma opens the possibility for selectively targeting neuroblastoma cells using UCK2-dependent pyrimidine analogues, while sparing normal tissues. PMID:27239701

  20. Role of HDL in cholesteryl ester metabolism of lipopolysaccharide-activated P388D1 macrophages[S

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Sabrina; Spolitu, Stefano; Angius, Fabrizio; Collu, Maria; Accossu, Simonetta; Banni, Sebastiano; Murru, Elisabetta; Sanna, Francesca; Batetta, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Infections share with atherosclerosis similar lipid alterations, with accumulation of cholesteryl esters (CEs) in activated macrophages and concomitant decrease of cholesterol-HDL (C-HDL). Yet the precise role of HDL during microbial infection has not been fully elucidated. Activation of P388D1 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggered an increase of CEs and neutral lipid contents, along with a remarkable enhancement in 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-HDL uptake. Similar results were found in human monocyte-derived macrophages and monocytes cocultured with phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes. Inhibition of cholesterol esterification with Sandoz-58035 resulted in 80% suppression of CE biosynthesis in P388D1. However, only a 35% decrease of CE content, together with increased scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-B1) protein expression, was found after 72 h and thereafter up to 16 passages of continuous ACAT suppression. Chronic inhibition blunted the effect of LPS treatment on cholesterol metabolism, increased the ratio of free cholesterol/CE content and enhanced interleukin 6 secretion.These results imply that, besides de novo biosynthesis and acquisition by LDL, HDL contributes probably through SR-B1 to the increased CE content in macrophages, partly explaining the low levels of C-HDL during their activation. Our data suggest that in those conditions where more CEs are required, HDL rather than removing, may supply CEs to the cells. PMID:23956443

  1. Role of N-methylolpentamethylmelamine in the metabolic activation of hexamethylmelamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, M.M.; Sanders, M.E.; Tiede, W.S.

    1983-02-01

    Hexamethylmelamine (HMM) is metabolized by rat hepatic microsomal preparations to reactive species which covalently bind to microsomal protein and to calf thymus DNA added to microsomal incubation mixtures. Covalent binding to macromolecules is dependent on the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent covalent binding of (methyl-/sup 14/C)HMM to microsomal protein is greater than that of (ring-/sup 14/C)HMM. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent covalent binding of (ring-/sup 14/C)HMM and (methyl-/sup 14/C)HMM to calf thymus DNA added to microsomal incubation mixtures are approximately equal. The (ring-/sup 14/C)-labeled carbinolamine intermediate in HMM demethylation, N-methylolpentamethylmelamine, covalently binds to microsomal protein and, to a much greater extent, to calf thymus DNA.

  2. Role of Metabolic Enzymes P450 (CYP) on Activating Procarcinogen and their Polymorphisms on the Risk of Cancers.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Feng, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are the most important metabolizing enzyme family exists among all organs. Apart from their role in the deactivation of most endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, they also mediate most procarcinogens oxidation to ultimate carcinogens. There are several modes of CYP450s activation of procarcinogens. 1) Formation of epoxide and diol-epoxides intermediates, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mediates PAHs oxidation to epoxide intermediates; 2) Formation of diazonium ions, such as CYP2A6, CYP2A13 and CYP2E1 mediates activation of most nitrosamines to unstable metabolites, which can rearrange to give diazonium ions. 3) Formation of reactive semiquinones and quinines, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transformation of estradiol to catechol estrogens, subsequently formation semiquinones; 4) Formation of toxic O-esterification, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 metabolizes PhIP to N(2)-acetoxy-PhIP and N(2)-sulfonyloxy-PhIP, which are carcinogenic metabolites. 5) Formation of free radical, such as CYP2E1 is involved in activation tetrachloromethane to free radicals. While for CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, only a minor role has been found in procarcinogens activation. In addition, as the gene polymorphisms reflected, the polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1A2 (- 163C/A and -2467T/delT), CYP1B1 (-48G/C, -119G/T and -432G/C), CYP2E1 (-1293G/C and -1053 C/T) have been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), and CYP2E1 (PstI/Rsa and 9-bp insertion) have an association with higher risk colon cancers, whereas CYP1A2 (-163C/A and -3860G/A) polymorphism is found to be among the protective factors. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1B1 -432G/C, CYP2B6 (-516G/T and -785A/G) may increase the risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 are responsible for most of the procarcinogens activation, and their gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of

  3. The Role of Myeloid Cell Activation and Arginine Metabolism in the Pathogenesis of Virus-Induced Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Burrack, Kristina S.; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    When an antiviral immune response is generated, a balance must be reached between two opposing pathways: the production of proinflammatory and cytotoxic effectors that drive a robust antiviral immune response to control the infection and regulators that function to limit or blunt an excessive immune response to minimize immune-mediated pathology and repair tissue damage. Myeloid cells, including monocytes and macrophages, play an important role in this balance, particularly through the activities of the arginine-hydrolyzing enzymes nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2; iNOS) and arginase 1 (Arg1). Nitric oxide (NO) production by iNOS is an important proinflammatory mediator, whereas Arg1-expressing macrophages contribute to the resolution of inflammation and wound repair. In the context of viral infections, expression of these enzymes can result in a variety of outcomes for the host. NO has direct antiviral properties against some viruses, whereas during other virus infections NO can mediate immunopathology and/or inhibit the antiviral immune response to promote chronic infection. Arg1 activity not only has important wound healing functions but can also inhibit the antiviral immune response during some viral infections. Thus, depending on the specific virus and the tissue(s) involved, the activity of both of these arginine-hydrolyzing enzymes can either exacerbate or limit the severity of virus-induced disease. In this review, we will discuss a variety of viral infections, including HIV, SARS-CoV, LCMV, HCV, RSV, and others, where myeloid cells influence the control and clearance of the virus from the host, as well as the severity and resolution of tissue damage, via the activities of iNOS and/or Arg1. Clearly, monocyte/macrophage activation and arginine metabolism will continue to be important areas of investigation in the context of viral infections. PMID:25250029

  4. Metabolomic profiling reveals a role for androgen in activating amino acid metabolism and methylation in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Putluri, Nagireddy; Shojaie, Ali; Vasu, Vihas T; Nalluri, Srilatha; Vareed, Shaiju K; Putluri, Vasanta; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Byun, Jeman; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Sana, Theodore R; Fischer, Steven M; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Creighton, Chad J; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death in American men. Development and progression of clinically localized prostate cancer is highly dependent on androgen signaling. Metastatic tumors are initially responsive to anti-androgen therapy, however become resistant to this regimen upon progression. Genomic and proteomic studies have implicated a role for androgen in regulating metabolic processes in prostate cancer. However, there have been no metabolomic profiling studies conducted thus far that have examined androgen-regulated biochemical processes in prostate cancer. Here, we have used unbiased metabolomic profiling coupled with enrichment-based bioprocess mapping to obtain insights into the biochemical alterations mediated by androgen in prostate cancer cell lines. Our findings indicate that androgen exposure results in elevation of amino acid metabolism and alteration of methylation potential in prostate cancer cells. Further, metabolic phenotyping studies confirm higher flux through pathways associated with amino acid metabolism in prostate cancer cells treated with androgen. These findings provide insight into the potential biochemical processes regulated by androgen signaling in prostate cancer. Clinically, if validated, these pathways could be exploited to develop therapeutic strategies that supplement current androgen ablative treatments while the observed androgen-regulated metabolic signatures could be employed as biomarkers that presage the development of castrate-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:21789170

  5. Metabolomic Profiling Reveals a Role for Androgen in Activating Amino Acid Metabolism and Methylation in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Putluri, Nagireddy; Shojaie, Ali; Vasu, Vihas T.; Nalluri, Srilatha; Vareed, Shaiju K.; Putluri, Vasanta; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Byun, Jeman; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Sana, Theodore R.; Fischer, Steven M.; Palapattu, Ganesh S.; Creighton, Chad J.; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death in American men. Development and progression of clinically localized prostate cancer is highly dependent on androgen signaling. Metastatic tumors are initially responsive to anti-androgen therapy, however become resistant to this regimen upon progression. Genomic and proteomic studies have implicated a role for androgen in regulating metabolic processes in prostate cancer. However, there have been no metabolomic profiling studies conducted thus far that have examined androgen-regulated biochemical processes in prostate cancer. Here, we have used unbiased metabolomic profiling coupled with enrichment-based bioprocess mapping to obtain insights into the biochemical alterations mediated by androgen in prostate cancer cell lines. Our findings indicate that androgen exposure results in elevation of amino acid metabolism and alteration of methylation potential in prostate cancer cells. Further, metabolic phenotyping studies confirm higher flux through pathways associated with amino acid metabolism in prostate cancer cells treated with androgen. These findings provide insight into the potential biochemical processes regulated by androgen signaling in prostate cancer. Clinically, if validated, these pathways could be exploited to develop therapeutic strategies that supplement current androgen ablative treatments while the observed androgen-regulated metabolic signatures could be employed as biomarkers that presage the development of castrate-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:21789170

  6. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH Catechols and PAH o-Quinones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Huang, Meng; Penning, Trevor M

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR) catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quinones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox-cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.

  7. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young C. Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S.; Park, Jae H.; Kim, Sung Y.

    2007-08-15

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards.

  8. Role of cytochrome p4501 family members in the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Heather E; Vulimiri, Suryanarayana V; Hatten, William B; Reed, Melissa J; Nebert, Daniel W; Jefcoate, Colin R; DiGiovanni, John

    2004-12-01

    (-/-) mice by 73, 75, 50, and 81%, respectively, as compared to WT mice but were not significantly lower in the Cyp1a2(-/-) or Cyp1b1(-/-) mice. Collectively, these and other results support a role for both P4501A1 and P4501B1 in the bioactivation of DMBA; P4501A2, P4501B1, and possibly P4501A1 in the bioactivation of DB[a,l]P; and P4501A1 in the bioactivation of B[a]P, DB[a,h]A, B[g]C, and B[c]P in mouse epidermis. Furthermore, in the metabolic activation of DMBA in mouse epidermis, P4501B1 shows a preference for the formation of syn-DMBA-diol epoxide adducts, whereas P4501A1 shows a preference for the formation of anti-DMBA-diol epoxide adducts.

  9. Brain energy metabolism in glutamate-receptor activation and excitotoxicity: role for APC/C-Cdh1 in the balance glycolysis/pentose phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Patricia; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan P

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of brain energy metabolism strongly suggest that glutamate receptor-mediated neurotransmission is coupled with molecular signals that switch-on glucose utilization pathways to meet the high energetic requirements of neurons. Failure to adequately coordinate energy supply for neurotransmission ultimately results in a positive amplifying loop of receptor over-activation leading to neuronal death, a process known as excitotoxicity. In this review, we revisited current concepts in excitotoxic mechanisms, their involvement in energy substrate utilization, and the signaling pathways that coordinate both processes. In particular, we have focused on the novel role played by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdh1, in cell metabolism. Our laboratory identified 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 (PFKFB3) -a key glycolytic-promoting enzyme- as an APC/C-Cdh1 substrate. Interestingly, APC/C-Cdh1 activity is inhibited by over-activation of glutamate receptors through a Ca(2+)-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, by inhibiting APC/C-Cdh1 activity, glutamate-receptors activation promotes PFKFB3 stabilization, leading to increased glycolysis and decreased pentose-phosphate pathway activity. This causes a loss in neuronal ability to regenerate glutathione, triggering oxidative stress and delayed excitotoxicity. Further investigation is critical to identify novel molecules responsible for the coupling of energy metabolism with glutamatergic neurotransmission and excitotoxicity, as well as to help developing new therapeutic strategies against neurodegeneration.

  10. Natural forms of vitamin E: metabolism, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and the role in disease prevention and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The Vitamin E family consists of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. α-Tocopherol (αT) is the predominant form of vitamin E in tissues and its deficiency leads to ataxia in humans. However, results from many clinical studies do not support protective roles of αT in disease prevention in people with adequate nutrient status. On the other hand, recent mechanistic studies indicate that other forms of vitamin E such as γ-tocopherol (γT), δ-tocopherol (δT) and γ-tocotrienol (γTE) have unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are superior to αT in prevention and therapy against chronic diseases. These vitamin E forms scavenge reactive nitrogen species, inhibit cyclooxygenase- and 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed eicosanoids and suppress pro-inflammatory signaling such as NF-κB and STAT3/6. Unlike αT, other vitamin E forms are significantly metabolized to carboxychromanols via cytochrome P-450 (CYP4F2)-initiated side-chain ω-oxidation. Long-chain carboxychromanols, esp.13’-carboxychromanols, are shown to have stronger anti-inflammatory effects than un-metabolized vitamins and may therefore contribute to beneficial effects of vitamin E forms in vivo. Consistent with mechanistic findings, animal and human studies show that γT and tocotrienols may be useful against inflammation-associated diseases. This review focuses on non-αT forms of vitamin E with respect to their metabolism, anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms and in vivo efficacy in preclinical models as well as human clinical intervention studies. PMID:24704972

  11. Role of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase in α-linolenic acid-induced intestinal lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; Chen, Jingqing; Wu, Weiche; Wang, Xinxia; Wang, Yizhen

    2015-09-28

    n-3 Long-chain PUFA up-regulate intestinal lipid metabolism. However, whether these metabolic effects of PUFA on intestine are mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) remains to be elucidated. To determine the effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) on intestinal fatty acid (FA) metabolism and whether these effects were affected by AMPK deletion, mice deficient in the catalytic subunit of AMPKα1 or AMPKα2 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HF) or HF supplemented with ALA (HF-A). The results showed that ALA supplementation decreased serum TAG content in WT mice. ALA also increased mRNA expression of genes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, cytochrome P450 4A10 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4a) involved in intestinal lipid oxidation and mRNA expression of TAG synthesis-related genes (monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferases 1 and 2) in WT mice. Consistent with these, expression levels of phosphorylated AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 were also increased in WT mice after ALA addition. However, in the absence of either AMPKα1 or AMPKα2, ALA supplementation failed to increase intestinal lipid oxidation. In addition, no significant effects of either diet (HF and HF-A) or genotype (WT, AMPKα1(-/-) and AMPKα2(-/-)) on FA uptake in the intestine and faecal TAG output were observed. Our results suggest that AMPK is indispensable for the effects of ALA on intestinal lipid oxidation. PMID:26268732

  12. Metabolically Active Brown Fat Mimicking Pericardial Metastasis on PET/CT: The Discriminating Role of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pagé, Maude; Quarto, Cesare; Mancuso, Enrico; Mohiaddin, Raad H

    2016-08-01

    Metabolically active mediastinal brown adipose tissue may be mistakenly diagnosed as a malignancy on 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)/positron emission tomography (PET). We report the case of a patient with locally recurrent breast carcinoma in which staging PET/CT revealed a suspicious pericardial lesion for which the patient was referred to our centre. The novelty of this case resides in the fact that by tissue characterization, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging allowed the determination that the lesion corresponded to brown fat, a reassuring finding with important impact on management, because the presence of pericardial metastasis would have disqualified this patient for curative resection of her cancer recurrence. PMID:26860773

  13. Role of Metabolism in the Immunobiology of Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Mario; De Rosa, Veronica; La Cava, Antonio; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Intracellular metabolism is central to cell activity and function. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) that express the transcription factor FOXP3 play a pivotal role in the maintenance of immune tolerance to self. Recent studies showed that the metabolism and function of Tregs are influenced significantly by local environmental conditions and the availability of certain metabolites. It also was reported that defined metabolic programs associate with Treg differentiation, expression of FOXP3, and phenotype stabilization. This article reviews how metabolism modulates FOXP3 expression and Treg function, what environmental factors are involved, and how metabolic manipulation could alter Treg frequency and function in physiopathologic conditions. PMID:27638939

  14. Cooperative effects of hepatitis B virus and TNF may play important roles in the activation of metabolic pathways through the activation of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuang; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Jiang, Xia; Nakamura, Masato; Sasaki, Reina; Haga, Yuki; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β are often observed in the sera of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. It is well known that these cytokines activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-signaling, and are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We investigated whether HBV or HBV X protein (HBx) enhanced the activation of NF-κB in the presence of TNF and/or IL-1β, and their effects on the expression of metabolic pathway-associated genes. We examined whether HBV or HBx enhanced cytokine-induced activation of NF-κB in hepatocytes, using a reporter assay, in the presence or absence of TNF and/or IL-1β. The expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1), one of the NF-κB target genes was also examined. The expression of metabolic pathway-associated genes in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells in the presence or absence of TNF was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Human hepatocytes expressed TNF receptors and IL-1 receptors. NF-κB was activated by cooperation between HBx and TNF in human hepatocytes. We observed IGFBP1 expression in HBV infection and that a number of metabolic pathway-associated genes were upregulated in HepG2.2.15 cells, compared with HepG2 cells with or without TNF treatment. We observed the cooperative effects of HBV and TNF which enhanced the activation of NF-κB as well as upregulated the expression of metabolic pathway-associated genes in hepatocytes. These effects may be important in the development of HBV-associated metabolic syndrome. PMID:27315566

  15. METABOLISM AND METABOLIC ACTIVATION OF CHEMICALS: IN-SILICO SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of metabolism in prioritizing chemicals according to their potential adverse health effects is extremely important because innocuous parents can be transformed into toxic metabolites. This work presents the TIssue MEtabolism Simulator (TIMES) platform for simulating met...

  16. The role of PARP-1 and PARP-2 enzymes in metabolic regulation and disease.

    PubMed

    Bai, Péter; Cantó, Carles

    2012-09-01

    While originally described as DNA damage repair agents, recent data suggest a role for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes in metabolic regulation by influencing mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. Here we review how PARP activity has a major metabolic impact and the role of PARP-1 and PARP-2 in diverse metabolic complications.

  17. Pancreatic islets and their roles in metabolic programming.

    PubMed

    Barella, Luiz Felipe; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic data have confirmed that undernutrition or overnutrition during critical periods of life can result in metabolic dysfunction, leading to the development of obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, later in life. These studies have contributed to the concept of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), which involves metabolic programming patterns. Beyond the earlier phases of development, puberty can be an additional period of plasticity, during which any insult can lead to changes in metabolism. Impaired brain development, associated with imbalanced autonomous nervous system activity due to metabolic programming, is pivotal to the creation of pathophysiology. Excess glucocorticoid exposure, due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis deregulation, is also involved in malprogramming in early life. Additionally, the pancreatic islets appear to play a decisive role in the setup and maintenance of these metabolic dysfunctions as key targets of metabolic programming, and epigenetic mechanisms may underlie these changes. Moreover, studies have indicated the possibility that deprogramming renders the islets able to recover their functioning after malprogramming. In this review, we discuss the key roles of the pancreatic islets as targets of malprogramming; however, we also discuss their roles as important targets for the treatment and prevention of metabolic diseases.

  18. Critical State of Energy Metabolism in Brain Slices: The Principal Role of Oxygen Delivery and Energy Substrates in Shaping Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Anton; Zilberter, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The interactive vasculo-neuro-glial system controlling energy supply in the brain is absent in vitro where energy provision is determined by experimental conditions. Despite the fact that neuronal activity is extremely energy demanding, little has been reported on the state of energy metabolism in submerged brain slices. Without this information, the arbitrarily chosen oxygenation and metabolic provisions make questionable the efficient oxidative metabolism in slices. We show that in mouse hippocampal slices (postnatal day 19–44), evoked neuronal discharges, spontaneous network activity (initiated by 4-aminopyridine), and synaptic stimulation-induced NAD(P)H autofluorescence depend strongly on the oxygen availability. Only the rate of perfusion as high as ~15 ml/min (95% O2) provided appropriate oxygenation of a slice. Lower oxygenation resulted in the decrease of both local field potentials and spontaneous network activity as well as in significant modulation of short-term synaptic plasticity. The reduced oxygen supply considerably inhibited the oxidation phase of NAD(P)H signaling indicating that the changes in neuronal activity were paralleled by the decrease in aerobic energy metabolism. Interestingly, the dependence of neuronal activity on oxygen tension was clearly shifted toward considerably larger pO2 values in slices when compared to in vivo conditions. With sufficient pO2 provided by a high perfusion rate, partial substitution of glucose in ACSF for β-hydroxybutyrate, pyruvate, or lactate enhanced both oxidative metabolism and synaptic function. This suggests that the high pO2 in brain slices is compulsory for maintaining oxidative metabolism, and glucose alone is not sufficient in fulfilling energy requirements during neuronal activity. Altogether, our results demonstrate that energy metabolism determines the functional state of neuronal network, highlighting the need for the adequate metabolic support to be insured in the in vitro experiments. PMID

  19. Ideal free distribution of metabolic activity: Implications of seasonal metabolic-activity patterns on competitive coexistence.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Péter

    2016-10-01

    The seasonal distribution of metabolic activity determines how much individuals experience different aspects of a periodically changing environment. Seasonal metabolic-activity patterns of coexisting species may differ significantly despite their shared environmental conditions, suggesting that interspecific diversification of this trait has a major role in the coexistence of competing species. In the present study the effect of the seasonal distribution of metabolic activity on intra- and interspecific competition is investigated in a consumer-resource model. It is shown that, in a periodically changing environment, for each environmental preference pattern there is an ideal seasonal distribution of metabolic activity, which results in maximum resource utilisation efficiency and competitive superiority. Contrary to the common interpretation of temporal niche segregation, opposing species-specific seasonal preferences are not a sufficient condition for the coexistence of two species on a population dynamical time scale. A necessary and sufficient condition for coexistence is the temporal segregation of the species via different seasonal activity distributions. However, coexistence is evolutionarily stable only if seasonal metabolic activities and preferences are positively correlated. PMID:27189108

  20. Mechanisms of olfactory toxicity of the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile: Essential roles of CYP2A5 and target-tissue metabolic activation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Fang; Zhou Xin; Behr, Melissa; Fang Cheng; Horii, Yuichi; Gu Jun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Ding Xinxin

    2010-11-15

    The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitril (DCBN) is a potent and tissue-specific toxicant to the olfactory mucosa (OM). The toxicity of DCBN is mediated by cytochrome P450 (P450)-catalyzed bioactivation; however, it is not known whether target-tissue metabolic activation is essential for toxicity. CYP2A5, expressed abundantly in both liver and OM, was previously found to be one of the P450 enzymes active in DCBN bioactivation in vitro. The aims of this study were to determine the role of CYP2A5 in DCBN toxicity in vivo, by comparing the extents of DCBN toxicity between Cyp2a5-null and wild-type (WT) mice, and to determine whether hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes (including CYP2A5) are essential for the DCBN toxicity, by comparing the extents of DCBN toxicity between liver-Cpr-null (LCN) mice, which have little P450 activity in hepatocytes, and WT mice. We show that the loss of CYP2A5 expression did not alter systemic clearance of DCBN (at 25 mg/kg); but it did inhibit DCBN-induced non-protein thiol depletion and cytotoxicity in the OM. Thus, CYP2A5 plays an essential role in mediating DCBN toxicity in the OM. In contrast to the results seen in the Cyp2a5-null mice, the rates of systemic DCBN clearance were substantially reduced, while the extents of DCBN-induced nasal toxicity were increased, rather than decreased, in the LCN mice, compared to WT mice. Therefore, hepatic P450 enzymes, although essential for DCBN clearance, are not necessary for DCBN-induced OM toxicity. Our findings form the basis for a mechanism-based approach to assessing the potential risks of DCBN nasal toxicity in humans.

  1. Industry as a metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Smart, B

    1992-02-01

    The concept of "industrial economic metabolism" can provide a bridge to better understanding between environmentalists and industry. In nature each individual or species reacts to natural stimuli, competing with others for resources, extending its domain until it loses comparative advantage and comes to equilibrium with an adjacent competitor. Those species that succeed over time flourish; those that do not, diminish or disappear. Nature's rule book has no moral or ethical ingredient beyond self-interest. Corporate metabolisms are remarkably similar to those of nature. They too react to stimuli, collect and use resources, and grow or perish based on how effectively they compete. Corporate management recognizes and responds naturally and efficiently to cost and price signals. Through them it selects resources and converts them into useful products. The efficiency with which this is done is measured by profit, the lifeblood of the corporation and its means of growth. Profit thus provides a discipline on corporate behavior, encouraging efficient performers, and, by its absence, weeding out others. Unfettered by influences other than economics, the path to corporate success is unlikely to be a compassionate one. The dilemma of the manager is that to do what is socially "right" often conflicts with what must be done to survive and prosper. Fortunately, corporations' behavior can be altered by society when their purely economic role comes into conflict with other human values. The environment and the economy are not separate systems but intertwined to form a complex natural and social setting. The human-designed economic system depends on natural resource inputs, and in turn its metabolic wastes can overload the ecological system, threatening the long-term survivability of both. Increasing concern for the environment now gives the farsighted manager new latitude. There are competitive benefits in some pollution prevention. But there are not sufficiently strong forces to

  2. Metabolic methanol: molecular pathways and physiological roles.

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, Yuri L; Shindyapina, Anastasia V; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V; Komarova, Tatiana V

    2015-04-01

    Methanol has been historically considered an exogenous product that leads only to pathological changes in the human body when consumed. However, in normal, healthy individuals, methanol and its short-lived oxidized product, formaldehyde, are naturally occurring compounds whose functions and origins have received limited attention. There are several sources of human physiological methanol. Fruits, vegetables, and alcoholic beverages are likely the main sources of exogenous methanol in the healthy human body. Metabolic methanol may occur as a result of fermentation by gut bacteria and metabolic processes involving S-adenosyl methionine. Regardless of its source, low levels of methanol in the body are maintained by physiological and metabolic clearance mechanisms. Although human blood contains small amounts of methanol and formaldehyde, the content of these molecules increases sharply after receiving even methanol-free ethanol, indicating an endogenous source of the metabolic methanol present at low levels in the blood regulated by a cluster of genes. Recent studies of the pathogenesis of neurological disorders indicate metabolic formaldehyde as a putative causative agent. The detection of increased formaldehyde content in the blood of both neurological patients and the elderly indicates the important role of genetic and biochemical mechanisms of maintaining low levels of methanol and formaldehyde.

  3. The pivotal role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases in metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Hulver, Matthew W; McMillan, Ryan P; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity of a system to adjust fuel (primarily glucose and fatty acids) oxidation based on nutrient availability. The ability to alter substrate oxidation in response to nutritional state depends on the genetically influenced balance between oxidation and storage capacities. Competition between fatty acids and glucose for oxidation occurs at the level of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The PDC is normally active in most tissues in the fed state, and suppressing PDC activity by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase (PDK) is crucial to maintain energy homeostasis under some extreme nutritional conditions in mammals. Conversely, inappropriate suppression of PDC activity might promote the development of metabolic diseases. This review summarizes PDKs' pivotal role in control of metabolic flexibility under various nutrient conditions and in different tissues, with emphasis on the best characterized PDK4. Understanding the regulation of PDC and PDKs and their roles in energy homeostasis could be beneficial to alleviate metabolic inflexibility and to provide possible therapies for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). PMID:24520982

  4. Roles of lipid metabolism in keloid development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenyu; Ogawa, Rei

    2013-05-01

    Keloids are common cutaneous pathological scars that are characterised by the histological accumulation of fibroblasts, collagen fibres, and clinically significant invasive growth. Although increasing lines of research on keloids have revealed genetic and environmental factors that contribute to their formation, the etiology of these scars remains unclear. Several studies have suggested the involvement of lipid metabolism, from a nutritional point of view. However, the role that lipid metabolism plays in the pathogenesis and progression of keloids has not previously been reviewed. The progress that has been made in understanding the roles of the pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in inflammation, and how they relate to the formation and progression of keloids, is also outlined. In particular, the possible relationships between mechanotransduction and lipid metabolites in keloids are explored. Mechanotransduction is the process by which physical forces are converted into biochemical signals that are then integrated into cellular responses. It is possible that lipid rafts and caveolae provide the location of lipid signaling and interactions between these signaling pathways and mechanotransduction. Moreover, interactions between lipid signaling pathway molecules and mechanotransduction molecules have been observed. A better understanding of the lipid profile changes and the functional roles lipid metabolism plays in keloids will help to identify target molecules for the development of novel interventions that can prevent, reduce, or even reverse pathological scar formation and/or progression.

  5. The role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Aafke W F; Kersten, Sander

    2015-08-01

    The global prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities has increased considerably over the past decades. In addition to an increase in food consumption and a reduction in physical activity, growing evidence implicates the microorganisms in our gastrointestinal tract, referred to as the gut microbiota, in obesity and related metabolic disturbances. The composition of the gut microbiota can fluctuate markedly within an individual and between individuals. Changes in gut microbial composition may be unfavorable and predispose an individual to disease. Studies in mice that are germ free, mice that are cohoused, and mice that are treated with antibiotics have provided some evidence that changes in gut microbiota may causally contribute to metabolic disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed and explored that may mediate the effects of the gut microbiota on metabolic disorders. In this review, we carefully analyze the literature on the connection between the gut microbiota and metabolic health, with a focus on studies demonstrating a causal relation and clarifying potential underlying mechanisms. Despite a growing appreciation for a role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health, more experimental evidence is needed to substantiate a cause-and-effect relationship. If a clear causal relationship between the gut microbiota and metabolic health can be established, dietary interventions can be targeted toward improving gut microbial composition in the prevention and perhaps even the treatment of metabolic diseases.

  6. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  7. Role of plasma membrane transporters in muscle metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Zorzano, A; Fandos, C; Palacín, M

    2000-01-01

    Muscle plays a major role in metabolism. Thus it is a major glucose-utilizing tissue in the absorptive state, and changes in muscle insulin-stimulated glucose uptake alter whole-body glucose disposal. In some conditions, muscle preferentially uses lipid substrates, such as fatty acids or ketone bodies. Furthermore, muscle is the main reservoir of amino acids and protein. The activity of many different plasma membrane transporters, such as glucose carriers and transporters of carnitine, creatine and amino acids, play a crucial role in muscle metabolism by catalysing the influx or the efflux of substrates across the cell surface. In some cases, the membrane transport process is subjected to intense regulatory control and may become a potential pharmacological target, as is the case with the glucose transporter GLUT4. The goal of this review is the molecular characterization of muscle membrane transporter proteins, as well as the analysis of their possible regulatory role. PMID:10903126

  8. Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber

    PubMed Central

    Borić, Maja; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment. PMID:22826705

  9. Pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease: Role of oxidative metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ceni, Elisabetta; Mello, Tommaso; Galli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a predominant etiological factor in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases, resulting in fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) involves complex and still unclear biological processes, the oxidative metabolites of ethanol such as acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a preeminent role in the clinical and pathological spectrum of ALD. Ethanol oxidative metabolism influences intracellular signaling pathways and deranges the transcriptional control of several genes, leading to fat accumulation, fibrogenesis and activation of innate and adaptive immunity. Acetaldehyde is known to be toxic to the liver and alters lipid homeostasis, decreasing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and increasing sterol regulatory element binding protein activity via an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanism. AMPK activation by ROS modulates autophagy, which has an important role in removing lipid droplets. Acetaldehyde and aldehydes generated from lipid peroxidation induce collagen synthesis by their ability to form protein adducts that activate transforming-growth-factor-β-dependent and independent profibrogenic pathways in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Furthermore, activation of innate and adaptive immunity in response to ethanol metabolism plays a key role in the development and progression of ALD. Acetaldehyde alters the intestinal barrier and promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS) translocation by disrupting tight and adherent junctions in human colonic mucosa. Acetaldehyde and LPS induce Kupffer cells to release ROS and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that contribute to neutrophils infiltration. In addition, alcohol consumption inhibits natural killer cells that are cytotoxic to HSCs and thus have an important antifibrotic function in the liver. Ethanol metabolism may also interfere with cell

  10. Biochemistry of primary headaches: role of tyrosine and tryptophan metabolism.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, G; Cevoli, S; Colavito, D; Leon, A

    2015-05-01

    The pathogenesis of migraine as well as cluster headache (CH) is yet a debated question. In this review, we discuss the possible role of the of tyrosine and tryptophan metabolism in the pathogenesis of these primary headaches. These include the abnormalities in the synthesis of neurotransmitters: high level of DA, low level of NE and very elevated levels of octopamine and synephrine (neuromodulators) in plasma of episodic migraine without aura and CH patients. We hypothesize that the imbalance between the levels of neurotransmitters and elusive amines synthesis is due to a metabolic shift directing tyrosine toward an increased decarboxylase and reduced hydroxylase enzyme activities. The metabolic shift of the tyrosine is favored by a state of neuronal hyperexcitability and a reduced mitochondrial activity present in migraine. In addition we present biochemical studies performed in chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache patients to verify if the same anomalies of the tyrosine and tryptophan metabolism are present in these primary headaches and, if so, their possible role in the chronicity process of CM and CTTH. The results show that important abnormalities of tyrosine metabolism are present only in CM patients (very high plasma levels of DA, NE and tryptamine). Tryptamine plasma levels were found significantly lower in both CM and CTTH patients. In view of this, we propose that migraine and, possibly, CH attacks derive from neurotransmitter and neuromodulator metabolic abnormalities in a hyperexcitable and hypoenergetic brain that spread from the frontal lobe, downstream, resulting in abnormally activated nuclei of the pain matrix. The low tryptamine plasma levels found in CM and CTTH patients suggest that these two primary chronic headaches are characterized by a common insufficient serotoninergic control of the pain threshold.

  11. ASR1 transcription factor and its role in metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Carrari, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Asr1 (ABA, stress, ripening) is a plant gene widely distributed in many species which was discovered by differential induction levels in tomato plants subjected to drought stress conditions. ASR1 also regulates the expression of a hexose transporter in grape and is involved in sugar and amino acid accumulation in some species like maize and potato. The control that ASR1 exerts on hexose transport is interesting from a biotechnological perspective because both sugar partitioning and content in specific organs affect the yield and the quality of many agronomically important crops. ASR1 affect plant metabolism by its dual activity as a transcription factor and as a chaperone-like protein. In this paper, we review possible mechanisms by which ASR1 affects metabolism, the differences observed among tissues and species, and the possible physiological implications of its role in metabolism. PMID:25794140

  12. KRAS Genotype Correlates with Proteasome Inhibitor Ixazomib Activity in Preclinical In Vivo Models of Colon and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Potential Role of Tumor Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Nibedita; Berger, Allison J.; Koenig, Erik; Bannerman, Bret; Garnsey, James; Bernard, Hugues; Hales, Paul; Maldonado Lopez, Angel; Yang, Yu; Donelan, Jill; Jordan, Kristen; Tirrell, Stephen; Stringer, Bradley; Xia, Cindy; Hather, Greg; Galvin, Katherine; Manfredi, Mark; Rhodes, Nelson; Amidon, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In non-clinical studies, the proteasome inhibitor ixazomib inhibits cell growth in a broad panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. In contrast, antitumor activity in xenograft tumors is model-dependent, with some solid tumors showing no response to ixazomib. In this study we examined factors responsible for ixazomib sensitivity or resistance using mouse xenograft models. A survey of 14 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 6 colon xenografts showed a striking relationship between ixazomib activity and KRAS genotype; tumors with wild-type (WT) KRAS were more sensitive to ixazomib than tumors harboring KRAS activating mutations. To confirm the association between KRAS genotype and ixazomib sensitivity, we used SW48 isogenic colon cancer cell lines. Either KRAS-G13D or KRAS-G12V mutations were introduced into KRAS-WT SW48 cells to generate cells that stably express activated KRAS. SW48 KRAS WT tumors, but neither SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors nor SW48-KRAS-G12V tumors, were sensitive to ixazomib in vivo. Since activated KRAS is known to be associated with metabolic reprogramming, we compared metabolite profiling of SW48-WT and SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors treated with or without ixazomib. Prior to treatment there were significant metabolic differences between SW48 WT and SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors, reflecting higher oxidative stress and glucose utilization in the KRAS-G13D tumors. Ixazomib treatment resulted in significant metabolic regulation, and some of these changes were specific to KRAS WT tumors. Depletion of free amino acid pools and activation of GCN2-eIF2α-pathways were observed both in tumor types. However, changes in lipid beta oxidation were observed in only the KRAS WT tumors. The non-clinical data presented here show a correlation between KRAS genotype and ixazomib sensitivity in NSCLC and colon xenografts and provide new evidence of regulation of key metabolic pathways by proteasome inhibition. PMID:26709701

  13. KRAS Genotype Correlates with Proteasome Inhibitor Ixazomib Activity in Preclinical In Vivo Models of Colon and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Potential Role of Tumor Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Nibedita; Berger, Allison J; Koenig, Erik; Bannerman, Bret; Garnsey, James; Bernard, Hugues; Hales, Paul; Maldonado Lopez, Angel; Yang, Yu; Donelan, Jill; Jordan, Kristen; Tirrell, Stephen; Stringer, Bradley; Xia, Cindy; Hather, Greg; Galvin, Katherine; Manfredi, Mark; Rhodes, Nelson; Amidon, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In non-clinical studies, the proteasome inhibitor ixazomib inhibits cell growth in a broad panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. In contrast, antitumor activity in xenograft tumors is model-dependent, with some solid tumors showing no response to ixazomib. In this study we examined factors responsible for ixazomib sensitivity or resistance using mouse xenograft models. A survey of 14 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 6 colon xenografts showed a striking relationship between ixazomib activity and KRAS genotype; tumors with wild-type (WT) KRAS were more sensitive to ixazomib than tumors harboring KRAS activating mutations. To confirm the association between KRAS genotype and ixazomib sensitivity, we used SW48 isogenic colon cancer cell lines. Either KRAS-G13D or KRAS-G12V mutations were introduced into KRAS-WT SW48 cells to generate cells that stably express activated KRAS. SW48 KRAS WT tumors, but neither SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors nor SW48-KRAS-G12V tumors, were sensitive to ixazomib in vivo. Since activated KRAS is known to be associated with metabolic reprogramming, we compared metabolite profiling of SW48-WT and SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors treated with or without ixazomib. Prior to treatment there were significant metabolic differences between SW48 WT and SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors, reflecting higher oxidative stress and glucose utilization in the KRAS-G13D tumors. Ixazomib treatment resulted in significant metabolic regulation, and some of these changes were specific to KRAS WT tumors. Depletion of free amino acid pools and activation of GCN2-eIF2α-pathways were observed both in tumor types. However, changes in lipid beta oxidation were observed in only the KRAS WT tumors. The non-clinical data presented here show a correlation between KRAS genotype and ixazomib sensitivity in NSCLC and colon xenografts and provide new evidence of regulation of key metabolic pathways by proteasome inhibition. PMID:26709701

  14. The Role of Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Metabolic Reprograming of Activated T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Byersdorfer, Craig Alan

    2014-01-01

    Activation represents a significant bioenergetic challenge for T-cells, which must undergo metabolic reprogramming to keep pace with increased energetic demands. This review focuses on the role of fatty acid metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo, following T-cell activation. Based upon previous studies in the literature, as well as accumulating evidence in allogeneic cells, I propose a multi-step model of in vivo metabolic reprogramming. In this model, a primary determinant of metabolic phenotype is the ubiquity and duration of antigen exposure. The implications of this model, as well as the future challenges and opportunities in studying T-cell metabolism, will be discussed. PMID:25566254

  15. The role of ceruloplasmin in iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Roeser, H P; Lee, G R; Nacht, S; Cartwright, G E

    1970-12-01

    The importance of ceruloplasmin in iron metabolism was studied in swine made hypoceruloplasminemic by copper deprivation. When the plasma ceruloplasmin level fell below 1% of normal, cell-to-plasma iron flow became sufficiently impaired to cause hypoferremia, even though total body iron stores were normal. When ceruloplasmin was administered to such animals, plasma iron increased immediately and continued to rise at a rate proportional to the logarithm of the ceruloplasmin dose. The administration of inorganic copper induced increases in plasma iron only after ceruloplasmin appeared in the circulation. Thus, ceruloplasmin appeared to be essential to the normal movement of iron from cells to plasma. Studies designed to define the mechanism of action of ceruloplasmin were based on the in vitro observation that ceruloplasmin behaves as an enzyme (ferroxidase) that catalyzes oxidation of ferrous iron. Retention of injected ferrous iron in the plasma of ceruloplasmin-deficient swine was significantly less than that of ferric iron, reflecting impaired transferrin iron binding. Rat ceruloplasmin, which has little ferroxidase activity, was much less effective than porcine or human ceruloplasmin in inducing increases in plasma iron. These observations suggest that ceruloplasmin acts by virtue of its ferroxidase activity. Eight patients with Wilson's disease were evaluated in order to investigate iron metabolism in a disorder characterized by reduced ceruloplasmin levels. Evidence of iron deficiency was found in six of these, and in five of the six, plasma ceruloplasmin was less than 5% of normal. In comparison, the two patients without evidence of iron deficiency had ceruloplasmin levels of 11 and 18% of normal. It is suggested that iron deficiency tends to occur in those patients with Wilson's disease who have the severest degrees of hypoceruloplasminemia, possibly because of defective transfer of iron from intestinal mucosal cells to plasma.

  16. Role of Brown Fat in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, for which hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society, and new therapeutic strategies are highly warranted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is metabolically active in human adults. Although positron emission tomography-computed tomography using a glucose tracer is the golden standard to visualize and quantify the volume and activity of BAT, it has become clear that activated BAT combusts fatty acids rather than glucose. Here, we review the role of brown and beige adipocytes in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, with evidence derived from both animal and human studies. On the basis of mainly data from animal models, we propose a model in which activated brown adipocytes use their intracellular triglyceride stores to generate fatty acids for combustion. BAT rapidly replenishes these stores by internalizing primarily lipoprotein triglyceride-derived fatty acids, generated by lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides, rather than by holoparticle uptake. As a consequence, BAT activation leads to the generation of lipoprotein remnants that are subsequently cleared via the liver provided that an intact apoE-low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway is present. Through these mechanisms, BAT activation reduces plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and attenuates diet-induced atherosclerosis development. Initial studies suggest that BAT activation in humans may also reduce triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but potential antiatherogenic effects should be assessed in future studies.

  17. Role of Brown Fat in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, for which hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society, and new therapeutic strategies are highly warranted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is metabolically active in human adults. Although positron emission tomography-computed tomography using a glucose tracer is the golden standard to visualize and quantify the volume and activity of BAT, it has become clear that activated BAT combusts fatty acids rather than glucose. Here, we review the role of brown and beige adipocytes in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, with evidence derived from both animal and human studies. On the basis of mainly data from animal models, we propose a model in which activated brown adipocytes use their intracellular triglyceride stores to generate fatty acids for combustion. BAT rapidly replenishes these stores by internalizing primarily lipoprotein triglyceride-derived fatty acids, generated by lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides, rather than by holoparticle uptake. As a consequence, BAT activation leads to the generation of lipoprotein remnants that are subsequently cleared via the liver provided that an intact apoE-low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway is present. Through these mechanisms, BAT activation reduces plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and attenuates diet-induced atherosclerosis development. Initial studies suggest that BAT activation in humans may also reduce triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but potential antiatherogenic effects should be assessed in future studies. PMID:26837747

  18. Further evidence for the role of glucose as a metabolic regulator of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity in goats.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Satoshi; Ichimaru, Toru; Itoh, Fumiaki; Matsuyama, Shuichi; Okamura, Hiroaki

    2004-07-01

    The present study examined the relative importance of blood glucose vs. free fatty acids as a metabolic signal regulating GnRH release as measured electrophysiologically by multiple-unit activity (MUA) in the arcuate nucleus/median eminence region in ovariectomized, estradiol-treated goats. MUA was recorded before, during, and after: 1) cellular glucoprivation by peripheral infusion of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG; 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg.h, iv); 2) peripheral hypoglycemia in response to various doses (15-195 mU/kg.h, iv) of insulin infusion; and 3) cellular lipoprivation induced by peripheral infusion of sodium mercaptoacetate (MA; 2.4 mg/kg.h alone or combined with 25 mg/kg.h of 2DG, iv), and effects on the interval of characteristic increases in MUA (MUA volleys) were examined. Infusion of the highest dose of 2DG increased the mean interval between MUA volleys, whereas the lower doses of 2DG had no effect on volley interval. The MUA volley intervals lengthened as insulin-induced hypoglycemia became profound. There was a negative correlation between MUA volley intervals and blood glucose concentrations during insulin infusion, and coinfusion of glucose with insulin returned the MUA volley interval to a normal frequency. Infusion of MA alone or MA with 2DG did not increase MUA volley intervals. These findings demonstrate that glucose availability, but not fatty acids, regulates the GnRH pulse generator activity in the ruminant. Glucose is considered a key metabolic regulator that fine-tunes pulsatile GnRH release. PMID:15044379

  19. Role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoub, Soleiman; Masrour-Roudsari, Jila

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) recognized as a major cause of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, has become one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome is multiple and still poorly understood. No single factor has yet been identified as an underlying causal factor. There is a growing belief, however, that obesity, especially visceral obesity, may play an important role in the development of the syndrome. Visceral adiposity seems to be an independent predictor of insulin sensitivity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure. An increasing number of studies confirm that oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and angiogenesis all play important roles in the pathogenesis of MS. Chronic hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in tissues prone to complications in patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress occurs in a cellular system when the production of free radical moieties exceeds the antioxidant capacity of that system. If cellular antioxidants do not remove free radicals, radicals attack and damage proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The oxidized or nitrosylated products of free radical attack have decreased biological activity, leading to loss of energy metabolism, cell signaling, transport, and other major functions. These altered products are also targeted for proteosome degradation, further decreasing cellular function. Accumulation of such injury ultimately leads a cell to die through necrotic or apoptotic mechanisms. In conclusion, a puzzle of many pieces of evidence suggests that free radical overgeneration may be considered the key in the generation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26557292

  20. Quiescent Fibroblasts Exhibit High Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Bennett, Bryson D.; Legesse-Miller, Aster; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Raitman, Irene; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    Many cells in mammals exist in the state of quiescence, which is characterized by reversible exit from the cell cycle. Quiescent cells are widely reported to exhibit reduced size, nucleotide synthesis, and metabolic activity. Much lower glycolytic rates have been reported in quiescent compared with proliferating lymphocytes. In contrast, we show here that primary human fibroblasts continue to exhibit high metabolic rates when induced into quiescence via contact inhibition. By monitoring isotope labeling through metabolic pathways and quantitatively identifying fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate pathway back to glycolysis. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway resulted in apoptosis preferentially in quiescent fibroblasts. By feeding the cells labeled glutamine, we also detected a “backwards” flux in the tricarboxylic acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate that was enhanced in contact-inhibited fibroblasts; this flux likely contributes to shuttling of NADPH from the mitochondrion to cytosol for redox defense or fatty acid synthesis. The high metabolic activity of the fibroblasts was directed in part toward breakdown and resynthesis of protein and lipid, and in part toward excretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, reduced metabolic activity is not a hallmark of the quiescent state. Quiescent fibroblasts, relieved of the biosynthetic requirements associated with generating progeny, direct their metabolic activity to preservation of self integrity and alternative functions beneficial to the organism as a whole. PMID:21049082

  1. Metabolic Activity - Skylab Experiment M171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This chart details Skylab's Metabolic Activity experiment (M171), a medical evaluation facility designed to measure astronauts' metabolic changes while on long-term space missions. The experiment obtained information on astronauts' physiological capabilities and limitations and provided data useful in the design of future spacecraft and work programs. Physiological responses to physical activity was deduced by analyzing inhaled and exhaled air, pulse rate, blood pressure, and other selected variables of the crew while they performed controlled amounts of physical work with a bicycle ergometer. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  2. Obligate role for ketone body oxidation in neonatal metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cotter, David G; d'Avignon, D André; Wentz, Anna E; Weber, Mary L; Crawford, Peter A

    2011-03-01

    To compensate for the energetic deficit elicited by reduced carbohydrate intake, mammals convert energy stored in ketone bodies to high energy phosphates. Ketone bodies provide fuel particularly to brain, heart, and skeletal muscle in states that include starvation, adherence to low carbohydrate diets, and the neonatal period. Here, we use novel Oxct1(-/-) mice, which lack the ketolytic enzyme succinyl-CoA:3-oxo-acid CoA-transferase (SCOT), to demonstrate that ketone body oxidation is required for postnatal survival in mice. Although Oxct1(-/-) mice exhibit normal prenatal development, all develop ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, and reduced plasma lactate concentrations within the first 48 h of birth. In vivo oxidation of (13)C-labeled β-hydroxybutyrate in neonatal Oxct1(-/-) mice, measured using NMR, reveals intact oxidation to acetoacetate but no contribution of ketone bodies to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Accumulation of acetoacetate yields a markedly reduced β-hydroxybutyrate:acetoacetate ratio of 1:3, compared with 3:1 in Oxct1(+) littermates. Frequent exogenous glucose administration to actively suckling Oxct1(-/-) mice delayed, but could not prevent, lethality. Brains of newborn SCOT-deficient mice demonstrate evidence of adaptive energy acquisition, with increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase α, increased autophagy, and 2.4-fold increased in vivo oxidative metabolism of [(13)C]glucose. Furthermore, [(13)C]lactate oxidation is increased 1.7-fold in skeletal muscle of Oxct1(-/-) mice but not in brain. These results indicate the critical metabolic roles of ketone bodies in neonatal metabolism and suggest that distinct tissues exhibit specific metabolic responses to loss of ketone body oxidation. PMID:21209089

  3. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    He, T; Venema, K; Priebe, M G; Welling, G W; Brummer, R-J M; Vonk, R J

    2008-08-01

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fermentation metabolites and how these processes would play a role in the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance. We suggest that the balance between the removal and production rate of osmotic-active components (lactose, and intermediate metabolites, e.g. lactate, succinate, etc.) in the colon is a key factor in the development of symptoms. The involvement of the colon may provide the basis for designing new targeted strategies for dietary and clinical management of lactose intolerance.

  4. Type-f thioredoxins have a role in the short-term activation of carbon metabolism and their loss affects growth under short-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Belén; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Lindahl, Marika; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2016-03-01

    Redox regulation plays a central role in the adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to light. Extensive biochemical analyses in vitro have identified f-type thioredoxins (Trxs) as the most important catalysts for light-dependent reduction and activation of the enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle. However, the precise function of type f Trxs in vivo and their impact on plant growth are still poorly known. To address this issue we have generated an Arabidopsis thaliana double knock-out mutant, termed trxf1f2, devoid of both f1 and f2 Trxs. Despite the essential function previously proposed for f-type Trxs, the visible phenotype of the trxf1f2 double mutant was virtually indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under a long-day photoperiod. However, the Trx f-deficient plants showed growth inhibition under a short-day photoperiod which was not rescued at high light intensity. The absence of f-type Trxs led to significantly lower photosynthetic electron transport rates and higher levels of non-photochemical energy quenching. Notably, the Trx f null mutant suffered from a shortage of photosystem I electron acceptors and delayed activation of carbon dioxide fixation following a dark-light transition. Two redox-regulated Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and Rubisco activase, showed retarded and incomplete reduction in the double mutant upon illumination, compared with wild-type plants. These results show that the function of f-type Trxs in the rapid activation of carbon metabolism in response to light is not entirely compensated for by additional plastid redox systems, and suggest that these Trxs have an important role in the light adjustment of photosynthetic metabolism.

  5. Type-f thioredoxins have a role in the short-term activation of carbon metabolism and their loss affects growth under short-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Belén; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Lindahl, Marika; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Redox regulation plays a central role in the adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to light. Extensive biochemical analyses in vitro have identified f-type thioredoxins (Trxs) as the most important catalysts for light-dependent reduction and activation of the enzymes of the Calvin–Benson cycle. However, the precise function of type f Trxs in vivo and their impact on plant growth are still poorly known. To address this issue we have generated an Arabidopsis thaliana double knock-out mutant, termed trxf1f2, devoid of both f1 and f2 Trxs. Despite the essential function previously proposed for f-type Trxs, the visible phenotype of the trxf1f2 double mutant was virtually indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under a long-day photoperiod. However, the Trx f-deficient plants showed growth inhibition under a short-day photoperiod which was not rescued at high light intensity. The absence of f-type Trxs led to significantly lower photosynthetic electron transport rates and higher levels of non-photochemical energy quenching. Notably, the Trx f null mutant suffered from a shortage of photosystem I electron acceptors and delayed activation of carbon dioxide fixation following a dark–light transition. Two redox-regulated Calvin–Benson cycle enzymes, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and Rubisco activase, showed retarded and incomplete reduction in the double mutant upon illumination, compared with wild-type plants. These results show that the function of f-type Trxs in the rapid activation of carbon metabolism in response to light is not entirely compensated for by additional plastid redox systems, and suggest that these Trxs have an important role in the light adjustment of photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:26842981

  6. Type-f thioredoxins have a role in the short-term activation of carbon metabolism and their loss affects growth under short-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Belén; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Lindahl, Marika; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2016-03-01

    Redox regulation plays a central role in the adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to light. Extensive biochemical analyses in vitro have identified f-type thioredoxins (Trxs) as the most important catalysts for light-dependent reduction and activation of the enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle. However, the precise function of type f Trxs in vivo and their impact on plant growth are still poorly known. To address this issue we have generated an Arabidopsis thaliana double knock-out mutant, termed trxf1f2, devoid of both f1 and f2 Trxs. Despite the essential function previously proposed for f-type Trxs, the visible phenotype of the trxf1f2 double mutant was virtually indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under a long-day photoperiod. However, the Trx f-deficient plants showed growth inhibition under a short-day photoperiod which was not rescued at high light intensity. The absence of f-type Trxs led to significantly lower photosynthetic electron transport rates and higher levels of non-photochemical energy quenching. Notably, the Trx f null mutant suffered from a shortage of photosystem I electron acceptors and delayed activation of carbon dioxide fixation following a dark-light transition. Two redox-regulated Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and Rubisco activase, showed retarded and incomplete reduction in the double mutant upon illumination, compared with wild-type plants. These results show that the function of f-type Trxs in the rapid activation of carbon metabolism in response to light is not entirely compensated for by additional plastid redox systems, and suggest that these Trxs have an important role in the light adjustment of photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:26842981

  7. The role of hydrogen for Sulfurimonas denitrificans' metabolism.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuchen; Perner, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Sulfurimonas denitrificans was originally isolated from coastal marine sediments. It can grow with thiosulfate and nitrate or sulfide and oxygen. Recently sequencing of its genome revealed that it encodes periplasmic and cytoplasmic [NiFe]-hydrogenases but the role of hydrogen for its metabolism has remained unknown. We show the first experimental evidence that S. denitrificans can indeed express a functional hydrogen uptake active hydrogenase and can grow on hydrogen. In fact, under the provided conditions it grew faster and denser on hydrogen than on thiosulfate alone and even grew with hydrogen in the absence of reduced sulfur compounds. In our experiments, at the time points tested, the hydrogen uptake activity appeared to be related to the periplasmic hydrogenase and not to the cytoplasmic hydrogenase. Our data suggest that under the provided conditions S. denitrificans can grow more efficiently with hydrogen than with thiosulfate. PMID:25170905

  8. Roles of leptin in bone metabolism and bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu Xu; Yang, Tianfu

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue has been more accepted as an active contributor to whole body homeostasis, rather than just a fat depot, since leptin, a 16 kDa protein, was discovered as the product of the obese gene in 1994. With more and more studies conducted on this hormone, it has been shown that there is a close relationship between adipose tissue and bone, which have important effects on each other. Bone is the source of many hormones, such as osteocalcin, that can affect energy metabolism and then the anabolism or catabolism of fat tissue. In contrast, the adipose tissue synthesizes and releases a series of adipokines, which are involved in bone metabolism through direct or indirect effects on bone formation and resorption. Interestingly, leptin, one of the most important cytokines derived from fat tissue, seems to account for the largest part of effects on bone, through direct or indirect involvement in bone remodeling and by playing a significant role in many bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatic arthritis, bone tumors and even fractures. In this review, we will discuss the progress in leptin research, particularly focusing on the roles of leptin in bone diseases.

  9. Wallops and its role in depressed metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holton, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    Facilities and organization at the Wallops station are reviewed and some current research work is described that pertains to noise abatement studies as well as some testing phases on V/STOL aircraft. Radiation biology results of various space flights are reviewed and some efforts for the Regulatory Biology Program, involving depressed metabolism aspects of space travel are detailed.

  10. Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mashock, Michael J; Kappell, Anthony D; Hallaj, Nadia; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used increasingly in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environmental health. The interaction of CuO NPs with complex media and the impact on cell metabolism when exposed to sublethal concentrations are largely unknown. In the present study, the short-term effects of 2 different sized manufactured CuO NPs on metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The role of released Cu(2+) during dissolution of NPs in the growth media and the CuO nanostructure were considered. Characterization showed that the 28 nm and 64 nm CuO NPs used in the present study have different primary diameter, similar hydrodynamic diameter, and significantly different concentrations of dissolved Cu(2+) ions in the growth media released from the same initial NP mass. Exposures to CuO NPs or the released Cu(2+) fraction, at doses that do not have impact on cell viability, showed significant inhibition on S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. A greater CuO NP effect on the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae growth under respiring conditions was observed. Under the tested conditions the observed metabolic inhibition from the NPs was not explained fully by the released Cu ions from the dissolving NPs.

  11. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Duncan, Robin E.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Archer, Michael C.

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare

  12. Occurrence, metabolism, metabolic role, and industrial uses of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, A J; Dawes, E A

    1990-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), of which polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most abundant, are bacterial carbon and energy reserve materials of widespread occurrence. They are composed of 3-hydroxyacid monomer units and exist as a small number of cytoplasmic granules per cell. The properties of the C4 homopolymer PHB as a biodegradable thermoplastic first attracted industrial attention more than 20 years ago. Copolymers of C4 (3-hydroxybutyrate [3HB]) and C5 (3-hydroxyvalerate [3HV]) monomer units have modified physical properties; e.g., the plastic is less brittle than PHB, whereas PHAs containing C8 to C12 monomers behave as elastomers. This family of materials is the centre of considerable commercial interest, and 3HB-co-3HV copolymers have been marketed by ICI plc as Biopol. The known polymers exist as 2(1) helices with the fiber repeat decreasing from 0.596 nm for PHB to about 0.45 nm for C8 to C10 polymers. Novel copolymers with a backbone of 3HB and 4HB have been obtained. The native granules contain noncrystalline polymer, and water may possibly act as a plasticizer. Although the biosynthesis and regulation of PHB are generally well understood, the corresponding information for the synthesis of long-side-chain PHAs from alkanes, alcohols, and organic acids is still incomplete. The precise mechanisms of action of the polymerizing and depolymerizing enzymes also remain to be established. The structural genes for the three key enzymes of PHB synthesis from acetyl coenzyme A in Alcaligenes eutrophus have been cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Polymer molecular weights appear to be species specific. The factors influencing the commercial choice of organism, substrate, and isolation process are discussed. The physiological functions of PHB as a reserve material and in symbiotic nitrogen fixation and its presence in bacterial plasma membranes and putative role in transformability and calcium signaling are also considered. PMID:2087222

  13. In-vitro suppression of metabolic activity in malignant human glioblastomas due to pulsed - low frequency electric potential exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Abby; Waynant, Ronald W.; Tata, Darrell B.

    2010-02-01

    The role of pulsed - low repetition frequency electric potential was investigated in suppressing the metabolic activities of aggressive human brain cancer cells. Twenty four hours post exposure the glioblastomas were found to be significantly inhibited in their metabolic activity. The findings herein reveal a near complete inhibition of glioblastoma's metabolic activity through selective applications of low frequency pulsed electric potentials.

  14. The emerging role of p53 in exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2014-03-01

    The major tumour suppressor protein, p53, is one of the most well-studied proteins in cell biology. Often referred to as the Guardian of the Genome, the list of known functions of p53 include regulatory roles in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, angiogenesis, DNA repair and cell senescence. More recently, p53 has been implicated as a key molecular player regulating substrate metabolism and exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. In this context, the study of p53 therefore has obvious implications for both human health and performance, given that impaired mitochondrial content and function is associated with the pathology of many metabolic disorders such as ageing, type 2 diabetes, obesity and cancer, as well as reduced exercise performance. Studies on p53 knockout (KO) mice collectively demonstrate that ablation of p53 content reduces intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial yield, reduces cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α protein content whilst also reducing mitochondrial respiration and increasing reactive oxygen species production during state 3 respiration in IMF mitochondria. Additionally, p53 KO mice exhibit marked reductions in exercise capacity (in the magnitude of 50 %) during fatiguing swimming, treadmill running and electrical stimulation protocols. p53 may regulate contractile-induced increases in mitochondrial content via modulating mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) content and/or activity, given that p53 KO mice display reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA, Tfam messenger RNA and protein levels. Furthermore, upon muscle contraction, p53 is phosphorylated on serine 15 and subsequently translocates to the mitochondria where it forms a complex with Tfam to modulate expression of mitochondrial-encoded subunits of the COX complex. In human skeletal muscle, the exercise-induced phosphorylation of p53(Ser15) is enhanced in conditions

  15. Metabolic, autophagic, and mitophagic activities in cancer initiation and progression.

    PubMed

    Hjelmeland, Anita; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is a complex disease marked by uncontrolled cell growth and invasion. These processes are driven by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that promote cancer initiation and progression. Contributing to genome changes are the regulation of oxidative stress and reactive species-induced damage to molecules and organelles. Redox regulation, metabolic plasticity, autophagy, and mitophagy play important and interactive roles in cancer hallmarks including sustained proliferation, activated invasion, and replicative immortality. However, the impact of these processes can differ depending on the signaling pathways altered in cancer, tumor type, tumor stage, and/or the differentiation state. Here, we highlight some of the representative studies on the impact of oxidative and nitrosative activities, mitochondrial bioenergetics, metabolism, and autophagy and mitophagy in the context of tumorigenesis. We discuss the implications of these processes for cellular activities in cancer for anti-cancer-based therapeutics. PMID:27372165

  16. Secretion of Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae proteins into infected cells suggests an active role of microsporidia in the control of host programs and metabolic processes.

    PubMed

    Senderskiy, Igor V; Timofeev, Sergey A; Seliverstova, Elena V; Pavlova, Olga A; Dolgikh, Viacheslav V

    2014-01-01

    Molecular tools of the intracellular protozoan pathogens Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida for manipulation of host cell machinery have been the focus of investigation for approximately two decades. Microsporidia, fungi-related microorganisms forming another large group of obligate intracellular parasites, are characterized by development in direct contact with host cytoplasm (the majority of species), strong minimization of cell machinery, and acquisition of unique transporters to exploit host metabolic system. All the aforementioned features are suggestive of the ability of microsporidia to modify host metabolic and regulatory pathways. Seven proteins of the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae with predicted signal peptides but without transmembrane domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Western-blot analysis with antibodies against recombinant products showed secretion of parasite proteins from different functional categories into the infected host cell. Secretion of parasite hexokinase and α/β-hydrolase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, this method showed specific accumulation of A. locustae hexokinase in host nuclei. Expression of hexokinase, trehalase, and two leucine-rich repeat proteins without any exogenous signal peptide led to their secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In contrast, α/β-hydrolase was not found in the culture medium, though a significant amount of this enzyme accumulated in the yeast membrane fraction. These results suggest that microsporidia possess a broad set of enzymes and regulatory proteins secreted into infected cells to control host metabolic processes and molecular programs. PMID:24705470

  17. Secretion of Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae Proteins into Infected Cells Suggests an Active Role of Microsporidia in the Control of Host Programs and Metabolic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Senderskiy, Igor V.; Timofeev, Sergey A.; Seliverstova, Elena V.; Pavlova, Olga A.; Dolgikh, Viacheslav V.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular tools of the intracellular protozoan pathogens Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida for manipulation of host cell machinery have been the focus of investigation for approximately two decades. Microsporidia, fungi-related microorganisms forming another large group of obligate intracellular parasites, are characterized by development in direct contact with host cytoplasm (the majority of species), strong minimization of cell machinery, and acquisition of unique transporters to exploit host metabolic system. All the aforementioned features are suggestive of the ability of microsporidia to modify host metabolic and regulatory pathways. Seven proteins of the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae with predicted signal peptides but without transmembrane domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Western-blot analysis with antibodies against recombinant products showed secretion of parasite proteins from different functional categories into the infected host cell. Secretion of parasite hexokinase and α/β-hydrolase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, this method showed specific accumulation of A. locustae hexokinase in host nuclei. Expression of hexokinase, trehalase, and two leucine-rich repeat proteins without any exogenous signal peptide led to their secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In contrast, α/β-hydrolase was not found in the culture medium, though a significant amount of this enzyme accumulated in the yeast membrane fraction. These results suggest that microsporidia possess a broad set of enzymes and regulatory proteins secreted into infected cells to control host metabolic processes and molecular programs. PMID:24705470

  18. Metabolic activity of microorganisms in evaporites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Giver, L. J.; White, M. R.; Mancinelli, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline salt is generally considered so hostile to most forms of life that it has been used for centuries as a preservative. Here, we present evidence that prokaryotes inhabiting a natural evaporite crust of halite and gypsum are metabolically active while inside the evaporite for at least 10 months. In situ measurements demonstrated that some of these "endoevaporitic" microorganisms (probably the cyanobacterium Synechococcus Nageli) fixed carbon and nitrogen. Denitrification was not observed. Our results quantified the slow microbial activity that can occur in salt crystals. Implications of this study include the possibility that microorganisms found in ancient evaporite deposits may have been part of an evaporite community.

  19. Metabolic activity of microorganisms in evaporites.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, L J; Giver, L J; White, M R; Mancinelli, R L

    1994-06-01

    Crystalline salt is generally considered so hostile to most forms of life that it has been used for centuries as a preservative. Here, we present evidence that prokaryotes inhabiting a natural evaporite crust of halite and gypsum are metabolically active while inside the evaporite for at least 10 months. In situ measurements demonstrated that some of these "endoevaporitic" microorganisms (probably the cyanobacterium Synechococcus Nageli) fixed carbon and nitrogen. Denitrification was not observed. Our results quantified the slow microbial activity that can occur in salt crystals. Implications of this study include the possibility that microorganisms found in ancient evaporite deposits may have been part of an evaporite community. PMID:11539827

  20. Metabolic activity of microorganisms in evaporites.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, L J; Giver, L J; White, M R; Mancinelli, R L

    1994-06-01

    Crystalline salt is generally considered so hostile to most forms of life that it has been used for centuries as a preservative. Here, we present evidence that prokaryotes inhabiting a natural evaporite crust of halite and gypsum are metabolically active while inside the evaporite for at least 10 months. In situ measurements demonstrated that some of these "endoevaporitic" microorganisms (probably the cyanobacterium Synechococcus Nageli) fixed carbon and nitrogen. Denitrification was not observed. Our results quantified the slow microbial activity that can occur in salt crystals. Implications of this study include the possibility that microorganisms found in ancient evaporite deposits may have been part of an evaporite community.

  1. Activating Transcription Factor 3 Regulates Immune and Metabolic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D.; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins. PMID:22851689

  2. Role of BAF60a/BAF60c in chromatin remodeling and hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Li, Lulu; Bao, Zhengxi; Huang, Feiruo

    2016-01-01

    The switching defective/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) complexes play an important role in hepatic lipid metabolism regulating both transcriptional activation and repression. BAF60a is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes that activates the transcription of fatty acid oxidation genes during fasting/glucagon. BAF60c, another subunit of SWI/SNF complexes, is recruited to form the lipoBAF complex that activates lipogenic genes, promoting lipogenesis and increasing the triglyceride level in response to feeding/insulin. Interestingly, hepatocytes located in the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver display a remarkable heterogeneity in the activity of various enzymes, metabolic functions and gene expression. Especially, fatty-acid oxidation was shown to be mostly periportal, whereas lipogenesis was mostly perivenous. Therefore, the present review highlights the role of of SWI/SNF regulating lipid metabolism under nutritional and hormonal control, which may be associated with hepatocyte heterogeneity. PMID:27127533

  3. The role of RNA metabolism in neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Abou Al-Shaar, H; Shariff, RK; Albakr, A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders are commonly encountered in medical practices. Such diseases can lead to major morbidity and mortality among the affected individuals. The molecular pathogenesis of these disorders is not yet clear. Recent literature has revealed that mutations in RNA-binding proteins are a key cause of several human neuronal-based diseases. This review discusses the role of RNA metabolism in neurological diseases with specific emphasis on roles of RNA translation and microRNAs in neurodegeneration, RNA-mediated toxicity, repeat expansion diseases and RNA metabolism, molecular pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, and neurobiology of survival motor neuron (SMN) and spinal muscular atrophy. PMID:27785391

  4. Dynamic model for selective metabolic activation in chemical carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Selkirk, J.K.; MacLeod, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical calculations predict the relative ease of formation of carbonium ions from 7,8-dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene-9,10-oxide or from either of the 2 symmetrical bay regions of B(e)P, and suggest their attraction to cellular nucleophiles. When both isomers were metabolized by hamster embryo fibroblasts (HEF) and the products analyzed, the results showed that the probable reason for benzo(e)pyrene's lack of carcinogenicity was its metabolic preference to attack the molecule away from the bay-region area. Particularly striking was the absence of any evidence for the formation of a significant amount of B(e)P-9,10-dihydrodiol. This suggests a metabolic basis for the relative lack of carcinogenic and mutagenic activity of B(e)P. The reason for this is not clear but may be due to physical or chemical factors such as membrane solubility or stereochemical requirements of the active site of the enzyme. The bay-region theory of PAH carcinogenesis predicts that carbonium ion formation from 9,10-dihydro-9,10-dihydroxybenzo(e)pyrene-11, 12-oxide, if formed, would be energetically favorable. Thus, the inability of HEF and microcomes to form B(e)P-9,10-dihydrodiol, the precursor of its potentially highly reactive diol-epoxide, would explain the relative inertness of B(e)P in several biological systems. As the subtle biochemical interactions of the various carcinogen intermediates become clarified, it becomes apparent that susceptibility and resistance to malignant transformation are based on a complex set of both chemical and physical parameters. It is becoming clear that metabolism kinetics, membrane interaction, and the role of nuclear metabolism help dictate the passage of the carcinogen and its reactive intermediates into and through the metabolic machinery of the cell. (ERB)

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Salman

    2010-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/ß and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, where imbalance can lead to obesity, T2DM and CVD. They are also drug targets, and currently, PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (thiazolodinediones) agonists are in clinical use for treating dyslipidemia and T2DM, respectively. These metabolic characteristics of the PPARs, coupled with their involvement in metabolic diseases, mean extensive efforts are underway worldwide to develop new and efficacious PPAR-based therapies for the treatment of additional maladies associated with the MetS. This article presents an overview of the functional characteristics of three PPAR isotypes, discusses recent advances in our understanding of the diverse biological actions of PPARs, particularly in the vascular system, and summarizes the developmental status of new single, dual, pan (multiple) and partial PPAR agonists for the clinical management of key components of MetS, T2DM and CVD. It also summarizes the clinical outcomes from various clinical trials aimed at evaluating the atheroprotective actions of currently used fibrates and thiazolodinediones. PMID:20932114

  6. Insights into the Regulatory Role of Non-coding RNAs in Cancer Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Anaya, Fredy O; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    Cancer represents a complex disease originated from alterations in several genes leading to disturbances in important signaling pathways in tumor biology, favoring heterogeneity that promotes adaptability and pharmacological resistance of tumor cells. Metabolic reprogramming has emerged as an important hallmark of cancer characterized by the presence of aerobic glycolysis, increased glutaminolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as an altered mitochondrial energy production. The metabolic switches that support energetic requirements of cancer cells are closely related to either activation of oncogenes or down-modulation of tumor-suppressor genes, finally leading to dysregulation of cell proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance signals. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as one important kind of molecules that can regulate altered genes contributing, to the establishment of metabolic reprogramming. Moreover, diverse metabolic signals can regulate ncRNA expression and activity at genetic, transcriptional, or epigenetic levels. The regulatory landscape of ncRNAs may provide a new approach for understanding and treatment of different types of malignancies. In this review we discuss the regulatory role exerted by ncRNAs on metabolic enzymes and pathways involved in glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. We also review how metabolic stress conditions and tumoral microenvironment influence ncRNA expression and activity. Furthermore, we comment on the therapeutic potential of metabolism-related ncRNAs in cancer. PMID:27551267

  7. Insights into the Regulatory Role of Non-coding RNAs in Cancer Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Anaya, Fredy O.; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer represents a complex disease originated from alterations in several genes leading to disturbances in important signaling pathways in tumor biology, favoring heterogeneity that promotes adaptability and pharmacological resistance of tumor cells. Metabolic reprogramming has emerged as an important hallmark of cancer characterized by the presence of aerobic glycolysis, increased glutaminolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as an altered mitochondrial energy production. The metabolic switches that support energetic requirements of cancer cells are closely related to either activation of oncogenes or down-modulation of tumor-suppressor genes, finally leading to dysregulation of cell proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance signals. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as one important kind of molecules that can regulate altered genes contributing, to the establishment of metabolic reprogramming. Moreover, diverse metabolic signals can regulate ncRNA expression and activity at genetic, transcriptional, or epigenetic levels. The regulatory landscape of ncRNAs may provide a new approach for understanding and treatment of different types of malignancies. In this review we discuss the regulatory role exerted by ncRNAs on metabolic enzymes and pathways involved in glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. We also review how metabolic stress conditions and tumoral microenvironment influence ncRNA expression and activity. Furthermore, we comment on the therapeutic potential of metabolism-related ncRNAs in cancer. PMID:27551267

  8. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training. PMID:10919953

  9. Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiroya; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    White and brown adipose tissues (BATs), which store and burn lipids, respectively, play critical roles in energy homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are signaling proteins with diverse functions in development, metabolism, and neural function. Among 22 FGFs, FGF1, FGF10, and FGF21 play roles as adipokines, adipocyte-secreted proteins, in the development and function of white and BATs. FGF1 is a critical transducer in white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-FGF1 axis is critical for energy homeostasis. FGF10 is essential for embryonic white adipocyte development. FGF21 activates BAT in response to cold exposure. FGF21 also stimulates the accumulation of brown-like cells in WAT during cold exposure and is an upstream effector of adiponectin, which controls systemic energy metabolism. These findings provide new insights into the roles of FGF signaling in white and BATs and potential therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders.

  10. Transcriptional integration of metabolism by the nuclear sterol-activated receptors LXR and FXR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are integrators of hormonal and nutritional signals, mediating changes to metabolic pathways within the body. Given that modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism has been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, a greater understanding of pathways that regulate metabolism in physiology and disease is crucial. The liver X receptors (LXRs) and the farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are activated by oxysterols and bile acids, respectively. Mounting evidence indicates that these nuclear receptors have essential roles, not only in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism but also in the integration of sterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. PMID:22414897

  11. Transcriptional integration of metabolism by the nuclear sterol-activated receptors LXR and FXR.

    PubMed

    Calkin, Anna C; Tontonoz, Peter

    2012-03-14

    Nuclear receptors are integrators of hormonal and nutritional signals, mediating changes to metabolic pathways within the body. Given that modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism has been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, a greater understanding of pathways that regulate metabolism in physiology and disease is crucial. The liver X receptors (LXRs) and the farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are activated by oxysterols and bile acids, respectively. Mounting evidence indicates that these nuclear receptors have essential roles, not only in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism but also in the integration of sterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism.

  12. Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase: Characterization, inhibition, and metabolic role in taurine formation

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase, an enzyme that plays a major role in the formation of taurine from cysteine, has been purified from rat liver to homogeneity and characterized. The physical properties of the enzyme were studied, along with its substrate specificity. Multiple forms of the enzyme were found in rat liver, kidney, and brain with isoelectric points ranging from pH 5.6 to 4.9. These multiple forms did not differ in their substrate specificity. It was found by using gel electrofocusing and polyclonal antibodies raised to the liver enzyme that the different forms of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase are identical in the various rat tissues studied. Various inhibitors of the enzyme were tested both in vitro and in vivo in order to evaluate the role of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase in taurine formation in mammalian tissues. In in vitro studies, cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase was irreversibly inhibited by {beta}-ethylidene-DL-aspartate (Ki = 10 mM), and competitive inhibition was found using mercaptomethylsuccinate (Ki = 0.1 mM) and D-cysteinesulfinate (Ki = 0.32 mM) when L-cysteinesulfinate was used as a substrate. In order to be able to test these inhibitors in vivo, L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate was evaluated as a probe for the in vivo measurement of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. The metabolism of cysteinesulfonate and the product of its transamination, {beta}-sulfopyruvate, was studied, and it was found that L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate is an accurate and convenient probe for cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. Using L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate, it was found that D-cysteinesulfinate inhibits cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity by greater than 90% in the intact mouse and that inhibition lasts for up to fifteen hours.

  13. Active metabolism of thyroid hormone during metamorphosis of amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Paris, Mathilde; Hillenweck, Anne; Bertrand, Stéphanie; Delous, Georges; Escriva, Hector; Zalko, Daniel; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Laudet, Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), and more precisely the 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)) acetic derivative 3,3',5-triiodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC), have been shown to activate metamorphosis in amphioxus. However, it remains unknown whether TRIAC is endogenously synthesized in amphioxus and more generally whether an active TH metabolism is regulating metamorphosis. Here we show that amphioxus naturally produces TRIAC from its precursors T(3) and l-thyroxine (T(4)), supporting its possible role as the active TH in amphioxus larvae. In addition, we show that blocking TH production inhibits metamorphosis and that this effect is compensated by exogenous T(3), suggesting that a peak of TH production is important for advancement of proper metamorphosis. Moreover, several amphioxus genes encoding proteins previously proposed to be involved in the TH signaling pathway display expression profiles correlated with metamorphosis. In particular, thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and deiodinases gene expressions are either up- or down-regulated during metamorphosis and by TH treatments. Overall, these results suggest that an active TH metabolism controls metamorphosis in amphioxus, and that endogenous TH production and metabolism as well as TH-regulated metamorphosis are ancestral in the chordate lineage.

  14. Micromanaging metabolism-a role for miRNAs in teleost energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mennigen, Jan A

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein coding RNA sequences, which are found in most eukaryotes. Since their initial discovery, miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of many biological processes. One of the most important processes profoundly regulated by miRNAs is energy metabolism. Traditionally, metabolic functions of miRNAs have been studied in genome-sequenced mammalian organisms, especially the mouse model. However, partially driven by commercial interest in aquaculture, increasingly feasible large-scale molecular techniques have resulted in the characterization of miRNA repertoires, and importantly, several genome sequences of several (commercially important) teleost species, which also hold important roles as research models in the comparative physiology of energy metabolism. This review aims to introduce the recent advances in miRNA research in teleost fish and to describe the current knowledge of miRNA function in teleost energy metabolism. The most pressing research needs and questions to determine metabolic roles of miRNAs in teleost models are presented, as well as applicable technical approaches and current bottlenecks. Rainbow trout, which possess the advantages of newly available molecular tools and a long history as comparative research model in teleost energy metabolism, are discussed as a promising research model to address these questions. PMID:26384523

  15. Micromanaging metabolism-a role for miRNAs in teleost energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mennigen, Jan A

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein coding RNA sequences, which are found in most eukaryotes. Since their initial discovery, miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of many biological processes. One of the most important processes profoundly regulated by miRNAs is energy metabolism. Traditionally, metabolic functions of miRNAs have been studied in genome-sequenced mammalian organisms, especially the mouse model. However, partially driven by commercial interest in aquaculture, increasingly feasible large-scale molecular techniques have resulted in the characterization of miRNA repertoires, and importantly, several genome sequences of several (commercially important) teleost species, which also hold important roles as research models in the comparative physiology of energy metabolism. This review aims to introduce the recent advances in miRNA research in teleost fish and to describe the current knowledge of miRNA function in teleost energy metabolism. The most pressing research needs and questions to determine metabolic roles of miRNAs in teleost models are presented, as well as applicable technical approaches and current bottlenecks. Rainbow trout, which possess the advantages of newly available molecular tools and a long history as comparative research model in teleost energy metabolism, are discussed as a promising research model to address these questions.

  16. Model-driven multi-omic data analysis elucidates metabolic immunomodulators of macrophage activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bordbar, Aarash; Mo, Monica L.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O.; Jones, Marcus B.; Frank, Bryan C.; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2012-06-26

    Macrophages are central players in the immune response, manifesting divergent phenotypes to control inflammation and innate immunity through the release of cytokines and other regulatory factor-dependent signaling pathways. In recent years, the focus on metabolism has been reemphasized as critical signaling and regulatory pathways of human pathophysiology, ranging from cancer to aging, often converge on metabolic responses. Here, we used genome-scale modeling and multi-omics (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) analysis to assess metabolic features critical for macrophage functions. We constructed a genome-scale metabolic network for the RAW 264.7 cell line to determine metabolic modulators of macrophage activation. Metabolites well-known to be associated with immunoactivation (e.g., glucose and arginine) and immunosuppression (e.g., tryptophan and vitamin D3) were amongst the most critical effectors. Intracellular metabolic mechanisms linked to critical suppressive effectors were then assessed, identifying a suppressive role for de novo nucleotide synthesis. Finally, the underlying metabolic mechanisms of macrophage activation are identified by analyzing multi-omic data obtained from LPS-stimulated RAW cells in the context of our flux-based predictions. Our study demonstrates metabolism's role in regulating activation may be greater than previously anticipated and elucidates underlying metabolic connections between activation and metabolic effectors.

  17. Immuno-metabolism and adipose tissue: The key role of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cousin, B; Casteilla, L; Laharrague, P; Luche, E; Lorsignol, A; Cuminetti, V; Paupert, J

    2016-05-01

    The field of immunometabolism has come a long way in the past decade, leading to the emergence of a new role for white adipose tissue (WAT) that is now recognized to stand at the junction of immune and metabolic regulations. Interestingly, a crucial role of the abundant and heterogeneous immune population present in WAT has been proposed in the induction and development of metabolic diseases. Although a large body of data focused on mature immune cells, only few scattered studies are dedicated to leukocyte production, and the activity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in these pathological states. Considering that blood cell production and the differentiation of HSCs and their progeny is orchestrated, in part, by complex interacting signals emanating from their microenvironment, it thus seems worth to better understand the relationships between metabolism and HSC. This review discusses the alterations of hematopoietic process described in metabolic diseases and focused on the emerging data concerning HSC present in WAT.

  18. Role of glutamine in cerebral nitrogen metabolism and ammonia neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J

    2001-01-01

    Ammonia enters the brain by diffusion from the blood or cerebrospinal fluid, or is formed in situ from the metabolism of endogenous nitrogen-containing substances. Despite its central importance in nitrogen homeostasis, excess ammonia is toxic to the central nervous system and its concentration in the brain must be kept low. This is accomplished by the high activity of glutamine synthetase, which is localized in astrocytes and which permits efficient detoxification of incoming or endogenously generated ammonia. The location also permits the operation of an intercellular glutamine cycle. In this cycle, glutamate released from nerve terminals is taken up by astrocytes where it is converted to glutamine. Glutamine is released to the extracellular fluid to be taken up into the nerve cells, where it is converted back to glutamate by the action of glutaminase. Most extrahepatic organs lack a complete urea cycle, and for many organs, including the brain, glutamine represents a temporary storage form of waste nitrogen. As such, glutamine was long thought to be harmless to the brain. However, recent evidence suggests that excess glutamine is neurotoxic. Hyperammonemic syndromes (e.g., liver disease, inborn errors of the urea cycle, Reye's disease) consistently cause astrocyte pathology. Evidence has been presented that hyperammonemia results in increased formation of glutamine directly in astrocytes, thereby generating an osmotic stress to these cells. This osmotic stress results in impaired astrocyte function, which in turn leads to neuronal dysfunction. In this review a brief overview is presented of the role of glutamine in normal brain metabolism and in the pathogenesis of hyperammonemic syndromes.

  19. Metabolic Pathways In Immune Cell Activation And Quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Erika L.; Pearce, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of immune system metabolism (“immunometabolism”) segregate along two paths. The first investigates the effects of immune cells on organs that regulate whole body metabolism, such as adipose tissue and liver. The second explores the role of metabolic pathways within immune cells and how this regulates immune response outcome. Distinct metabolic pathways diverge and converge at many levels and cells therefore face choices in how to achieve their metabolic goals. There is interest in fully understanding how and why immune cells commit to particular metabolic fates, and in elucidating the immunologic consequences of reaching a metabolic endpoint by one pathway versus another. This is particularly intriguing since metabolic commitment is influenced not only by substrate availability, but also by signaling pathways elicited by metabolites. Thus metabolic choices in cells enforce fate and function and this area will be the subject of this review. PMID:23601682

  20. Model-driven multi-omic data analysis elucidates metabolic immunomodulators of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Aarash; Mo, Monica L; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Schrimpe-Rutledge, Alexandra C; Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O; Jones, Marcus B; Frank, Bryan C; Smith, Richard D; Peterson, Scott N; Hyduke, Daniel R; Adkins, Joshua N; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are central players in immune response, manifesting divergent phenotypes to control inflammation and innate immunity through release of cytokines and other signaling factors. Recently, the focus on metabolism has been reemphasized as critical signaling and regulatory pathways of human pathophysiology, ranging from cancer to aging, often converge on metabolic responses. Here, we used genome-scale modeling and multi-omics (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) analysis to assess metabolic features that are critical for macrophage activation. We constructed a genome-scale metabolic network for the RAW 264.7 cell line to determine metabolic modulators of activation. Metabolites well-known to be associated with immunoactivation (glucose and arginine) and immunosuppression (tryptophan and vitamin D3) were among the most critical effectors. Intracellular metabolic mechanisms were assessed, identifying a suppressive role for de-novo nucleotide synthesis. Finally, underlying metabolic mechanisms of macrophage activation are identified by analyzing multi-omic data obtained from LPS-stimulated RAW cells in the context of our flux-based predictions. Our study demonstrates metabolism's role in regulating activation may be greater than previously anticipated and elucidates underlying connections between activation and metabolic effectors. PMID:22735334

  1. Metabolic suppression in mammalian hibernation: the role of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Staples, James F

    2014-06-15

    Hibernation evolved in some small mammals that live in cold environments, presumably to conserve energy when food supplies are low. Throughout the winter, hibernators cycle spontaneously between torpor, with low metabolism and near-freezing body temperatures, and euthermia, with high metabolism and body temperatures near 37°C. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this natural model of extreme metabolic plasticity is important for fundamental and applied science. During entrance into torpor, reductions in metabolic rate begin before body temperatures fall, even when thermogenesis is not active, suggesting active mechanisms of metabolic suppression, rather than passive thermal effects. Mitochondrial respiration is suppressed during torpor, especially when measured in liver mitochondria fuelled with succinate at 37°C in vitro. This suppression of mitochondrial metabolism appears to be invoked quickly during entrance into torpor when body temperature is high, but is reversed slowly during arousal when body temperature is low. This pattern may reflect body temperature-sensitive, enzyme-mediated post-translational modifications of oxidative phosphorylation complexes, for instance by phosphorylation or acetylation.

  2. Role of hydrogen sulfide in skeletal muscle biology and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Veeranki, Sudhakar; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel endogenous gaseous signal transducer (gasotransmittor). Its emerging role in multiple facets of inter- and intra-cellular signaling as a metabolic, inflammatory, neuro and vascular modulator has been increasingly realized. Although H2S is known for its effects as an anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant molecule, the relevance of these effects in skeletal muscle biology during health and during metabolic syndromes is unclear. H2S has been implicated in vascular relaxation and vessel tone enhancement, which might lead to mitigation of vascular complications caused by the metabolic syndromes. Metabolic complications may also lead to mitochondrial remodeling by interfering with fusion and fission, therefore, leading to mitochondrial mitophagy and skeletal muscle myopathy. Mitochondrial protection by H2S enhancing treatments may mitigate deterioration of muscle function during metabolic syndromes. In addition, H2S might upregulate uncoupling proteins and might also cause browning of white fat, resulting in suppression of imbalanced cytokine signaling caused by abnormal fat accumulation. Likewise, as a source for H+ ions, it has the potential to augment anaerobic ATP synthesis. However, there is a need for studies to test these putative H2S benefits in different patho-physiological scenarios before its full-fledged usage as a therapeutic molecule. The present review highlights current knowledge with regard to exogenous and endogenous H2S roles in skeletal muscle biology, metabolism, exercise physiology and related metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, and also provides future directions. PMID:25461301

  3. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning.

  4. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning. PMID:27601926

  5. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning. PMID:27601926

  6. Role of nitric oxide in cellular iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangwon; Ponka, Prem

    2003-03-01

    Iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) control the synthesis of transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) which are located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and the 5' UTR of their respective mRNAs. Cellular iron levels affect binding of IRPs to IREs and consequently expression of TfR and ferritin. Moreover, NO*, a redox species of nitric oxide that interacts primarily with iron, can activate IRP1 RNA-binding activity resulting in an increase in TfR mRNA levels. We have shown that treatment of RAW 264.7 cells (a murine macrophage cell line) with NO+ (nitrosonium ion, which causes S-nitrosylation of thiol groups) resulted in a rapid decrease in RNA-binding of IRP2, followed by IRP2 degradation, and these changes were associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels. Moreover, we demonstrated that stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increased IRP1 binding activity, whereas RNA-binding of IRP2 decreased and was followed by a degradation of this protein. Furthermore, the decrease of IRP2 binding/protein levels was associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels in LPS/IFN-gamma-treated cells, and these changes were prevented by inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that NO+-mediated degradation of IRP2 plays a major role in iron metabolism during inflammation.

  7. Role of Metabolism by Intestinal Bacteria in Arbutin-Induced Suppression of Lymphoproliferative Response in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mi Jeong; Ha, Hyun Woo; Kim, Ghee Hwan; Lee, Sang Kyu; Ahn, Young Tae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2012-01-01

    Role of metabolism by intestinal bacteria in arbutin-induced immunotoxicity was investigated in splenocyte cultures. Following an incubation of arbutin with 5 different intestinal bacteria for 24 hr, its aglycone hydroquinone could be produced and detected in the bacterial culture media with different amounts. Toxic effects of activated arbutin by intestinal bacteria on lymphoproliferative response were tested in splenocyte cultures from normal mice. Lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A were used as mitogens for B- and T-cells, respectively. When bacteria cultured medium with arbutin was treated into the splenocytes for 3 days, the medium cultured with bacteria producing large amounts of hydroquinone induced suppression of lymphoproliferative responses, indicating that metabolic activation by intestinal bacteria might be required in arbutin-induced toxicity. The results indicated that the present testing system might be applied for determining the possible role of metabolism by intestinal bacteria in certain chemical-induced immunotoxicity in animal cell cultures. PMID:24116295

  8. Role of the mixed-lineage protein kinase pathway in the metabolic stress response to obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Shashi; Barrett, Tamera; Vertii, Anastassiia; Noh, Yun Hee; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K.; Davis, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Saturated free fatty acid (FFA) is implicated in the metabolic response to obesity. In vitro studies indicate that FFA signaling may be mediated by the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) pathway that activates cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Here we examined the role of the MLK pathway in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. The ubiquitously expressed MLK2 and MLK3 protein kinases have partially redundant functions. We therefore compared wild-type and compound mutant mice that lack expression of MLK2 plus MLK3. MLK-deficiency protected mice against high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity. Reduced JNK activation and increased energy expenditure contribute to the metabolic effects of MLK-deficiency. These data confirm that the MLK pathway plays a critical role in the metabolic response to obesity. PMID:23954791

  9. The emerging roles of microRNAs in cancer metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chan, Brian; Manley, Jacob; Lee, Jae; Singh, Shree Ram

    2015-01-28

    The major goal of cancer therapy is to destroy cancer cells without harming normal cells. However, because cancer cells have incredible heterogeneity and adaptability, it is difficult to target them therapeutically. Metabolic reprogramming has emerged as a common feature of cancer. Ever since microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to influence metabolism, researchers have been trying to address the connection between cancer cells and specific miRNAs. Many of the well-known miRNAs relate to crucial genes that can impact metabolic pathways, both negatively and positively. With a better understanding of how different pathways are affected, the roles of miRNAs will be more transparent, which could lead to the discovery of new ideas about the concept of tumorigenesis and other cancer-related topics. PMID:25451319

  10. Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Circadian Clock Disruption and Metabolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Cassie; Tischkau, Shelley A

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a clustering of three or more risk factors that include abdominal obesity, increased blood pressure, and high levels of glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins, has reached dangerous and costly levels worldwide. Increases in morbidity and mortality result from a combination of factors that promote altered glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction. Although diet and exercise are commonly touted as important determinants in the development of metabolic dysfunction, other environmental factors, including circadian clock disruption and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by dietary or other environmental sources, must also be considered. AhR binds a range of ligands, which prompts protein-protein interactions with other Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS)-domain-containing proteins and subsequent transcriptional activity. This review focuses on the reciprocal crosstalk between the activated AhR and the molecular circadian clock. AhR exhibits a rhythmic expression and time-dependent sensitivity to activation by AhR agonists. Conversely, AhR activation influences the amplitude and phase of expression of circadian clock genes, hormones, and the behavioral responses of the clock system to changes in environmental illumination. Both the clock and AhR status and activation play significant and underappreciated roles in metabolic homeostasis. This review highlights the state of knowledge regarding how AhR may act together with the circadian clock to influence energy metabolism. Understanding the variety of AhR-dependent mechanisms, including its interactions with the circadian timing system that promote metabolic dysfunction, reveals new targets of interest for maintenance of healthy metabolism. PMID:27559298

  11. Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Circadian Clock Disruption and Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Cassie; Tischkau, Shelley A.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a clustering of three or more risk factors that include abdominal obesity, increased blood pressure, and high levels of glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins, has reached dangerous and costly levels worldwide. Increases in morbidity and mortality result from a combination of factors that promote altered glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction. Although diet and exercise are commonly touted as important determinants in the development of metabolic dysfunction, other environmental factors, including circadian clock disruption and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by dietary or other environmental sources, must also be considered. AhR binds a range of ligands, which prompts protein–protein interactions with other Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS)-domain-containing proteins and subsequent transcriptional activity. This review focuses on the reciprocal crosstalk between the activated AhR and the molecular circadian clock. AhR exhibits a rhythmic expression and time-dependent sensitivity to activation by AhR agonists. Conversely, AhR activation influences the amplitude and phase of expression of circadian clock genes, hormones, and the behavioral responses of the clock system to changes in environmental illumination. Both the clock and AhR status and activation play significant and underappreciated roles in metabolic homeostasis. This review highlights the state of knowledge regarding how AhR may act together with the circadian clock to influence energy metabolism. Understanding the variety of AhR-dependent mechanisms, including its interactions with the circadian timing system that promote metabolic dysfunction, reveals new targets of interest for maintenance of healthy metabolism. PMID:27559298

  12. Regulation of glucose metabolism in T cells: new insight into the role of Phosphoinositide 3-kinases

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Naïve T cells are relatively quiescent cells that only require energy to prevent atrophy and for survival and migration. However, in response to developmental or extrinsic cues T cells can engage in rapid growth and robust proliferation, produce of a range of effector molecules and migrate through peripheral tissues. To meet the significantly increased metabolic demands of these activities, T cells switch from primarily metabolizing glucose to carbon dioxide through oxidative phosphorylation to utilizing glycolysis to convert glucose to lactate (termed aerobic glycolysis). This metabolic switch allows glucose to be used as a source of carbon to generate biosynthetic precursors for the production of protein, DNA, and phospholipids, and is crucial for T cells to meet metabolic demands. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are a family of inositol lipid kinases linked with a broad range of cellular functions in T lymphocytes that include cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, survival, and migration. Initial research described a critical role for PI3K signaling through Akt (also called protein kinase B) for the increased glucose uptake and glycolysis that accompanies T cell activation. This review article relates this original research with more recent data and discusses the evidence for and against a role for PI3K in regulating the metabolic switch to aerobic glycolysis in T cells. PMID:22891069

  13. Comparative metabolic profiling reveals the key role of amino acids metabolism in the rapamycin overproduction by Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baohua; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Wen, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Rapamycin is an important natural macrolide antibiotic with antifungal, immunosuppressive and anticancer activity produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. In this study, a mutant strain obtained by ultraviolet mutagenesis displayed higher rapamycin production capacity compared to the wild-type S. hygroscopicus ATCC 29253. To gain insights into the mechanism of rapamycin overproduction, comparative metabolic profiling between the wild-type and mutant strain was performed. A total of 86 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pattern recognition methods, including principal component analysis, partial least squares and partial least squares discriminant analysis, were employed to determine the key biomarkers. The results showed that 22 potential biomarkers were closely associated with the increase of rapamycin production and the tremendous metabolic difference was observed between the two strains. Furthermore, metabolic pathway analysis revealed that amino acids metabolism played an important role in the synthesis of rapamycin, especially lysine, valine, tryptophan, isoleucine, glutamate, arginine and ornithine. The inadequate supply of amino acids, or namely "nitrogen starvation" occurred in the mutant strain. Subsequently, the exogenous addition of amino acids into the fermentation medium of the mutant strain confirmed the above conclusion, and rapamycin production of the mutant strain increased to 426.7 mg/L after adding lysine, approximately 5.8-fold of that in the wild-type strain. Finally, the results of real-time PCR and enzyme activity assays demonstrated that dihydrodipicolinate synthase involved with lysine metabolism played vital role in the biosynthesis of rapamycin. These findings will provide a theoretical basis for further improving production of rapamycin.

  14. The role of depressed metabolism in space biology: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, J.

    1973-01-01

    Organization and research activities of the entire NASA Space Biology Program are outlined. Various technical approaches are reported to study depressed metabolism particularly in the situation of 100% oxygen and reduced ambient pressures. These include hibernation and hypothermia, thermal regulation, and diluent gases.

  15. The Roles of Vitamin A in the Regulation of Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Guoxun

    2014-01-01

    Currently, two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese. This high prevalence of overweight/obesity negatively affects the health of the population, as obese individuals tend to develop several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Due to obesity’s impact on health, medical costs, and longevity, the rise in the number of obese people has become a public health concern. Both genetic and environmental/dietary factors play a role in the development of metabolic diseases. Intuitively, it seems to be obvious to link over-nutrition to the development of obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Dietary nutrients not only provide energy derived from macronutrients, but also factors such as micronutrients with regulatory roles. How micronutrients, such as vitamin A (VA; retinol), regulate macronutrient homeostasis is still an ongoing research topic. As an essential micronutrient, VA plays a key role in the general health of an individual. This review summarizes recent research progress regarding VA’s role in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Due to the large amount of information regarding VA functions, this review focusses on metabolism in metabolic active organs and tissues. Additionally, some perspectives for future studies will be provided. PMID:26237385

  16. Pediatric Obesity-Related Asthma: The Role of Metabolic Dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Greally, John M; Rastogi, Deepa

    2016-05-01

    The burden of obesity-related asthma among children, particularly among ethnic minorities, necessitates an improved understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms. Although obesity is an independent risk factor for asthma, not all obese children develop asthma. Several recent studies have elucidated mechanisms, including the role of diet, sedentary lifestyle, mechanical fat load, and adiposity-mediated inflammation that may underlie the obese asthma pathophysiology. Here, we review these recent studies and emerging scientific evidence that suggest metabolic dysregulation may play a role in pediatric obesity-related asthma. We also review the genetic and epigenetic factors that may underlie susceptibility to metabolic dysregulation and associated pulmonary morbidity among children. Lastly, we identify knowledge gaps that need further exploration to better define pathways that will allow development of primary preventive strategies for obesity-related asthma in children. PMID:27244776

  17. Metabolic Activity of Bacteria at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Oger, P.

    2008-12-01

    a depth of marine sediment of 500 m, or even beneath a water column of 6 km in surface sediments. This suggests that the metabolic activity of surface microorganisms that receive nutrients through sea water percolation into the deeper parts of the sediment, or that sink with the sediment, may represent a significant fraction of the total activity observed in subsurface environments. The present results indicate also that cells in stationary phase at HHP, which preclude growth, can still have a short-term metabolic activity independent of the growth-related activity. Consequently, surface microorganisms have the ability to impact significantly and rapidly on biogeochemical cycles in deep environments.

  18. Neuroendocrine control by kisspeptins: role in metabolic regulation of fertility.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The neurohormonal control of reproduction involves a hierarchical network of central and peripheral signals in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Development and function of this neuroendocrine system is the result of a lifelong delicate balance between endogenous regulators and environmental cues, including nutritional and metabolic factors. Kisspeptins are the peptide products of KISS1, which operate via the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (also known as Kiss1R). These peptides have emerged as essential upstream regulators of neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the major hypothalamic node for the stimulatory control of the HPG axis. They are potent elicitors of gonadotropin secretion in various species and physiological settings. Moreover, Kiss1 neurons in the hypothalamus participate in crucial features of reproductive maturation and function, such as brain-level sex differentiation, puberty onset and the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion and ovulation. Cotransmitters of Kiss1 neurons, such as neurokinin B, with roles in controlling the HPG axis have been identified by genetic, neuroanatomical and physiological studies. In addition, a putative role has been proposed for Kiss1 neurons in transmitting metabolic information to GnRH neurons, although the precise mechanisms are as yet unclear. In this Review, we present the major reproductive features of kisspeptins, especially their interplay with neurokinin B and potential roles in the metabolic control of puberty and fertility, and suggest new avenues for research.

  19. Emerging therapeutic roles for NAD(+) metabolism in mitochondrial and age-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sarika

    2016-12-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a central metabolic cofactor in eukaryotic cells that plays a critical role in regulating cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. NAD(+) in its reduced form (i.e. NADH) serves as the primary electron donor in mitochondrial respiratory chain, which involves adenosine triphosphate production by oxidative phosphorylation. The NAD(+)/NADH ratio also regulates the activity of various metabolic pathway enzymes such as those involved in glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, and fatty acid oxidation. Intracellular NAD(+) is synthesized de novo from L-tryptophan, although its main source of synthesis is through salvage pathways from dietary niacin as precursors. NAD(+) is utilized by various proteins including sirtuins, poly ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) and cyclic ADP-ribose synthases. The NAD(+) pool is thus set by a critical balance between NAD(+) biosynthetic and NAD(+) consuming pathways. Raising cellular NAD(+) content by inducing its biosynthesis or inhibiting the activity of PARP and cADP-ribose synthases via genetic or pharmacological means lead to sirtuins activation. Sirtuins modulate distinct metabolic, energetic and stress response pathways, and through their activation, NAD(+) directly links the cellular redox state with signaling and transcriptional events. NAD(+) levels decline with mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced NAD(+)/NADH ratio is implicated in mitochondrial disorders, various age-related pathologies as well as during aging. Here, I will provide an overview of the current knowledge on NAD(+) metabolism including its biosynthesis, utilization, compartmentalization and role in the regulation of metabolic homoeostasis. I will further discuss how augmenting intracellular NAD(+) content increases oxidative metabolism to prevent bioenergetic and functional decline in multiple models of mitochondrial diseases and age-related disorders, and how this knowledge could be translated to the clinic for human relevance. PMID

  20. Dynamic Role of the GTP Energy Metabolism in Cancers.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Atsuo T

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growing cells like tumor cells need a vast amount of energy to match their high metabolic demand. Guanine triphosphate (GTP) is one of major cellular metabolites and served as a building block for RNA and DNA as well as an energy source to drive cellular activities such as intracellular trafficking, the cell migration and translation. However, how cancer cells regulate GTP energy levels to adapt for their high demand remain largely unknown yet. In addition, how cells detect GTP levels remains unknown. In this seminar, I will introduce our recent findings that uncover dramatic change of GTP metabolism in cancer cells and a GTP sensing kinase that regulate metabolism for tumorigenesis.(Presented at the 1918th Meeting, March 3, 2016). PMID:27040886

  1. Role of Sirtuins in Linking Metabolic Syndrome with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Kim, Jongpil

    2016-01-01

    Depression is now widely regarded as a common disabling disorder that affects negatively the social functioning all over the world. Depression is associated with diverse phenomenon in brain such as neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Recent studies reported that depression occurs by various metabolic changes, leading to metabolic syndrome. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylases, known to regulate diverse biological mechanism such as longevity, genomic stability, and inflammation. The modulation of sirtuin activity has been highlighted as a promising approach to reduce neurodegenerative processes. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries regarding the potential relationship between SIRTs and depression caused by metabolic disorders (Mets). Ultimately, we suggest the possibility that SIRTs will be novel targets to alleviate neuropathogenesis induced by depression. PMID:27065808

  2. Connecting metabolism and reproduction: roles of central energy sensors and key molecular mediators.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that pubertal activation of the reproductive axis and maintenance of fertility are critically dependent on the magnitude of body energy reserves and the metabolic state of the organism. Hence, conditions of impaired energy homeostasis often result in deregulation of puberty and reproduction, whereas gonadal dysfunction can be associated with the worsening of the metabolic profile and, eventually, changes in body weight. While much progress has taken place in our knowledge about the neuroendocrine mechanisms linking metabolism and reproduction, our understanding of how such dynamic interplay happens is still incomplete. As paradigmatic example, much has been learned in the last two decades on the reproductive roles of key metabolic hormones (such as leptin, insulin and ghrelin), their brain targets and the major transmitters and neuropeptides involved. Yet, the molecular mechanisms whereby metabolic information is translated and engages into the reproductive circuits remain largely unsolved. In this work, we will summarize recent developments in the characterization of the putative central roles of key cellular energy sensors, such as mTOR, in this phenomenon, and will relate these with other molecular mechanisms likely contributing to the brain coupling of energy balance and fertility. In doing so, we aim to provide an updated view of an area that, despite still underdeveloped, may be critically important to fully understand how reproduction and metabolism are tightly connected in health and disease.

  3. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem; O'Brien, Edward J; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2014-09-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to iron availability using genome-wide measurements. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 81 genes in 42 transcription units are directly regulated by three different modes of Fur regulation, including apo- and holo-Fur activation and holo-Fur repression. We show that Fur connects iron transport and utilization enzymes with negative-feedback loop pairs for iron homeostasis. In addition, direct involvement of Fur in the regulation of DNA synthesis, energy metabolism and biofilm development is found. These results show how Fur exhibits a comprehensive regulatory role affecting many fundamental cellular processes linked to iron metabolism in order to coordinate the overall response of E. coli to iron availability.

  4. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem; O'Brien, Edward J; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2014-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to iron availability using genome-wide measurements. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 81 genes in 42 transcription units are directly regulated by three different modes of Fur regulation, including apo- and holo-Fur activation and holo-Fur repression. We show that Fur connects iron transport and utilization enzymes with negative-feedback loop pairs for iron homeostasis. In addition, direct involvement of Fur in the regulation of DNA synthesis, energy metabolism and biofilm development is found. These results show how Fur exhibits a comprehensive regulatory role affecting many fundamental cellular processes linked to iron metabolism in order to coordinate the overall response of E. coli to iron availability. PMID:25222563

  5. Minireview: Roles of Fibroblast Growth Factors 19 and 21 in Metabolic Regulation and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangfang; Yu, Lechu; Lin, Xiufei; Cheng, Peng; He, Luqing; Li, Xiaokun; Lu, Xuemian; Tan, Yi; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19 and FGF21 are hormones that regulate metabolic processes particularly during feeding or starvation, thus ultimately influencing energy production. FGF19 is secreted by the intestines during feeding and negatively regulates bile acid synthesis and secretion, whereas FGF21 is produced in the liver during fasting and plays a crucial role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as maintaining energy homeostasis. FGF19 and FGF21 are regarded as late-acting hormones because their functions are only used after insulin and glucagon have completed their actions. Although FGF19 and FGF21 are activated under different conditions, they show extensively functional overlap in terms of improving glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, weight loss, and lipid, and energy metabolism, particularly in pathological conditions such as diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular and renal diseases. Most patients with these metabolic diseases exhibit reduced serum FGF19 levels, which might contribute to its etiology. In addition, the simultaneous increase in serum FGF21 levels is likely a compensatory response to reduced FGF19 levels, and the 2 proteins concertedly maintain metabolic homeostasis. Here, we review the physiological and pharmacological cross talk between FGF19 and FGF21 in relation to the regulation of endocrine metabolism and various chronic diseases. PMID:26308386

  6. Role of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase in Carcinogen and Chemotherapeutic Drug Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wahlang, B; Falkner, K Cameron; Cave, Matt C; Prough, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide insight into which human cytochromes P450 (CYPs) may be involved in metabolism of chemical carcinogens and anticancer drugs. A historical overview of this field and the development of literature using relevant animal models and expressed human CYPs have provided information about which specific CYPs may be involved in carcinogen metabolism. Definition of the biochemical properties of CYP activity came from several groups who studied the reaction stoichiometry of butter yellow and benzo[α]pyrene, including their role in induction of these enzyme systems. This chapter will list as much as is known about the human CYPs involved in carcinogen and anticancer drug metabolism, as well as summarize studies with rodent CYPs. A review of three major classes of anticancer drugs and their metabolism in humans is covered for cyclophosphamide, procarbazine, and anthracycline antibiotics, cancer chemotherapeutic compounds extensively metabolized by CYPs. The emerging information about human CYP gene polymorphisms as well as other enzymes involved in foreign compound metabolism provides considerable information about how these genetic variants affect carcinogen and anticancer drug metabolism. With information available from individual's genomic sequences, consideration of populations who may be at risk due to environmental exposure to carcinogens or how to optimize their cancer therapy regimens to enhance efficacy of the anticancer drugs appears to be an important field of study to benefit individuals in the future. PMID:26233902

  7. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in Arabidopsis Leaves Plays a Crucial Role in Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism1

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianghua; Yi, Keke; Liu, Yu; Xie, Li; Zhou, Zhongjing; Chen, Yue; Hu, Zhanghua; Zheng, Tao; Liu, Renhu; Chen, Yunlong; Chen, Jinqing

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes an irreversible primary metabolic reaction in plants. Previous studies have used transgenic plants expressing ectopic PEPC forms with diminished feedback inhibition to examine the role of PEPC in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. To date, the in vivo role of PEPC in carbon and nitrogen metabolism has not been analyzed in plants. In this study, we examined the role of PEPC in plants, demonstrating that PPC1 and PPC2 were highly expressed genes encoding PEPC in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves and that PPC1 and PPC2 accounted for approximately 93% of total PEPC activity in the leaves. A double mutant, ppc1/ppc2, was constructed that exhibited a severe growth-arrest phenotype. The ppc1/ppc2 mutant accumulated more starch and sucrose than wild-type plants when seedlings were grown under normal conditions. Physiological and metabolic analysis revealed that decreased PEPC activity in the ppc1/ppc2 mutant greatly reduced the synthesis of malate and citrate and severely suppressed ammonium assimilation. Furthermore, nitrate levels in the ppc1/ppc2 mutant were significantly lower than those in wild-type plants due to the suppression of ammonium assimilation. Interestingly, starch and sucrose accumulation could be prevented and nitrate levels could be maintained by supplying the ppc1/ppc2 mutant with exogenous malate and glutamate, suggesting that low nitrogen status resulted in the alteration of carbon metabolism and prompted the accumulation of starch and sucrose in the ppc1/ppc2 mutant. Our results demonstrate that PEPC in leaves plays a crucial role in modulating the balance of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Arabidopsis. PMID:25588735

  8. The Role of Sarcosine Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression12

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Amjad P; Rajendiran, Thekkelnaycke M; Ateeq, Bushra; Asangani, Irfan A; Athanikar, Jyoti N; Yocum, Anastasia K; Mehra, Rohit; Siddiqui, Javed; Palapattu, Ganesh; Wei, John T; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling of prostate cancer (PCa) progression identified markedly elevated levels of sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) in metastatic PCa and modest but significant elevation of the metabolite in PCa urine. Here, we examine the role of key enzymes associated with sarcosine metabolism in PCa progression. Consistent with our earlier report, sarcosine levels were significantly elevated in PCa urine sediments compared to controls, with a modest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71. In addition, the expression of sarcosine biosynthetic enzyme, glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), was elevated in PCa tissues, while sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH) and pipecolic acid oxidase (PIPOX), which metabolize sarcosine, were reduced in prostate tumors. Consistent with this, GNMT promoted the oncogenic potential of prostate cells by facilitating sarcosine production, while SARDH and PIPOX reduced the oncogenic potential of prostate cells by metabolizing sarcosine. Accordingly, addition of sarcosine, but not glycine or alanine, induced invasion and intravasation in an in vivo PCa model. In contrast, GNMT knockdown or SARDH overexpression in PCa xenografts inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, these studies substantiate the role of sarcosine in PCa progression. PMID:23633921

  9. The role of sarcosine metabolism in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amjad P; Rajendiran, Thekkelnaycke M; Ateeq, Bushra; Asangani, Irfan A; Athanikar, Jyoti N; Yocum, Anastasia K; Mehra, Rohit; Siddiqui, Javed; Palapattu, Ganesh; Wei, John T; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2013-05-01

    Metabolomic profiling of prostate cancer (PCa) progression identified markedly elevated levels of sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) in metastatic PCa and modest but significant elevation of the metabolite in PCa urine. Here, we examine the role of key enzymes associated with sarcosine metabolism in PCa progression. Consistent with our earlier report, sarcosine levels were significantly elevated in PCa urine sediments compared to controls, with a modest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71. In addition, the expression of sarcosine biosynthetic enzyme, glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), was elevated in PCa tissues, while sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH) and pipecolic acid oxidase (PIPOX), which metabolize sarcosine, were reduced in prostate tumors. Consistent with this, GNMT promoted the oncogenic potential of prostate cells by facilitating sarcosine production, while SARDH and PIPOX reduced the oncogenic potential of prostate cells by metabolizing sarcosine. Accordingly, addition of sarcosine, but not glycine or alanine, induced invasion and intravasation in an in vivo PCa model. In contrast, GNMT knockdown or SARDH overexpression in PCa xenografts inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, these studies substantiate the role of sarcosine in PCa progression. PMID:23633921

  10. Role of Sphingolipids and Metabolizing Enzymes in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Makoto; Okazaki, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids such as ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingomyelin have been emerging as bioactive lipids since ceramide was reported to play a role in human leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation and death. Recently, it is well-known that ceramide acts as an inducer of cell death, that sphingomyelin works as a regulator for microdomain function of the cell membrane, and that sphingosine-1-phosphate plays a role in cell survival/proliferation. The lipids are metabolized by the specific enzymes, and each metabolite could be again returned to the original form by the reverse action of the different enzyme or after a long journey of many metabolizing/synthesizing pathways. In addition, the metabolites may serve as reciprocal bio-modulators like the rheostat between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Therefore, the change of lipid amount in the cells, the subcellular localization and the downstream signal in a specific subcellular organelle should be clarified to understand the pathobiological significance of sphingolipids when extracellular stimulation induces a diverse of cell functions such as cell death, proliferation and migration. In this review, we focus on how sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes cooperatively exert their function in proliferation, migration, autophagy and death of hematopoetic cells, and discuss the way developing a novel therapeutic device through the regulation of sphingolipids for effectively inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell death in hematological malignancies such as leukemia, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma. PMID:25997737

  11. MicroRNA in Metabolic Re-Programming and Their Role in Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tomasetti, Marco; Amati, Monica; Santarelli, Lory; Neuzil, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    The process of metabolic re-programing is linked to the activation of oncogenes and/or suppression of tumour suppressor genes, which are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). The interplay between oncogenic transformation-driven metabolic re-programming and modulation of aberrant miRNAs further established their critical role in the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer by creating a tumorigenesis-prone microenvironment, thus orchestrating processes of evasion to apoptosis, angiogenesis and invasion/migration, as well metastasis. Given the involvement of miRNAs in tumour development and their global deregulation, they may be perceived as biomarkers in cancer of therapeutic relevance.

  12. MicroRNA in Metabolic Re-Programming and Their Role in Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tomasetti, Marco; Amati, Monica; Santarelli, Lory; Neuzil, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    The process of metabolic re-programing is linked to the activation of oncogenes and/or suppression of tumour suppressor genes, which are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). The interplay between oncogenic transformation-driven metabolic re-programming and modulation of aberrant miRNAs further established their critical role in the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer by creating a tumorigenesis-prone microenvironment, thus orchestrating processes of evasion to apoptosis, angiogenesis and invasion/migration, as well metastasis. Given the involvement of miRNAs in tumour development and their global deregulation, they may be perceived as biomarkers in cancer of therapeutic relevance. PMID:27213336

  13. MicroRNA in Metabolic Re-Programming and Their Role in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tomasetti, Marco; Amati, Monica; Santarelli, Lory; Neuzil, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    The process of metabolic re-programing is linked to the activation of oncogenes and/or suppression of tumour suppressor genes, which are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). The interplay between oncogenic transformation-driven metabolic re-programming and modulation of aberrant miRNAs further established their critical role in the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer by creating a tumorigenesis-prone microenvironment, thus orchestrating processes of evasion to apoptosis, angiogenesis and invasion/migration, as well metastasis. Given the involvement of miRNAs in tumour development and their global deregulation, they may be perceived as biomarkers in cancer of therapeutic relevance. PMID:27213336

  14. Evidence for metabolic activity of airborne bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatigny, M. A.; Wolochow, H.

    1974-01-01

    Aerosols of the bacterium Serratia marcescens, and of uniformly labeled C-14 glucose were produced simultaneously and mixed in tubing leading to an aerosol chamber. During a subsequent period of about 5 hrs, carbon dioxide was produced metabolically within the chamber, and labeled material incorporated within the suspended particles first increased then decreased. This constitutes the first direct evidence of microbial metabolism of bacteria suspended in the air.

  15. Intra-myocellular fatty acid metabolism plays a critical role in mediating responses to dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Katewa, Subhash D.; Demontis, Fabio; Kolipinski, Marysia; Hubbard, Allan; Gill, Matthew S.; Perrimon, Norbert; Melov, Simon; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Summary Changes in fat content have been associated with dietary restriction (DR), but whether they play a causal role in mediating various responses to DR remains unknown. We demonstrate that upon DR, Drosophila melanogaster shift their metabolism towards increasing both fatty acid synthesis and breakdown, which is required for various responses to DR. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis or oxidation genes specifically in the muscle tissue inhibited lifespan extension upon DR. Furthermore, DR enhances spontaneous activity of flies which was found to be dependent on the enhanced fatty acid metabolism. This increase in activity was found to be at least partially required for the lifespan extension upon DR. Over-expression of adipokinetic hormone (dAKH), the functional ortholog of glucagon, enhances fat metabolism, spontaneous activity and lifespan. Together, these results suggest that enhanced fat metabolism in the muscle and physical activity play a key role in the protective effects of DR. PMID:22768842

  16. Mediators of sympathetic activation in metabolic syndrome obesity.

    PubMed

    Straznicky, Nora E; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Esler, Murray D

    2008-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome represents a major public health burden because of its high prevalence in the general population and its association with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Accumulated evidence based on biochemical, neurophysiologic, and indirect measurements of autonomic activity indicate that visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome are associated with enhanced sympathetic neural drive and vagal impairment. The mechanisms linking metabolic syndrome with sympathetic activation are complex and not completely understood, and cause-effect relationships need further clarification from prospective trials. Components of the metabolic syndrome that may directly or indirectly enhance sympathetic drive include hyperinsulinemia, leptin, nonesterified fatty acids, proinflammatory cytokines, angiotensinogen, baroreflex impairment, and obstructive sleep apnea. beta-Adrenoceptor polymorphisms have also been associated with adrenoceptor desensitization, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, and enhanced sympathetic activity. Because chronic sympathetic activation contributes to hypertension and its target-organ damage, sympathoinhibition remains an important goal in the therapeutic management of the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Discovering the role of mitochondria in the iron deficiency-induced metabolic responses of plants.

    PubMed

    Vigani, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    In plants, iron (Fe) deficiency-induced chlorosis is a major problem, affecting both yield and quality of crops. Plants have evolved multifaceted strategies, such as reductase activity, proton extrusion, and specialised storage proteins, to mobilise Fe from the environment and distribute it within the plant. Because of its fundamental role in plant productivity, several issues concerning Fe homeostasis in plants are currently intensively studied. The activation of Fe uptake reactions requires an overall adaptation of the primary metabolism because these activities need the constant supply of energetic substrates (i.e., NADPH and ATP). Several studies concerning the metabolism of Fe-deficient plants have been conducted, but research focused on mitochondrial implications in adaptive responses to nutritional stress has only begun in recent years. Mitochondria are the energetic centre of the root cell, and they are strongly affected by Fe deficiency. Nevertheless, they display a high level of functional flexibility, which allows them to maintain the viability of the cell. Mitochondria represent a crucial target of studies on plant homeostasis, and it might be of interest to concentrate future research on understanding how mitochondria orchestrate the reprogramming of root cell metabolism under Fe deficiency. In this review, I summarise what it is known about the effect of Fe deficiency on mitochondrial metabolism and morphology. Moreover, I present a detailed view of the possible roles of mitochondria in the development of plant responses to Fe deficiency, integrating old findings with new and discussing new hypotheses for future investigations.

  18. Intracellular coenzymes as natural biomarkers for metabolic activities and mitochondrial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Heikal, Ahmed A

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, programmed cell death and oxidative stress. Mutated mitochondrial DNA in diseased cells compromises the structure of key enzyme complexes and, therefore, mitochondrial function, which leads to a myriad of health-related conditions such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and aging. Early detection of mitochondrial and metabolic anomalies is an essential step towards effective diagnoses and therapeutic intervention. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) play important roles in a wide range of cellular oxidation-reduction reactions. Importantly, NADH and FAD are naturally fluorescent, which allows noninvasive imaging of metabolic activities of living cells and tissues. Furthermore, NADH and FAD autofluorescence, which can be excited using distinct wavelengths for complementary imaging methods and is sensitive to protein binding and local environment. This article highlights recent developments concerning intracellular NADH and FAD as potential biomarkers for metabolic and mitochondrial activities.

  19. Role of renal metabolism in risk to toxic chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Lash, L H

    1994-01-01

    The kidneys are capable of carrying out extensive oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, and conjugation reactions. Renal cortex has high activities of cytochrome P450 and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase. In contrast, renal medulla has high activity of prostaglandin synthetase, which can catalyze co-oxidation of xenobiotics. While these pathways are found in many tissues and at higher activities than in kidney, several key enzymes of the mercapturic acid pathway are found at especially high activities in cells of the renal proximal tubule. Investigations over the last two decades demonstrated that GSH conjugation is not only a mechanism for detoxification of reactive electrophiles. Rather, metabolism of GSH S-conjugates to the corresponding cysteine S-conjugates represents a branch point: cysteine S-conjugates may be metabolized by the cysteine S-conjugate N-acetyl-transferase to mercapturic acids, which are nontoxic and are excreted, or they may be substrates for the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent cysteine conjugate beta-lyase, which catalyzes either a beta-elimination or a transamination reaction to produce unstable thiols. These thiols rearrange to form potent acylating species that can covalently bind to cellular macromolecules, thereby producing cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity. In addition to the beta-lyase, two other renal enzymes, L-2-amino (2-hydroxy) acid oxidase and cysteine conjugate S-oxidase, can bioactivate chemicals to produce nephrotoxic species. Several halogenated alkanes and alkenes are bioactivated by these pathways. These findings show that mammalian kidney is highly active in bioactivation of xenobiotics. Although the properties of the corresponding enzymes in humans may differ, it is clear that renal metabolism can be a critical determinant of risk to chemical injury. PMID:7737046

  20. The spectrum of enzymes involved in activation of 2-aminoanthracene varies with the metabolic system applied.

    PubMed

    Veres, Zsuzsa; Török, Géza; Tóth, Eva; Vereczkey, László; Jemnitz, Katalin

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the involvement of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in the metabolic activation of 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) by use of metabolic systems such as liver S9 or hepatocytes from untreated and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF)- or phenobarbital (PB)-treated rats. Metabolic activation was determined in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Unexpectedly, both enzyme inducers, BNF and PB, significantly decreased the mutagenicity of 2AA activated by S9 fractions. 2AA mutagenicity was detected in the presence of cytochrome P450 inhibitors such as alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), clotrimazole and N-benzylimidazole to study the contribution of CYP isoenzymes to the activation process. ANF significantly decreased the activation of 2AA by S9 from untreated rats. In contrast, ANF significantly increased the metabolic activation of 2AA by S9 from BNF- and PB-treated rats. The enhanced mutagenicity was not altered by co-incubation with clotrimazole and ANF. Pre-incubation of 2AA in the presence of N-benzylimidazole significantly increased the activation of 2AA by S9 from BNF- and PB-treated rats, which suggests that CYPs play minor role in 2AA metabolic activation by rat liver S9 fractions. In contrast with the results described above, BNF treatment of rats significantly enhanced the activation of 2AA by hepatocytes. ANF attenuated the extent of this activation suggesting that different enzymes play a major role in the activation processes in these metabolic systems. Our results indicate that identification of mutagenic hazard by use of the Ames test may depend on the metabolic system applied.

  1. Role of Energy Metabolism in the Brown Fat Gene Program

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Minwoo; Cooper, Marcus P.

    2015-01-01

    In murine and human brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondria are powerful generators of heat that safely metabolize fat, a feature that has great promise in the fight against obesity and diabetes. Recent studies suggest that the actions of mitochondria extend beyond their conventional role as generators of heat. There is mounting evidence that impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity is accompanied by attenuated expression of Ucp1 and other BAT-selective genes, implying that mitochondria exert transcriptional control over the brown fat gene program. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of brown fat mitochondria, their potential role in transcriptional control of the brown fat gene program, and potential strategies to treat obesity in humans by leveraging thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. PMID:26175716

  2. The Role of Gastrointestinal Hormones in Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mells, Jamie Eugene; Anania, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular accumulation of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the form of triglycerides constitutes the metabolic basis for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent data demonstrate that excess FFA hepatocyte storage is likely to lead to lipotoxicity and hepatocyte apoptosis. Hence, FFA-mediated hepatocyte injury is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, essential hypertension, and other common medical problems together comprise metabolic syndrome. Evidence suggests that peptide hormones from the L cells of the distal small intestine, which comprise the core of the enteroendocrine system (EES), play two key roles, serving either as incretins, or as mediators of appetite and satiety in the central nervous system. Recent data related to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and other known L-cell hormones have accumulated due to the increasing frequency of bariatric surgery, which increase delivery of bile salts to the hindgut. Bile acids are a key stimulus for the TGR5 receptor of the L cells. Enhanced bile-salt flow and subsequent EES stimulation may be central to elimination of hepatic steatosis following bariatric surgery. Although GLP-1 is a clinically relevant pharmacological analogue that drives pancreatic β-cell insulin output, GLP-1 analogues also have independent benefits via their effects on hepatocellular FFA metabolism. The authors also discuss recent data regarding the role of the major peptides released by the EES, which promote satiety and modulate energy homeostasis and utilization, as well as those that control fat absorption and intestinal permeability. Taken together, elucidating novel functions for EES-related peptides and pharmacologic development of peptide analogues offer potential far-ranging treatment for obesity-related human disease. PMID:24222092

  3. Global Profiling of Protein Lysine Malonylation in Escherichia coli Reveals Its Role in Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lili; Nie, Litong; Chen, Ming; Liu, Ping; Zhu, Jun; Zhai, Linhui; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhao, Yingming; Tan, Minjia

    2016-06-01

    Protein lysine malonylation is a recently identified post-translational modification (PTM), which is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to mammals. Although analysis of lysine malonylome in mammalians suggested that this modification was related to energy metabolism, the substrates and biological roles of malonylation in prokaryotes are still poorly understood. In this study, we performed qualitative and quantitative analyses to globally identify lysine malonylation substrates in Escherichia coli. We identified 1745 malonylation sites in 594 proteins in E. coli, representing the first and largest malonylome data set in prokaryotes up to date. Bioinformatic analyses showed that lysine malonylation was significantly enriched in protein translation, energy metabolism pathways and fatty acid biosynthesis, implying the potential roles of protein malonylation in bacterial physiology. Quantitative proteomics by fatty acid synthase inhibition in both auxotrophic and prototrophic E. coli strains revealed that lysine malonylation is closely associated with E. coli fatty acid metabolism. Protein structural analysis and mutagenesis experiment suggested malonylation could impact enzymatic activity of citrate synthase, a key enzyme in citric acid (TCA) cycle. Further comparative analysis among lysine malonylome, succinylome and acetylome data showed that these three modifications could participate in some similar enriched metabolism pathways, but they could also possibly play distinct roles such as in fatty acid synthesis. These data expanded our knowledge of lysine malonylation in prokaryotes, providing a resource for functional study of lysine malonylation in bacteria. PMID:27183143

  4. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the scope of the problem of obesity in the United States, noting the health risks associated with being overweight or obese (e.g., gallstones, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and colon cancer); discussing the association of type-II diabetes mellitus with obesity; examining the effects of exercise on metabolic disease; and looking at…

  5. The role of methionine metabolism in inflammatory bowel disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methionine (Met) cycle activity is critical for normal cell functions. Met metabolites S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and methylthioadenosine (MTA) are anti-inflammatory, yet their role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is poorly understood. We hypothesize that active IBD leads to changes in Met metab...

  6. Natural compounds regulate energy metabolism by the modulating the activity of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity causes excess fat accumulation in various tissues, most notoriously in the adipose tissue, along with other insulin-responsive organs such as skeletal muscle and the liver, which predisposes an individual to the development of metabolic abnormalities. The molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities have not been completely elucidated; however, in recent years, the search for therapies to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders has increased. It is known that several nuclear receptors, when activated by specific ligands, regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at the transcriptional level. The expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes is directly regulated by the activity of various nuclear receptors via their interaction with specific response elements in promoters of those genes. Many natural compounds act as ligands of nuclear receptors and regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by regulating the activities of these nuclear receptors. In this review, we describe our current knowledge of obesity, the role of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors in energy metabolism, and several examples of food factors that act as agonists or antagonists of nuclear receptors, which may be useful for the management of obesity and the accompanying energy metabolism abnormalities.

  7. Farnesoid X receptor activation promotes cell proliferation via PDK4-controlled metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yang; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Xuefang; Wu, Yuzheng; Cao, Lijuan; Wu, Mengqiu; Xie, Wen; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of various metabolic pathways as well as liver regeneration. However, the casual link between cell proliferative effects during liver regeneration and metabolic regulation of FXR was elusive. In this study, we found that FXR activation significantly promotes HepG2 cell proliferation accompanied with metabolic switch towards the excessive accumulation of aerobic glycolytic intermediates including lactic acid, pyruvate and the subsequently increased biosynthesis of glycine. This FXR-induced metabolic switch was found dependent on an up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenate kinase 4 (PDK4), a FXR target gene. FXR agonists were found to promote liver regeneration in the murine model of APAP induced liver injury, which was associated with a metabolic switch favoring the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates as precursors for generation of biomass. However, FXR activation has little effect on the glycolytic metabolism in healthy primary hepatocytes in vitro and the liver of healthy mice in vivo. Therefore, we conclude that FXR may promote the proliferation of tumor cells and the hepatocytes in the process of liver regeneration by activating the PDK4-mediated metabolic reprogramming to generate glycolytic intermediates essential for rapid biomass generation, establishing a mechanistic link between cell proliferation and metabolic switch. PMID:26728993

  8. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates Oxidative Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans through the NHR-49 and MDT-15 Transcriptional Regulators.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Arriola, Elizabeth; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Ortega-Cuéllar, Daniel; Carvajal, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Cellular energy regulation relies on complex signaling pathways that respond to fuel availability and metabolic demands. Dysregulation of these networks is implicated in the development of human metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. In Caenorhabditis elegans the AMP-activated protein kinase, AAK, has been associated with longevity and stress resistance; nevertheless its precise role in energy metabolism remains elusive. In the present study, we find an evolutionary conserved role of AAK in oxidative metabolism. Similar to mammals, AAK is activated by AICAR and metformin and leads to increased glycolytic and oxidative metabolic fluxes evidenced by an increase in lactate levels and mitochondrial oxygen consumption and a decrease in total fatty acids and lipid storage, whereas augmented glucose availability has the opposite effects. We found that these changes were largely dependent on the catalytic subunit AAK-2, since the aak-2 null strain lost the observed metabolic actions. Further results demonstrate that the effects due to AAK activation are associated to SBP-1 and NHR-49 transcriptional factors and MDT-15 transcriptional co-activator, suggesting a regulatory pathway that controls oxidative metabolism. Our findings establish C. elegans as a tractable model system to dissect the relationship between distinct molecules that play a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism in human metabolic diseases.

  9. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates Oxidative Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans through the NHR-49 and MDT-15 Transcriptional Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Arriola, Elizabeth; EL Hafidi, Mohammed; Ortega-Cuéllar, Daniel; Carvajal, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Cellular energy regulation relies on complex signaling pathways that respond to fuel availability and metabolic demands. Dysregulation of these networks is implicated in the development of human metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. In Caenorhabditis elegans the AMP-activated protein kinase, AAK, has been associated with longevity and stress resistance; nevertheless its precise role in energy metabolism remains elusive. In the present study, we find an evolutionary conserved role of AAK in oxidative metabolism. Similar to mammals, AAK is activated by AICAR and metformin and leads to increased glycolytic and oxidative metabolic fluxes evidenced by an increase in lactate levels and mitochondrial oxygen consumption and a decrease in total fatty acids and lipid storage, whereas augmented glucose availability has the opposite effects. We found that these changes were largely dependent on the catalytic subunit AAK-2, since the aak-2 null strain lost the observed metabolic actions. Further results demonstrate that the effects due to AAK activation are associated to SBP-1 and NHR-49 transcriptional factors and MDT-15 transcriptional co-activator, suggesting a regulatory pathway that controls oxidative metabolism. Our findings establish C. elegans as a tractable model system to dissect the relationship between distinct molecules that play a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism in human metabolic diseases. PMID:26824904

  10. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates Oxidative Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans through the NHR-49 and MDT-15 Transcriptional Regulators.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Arriola, Elizabeth; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Ortega-Cuéllar, Daniel; Carvajal, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Cellular energy regulation relies on complex signaling pathways that respond to fuel availability and metabolic demands. Dysregulation of these networks is implicated in the development of human metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. In Caenorhabditis elegans the AMP-activated protein kinase, AAK, has been associated with longevity and stress resistance; nevertheless its precise role in energy metabolism remains elusive. In the present study, we find an evolutionary conserved role of AAK in oxidative metabolism. Similar to mammals, AAK is activated by AICAR and metformin and leads to increased glycolytic and oxidative metabolic fluxes evidenced by an increase in lactate levels and mitochondrial oxygen consumption and a decrease in total fatty acids and lipid storage, whereas augmented glucose availability has the opposite effects. We found that these changes were largely dependent on the catalytic subunit AAK-2, since the aak-2 null strain lost the observed metabolic actions. Further results demonstrate that the effects due to AAK activation are associated to SBP-1 and NHR-49 transcriptional factors and MDT-15 transcriptional co-activator, suggesting a regulatory pathway that controls oxidative metabolism. Our findings establish C. elegans as a tractable model system to dissect the relationship between distinct molecules that play a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism in human metabolic diseases. PMID:26824904

  11. Chlamydial metabolism revisited: interspecies metabolic variability and developmental stage-specific physiologic activities.

    PubMed

    Omsland, Anders; Sixt, Barbara Susanne; Horn, Matthias; Hackstadt, Ted

    2014-07-01

    Chlamydiae are a group of obligate intracellular bacteria comprising important human and animal pathogens as well as symbionts of ubiquitous protists. They are characterized by a developmental cycle including two main morphologically and physiologically distinct stages, the replicating reticulate body and the infectious nondividing elementary body. In this review, we reconstruct the history of studies that have led to our current perception of chlamydial physiology, focusing on their energy and central carbon metabolism. We then compare the metabolic capabilities of pathogenic and environmental chlamydiae highlighting interspecies variability among the metabolically more flexible environmental strains. We discuss recent findings suggesting that chlamydiae may not live as energy parasites throughout the developmental cycle and that elementary bodies are not metabolically inert but exhibit metabolic activity under appropriate axenic conditions. The observed host-free metabolic activity of elementary bodies may reflect adequate recapitulation of the intracellular environment, but there is evidence that this activity is biologically relevant and required for extracellular survival and maintenance of infectivity. The recent discoveries call for a reconsideration of chlamydial metabolism and future in-depth analyses to better understand how species- and stage-specific differences in chlamydial physiology may affect virulence, tissue tropism, and host adaptation.

  12. The active metabolic rate predicts a male spider's proximity to females and expected fitness.

    PubMed

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Seebacher, Frank

    2013-04-23

    Conspicuous traits, such as weaponry and body size, are often correlated with fitness. By contrast, we understand less about how inconspicuous physiological traits affect fitness. Not only is linking physiology directly to fitness a challenge, but in addition, behavioural studies most often focus on resting or basal metabolic rates, resulting in a poor understanding of how active metabolic rates affect fitness. Here we use the golden orb-web spider (Nephila plumipes), a species for which proximity to a female on the web predicts a male's paternity share, to examine the role of resting and active metabolic rates in fitness. Using a semi-natural experimental set-up, we show that males closer to a female have higher active metabolic rates than males further from females. This higher metabolic activity is paralleled by increased citrate synthase activity, suggesting greater mitochondrial densities. Our results link both higher active metabolic rates and increased citrate synthase activity with fitness. Coupled with the behaviour and life history of N. plumipes, these results provide insight into the evolution of physiological systems.

  13. Physical activity and metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kallwitz, Eric R; Loy, Veronica; Mettu, Praveen; Von Roenn, Natasha; Berkes, Jamie; Cotler, Scott J

    2013-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients, a population that tends to be physically inactive. The aim of this study was to characterize physical activity and evaluate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in patients more than 3 months after transplantation. Metabolic syndrome was classified according to National Cholesterol Education Panel Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Physical activity, including duration, frequency, and metabolic equivalents of task (METs), was assessed. The study population consisted of 204 subjects, with 156 more than 1 year after transplantation. The median time after transplantation was 53.5 months (range = 3-299 months). The mean duration of exercise was 90 ± 142 minutes, and the mean MET score was 3.6 ± 1.5. Metabolic syndrome was observed in 58.8% of all subjects and in 63.5% of the subjects more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis involving all subjects, metabolic syndrome was associated with a time after transplantation greater than 1 year [odds ratio (OR) = 2.909, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.389-6.092] and older age (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 1.001-1.072). A second analysis was performed for only patients more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with lower exercise intensity (OR = 0.690, 95% CI = 0.536-0.887), older age (OR = 1.056, 95% CI = 1.014-1.101), and pretransplant diabetes (OR = 4.246, 95% CI = 1.300-13.864). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is common after liver transplantation, and the rate is significantly higher in patients more than 1 year after transplantation. The observation that exercise intensity is inversely related to metabolic syndrome after transplantation is novel and suggests that physical activity might provide a means for reducing metabolic syndrome complications in liver

  14. Diverse Activities of Histone Acylations Connect Metabolism to Chromatin Function.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arnob; Abmayr, Susan M; Workman, Jerry L

    2016-08-18

    Modifications of histones play important roles in balancing transcriptional output. The discovery of acyl marks, besides histone acetylation, has added to the functional diversity of histone modifications. Since all modifications use metabolic intermediates as substrates for chromatin-modifying enzymes, the prevalent landscape of histone modifications in any cell type is a snapshot of its metabolic status. Here, we review some of the current findings of how differential use of histone acylations regulates gene expression as response to metabolic changes and differentiation programs. PMID:27540855

  15. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  16. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response. PMID:27148161

  17. Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, R; Machala, M; Minksová, K; Neca, J; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    Possible chemoprotective effects of the naturally occurring alkaloid boldine, a major alkaloid of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.) leaves and bark, including in vitro modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cell line and mouse hepatic microsomes, were investigated. Boldine manifested inhibition activity on hepatic microsomal CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase activities and stimulated glutathione S-transferase activity in Hepa-1 cells. In addition to the known antioxidant activity, boldine could decrease the metabolic activation of other xenobiotics including chemical mutagens. PMID:11265593

  18. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Fenstermacher, D.; Mahar, C.

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-/sup 14/C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and (1-/sup 14/C)KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM (1-/sup 14/C)KIV and alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (1-/sup 14/C)valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine or (1-/sup 14/C)valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized.

  19. The roles of nuclear receptors CAR and PXR in hepatic energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yoshihiro; Negishi, Masahiko; Kodama, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear receptors constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) were originally characterized as transcription factors regulating the hepatic genes that encode drug metabolizing enzymes. Recent works have now revealed that these nuclear receptors also play the critical roles in modulating hepatic energy metabolism. While CAR and PXR directly bind to their response sequences phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) and xenobiotic responsive enhancer module (XREM) in the promoter of target genes to increase drug metabolism, the receptors also cross talk with various hormone responsive transcription factors such as forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), forkhead box A2 (FoxA2), cAMP-response element binding protein, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC 1alpha) to decrease energy metabolism through down-regulating gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis and up-regulating lipogenesis. In addition, CAR modulates thyroid hormone activity by regulating type 1 deiodinase in the regenerating liver. Thus, CAR and PXR are now placed at the crossroad where both xenobiotics and endogenous stimuli co-regulate liver function.

  20. Brown Adipose Tissue Activation Is Linked to Distinct Systemic Effects on Lipid Metabolism in Humans.

    PubMed

    Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Børsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Saraf, Manish K; Annamalai, Palam; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Wong, Daniel; Shinoda, Kosaku; Labbė, Sebastien M; Hurren, Nicholas M; Cesani, Fernardo; Kajimura, Shingo; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-06-14

    Recent studies suggest that brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a role in energy and glucose metabolism in humans. However, the physiological significance of human BAT in lipid metabolism remains unknown. We studied 16 overweight/obese men during prolonged, non-shivering cold and thermoneutral conditions using stable isotopic tracer methodologies in conjunction with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) biopsies. BAT volume was significantly associated with increased whole-body lipolysis, triglyceride-free fatty acid (FFA) cycling, FFA oxidation, and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. Functional analysis of BAT and WAT demonstrated the greater thermogenic capacity of BAT compared to WAT, while molecular analysis revealed a cold-induced upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism only in BAT. The accelerated mobilization and oxidation of lipids upon BAT activation supports a putative role for BAT in the regulation of lipid metabolism in humans. PMID:27238638

  1. Metabolic activity, experiment M171. [space flight effects on human metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Rummel, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab metabolic activity experiment determines if man's metabolic effectiveness in doing mechanical work is progressively altered by a simulated Skylab environment, including environmental factors such as slightly increased pCO2. This test identified several hardware/procedural anomalies. The most important of these were: (1) the metabolic analyzer measured carbon dioxide production and expired water too high; (2) the ergometer load module failed under continuous high workload conditions; (3) a higher than desirable number of erroneous blood pressure measurements were recorded; (4) vital capacity measurements were unreliable; and (5) anticipated crew personal exercise needs to be more structured.

  2. Role of CYP3A in isoniazid metabolism in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Li, Feng; Lu, Jie; Gao, Zhiwei; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Ma, Xiaochao

    2014-01-01

    Summary Isoniazid (INH), a first-line drug for tuberculosis control, frequently causes liver injury. Multiple previous reports suggest that CYP3A is involved in INH metabolism, bioactivation and hepatotoxicity, although direct evidence is unavailable. In the current study, wild-type and Cyp3a-null mice were used to determine the potential role of Cyp3a in INH metabolism in vivo. Compared to wild-type mice, there were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetic profiles of INH and acetyl-isoniazid in Cyp3a-null mice after an oral administration of 50 mg/kg INH. With the same treatment, distribution of INH and its major metabolites was similar in the liver of wild-type and Cyp3a-null mice. A reactive metabolite of INH was trapped by N-α-acetyl-L-lysine in mouse liver microsomes, but Cyp3a does not contribute to this bioactivation pathway. In addition, no liver injury was observed in wild-type and Cyp3a-null mice treated with 60 or 120 mg/kg INH. In summary, Cyp3a has no effect on systemic pharmacokinetics of INH in mice. Further studies are needed to determine whether and how exactly CYP3A is involved in INH bioactivation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:24172716

  3. Role of mitochondrial function in cell death and body metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are the key players in apoptosis and necrosis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-depleted r0 cells were resistant to diverse apoptosis inducers such as TNF-alpha, TNFSF10, staurosporine and p53. Apoptosis resistance was accompanied by the absence of mitochondrial potential loss or cytochrome c translocation. r0 cells were also resistant to necrosis induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) donors due to upregulation of antioxidant enzymes such as manganese superoxide dismutase. Mitochondria also has a close relationship with autophagy that plays a critical role in the turnover of senescent organelles or dysfunctional proteins and may be included in 'cell death' category. It was demonstrated that autophagy deficiency in insulin target tissues such as skeletal muscle induces mitochondrial stress response, which leads to the induction of FGF21 as a 'mitokine' and affects the whole body metabolism. These results show that mitochondria are not simply the power plants of cells generating ATP, but are closely related to several types of cell death and autophagy. Mitochondria affect various pathophysiological events related to diverse disorders such as cancer, metabolic disorders and aging. PMID:27100503

  4. Understanding the role of gut microbiome in metabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Yolanda; Olivares, Marta; Moya-Pérez, Ángela; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota structure, dynamics, and function result from interactions with environmental and host factors, which jointly influence the communication between the gut and peripheral tissues, thereby contributing to health programming and disease risk. Incidence of both type-1 and type-2 diabetes has increased during the past decades, suggesting that there have been changes in the interactions between predisposing genetic and environmental factors. Animal studies show that gut microbiota and its genome (microbiome) influence alterations in energy balance (increased energy harvest) and immunity (inflammation and autoimmunity), leading to metabolic dysfunction (e.g., insulin resistance and deficiency). Thus, although they have different origins, both disorders are linked by the association of the gut microbiota with the immune-metabolic axis. Human studies have also revealed shifts in microbiome signatures in diseased subjects as compared with controls, and a few of them precede the development of these disorders. These studies contribute to pinpointing specific microbiome components and functions (e.g., butyrate-producing bacteria) that can protect against both disorders. These could exert protective roles by strengthening gut barrier function and regulating inflammation, as alterations in these are a pathophysiological feature of both disorders, constituting common targets for future preventive approaches.

  5. The role of metals in carcinogenesis: biochemistry and metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Jennette, K W

    1981-01-01

    The oxyanions of vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, arsenic, and selenium are stable forms of these elements in high oxidation states which cross cell membranes using the normal phosphate and/or sulfate transport systems of the cell. Once inside the cell, these oxyanions may sulfuryl transfer reactions. Often the oxyanions serve as alternate enzyme substrates but form ester products which are hydrolytically unstable compared with the sulfate and phosphate esters and, therefore, decompose readily in aqueous solution. Arsenite and selenite are capable of reacting with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Some cells are able to metabolize redox active oxyanions to forms of the elements in other stable oxidation states. Specific enzymes may be involved in the metabolic processes. The metabolites of these elements may form complexes with small molecules, proteins and nucleic acids which inhibit their ability to function properly. The divalent ions of beryllium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, mercury, and lead are stable forms of these elements which may mimic essential divalent ions such as magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, or zinc. These ions may complex small molecules, enzymes, and nucleic acids in such a way that the normal activity of these species is altered. Free radicals may be produced in the presence of these metal ions which damage critical cellular molecules. PMID:7023933

  6. The role of metabolic syndrome in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Paolillo, Stefania; Costanzo, Pierluigi; Savarese, Gianluigi; Trimarco, Bruno; Bonow, Robert O

    2015-10-14

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a highly prevalent condition in patients affected by heart failure (HF); however, it is still unclear whether, in the setting of cardiac dysfunction, it represents an adverse risk factor for the occurrence of cardiac events. The epidemiologic implications of MS in HF have been studied intensely, as many of its components contribute to the incidence and severity of HF. In particular, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities represent the main components that negatively influence disease progression and evolution. Yet, other components of the MS, i.e. overweight/obesity and high blood pressure, are favourably associated with outcome in HF patients. The aim of this review was to report epidemiology and prognostic role of MS in HF and to investigate current clinical implications and future research needs. PMID:26242711

  7. Interplay Between Metabolism and Oncogenic Process: Role of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Aastha; Singh, Saurabh; Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Pandey, Sanjay; Sandhir, Rajat; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that arises from the alterations in the composition and regulation of several genes leading to the disturbances in signaling pathways, resulting in the dysregulation of cell proliferation and death as well as the ability of transformed cells to invade the host tissue and metastasize. It is increasingly becoming clear that metabolic reprograming plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Therefore, targeting this phenotype is considered as a promising approach for the development of therapeutics and adjuvants. The process of metabolic reprograming is linked to the activation of oncogenes and/or suppression of tumor suppressor genes, which are further regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that play important roles in the interplay between oncogenic process and metabolic reprograming. Looking at the advances made in the recent past, it appears that the translation of knowledge from research in the areas of metabolism, miRNA, and therapeutic response will lead to paradigm shift in the management of this disease. PMID:26740741

  8. One-Carbon Metabolism in Prostate Cancer: The Role of Androgen Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Joshua M.; Ruiz-Echevarría, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell metabolism differs significantly from the metabolism of non-transformed cells. This altered metabolic reprogramming mediates changes in the uptake and use of nutrients that permit high rates of proliferation, growth, and survival. The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in the establishment and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), and in the metabolic adaptation that takes place during this progression. In its role as a transcription factor, the AR directly affects the expression of several effectors and regulators of essential catabolic and biosynthetic pathways. Indirectly, as a modulator of the one-carbon metabolism, the AR can affect epigenetic processes, DNA metabolism, and redox balance, all of which are important factors in tumorigenesis. In this review, we focus on the role of AR-signaling on one-carbon metabolism in tumorigenesis. Clinical implications of one-carbon metabolism and AR-targeted therapies for PCa are discussed in this context. PMID:27472325

  9. The role of succinate dehydrogenase and oxaloacetate in metabolic suppression during hibernation and arousal.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher; Staples, James F

    2010-06-01

    Hibernation elicits a major reduction in whole-animal O(2) consumption that corresponds with active suppression of liver mitochondrial electron transport capacity at, or downstream of, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). During arousal from the torpor phase of hibernation this suppression is reversed and metabolic rates rise dramatically. In this study, we used the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to assess isolated liver mitochondrial respiration during the torpor phase of hibernation and various stages of arousal to elucidate a potential role of SDH in metabolic suppression. State 3 and state 4 respiration rates were seven- and threefold lower in torpor compared with the summer-active and interbout euthermic states. Respiration rates increased during arousal so that when body temperature reached 30 degrees C in late arousal, state 3 and state 4 respiration were 3.3- and 1.8-fold greater than during torpor, respectively. SDH activity was 72% higher in interbout euthermia than in torpor. Pre-incubating with isocitrate [to alleviate oxaloacetate (OAA) inhibition] increased state 3 respiration rate during torpor by 91%, but this rate was still fourfold lower than that measured in interbout euthermia. Isocitrate pre-incubation also eliminated differences in SDH activity among hibernation bout stages. OAA concentration correlated negatively with both respiration rates and SDH activity. These data suggest that OAA reversibly inhibits SDH in torpor, but cannot fully account for the drastic metabolic suppression observed during this hibernation phase.

  10. Breast Cancer Metabolism and Mitochondrial Activity: The Possibility of Chemoprevention with Metformin.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming refers to the ability of cancer cells to alter their metabolism in order to support the increased energy request due to continuous growth, rapid proliferation, and other characteristics typical of neoplastic cells. It has long been believed that the increase of metabolic request was independent of the mitochondrial action but recently we know that mitochondrial activity together with metabolism plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the energy needed for tumor cell growth and proliferation. For these reasons the mitochondria pathways could be a new target for therapeutic and chemopreventive intervention. Metformin in particular is actually considered a promising agent against mitochondrial activity thanks to its ability to inhibit the mitochondrial complex I. PMID:26605341

  11. Breast Cancer Metabolism and Mitochondrial Activity: The Possibility of Chemoprevention with Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming refers to the ability of cancer cells to alter their metabolism in order to support the increased energy request due to continuous growth, rapid proliferation, and other characteristics typical of neoplastic cells. It has long been believed that the increase of metabolic request was independent of the mitochondrial action but recently we know that mitochondrial activity together with metabolism plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the energy needed for tumor cell growth and proliferation. For these reasons the mitochondria pathways could be a new target for therapeutic and chemopreventive intervention. Metformin in particular is actually considered a promising agent against mitochondrial activity thanks to its ability to inhibit the mitochondrial complex I. PMID:26605341

  12. Role of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Pakaski, M; Kasa, P

    2003-06-01

    Potentiation of central cholinergic activity has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for improving the cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing the acetylcholine concentration in the brain by modulating acetylcholine-sterase (AChE) activity is among the most promising therapeutic strategies. Efforts to treat the underlying pathology based on the modulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in order to decrease the accumulation of beta-amyloid are also very important. Alterations in APP metabolism have recently been proposed to play a key role in the long-lasting effects of AChE inhibitors. This review surveys recent data from in vivo and in vitro studies that have contributed to our understanding of the role of AChE inhibitors in APP processing. The regulatory mechanisms relating to the muscarinic agonist effect, protein kinase C activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, involving the alpha-secretase or the 5 -UTR region of the APP gene, are also discussed. Further work is warranted to elucidate the exact roles in APP metabolism of the AChE inhibitors used in AD therapy at present. PMID:12769797

  13. Anatomical Grading for Metabolic Activity of Brown Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anton S.; Nagel, Hannes W.; Wolfrum, Christian; Burger, Irene A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent advances in obesity research suggest that BAT activity, or absence thereof, may be an important factor in the growing epidemic of obesity and its manifold complications. It is thus important to assess larger populations for BAT-activating and deactivating factors. 18FDG-PET/CT is the standard method to detect and quantify metabolic BAT activity, however, the manual measurement is not suitable for large studies due to its time-consuming nature and poor reproducibility across different software and devices. Methodology/Main Findings In a retrospective study, 1060 consecutive scans of 1031 patients receiving a diagnostic 18FDG-PET/CT were examined for the presence of active BAT. Patients were classified according to a 3-tier system (supraclavicular, mediastinal, infradiaphragmatic) depending on the anatomical location of their active BAT depots, with the most caudal location being the decisive factor. The metabolic parameters (maximum activity, total volume and total glycolysis) were measured on a standard PET/CT workstation. Mean age of the population was 60±14.6y. 41.61% of patients were female. Metabolically active BAT was found in 53 patients (5.1%). Female, younger and leaner patients tended to have more active BAT, higher metabolic activity and more caudally active BAT. In total, 15 patients showed only supraclavicular, 27 additional mediastinal, and 11 infradiaphragmal activity. Interestingly, the activation of BAT always followed a cranio-caudal gradient. This anatomical pattern correlated with age and BMI as well as with all metabolic parameters, including maximum and total glycolysis (p<0.001). Conclusion Based on our data we propose a simple method to grade or quantify the degree of BAT amount/activity in patients based on the most caudally activated depot. As new modalities for BAT visualization may arise in the future, this system would allow direct comparability with other modalities, in contrary to the PET-metrics, which are

  14. Role of retinoic acid metabolizing cytochrome P450s, CYP26, in inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stevison, Faith; Jing, Jing; Tripathy, Sasmita; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) and its active metabolite, all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), play critical roles in regulating the differentiation, growth and migration of immune cells. Similarly, as critical signaling molecules in the regulation of the cell cycle, retinoids are important in cancers. Concentrations of atRA are tightly regulated in tissues, predominantly by the availability of retinol, synthesis of atRA by ALDH1A enzymes and metabolism and clearance of atRA by CYP26 enzymes. The ALDH1A and CYP26 enzymes are expressed in several cell types in the immune system and in cancer cells. In the immune system the ALDH1A and CYP26 enzymes appear to modulate RA concentrations. Consequently, alterations in the activity of ALDH1A and CYP26 enzymes are expected to change disease outcomes in inflammation. There is increasing evidence from various disease models of intestinal and skin inflammation that treatment with atRA has a positive effect on disease markers. However, whether aberrant atRA concentrations or atRA synthesis and metabolism play a role in inflammatory disease development and progression is not well understood. In cancers, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia and neuroblastoma, increasing intracellular concentrations of atRA appears to provide clinical benefit. Inhibition of the CYP26 enzymes to increase atRA concentrations and combat therapy resistance has been pursued as a drug target in these cancers. This chapter covers the current knowledge of how atRA and retinol regulate the immune system and inflammation, how retinol and atRA metabolism is altered in inflammation and cancer and what roles atRA metabolizing enzymes have in immune responses and cancers. PMID:26233912

  15. The role of depressed metabolism in increased radio resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    Studies are presented of the physiology of depressed metabolism, radio-resistance in depressed metabolic states, comparative aspects of depressed metabolism, and gastrointestinal responses to ionizing radiation. Specific data cover helium-cold induced hypothermia in white rats and hamsters, and radiation responses and intestinal absorption in the gerbil.

  16. Getting a Handle on the Role of Coenzyme M in Alkene Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnakumar, A.M.; Sliwa, D.; Endrizzi, J.A.; Boyd, E.S.; Ensign, S.A.; Peters, J.W.

    2009-05-20

    Coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonate; CoM) is one of several atypical cofactors discovered in methanogenic archaea which participate in the biological reduction of CO{sub 2} to methane. Elegantly simple, CoM, so named for its role as a methyl carrier in all methanogenic archaea, is the smallest known organic cofactor. It was thought that this cofactor was used exclusively in methanogenesis until it was recently discovered that CoM is a key cofactor in the pathway of propylene metabolism in the gram-negative soil microorganism Xanthobacter autotrophicus Py2. A four-step pathway requiring CoM converts propylene and CO{sub 2} to acetoacetate, which feeds into central metabolism. In this process, CoM is used to activate and convert highly electrophilic epoxypropane, formed from propylene epoxidation, into a nucleophilic species that undergoes carboxylation. The unique properties of CoM provide a chemical handle for orienting compounds for site-specific redox chemistry and stereospecific catalysis. The three-dimensional structures of several of the enzymes in the pathway of propylene metabolism in defined states have been determined, providing significant insights into both the enzyme mechanisms and the role of CoM in this pathway. These studies provide the structural basis for understanding the efficacy of CoM as a handle to direct organic substrate transformations at the active sites of enzymes.

  17. The role of ABC transporters in drug resistance, metabolism and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Glavinas, Hristos; Krajcsi, Péter; Cserepes, Judit; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2004-01-01

    ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters form a special family of membrane proteins, characterized by homologous ATP-binding, and large, multispanning transmembrane domains. Several members of this family are primary active transporters, which significantly modulate the absorption, metabolism, cellular effectivity and toxicity of pharmacological agents. This review provides a general overview of the human ABC transporters, their expression, localization and basic mechanism of action. Then we shortly deal with the human ABC transporters as targets of therapeutic interventions in medicine, including cancer drug resistance, lipid and other metabolic disorders, and even gene therapy applications. We place a special emphasis on the three major groups of ABC transporters involved in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR). These are the classical P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1), the multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRPs, in the ABCC subfamily), and the ABCG2 protein, an ABC half-transporter. All these proteins catalyze an ATP-dependent active transport of chemically unrelated compounds, including anticancer drugs. MDR1 (P-glycoprotein) and ABCG2 preferentially extrude large hydrophobic, positively charged molecules, while the members of the MRP family can extrude both hydrophobic uncharged molecules and water-soluble anionic compounds. Based on the physiological expression and role of these transporters, we provide examples for their role in Absorption-Distribution-Metabolism-Excretion (ADME) and toxicology, and describe several basic assays which can be applied for screening drug interactions with ABC transporters in the course of drug research and development.

  18. c-Myc activates multiple metabolic networks to generate substrates for cell-cycle entry.

    SciTech Connect

    Morrish, Fionnuala M.; Isern, Nancy; Sadilek, Martin; Jeffrey, Mark; Hockenbery, David M.

    2009-05-18

    Cell proliferation requires the coordinated activity of cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolic pathways to provide ATP and building blocks for DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. Many metabolic pathway genes are targets of the c-myc oncogene and cell cycle regulator. However, the contribution of c-Myc to the activation of cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolic networks during cell cycle entry is unknown. Here, we report the metabolic fates of [U-13C] glucose in serum-stimulated myc-/- and myc+/+ fibroblasts by 13C isotopomer NMR analysis. We demonstrate that endogenous c-myc increased 13C-labeling of ribose sugars, purines, and amino acids, indicating partitioning of glucose carbons into C1/folate and pentose phosphate pathways, and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle turnover at the expense of anaplerotic flux. Myc expression also increased global O-linked GlcNAc protein modification, and inhibition of hexosamine biosynthesis selectively reduced growth of Myc-expressing cells, suggesting its importance in Myc-induced proliferation. These data reveal a central organizing role for the Myc oncogene in the metabolism of cycling cells. The pervasive deregulation of this oncogene in human cancers may be explained by its role in directing metabolic networks required for cell proliferation.

  19. Ethanol Metabolism Activates Cell Cycle Checkpoint Kinase, Chk2

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Dahn L.; Mahan Schneider, Katrina J.; Nuss, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ethanol abuse results in hepatocyte injury and impairs hepatocyte replication. We have previously shown that ethanol metabolism results in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition, which is partially mediated by inhibitory phosphorylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc2. To further delineate the mechanisms by which ethanol metabolism mediates this G2/M arrest, we investigated the involvement of upstream regulators of Cdc2 activity. Cdc2 is activated by the phosphatase Cdc25C. The activity of Cdc25C can, in turn, be regulated by the checkpoint kinase, Chk2, which is regulated by the kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). To investigate the involvement of these regulators of Cdc2 activity, VA-13 cells, which are Hep G2 cells modified to efficiently express alcohol dehydrogenase, were cultured in the presence or absence of 25 mM ethanol. Immunoblots were performed to determine the effects of ethanol metabolism on the activation of Cdc25C, Chk2, and ATM. Ethanol metabolism increased the active forms of ATM, and Chk2, as well as the phosphorylated form of Cdc25C. Additionally, inhibition of ATM resulted in approximately 50% of the cells being rescued from the G2/M cell cycle arrest, and ameliorated the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2. Our findings demonstrate that ethanol metabolism activates ATM. ATM can activate the checkpoint kinase Chk2, resulting in phosphorylation of Cdc25C, and ultimately in the accumulation of inactive Cdc2. This may, in part, explain the ethanol metabolism-mediated impairment in hepatocyte replication, which may be important in the initiation and progression of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:21924579

  20. Physical Activity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Overweight in Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Davis, Catherine L.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Lewis, Richard D.; Yin, Zenong

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research suggests significant health differences between rural dwelling youth and their urban counterparts with relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study was conducted to (1) determine relationships between physical activity and markers of metabolic syndrome, and (2) to explore factors relating to physical activity in a…

  1. Bioirrigation impacts on sediment respiration and microbial metabolic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. A.; Lewandowski, J.; Romeijn, P.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Some bioturbators build tubes in the sediment and pump water through their burrows (ventilation). Oxygen is transferred through the burrow walls in the adjacent sediment (bioirrigation). Bioirrigation is playing a pivotal role in the mediation of biogeochemical processes in lake sediments and has the potential to enhance nutrient cycling. The present study investigates the impact of bioirrigation on lake sediment metabolism, respiration rates and in particular, the biogeochemical impacts of bioirrigation intensity as a function of organism density. We therefore apply the bioreactive Resazurin/Resorufin smart tracer system for quantifying the impact of different densities of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae (0-2112 larvae/m2) on lake sediment respiration in a microcosm experiment. Tracer decay has been found to be proportional to the amount of the aerobic respiration at the sediment-water interface. Tracer transformation was in good agreement with Chironomidae density (correlation, r=0.9). Tracer transformation rates (and sediment respiration) were found to be correlated to Chironomidae density, with highest transformation rates observed in the microcosms with highest density of 2112 larvae/m2. This relationship was not linear though, with sediment respiration rates at the highest larvae densities declining from the linear trend predicted from lower and intermediate larvae density-respiration relationships. We interpret this effect as a density dependent suppression of the Chironomid's metabolic activity. The observations of this study have implications for eutrophied lakes with high densities of bioirrigators. Despite high density of bioirrigirrigating benthos, mineralization of the organic matter in such habitats would likely be lower than in lakes with intermediate densities of the bioturbators.

  2. The Role of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Growth and Survival of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Brault, Charlene; Schulze, Almut

    2016-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for cell growth and proliferation is the synthesis of macromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Cells have to alter their metabolism to allow the production of metabolic intermediates that are the precursors for biomass production. It is now evident that oncogenic signalling pathways target metabolic processes on several levels and metabolic reprogramming has emerged as a hallmark of cancer. The increased metabolic demand of cancer cells also produces selective dependencies that could be targeted for therapeutic intervention. Understanding the role of glucose and lipid metabolism in supporting cancer cell growth and survival is crucial to identify essential processes that could provide therapeutic windows for cancer therapy. PMID:27557532

  3. Metabolically Active Glucosides in Oleaceae Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Sondheimer, E.; Blank, G. E.; Galson, Eva C.; Sheets, F. M.

    1970-01-01

    The seeds of six woody species of Oleaceae representing three genera, contain high concentrations of water-soluble glucosides, with major absorption maxima below 240 nanometers. In Fraxinus americana seeds three of these compounds, designated GL-3, GL-5, and GL-6, account for almost 10% of the dry weight. They are found in the endosperm and embryo but not in the pericarp. While the level of GL-5 is not particularly influenced by the physiological state of the embryo, that of GL-3 and GL-6 decreases as a result of germination and growth during a 10-day period. As the concentrations of GL-3 and GL-6 decrease, new ultraviolet-absorbing compounds are formed. The changes in the concentration of the ultraviolet-absorbing glucosides during cold temperature after-ripening, prior to germination, are small. When germination of dormant embryos is induced with gibberellic acid, the concentrations of GL-3 and GL-6 decrease in a manner similar to that observed with nondormant embryos. In the presence of abscisic acid no losses of GL-3 and GL-6 were observed. It is suggested that GL-3 and GL-6 fulfill some definite functions in the germination and growth of F. americana embryos, and that gibberellic acid and abscisic acid can exert a regulatory effect on the metabolism of these glucosides. Images PMID:16657368

  4. Influence of physical activity to bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Drenjančević, Ines; Davidović Cvetko, Erna

    2013-02-01

    Bone remodeling is a lifetime process. Peak bone mass is achieved in the twenties, and that value is very important for skeleton health in older years of life. Modern life style with its diet poor in nutrients, and very low intensity of physical activity negatively influences health in general, and bone health as well. Bones are adapting to changes in load, so applying mechanical strain to bones results in greater bone mass and hardness. That makes physical activity important in maintaining skeleton health. Numerous studies confirm good influence of regular exercising to bone health, and connection of physical activity in youth to better bone density in older age. To activate bone remodeling mechanisms, it is necessary to apply mechanical strain to bones by exercise. Considering global problem of bone loss and osteoporosis new ways of activating young people to practice sports and active stile of life are necessary to maintain skeleton health and health in general. This paper aims to review physiological mechanisms of bone remodeling that are influenced by physical exercise. PMID:23348155

  5. Akt-mTORC1 signaling regulates Acly to integrate metabolic input to control of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Anthony J; Aksoylar, Halil Ibrahim; Yu, Jiujiu; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Worth, Andrew J; Iyer, Shankar S; Wang, Jiawei; Ben-Sahra, Issam; Byles, Vanessa; Polynne-Stapornkul, Tiffany; Espinosa, Erika C; Lamming, Dudley; Manning, Brendan D; Zhang, Yijing; Blair, Ian A; Horng, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation/polarization to distinct functional states is critically supported by metabolic shifts. How polarizing signals coordinate metabolic and functional reprogramming, and the potential implications for control of macrophage activation, remains poorly understood. Here we show that IL-4 signaling co-opts the Akt-mTORC1 pathway to regulate Acly, a key enzyme in Ac-CoA synthesis, leading to increased histone acetylation and M2 gene induction. Only a subset of M2 genes is controlled in this way, including those regulating cellular proliferation and chemokine production. Moreover, metabolic signals impinge on the Akt-mTORC1 axis for such control of M2 activation. We propose that Akt-mTORC1 signaling calibrates metabolic state to energetically demanding aspects of M2 activation, which may define a new role for metabolism in supporting macrophage activation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11612.001 PMID:26894960

  6. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: role in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M.E.; Finnerty, W.R.

    1985-12-01

    The role of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases (FALDHs) in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism was studied in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N. Two distinct FALDHs were demonstrated in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: (i) a membrane-bound, NADP-dependent FALDH activity induced 5-, 15-, and 9 fold by growth on hexadecanol, dodecyl aldehyde, and hexadecane, respectively, and (ii) a constitutive, NAD-dependent, membrane-localized FALDH. Dodecyl aldehyde-negative mutants were isolated and grouped into two phenotypic classes based on growth: class 1 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol negative and class 2 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol positive. Specific activity of NADP-dependent FALDH in Ald21 (class 1 mutant) was 85% lower than that of wild-type FALDH, while the specific activity of Ald24 (class 2 mutant) was 55% greater than that of wild-type FALDH. Ald21R, a dodecyl aldehyde-positive revertant able to grow on hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde, exhibited a 100% increase in the specific activity of the NADP-dependent FALDH. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence for the role of fatty aldehyde as an essential metabolic intermediate and NADP-dependent FALDH as a key enzyme in the dissimilation of hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N.

  7. Metabolic Changes Following Perinatal Asphyxia: Role of Astrocytes and Their Interaction with Neurons.

    PubMed

    Logica, Tamara; Riviere, Stephanie; Holubiec, Mariana I; Castilla, Rocío; Barreto, George E; Capani, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal Asphyxia (PA) represents an important cause of severe neurological deficits including delayed mental and motor development, epilepsy, major cognitive deficits and blindness. The interaction between neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells plays a central role coupling energy supply with changes in neuronal activity. Traditionally, experimental research focused on neurons, whereas astrocytes have been more related to the damage mechanisms of PA. Astrocytes carry out a number of functions that are critical to normal nervous system function, including uptake of neurotransmitters, regulation of pH and ion concentrations, and metabolic support for neurons. In this work, we aim to review metabolic neuron-astrocyte interactions with the purpose of encourage further research in this area in the context of PA, which is highly complex and its mechanisms and pathways have not been fully elucidated to this day.

  8. Metabolic Changes Following Perinatal Asphyxia: Role of Astrocytes and Their Interaction with Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Logica, Tamara; Riviere, Stephanie; Holubiec, Mariana I.; Castilla, Rocío; Barreto, George E.; Capani, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal Asphyxia (PA) represents an important cause of severe neurological deficits including delayed mental and motor development, epilepsy, major cognitive deficits and blindness. The interaction between neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells plays a central role coupling energy supply with changes in neuronal activity. Traditionally, experimental research focused on neurons, whereas astrocytes have been more related to the damage mechanisms of PA. Astrocytes carry out a number of functions that are critical to normal nervous system function, including uptake of neurotransmitters, regulation of pH and ion concentrations, and metabolic support for neurons. In this work, we aim to review metabolic neuron-astrocyte interactions with the purpose of encourage further research in this area in the context of PA, which is highly complex and its mechanisms and pathways have not been fully elucidated to this day. PMID:27445788

  9. Metabolic Changes Following Perinatal Asphyxia: Role of Astrocytes and Their Interaction with Neurons.

    PubMed

    Logica, Tamara; Riviere, Stephanie; Holubiec, Mariana I; Castilla, Rocío; Barreto, George E; Capani, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal Asphyxia (PA) represents an important cause of severe neurological deficits including delayed mental and motor development, epilepsy, major cognitive deficits and blindness. The interaction between neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells plays a central role coupling energy supply with changes in neuronal activity. Traditionally, experimental research focused on neurons, whereas astrocytes have been more related to the damage mechanisms of PA. Astrocytes carry out a number of functions that are critical to normal nervous system function, including uptake of neurotransmitters, regulation of pH and ion concentrations, and metabolic support for neurons. In this work, we aim to review metabolic neuron-astrocyte interactions with the purpose of encourage further research in this area in the context of PA, which is highly complex and its mechanisms and pathways have not been fully elucidated to this day. PMID:27445788

  10. [Beta-3 adrenergic receptor--structure and role in obesity and metabolic disorders].

    PubMed

    Wiejak, J; Wyroba, E

    1999-01-01

    Structure and essential motifs of beta 3-adrenergic receptor (known previously as atypical beta-AR), which plays a central role in regulation of lipid metabolism have been described. Obesity results from an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure. The consequence of catecholamine activation of beta 3-AR is increased mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores (lipolysis) in brown and white adipose tissue as well as increased fatty acid beta-oxidation and heat-production via UCP-1 (thermogenesis) in brown adipose tissue. A pharmacokinetic effects of beta 3-agonists and putative involvement of Trp/Arg mutation in beta 3-AR gene in obesity and another metabolic disorders have been discussed.

  11. Differential Role for Trehalose Metabolism in Salt-Stressed Maize.

    PubMed

    Henry, Clémence; Bledsoe, Samuel W; Griffiths, Cara A; Kollman, Alec; Paul, Matthew J; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lagrimini, L Mark

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about how salt impacts primary metabolic pathways of C4 plants, particularly related to kernel development and seed set. Osmotic stress was applied to maize (Zea mays) B73 by irrigation with increasing concentrations of NaCl from the initiation of floral organs until 3 d after pollination. At silking, photosynthesis was reduced to only 2% of control plants. Salt treatment was found to reduce spikelet growth, silk growth, and kernel set. Osmotic stress resulted in higher concentrations of sucrose (Suc) and hexose sugars in leaf, cob, and kernels at silking, pollination, and 3 d after pollination. Citric acid cycle intermediates were lower in salt-treated tissues, indicating that these sugars were unavailable for use in respiration. The sugar-signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate was elevated in leaf, cob, and kernels at silking as a consequence of salt treatment but decreased thereafter even as Suc levels continued to rise. Interestingly, the transcripts of trehalose pathway genes were most affected by salt treatment in leaf tissue. On the other hand, transcripts of the SUCROSE NONFERMENTING-RELATED KINASE1 (SnRK1) marker genes were most affected in reproductive tissue. Overall, both source and sink strength are reduced by salt, and the data indicate that trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 may have different roles in source and sink tissues. Kernel abortion resulting from osmotic stress is not from a lack of carbohydrate reserves but from the inability to utilize these energy reserves. PMID:26269545

  12. Role of Transcription Factors in Steatohepatitis and Hypertension after Ethanol: The Epicenter of Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Rais A; Husain, Kazim; Rizvi, Syed A A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption induces multi-organ damage, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD), pancreatitis and hypertension. Ethanol and ethanol metabolic products play a significant role in the manifestation of its toxicity. Ethanol metabolizes to acetaldehyde and produces reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase. Ethanol metabolism mediated by cytochrome-P450 2E1 causes oxidative stress due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Acetaldehyde, increased redox cellular state and ROS activate transcription factors, which in turn activate genes for lipid biosynthesis and offer protection of hepatocytes from alcohol toxicity. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors (PPARs) are two key lipogenic transcription factors implicated in the development of fatty liver in alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. SREBP-1 is activated in the livers of chronic ethanol abusers. An increase in ROS activates nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) to provide protection to hepatocytes from ethanol toxicity. Under ethanol exposure, due to increased gut permeability, there is release of gram-negative bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from intestine causing activation of immune response. In addition, the metabolic product, acetaldehyde, modifies the proteins in hepatocyte, which become antigens inviting auto-immune response. LPS activates macrophages, especially the liver resident macrophages, Kupffer cells. These Kupffer cells and circulating macrophages secrete various cytokines. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 have been found elevated among chronic alcoholics. In addition to elevation of these cytokines, the peripheral iron (Fe(2+)) is also mobilized. An increased level of hepatic iron has been observed among alcoholics. Increased ROS, IL-1

  13. Role of Transcription Factors in Steatohepatitis and Hypertension after Ethanol: The Epicenter of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Rais A.; Husain, Kazim; Rizvi, Syed A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption induces multi-organ damage, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD), pancreatitis and hypertension. Ethanol and ethanol metabolic products play a significant role in the manifestation of its toxicity. Ethanol metabolizes to acetaldehyde and produces reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase. Ethanol metabolism mediated by cytochrome-P450 2E1 causes oxidative stress due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Acetaldehyde, increased redox cellular state and ROS activate transcription factors, which in turn activate genes for lipid biosynthesis and offer protection of hepatocytes from alcohol toxicity. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors (PPARs) are two key lipogenic transcription factors implicated in the development of fatty liver in alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. SREBP-1 is activated in the livers of chronic ethanol abusers. An increase in ROS activates nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) to provide protection to hepatocytes from ethanol toxicity. Under ethanol exposure, due to increased gut permeability, there is release of gram-negative bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from intestine causing activation of immune response. In addition, the metabolic product, acetaldehyde, modifies the proteins in hepatocyte, which become antigens inviting auto-immune response. LPS activates macrophages, especially the liver resident macrophages, Kupffer cells. These Kupffer cells and circulating macrophages secrete various cytokines. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 have been found elevated among chronic alcoholics. In addition to elevation of these cytokines, the peripheral iron (Fe2+) is also mobilized. An increased level of hepatic iron has been observed among alcoholics. Increased ROS, IL-1

  14. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Polak, Agnieszka; Harasim, Ewa; Chabowski, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described. PMID:27333924

  15. From cytokine to myokine: the emerging role of interleukin-6 in metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Pal, Martin; Febbraio, Mark A; Whitham, Martin

    2014-04-01

    The lack of physical activity and overnutrition in our modern lifestyle culminates in what we now experience as the current obesity and diabetes pandemic. Medical research performed over the past 20 years identified chronic low-grade inflammation as a mediator of these metabolic disorders. Hence, finding therapeutic strategies against this underlying inflammation and identifying molecules implicated in this process is of significant importance. Following the observation of an increased plasma concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in obese patients, this protein, known predominantly as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, came into focus. In an attempt to clarify its importance, several studies implicated IL-6 as a co-inducer of the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance, which precedes the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the identification of IL-6 as a myokine, a protein produced and secreted by skeletal muscle to fulfil paracrine or endocrine roles in the insulin-sensitizing effects following exercise, provides a contrasting and hence paradoxical identity of this protein in the context of metabolism. We review here the literature considering the complex, pleiotropic role of IL-6 in the context of metabolism in health and disease.

  16. Role of thyroid hormone in postnatal circulatory and metabolic adjustments.

    PubMed Central

    Breall, J A; Rudolph, A M; Heymann, M A

    1984-01-01

    To assess the role of the early postnatal surge in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, we measured cardiac output, total oxygen consumption, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in three groups of lambs in the first 6 h after delivery. 15 fetal lambs were prepared at gestational ages of 128-129 d by placing catheters in the brachiocephalic artery, descending aorta, distal inferior vena cava, left atrium, and pulmonary artery so that measurements could be made soon after delivery. They were divided into three groups: Group I comprised five control animals; Group II consisted of five fetuses in which thyroidectomy was performed at surgery at 129 d gestation; and Group III consisted of five animals in which thyroidectomy was performed at term gestation during delivery by caesarian section, prior to severing the umbilical cord. The lambs in Group I exhibited a rapid postnatal rise in T3 concentrations, similar to that described previously, reaching a peak value of about 5 ng/ml. Although the postnatal surge in T3 concentration was arrested in Group II and III animals, Group II had no detectable plasma T3, while the Group III animals had T3 concentrations of about 0.8 ng/ml, which were within the range previously reported for term lamb fetuses. The lambs in group II showed 40-50% lower left ventricular outputs (190 vs. 297 ml/kg per min), systemic blood flows (155 vs. 286 ml/kg per min), and oxygen consumptions (9.8 vs. 20.2 ml/kg per min) as compared with Group I animals over the entire 6-h period. The lambs in Group II also had significantly lower heart rates (131 vs. 192 beats/min) and mean systemic arterial pressures (56 vs. 72 torr). However, there were no significant differences for any of these measurements between the Group III and Group I lambs. The reduction in cardiac output in the Group II animals were reflected in a significantly lower blood flow to the peripheral circulation, but there were no

  17. Molecular Evidence for Metabolically Active Bacteria in the Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ann M; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Jaffe, Daniel A; Levin, David A; Green, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolisms are responsible for critical chemical transformations in nearly all environments, including oceans, freshwater, and soil. Despite the ubiquity of bacteria in the atmosphere, little is known about the metabolic functioning of atmospheric bacterial communities. To gain a better understanding of the metabolism of bacterial communities in the atmosphere, we used a combined empirical and model-based approach to investigate the structure and composition of potentially active bacterial communities in air sampled at a high elevation research station. We found that the composition of the putatively active bacterial community (assayed via rRNA) differed significantly from the total bacterial community (assayed via rDNA). Rare taxa in the total (rDNA) community were disproportionately active relative to abundant taxa, and members of the order Rhodospirillales had the highest potential for activity. We developed theory to explore the effects of random sampling from the rRNA and rDNA communities on observed differences between the communities. We found that random sampling, particularly in cases where active taxa are rare in the rDNA community, will give rise to observed differences in community composition including the occurrence of "phantom taxa", taxa which are detected in the rRNA community but not the rDNA community. We show that the use of comparative rRNA/rDNA techniques can reveal the structure and composition of the metabolically active portion of bacterial communities. Our observations suggest that metabolically active bacteria exist in the atmosphere and that these communities may be involved in the cycling of organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  18. Molecular Evidence for Metabolically Active Bacteria in the Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ann M.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Levin, David A.; Green, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolisms are responsible for critical chemical transformations in nearly all environments, including oceans, freshwater, and soil. Despite the ubiquity of bacteria in the atmosphere, little is known about the metabolic functioning of atmospheric bacterial communities. To gain a better understanding of the metabolism of bacterial communities in the atmosphere, we used a combined empirical and model-based approach to investigate the structure and composition of potentially active bacterial communities in air sampled at a high elevation research station. We found that the composition of the putatively active bacterial community (assayed via rRNA) differed significantly from the total bacterial community (assayed via rDNA). Rare taxa in the total (rDNA) community were disproportionately active relative to abundant taxa, and members of the order Rhodospirillales had the highest potential for activity. We developed theory to explore the effects of random sampling from the rRNA and rDNA communities on observed differences between the communities. We found that random sampling, particularly in cases where active taxa are rare in the rDNA community, will give rise to observed differences in community composition including the occurrence of “phantom taxa”, taxa which are detected in the rRNA community but not the rDNA community. We show that the use of comparative rRNA/rDNA techniques can reveal the structure and composition of the metabolically active portion of bacterial communities. Our observations suggest that metabolically active bacteria exist in the atmosphere and that these communities may be involved in the cycling of organic compounds in the atmosphere. PMID:27252689

  19. Indole and Tryptophan Metabolism: Endogenous and Dietary Routes to Ah Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Troy D.; Murray, Iain A.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor recognized for its role in xenobiotic metabolism. The physiologic function of AHR has expanded to include roles in immune regulation, organogenesis, mucosal barrier function, and the cell cycle. These functions are likely dependent upon ligand-mediated activation of the receptor. High-affinity ligands of AHR have been classically defined as xenobiotics, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins. Identification of endogenous AHR ligands is key to understanding the physiologic functions of this enigmatic receptor. Metabolic pathways targeting the amino acid tryptophan and indole can lead to a myriad of metabolites, some of which are AHR ligands. Many of these ligands exhibit species selective preferential binding to AHR. The discovery of specific tryptophan metabolites as AHR ligands may provide insight concerning where AHR is activated in an organism, such as at the site of inflammation and within the intestinal tract. PMID:26041783

  20. Disturbances to neurotransmitter levels and their metabolic enzyme activity in a freshwater planarian exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Li, Mei-Hui; Chen, Jhih-Sheng; Chung, Szu-Yao; Lee, Hui-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Using specific neurobehaviors as endpoints, previous studies suggested that planarian neurotransmission systems could be targets of Cd neurotoxicity. However, direct evidence for disturbed neurotransmission systems by Cd in treated planarians is still lacking. In planarians, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) play critical roles in neuromuscular function, but little is known about their metabolic degradation. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to determine the appearances of DA, 5-HT, and their metabolic products in the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica, characterize the activity of enzymes involved in their metabolism, and investigate the effects of Cd on planarian 5-HTergic and DAergic neurotransmission systems. Only DA, 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were found in planarian tissues. Further enzymatic study revealed the activity of planarian monoamine oxidase (MAO) but not catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). These findings suggest that planarian MAO catalyzes the metabolism of 5-HT into 5-HIAA. However, DA metabolites from the MAO-involved metabolic pathway were not found, which might be due to a lack of COMT activity. Finally, in Cd-treated planarians, tissue levels of 5-HT and DA were decreased and MAO activity altered, suggesting that planarian neurotransmission systems are disturbed following Cd treatment.

  1. Neighborly interactions of metabolically-activated astrocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F

    2003-01-01

    Metabolic responses of brain cells to a stimulus are governed, in part, by their enzymatic specialization and interrelationships with neighboring cells, and local shifts in functional metabolism during brain activation are likely to be influenced by the neurotransmitter system, subcellular compartmentation, and anatomical structure. Selected examples of functional activation illustrate the complexity of metabolic interactions in working brain and of interpretation of changes in brain lactate levels. The major focus of this article is the disproportionately higher metabolism of glucose compared to oxygen in normoxic brain, a phenomenon that occurs during activation in humans and animals. The glucose utilized in excess of oxygen is not fully explained by accumulation of glucose, lactate, or glycogen in brain or by lactate efflux from brain to blood. Thus, any lactate derived from the excess glucose could not have been stoichiometrically exported to and metabolized by neighboring neurons because oxygen consumption would have otherwise increased and matched that of glucose. Metabolic labeling of tricarboxylic acid cycle-derived amino acids increased during brief sensory stimulation, reflecting a rise in oxidative metabolism. Brain glycogen is mainly in astrocytes, and its level falls throughout the stimulus and early post-activation interval. Glycogenolysis cannot be accounted for by lactate accumulation or oxidation; there must be rapid product clearance. Glycogen restoration is slow and diversion of glucose from oxidative pathways for its re-synthesis could reduce the global O(2)/glucose uptake ratio; astrocytes could downshift this ratio for up to an hour after 5 min stimulus. Morphological studies of astrocytes reveal a paucity of cytoplasm and organelles in the fine processes that surround synapses and form gap junction connections with neighboring astrocytes. Specialized regions of astrocytes, e.g. their endfeet and thin peripheral lamellae, are likely to have

  2. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  3. Metabolic pathways and activity-dependent modulation of glutamate concentration in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico; Dinuzzo, Mauro

    2012-11-01

    Glutamate is one of the most versatile molecules present in the human brain, involved in protein synthesis, energy production, ammonia detoxification, and transport of reducing equivalents. Aside from these critical metabolic roles, glutamate plays a major part in brain function, being not only the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter, but also the precursor for γ-aminobutyric acid, the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter. Regulation of glutamate levels is pivotal for normal brain function, as abnormal extracellular concentration of glutamate can lead to impaired neurotransmission, neurodegeneration and even neuronal death. Understanding how the neuron-astrocyte functional and metabolic interactions modulate glutamate concentration during different activation status and under physiological and pathological conditions is a challenging task, and can only be tentatively estimated from current literature. In this paper, we focus on describing the various metabolic pathways which potentially affect glutamate concentration in the brain, and emphasize which ones are likely to produce the variations in glutamate concentration observed during enhanced neuronal activity in human studies.

  4. Role of metabolic gases in bubble formation during hypobaric exposures.

    PubMed

    Foster, P P; Conkin, J; Powell, M R; Waligora, J M; Chhikara, R S

    1998-03-01

    Our hypothesis is that metabolic gases play a role in the initial explosive growth phase of bubble formation during hypobaric exposures. Models that account for optimal internal tensions of dissolved gases to predict the probability of occurrence of venous gas emboli were statistically fitted to 426 hypobaric exposures from National Aeronautics and Space Administration tests. The presence of venous gas emboli in the pulmonary artery was detected with an ultrasound Doppler detector. The model fit and parameter estimation were done by using the statistical method of maximum likelihood. The analysis results were as follows. 1) For the model without an input of noninert dissolved gas tissue tension, the log likelihood (in absolute value) was 255.01. 2) When an additional parameter was added to the model to account for the dissolved noninert gas tissue tension, the log likelihood was 251.70. The significance of the additional parameter was established based on the likelihood ratio test (P < 0.012). 3) The parameter estimate for the dissolved noninert gas tissue tension participating in bubble formation was 19. 1 kPa (143 mmHg). 4) The additional gas tissue tension, supposedly due to noninert gases, did not show an exponential decay as a function of time during denitrogenation, but it remained constant. 5) The positive sign for this parameter term in the model is characteristic of an outward radial pressure of gases in the bubble. This analysis suggests that dissolved gases other than N2 in tissues may facilitate the initial explosive bubble-growth phase.

  5. Role of metabolic gases in bubble formation during hypobaric exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, P. P.; Conkin, J.; Powell, M. R.; Waligora, J. M.; Chhikara, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Our hypothesis is that metabolic gases play a role in the initial explosive growth phase of bubble formation during hypobaric exposures. Models that account for optimal internal tensions of dissolved gases to predict the probability of occurrence of venous gas emboli were statistically fitted to 426 hypobaric exposures from National Aeronautics and Space Administration tests. The presence of venous gas emboli in the pulmonary artery was detected with an ultrasound Doppler detector. The model fit and parameter estimation were done by using the statistical method of maximum likelihood. The analysis results were as follows. 1) For the model without an input of noninert dissolved gas tissue tension, the log likelihood (in absolute value) was 255.01. 2) When an additional parameter was added to the model to account for the dissolved noninert gas tissue tension, the log likelihood was 251.70. The significance of the additional parameter was established based on the likelihood ratio test (P < 0.012). 3) The parameter estimate for the dissolved noninert gas tissue tension participating in bubble formation was 19. 1 kPa (143 mmHg). 4) The additional gas tissue tension, supposedly due to noninert gases, did not show an exponential decay as a function of time during denitrogenation, but it remained constant. 5) The positive sign for this parameter term in the model is characteristic of an outward radial pressure of gases in the bubble. This analysis suggests that dissolved gases other than N2 in tissues may facilitate the initial explosive bubble-growth phase.

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase and metabolic control

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, is a major regulator of cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis that coordinates metabolic pathways in order to balance nutrient supply with energy demand. It is now recognized that pharmacological activation of AMPK improves blood glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and blood pressure in insulin-resistant rodents. Indeed, AMPK activation mimics the beneficial effects of physical activity or those of calorie restriction by acting on multiple cellular targets. In addition it is now demonstrated that AMPK is one of the probable (albeit indirect) targets of major antidiabetic drugs including, the biguanides (metformin) and thiazolidinediones, as well as of insulin sensitizing adipokines (e.g., adiponectin). Taken together, such findings highlight the logic underlying the concept of targeting the AMPK pathway for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21484577

  7. Glutamate metabolism in HIV-1 infected macrophages: Role of HIV-1 Vpr.

    PubMed

    Datta, Prasun K; Deshmane, Satish; Khalili, Kamel; Merali, Salim; Gordon, John C; Fecchio, Chiara; Barrero, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    HIV-1 infected macrophages play a significant role in the neuropathogenesis of AIDS. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) not only facilitates HIV-1 infection but also contribute to long-lived persistence in macrophages. Our previous studies using SILAC-based proteomic analysis showed that the expression of critical metabolic enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were altered in response to Vpr expression in macrophages. We hypothesized that Vpr-induced modulation of glycolysis and TCA cycle regulates glutamate metabolism and release in HIV-1 infected macrophages. We assessed the amount of specific metabolites induced by Vpr and HIV-1 in macrophages at the intracellular and extracellular level in a time-dependent manner utilizing multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) targeted metabolomics. In addition, stable isotope-labeled glucose and an MRM targeted metabolomics assay were used to evaluate the de novo synthesis and release of glutamate in Vpr overexpressing macrophages and HIV-1 infected macrophages, throughout the metabolic flux of glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle activation. The metabolic flux studies demonstrated an increase in glucose uptake, glutamate release and accumulation of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and glutamine in the extracellular milieu in Vpr expressing and HIV-1 infected macrophages. Interestingly, glutamate pools and other intracellular intermediates (glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), citrate, malate, α-KG, and glutamine) showed a decreased trend except for fumarate, in contrast to the glutamine accumulation observed in the extracellular space in Vpr overexpressing macrophages. Our studies demonstrate that dysregulation of mitochondrial glutamate metabolism induced by Vpr in HIV-1 infected macrophages commonly seen, may contribute to neurodegeneration via excitotoxic mechanisms in the context of NeuroAIDS. PMID:27245560

  8. The role of metabolic biomarkers in drug toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Beger, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metabolic profiling is a technique that can potentially provide more sensitive and specific biomarkers of toxicity than the current clinical measures benefiting preclinical and clinical drug studies. Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) platforms have been used for metabolic profiling studies of drug toxicity. Not only can both techniques provide novel biomarker(s) of toxicity but the combination of both techniques gives a broader range of metabolites evaluated. Changes in metabolic patterns can provide insight into mechanism(s) of toxicity and help to eliminate a potentially toxic new chemical entity earlier in the developmental process. Metabolic profiling offers numerous advantages in toxicological research and screening as sample collection and preparation are relatively simple. Further, sample throughput, reproducibility, and accuracy are high. The area of drug toxicity of therapeutic compounds has already been impacted by metabolic profiling studies and will continue to be impacted as new, more specific biomarker(s) are found. In order for a biomarker or pattern of biomarkers to be accepted, it must be shown that they originate from the target tissue of interest. Metabolic profiling studies are amenable to any biofluid or tissue sample making it possible to link the changes noted in urine for instance as originating from renal injury. Additionally, the ease of sample collection makes it possible to follow a single animal or subject over time in order to determine whether and when the toxicity resolves itself. This review focuses on the advantages of metabolic profiling for drug toxicity studies.

  9. Structure and Function of Human Xylulokinase, an Enzyme with Important Roles in Carbohydrate Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Richard D.; Bulloch, Esther M. M.; Dickson, James M. J.; Loomes, Kerry M.; Baker, Edward N.

    2013-01-01

    d-Xylulokinase (XK; EC 2.7.1.17) catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of d-xylulose (Xu) to produce xylulose 5-phosphate (Xu5P). In mammals, XK is the last enzyme in the glucuronate-xylulose pathway, active in the liver and kidneys, and is linked through its product Xu5P to the pentose-phosphate pathway. XK may play an important role in metabolic disease, given that Xu5P is a key regulator of glucose metabolism and lipogenesis. We have expressed the product of a putative human XK gene and identified it as the authentic human d-xylulokinase (hXK). NMR studies with a variety of sugars showed that hXK acts only on d-xylulose, and a coupled photometric assay established its key kinetic parameters as Km(Xu) = 24 ± 3 μm and kcat = 35 ± 5 s−1. Crystal structures were determined for hXK, on its own and in complexes with Xu, ADP, and a fluorinated inhibitor. These reveal that hXK has a two-domain fold characteristic of the sugar kinase/hsp70/actin superfamily, with glycerol kinase as its closest relative. Xu binds to domain-I and ADP to domain-II, but in this open form of hXK they are 10 Å apart, implying that a large scale conformational change is required for catalysis. Xu binds in its linear keto-form, sandwiched between a Trp side chain and polar side chains that provide exquisite hydrogen bonding recognition. The hXK structure provides a basis for the design of specific inhibitors with which to probe its roles in sugar metabolism and metabolic disease. PMID:23179721

  10. Biogeography of Metabolically Active Microbial Populations within the Subseafloor Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, B. K.; Shepard, A.; St. Peter, C.; Mills, H. J.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial life in deep marine sediments is widespread, metabolically active and diverse. Evidence of prokaryotic communities in sediments as deep as 800 m below the seafloor (mbsf) have been found. By recycling carbon and nutrients through biological and geochemical processes, the deep subsurface has the potential to remain metabolically active over geologic time scales. While a vast majority of the subsurface biosphere remains under studied, recent advances in molecular techniques and an increased focus on microbiological sampling during IODP expeditions have provided the initial steps toward better characterizations of the microbial communities. Coupling of geochemistry and RNA-based molecular analysis is essential to the description of the active microbial populations within the subsurface biosphere. Studies based on DNA may describe the taxa and metabolic pathways from the total microbial community within the sediment, whether the cells sampled were metabolically active, quiescent or dead. Due to a short lifespan within a cell, only an RNA-based analysis can be used to identify linkages between active populations and observed geochemistry. This study will coalesce and compare RNA sequence and geochemical data from Expeditions 316 (Nankai Trough), 320 (Pacific Equatorial Age Transect), 325 (Great Barrier Reef) and 329 (South Pacific Gyre) to evaluate the biogeography of microbial lineages actively altering the deep subsurface. The grouping of sediments allows for a wide range of geochemical environments to be compared, including two environments limited in organic carbon. Significant to this study is the use of similar extraction, amplification and simultaneous 454 pyrosequencing on all sediment populations allowing for robust comparisons with similar protocol strengths and biases. Initial trends support previously described reduction of diversity with increasing depth. The co-localization of active reductive and oxidative lineages suggests a potential cryptic

  11. The role of the complement system in metabolic organs and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Phieler, Julia; Garcia-Martin, Ruben; Lambris, John D; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2013-02-01

    Emerging evidence points to a close crosstalk between metabolic organs and innate immunity in the course of metabolic disorders. In particular, cellular and humoral factors of innate immunity are thought to contribute to metabolic dysregulation of the adipose tissue or the liver, as well as to dysfunction of the pancreas; all these conditions are linked to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. A central component of innate immunity is the complement system. Interestingly, the classical view of complement as a major system of host defense that copes with infections is changing to that of a multi-functional player in tissue homeostasis, degeneration, and regeneration. In the present review, we will discuss the link between complement and metabolic organs, focusing on the pancreas, adipose tissue, and liver and the diverse effects of complement system on metabolic disorders.

  12. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1α upregulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Feng, Xiaoli; Ma, Shuangtao; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Tianqi; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Nilius, Bernd; Huang, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Zhu, Zhiming

    2012-03-01

    Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Acute administration of capsaicin enhances exercise endurance in rodents, but the long-term effect of dietary capsaicin is unknown. The capsaicin receptor, the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel has been detected in skeletal muscle, the role of which remains unclear. Here we report the function of TRPV1 in cultured C2C12 myocytes and the effect of TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin on energy metabolism and exercise endurance of skeletal muscles in mice. In vitro, capsaicin increased cytosolic free calcium and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression in C2C12 myotubes through activating TRPV1. In vivo, PGC-1α in skeletal muscle was upregulated by capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activation or genetic overexpression of TRPV1 in mice. TRPV1 activation increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration, promoted mitochondrial biogenesis, increased oxidative fibers, enhanced exercise endurance and prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders. Importantly, these effects of capsaicin were absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by upregulating PGC-1α in skeletal muscles. The present results indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for managing metabolic diseases and improving exercise endurance.

  13. Identification and metabolic role of the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cavero, S; Vozza, A; del Arco, A; Palmieri, L; Villa, A; Blanco, E; Runswick, M J; Walker, J E; Cerdán, S; Palmieri, F; Satrústegui, J

    2003-11-01

    The malate-aspartate NADH shuttle in mammalian cells requires the activity of the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier (AGC). Recently, we identified in man two AGC isoforms, aralar1 and citrin, which are regulated by calcium on the external face of the inner mitochondrial membrane. We have now identified Agc1p as the yeast counterpart of the human AGC. The corresponding gene was overexpressed in bacteria and yeast mitochondria, and the protein was reconstituted in liposomes where it was identified as an aspartate-glutamate transporter from its transport properties. Furthermore, yeast cells lacking Agc1p were unable to grow on acetate and oleic acid, and had reduced levels of valine, ornithine and citrulline; in contrast they grew on ethanol. Expression of the human AGC isoforms can replace the function of Agc1p. However, unlike its human orthologues, yeast Agc1p catalyses both aspartate-glutamate exchange and substrate uniport activities. We conclude that Agc1p performs two metabolic roles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On the one hand, it functions as a uniporter to supply the mitochondria with glutamate for nitrogen metabolism and ornithine synthesis. On the other, the Agc1p, as an aspartate-glutamate exchanger, plays a role within the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle which is critical for the growth of yeast on acetate and fatty acids as carbon sources. These results provide strong evidence of the existence of a malate-aspartate NADH shuttle in yeast. PMID:14622413

  14. Role of inorganic polyphosphate in mammalian cells: from signal transduction and mitochondrial metabolism to cell death.

    PubMed

    Angelova, Plamena R; Baev, Artyom Y; Berezhnov, Alexey V; Abramov, Andrey Y

    2016-02-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a polymer compromised of linearly arranged orthophosphate units that are linked through high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. The chain length of this polymer varies from five to several thousand orthophosphates. PolyP is distributed in the most of the living organisms and plays multiple functions in mammalian cells, it is important for blood coagulation, cancer, calcium precipitation, immune response and many others. Essential role of polyP is shown for mitochondria, from implication into energy metabolism and mitochondrial calcium handling to activation of permeability transition pore (PTP) and cell death. PolyP is a gliotransmitter which transmits the signal in astrocytes via activation of P2Y1 receptors and stimulation of phospholipase C. PolyP-induced calcium signal in astrocytes can be stimulated by different lengths of this polymer but only long chain polyP induces mitochondrial depolarization by inhibition of respiration and opening of the PTP. It leads to induction of astrocytic cell death which can be prevented by inhibition of PTP with cyclosporine A. Thus, medium- and short-length polyP plays role in signal transduction and mitochondrial metabolism of astrocytes and long chain of this polymer can be toxic for the cells. PMID:26862186

  15. Role of cardiomyocyte circadian clock in myocardial metabolic adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marked circadian rhythmicities in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology exist. The cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been linked to circadian rhythms in myocardial gene expression, metabolism, and contractile function. For instance, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock is essential f...

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase: an emerging drug target to regulate imbalances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism to treat cardio-metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rai Ajit K.; Pinkosky, Stephen L.; Filippov, Sergey; Hanselman, Jeffrey C.; Cramer, Clay T.; Newton, Roger S.

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor of energy metabolism at the cellular as well as whole-body level. It is activated by low energy status that triggers a switch from ATP-consuming anabolic pathways to ATP-producing catabolic pathways. AMPK is involved in a wide range of biological activities that normalizes lipid, glucose, and energy imbalances. These pathways are dysregulated in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), which represents a clustering of major cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes, lipid abnormalities, and energy imbalances. Clearly, there is an unmet medical need to find a molecule to treat alarming number of patients with MetS. AMPK, with multifaceted activities in various tissues, has emerged as an attractive drug target to manage lipid and glucose abnormalities and maintain energy homeostasis. A number of AMPK activators have been tested in preclinical models, but many of them have yet to reach to the clinic. This review focuses on the structure-function and role of AMPK in lipid, carbohydrate, and energy metabolism. The mode of action of AMPK activators, mechanism of anti-inflammatory activities, and preclinical and clinical findings as well as future prospects of AMPK as a drug target in treating cardio-metabolic disease are discussed. PMID:22798688

  17. Citric acid cycle and role of its intermediates in metabolism.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    The citric acid cycle is the final common oxidative pathway for carbohydrates, fats and amino acids. It is the most important metabolic pathway for the energy supply to the body. TCA is the most important central pathway connecting almost all the individual metabolic pathways. In this review article, introduction, regulation and energetics of TCA cycle have been discussed. The present study was carried out to review literature on TCA cycle.

  18. Metabolic activation of 2-methylfuran by rat microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindranath, V.; Boyd, M.R.

    1985-05-01

    2-Methylfuran (2-MF), a constituent of cigarette smoke and coffee, causes necrosis of liver, lungs, and kidneys in rodents. 2-MF is metabolically activated by mixed-function oxidases to acetylacrolein, a reactive metabolite that binds covalently to microsomal protein. The hepatic microsomal metabolism of 2-MF to reactive metabolite required the presence of NADPH and oxygen and was dependent on incubation time and substrate concentration. The microsomal metabolism of 2-MF was inducible by pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital and was inhibited by piperonyl butoxide and N-octyl imidazole, which indicates that the metabolism of 2-MF may be mediated by cytochrome P-450. Acetylacrolein was a potent inhibitor of mixed-function oxidase and completely inhibited the microsomal metabolism of 2-MF, indicating that 2-MF is a suicide substrate for the enzyme. The sulfhydryl nucleophile cysteine was a better trapping agent of the reactive metabolite of 2-MF than N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. Lysine decreased the covalent binding of 2-MF metabolites, presumably by reacting with the aldehyde group of acetylacrolein. In addition, in the presence of NADPH, 2-MF was bioactivated by both pulmonary and renal cortical microsomes to reactive metabolites that were covalently bound to microsomal proteins.

  19. Emerging roles of the myocardin family of proteins in lipid and glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Swärd, Karl; Stenkula, Karin G; Rippe, Catarina; Alajbegovic, Azra; Gomez, Maria F; Albinsson, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Members of the myocardin family bind to the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) and act as coactivators controlling genes of relevance for myogenic differentiation and motile function. Binding of SRF to DNA is mediated by genetic elements called CArG boxes, found often but not exclusively in muscle and growth controlling genes. Studies aimed at defining the full spectrum of these CArG elements in the genome (i.e. the CArGome) have in recent years, unveiled unexpected roles of the myocardin family proteins in lipid and glucose homeostasis. This coactivator family includes the protein myocardin (MYOCD), the myocardin-related transcription factors A and B (MRTF-A/MKL1 and MRTF-B/MKL2) and MASTR (MAMSTR). Here we discuss growing evidence that SRF-driven transcription is controlled by extracellular glucose through activation of the Rho-kinase pathway and actin polymerization. We also describe data showing that adipogenesis is influenced by MLK activity through actions upstream of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ with consequences for whole body fat mass and insulin sensitivity. The recently demonstrated involvement of myocardin coactivators in the biogenesis of caveolae, Ω-shaped membrane invaginations of importance for lipid and glucose metabolism, is finally discussed. These novel roles of myocardin proteins may open the way for new unexplored strategies to combat metabolic diseases such as diabetes, which, at the current incidence, is expected to reach 333 million people worldwide by 2025. This review highlights newly discovered roles of myocardin-related transcription factors in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as novel insights into their well-established role as mediators of stretch-dependent effects in smooth muscle. As co-factors for serum response factor (SRF), MKLs regulates transcription of genes involved in the contractile function of smooth muscle cells. In addition to mechanical stimuli, this regulation has now been found to

  20. The role of metabolic therapy in treating glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Maroon, Joseph C.; Seyfried, Thomas N.; Donohue, Joseph P.; Bost, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive and nearly uniformly fatal malignancy of the central nervous system. Despite extensive research and clinical trials over the past 50 years, very little progress has been made to significantly alter its lethal prognosis. The current standard of care (SOC) includes maximal surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ), including the selective use of glucocorticoids for symptom control. These same treatments, however, have the potential to create an environment that may actually facilitate tumor growth and survival. Research investigating the unique metabolic needs of tumor cells has led to the proposal of a new metabolic treatment for various cancers including GBMs that may enhance the effectiveness of the SOC. The goal of metabolic cancer therapy is to restrict GBM cells of glucose, their main energy substrate. By recognizing the underlying energy production requirements of cancer cells, newly proposed metabolic therapy is being used as an adjunct to standard GBM therapies. This review will discuss the calorie restricted ketogenic diet (CR-KD) as a promising potential adjunctive metabolic therapy for patients with GBMs. The effectiveness of the CR-KD is based on the “Warburg Effect” of cancer metabolism and the microenvironment of GBM tumors. We will review recent case reports, clinical studies, review articles, and animal model research using the CR-KD and explain the principles of the Warburg Effect as it relates to CR-KD and GBMs. PMID:25949849

  1. The role of metabolic therapy in treating glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Maroon, Joseph C; Seyfried, Thomas N; Donohue, Joseph P; Bost, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive and nearly uniformly fatal malignancy of the central nervous system. Despite extensive research and clinical trials over the past 50 years, very little progress has been made to significantly alter its lethal prognosis. The current standard of care (SOC) includes maximal surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ), including the selective use of glucocorticoids for symptom control. These same treatments, however, have the potential to create an environment that may actually facilitate tumor growth and survival. Research investigating the unique metabolic needs of tumor cells has led to the proposal of a new metabolic treatment for various cancers including GBMs that may enhance the effectiveness of the SOC. The goal of metabolic cancer therapy is to restrict GBM cells of glucose, their main energy substrate. By recognizing the underlying energy production requirements of cancer cells, newly proposed metabolic therapy is being used as an adjunct to standard GBM therapies. This review will discuss the calorie restricted ketogenic diet (CR-KD) as a promising potential adjunctive metabolic therapy for patients with GBMs. The effectiveness of the CR-KD is based on the "Warburg Effect" of cancer metabolism and the microenvironment of GBM tumors. We will review recent case reports, clinical studies, review articles, and animal model research using the CR-KD and explain the principles of the Warburg Effect as it relates to CR-KD and GBMs. PMID:25949849

  2. Role of Akt and Ca2+ on cell permeabilization via connexin43 hemichannels induced by metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Salas, Daniela; Puebla, Carlos; Lampe, Paul D; Lavandero, Sergio; Sáez, Juan C

    2015-07-01

    Connexin hemichannels are regulated under physiological and pathological conditions. Metabolic inhibition, a model of ischemia, promotes surface hemichannel activation associated, in part, with increased surface hemichannel levels, but little is known about its underlying mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of Akt on the connexin43 hemichannel's response induced by metabolic inhibition. In HeLa cells stably transfected with rat connexin43 fused to EGFP (HeLa43 cells), metabolic inhibition induced a transient Akt activation necessary to increase the amount of surface connexin43. The increase in levels of surface connexin43 was also found to depend on an intracellular Ca2+ signal increase that was partially mediated by Akt activation. However, the metabolic inhibition-induced Akt activation was not significantly affected by intracellular Ca2+ chelation. The Akt-dependent increase in connexin43 hemichannel activity in HeLa43 cells also occurred after oxygen-glucose deprivation, another ischemia-like condition, and in cultured cortical astrocytes (endogenous connexin43 expression system) under metabolic inhibition. Since opening of hemichannels has been shown to accelerate cell death, inhibition of Akt-dependent phosphorylation of connexin43 hemichannels could reduce cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

  3. Role of Akt and Ca2+ on cell permeabilization via connexin43 hemichannels induced by metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Salas, Daniela; Puebla, Carlos; Lampe, Paul D; Lavandero, Sergio; Sáez, Juan C

    2015-07-01

    Connexin hemichannels are regulated under physiological and pathological conditions. Metabolic inhibition, a model of ischemia, promotes surface hemichannel activation associated, in part, with increased surface hemichannel levels, but little is known about its underlying mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of Akt on the connexin43 hemichannel's response induced by metabolic inhibition. In HeLa cells stably transfected with rat connexin43 fused to EGFP (HeLa43 cells), metabolic inhibition induced a transient Akt activation necessary to increase the amount of surface connexin43. The increase in levels of surface connexin43 was also found to depend on an intracellular Ca2+ signal increase that was partially mediated by Akt activation. However, the metabolic inhibition-induced Akt activation was not significantly affected by intracellular Ca2+ chelation. The Akt-dependent increase in connexin43 hemichannel activity in HeLa43 cells also occurred after oxygen-glucose deprivation, another ischemia-like condition, and in cultured cortical astrocytes (endogenous connexin43 expression system) under metabolic inhibition. Since opening of hemichannels has been shown to accelerate cell death, inhibition of Akt-dependent phosphorylation of connexin43 hemichannels could reduce cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25779082

  4. Emerging role of the brain in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Eun; Song, Do Kyeong; Kim, Min-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence from genetic animal models suggests that the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, has a key role in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism. The brain integrates multiple metabolic inputs from the periphery through nutrients, gut-derived satiety signals and adiposity-related hormones. The brain modulates various aspects of metabolism, such as food intake, energy expenditure, insulin secretion, hepatic glucose production and glucose/fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Highly coordinated interactions between the brain and peripheral metabolic organs are critical for the maintenance of energy and glucose homeostasis. Defective crosstalk between the brain and peripheral organs contributes to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we comprehensively review the above topics, discussing the main findings related to the role of the brain in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism. PMID:26964832

  5. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  6. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    PubMed Central

    Beijer, Emiel; Schoenmakers, Janna; Vijgen, Guy; Kessels, Fons; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Schrauwen, Patrick; Wouters, Miel; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; Teule, Jaap; Brans, Boudewijn

    2012-01-01

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and so-called brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluoro- deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity. PMID:25992201

  7. NOTCH reprograms mitochondrial metabolism for proinflammatory macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Chi, Feng; Guo, Tongsheng; Punj, Vasu; Lee, W.N. Paul; French, Samuel W.; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is implicated in macrophage activation, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the NOTCH1 pathway dictates activation of M1 phenotypes in isolated mouse hepatic macrophages (HMacs) and in a murine macrophage cell line by coupling transcriptional upregulation of M1 genes with metabolic upregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ROS (mtROS) to augment induction of M1 genes. Enhanced mitochondrial glucose oxidation was achieved by increased recruitment of the NOTCH1 intracellular domain (NICD1) to nuclear and mitochondrial genes that encode respiratory chain components and by NOTCH-dependent induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 1 (Pdp1) expression, pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and glucose flux to the TCA cycle. As such, inhibition of the NOTCH pathway or Pdp1 knockdown abrogated glucose oxidation, mtROS, and M1 gene expression. Conditional NOTCH1 deficiency in the myeloid lineage attenuated HMac M1 activation and inflammation in a murine model of alcoholic steatohepatitis and markedly reduced lethality following endotoxin-mediated fulminant hepatitis in mice. In vivo monocyte tracking further demonstrated the requirement of NOTCH1 for the migration of blood monocytes into the liver and subsequent M1 differentiation. Together, these results reveal that NOTCH1 promotes reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism for M1 macrophage activation. PMID:25798621

  8. Novel TPP-riboswitch activators bypass metabolic enzyme dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Günter; Lünse, Christina; Suckling, Colin; Scott, Fraser

    2014-07-01

    Riboswitches are conserved regions within mRNA molecules that bind specific metabolites and regulate gene expression. TPP-riboswitches, which respond to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), are involved in the regulation of thiamine metabolism in numerous bacteria. As these regulatory RNAs are often modulating essential biosynthesis pathways they have become increasingly interesting as promising antibacterial targets. Here, we describe thiamine analogs containing a central 1,2,3-triazole group to induce repression of thiM-riboswitch dependent gene expression in different E. coli strains. Additionally, we show that compound activation is dependent on proteins involved in the metabolic pathways of thiamine uptake and synthesis. The most promising molecule, triazolethiamine (TT), shows concentration dependent reporter gene repression that is dependent on the presence of thiamine kinase ThiK, whereas the effect of pyrithiamine (PT), a known TPP-riboswitch modulator, is ThiK independent. We further show that this dependence can be bypassed by triazolethiamine-derivatives that bear phosphate-mimicking moieties. As triazolethiamine reveals superior activity compared to pyrithiamine, it represents a very promising starting point for developing novel antibacterial compounds that target TPP-riboswitches. Riboswitch-targeting compounds engage diverse endogenous mechanisms to attain in vivo activity. These findings are of importance for the understanding of compounds that require metabolic activation to achieve effective riboswitch modulation and they enable the design of novel compound generations that are independent of endogenous activation mechanisms.

  9. Does the pituitary somatotrope play a primary role in regulating GH output in metabolic extremes?

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Gahete, Manuel D; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Childs, Gwen V; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2011-03-01

    Circulating growth hormone (GH) levels rise in response to nutrient deprivation and fall in states of nutrient excess. Because GH regulates carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism, defining the mechanisms by which changes in metabolism alter GH secretion will aid in our understanding of the cause, progression, and treatment of metabolic diseases. This review will summarize what is currently known regarding the impact of systemic metabolic signals on GH-axis function. In addition, ongoing studies using the Cre/loxP system to generate mouse models with selective somatotrope resistance to metabolic signals will be discussed, where these models will serve to enhance our understanding of the specific role the somatotrope plays in sensing the metabolic environment and adjusting GH output in metabolic extremes. PMID:21388406

  10. A Role for Timp3 in Microbiota-Driven Hepatic Steatosis and Metabolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mavilio, Maria; Marchetti, Valentina; Fabrizi, Marta; Stöhr, Robert; Marino, Arianna; Casagrande, Viviana; Fiorentino, Loredana; Cardellini, Marina; Kappel, Ben; Monteleone, Ivan; Garret, Celine; Mauriello, Alessandro; Monteleone, Giovanni; Farcomeni, Alessio; Burcelin, Remy; Menghini, Rossella; Federici, Massimo

    2016-07-19

    The effect of gut microbiota on obesity and insulin resistance is now recognized, but the underlying host-dependent mechanisms remain poorly undefined. We find that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 knockout (Timp3(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet exhibit gut microbiota dysbiosis, an increase in branched chain and aromatic (BCAA) metabolites, liver steatosis, and an increase in circulating soluble IL-6 receptors (sIL6Rs). sIL6Rs can then activate inflammatory cells, such as CD11c(+) cells, which drive metabolic inflammation. Depleting the microbiota through antibiotic treatment significantly improves glucose tolerance, hepatic steatosis, and systemic inflammation, and neutralizing sIL6R signaling reduces inflammation, but only mildly impacts glucose tolerance. Collectively, our results suggest that gut microbiota is the primary driver of the observed metabolic dysfunction, which is mediated, in part, through IL-6 signaling. Our findings also identify an important role for Timp3 in mediating the effect of the microbiota in metabolic diseases.

  11. Cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism in heart failure: Role of cardiolipin and sirtuins.

    PubMed

    Dolinsky, Vernon W; Cole, Laura K; Sparagna, Genevieve C; Hatch, Grant M

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids accounts for the majority of cardiac ATP production in the heart. Fatty acid utilization by cardiac mitochondria is controlled at the level of fatty acid uptake, lipid synthesis, mobilization and mitochondrial import and oxidation. Consequently defective mitochondrial function appears to be central to the development of heart failure. Cardiolipin is a key mitochondrial phospholipid required for the activity of the electron transport chain. In heart failure, loss of cardiolipin and tetralinoleoylcardiolipin helps to fuel the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species that are a by-product of inefficient mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and III. In this vicious cycle, reactive oxygen species generate lipid peroxides and may, in turn, cause oxidation of cardiolipin catalyzed by cytochrome c leading to cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Hence, preservation of cardiolipin and mitochondrial function may be keys to the prevention of heart failure development. In this review, we summarize cardiac energy metabolism and the important role that fatty acid uptake and metabolism play in this process and how defects in these result in heart failure. We highlight the key role that cardiolipin and sirtuins play in cardiac mitochondrial β-oxidation. In addition, we review the potential of pharmacological modulation of cardiolipin through the polyphenolic molecule resveratrol as a sirtuin-activator in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, we provide novel experimental evidence that resveratrol treatment increases cardiolipin in isolated H9c2 cardiac myocytes and tetralinoleoylcardiolipin in the heart of the spontaneously hypertensive rat and hypothesize that this leads to improvement in mitochondrial function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk.

  12. A novel activity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase: metabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Nithipatikom, Kasem; Endsley, Michael P.; Pfeiffer, Adam W.; Falck, John R.; Campbell, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1, EC 3.3.2.9) is a highly abundant α/β-hydrolase enzyme that is known for its catalytical epoxide hydrolase activity. A wide range of EPHX1 functions have been demonstrated including xenobiotic metabolism; however, characterization of its endogenous substrates is limited. In this study, we present evidence that EPHX1 metabolizes the abundant endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to free arachidonic acid (AA) and glycerol. The EPHX1 metabolism of 2-AG was demonstrated using commercially available EPHX1 microsomes as well as PC-3 cells overexpressing EPHX1. Conversely, EPHX1 siRNA markedly reduced the EPHX1 expression and 2-AG metabolism in HepG2 cells and LNCaP cells. A selective EPHX1 inhibitor, 10-hydroxystearamide, inhibited 2-AG metabolism and hydrolysis of a well-known EPHX1 substrate, cis-stilbene oxide. Among the inhibitors studied, a serine hydrolase inhibitor, methoxy-arachidonyl fluorophosphate, was the most potent inhibitor of 2-AG metabolism by EPHX1 microsomes. These results demonstrate that 2-AG is an endogenous substrate for EPHX1, a potential role of EPHX1 in the endocannabinoid signaling and a new AA biosynthetic pathway. PMID:24958911

  13. The Role of Metabolic Surgery on Blood Pressure Control.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Carlos Aurelio; Drager, Luciano F; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Amodeo, Celso; Ikeoka, Dimas; Berwanger, Otávio; Cohen, Ricardo Vitor

    2016-08-01

    Obesity and hypertension are growing epidemics in the modern world. Lifestyle changes and medical treatment for obesity have disappointing long-term results and albeit drugs for hypertension are usually very effective, the necessity of multiple pills and frequent side effects make the adherence to treatment a huge challenge for healthcare systems. Bariatric/metabolic surgery is a very effective treatment and an exponential number of studies have been showing its positive impact beyond weight loss, mainly on type 2 diabetes. There is also growing evidence suggesting that bariatric/metabolic surgery is associated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular events, but the impact on hypertension and other components of metabolic syndrome usually derive from trials' secondary end points. Taking this limitation in mind, bariatric/metabolic surgery action on blood pressure is reaching a significant proportion of hypertension resolution or improvement. In this review, we discussed the current evidence on the impact of bariatric/metabolic surgery on blood pressure control and pointed out perspectives in this research area. PMID:27324638

  14. The role of metabolism in understanding the altitudinal segregation pattern of two potentially interacting lizards.

    PubMed

    Žagar, Anamarija; Simčič, Tatjana; Carretero, Miguel A; Vrezec, Al

    2015-01-01

    Sympatric species from the same ecological guild, that exhibit partial altitudinal segregation, can potentially interact in areas of syntopic occurrence. Besides general species' ecology, physiology can provide important answers about species interactions reflected in altitudinal patterns. Lizards Podarcis muralis and Iberolacerta horvathi exhibit partial altitudinal segregation, while they strongly resemble in overall morphology and ecology (diet, daily and seasonal activity pattern), but show certain degree of physiological dissimilarity. They have similar mean preferred body temperatures and patterns of seasonal and daily variations but differ in the magnitude of seasonal variation. Since an ectotherm metabolism is highly dependent on body temperature, thermoregulation is expected to directly affect their metabolism. We compared metabolic rates of adult males from an area of sympatry, measured under two temperature regimes (20°C and 28°C). Both species increased metabolic rates with temperature in a similar pattern. We also compared electron transport activity from tail tissues which provide values of species' potential metabolic activity (enzymatic capacity). Species clearly differed in potential metabolic activity; I. horvathi attained higher values than P. muralis. No difference was detected in how species exploited this potential (calculated from the ratio of electron transport activity and metabolic rates). However, we observed higher potential metabolic activity I. horvathi which together with the ability to thermoregulate more precisely could represent a higher competitive advantage over P. muralis in thermally more restrictive environments such as higher altitudes. Understanding of metabolism seems to provide valuable information for understanding recent distributional patterns as well as species interactions.

  15. The role of osteocalcin in human glucose metabolism: marker or mediator?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence supports an association between the skeleton and energy metabolism. These interactions are mediated by a variety of hormones, cytokines, and nutrients. Here, the evidence for a role of osteocalcin in the regulation of glucose metabolism in humans is reviewed. Osteocalcin is a bon...

  16. Role of aldo-keto reductase family 1 (AKR1) enzymes in human steroid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rižner, Tea Lanišnik; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-01-01

    Human aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1-AKR1C4 and AKR1D1 play essential roles in the metabolism of all steroid hormones, the biosynthesis of neurosteroids and bile acids, the metabolism of conjugated steroids, and synthetic therapeutic steroids. These enzymes catalyze NADPH dependent reductions at the C3, C5, C17 and C20 positions on the steroid nucleus and side-chain. AKR1C1-AKR1C4 act as 3-keto, 17-keto and 20-ketosteroid reductases to varying extents, while AKR1D1 acts as the sole Δ(4)-3-ketosteroid-5β-reductase (steroid 5β-reductase) in humans. AKR1 enzymes control the concentrations of active ligands for nuclear receptors and control their ligand occupancy and trans-activation, they also regulate the amount of neurosteroids that can modulate the activity of GABAA and NMDA receptors. As such they are involved in the pre-receptor regulation of nuclear and membrane bound receptors. Altered expression of individual AKR1C genes is related to development of prostate, breast, and endometrial cancer. Mutations in AKR1C1 and AKR1C4 are responsible for sexual development dysgenesis and mutations in AKR1D1 are causative in bile-acid deficiency.

  17. Effect of Green Light on Nitric Oxide Metabolism in Chick Embryos. A Possible Physiological Role.

    PubMed

    Titov, V Yu; Kosenko, O V; Starkova, E S; Kondratov, G V; Borkhunova, E N; Ivanova, A V

    2015-10-01

    The exposure to green light, which serves as a well-known activating factor for myogenesis during incubation of chicken eggs, contributes to intensification of embryonic metabolism of NO. A metabolic product, nitrate, is mainly accumulated in the muscles. These data suggest that light induces a NO-dependent activation of the factor, which intensifies muscle tissue development.

  18. Phenylketonuria Pathophysiology: on the Role of Metabolic Alterations.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Malgarin, Fernanda; Cararo, José Henrique; Cardoso, Fabiola; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism caused by the deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase. This deficiency leads to the accumulation of Phe and its metabolites in tissues and body fluids of PKU patients. The main signs and symptoms are found in the brain but the pathophysiology of this disease is not well understood. In this context, metabolic alterations such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein and neurotransmitters synthesis have been described both in animal models and patients. This review aims to discuss the main metabolic disturbances reported in PKU and relate them with the pathophysiology of this disease. The elucidation of the pathophysiology of brain damage found in PKU patients will help to develop better therapeutic strategies to improve quality of life of patients affected by this condition. PMID:26425393

  19. A role for metabolism in Rett syndrome pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Monica J; Buchovecky, Christie M; Kyle, Stephanie M; Djukic, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurological disorder caused by mutations in MECP2, may have a metabolic component. We reported a genetic suppressor screen in a Mecp2-null mouse model to identify pathways for therapeutic improvement of RTT symptoms. Of note, one suppressor mutation implied that cholesterol homeostasis was perturbed in Mecp2 null mice; indeed, cholesterol synthesis was elevated in the brain and body system. Remarkably, the genetic effect of downregulating the cholesterol pathway could be mimicked chemically by statin drugs, improving motor symptoms, and increasing longevity in the mouse. Our work linked cholesterol metabolism to RTT pathology for the first time. Both neurological and systemic effects of perturbed cholesterol homeostasis overlap with many RTT symptoms. Here we show in patients that peripheral cholesterol, triglycerides, and/or LDLs may be elevated early in RTT disease onset, providing a biomarker for patients that could be aided by therapeutic interventions that modulate lipid metabolism. PMID:25003017

  20. Phenylketonuria Pathophysiology: on the Role of Metabolic Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Malgarin, Fernanda; Cararo, José Henrique; Cardoso, Fabiola; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism caused by the deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase. This deficiency leads to the accumulation of Phe and its metabolites in tissues and body fluids of PKU patients. The main signs and symptoms are found in the brain but the pathophysiology of this disease is not well understood. In this context, metabolic alterations such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein and neurotransmitters synthesis have been described both in animal models and patients. This review aims to discuss the main metabolic disturbances reported in PKU and relate them with the pathophysiology of this disease. The elucidation of the pathophysiology of brain damage found in PKU patients will help to develop better therapeutic strategies to improve quality of life of patients affected by this condition. PMID:26425393

  1. Coupling nutrient sensing to metabolic homoeostasis: the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway.

    PubMed

    André, Caroline; Cota, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is known to couple different environmental cues to the regulation of several energy-demanding functions within the cell, spanning from protein translation to mitochondrial activity. As a result, at the organism level, mTORC1 activity affects energy balance and general metabolic homoeostasis by modulating both the activity of neuronal populations that play key roles in the control of food intake and body weight, as well as by determining storage and use of fuel substrates in peripheral tissues. This review focuses on recent advances made in understanding the role of the mTORC1 pathway in the regulation of energy balance. More particularly, it aims at providing an overview of the status of knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying the ability of certain amino acids, glucose and fatty acids, to affect mTORC1 activity and in turn illustrates how the mTORC1 pathway couples nutrient sensing to the hypothalamic regulation of the organisms' energy homoeostasis and to the control of intracellular metabolic processes, such as glucose uptake, protein and lipid biosynthesis. The evidence reviewed pinpoints the mTORC1 pathway as an integrator of the actions of nutrients on metabolic health and provides insight into the relevance of this intracellular pathway as a potential target for the therapy of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type-2 diabetes.

  2. Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Lena; Hoem, Nils; Banni, Sebastiano; Berge, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    The biological activities of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) have been under extensive study for several decades. However, not much attention has been paid to differences of dietary forms, such as triglycerides (TGs) versus ethyl esters or phospholipids (PLs). New innovative marine raw materials, like krill and fish by-products, present n-3 FAs mainly in the PL form. With their increasing availability, new evidence has emerged on n-3 PL biological activities and differences to n-3 TGs. In this review, we describe the recently discovered nutritional properties of n-3 PLs on different parameters of metabolic syndrome and highlight their different metabolic bioavailability in comparison to other dietary forms of n-3 FAs. PMID:23203133

  3. [An electrochemical method for measuring metabolic activity and counting cells].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, B a; Khlupova, M e; Shleev, S V; Kaprel'iants, A S; Iaropolov, A I

    2006-01-01

    An express electrochemical method for determining the metabolic activity of live cells based on the possibility of an electron exchange between an electrode and elements of the biological electron transfer chain in the presence of a mediator is proposed. This method is useful for studying any live cells (animal, plant, and microbial), including anaerobic, dormant, and spore cells. The sample preparation and measurement itself does not take more than 30 min. The detection limit in a volume of 15 ml amounts to 10-5 cells/ml. The applicability of the assessment method of the metabolic activity level during the transition of the bacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis into an uncultivable dormant state was demonstrated. This method is of special value for medicine and environmental control, detecting latent forms of pathogens. An optimal combination of the methods for the express analysis of latent pathogens is proposed. PMID:17066962

  4. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors under epigenetic control in placental metabolism and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Lendvai, Ágnes; Deutsch, Manuel J; Plösch, Torsten; Ensenauer, Regina

    2016-05-15

    The placental metabolism can adapt to the environment throughout pregnancy to both the demands of the fetus and the signals from the mother. Such adaption processes include epigenetic mechanisms, which alter gene expression and may influence the offspring's health. These mechanisms are linked to the diversity of prenatal environmental exposures, including maternal under- or overnutrition or gestational diabetes. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that contribute to the developmental plasticity of the placenta by regulating lipid and glucose metabolism pathways, including lipogenesis, steroidogenesis, glucose transporters, and placental signaling pathways, thus representing a link between energy metabolism and reproduction. Among the PPAR isoforms, PPARγ appears to be the main modulator of mammalian placentation. Certain fatty acids and lipid-derived moieties are the natural activating PPAR ligands. By controlling the amounts of maternal nutrients that go across to the fetus, the PPARs play an important regulatory role in placenta metabolism, thereby adapting to the maternal nutritional status. As demonstrated in animal studies, maternal nutrition during gestation can exert long-term influences on the PPAR methylation pattern in offspring organs. This review underlines the current state of knowledge on the relationship between environmental factors and the epigenetic regulation of the PPARs in placenta metabolism and offspring development. PMID:26860983

  5. Activating and Elucidating Metabolism of Complex Sugars in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seunghyun; Hipp, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is an industrially important host for production of organic acids, oleochemicals, lipids, and proteins with broad biotechnological applications. Albeit known for decades, the unique native metabolism of Y. lipolytica for using complex fermentable sugars, which are abundant in lignocellulosic biomass, is poorly understood. In this study, we activated and elucidated the native sugar metabolism in Y. lipolytica for cell growth on xylose and cellobiose as well as their mixtures with glucose through comprehensive metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. We identified 7 putative glucose-specific transporters, 16 putative xylose-specific transporters, and 4 putative cellobiose-specific transporters that are transcriptionally upregulated for growth on respective single sugars. Y. lipolytica is capable of using xylose as a carbon source, but xylose dehydrogenase is the key bottleneck of xylose assimilation and is transcriptionally repressed by glucose. Y. lipolytica has a set of 5 extracellular and 6 intracellular β-glucosidases and is capable of assimilating cellobiose via extra- and intracellular mechanisms, the latter being dominant for growth on cellobiose as a sole carbon source. Strikingly, Y. lipolytica exhibited enhanced sugar utilization for growth in mixed sugars, with strong carbon catabolite activation for growth on the mixture of xylose and cellobiose and with mild carbon catabolite repression of glucose on xylose and cellobiose. The results of this study shed light on fundamental understanding of the complex native sugar metabolism of Y. lipolytica and will help guide inverse metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica for enhanced conversion of biomass-derived fermentable sugars to chemicals and fuels. PMID:26682853

  6. Activating and Elucidating Metabolism of Complex Sugars in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seunghyun; Hipp, Julie; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-02-01

    The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is an industrially important host for production of organic acids, oleochemicals, lipids, and proteins with broad biotechnological applications. Albeit known for decades, the unique native metabolism of Y. lipolytica for using complex fermentable sugars, which are abundant in lignocellulosic biomass, is poorly understood. In this study, we activated and elucidated the native sugar metabolism in Y. lipolytica for cell growth on xylose and cellobiose as well as their mixtures with glucose through comprehensive metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. We identified 7 putative glucose-specific transporters, 16 putative xylose-specific transporters, and 4 putative cellobiose-specific transporters that are transcriptionally upregulated for growth on respective single sugars. Y. lipolytica is capable of using xylose as a carbon source, but xylose dehydrogenase is the key bottleneck of xylose assimilation and is transcriptionally repressed by glucose. Y. lipolytica has a set of 5 extracellular and 6 intracellular β-glucosidases and is capable of assimilating cellobiose via extra- and intracellular mechanisms, the latter being dominant for growth on cellobiose as a sole carbon source. Strikingly, Y. lipolytica exhibited enhanced sugar utilization for growth in mixed sugars, with strong carbon catabolite activation for growth on the mixture of xylose and cellobiose and with mild carbon catabolite repression of glucose on xylose and cellobiose. The results of this study shed light on fundamental understanding of the complex native sugar metabolism of Y. lipolytica and will help guide inverse metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica for enhanced conversion of biomass-derived fermentable sugars to chemicals and fuels. PMID:26682853

  7. Drug metabolism in the skin.

    PubMed

    Baron, J M; Merk, H F

    2001-08-01

    The skin performs a wide range of active metabolic functions including xenobiotic metabolism involving metabolizing enzymes specific to the skin. In this review we focus on the role of drug metabolism: (i) in allergic reactions to substances of low molecular weight; (ii) in cutaneous vitamin A and D3 metabolism and its modulation; (iii) in the interaction of transport and metabolic enzymes in skin cells; and (iv) on novel tools for the measurement of drug metabolism in various compartments of the human skin.

  8. Cardiolipin metabolism and the role it plays in heart failure and mitochondrial supercomplex formation.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Edgard M; Cole, Laura K; Hatch, Grant M

    2014-01-01

    Cardiolipin is a major membrane phospholipid in the mitochondria and is essential for cellular energy metabolism mediated through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Recent studies indicate that it plays a diverse role in cellular metabolism. Eukaryotic cardiolipin is synthesized de novo from phosphatidic acid via the cytidine-5'-diphosphate-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol pathway and is deacylated to monolysocardiolipin in order for it to be remodelled into the form that is observed in mitochondrial membranes. This resynthesis of deacylated cardiolipin from monolysocardiolipin occurs via the Barth Syndrome gene product tafazzin and acyllysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1, monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1 and the alpha subunit of trifunctional protein. Heart failure is a disease condition in which the amount and type of cardiolipin is altered. Several animal models have been generated to study the role of altered cardiolipin in heart failure. In many of these models loss of the tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin species is observed during the development of the heart failure. In the doxycycline inducible short hairpin RNA tafazzin knock down mouse, loss of tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin is associated with a mitochondrial bioenergetic disruption. Reduction in mitochondrial supercomplex formation and NADH dehydrogenase activity within these supercomplexes is observed. Modulation of CL fatty acyl composition may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of several pathologies including cardiac dysfunction.We propose that increasing cardiolipin may improve mitochondrial function and potentially serve as a therapy for diseases which exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction involving reduced cardiolipin. PMID:24801725

  9. Role of glutathione metabolism and glutathione-related antioxidant defense systems in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Robaczewska, J; Kedziora-Kornatowska, K; Kozakiewicz, M; Zary-Sikorska, E; Pawluk, H; Pawliszak, W; Kedziora, J

    2016-06-01

    The risk of developing chronic hypertension increases with age. Among others factors, increased oxidative stress is a well-recognized etiological factor for the development of hypertension. The co-occurrence of oxidative stress and hypertension may occur as a consequence of a decrease in antioxidant defense system activity or elevated reactive oxygen species generation. Glutathione is a major intracellular thiol-disulfide redox buffer that serves as a cofactor for many antioxidant enzymes. Glutathione-related parameters are altered in hypertension, suggesting that there is an association between the glutathione-related redox system and hypertension. In this review, we provide mechanistic explanations for how glutathione maintains blood pressure. More specifically, we discuss glutathione's role in combating oxidative stress and maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via the formation of nitrosothiols and nitrosohemoglobin. Although impaired vasodilator responses are observed in S-nitrosothiol-deficient red blood cells, this potential hypertensive mechanism is currently overlooked in the literature. Here we fill in this gap by discussing the role of glutathione in nitric oxide metabolism and controlling blood pressure. We conclude that disturbances in glutathione metabolism might explain age-dependent increases in blood pressure. PMID:27511994

  10. Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 in Drug Metabolism and Interactions.

    PubMed

    Backman, Janne T; Filppula, Anne M; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2016-01-01

    During the last 10-15 years, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 has emerged as an important drug-metabolizing enzyme. CYP2C8 is highly expressed in human liver and is known to metabolize more than 100 drugs. CYP2C8 substrate drugs include amodiaquine, cerivastatin, dasabuvir, enzalutamide, imatinib, loperamide, montelukast, paclitaxel, pioglitazone, repaglinide, and rosiglitazone, and the number is increasing. Similarly, many drugs have been identified as CYP2C8 inhibitors or inducers. In vivo, already a small dose of gemfibrozil, i.e., 10% of its therapeutic dose, is a strong, irreversible inhibitor of CYP2C8. Interestingly, recent findings indicate that the acyl-β-glucuronides of gemfibrozil and clopidogrel cause metabolism-dependent inactivation of CYP2C8, leading to a strong potential for drug interactions. Also several other glucuronide metabolites interact with CYP2C8 as substrates or inhibitors, suggesting that an interplay between CYP2C8 and glucuronides is common. Lack of fully selective and safe probe substrates, inhibitors, and inducers challenges execution and interpretation of drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Apart from drug-drug interactions, some CYP2C8 genetic variants are associated with altered CYP2C8 activity and exhibit significant interethnic frequency differences. Herein, we review the current knowledge on substrates, inhibitors, inducers, and pharmacogenetics of CYP2C8, as well as its role in clinically relevant drug interactions. In addition, implications for selection of CYP2C8 marker and perpetrator drugs to investigate CYP2C8-mediated drug metabolism and interactions in preclinical and clinical studies are discussed. PMID:26721703

  11. Modulatory Role of Shorea robusta Bark on Glucose-metabolizing Enzymes in Diethylnitrosamine Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalaiselvan, A.; Anand, T.; Gokulakrishnan, K.; Kamaraj, M. C.; Velavan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The modulations of glucose-metabolizing enzyme activities play a vital rolein the depletion of energy metabolism and leads to inhibition of cancer growth. Objective: To find the effect of shorearobusta bark extract on glucose-metbolizing enzymes in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma rats. Materials and Methods: Biochemical evaluation of glucose metabolizing enzyme were done in before and after shorearobusta bark extract (500mg/kg) treatment in DEN induced rats. Results: A significant increasein the activities of the key glycolytic enzymes viz., hexokinase and phosphoglucoisomerase, with a significant decrease in the gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatasewere observed in HCC bearing rats, when compared with the control. Administration of shorearobusta extract caused a significant decrease in theactivities of glycolytic enzymes and an increase in the gluconeogenic enzymes activities to near normal values. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that the S. robusta extract has a definite modulating role on the key enzymes ofglucose-metabolism in HCC. The modulatory effect may be due to the phytoactive constituents present in the extract of S. robusta. SUMMARY Administration of shorea robusta bark extract caused a significant decrease in the activities of glycolytic enzymes and an increase in the gluconeogenic enzymes activities to near normal values. The S. robusta extract has modulatory activity on the carbohydrate metabolism in DEN-induced HCC bearing rats through a mechanism that which does not provoke any acute biochemical disturbances in the metabolic pathways of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The modulatory effect of S. robusta extract may be attributed to the presence of active compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids. Abbreviations used: HCC: Hepatocellular Carcinoma, SRBE: Shorearobusta bark extract; HEX: Hexokinase; PGI: Phosphoglucoisomerase; DEN: Diethylnitrosamine. PMID

  12. Metabolic activation of carcinogenic ethylbenzene leads to oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Kaoru; Uchida, Takafumi; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Toda, Chitose; Sakai, Yoshie; Ueda, Koji; Hiraku, Yusuke; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Kojima, Nakao

    2004-12-01

    Ethylbenzene is carcinogenic to rats and mice, while it has no mutagenic activity. We have investigated whether ethylbenzene undergoes metabolic activation, leading to DNA damage. Ethylbenzene was metabolized to 1-phenylethanol, acetophenone, 2-ethylphenol and 4-ethylphenol by rat liver microsomes. Furthermore, 2-ethylphenol and 4-ethylphenol were metabolically transformed to ring-dihydroxylated metabolites such as ethylhydroquinone and 4-ethylcatechol, respectively. Experiment with 32P-labeled DNA fragment revealed that both ethylhydroquinone and 4-ethylcatechol caused DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II). These dihydroxylated compounds also induced the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in calf thymus DNA in the presence of Cu(II). Catalase, methional and Cu(I)-specific chelator, bathocuproine, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited oxidative DNA damage, whereas free hydroxyl radical scavenger and superoxide dismutase did not. These results suggest that Cu(I) and H2O2 produced via oxidation of ethylhydroquinone and 4-ethylcatechol are involved in oxidative DNA damage. Addition of an endogenous reductant NADH dramatically enhanced 4-ethylcatechol-induced oxidative DNA damage, whereas ethylhydroquinone-induced DNA damage was slightly enhanced. Enhancing effect of NADH on oxidative DNA damage by 4-ethylcatechol may be explained by assuming that reactive species are generated from the redox cycle. In conclusion, these active dihydroxylated metabolites would be involved in the mechanism of carcinogenesis by ethylbenzene. PMID:15560893

  13. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies.

  14. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update.

    PubMed

    Wan, Cheng; Su, Hua; Zhang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27597884

  15. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27597884

  16. Carbohydrate-active enzymes exemplify entropic principles in metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kartal, Önder; Mahlow, Sebastian; Skupin, Alexander; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Glycans comprise ubiquitous and essential biopolymers, which usually occur as highly diverse mixtures. The myriad different structures are generated by a limited number of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), which are unusual in that they catalyze multiple reactions by being relatively unspecific with respect to substrate size. Existing experimental and theoretical descriptions of CAZyme-mediated reaction systems neither comprehensively explain observed action patterns nor suggest biological functions of polydisperse pools in metabolism. Here, we overcome these limitations with a novel theoretical description of this important class of biological systems in which the mixing entropy of polydisperse pools emerges as an important system variable. In vitro assays of three CAZymes essential for central carbon metabolism confirm the power of our approach to predict equilibrium distributions and non-equilibrium dynamics. A computational study of the turnover of the soluble heteroglycan pool exemplifies how entropy-driven reactions establish a metabolic buffer in vivo that attenuates fluctuations in carbohydrate availability. We argue that this interplay between energy- and entropy-driven processes represents an important regulatory design principle of metabolic systems. PMID:22027553

  17. Acylcarnitines: old actors auditioning for new roles in metabolic physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of challenges or perturbations in metabolic pathways lead to significant increases in plasma and tissue long-chain acylcarnitines (LCAC). The LCAC and other acylcarnitines rise, for instance, in the blood and muscle during exercise bouts, as tissue acyl-CoA pools change with accelerated met...

  18. The role of nest surface temperatures and the brain in influencing ant metabolic rates.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nigel R; Ghaedi, Behnaz; Groenewald, Berlizé

    2016-08-01

    Thermal limits of insects can be influenced by recent thermal history: here we used thermolimit respirometry to determine metabolic rate responses and thermal limits of the dominant meat ant, Iridomyrmex purpureus. Firstly, we tested the hypothesis that nest surface temperatures have a pervasive influence on thermal limits. Metabolic rates and activity of freshly field collected individuals were measured continuously while ramping temperatures from 44°C to 62°C at 0.25°C/minute. At all the stages of thermolimit respirometry, metabolic rates were independent of nest surface temperatures, and CTmax did not differ between ants collected from nest with different surface temperatures. Secondly, we tested the effect of brain control on upper thermal limits of meat ants via ant decapitation experiments ('headedness'). Decapitated ants exhibited similar upper critical temperature (CTmax) results to living ants (Decapitated 50.3±1.2°C: Living 50.1±1.8°C). Throughout the temperature ramping process, 'headedness' had a significant effect on metabolic rate in total (Decapitated V̇CO2 140±30µlCO2mg(-1)min(-1): Living V̇CO2 250±50 CO2mg(-1)min(-1)), as well as at temperatures below and above CTmax. At high temperatures (>44°C) pre- CTmax the relationships between I. purpureus CTmax values and mass specific metabolic rates for living ants exhibited a negative slope whilst decapitated ants exhibited a positive slope. The decapitated ants also had a significantly higher Q10:25-35°C when compared to living ants (1.91±0.43 vs. 1.29±0.35). Our findings suggest that physiological responses of ants may be able to cope with increasing surface temperatures, as shown by metabolic rates across the thermolimit continuum, making them physiologically resilient to a rapidly changing climate. We also demonstrate that the brain plays a role in respiration, but critical thermal limits are independent of respiration levels. PMID:27503725

  19. The role of nest surface temperatures and the brain in influencing ant metabolic rates.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nigel R; Ghaedi, Behnaz; Groenewald, Berlizé

    2016-08-01

    Thermal limits of insects can be influenced by recent thermal history: here we used thermolimit respirometry to determine metabolic rate responses and thermal limits of the dominant meat ant, Iridomyrmex purpureus. Firstly, we tested the hypothesis that nest surface temperatures have a pervasive influence on thermal limits. Metabolic rates and activity of freshly field collected individuals were measured continuously while ramping temperatures from 44°C to 62°C at 0.25°C/minute. At all the stages of thermolimit respirometry, metabolic rates were independent of nest surface temperatures, and CTmax did not differ between ants collected from nest with different surface temperatures. Secondly, we tested the effect of brain control on upper thermal limits of meat ants via ant decapitation experiments ('headedness'). Decapitated ants exhibited similar upper critical temperature (CTmax) results to living ants (Decapitated 50.3±1.2°C: Living 50.1±1.8°C). Throughout the temperature ramping process, 'headedness' had a significant effect on metabolic rate in total (Decapitated V̇CO2 140±30µlCO2mg(-1)min(-1): Living V̇CO2 250±50 CO2mg(-1)min(-1)), as well as at temperatures below and above CTmax. At high temperatures (>44°C) pre- CTmax the relationships between I. purpureus CTmax values and mass specific metabolic rates for living ants exhibited a negative slope whilst decapitated ants exhibited a positive slope. The decapitated ants also had a significantly higher Q10:25-35°C when compared to living ants (1.91±0.43 vs. 1.29±0.35). Our findings suggest that physiological responses of ants may be able to cope with increasing surface temperatures, as shown by metabolic rates across the thermolimit continuum, making them physiologically resilient to a rapidly changing climate. We also demonstrate that the brain plays a role in respiration, but critical thermal limits are independent of respiration levels.

  20. Metabolically activated steviol, the aglycone of stevioside, is mutagenic.

    PubMed Central

    Pezzuto, J M; Compadre, C M; Swanson, S M; Nanayakkara, D; Kinghorn, A D

    1985-01-01

    Stevioside, a constituent of Stevia rebaudiana, is commonly used as a noncaloric sugar substitute in Japan. Consistent with reports in the literature, we have found that stevioside is not mutagenic as judged by utilization of Salmonella typhimurium strain TM677, either in the presence or in the absence of a metabolic activating system. Similar negative results were obtained with several structurally related sweet-tasting glycosides. However, steviol, the aglycone of stevioside, was found to be highly mutagenic when evaluated in the presence of a 9000 X g supernatant fraction derived from the livers of Aroclor 1254-pretreated rats. Expression of mutagenic activity was dependent on both pretreatment of the rats with Aroclor 1254 and addition of NADPH; unmetabolized steviol was not active. The structurally related species, isosteviol, was not active regardless of metabolic activation. Similarly, chemical reduction of the unsaturated bond linking the carbon-16 and -17 positions of steviol resulted in the generation of two isomeric products, dihydrosteviol A and B, that were not mutagenic. In addition, ent-kaurenoic acid was found to be inactive. It is therefore clear that a metabolite of an integral component of stevioside is mutagenic; structural features of requisite importance for the expression of mutagenic activity include a hydroxy group at position 13 and an unsaturated bond joining the carbon atoms at positions 16 and 17. A potential metabolite of steviol, steviol-16 alpha,17-epoxide, was synthesized chemically and found to be ineffective as a direct-acting mutagen. Thus, although stevioside itself appears innocuous, it would seem prudent to expeditiously and unequivocally establish the human metabolic disposition of this substance. PMID:3887402

  1. What is the role of metabolic hormones in taste buds of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huan; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Gustation is one of the important chemical senses that guides the organism to identify nutrition while avoiding toxic chemicals. An increasing number of metabolic hormones and/or hormone receptors have been identified in the taste buds of the tongue and are involved in modulating taste perception. The gustatory system constitutes an additional endocrine regulatory locus that affects food intake, and in turn whole-body energy homeostasis. Here we provide an overview of the main metabolic hormones known to be present in the taste buds of the tongue; discuss their potential functional roles in taste perception and energy homeostasis and how their functional integrity is altered in the metabolic imbalance status (obesity and diabetes) and aging process. Better understanding of the functional roles of metabolic hormones in flavor perception as well as the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolism may be vital for developing strategies to promote healthier eating and prevent obesity or lifestyle-related disorders.

  2. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

    PubMed

    Goudey, J S; Tittle, F L; Spencer, M S

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to beta-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form beta-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  3. A Role for Ethylene in the Metabolism of Cyanide by Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Goudey, J. Stephen; Tittle, Forrest L.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to β-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form β-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants. PMID:16666701

  4. Fungal Community Associated with Dactylopius (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae) and Its Role in Uric Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    We studied fungal species associated with the carmine cochineal Dactylopius coccus and other non-domesticated Dactylopius species using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Thirty seven fungi were isolated in various culture media from insect males and females from different developmental stages and Dactylopius species. 26S rRNA genes and ITS sequences, from cultured fungal isolates revealed different species of Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Debaryomyces, Trametes, and Penicillium, which are genera newly associated with Dactylopius. Uric acid (UA) and uricase activity were detected in tissues extracts from different insect developmental stages. However, accumulation of high UA levels and low uricase activities were found only after antifungal treatments, suggesting an important role of fungal species in its metabolism. Additionally, uricolytic fungal isolates were identified and characterized that presumably are involved in nitrogen recycling metabolism. After metagenomic analyses from D. coccus gut and hemolymph DNA and from two published data sets, we confirmed the presence of fungal genes involved in UA catabolism, suggesting that fungi help in the nitrogen recycling process in Dactylopius by uricolysis. All these results show the importance of fungal communities in scale insects such as Dactylopius. PMID:27446001

  5. Fungal Community Associated with Dactylopius (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae) and Its Role in Uric Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    We studied fungal species associated with the carmine cochineal Dactylopius coccus and other non-domesticated Dactylopius species using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Thirty seven fungi were isolated in various culture media from insect males and females from different developmental stages and Dactylopius species. 26S rRNA genes and ITS sequences, from cultured fungal isolates revealed different species of Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Debaryomyces, Trametes, and Penicillium, which are genera newly associated with Dactylopius. Uric acid (UA) and uricase activity were detected in tissues extracts from different insect developmental stages. However, accumulation of high UA levels and low uricase activities were found only after antifungal treatments, suggesting an important role of fungal species in its metabolism. Additionally, uricolytic fungal isolates were identified and characterized that presumably are involved in nitrogen recycling metabolism. After metagenomic analyses from D. coccus gut and hemolymph DNA and from two published data sets, we confirmed the presence of fungal genes involved in UA catabolism, suggesting that fungi help in the nitrogen recycling process in Dactylopius by uricolysis. All these results show the importance of fungal communities in scale insects such as Dactylopius. PMID:27446001

  6. Fungal Community Associated with Dactylopius (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae) and Its Role in Uric Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    We studied fungal species associated with the carmine cochineal Dactylopius coccus and other non-domesticated Dactylopius species using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Thirty seven fungi were isolated in various culture media from insect males and females from different developmental stages and Dactylopius species. 26S rRNA genes and ITS sequences, from cultured fungal isolates revealed different species of Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Debaryomyces, Trametes, and Penicillium, which are genera newly associated with Dactylopius. Uric acid (UA) and uricase activity were detected in tissues extracts from different insect developmental stages. However, accumulation of high UA levels and low uricase activities were found only after antifungal treatments, suggesting an important role of fungal species in its metabolism. Additionally, uricolytic fungal isolates were identified and characterized that presumably are involved in nitrogen recycling metabolism. After metagenomic analyses from D. coccus gut and hemolymph DNA and from two published data sets, we confirmed the presence of fungal genes involved in UA catabolism, suggesting that fungi help in the nitrogen recycling process in Dactylopius by uricolysis. All these results show the importance of fungal communities in scale insects such as Dactylopius.

  7. Role of forkhead box protein A3 in age-associated metabolic decline

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xinran; Xu, Lingyan; Gavrilova, Oksana; Mueller, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity and diminished thermogenesis, but the critical transcription factors influencing these metabolic changes late in life are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that the winged helix factor forkhead box protein A3 (Foxa3) regulates the expansion of visceral adipose tissue in high-fat diet regimens; however, whether Foxa3 also contributes to the increase in adiposity and the decrease in brown fat activity observed during the normal aging process is currently unknown. Here we report that during aging, levels of Foxa3 are significantly and selectively up-regulated in brown and inguinal white fat depots, and that midage Foxa3-null mice have increased white fat browning and thermogenic capacity, decreased adipose tissue expansion, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased longevity. Foxa3 gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in inguinal adipose depots demonstrated a cell-autonomous function for Foxa3 in white fat tissue browning. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that the mechanisms of Foxa3 modulation of brown fat gene programs involve the suppression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivtor 1 α (PGC1α) levels through interference with cAMP responsive element binding protein 1-mediated transcriptional regulation of the PGC1α promoter. Overall, our data demonstrate a role for Foxa3 in energy expenditure and in age-associated metabolic disorders. PMID:25225406

  8. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. )

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  9. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Metabolically Healthy versus Unhealthy Obese and Non-Obese Individuals – The Maastricht Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Berg, Julianne D.; van der Kallen, Carla J. H.; Schram, Miranda T.; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Henry, Ronald M. A.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Koster, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Background Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Although both frequently occur together in the same individual, obesity and the metabolic syndrome can also develop independently from each other. The (patho)physiology of “metabolically healthy obese” (i.e. obese without metabolic syndrome) and “metabolically unhealthy non-obese” phenotypes (i.e. non-obese with metabolic syndrome) is not fully understood, but physical activity and sedentary behavior may play a role. Objective To examine objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior across four groups: I) “metabolically healthy obese” (MHO); II) “metabolically unhealthy obese” (MUO); III)”metabolically healthy non-obese” (MHNO); and IV) “metabolically unhealthy non-obese” (MUNO). Methods Data were available from 2,449 men and women aged 40–75 years who participated in The Maastricht Study from 2010 to 2013. Participants were classified into the four groups according to obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2) and metabolic syndrome (ATPIII definition). Daily activity was measured for 7 days with the activPAL physical activity monitor and classified as time spent sitting, standing, and stepping. Results In our study population, 562 individuals were obese. 19.4% of the obese individuals and 72.7% of the non-obese individuals was metabolically healthy. After adjustments for age, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, waking time, T2DM, history of CVD and mobility limitation, MHO (n = 107) spent, per day, more time stepping (118.2 versus 105.2 min; p<0.01) and less time sedentary (563.5 versus 593.0 min., p = 0.02) than MUO (n = 440). In parallel, MHNO (n = 1384) spent more time stepping (125.0 versus 115.4 min; p<0.01) and less time sedentary (553.3 versus 576.6 min., p<0.01) than MUNO (n = 518). Conclusion Overall, the metabolically healthy groups were less sedentary and more physically active than the

  10. Contrasting metabolic patterns among seagrass and sand-bottom habitats: relative roles of plankton and benthic metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities can alter the ecological function of estuaries, affecting the ecosystem metabolic balance, which in turn dictates the magnitude and mode of organic matter accumulation. Because human perturbations can cause a loss of seagrass habitat, seagrasses can be a sensitiv...

  11. Emerging role of microRNAs in lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhihong; Cappello, Tyler; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of their target genes in a sequence-specific manner. Emerging evidence demonstrates that miRNAs are critical regulators of lipid synthesis, fatty acid oxidation and lipoprotein formation and secretion. Dysregulation of miRNAs disrupts gene regulatory network, leading to metabolic syndrome and its related diseases. In this review, we introduced epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of miRNAs expression. We emphasized on several representative miRNAs that are functionally involved into lipid metabolism, including miR-33/33⁎, miR122, miR27a/b, miR378/378⁎, miR-34a and miR-21. Understanding the function of miRNAs in lipid homeostasis may provide potential therapeutic strategies for fatty liver disease. PMID:26579440

  12. The roles of peripheral serotonin in metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    El-Merahbi, Rabih; Löffler, Mona; Mayer, Alexander; Sumara, Grzegorz

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic homeostasis in the organism is assured both by the nervous system and by hormones. Among a plethora of hormones regulating metabolism, serotonin presents a number of unique features. Unlike classical hormones serotonin is produced in different anatomical locations. In brain it acts as a neurotransmitter and in the periphery it can act as a hormone, auto- and/or paracrine factor, or intracellular signaling molecule. Serotonin does not cross the blood-brain barrier; therefore the two major pools of this bioamine remain separated. Although 95% of serotonin is produced in the periphery, its functions have been ignored until recently. Here we review the impact of the peripheral serotonin on the regulation of function of the organs involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis.

  13. Metabolic maintenance of cell asymmetry following division in activated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Verbist, Katherine C; Guy, Cliff S; Milasta, Sandra; Liedmann, Swantje; Kamiński, Marcin M; Wang, Ruoning; Green, Douglas R

    2016-04-21

    Asymmetric cell division, the partitioning of cellular components in response to polarizing cues during mitosis, has roles in differentiation and development. It is important for the self-renewal of fertilized zygotes in Caenorhabditis elegans and neuroblasts in Drosophila, and in the development of mammalian nervous and digestive systems. T lymphocytes, upon activation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), can undergo asymmetric cell division, wherein the daughter cell proximal to the APC is more likely to differentiate into an effector-like T cell and the distal daughter is more likely to differentiate into a memory-like T cell. Upon activation and before cell division, expression of the transcription factor c-Myc drives metabolic reprogramming, necessary for the subsequent proliferative burst. Here we find that during the first division of an activated T cell in mice, c-Myc can sort asymmetrically. Asymmetric distribution of amino acid transporters, amino acid content, and activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is correlated with c-Myc expression, and both amino acids and mTORC1 activity sustain the differences in c-Myc expression in one daughter cell compared to the other. Asymmetric c-Myc levels in daughter T cells affect proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation, and these effects are altered by experimental manipulation of mTORC1 activity or c-Myc expression. Therefore, metabolic signalling pathways cooperate with transcription programs to maintain differential cell fates following asymmetric T-cell division.

  14. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James W A; Richmond, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) < 2 mg/L) occurring underneath algal mats at night, and concurrent bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health. PMID:27114888

  15. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) < 2 mg/L) occurring underneath algal mats at night, and concurrent bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health. PMID:27114888

  16. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James W A; Richmond, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) < 2 mg/L) occurring underneath algal mats at night, and concurrent bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health.

  17. Influence of metabolism on endocrine activities of bisphenol S.

    PubMed

    Skledar, Darja Gramec; Schmidt, Jan; Fic, Anja; Klopčič, Ivana; Trontelj, Jurij; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Finel, Moshe; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS; bis[4-hydroxyphenyl]sulfone) is commonly used as a replacement for bisphenol A in numerous consumer products. The main goal of this study was to examine the influence of different metabolic reactions that BPS undergoes on the endocrine activity. We demonstrate that hydroxylation of the aromatic ring of BPS, catalyzed mainly by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, is its major in-vitro phase I biotransformation. Nevertheless, coupled oxidative-conjugative reactions analyses revealed that glucuronidation and formation of BPS glucuronide is the predominant BPS metabolic pathway. BPS reactive metabolites that can be tracked as glutathione conjugates were not detected in the present study. Two in-vitro systems were used to evaluate the endocrine activity of BPS and its two main metabolites, BPS glucuronide and hydroxylated BPS 4-(4-hydroxy-benzenesulfonyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (BPSM1). In addition, we have tested two structural analogs of BPS, bis[4-(2-hydroxyetoxy)phenyl]sulfone (BHEPS) and 4,4-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol) (dBPS). The test systems were yeast cells, for evaluating estrogenic and androgenic activities, and the GH3.TRE-Luc reporter cell line for measuring thyroid hormone activity. BPS and BPSM1 were weak agonists of the estrogen receptor, EC50 values of 8.4 × 10(-5) M and 6.7 × 10(-4) M, respectively. Additionally, BPSM1 exhibited weak antagonistic activity toward the thyroid hormone receptor, with an IC50 of 4.3 × 10(-5) M. In contrast to BPSM1, BPS glucuronide was inactive in these assays, inhibiting neither the estrogen nor the thyroid hormone receptors. Hence, glucuronidation appears to be the most important pathway for both BPS metabolism and detoxification.

  18. The potential role of antioxidants in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Bianca Martins; De Souza, Diogo Benchimol; de Morais Nascimento, Fernanda Amorim; Pereira, Leonardo Matta; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of risk factors that raise the risk for heart disease and other health problems, such as obesity. The clustering of metabolic abnormality is closely related to oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as the progression of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants are reducing agents which inhibit the oxidation of other molecules and can be used not only to prevent but also to treat health complications of MS and atherosclerosis. They can be ingested in the normal diet, since they are found in many food sources, or in supplement formulations. Herein, we aim to review the literature concerning the effect of antioxidants on MS. We focus on antioxidants with some evidence of action on this condition, like flavonoids, arginine, vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, resveratrol and selenium. Experimental and clinical studies show that most of the above-mentioned antioxidants exhibit a wide range of effects in protecting the human body, especially in MS patients. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated for most of these compounds. Also, some of them should be used with caution because their excess can be toxic to the body. In general, antioxidants (especially those present in foods) can be used by MS individuals because of their direct effect on oxidative stress. Additionally, they should be encouraged as part of a nutritional lifestyle change, since this is part of the therapy for all diseases involved in metabolic disorders.

  19. Enzyme Recruitment and Its Role in Metabolic Expansion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although more than 109 years have passed since the existence of the last universal common ancestor, proteins have yet to reach the limits of divergence. As a result, metabolic complexity is ever expanding. Identifying and understanding the mechanisms that drive and limit the divergence of protein sequence space impact not only evolutionary biologists investigating molecular evolution but also synthetic biologists seeking to design useful catalysts and engineer novel metabolic pathways. Investigations over the past 50 years indicate that the recruitment of enzymes for new functions is a key event in the acquisition of new metabolic capacity. In this review, we outline the genetic mechanisms that enable recruitment and summarize the present state of knowledge regarding the functional characteristics of extant catalysts that facilitate recruitment. We also highlight recent examples of enzyme recruitment, both from the historical record provided by phylogenetics and from enzyme evolution experiments. We conclude with a look to the future, which promises fruitful consequences from the convergence of molecular evolutionary theory, laboratory-directed evolution, and synthetic biology. PMID:24483367

  20. Novel role of zinc in the regulation of prostate citrate metabolism and its implications in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Costello, L C; Franklin, R B

    1998-06-01

    The prostate gland of humans and many other animals has the major function of accumulating and secreting extraordinarily high levels of citrate. This specialized metabolic process of "net citrate production" is the result of unique metabolic capabilities of the secretory epithelial cells. Most importantly, in prostate cancer (Pca) the capability for net citrate production is lost. In addition to citrate, the normal and BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) prostate also accumulates the highest levels of zinc in the body. As with citrate, in Pca the ability for high zinc accumulation is diminished. These and other correlations between zinc and citrate in the prostate have been indicative of an important role of zinc in the regulation of citrate metabolism in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The link between zinc and citrate metabolism has now been established. The intramitochondrial accumulation of high zinc levels inhibits mitochondrial (m-) aconitase activity, which inhibits citrate oxidation. This essentially truncates the Krebs cycle and markedly decreases the cellular energy (ATP) production normally coupled to citrate oxidation. It is also clear that zinc accumulation in citrate-producing prostate epithelial cells is regulated by testosterone and by prolactin. These relationships form the basis for a new concept of the role of zinc and citrate-related energy metabolism in prostate malignancy. The inability of malignant prostate cells to accumulate high zinc levels results in increased citrate oxidation and the coupled ATP production essential for the progression of malignancy. The concept offers new approaches to the treatment of Pca. PMID:9609552

  1. Metabolic, anabolic, and mitogenic insulin responses: A tissue-specific perspective for insulin receptor activators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin acts as the major regulator of the fasting-to-fed metabolic transition by altering substrate metabolism, promoting energy storage, and helping activate protein synthesis. In addition to its glucoregulatory and other metabolic properties, insulin can also act as a growth factor. The metabolic...

  2. Role of UBIAD1 in Intracellular Cholesterol Metabolism and Vascular Cell Calcification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Guo, Wang; Han, Xue; Dai, Wendi; Diao, Zongli; Liu, Wenhu

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an important risk factor associated with mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease. Intracellular cholesterol metabolism is involved in the process of vascular cell calcification. In this study, we investigated the role of UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1) in intracellular cholesterol metabolism and vascular cell calcification, and identified its subcellular location. Primary human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) were incubated with either growth medium (1.4 mmol/L Pi) or calcification medium (CM) (3.0 mmol/L Pi). Under treatment with CM, HUVSMCs were further incubated with exogenous cholesterol, or menaquinone-4, a product of UBIAD1. The plasmid and small interfering RNA were transfected in HUVSMCs to alter the expression of UBIAD1. Matrix calcium quantitation, alkaline phosphatase activity, intracellular cholesterol level and menaquinone-4 level were measured. The expression of several genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Using an anti-UBIAD1 antibody, an endoplasmic reticulum marker and a Golgi marker, the subcellular location of UBIAD1 in HUVSMCs was analyzed. CM increased matrix calcium, alkaline phosphatase activity and intracellular cholesterol level, and reduced UBIAD1 expression and menaquinone-4 level. Addition of cholesterol contributed to increased matrix calcification and alkaline phosphatase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Elevated expression of UBIAD1 or menaquinone-4 in HUVSMCs treated with CM significantly reduced intracellular cholesterol level, matrix calcification and alkaline phosphatase activity, but increased menaquinone-4 level. Elevated expression of UBIAD1 or menaquinone-4 reduced the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, and increased gene expression of ATP binding cassette transporters A1, which are in charge of cholesterol synthesis and efflux. UBIAD1 co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum marker and the Golgi

  3. Metabolic activities of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from kefir.

    PubMed

    Yüksekdag, Zehra Nur; Beyath, Yavuz; Aslim, Belma

    2004-06-01

    A total of 21 strains of Lactobacillus species were isolated from Turkish kefir samples, in order to select the most suitable strains according to their metabolic activities including probiotic properties. As a result of the identification tests, 21 Lactobacillus isolates were identified as L. acidophilus (4%), L. helveticus (9%), L. brevis (9%), L. bulgaricus (14%), L. plantarum (14%), L. casei (19%) and L. lactis (28%). The amount of produced lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, proteolytic activity, and acetaldehyde productions of Lactobacillus spp. were determined. Different amounts of lactic acid were produced by strains studies; however, lactic acid levels were 1.7-11.4 mg/mL. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide. L. bulgaricus Z14L strain showed no proteolytic activity, L. casei Z6L strain produced the maximum amount (0.16 mg/mL) of proteolytic activity. Acetaldehyde concentration produced in Lactobacillus strains ranged between 0.88-3.52 microg/mL.

  4. Dynamic exometabolome analysis reveals active metabolic pathways in non-replicating mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael; Kuehne, Andreas; Boshoff, Helena I; Barry, Clifton E; Zamboni, Nicola; Sauer, Uwe

    2015-11-01

    An organism's metabolic activity leaves an extracellular footprint and dynamic changes in this exometabolome inform about nutrient uptake, waste disposal and signalling activities. Using non-targeted mass spectrometry, we report exometabolome dynamics of hypoxia-induced, non-replicating mycobacteria that are thought to play a role in latent tuberculosis. Despite evidence of active metabolism, little is known about the mechanisms enabling obligate aerobic mycobacteria to cope with hypoxia, resulting in long-term survival and increased chemotherapeutic tolerance. The dynamics of 379 extracellular compounds of Mycobacterium smegmatis were deconvoluted with a genome-scale metabolic reaction-pair network to generate hypotheses about intracellular pathway usage. Time-resolved (13) C-tracing and mutant experiments then demonstrated a crucial, energy-generating role of asparagine utilization and non-generic usage of the glyoxylate shunt for hypoxic fitness. Experiments with M. bovis and M. tuberculosis revealed the general relevance of asparagine fermentation and a variable contribution of the glyoxylate shunt to non-replicative, hypoxic survival between the three species.

  5. Unraveling the actions of AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic diseases: Systemic to molecular insights.

    PubMed

    Weikel, Karen A; Ruderman, Neil B; Cacicedo, José M

    2016-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role both in sensing and regulating cellular energy state. In experimental animals, its activation has been shown to reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes-related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, in humans, AMPK activation alone often does not completely resolve these conditions. Thus, an improved understanding of AMPK action and regulation in metabolic and other diseases is needed. Herein, we provide a brief description of the enzymatic regulation of AMPK and review its role in maintaining energy homeostasis. We then discuss tissue-specific actions of AMPK that become distorted during such conditions as obesity, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Finally, we explore recent findings regarding the interactions of AMPK with mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and the lysosome and discuss how changes in these relationships during overnutrition may lead to AMPK dysfunction. A more thorough understanding of AMPK's molecular interactions during diseases of overnutrition may provide key insights for the development of AMPK-based combinatorial treatments for metabolic disease. PMID:27085772

  6. Moonlighting transcriptional activation function of a fungal sulfur metabolism enzyme.

    PubMed

    Levati, Elisabetta; Sartini, Sara; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Montanini, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Moonlighting proteins, including metabolic enzymes acting as transcription factors (TF), are present in a variety of organisms but have not been described in higher fungi so far. In a previous genome-wide analysis of the TF repertoire of the plant-symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum, we identified various enzymes, including the sulfur-assimilation enzyme phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPS-red), as potential transcriptional activators. A functional analysis performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, now demonstrates that a specific variant of this enzyme, PAPS-red A, localizes to the nucleus and is capable of transcriptional activation. TF moonlighting, which is not present in the other enzyme variant (PAPS-red B) encoded by the T. melanosporum genome, relies on a transplantable C-terminal polypeptide containing an alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino acid motif. A similar moonlighting activity was demonstrated for six additional proteins, suggesting that multitasking is a relatively frequent event. PAPS-red A is sulfur-state-responsive and highly expressed, especially in fruitbodies, and likely acts as a recruiter of transcription components involved in S-metabolism gene network activation. PAPS-red B, instead, is expressed at low levels and localizes to a highly methylated and silenced region of the genome, hinting at an evolutionary mechanism based on gene duplication, followed by epigenetic silencing of this non-moonlighting gene variant. PMID:27121330

  7. Moonlighting transcriptional activation function of a fungal sulfur metabolism enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Levati, Elisabetta; Sartini, Sara; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Montanini, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Moonlighting proteins, including metabolic enzymes acting as transcription factors (TF), are present in a variety of organisms but have not been described in higher fungi so far. In a previous genome-wide analysis of the TF repertoire of the plant-symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum, we identified various enzymes, including the sulfur-assimilation enzyme phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPS-red), as potential transcriptional activators. A functional analysis performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, now demonstrates that a specific variant of this enzyme, PAPS-red A, localizes to the nucleus and is capable of transcriptional activation. TF moonlighting, which is not present in the other enzyme variant (PAPS-red B) encoded by the T. melanosporum genome, relies on a transplantable C-terminal polypeptide containing an alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino acid motif. A similar moonlighting activity was demonstrated for six additional proteins, suggesting that multitasking is a relatively frequent event. PAPS-red A is sulfur-state-responsive and highly expressed, especially in fruitbodies, and likely acts as a recruiter of transcription components involved in S-metabolism gene network activation. PAPS-red B, instead, is expressed at low levels and localizes to a highly methylated and silenced region of the genome, hinting at an evolutionary mechanism based on gene duplication, followed by epigenetic silencing of this non-moonlighting gene variant. PMID:27121330

  8. C1 metabolism plays an important role during formaldehyde metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Lijuan; Sun, Huiqun; Han, Shuang; Wang, Xinjia; Zhou, Shengen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-10-01

    Petunia hybrida is a model ornamental plant grown worldwide. To understand the HCHO-uptake efficiency and metabolic mechanism of petunia, the aseptic petunia plants were treated in HCHO solutions. An analysis of HCHO-uptake showed that petunia plants effectively removed HCHO from 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions. The (13)C NMR analyses indicated that H(13)CHO was primarily used to synthesize [5-(13)C]methionine (Met) via C1 metabolism in petunia plants treated with 2 mM H(13)CHO. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A (CSA) or l-carnitine (LC), the inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, did not affect the synthesis of [5-(13)C]Met in petunia plants under 2 mM H(13)CHO stress, indicating that the Met-generated pathway may function in the cytoplasm. Under 4 or 6 mM liquid H(13)CHO stress, H(13)CHO metabolism in petunia plants produced considerable amount of H(13)COOH and [2-(13)C]glycine (Gly) through C1 metabolism and a small amount of [U-(13)C]Gluc via the Calvin Cycle. Pretreatment with CSA or LC significantly inhibited the production of [2-(13)C]Gly in 6 mM H(13)CHO-treated petunia plants, which suggests that chloroplasts and peroxisomes might be involved in the generation of [2-(13)C]Gly. These results revealed that the C1 metabolism played an important role, whereas the Calvin Cycle had only a small contribution during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress.

  9. Features of an altered AMPK metabolic pathway in Gilbert's Syndrome, and its role in metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Mölzer, Christine; Wallner, Marlies; Kern, Carina; Tosevska, Anela; Schwarz, Ursula; Zadnikar, Rene; Doberer, Daniel; Marculescu, Rodrig; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Energy metabolism, involving the ATP-dependent AMPK-PgC-Ppar pathway impacts metabolic health immensely, in that its impairment can lead to obesity, giving rise to disease. Based on observations that individuals with Gilbert's syndrome (GS; UGT1A1(*)28 promoter mutation) are generally lighter, leaner and healthier than controls, specific inter-group differences in the AMPK pathway regulation were explored. Therefore, a case-control study involving 120 fasted, healthy, age- and gender matched subjects with/without GS, was conducted. By utilising intra-cellular flow cytometry (next to assessing AMPKα1 gene expression), levels of functioning proteins (phospho-AMPK α1/α2, PgC 1 α, Ppar α and γ) were measured in PBMCs (peripheral blood mononucleated cells). In GS individuals, rates of phospho-AMPK α1/α2, -Ppar α/γ and of PgC 1α were significantly higher, attesting to a boosted fasting response in this condition. In line with this finding, AMPKα1 gene expression was equal between the groups, possibly stressing the post-translational importance of boosted fasting effects in GS. In reflection of an apparently improved health status, GS individuals had significantly lower BMI, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and triglyceride levels. Herewith, we propose a new theory to explain why individuals having GS are leaner and healthier, and are therefore less likely to contract metabolic diseases or die prematurely thereof. PMID:27444220

  10. The role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongxiang; Wang, Shaoxin; Xu, Fangfang; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Thioredoxin h can regulate the redox environment in the cell and play an important role in the germination of cereals. In the present study, the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat with down-regulation of thioredoxin h was used to study the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during germination of wheat seeds, and to explore the mechanism of the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of protein disulfide isomerase in the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat was up-regulated, which induced easily forming glutenin macropolymers and the resistance of storage proteins to degradation. The expression of serine protease inhibitor was also up-regulated in transgenic wheat, which might be responsible for the decreased activity of thiocalsin during the germination. The expression of WRKY6 in transgenic wheat was down-regulated, which was consistent with the decreased activity of glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase. In transgenic wheat, the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were down-regulated, indicating that the metabolism of amino acid was lower than that in wild-type wheat during seed germination. A putative model for the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat seed germination was proposed and discussed.

  11. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N

    2014-08-12

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)-dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level.

  12. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tompuri, Tuomo T

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET) are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor.

  13. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Tompuri, Tuomo T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET) are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor. PMID:26321958

  14. [Detection of viable metabolically active yeast cells using a colorimetric assay].

    PubMed

    Růzicka, F; Holá, V

    2008-02-01

    The increasing concern of yeasts able to form biofilm brings about the need for susceptibility testing of both planktonic and biofilm cells. Detection of viability or metabolic activity of yeast cells after exposure to antimicrobials plays a key role in the assessment of susceptibility testing results. Colorimetric assays based on the color change of the medium in the presence of metabolically active cells proved suitable for this purpose. In this study, the usability of a colorimetric assay with the resazurin redox indicator for monitoring the effect of yeast inoculum density on the reduction rate was tested. As correlation between the color change rate and inoculum density was observed, approximate quantification of viable cells was possible. The assay would be of relevance to antifungal susceptibility testing in both planktonic and biofilm yeasts.

  15. Enzymes of yeast polyphosphate metabolism: structure, enzymology and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Gerasimaitė, Rūta; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is found in all living organisms. The known polyP functions in eukaryotes range from osmoregulation and virulence in parasitic protozoa to modulating blood coagulation, inflammation, bone mineralization and cellular signalling in mammals. However mechanisms of regulation and even the identity of involved proteins in many cases remain obscure. Most of the insights obtained so far stem from studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we provide a short overview of the properties and functions of known yeast polyP metabolism enzymes and discuss future directions for polyP research.

  16. The role of depressed metabolism in increased radio-resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results of experiments on hamsters and rats to determine physiological responses to various temperature conditions are presented. The experimental methods described are considered to be applicable to future mammalian experiments in space. Renal function was examined in the golden hamster as a function of body temperature. Hamsters were also acclimated to heat and metabolic rates, body temperature, skin temperature, cardiac distribution and whole body hematocrits were measured. In addition, the effects of heat stress on the intestinal transport of sugars in the hamster and rat were studied. The biological effects of prolonged space flight and methods of simulating weightlessness are also discussed.

  17. Regulation of glucose metabolism by p53: emerging new roles for the tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Madan, Esha; Gogna, Rajan; Bhatt, Madan; Pati, Uttam; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2011-12-01

    p53 is well known as the "guardian of the genome" for differentiated and neoplastic cells. p53 induces cell-cycle arrest and cell death after DNA damage and thus contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability. In addition to this tumor suppressor function for pro-oncogenic cells, p53 also plays an important role as the central regulator of stress response by maintaining cellular homeostasis at the molecular and biochemical level. p53 regulates aerobic respiration at the glycolytic and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) steps via transcriptional regulation of its downstream genes TP53-induced glycolysis regulator (TIGAR) and synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase (SCO2). p53 negatively regulates glycolysis through activation of TIGAR (an inhibitor of the fructose-2,6-bisphosphate). On the contrary p53 positively regulates OXPHOS through upregulation of SCO2, a member of the COX-2 assembly involved in the electron-transport chain. It is interesting to notice that p53 antagonistically regulates the inter-dependent glycolytic and OXPHOS cycles. It is important to understand whether the p53-mediated transcriptional regulation of TIGAR and SCO2 is temporally segregated in cancer cells and what is the relation between these paradoxical regulations of glycolytic pathway with the tumor suppressor activity of p53. In this review we will elucidate the importance of p53-mediated regulation of glycolysis and OXPHOS and its relation with the tumor suppressor function of p53. Further since cellular metabolism shares great relation with the process of aging we will also try and establish the role of p53 in regulation of aging via its transcriptional control of cellular metabolism.

  18. Roles of UGT, P450, and Gut Microbiota in the Metabolism of Epacadostat in Humans.

    PubMed

    Boer, Jason; Young-Sciame, Ruth; Lee, Fiona; Bowman, Kevin J; Yang, Xiaoqing; Shi, Jack G; Nedza, Frank M; Frietze, William; Galya, Laurine; Combs, Andrew P; Yeleswaram, Swamy; Diamond, Sharon

    2016-10-01

    Epacadostat (EPA, INCB024360) is a first-in-class, orally active, investigational drug targeting the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). In Phase I studies, EPA has demonstrated promising clinical activity when used in combination with checkpoint modulators. When the metabolism of EPA was investigated in humans, three major, IDO1-inactive, circulating plasma metabolites were detected and characterized: M9, a direct O-glucuronide of EPA; M11, an amidine; and M12, N-dealkylated M11. Glucuronidation of EPA to form M9 is the dominant metabolic pathway, and in vitro, this metabolite is formed by UGT1A9. However, negligible quantities of M11 and M12 were detected when EPA was incubated with a panel of human microsomes from multiple tissues, hepatocytes, recombinant human cytochrome P450s (P450s), and non-P450 enzymatic systems. Given the reductive nature of M11 formation and the inability to define its source, the role of gut microbiota was investigated. Analysis of plasma from mice dosed with EPA following pretreatment with either antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) to inhibit gut bacteria or 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) to systemically inhibit P450s demonstrated that gut microbiota is responsible for the formation of M11. Incubations of EPA in human feces confirmed the role of gut bacteria in the formation of M11. Further, incubations of M11 with recombinant P450s showed that M12 is formed via N-dealkylation of M11 by CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2. Thus, in humans three major plasma metabolites of EPA were characterized: two primary metabolites, M9 and M11, formed directly from EPA via UGT1A9 and gut microbiota, respectively, and M12 formed as a secondary metabolite via P450s from M11.

  19. Metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in recombinant HepG2 cells: Role of nonoxidative metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Hai; Cai Ping; Clemens, Dahn L.; Jerrells, Thomas R.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S. . E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu

    2006-10-15

    Chronic alcohol abuse, a major health problem, causes liver and pancreatic diseases and is known to impair hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Hepatic ADH-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol is a major pathway for the ethanol disposition in the body. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), induced in chronic alcohol abuse, is also reported to oxidize ethanol. However, impaired hepatic ADH activity in a rat model is known to facilitate a nonoxidative metabolism resulting in formation of nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol such as fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via a nonoxidative pathway catalyzed by FAEE synthase. Therefore, the metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 cells and recombinant HepG2 cells transfected with ADH (VA-13), CYP2E1 (E47) or ADH + CYP2E1 (VL-17A). Western blot analysis shows ADH deficiency in HepG2 and E47 cells, compared to ADH-overexpressed VA-13 and VL-17A cells. Attached HepG2 cells and the recombinant cells were incubated with ethanol, and nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol was determined by measuring the formation of FAEEs. Significantly higher levels of FAEEs were synthesized in HepG2 and E47 cells than in VA-13 and VL-17A cells at all concentrations of ethanol (100-800 mg%) incubated for 6 h (optimal time for the synthesis of FAEEs) in cell culture. These results suggest that ADH-catalyzed oxidative metabolism of ethanol is the major mechanism of its disposition, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. On the other hand, diminished ADH activity facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol to FAEEs as found in E47 cells, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. Therefore, CYP2E1-mediated oxidation of ethanol could be a minor mechanism of ethanol disposition. Further studies conducted only in HepG2 and VA-13 cells showed lower ethanol disposition and ATP concentration and higher accumulation of neutral lipids and cytotoxicity (apoptosis) in HepG2 cells than in VA-13 cells. The apoptosis observed in HepG2 vs

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids: role in metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Philipp A; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Berneis, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    The inverse association of cardiovascular risk with intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was suspected early in populations that are known to have a high consumption of fish and fish oil. Subsequent cohort studies confirmed such associations in other populations. Further evidence of possible beneficial effects on metabolism and cardiovascular health was provided by many studies that were able to show specific mechanisms that may underlie these observations. These include improvement of the function of tissues involved in the alterations occurring during the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, as adipose tissue, the liver and skeletal muscle. Direct action on the cardiovascular system was not only shown regarding vascular function and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, but also by providing antiarrhythmic effects on the heart. Data on these effects come from in vitro as well as in vivo studies that were conducted in animal models of disease, in healthy humans and in humans suffering from cardiovascular disease. To define prophylactic as well as treatment options in primary and secondary prevention, large clinical trial assessed the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on end points as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, so far these trials provided ambiguous data that do allow recommendations regarding the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in higher dosages and beyond the dietary advice of regular fish intake only in few clinical situations, such as severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  1. The role of fructose in metabolism and cancer.

    PubMed

    Charrez, Bérénice; Qiao, Liang; Hebbard, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    Fructose consumption has dramatically increased in the last 30 years. The principal form has been in the form of high-fructose corn syrup found in soft drinks and processed food. The effect of excessive fructose consumption on human health is only beginning to be understood. Fructose has been confirmed to induce several obesity-related complications associated with the metabolic syndrome. Here we present an overview of fructose metabolism and how it contrasts with that of glucose. In addition, we examine how excessive fructose consumption can affect de novo lipogenesis, insulin resistance, inflammation, and reactive oxygen species production. Fructose can also induce a change in the gut permeability and promote the release of inflammatory factors to the liver, which has potential implications in increasing hepatic inflammation. Moreover, fructose has been associated with colon, pancreas, and liver cancers, and we shall discuss the evidence for these observations. Taken together, data suggest that sustained fructose consumption should be curtailed as it is detrimental to long-term human health. PMID:25965509

  2. Triple negative breast cancer: the role of metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Dean, S J R; Rhodes, A

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in Malaysia and other Asian countries is on the increase, reflecting lifestyle changes some of which are known risk factors for the development of breast cancer. Most breast cancers are amenable to adjuvant therapies that target hormone receptors or HER2 receptors on the surface of the cancer cells and bring about significant improvement in survival. However, approximately 17% of Malaysian women with breast cancer, present with tumours that are devoid of these receptors and are consequently termed 'triple negative' breast cancers. These triple negative breast cancers typically occur in women of a younger age than receptor positive cancers, are predominantly of high grade tumours and the prognosis is usually poor. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the biological pathways that drive these tumours, in order that effective strategies are developed to treat these aggressive tumours. With the increasing affluence of developing countries, obesity and Type II Diabetes are also on the rise. These diseases are associated with an increased risk of developing a range of cancers including those of the breast. In particular, the metabolic syndrome has been shown to be associated with triple negative breast cancer. This article reviews some of the metabolic pathways and biomarkers which have been shown to be aberrantly expressed in triple negative breast cancer and highlights some of the ongoing work in this area. PMID:25500513

  3. Species-specific pharmacology of antiestrogens: role of metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.; Robinson, S.P.

    1987-04-01

    The nonsteroidal antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits a paradoxial space species pharmacology. The drug is a full estrogen in the mouse, a partial estrogen/antiestrogen in humans and the rat, and an antiestrogen in the chick oviduct. Inasmuch as tamoxifen has antiestrogenic effects in vitro, differential metabolism of tamoxifen to estrogens might occur in the species in which it has antiestrogen pharmacology. Tamoxifen or its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen could lose the alkylaminoethane side chain to form the estrogenic compound metabolite E of bisphenol. Sensitive metabolic studies with (/sup 3/H)tamoxifen in chicks, rats, and mice identified 4-hydroxytamoxifen as the major metabolite. Athymic mice with transplanted human breast tumors can be used to study the ability of tamoxifen to stimulate tissue or tumor growth. Estradiol caused the growth of transplanted breast cancer cells into solid tumors and a uterotrophic response. However, tamoxifen does not support tumor growth when administered alone, although it stimulates uterines growth. Since a similar profile of metabolites is sequestered in human mouse tissues, these studies strongly support the concept that the drug can selectively stimulate or inhibit events in the target tissues of different species without hometabolic intervention.

  4. Coordinated roles of pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor in autoinduction of voriconazole metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, Masato; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Kaneko, Hayato; Matsumoto, Satoru; Inoue, Akiko; Kawamura, Akio; Usui, Takashi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2013-03-01

    The antifungal efficacy of voriconazole (VRC) differs among host species, with potent efficacy in humans but less in rodents. We investigated the possible involvement of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in the species-specific efficacy of VRC through pharmacokinetic analyses using genetically modified mice and primary human hepatocytes. VRC (30 mg/kg) was orally administered to wild-type, Pxr-null, Car-null, and Pxr- and Car-null (Pxr/Car-null) mice for 7 days. Hepatic VRC metabolism was significantly increased by VRC administration, and the elimination rates of plasma VRC were much higher on day 7 than on day 1 in wild-type mice. This autoinduction was also observed in Pxr-null and Car-null mice but not in Pxr/Car-null mice, suggesting coordinated roles of PXR and CAR in the autoinduction of VRC metabolism in mice. Hepatic Cyp3a11 mRNA levels were increased by VRC administration, hepatic metabolic activities for VRC were correlated with CYP3A activities, and the induced VRC metabolism was inhibited by ketoconazole (a CYP3A inhibitor). In primary human hepatocytes, VRC barely increased mRNA levels of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 (human PXR/CAR target genes) at its therapeutic concentrations. In conclusion, these results suggest that VRC is metabolized mainly by CYP3A11 in mouse livers and that PXR- and CAR-mediated CYP3A11 induction, namely, autoinduction of VRC metabolism, is a primary reason for the ineffectiveness of VRC in mice. A limited ability of VRC to activate human PXR/CAR at its clinical concentration might explain the VRC efficacy in humans. Therefore, the ability to activate PXR/CAR might determine the VRC efficacy in different mammalian species. PMID:23274663

  5. In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D. )

    1990-08-01

    Low-dose continuous infusions of (2H5)phenylalanine, (1-13C)propionate, and (1-13C)leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD.

  6. [Ultrastructure and metabolic activity of pea mitochondria under clinorotation].

    PubMed

    Brykov, V A; Generozova, I P; Shugaev, A G

    2012-01-01

    Experimental data on the mitochondrial ultrastructure and tissue respiration in root apex as well as metabolic activity of the organelles isolated from pea seedling roots after 5-day of clinorotation are presented. It was shown that mitochondrial condensation in the distal elongation zone correlated with an increased rate of oxygen uptake on 7%. We also observed increase in rate of malate oxidation and respiratory control ratio increased simultaneously with a decreased in efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Such character of mitochondrial rearrangements in simulated microgravity is assumed to be a consequence of adaptation to these conditions.

  7. The role of Monosaccharide Transport Proteins in carbohydrate assimilation, distribution, metabolism and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cura, Anthony J.; Carruthers, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The facilitated diffusion of glucose, galactose, fructose, urate, myoinositol and dehydroascorbic acid in mammals is catalyzed by a family of 14 monosaccharide transport proteins called GLUTs. These transporters may be divided into 3 classes according to sequence similarity and function/substrate specificity. GLUT1 appears to be highly expressed in glycolytically active cells and has been co-opted in vitamin C auxotrophs to maintain the redox state of the blood through transport of dehydroascorbate. Several GLUTs are definitive glucose/galactose transporters, GLUT2 and GLUT5 are physiologically important fructose transporters, GLUT9 appears to be a urate transporter while GLUT13 (HMIT1) is a proton/myoinositol co-transporter. The physiologic substrates of some GLUTs remain to be established. The GLUTs are expressed in a tissue specific manner where affinity, specificity and capacity for substrate transport are paramount for tissue function. Although great strides have been made in characterizing GLUT-catalyzed monosaccharide transport and mapping GLUT membrane topography and determinants of substrate specificity, a unifying model for GLUT structure and function remains elusive. The GLUTs play a major role in carbohydrate homeostasis and the redistribution of sugar-derived carbons among the various organ systems. This is accomplished through a multiplicity of GLUT-dependent glucose sensing and effector mechanisms that regulate monosaccharide ingestion, absorption, distribution, cellular transport and metabolism and recovery/retention. Glucose transport and metabolism have co-evolved in mammals to support cerebral glucose utilization. PMID:22943001

  8. Roles of rat and human aldo-keto reductases in metabolism of farnesol and geranylgeraniol

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Chisato; Soda, Midori; Kanamori, Ayano; Kitade, Yukio; Ohno, Satoshi; Tajima, Kazuo; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Farnesol (FOH) and geranylgeraniol (GGOH) with multiple biological actions are produced from the mevalonate pathway, and catabolized into farnesoic acid and geranylgeranoic acid, respectively, via the aldehyde intermediates (farnesal and geranylgeranial). We investigated the intracellular distribution, sequences and properties of the oxidoreductases responsible for the metabolic steps in rat tissues. The oxidation of FOH and GGOH into their aldehyde intermediates were mainly mediated by alcohol dehydrogenases 1 (in the liver and colon) and 7 (in the stomach and lung), and the subsequent step into the carboxylic acids was catalyzed by a microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase. In addition, high reductase activity catalyzing the aldehyde intermediates into FOH (or GGOH) was detected in the cytosols of the extra-hepatic tissues, where the major reductase was identified as aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15. Human reductases with similar specificity were identified as AKR1B10 and AKR1C3, which most efficiently reduced farnesal and geranylgeranial among seven enzymes in the AKR1A-1C subfamilies. The overall metabolism from FOH to farnesoic acid in cultured cells was significantly decreased by overexpression of AKR1C15, and increased by addition of AKR1C3 inhibitors, tolfenamic acid and R-flurbiprofen. Thus, AKRs (1C15 in rats, and 1B10 and 1C3 in humans) may play an important role in controlling the bioavailability of FOH and GGOH. PMID:21187079

  9. Minireview: Emerging Roles for Extracellular Vesicles in Diabetes and Related Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lakhter, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane-contained vesicles released by most cell types, have attracted a large amount of research interest over the past decade. Because of their ability to transfer cargo via regulated processes, causing functional impacts on recipient cells, these structures may play important roles in cell-cell communication and have implications in the physiology of numerous organ systems. In addition, EVs have been described in most human biofluids and have wide potential as relatively noninvasive biomarkers of various pathologic conditions. Specifically, EVs produced by the pancreatic β-cell have been demonstrated to regulate physiologic and pathologic responses to β-cell stress, including β-cell proliferation and apoptosis. β-Cell EVs are also capable of interacting with immune cells and may contribute to the activation of autoimmune processes that trigger or propagate β-cell inflammation and destruction during the development of diabetes. EVs from adipose tissue have been shown to contribute to the development of the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome via interactions with other adipose, liver, and muscle cells. Circulating EVs may also serve as biomarkers for metabolic derangements and complications associated with diabetes. This minireview describes the properties of EVs in general, followed by a more focused review of the literature describing EVs affecting the β-cell, β-cell autoimmunity, and the development of insulin resistance, which all have the potential to affect development of type 1 or type 2 diabetes. PMID:26393296

  10. The Roles of Genetic Polymorphisms and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Elaine Regina Delicato; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Flauzino, Tamires; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has been frequently observed among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and factors related to HIV-1, the host, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are involved in this phenomenon. This study reviews the roles of genetic polymorphisms, HIV-1 infection, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in lipid metabolism. Lipid abnormalities can vary according to the HAART regimen, such as those with protease inhibitors (PIs). However, genetic factors may also be involved in dyslipidemia because not all patients receiving the same HAART regimen and with comparable demographic, virological, and immunological characteristics develop variations in the lipid profile. Polymorphisms in a large number of genes are involved in the synthesis of structural proteins, and enzymes related to lipid metabolism account for variations in the lipid profile of each individual. As some genetic polymorphisms may cause dyslipidemia, these allele variants should be investigated in HIV-1-infected patients to identify individuals with an increased risk of developing dyslipidemia during treatment with HAART, particularly during therapy with PIs. This knowledge may guide individualized treatment decisions and lead to the development of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia in these patients. PMID:24319689

  11. The Role of Circulating Amino Acids in the Hypothalamic Regulation of Liver Glucose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A pandemic of diabetes and obesity has been developing worldwide in close association with excessive nutrient intake and a sedentary lifestyle. Variations in the protein content of the diet have a direct impact on glucose homeostasis because amino acids (AAs) are powerful modulators of insulin action. In this work we review our recent findings on how elevations in the concentration of the circulating AAs leucine and proline activate a metabolic mechanism located in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the brain that sends a signal to the liver via the vagus nerve, which curtails glucose output. This neurogenic signal is strictly dependent on the metabolism of leucine and proline to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and the subsequent production of malonyl-CoA; the signal also requires functional neuronal ATP-sensitive potassium channels. The liver then responds by lowering the rate of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, ultimately leading to a net decrease in glucose production and in concentrations of circulating glucose. Furthermore, we review here how our work with proline suggests a new role of astrocytes in the central regulation of glycemia. Last, we outline how factors such as the consumption of fat-rich diets can interfere with glucoregulatory mechanisms and, in the long term, may contribute to the development of hyperglycemia, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27422516

  12. Unravelling the mysterious roles of melanocortin-3 receptors in metabolic homeostasis and obesity using mouse genetics

    PubMed Central

    Girardet, C; Begriche, K; Ptitsyn, A; Koza, R A; Butler, A A

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous melanocortin system maintains body mass and adiposity within a ‘healthy' range by regulating satiety and metabolic homeostasis. Neural melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) modulate satiety signals and regulate autonomic outputs governing glucose and lipid metabolism in the periphery. The functions of melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R) have been less well defined. We have observed that food anticipatory activity (FAA) is attenuated in Mc3r−/− mice housed in light:dark or constant dark conditions. Mc3r−/− mice subjected to the restricted feeding protocol that was used to induce FAA also developed insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and evidence of a cellular stress response in the liver. MC3Rs may thus function as modulators of oscillator systems that govern circadian rhythms, integrating signals from nutrient sensors to facilitate synchronizing peak foraging behaviour and metabolic efficiency with nutrient availability. To dissect the functions of MC3Rs expressed in hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic structures, we inserted a ‘lox-stop-lox' (TB) sequence into the Mc3r gene. Mc3rTB/TB mice recapitulate the phenotype reported for Mc3r−/− mice: increased adiposity, accelerated diet-induced obesity and attenuated FAA. The ventromedial hypothalamus exhibits high levels of Mc3r expression; however, restoring the expression of the LoxTB Mc3r allele in this nucleus did not restore FAA. However, a surprising outcome came from studies using Nestin-Cre to restore the expression of the LoxTB Mc3r allele in the nervous system. These data suggest that ‘non-neural' MC3Rs have a role in the defence of body weight. Future studies examining the homeostatic functions of MC3Rs should therefore consider actions outside the central nervous system. PMID:27152165

  13. Muscle metabolic function and free-living physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Sirikul, Bovorn; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown that muscle metabolic function measured during exercise is related to exercise performance and subsequent 1-yr weight gain. Because it is well established that physical activity is important in weight maintenance, we examined muscle function relationships with free-living energy expenditure and physical activity. Subjects were 71 premenopausal black and white women. Muscle metabolism was evaluated by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy during 90-s isometric plantar flexion contractions (45% maximum). Free-living energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water, activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as 0.9 x TEE - sleeping energy expenditure from room calorimetry, and free-living physical activity (ARTE) was calculated by dividing AEE by energy cost of standard physical activities. At the end of exercise, anaerobic glycolytic rate (ANGLY) and muscle concentration of phosphomonoesters (PME) were negatively related to TEE, AEE, and ARTE (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that both PME (partial r = -0.29, <0.02) and ANGLY (partial r = -0.24, P < 0.04) were independently related to ARTE. PME, primarily glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, was significantly related to ratings of perceived exertion (r = 0.21, P < or = 0.05) during a maximal treadmill test. PME was not related to ARTE after inclusion of RPE in the multiple regression model, suggesting that PME may be obtaining its relationship with ARTE through an increased perception of effort during physical activity. In conclusion, physically inactive individuals tend to be more dependent on anaerobic glycolysis during exercise while relying on a glycolytic pathway that may not be functioning optimally. PMID:16825516

  14. Muscle metabolic function and free-living physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Sirikul, Bovorn; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown that muscle metabolic function measured during exercise is related to exercise performance and subsequent 1-yr weight gain. Because it is well established that physical activity is important in weight maintenance, we examined muscle function relationships with free-living energy expenditure and physical activity. Subjects were 71 premenopausal black and white women. Muscle metabolism was evaluated by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy during 90-s isometric plantar flexion contractions (45% maximum). Free-living energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water, activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as 0.9 x TEE - sleeping energy expenditure from room calorimetry, and free-living physical activity (ARTE) was calculated by dividing AEE by energy cost of standard physical activities. At the end of exercise, anaerobic glycolytic rate (ANGLY) and muscle concentration of phosphomonoesters (PME) were negatively related to TEE, AEE, and ARTE (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that both PME (partial r = -0.29, <0.02) and ANGLY (partial r = -0.24, P < 0.04) were independently related to ARTE. PME, primarily glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, was significantly related to ratings of perceived exertion (r = 0.21, P < or = 0.05) during a maximal treadmill test. PME was not related to ARTE after inclusion of RPE in the multiple regression model, suggesting that PME may be obtaining its relationship with ARTE through an increased perception of effort during physical activity. In conclusion, physically inactive individuals tend to be more dependent on anaerobic glycolysis during exercise while relying on a glycolytic pathway that may not be functioning optimally.

  15. A role for cytosolic fumarate hydratase in urea cycle metabolism and renal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Adam, Julie; Yang, Ming; Bauerschmidt, Christina; Kitagawa, Mitsuhiro; O'Flaherty, Linda; Maheswaran, Pratheesh; Özkan, Gizem; Sahgal, Natasha; Baban, Dilair; Kato, Keiko; Saito, Kaori; Iino, Keiko; Igarashi, Kaori; Stratford, Michael; Pugh, Christopher; Tennant, Daniel A; Ludwig, Christian; Davies, Benjamin; Ratcliffe, Peter J; El-Bahrawy, Mona; Ashrafian, Houman; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Pollard, Patrick J

    2013-05-30

    The identification of mutated metabolic enzymes in hereditary cancer syndromes has established a direct link between metabolic dysregulation and cancer. Mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), predispose affected individuals to leiomyomas, renal cysts, and cancers, though the respective pathogenic roles of mitochondrial and cytosolic FH isoforms remain undefined. On the basis of comprehensive metabolomic analyses, we demonstrate that FH1-deficient cells and tissues exhibit defects in the urea cycle/arginine metabolism. Remarkably, transgenic re-expression of cytosolic FH ameliorated both renal cyst development and urea cycle defects associated with renal-specific FH1 deletion in mice. Furthermore, acute arginine depletion significantly reduced the viability of FH1-deficient cells in comparison to controls. Our findings highlight the importance of extramitochondrial metabolic pathways in FH-associated oncogenesis and the urea cycle/arginine metabolism as a potential therapeutic target.

  16. Roles of leptin and ghrelin in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism of rainbow trout adipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Cristina; Johansson, Marcus; Asaad, Maryam; Angotzi, Anna R; Rønnestad, Ivar; Stefansson, Sigurd O; Jönsson, Elisabeth; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación

    2015-10-01

    Leptin and ghrelin are important regulators of energy homeostasis in mammals, whereas their physiological roles in fish have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the effects of leptin and ghrelin on adipogenesis, lipolysis and on expression of lipid metabolism-related genes were examined in rainbow trout adipocytes in vitro. Leptin expression and release increased from preadipocytes to mature adipocytes in culture, but did not affect the process of adipogenesis. While ghrelin and its receptor were identified in cultured differentiated adipocytes, ghrelin did not influence either preadipocyte proliferation or differentiation, indicating that it may have other adipose-related roles. Leptin and ghrelin increased lipolysis in mature freshly isolated adipocytes, but mRNA expression of lipolysis markers was not significantly modified. Leptin significantly suppressed the fatty acid transporter-1 expression, suggesting a decrease in fatty acid uptake and storage, but did not affect expression of any of the lipogenesis or β-oxidation genes studied. Ghrelin significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β, and thus appears to stimulate synthesis of triglycerides as well as their mobilization. Overall, the study indicates that ghrelin, but not leptin seems to be an enhancer of lipid turn-over in adipose tissue of rainbow trout, and this regulation may at least partly be mediated through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. The mode of action of both hormones needs to be further explored to better understand their roles in regulating adiposity in fish.

  17. The role of integrated databases in microbial genome sequence analysis and metabolic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T., Maltsev, N., Overbeek, R.

    1997-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the PUMA system which provides access to data about metabolic pathways, enzymes, compounds, organisms, encoded activity, and assay condition information for enzymes in particular organisms and multiple sequence alignments.

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Alter Sympathetic Activity During Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Josiane C; Flôr, Atalia F L; França-Silva, Maria S; Balarini, Camille M; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) contains heterogeneous populations of neurons involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. The PVN plays an important role in the sympathoexcitatory response to increasing circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang-II), which activates AT1 receptors in the circumventricular organs (OCVs), mainly in the subfornical organ (SFO). Circulating Ang-II induces a de novo synthesis of Ang-II in SFO neurons projecting to pre-autonomic PVN neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors induces intracellular increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Chronic sympathetic nerve activation promotes a series of metabolic disorders that characterizes the metabolic syndrome (MetS): dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hyperleptinemia and elevated plasma hormone levels, such as noradrenaline, glucocorticoids, leptin, insulin, and Ang-II. This review will discuss the contribution of our laboratory and others regarding the sympathoexcitation caused by peripheral Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species along the subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize that this mechanism could be involved in metabolic disorders underlying MetS. PMID:26779026

  19. Monoterpenol Oxidative Metabolism: Role in Plant Adaptation and Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    Ilc, Tina; Parage, Claire; Boachon, Benoît; Navrot, Nicolas; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Plants use monoterpenols as precursors for the production of functionally and structurally diverse molecules, which are key players in interactions with other organisms such as pollinators, flower visitors, herbivores, fungal, or microbial pathogens. For humans, many of these monoterpenol derivatives are economically important because of their pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, flavor, or fragrance applications. The biosynthesis of these derivatives is to a large extent catalyzed by enzymes from the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Here we review the knowledge on monoterpenol oxidative metabolism in plants with special focus on recent elucidations of oxidation steps leading to diverse linalool and geraniol derivatives. We evaluate the common features between oxidation pathways of these two monoterpenols, such as involvement of the CYP76 family, and highlight the differences. Finally, we discuss the missing steps and other open questions in the biosynthesis of oxygenated monoterpenol derivatives.

  20. Monoterpenol Oxidative Metabolism: Role in Plant Adaptation and Potential Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ilc, Tina; Parage, Claire; Boachon, Benoît; Navrot, Nicolas; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Plants use monoterpenols as precursors for the production of functionally and structurally diverse molecules, which are key players in interactions with other organisms such as pollinators, flower visitors, herbivores, fungal, or microbial pathogens. For humans, many of these monoterpenol derivatives are economically important because of their pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, flavor, or fragrance applications. The biosynthesis of these derivatives is to a large extent catalyzed by enzymes from the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Here we review the knowledge on monoterpenol oxidative metabolism in plants with special focus on recent elucidations of oxidation steps leading to diverse linalool and geraniol derivatives. We evaluate the common features between oxidation pathways of these two monoterpenols, such as involvement of the CYP76 family, and highlight the differences. Finally, we discuss the missing steps and other open questions in the biosynthesis of oxygenated monoterpenol derivatives. PMID:27200002

  1. Role of intracellular carbon metabolism pathways in Shigella flexneri virulence.

    PubMed

    Waligora, E A; Fisher, C R; Hanovice, N J; Rodou, A; Wyckoff, E E; Payne, S M

    2014-07-01

    Shigella flexneri, which replicates in the cytoplasm of intestinal epithelial cells, can use the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Entner-Doudoroff, or pentose phosphate pathway for glycolytic carbon metabolism. To determine which of these pathways is used by intracellular S. flexneri, mutants were constructed and tested in a plaque assay for the ability to invade, replicate intracellularly, and spread to adjacent epithelial cells. Mutants blocked in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (pfkAB and pykAF mutants) invaded the cells but formed very small plaques. Loss of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway gene eda resulted in small plaques, but the double eda edd mutant formed normal-size plaques. This suggested that the plaque defect of the eda mutant was due to buildup of the toxic intermediate 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconic acid rather than a specific requirement for this pathway. Loss of the pentose phosphate pathway had no effect on plaque formation, indicating that it is not critical for intracellular S. flexneri. Supplementation of the epithelial cell culture medium with pyruvate allowed the glycolysis mutants to form larger plaques than those observed with unsupplemented medium, consistent with data from phenotypic microarrays (Biolog) indicating that pyruvate metabolism was not disrupted in these mutants. Interestingly, the wild-type S. flexneri also formed larger plaques in the presence of supplemental pyruvate or glucose, with pyruvate yielding the largest plaques. Analysis of the metabolites in the cultured cells showed increased intracellular levels of the added compound. Pyruvate increased the growth rate of S. flexneri in vitro, suggesting that it may be a preferred carbon source inside host cells.

  2. Role of Intracellular Carbon Metabolism Pathways in Shigella flexneri Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Waligora, E. A.; Fisher, C. R.; Hanovice, N. J.; Rodou, A.; Wyckoff, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Shigella flexneri, which replicates in the cytoplasm of intestinal epithelial cells, can use the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Entner-Doudoroff, or pentose phosphate pathway for glycolytic carbon metabolism. To determine which of these pathways is used by intracellular S. flexneri, mutants were constructed and tested in a plaque assay for the ability to invade, replicate intracellularly, and spread to adjacent epithelial cells. Mutants blocked in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (pfkAB and pykAF mutants) invaded the cells but formed very small plaques. Loss of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway gene eda resulted in small plaques, but the double eda edd mutant formed normal-size plaques. This suggested that the plaque defect of the eda mutant was due to buildup of the toxic intermediate 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconic acid rather than a specific requirement for this pathway. Loss of the pentose phosphate pathway had no effect on plaque formation, indicating that it is not critical for intracellular S. flexneri. Supplementation of the epithelial cell culture medium with pyruvate allowed the glycolysis mutants to form larger plaques than those observed with unsupplemented medium, consistent with data from phenotypic microarrays (Biolog) indicating that pyruvate metabolism was not disrupted in these mutants. Interestingly, the wild-type S. flexneri also formed larger plaques in the presence of supplemental pyruvate or glucose, with pyruvate yielding the largest plaques. Analysis of the metabolites in the cultured cells showed increased intracellular levels of the added compound. Pyruvate increased the growth rate of S. flexneri in vitro, suggesting that it may be a preferred carbon source inside host cells. PMID:24733092

  3. Role of intracellular carbon metabolism pathways in Shigella flexneri virulence.

    PubMed

    Waligora, E A; Fisher, C R; Hanovice, N J; Rodou, A; Wyckoff, E E; Payne, S M

    2014-07-01

    Shigella flexneri, which replicates in the cytoplasm of intestinal epithelial cells, can use the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Entner-Doudoroff, or pentose phosphate pathway for glycolytic carbon metabolism. To determine which of these pathways is used by intracellular S. flexneri, mutants were constructed and tested in a plaque assay for the ability to invade, replicate intracellularly, and spread to adjacent epithelial cells. Mutants blocked in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (pfkAB and pykAF mutants) invaded the cells but formed very small plaques. Loss of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway gene eda resulted in small plaques, but the double eda edd mutant formed normal-size plaques. This suggested that the plaque defect of the eda mutant was due to buildup of the toxic intermediate 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconic acid rather than a specific requirement for this pathway. Loss of the pentose phosphate pathway had no effect on plaque formation, indicating that it is not critical for intracellular S. flexneri. Supplementation of the epithelial cell culture medium with pyruvate allowed the glycolysis mutants to form larger plaques than those observed with unsupplemented medium, consistent with data from phenotypic microarrays (Biolog) indicating that pyruvate metabolism was not disrupted in these mutants. Interestingly, the wild-type S. flexneri also formed larger plaques in the presence of supplemental pyruvate or glucose, with pyruvate yielding the largest plaques. Analysis of the metabolites in the cultured cells showed increased intracellular levels of the added compound. Pyruvate increased the growth rate of S. flexneri in vitro, suggesting that it may be a preferred carbon source inside host cells. PMID:24733092

  4. [Genetic polymorphism of FMO3 and its role in drug metabolism and toxicity].

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Wang, Qi

    2015-07-01

    The flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is an important hepatic microsomal enzyme. Numerous mutations of FMO3 gene have been reported, and polymorphic varients of the gene have been identified. Several studies indicated that variability in the expression of FMO3 involved in some nitrogen, or sulfur-containing durg metabolism. This review summarizes the genetic polymorphism of FMO3 and its role in drug metabolism and toxicity. PMID:26666012

  5. The role of mutation of metabolism-related genes in genomic hypermethylation.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Joshua J; Killian, J Keith; Meltzer, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    Genetic mutations, metabolic dysfunction, and epigenetic misregulation are commonly considered to play distinct roles in tumor development and maintenance. However, intimate relationships between these mechanisms are now emerging. In particular, mutations in genes for the core metabolic enzymes IDH, SDH, and FH are significant drivers of diverse tumor types. In each case, the resultant accumulation of particular metabolites inhibits TET enzymes responsible for oxidizing 5-methylcytosine, leading to pervasive DNA hypermethylation. PMID:25111818

  6. The role of mutation of metabolism-related genes in genomic hypermethylation.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Joshua J; Killian, J Keith; Meltzer, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    Genetic mutations, metabolic dysfunction, and epigenetic misregulation are commonly considered to play distinct roles in tumor development and maintenance. However, intimate relationships between these mechanisms are now emerging. In particular, mutations in genes for the core metabolic enzymes IDH, SDH, and FH are significant drivers of diverse tumor types. In each case, the resultant accumulation of particular metabolites inhibits TET enzymes responsible for oxidizing 5-methylcytosine, leading to pervasive DNA hypermethylation.

  7. Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

  8. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  9. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  10. Seasonal variation in metabolic rate, flight activity and body size of Anopheles gambiae in the Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Huestis, Diana L.; Yaro, Alpha S.; Traoré, Adama I.; Dieter, Kathryne L.; Nwagbara, Juliette I.; Bowie, Aleah C.; Adamou, Abdoulaye; Kassogué, Yaya; Diallo, Moussa; Timbiné, Seydou; Dao, Adama; Lehmann, Tovi

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria in Africa is vectored primarily by the Anopheles gambiae complex. Although the mechanisms of population persistence during the dry season are not yet known, targeting dry season mosquitoes could provide opportunities for vector control. In the Sahel, it appears likely that M-form A. gambiae survive by aestivation (entering a dormant state). To assess the role of eco-physiological changes associated with dry season survival, we measured body size, flight activity and metabolic rate of wild-caught mosquitoes throughout 1 year in a Sahelian locality, far from permanent water sources, and at a riparian location adjacent to the Niger River. We found significant seasonal variation in body size at both the Sahelian and riparian sites, although the magnitude of the variation was greater in the Sahel. For flight activity, significant seasonality was only observed in the Sahel, with increased flight activity in the wet season when compared with that just prior to and throughout the dry season. Whole-organism metabolic rate was affected by numerous biotic and abiotic factors, and a significant seasonal component was found at both locations. However, assay temperature accounted completely for seasonality at the riparian location, while significant seasonal variation remained after accounting for all measured variables in the Sahel. Interestingly, we did not find that mean metabolic rate was lowest during the dry season at either location, contrary to our expectation that mosquitoes would conserve energy and increase longevity by reducing metabolism during this time. These results indicate that mosquitoes may use mechanisms besides reduced metabolic rate to enable survival during the Sahelian dry season. PMID:22623189

  11. Effects of sex and site on amino acid metabolism enzyme gene expression and activity in rat white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. White adipose tissue (WAT) shows marked sex- and diet-dependent differences. However, our metabolic knowledge of WAT, especially on amino acid metabolism, is considerably limited. In the present study, we compared the influence of sex on the amino acid metabolism profile of the four main WAT sites, focused on the paths related to ammonium handling and the urea cycle, as a way to estimate the extent of WAT implication on body amino-nitrogen metabolism. Experimental Design. Adult female and male rats were maintained, undisturbed, under standard conditions for one month. After killing them under isoflurane anesthesia. WAT sites were dissected and weighed. Subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric WAT were analyzed for amino acid metabolism gene expression and enzyme activities. Results. There was a considerable stability of the urea cycle activities and expressions, irrespective of sex, and with only limited influence of site. Urea cycle was more resilient to change than other site-specialized metabolic pathways. The control of WAT urea cycle was probably related to the provision of arginine/citrulline, as deduced from the enzyme activity profiles. These data support a generalized role of WAT in overall amino-N handling. In contrast, sex markedly affected WAT ammonium-centered amino acid metabolism in a site-related way, with relatively higher emphasis in males’ subcutaneous WAT. Conclusions. We found that WAT has an active amino acid metabolism. Its gene expressions were lower than those of glucose-lipid interactions, but the differences were quantitatively less important than usually reported. The effects of sex on urea cycle enzymes expression and activity were limited, in contrast with the wider variations observed in other metabolic pathways. The results agree with a centralized control of urea cycle operation affecting the adipose organ as a whole. PMID:26587356

  12. Translating the basic knowledge of mitochondrial functions to metabolic therapy: role of L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Marcovina, Santica M; Sirtori, Cesare; Peracino, Andrea; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Borum, Peggy; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ardehali, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondria play important roles in human physiological processes, and therefore, their dysfunction can lead to a constellation of metabolic and nonmetabolic abnormalities such as a defect in mitochondrial gene expression, imbalance in fuel and energy homeostasis, impairment in oxidative phosphorylation, enhancement of insulin resistance, and abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, vascular disease, and chronic heart failure. The increased knowledge on mitochondria and their role in cellular metabolism is providing new evidence that these disorders may benefit from mitochondrial-targeted therapies. We review the current knowledge of the contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to chronic diseases, the outcomes of experimental studies on mitochondrial-targeted therapies, and explore the potential of metabolic modulators in the treatment of selected chronic conditions. As an example of such modulators, we evaluate the efficacy of the administration of L-carnitine and its analogues acetyl and propionyl L-carnitine in several chronic diseases. L-carnitine is intrinsically involved in mitochondrial metabolism and function as it plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism. In addition to the transportation of free fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane, L-carnitine modulates their oxidation rate and is involved in the regulation of vital cellular functions such as apoptosis. Thus, L-carnitine and its derivatives show promise in the treatment of chronic conditions and diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction but further translational studies are needed to fully explore their potential. PMID:23138103

  13. Polyphosphate - an ancient energy source and active metabolic regulator

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are a several molecules on Earth that effectively store energy within their covalent bonds, and one of these energy-rich molecules is polyphosphate. In microbial cells, polyphosphate granules are synthesised for both energy and phosphate storage and are degraded to produce nucleotide triphosphate or phosphate. Energy released from these energetic carriers is used by the cell for production of all vital molecules such as amino acids, nucleobases, sugars and lipids. Polyphosphate chains directly regulate some processes in the cell and are used as phosphate donors in gene regulation. These two processes, energetic metabolism and regulation, are orchestrated by polyphosphate kinases. Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) can currently be categorized into three groups (PPK1, PPK2 and PPK3) according their functionality; they can also be divided into three groups according their homology (EcPPK1, PaPPK2 and ScVTC). This review discusses historical information, similarities and differences, biochemical characteristics, roles in stress response regulation and possible applications in the biotechnology industry of these enzymes. At the end of the review, a hypothesis is discussed in view of synthetic biology applications that states polyphosphate and calcium-rich organelles have endosymbiotic origins from ancient protocells that metabolized polyphosphate. PMID:21816086

  14. Effect of sedentary activities on resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Dietz, W H; Bandini, L G; Morelli, J A; Peers, K F; Ching, P L

    1994-03-01

    We examined the effect of television viewing on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 9 obese and 18 nonobese girls aged 10.4 +/- 1.1 y. RMR was measured while girls watched television, read, or sat quietly for 15 min. Movement was assessed by using activity monitors and a manual count of movements observed on a videotape. Absolute RMR was greater for the obese girls, but no significant treatment effect existed for absolute RMR within either group. Although measured activity did not differ, observed movements were greater when the girls were sitting quietly. Total observed and measured movements were significantly correlated with the CV of the minute-by-minute RMR. These results suggest that television viewing does not alter RMR. Although children appear to fidget more when sitting quietly than when they read or watch television, fidgeting appears to affect the minute-to-minute variation of RMR rather than the level of resting energy expenditure.

  15. Teaching the Role of Mitochondrial Transport in Energy Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passarella, Salvatore; Atlante, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Studies from our laboratories over recent years have uncovered the existence, and established the properties of a variety of mitochondrial transporters. The properties of these transporters throw light on a variety of biochemical phenomena that were previously poorly understood. In particular the role of mitochondrial transport in energy…

  16. Human aldo-keto reductases and the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Penning, Trevor M

    2014-11-17

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are promiscuous NAD(P)(H) dependent oxidoreductases implicated in the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols to the corresponding o-quinones with the concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The PAH o-quinones are Michael acceptors and can form adducts but are also redox-active and enter into futile redox cycles to amplify ROS formation. Evidence exists to support this metabolic pathway in humans. The human recombinant AKR1A1 and AKR1C1-AKR1C4 enzymes all catalyze the oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols to PAH o-quinones. Many human AKRs also catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of the o-quinone products to air-sensitive catechols, exacerbating ROS formation. Moreover, this pathway of PAH activation occurs in a panel of human lung cell lines, resulting in the production of ROS and oxidative DNA damage in the form of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. Using stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, this pathway of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) metabolism was found to contribute equally with the diol-epoxide pathway to the activation of this human carcinogen in human lung cells. Evaluation of the mutagenicity of anti-B[a]P-diol epoxide with B[a]P-7,8-dione on p53 showed that the o-quinone produced by AKRs was the more potent mutagen, provided that it was permitted to redox cycle, and that the mutations observed were G to T transversions, reminiscent of those observed in human lung cancer. It is concluded that there is sufficient evidence to support the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation of PAH in human lung cell lines and that they may contribute to the causation of human lung cancer.

  17. Human Aldo-Keto Reductases and the Metabolic Activation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are promiscuous NAD(P)(H) dependent oxidoreductases implicated in the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols to the corresponding o-quinones with the concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The PAH o-quinones are Michael acceptors and can form adducts but are also redox-active and enter into futile redox cycles to amplify ROS formation. Evidence exists to support this metabolic pathway in humans. The human recombinant AKR1A1 and AKR1C1–AKR1C4 enzymes all catalyze the oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols to PAH o-quinones. Many human AKRs also catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of the o-quinone products to air-sensitive catechols, exacerbating ROS formation. Moreover, this pathway of PAH activation occurs in a panel of human lung cell lines, resulting in the production of ROS and oxidative DNA damage in the form of 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine. Using stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, this pathway of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) metabolism was found to contribute equally with the diol-epoxide pathway to the activation of this human carcinogen in human lung cells. Evaluation of the mutagenicity of anti-B[a]P-diol epoxide with B[a]P-7,8-dione on p53 showed that the o-quinone produced by AKRs was the more potent mutagen, provided that it was permitted to redox cycle, and that the mutations observed were G to T transversions, reminiscent of those observed in human lung cancer. It is concluded that there is sufficient evidence to support the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation of PAH in human lung cell lines and that they may contribute to the causation of human lung cancer. PMID:25279998

  18. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Aquifer Samples Reveals Unexpected Metabolic Lifestyles Relevant to Active Biogeochemical Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, H. R.; Jewell, T. N. M.; Karaoz, U.; Banfield, J. F.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Modern molecular ecology techniques are revealing the metabolic potential of uncultivated microorganisms, but there is still much to be learned about the actual biogeochemical roles of microbes that have cultivated relatives. Here, we present metatranscriptomic and metagenomic data from a field study that provides evidence of coupled redox processes that have not been documented in cultivated relatives and, indeed, represent strains with metabolic traits that are novel with respect to closely related isolates. The data come from omics analysis of groundwater samples collected during an experiment in which nitrate (a native electron acceptor) was injected into a perennially suboxic aquifer in Rifle (CO). Transcriptional data indicated that just two groups of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria accounted for a very large portion (~80%) of overall community gene expression: (1) members of the Fe(II)-oxidizing Gallionellaceae family and (2) strains of the S-oxidizing species, Sulfurimonas denitrificans. Metabolic lifestyles for Gallionellaceae strains that were novel compared to cultivated representatives included nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation and S oxidation. Evidence for these metabolisms included highly correlated temporal expression in binned data of nitrate reductase (e.g., narGHI) genes (which have never been reported in Gallionellaceae genomes) and Fe(II) oxidation genes (e.g., mtoA) or S oxidation genes (e.g., dsrE, aprA). Of the two most active strains of S. denitrificans, only one showed strong expression of S oxidation genes, whereas the other was apparently using an unexpected (as-yet unidentified) primary electron donor. Transcriptional data added considerable interpretive value to this study, as (1) metagenomic data would not have highlighted these organisms, which had a disproportionately large role in community metabolism relative to their populations, and (2) co-expression of coupled pathway genes could not be predicted based solely on metagenomic data.

  19. Metabolic Physiology of the Invasive Clam, Potamocorbula amurensis: The Interactive Role of Temperature, Salinity, and Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan A.; Chen, Xi; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2014-01-01

    In biological systems energy serves as the ultimate commodity, often determining species distributions, abundances, and interactions including the potential impact of invasive species on native communities. The Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis invaded the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) in 1986 and is implicated in the decline of native fish species through resource competition. Using a combined laboratory/field study we examined how energy expenditure in this clam is influenced by salinity, temperature and food availability. Measures of metabolism were made at whole organism (metabolic rate) and biochemical (pyruvate kinase (PK) and citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activities) levels. We found in the field, over the course of a year, the ratio of PK to CS was typically 1.0 suggesting that aerobic and fermentative metabolism were roughly equivalent, except for particular periods characterized by low salinity, higher temperatures, and intermediate food availabilities. In a 30-day laboratory acclimation experiment, however, neither metabolic rate nor PK:CS ratio was consistently influenced by the same variables, though the potential for fermentative pathways did predominate. We conclude that in field collected animals, the addition of biochemical measures of energetic state provide little additional information to the previously measured whole organism metabolic rate. In addition, much of the variation in the laboratory remained unexplained and additional variables, including reproductive stage or body condition may influence laboratory-based results. Further study of adult clams must consider the role of organismal condition, especially reproductive state, in comparisons of laboratory experiments and field observations. PMID:24599347

  20. Nuclear hormone receptor coregulator: role in hormone action, metabolism, growth, and development.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Muktar A; Samuels, Herbert H

    2005-06-01

    Nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC) (also referred to as activating signal cointegrator-2, thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein, peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-interacting protein, and 250-kDa receptor associated protein) belongs to a growing class of nuclear cofactors widely known as coregulators or coactivators that are necessary for transcriptional activation of target genes. The NRC gene is also amplified and overexpressed in breast, colon, and lung cancers. NRC is a 2063-amino acid protein that harbors a potent N-terminal activation domain (AD1) and a second more centrally located activation domain (AD2) that is rich in Glu and Pro. Near AD2 is a receptor-interacting domain containing an LxxLL motif (LxxLL-1), which interacts with a wide variety of ligand-bound nuclear hormone receptors with high affinity. A second LxxLL motif (LxxLL-2) located in the C-terminal region of NRC is more restricted in its nuclear hormone receptor specificity. The intrinsic activation potential of NRC is regulated by a C-terminal serine, threonine, leucine-regulatory domain. The potential role of NRC as a cointegrator is suggested by its ability to enhance transcriptional activation of a wide variety of transcription factors and from its in vivo association with a number of known transcriptional regulators including CBP/p300. Recent studies in mice indicate that deletion of both NRC alleles leads to embryonic lethality resulting from general growth retardation coupled with developmental defects in the heart, liver, brain, and placenta. NRC(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts spontaneously undergo apoptosis, indicating the importance of NRC as a prosurvival and antiapoptotic gene. Studies with 129S6 NRC(+/-) mice indicate that NRC is a pleiotropic regulator that is involved in growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, and wound healing.

  1. Putative Role of the Aldo-Keto Reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi in Benznidazole Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Patricia Andrea; Laverrière, Marc; Cannata, Joaquín J B; García, Gabriela Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Benznidazole (Bz), the drug used for treatment of Chagas' disease (caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi), is activated by a parasitic NADH-dependent type I nitroreductase (NTR I). However, several studies have shown that other enzymes are involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the aldo-keto reductase from T. cruzi (TcAKR), a NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase previously described by our group, uses Bz as the substrate. We demonstrated that both recombinant and native TcAKR enzymes reduce Bz by using NADPH, but not NADH, as a cofactor. TcAKR-overexpressing epimastigotes showed higher NADPH-dependent Bz reductase activity and a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for Bz 1.8-fold higher than that of the controls, suggesting that TcAKR is involved in Bz detoxification instead of activation. To understand the role of TcAKR in Bz metabolism, we studied TcAKR expression and NADPH/NADH-dependent Bz reductase activities in two T. cruzi strains with differential susceptibility to Bz: CL Brener and Nicaragua. Taking into account the results obtained with TcAKR-overexpressing epimastigotes, we expected the more resistant strain, Nicaragua, to have higher TcAKR levels than CL Brener. However, the results were the opposite. CL Brener showed 2-fold higher TcAKR expression and 5.7-fold higher NADPH-Bz reduction than the Nicaragua strain. In addition, NADH-dependent Bz reductase activity, characteristic of NTR I, was also higher in CL Brener than in Nicaragua. We conclude that although TcAKR uses Bz as the substrate, TcAKR activity is not a determinant of Bz resistance in wild-type strains and may be overcome by other enzymes involved in Bz activation, such as NADPH- and NADH-dependent reductases. PMID:26856844

  2. Role of Metabolic H2O2 Generation

    PubMed Central

    Sies, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, the nonradical 2-electron reduction product of oxygen, is a normal aerobic metabolite occurring at about 10 nm intracellular concentration. In liver, it is produced at 50 nmol/min/g of tissue, which is about 2% of total oxygen uptake at steady state. Metabolically generated H2O2 emerged from recent research as a central hub in redox signaling and oxidative stress. Upon generation by major sources, the NADPH oxidases or Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, H2O2 is under sophisticated fine control of peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases with their backup systems as well as by catalase. Of note, H2O2 is a second messenger in insulin signaling and in several growth factor-induced signaling cascades. H2O2 transport across membranes is facilitated by aquaporins, denoted as peroxiporins. Specialized protein cysteines operate as redox switches using H2O2 as thiol oxidant, making this reactive oxygen species essential for poising the set point of the redox proteome. Major processes including proliferation, differentiation, tissue repair, inflammation, circadian rhythm, and aging use this low molecular weight oxygen metabolite as signaling compound. PMID:24515117

  3. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection on nutrition and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Franceschi, Francesco; Annalisa, Tortora; Teresa, Di Rienzo; Giovanna, D’Angelo; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franco, Scaldaferri; Viviana, Gerardi; Valentina, Tesori; Riccardo, Lopetuso Loris; Antonio, Gasbarrini

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world’s population. It is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and shows a deep association with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Recently, the medical research focused on the modification of the gastric environment induced by H. pylori infection, possibly affecting the absorption of nutrients and drugs as well as the production of hormones strongly implicated in the regulation of appetite and growth. Interestingly, the absorption of iron and vitamin B12 is impaired by H. pylori infection, while infected subjects have lower basal and fasting serum levels of ghrelin and higher concentration of leptin compared to controls. Since leptin is an anorexigenic hormone, and ghrelin stimulates powerfully the release of growth hormone in humans, H. pylori infection may finally induce growth retardation if acquired very early in the childhood and in malnourished children. This review is focused on the nutritional effects of H. pylori infection, such as the reduced bioavailability or the malabsorbption of essential nutrients, and of gastrointestinal hormones, as well as on the relationship between H. pylori and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25278679

  4. Key Roles of Glutamine Pathways in Reprogramming the Cancer Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Krzysztof Piotr; Maćkowska-Kędziora, Agnieszka; Sobolewski, Bogusław; Woźniak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine (GLN) is commonly known as an important metabolite used for the growth of cancer cells but the effects of its intake in cancer patients are still not clear. However, GLN is the main substrate for DNA and fatty acid synthesis. On the other hand, it reduces the oxidative stress by glutathione synthesis stimulation, stops the process of cancer cachexia, and nourishes the immunological system and the intestine epithelium, as well. The current paper deals with possible positive effects of GLN supplementation and conditions that should be fulfilled to obtain these effects. The analysis of GLN metabolism suggests that the separation of GLN and carbohydrates in the diet can minimize simultaneous supply of ATP (from glucose) and NADPH2 (from glutamine) to cancer cells. It should support to a larger extent the organism to fight against the cancer rather than the cancer cells. GLN cannot be considered the effective source of ATP for cancers with the impaired oxidative phosphorylation and pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition. GLN intake restores decreased levels of glutathione in the case of chemotherapy and radiotherapy; thus, it facilitates regeneration processes of the intestine epithelium and immunological system. PMID:26583064

  5. Key Roles of Glutamine Pathways in Reprogramming the Cancer Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Krzysztof Piotr; Maćkowska-Kędziora, Agnieszka; Sobolewski, Bogusław; Woźniak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine (GLN) is commonly known as an important metabolite used for the growth of cancer cells but the effects of its intake in cancer patients are still not clear. However, GLN is the main substrate for DNA and fatty acid synthesis. On the other hand, it reduces the oxidative stress by glutathione synthesis stimulation, stops the process of cancer cachexia, and nourishes the immunological system and the intestine epithelium, as well. The current paper deals with possible positive effects of GLN supplementation and conditions that should be fulfilled to obtain these effects. The analysis of GLN metabolism suggests that the separation of GLN and carbohydrates in the diet can minimize simultaneous supply of ATP (from glucose) and NADPH2 (from glutamine) to cancer cells. It should support to a larger extent the organism to fight against the cancer rather than the cancer cells. GLN cannot be considered the effective source of ATP for cancers with the impaired oxidative phosphorylation and pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition. GLN intake restores decreased levels of glutathione in the case of chemotherapy and radiotherapy; thus, it facilitates regeneration processes of the intestine epithelium and immunological system. PMID:26583064

  6. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection on nutrition and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Francesco; Annalisa, Tortora; Teresa, Di Rienzo; Giovanna, D'Angelo; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franco, Scaldaferri; Viviana, Gerardi; Valentina, Tesori; Riccardo, Lopetuso Loris; Antonio, Gasbarrini

    2014-09-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. It is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and shows a deep association with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Recently, the medical research focused on the modification of the gastric environment induced by H. pylori infection, possibly affecting the absorption of nutrients and drugs as well as the production of hormones strongly implicated in the regulation of appetite and growth. Interestingly, the absorption of iron and vitamin B12 is impaired by H. pylori infection, while infected subjects have lower basal and fasting serum levels of ghrelin and higher concentration of leptin compared to controls. Since leptin is an anorexigenic hormone, and ghrelin stimulates powerfully the release of growth hormone in humans, H. pylori infection may finally induce growth retardation if acquired very early in the childhood and in malnourished children. This review is focused on the nutritional effects of H. pylori infection, such as the reduced bioavailability or the malabsorbption of essential nutrients, and of gastrointestinal hormones, as well as on the relationship between H. pylori and the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Key Roles of Glutamine Pathways in Reprogramming the Cancer Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Krzysztof Piotr; Maćkowska-Kędziora, Agnieszka; Sobolewski, Bogusław; Woźniak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine (GLN) is commonly known as an important metabolite used for the growth of cancer cells but the effects of its intake in cancer patients are still not clear. However, GLN is the main substrate for DNA and fatty acid synthesis. On the other hand, it reduces the oxidative stress by glutathione synthesis stimulation, stops the process of cancer cachexia, and nourishes the immunological system and the intestine epithelium, as well. The current paper deals with possible positive effects of GLN supplementation and conditions that should be fulfilled to obtain these effects. The analysis of GLN metabolism suggests that the separation of GLN and carbohydrates in the diet can minimize simultaneous supply of ATP (from glucose) and NADPH2 (from glutamine) to cancer cells. It should support to a larger extent the organism to fight against the cancer rather than the cancer cells. GLN cannot be considered the effective source of ATP for cancers with the impaired oxidative phosphorylation and pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition. GLN intake restores decreased levels of glutathione in the case of chemotherapy and radiotherapy; thus, it facilitates regeneration processes of the intestine epithelium and immunological system.

  8. In Search of Enzymes with a Role in 3', 5'-Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Metabolism in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gross, Inonge; Durner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In plants, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis plays an important role during pathogenic stress response, stomata closure upon osmotic stress, the development of adventitious roots and transcript regulation. The NO-cGMP dependent pathway is well characterized in mammals. The binding of NO to soluble guanylate cyclase enzymes (GCs) initiates the synthesis of cGMP from guanosine triphosphate. The produced cGMP alters various cellular responses, such as the function of protein kinase activity, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels and cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases. The signal generated by the second messenger is terminated by 3', 5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDEs) enzymes that hydrolyze cGMP to a non-cyclic 5'-guanosine monophosphate. To date, no homologues of mammalian cGMP-synthesizing and degrading enzymes have been found in higher plants. In the last decade, six receptor proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana have been reported to have guanylate cyclase activity in vitro. Of the six receptors, one was shown to be a NO dependent guanylate cyclase enzyme (NOGC1). However, the role of these proteins in planta remains to be elucidated. Enzymes involved in the degradation of cGMP remain elusive, albeit, PDE activity has been detected in crude protein extracts from various plants. Additionally, several research groups have partially purified and characterized PDE enzymatic activity from crude protein extracts. In this review, we focus on presenting advances toward the identification of enzymes involved in the cGMP metabolism pathway in higher plants. PMID:27200049

  9. Metabolic syndrome, platelet activation and the development of transient ischemic attack or thromboembolic stroke.

    PubMed

    van Rooy, Mia-Jeanne; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-03-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of mortality in the world today, where transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a period of focal ischemia, the symptoms of which resemble a thromboembolic stroke. Contrary to stroke, TIA symptoms typically last less than one hour and necrosis is absent. Stroke is often preceded by TIA, making it an important predictor of future ischemic events. The causal role of atherosclerosis in the development of TIA is well established, however, research indicates that the atherosclerotic process begins years earlier with the development of metabolic syndrome, which affects approximately 45% of the adult population worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is present if three or more of the following is present: increased waist circumference, increased triglycerides, decreased HDL, increased fasting glucose and hypertension. This syndrome causes systemic inflammation that activates the coagulation system and may cause the formation of pathological thrombi. The role of platelets in stroke has been studied and platelet activation pathways identified. ADP and thromboxane A(2) are the most common activators of platelets in normal physiology. Several pharmacological treatments have been employed to prevent the activation of platelets, the most common of which include aspirin and P2Y(12)-inhibitors. Although treatment is administered strokes and subsequent TIAs are very common in individuals that suffered an initial event. This indicates that research needs to be done in order to elucidate new therapeutic targets, but also to better treat ischemic events to not only decrease the amount of recurring events but also decrease stroke mortality worldwide.

  10. Differential Role of Adipose Tissues in Obesity and Related Metabolic and Vascular Complications

    PubMed Central

    Beneit, Nuria; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described. For these reasons, in recent years, in order to combat obesity and its related complications, as a complement to conventional treatments, a new insight is focusing on the role of the thermogenic function of brown and perivascular adipose tissues as a promising therapy in humans. These lines of knowledge are focused on the design of new drugs, or other approaches, in order to increase the mass and/or activity of brown adipose tissue or the browning process of beige cells from white adipose tissue. These new treatments may contribute not only to reduce obesity but also to prevent highly prevalent complications such as type 2 diabetes and other vascular alterations, such as hypertension or atherosclerosis. PMID:27766104

  11. Metabolic activity and functional diversity changes in sediment prokaryotic communities organically enriched with mussel biodeposits.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Thomas; Cloutier, Olivier; Nozais, Christian; McKindsey, Christopher W; Archambault, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This experimental microcosm study reports the influence of organic enrichments by mussel biodeposits on the metabolic activity and functional diversity of benthic prokaryotic communities. The different biodeposit enrichment regimes created, which mimicked the quantity of faeces and pseudo-faeces potentially deposited below mussel farms, show a clear stimulatory effect of this organic enrichment on prokaryotic metabolic activity. This effect was detected once a certain level of biodeposition was attained with a tipping point estimated between 3.25 and 10 g day-1 m-2. Prokaryotic communities recovered their initial metabolic activity by 11 days after the cessation of biodeposit additions. However, their functional diversity remained greater than prior to the disturbance suggesting that mussel biodeposit enrichment may disturb the functioning and perhaps the role of prokaryotic communities in benthic ecosystems. This manipulative approach provided new information on the influence of mussel biodeposition on benthic prokaryotic communities and dose-response relationships and may support the development of carrying capacity models for bivalve culture.

  12. Metabolic Activity and Functional Diversity Changes in Sediment Prokaryotic Communities Organically Enriched with Mussel Biodeposits

    PubMed Central

    Pollet, Thomas; Cloutier, Olivier; Nozais, Christian; McKindsey, Christopher W.; Archambault, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This experimental microcosm study reports the influence of organic enrichments by mussel biodeposits on the metabolic activity and functional diversity of benthic prokaryotic communities. The different biodeposit enrichment regimes created, which mimicked the quantity of faeces and pseudo-faeces potentially deposited below mussel farms, show a clear stimulatory effect of this organic enrichment on prokaryotic metabolic activity. This effect was detected once a certain level of biodeposition was attained with a tipping point estimated between 3.25 and 10 g day-1 m-2. Prokaryotic communities recovered their initial metabolic activity by 11 days after the cessation of biodeposit additions. However, their functional diversity remained greater than prior to the disturbance suggesting that mussel biodeposit enrichment may disturb the functioning and perhaps the role of prokaryotic communities in benthic ecosystems. This manipulative approach provided new information on the influence of mussel biodeposition on benthic prokaryotic communities and dose-response relationships and may support the development of carrying capacity models for bivalve culture. PMID:25923715

  13. Role of body composition and metabolic profile in Barrett’s oesophagus and progression to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Di Caro, Simona; Cheung, Wui Hang; Fini, Lucia; Keane, Margaret G.; Theis, Belinda; Haidry, Rehan; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Lovat, Laurence; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk for Barrett’s oesophagus (BE) on the basis of body composition, metabolic pathways, adipokines and metabolic syndrome (MS), as well as their role in cancer progression. Methods In patients with and without BE at gastroscopy, data on MS, BMI, waist/hip ratio for abdominal obesity (AO) and body fat percentage by bioimpedance were obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipid, serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured. The homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Histological findings for BE were correlated with the above parameters. Risk factors for BE identified using univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 250 patients and 224 controls (F/M: 189/285, mean age 58.08±15.51 years) were enroled. In the BE and control groups, 39.6 versus 31.3% were overweight, 32 versus 22.8% were obese, 75.6 versus 51.3% had AO, and 28.1 versus 18.9% were metabolically obese, respectively. AO [odds ratio (OR) 3.08], increased body fat percentage (OR 2.29), and higher BMI (overweight: OR 2.04; obese: OR 2.26) were significantly associated with BE. A positive trend was found in Normal Weight Obese Syndrome (OR 1.69). MS was associated with BE (overweight: OR 3.05; obese: OR 5.2; AO: OR 8.08). Insulin levels (P=0.05) and HOMA-IR (P<0.001) were higher in BE. AO was the only independent risk factor associated with BE (OR 1.65; P=0.02) and high-grade dysplasia (OR 2.44) on multivariate analysis. Conclusion AO was strongly associated with BE and dysplasia. BE was associated with MS and higher insulin/HOMA-IR, suggesting the activation of specific metabolic pathways in patients with altered body composition. PMID:26671515

  14. Mutagenicity of 3-chlorodibenzofuran and its metabolic activation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Michi; Ando, Mitsuru )

    1991-01-01

    3-Chlorodibenzofuran was the only markedly mutagenic isomer among the four monochlorodibenzofurans. Although it was mutagenic even in the absence of 9,000g supernatant fraction (S9) of rat liver, it was further activated by the addition of S9. Metabolic activation of this compound in mutagenicity was studied using liver S9s and cell fractions which were prepared from rats treated with two inducers. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) was used as an inducer of phenobarbital inducible cytochrome P-450, and {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF) was used as an inducer of 3-methylcholanthrene inducible cytochrome P-448. Mutagenicity was tested using Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98, because this strain is more sensitive to 3-chlorodibenzofuran than strain TA100. This experiment showed that 3-chlorodibenzofuran was activated most highly by {beta}NF-induced microsomes. However, it was also activated by the cytosolic fraction. This showed that 3-chlorodibenzofuran is activated not only by cytochrome P-448, which is induced by 3-methylcholanthrene type inducers, but also by the enzymes existing in normal rat liver. This result suggests a risk of manifestation of its toxicity to normal animals.

  15. Deciphering the roles of the constitutive androstane receptor in energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiong; Chen, Baian; Lu, Jing; Xie, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is initially defined as a xenobiotic nuclear receptor that protects the liver from injury. Detoxification of damaging chemicals is achieved by CAR-mediated induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. More recent research has implicated CAR in energy metabolism, suggesting a therapeutic potential for CAR in metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which CAR regulates energy metabolism will allow us to take advantage of its effectiveness while avoiding its side effects. This review summarizes the current progress on the regulation of CAR nuclear translocation, upstream modulators of CAR activity, and the crosstalk between CAR and other transcriptional factors, with the aim of elucidating how CAR regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:25500869

  16. Correlation between phagocytic activity and metabolic response of polymorphonuclear leukocytes toward different strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Rottini, G; Dri, P; Soranzo, M R; Patriarca, P

    1975-01-01

    The bactericidal activity, the phagocytic capacity, and the metabolic stimulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes challenged with different strains of Escherichia coli were studied. It was found that only two strains out of 10 tested stimulated the oxygen consumption and carbohydrate metabolism of leukocytes and were readily killed by the phagocytes. The lack of killing of the other eight strains was shown to be due to absent or poor phagocytosis rather than to resistance to intracellular killing. Evidence was presented that the surface K antigen plays an important role in conferring antiphagocytic properties to some strains of E. coli. It was suggested that K antigen acts by interfering with the early step of the phagocytic process, that is, the attachment step. PMID:1090529

  17. Circadian clock control of hepatic lipid metabolism: role of small heterodimer partner (Shp).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic steatosis, the accumulation of triglyceride droplets in the hepatocytes, is a common hepatic pathology seen in subjects with obesity/metabolic syndrome and those with excessive alcohol use. The pathogenesis underlying hepatic steatosis is complex. Recent studies have shown the specific role played by the molecular clock mechanism in the control of lipid metabolism and that the disruption of these tissue clocks may lead to the disturbances in lipid homeostasis. This review reports a novel role of small heterodimer partner in maintaining triglyceride and lipoprotein homeostasis through neuronal PAS domain protein 2. PMID:27473715

  18. [Biological role and importance in the skin metabolism of vitamin C].

    PubMed

    Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2007-12-01

    Vitamins are a group of compounds indispensable for the development, normal growth and functioning of the human body. Lack of vitamins causes serious diseases for human, even though small amounts of them are required to maintain good health. Therefore there is growing interest conceding the role of vitamin C in biochemical-physiological conditions. This article reviews the role of water--soluble vitamin C in metabolic processes and discusses criteria used for recommended ingestion and presents recommendations for vitamin C intake. In the paper is discussed in detail the influence of level vitamin C (physico-chemical aspects) on the metabolism in skin.

  19. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Metabolism. In: Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology . 14th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John H Wiley and Sons; 2013: ...

  20. Differential roles of PPARγ vs TR4 in prostate cancer and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Lin, Shin-Jen; Li, Gonghui; Kim, Eungseok; Chen, Yei-Tsung; Yang, Dong-Rong; Tan, M H Eileen; Yong, Eu Leong; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, NR1C3) and testicular receptor 4 nuclear receptor (TR4, NR2C2) are two members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily that can be activated by several similar ligands/activators including polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites, such as 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, as well as some anti-diabetic drugs such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs). However, the consequences of the transactivation of these ligands/activators via these two NRs are different, with at least three distinct phenotypes. First, activation of PPARγ increases insulin sensitivity yet activation of TR4 decreases insulin sensitivity. Second, PPARγ attenuates atherosclerosis but TR4 might increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Third, PPARγ suppresses prostate cancer (PCa) development and TR4 suppresses prostate carcinogenesis yet promotes PCa metastasis. Importantly, the deregulation of either PPARγ or TR4 in PCa alone might then alter the other receptor's influences on PCa progression. Knocking out PPARγ altered the ability of TR4 to promote prostate carcinogenesis and knocking down TR4 also resulted in TZD treatment promoting PCa development, indicating that both PPARγ and TR4 might coordinate with each other to regulate PCa initiation, and the loss of either one of them might switch the other one from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter. These results indicate that further and detailed studies of both receptors at the same time in the same cells/organs may help us to better dissect their distinct physiological roles and develop better drug(s) with fewer side effects to battle PPARγ- and TR4-related diseases including tumor and cardiovascular diseases as well as metabolic disorders. PMID:24623743

  1. Aberrant Lipid Metabolism Promotes Prostate Cancer: Role in Cell Survival under Hypoxia and Extracellular Vesicles Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Gagan; Schlaepfer, Isabel R.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men in United States. Recent studies have focused on the identification of novel metabolic characteristics of PCa, aimed at devising better preventive and therapeutic approaches. PCa cells have revealed unique metabolic features such as higher expression of several enzymes associated with de novo lipogenesis, fatty acid up-take and β-oxidation. This aberrant lipid metabolism has been reported to be important for PCa growth, hormone-refractory progression and treatment resistance. Furthermore, PCa cells effectively use lipid metabolism under adverse environmental conditions for their survival advantage. Specifically, hypoxic cancer cells accumulate higher amount of lipids through a combination of metabolic alterations including high glutamine and fatty acid uptake, as well as decreased fatty acid oxidation. These stored lipids serve to protect cancer cells from oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and play important roles in fueling cancer cell proliferation following re-oxygenation. Lastly, cellular lipids have also been implicated in extracellular vesicle biogenesis, which play a vital role in intercellular communication. Overall, the new understanding of lipid metabolism in recent years has offered several novel targets to better target and manage clinical PCa. PMID:27384557

  2. Aberrant Lipid Metabolism Promotes Prostate Cancer: Role in Cell Survival under Hypoxia and Extracellular Vesicles Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Deep, Gagan; Schlaepfer, Isabel R

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men in United States. Recent studies have focused on the identification of novel metabolic characteristics of PCa, aimed at devising better preventive and therapeutic approaches. PCa cells have revealed unique metabolic features such as higher expression of several enzymes associated with de novo lipogenesis, fatty acid up-take and β-oxidation. This aberrant lipid metabolism has been reported to be important for PCa growth, hormone-refractory progression and treatment resistance. Furthermore, PCa cells effectively use lipid metabolism under adverse environmental conditions for their survival advantage. Specifically, hypoxic cancer cells accumulate higher amount of lipids through a combination of metabolic alterations including high glutamine and fatty acid uptake, as well as decreased fatty acid oxidation. These stored lipids serve to protect cancer cells from oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and play important roles in fueling cancer cell proliferation following re-oxygenation. Lastly, cellular lipids have also been implicated in extracellular vesicle biogenesis, which play a vital role in intercellular communication. Overall, the new understanding of lipid metabolism in recent years has offered several novel targets to better target and manage clinical PCa. PMID:27384557

  3. Role of Central Metabolism in the Osmoadaptation of the Halophilic Bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens*

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, José M.; Bernal, Vicente; Salvador, Manuel; Argandoña, Montserrat; Vargas, Carmen; Csonka, Laszlo; Sevilla, Ángel; Iborra, José L.; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Cánovas, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial osmoadaptation involves the cytoplasmic accumulation of compatible solutes to counteract extracellular osmolarity. The halophilic and highly halotolerant bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens is able to grow up to 3 m NaCl in a minimal medium due to the de novo synthesis of ectoines. This is an osmoregulated pathway that burdens central metabolic routes by quantitatively drawing off TCA cycle intermediaries. Consequently, metabolism in C. salexigens has adapted to support this biosynthetic route. Metabolism of C. salexigens is more efficient at high salinity than at low salinity, as reflected by lower glucose consumption, lower metabolite overflow, and higher biomass yield. At low salinity, by-products (mainly gluconate, pyruvate, and acetate) accumulate extracellularly. Using [1-13C]-, [2-13C]-, [6-13C]-, and [U-13C6]glucose as carbon sources, we were able to determine the main central metabolic pathways involved in ectoines biosynthesis from glucose. C. salexigens uses the Entner-Doudoroff pathway rather than the standard glycolytic pathway for glucose catabolism, and anaplerotic activity is high to replenish the TCA cycle with the intermediaries withdrawn for ectoines biosynthesis. Metabolic flux ratios at low and high salinity were similar, revealing a certain metabolic rigidity, probably due to its specialization to support high biosynthetic fluxes and partially explaining why metabolic yields are so highly affected by salinity. This work represents an important contribution to the elucidation of specific metabolic adaptations in compatible solute-accumulating halophilic bacteria. PMID:23615905

  4. Role of Hypothalamic VGF in Energy Balance and Metabolic Adaption to Environmental Enrichment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Foglesong, Grant D; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xianglan; Slater, Andrew M; Siu, Jason; Yildiz, Vedat; Salton, Stephen R J; Cao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE), a housing condition providing complex physical, social, and cognitive stimulation, leads to improved metabolic health and resistance to diet-induced obesity and cancer. One underlying mechanism is the activation of the hypothalamic-sympathoneural-adipocyte axis with hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as the key mediator. VGF, a peptide precursor particularly abundant in the hypothalamus, was up-regulated by EE. Overexpressing BDNF or acute injection of BDNF protein to the hypothalamus up-regulated VGF, whereas suppressing BDNF signaling down-regulated VGF expression. Moreover, hypothalamic VGF expression was regulated by leptin, melanocortin receptor agonist, and food deprivation mostly paralleled to BDNF expression. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of Cre recombinase to floxed VGF mice specifically decreased VGF expression in the hypothalamus. In contrast to the lean and hypermetabolic phenotype of homozygous germline VGF knockout mice, specific knockdown of hypothalamic VGF in male adult mice led to increased adiposity, decreased core body temperature, reduced energy expenditure, and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as disturbance of molecular features of brown and white adipose tissues without effects on food intake. However, VGF knockdown failed to block the EE-induced BDNF up-regulation or decrease of adiposity indicating a minor role of VGF in the hypothalamic-sympathoneural-adipocyte axis. Taken together, our results suggest hypothalamic VGF responds to environmental demands and plays an important role in energy balance and glycemic control likely acting in the melanocortin pathway downstream of BDNF.

  5. Role of Hypothalamic VGF in Energy Balance and Metabolic Adaption to Environmental Enrichment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Foglesong, Grant D; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xianglan; Slater, Andrew M; Siu, Jason; Yildiz, Vedat; Salton, Stephen R J; Cao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE), a housing condition providing complex physical, social, and cognitive stimulation, leads to improved metabolic health and resistance to diet-induced obesity and cancer. One underlying mechanism is the activation of the hypothalamic-sympathoneural-adipocyte axis with hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as the key mediator. VGF, a peptide precursor particularly abundant in the hypothalamus, was up-regulated by EE. Overexpressing BDNF or acute injection of BDNF protein to the hypothalamus up-regulated VGF, whereas suppressing BDNF signaling down-regulated VGF expression. Moreover, hypothalamic VGF expression was regulated by leptin, melanocortin receptor agonist, and food deprivation mostly paralleled to BDNF expression. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of Cre recombinase to floxed VGF mice specifically decreased VGF expression in the hypothalamus. In contrast to the lean and hypermetabolic phenotype of homozygous germline VGF knockout mice, specific knockdown of hypothalamic VGF in male adult mice led to increased adiposity, decreased core body temperature, reduced energy expenditure, and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as disturbance of molecular features of brown and white adipose tissues without effects on food intake. However, VGF knockdown failed to block the EE-induced BDNF up-regulation or decrease of adiposity indicating a minor role of VGF in the hypothalamic-sympathoneural-adipocyte axis. Taken together, our results suggest hypothalamic VGF responds to environmental demands and plays an important role in energy balance and glycemic control likely acting in the melanocortin pathway downstream of BDNF. PMID:26730934

  6. Role of quinate dehydrogenase in quinic acid metabolism in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, V.I.; Shein, I.V.

    1986-08-10

    Quinate dehydrogenase was isolated from young needles of the Siberian larch and partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation. It was found that in conifers, in contrast to other plants, quinate dehydrogenase is active both with NAD and with NADP. The values of K/sub m/ for quinate and NADP were 1.8 and 0.18 mM. The enzyme exhibits maximum activity at pH 9.0. It was assumed that NADP-dependent quinate dehydrogenase is responsible for quinic acid synthesis. The special features of the organization and regulation of the initial stages of the shikimate pathway in conifers are discussed.

  7. Composition and Metabolic Activities of Bacterial Biofilms Colonizing Food Residues in the Human Gut

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Sandra; Macfarlane, George T.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria growing in the human large intestine live in intimate association with the host and play an important role in host digestive processes, gut physiology, and metabolism. Fecal bacteria have been investigated extensively, but few studies have been done on biofilms that form on digestive wastes in the large bowel. The aims of this investigation were to investigate the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial communities that colonize the surfaces of food residues in fecal material, with respect to their role in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. Fresh stools were obtained from 15 healthy donors, and food residues were separated by filtration. Adherent bacteria were removed by surfactant treatment for microbiological analysis and fermentation studies. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to visualize intact biofilms. Results showed that bacterial populations strongly adhering to particulate matter were phenotypically similar in composition to unattached communities, with bacteroides and bifidobacteria predominating. Biofilms comprised a mixture of living and dead bacteria, and CLSM showed that bifidobacteria in the biofilms occurred as isolated dispersed cells and in microcolonies near the interface with the substratum. Fermentation experiments with a variety of complex carbohydrates demonstrated that biofilm populations were more efficient in digesting polysaccharides, while nonadhering communities fermented oligosaccharides most rapidly. Acetate was the principal fermentation product formed by biofilm bacteria, whereas higher levels of butyrate were produced by nonadherent populations, showing that the two communities were metabolically distinct. PMID:16957247

  8. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of WRN function causes Werner Syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN’s DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  9. Inferring the metabolism of human orphan metabolites from their metabolic network context affirms human gluconokinase activity.

    PubMed

    Rolfsson, Óttar; Paglia, Giuseppe; Magnusdóttir, Manuela; Palsson, Bernhard Ø; Thiele, Ines

    2013-01-15

    Metabolic network reconstructions define metabolic information within a target organism and can therefore be used to address incomplete metabolic information. In the present study we used a computational approach to identify human metabolites whose metabolism is incomplete on the basis of their detection in humans but exclusion from the human metabolic network reconstruction RECON 1. Candidate solutions, composed of metabolic reactions capable of explaining the metabolism of these compounds, were then identified computationally from a global biochemical reaction database. Solutions were characterized with respect to how metabolites were incorporated into RECON 1 and their biological relevance. Through detailed case studies we show that biologically plausible non-intuitive hypotheses regarding the metabolism of these compounds can be proposed in a semi-automated manner, in an approach that is similar to de novo network reconstruction. We subsequently experimentally validated one of the proposed hypotheses and report that C9orf103, previously identified as a candidate tumour suppressor gene, encodes a functional human gluconokinase. The results of the present study demonstrate how semi-automatic gap filling can be used to refine and extend metabolic reconstructions, thereby increasing their biological scope. Furthermore, we illustrate how incomplete human metabolic knowledge can be coupled with gene annotation in order to prioritize and confirm gene functions.

  10. The role of peroxisomes in the integration of metabolism and evolutionary diversity of photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Igamberdiev, Abir U; Lea, Peter J

    2002-08-01

    The peroxisome is a metabolic compartment serving for the rapid oxidation of substrates, a process that is not coupled to energy conservation. In plants and algae, peroxisomes connect biosynthetic and oxidative metabolic routes and compartmentalize potentially lethal steps of metabolism such as the formation of reactive oxygen species and glyoxylate, thus preventing poisoning of the cell and futile recycling. Peroxisomes exhibit properties resembling inside-out vesicles and possess special systems for the import of specific proteins, which form multi-enzyme complexes (metabolons) linking numerous reactions to flavin-dependent oxidation, coupled to the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide originating in peroxisomes are important mediators in signal transduction pathways, particularly those involving salicylic acid. By contributing to the synthesis of oxalate, formate and other organic acids, peroxisomes regulate major fluxes of primary and secondary metabolism. The evolutionary diversity of algae has led to the presence of a wide range of enzymes in the peroxisomes that are only similar to higher plants in their direct predecessors, the Charophyceae. The appearance of seed plants was connected to the acquirement by storage tissues, of a peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation function linked to the glyoxylate cycle, which is induced during seed germination and maturation. Rearrangement of the peroxisomal photorespiratory function between different tissues of higher plants led to the appearance of different types of photosynthetic metabolism. The peroxisome may therefore have played a key role in the evolutionary formation of metabolic networks, via establishing interconnections between different metabolic compartments.

  11. New predictors of the metabolic syndrome in children--role of adipocytokines.

    PubMed

    Körner, Antje; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Gausche, Ruth; Schaab, Michael; Erbs, Sandra; Kiess, Wieland

    2007-06-01

    There is ample discussion of the relevance of the metabolic syndrome, the definition criteria, and predictive power. Nevertheless, along with the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in obese children is reported at 30%, irrespective of the definition applied. Because children are otherwise relatively free of co-morbidities, they constitute an interesting population in which to study the sequence of events of obesity-related pathology. The adipocytokines appear to be important in this respect. Leptin was initially suggested as a promising "antiobesity" hormone. New concepts indicate that, in humans, leptin and its soluble receptor may be more important in states of energy deficiency rather than a predictor of the metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin, on the other hand, is not only related to obesity and insulin resistance, but appears to be the strongest predictor for metabolic syndrome, even in children. In newborns and infants, both adipocytokines occur in high concentrations, even though this cannot completely explain the increased risk for ensuing metabolic disease later in life. Finally, low-grade systemic inflammation may underlie the clustering of metabolic risk factors, but their role in children remains to be specified. Overall factors from the adipose tissue may constitute not only markers but also mediators of metabolic sequelae of obesity.

  12. The role of astrocytes in the hypothalamic response and adaptation to metabolic signals.

    PubMed

    Chowen, Julie A; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Frago, Laura M; Horvath, Tamas L; Argente, Jesús

    2016-09-01

    The hypothalamus is crucial in the regulation of homeostatic functions in mammals, with the disruption of hypothalamic circuits contributing to chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and infertility. Metabolic signals and hormonal inputs drive functional and morphological changes in the hypothalamus in attempt to maintain metabolic homeostasis. However, the dramatic increase in the incidence of obesity and its secondary complications, such as type 2 diabetes, have evidenced the need to better understand how this system functions and how it can go awry. Growing evidence points to a critical role of astrocytes in orchestrating the hypothalamic response to metabolic cues by participating in processes of synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and nutrient sensing. These glial cells express receptors for important metabolic signals, such as the anorexigenic hormone leptin, and determine the type and quantity of nutrients reaching their neighboring neurons. Understanding the mechanisms by which astrocytes participate in hypothalamic adaptations to changes in dietary and metabolic signals is fundamental for understanding the neuroendocrine control of metabolism and key in the search for adequate treatments of metabolic diseases.

  13. Role of Lipid Metabolism in Plant Pollen Exine Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Xijia

    2016-01-01

    Pollen plays important roles in the life cycle of angiosperms plants. It acts as not only a biological protector of male sperms but also a communicator between the male and the female reproductive organs, facilitating pollination and fertilization. Pollen is produced within the anther, and covered by the specialized outer envelope, pollen wall. Although the morphology of pollen varies among different plant species, the pollen wall is mainly comprised of three layers: the pollen coat, the outer exine layer, and the inner intine layer. Except the intine layer, the other two layers are basically of lipidic nature. Particularly, the outer pollen wall layer, the exine, is a highly resistant biopolymer of phenylpropanoid and lipidic monomers covalently coupled by ether and ester linkages. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying pollen coat formation and exine patterning remain largely elusive. Herein, we summarize the current genetic, phenotypic and biochemical studies regarding to the pollen exine development and underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms mainly obtained from monocot rice (Oryza sativa) and dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, aiming to extend our understandings of plant male reproductive biology. Genes, enzymes/proteins and regulatory factors that appear to play conserved and diversified roles in lipid biosynthesis, transportation and modification during pollen exine formation, were highlighted.

  14. Role of Lipid Metabolism in Plant Pollen Exine Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Xijia

    2016-01-01

    Pollen plays important roles in the life cycle of angiosperms plants. It acts as not only a biological protector of male sperms but also a communicator between the male and the female reproductive organs, facilitating pollination and fertilization. Pollen is produced within the anther, and covered by the specialized outer envelope, pollen wall. Although the morphology of pollen varies among different plant species, the pollen wall is mainly comprised of three layers: the pollen coat, the outer exine layer, and the inner intine layer. Except the intine layer, the other two layers are basically of lipidic nature. Particularly, the outer pollen wall layer, the exine, is a highly resistant biopolymer of phenylpropanoid and lipidic monomers covalently coupled by ether and ester linkages. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying pollen coat formation and exine patterning remain largely elusive. Herein, we summarize the current genetic, phenotypic and biochemical studies regarding to the pollen exine development and underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms mainly obtained from monocot rice (Oryza sativa) and dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, aiming to extend our understandings of plant male reproductive biology. Genes, enzymes/proteins and regulatory factors that appear to play conserved and diversified roles in lipid biosynthesis, transportation and modification during pollen exine formation, were highlighted. PMID:27023241

  15. Mitochondrial Iron Metabolism and Its Role in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Maxx P.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In addition to their well-established role in providing the cell with ATP, mitochondria are the source of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) and heme – prosthetic groups that are utilized by proteins throughout the cell in various critical processes. The post-transcriptional system that mammalian cells use to regulate intracellular iron homeostasis depends, in part, upon the synthesis of ISCs in mitochondria. Thus, proper mitochondrial function is crucial to cellular iron homeostasis. Many neurodegenerative diseases are marked by mitochondrial impairment, brain iron accumulation, and oxidative stress – pathologies that are inter-related. This review discusses the physiological role that mitochondria play in cellular iron homeostasis and, in so doing, attempts to clarify how mitochondrial dysfunction may initiate and/or contribute to iron dysregulation in the context of neurodegenerative disease. We review what is currently known about the entry of iron into mitochondria, the ways in which iron is utilized therein, and how mitochondria are integrated into the system of iron homeostasis in mammalian cells. Lastly, we turn to recent advances in our understanding of iron dysregulation in two neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease), and discuss the use of iron chelation as a potential therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:20463401

  16. Role of a liver fatty acid-binding protein gene in lipid metabolism in chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, G L; Na, W; Wang, Y X; Zhang, H F; Li, H; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, and the regulatory relationships between L-FABP and genes related to lipid metabolism. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference vector with L-FABP and an eukaryotic expression vector were used. Chicken hepatocytes were subjected to shRNA-mediated knockdown or L-FABP cDNA overexpression. Expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and biochemical parameters were detected 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after transfection with the interference or overexpression plasmids for L-FABP, PPARα and L-BABP expression levels, and the total amount of cholesterol, were significantly affected by L-FABP expression. L-FABP may affect lipid metabolism by regulating PPARα and L-BABP in chicken hepatocytes. PMID:25966259

  17. The emerging role of autophagy in peroxisome dynamics and lipid metabolism of phyllosphere microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Oku, Masahide; Takano, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic microorganisms resident in the phyllosphere (above-ground, plant-surface environments) undergo dynamic changes in nutrient conditions and adapt their metabolic pathways during proliferation or in the course of infection of host plants. Some of these metabolic switches are accomplished by regulation of organelle abundance. Recent studies have shown that autophagy plays a major role in reducing the organelle quantity, thereby contributing to the metabolic switch required for survival or virulence of the microorganisms in the phyllosphere. In this mini review the metabolic pathways in several phytopathogenic fungi and the non-infectious asporogenous yeast Candida boidinii, which involve lipid droplets and peroxisomes, are summarized. The physiological functions of Atg (Autophagy-related) proteins in these organisms are discussed in relation to the dynamics of these two important organelles. PMID:24653730

  18. Metabolic syndrome: A review of the role of vitamin D in mediating susceptibility and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Richard C; Shipman, Kate E; Ramachandran, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-recognised role of vitamin D in a wide range of physiological processes, hypovitaminosis is common worldwide (prevalence 30%-50%) presumably arising from inadequate exposure to ultraviolet radiation and insufficient consumption. While generally not at the very low levels associated with rickets, hypovitaminosis D has been implicated in various very different, pathophysiological processes. These include putative effects on the pathogenesis of neoplastic change, inflammatory and demyelinating conditions, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. This review focuses on the association between hypovitaminosis D and the metabolic syndrome as well as its component characteristics which are central obesity, glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, hypertension and atherogenic dyslipidaemia. We also consider the effects of hypovitaminosis D on outcomes associated with the metabolic syndrome such as CVD, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We structure this review into 3 distinct sections; the metabolic syndrome, vitamin D biochemistry and the putative association between hypovitaminosis D, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk. PMID:26185598

  19. Role of a liver fatty acid-binding protein gene in lipid metabolism in chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, G L; Na, W; Wang, Y X; Zhang, H F; Li, H; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, and the regulatory relationships between L-FABP and genes related to lipid metabolism. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference vector with L-FABP and an eukaryotic expression vector were used. Chicken hepatocytes were subjected to shRNA-mediated knockdown or L-FABP cDNA overexpression. Expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and biochemical parameters were detected 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after transfection with the interference or overexpression plasmids for L-FABP, PPARα and L-BABP expression levels, and the total amount of cholesterol, were significantly affected by L-FABP expression. L-FABP may affect lipid metabolism by regulating PPARα and L-BABP in chicken hepatocytes.

  20. Physical Therapy for Metabolic Syndrome Prevention in Workers: Novel Role of Physical Therapist.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tomonori; Nemoto, Yuki; Utumi, Takako; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, physical therapists have usually been involved in physical therapy for patients with functional disorders associated with cerebrovascular or orthopedic diseases in hospitals. With the aging of Japanese society, the number of diseased people will progressively increase; thus, it is important to pay much more attention to disease prevention. In this regard, physical therapists are expected to play a new role in the field of preventive medicine. Metabolic syndrome or central obesity with multiple cardiometabolic risks is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular diseases and is now a central target for early detection and intervention for disease prevention. The incidence of metabolic syndrome increases with age, and men showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in all generations. We have been involved in the guidance of workers with metabolic syndrome for a long time, and we conducted a multicenter study to establish effective guidance for these worker. In this paper, we will use our evidence to discuss the role of physical therapists in providing guidance for preventing metabolic syndrome. We are now conducting worksite supporting exercise intervention for workers who were resistant to conventional lifestyle guidance. In addition, the unique role of physical therapists in this new trial will be introduced. PMID:27246150

  1. Bioavailability of alcohol: role of gastric metabolism and its interaction with other drugs.

    PubMed

    Baraona, E; Gentry, R T; Lieber, C S

    1994-01-01

    In most individuals, only part of the imbibed alcohol reaches the systemic blood. With doses relevant to social drinking, this is due mainly to gastric first-pass metabolism of alcohol, which acts as a barrier against toxic alcohol blood levels. The activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase can account for a substantial fraction of this metabolism. Fasting, female gender, old age, dilution of alcoholic beverages, chronic alcohol consumption and still undetermined factors decrease the gastric metabolism of alcohol. Aspirin and some H2-receptor antagonists also inhibit this gastric activity. In subjects with documented first-pass metabolism, these drugs increase blood alcohol levels, especially after repeated small drinks, and may result in unexpected impairment to perform complex tasks, such as driving. Thus, patients treated with these drugs should be warned of this possible side effect.

  2. Metabolically active functional food ingredients for weight control.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, E M R; Mela, D J

    2006-02-01

    The scale of the obesity epidemic creates a pressing consumer need as well as an enormous business opportunity for successful development and marketing of food products with added benefits for weight control. A number of proposed functional food ingredients have been shown to act post-absorptively to influence substrate utilization or thermogenesis. Characteristics and supporting data on conjugated linoleic acid, diglycerides, medium-chain triglycerides, green tea, ephedrine, caffeine, capsaicin and calcium, are reviewed here, giving examples of how these could act to alter energy expenditure or appetite control. Consideration is also given to other factors, in addition to efficacy, which must be satisfied to get such ingredients into foods. We conclude that, for each of the safe, putatively metabolically active agents, there remain gaps in clinical evidence or knowledge of mechanisms, which need to be addressed in order to specify the dietary conditions and food product compositions where these ingredients could be of most benefit for weight control. PMID:16436103

  3. INCREASED ENDOCRINE ACTIVITY OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS AS MEDIATED BY METABOLIC ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is part of an effort to develop in vitro assays and QSARs applicable to untested chemicals on EPA inventories through study of estrogen receptor (ER) binding and estrogen mediated gene expression in fish. The current effort investigates metabolic activation of chemi...

  4. The role of sphingolipid metabolism in cutaneous permeability barrier formation.

    PubMed

    Breiden, Bernadette; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2014-03-01

    The epidermal permeability barrier of mammalian skin is localized in the stratum corneum. Corneocytes are embedded in an extracellular, highly ordered lipid matrix of hydrophobic lipids consisting of about 50% ceramides, 25% cholesterol and 15% long and very long chain fatty acids. The most important lipids for the epidermal barrier are ceramides. The scaffold of the lipid matrix is built of acylceramides, containing ω-hydroxylated very long chain fatty acids, acylated at the ω-position with linoleic acid. After glucosylation of the acylceramides at Golgi membranes and secretion, the linoleic acid residues are replaced by glutamate residues originating from proteins exposed on the surface of corneocytes. Removal of their glucosyl residues generates a hydrophobic surface on the corneocytes used as a template for the formation of extracellular lipid layers of the water permeability barrier. Misregulation or defects in the formation of extracellular ceramide structures disturb barrier function. Important anabolic steps are the synthesis of ultra long chain fatty acids, their ω-hydroxylation, and formation of ultra long chain ceramides and glucosylceramides. The main probarrier precursor lipids, glucosylceramides and sphingomyelins, are packed in lamellar bodies together with hydrolytic enzymes such as glucosylceramide-β-glucosidase and acid sphingomyelinase and secreted into the intercelullar space between the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum. Inherited defects in the extracellular hydrolytic processing of the probarrier acylglucosylceramides impair epidermal barrier formation and cause fatal diseases: such as prosaposin deficiency resulting in lack of lysosomal lipid binding and transfer proteins, or the symptomatic clinical picture of the "collodion baby" in the absence of glucocerebrosidase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous

  5. Metabolic activation of aromatic amines and azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, H

    1981-01-01

    Aromatic amines, amides and nitro compounds are a class of chemicals that produce tumors in a wide variety of tissues in experimental animals, including liver, urinary bladder, forestomach, small intestine, Zymbal's gland, subcutaneous tissue or skin. In man, exposure to some aromatic amines is associated with tumours of the urinary bladder and carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Their biological activity as carcinogens or genotoxic agents is, in all the cases that have been studied in detail, dependent on metabolic activation in vivo, occurring by multiple pathways. Differences in these metabolic pathways may largely account for the differences in tissues and species susceptibilities to cancer induction. Carcinogenicity of aromatic amines or amides is dependent on their oxidation to N-hydroxy derivatives, whilst the carcinogenicity of aromatic nitro compounds is linked to their reduction to hydroxylamines. Further conversion of the N-hydroxylamine or N-hydroxyamide to reactive intermediates can occur in several ways, which include (i) esterification of the N-hydroxy group, (ii) non-enzymic protonation of the nitrogen of the hydroxylamine and (iii) oxidation to a free radical of arylhydroxamic acids. Following generation of such reactive electrophilic intermediates in tissues or cells, macromolecular binding has been observed to nucleic acids and proteins. In many cases, arylamidated and arylaminated products are formed with nucleic acid bases; in the case of the well-studied 2-acetylaminofluorene, nucleophilic atoms of guanine are the predominant site of reaction. Relatively little is known of the structure and biological consequences of DNA adducts formed from other aromatic amines, amides or nitro compounds; more research in these directions is warranted.

  6. The Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Insulin Resistance and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Mee-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by BCAAs has been suggested to cause insulin resistance. In addition, defective BCAA oxidative metabolism might occur in obesity, leading to a further accumulation of BCAAs and toxic intermediates. This review provides the current understanding of the mechanism of BCAA-induced mTORC1 activation, as well as the effect of mTOR activation on metabolic health in terms of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the effects of impaired BCAA metabolism will be discussed in detail. PMID:27376324

  7. The Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Insulin Resistance and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mee-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by BCAAs has been suggested to cause insulin resistance. In addition, defective BCAA oxidative metabolism might occur in obesity, leading to a further accumulation of BCAAs and toxic intermediates. This review provides the current understanding of the mechanism of BCAA-induced mTORC1 activation, as well as the effect of mTOR activation on metabolic health in terms of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the effects of impaired BCAA metabolism will be discussed in detail. PMID:27376324

  8. Transcriptional profiling unravels potential metabolic activities of the olive leaf non-glandular trichome

    PubMed Central

    Koudounas, Konstantinos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Kourti, Anna; Banilas, Georgios; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2015-01-01

    The olive leaf trichomes are multicellular peltate hairs densely distributed mainly at the lower leaf epidermis. Although, non-glandular, they have gained much attention since they significantly contribute to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of olive leaves. The exact mechanisms by which olive trichomes achieve these goals are not fully understood. They could act as mechanical barrier but they also accumulate high amounts of flavonoids among other secondary metabolites. However, little is currently known about the exact compounds they produce and the respective metabolic pathways. Here we present the first EST analysis from olive leaf trichomes by using 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 5368 unigenes were identified out of 7258 high quality reads with an average length of 262 bp. Blast search revealed that 27.5% of them had high homologies to known proteins. By using Blast2GO, 1079 unigenes (20.1%) were assigned at least one Gene Ontology (GO) term. Most of the genes were involved in cellular and metabolic processes and in binding functions followed by catalytic activity. A total of 521 transcripts were mapped to 67 KEGG pathways. Olive trichomes represent a tissue of highly unique transcriptome as per the genes involved in developmental processes and the secondary metabolism. The results indicate that mature olive trichomes are trancriptionally active, mainly through the potential production of enzymes that contribute to phenolic compounds with important roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26322070

  9. Nur77 modulates hepatic lipid metabolism through suppression of SREBP1c activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pols, Thijs W.H.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Vos, Mariska; Levels, Johannes H.M.; Quax, Paul H.A.; Meijers, Joost C.M.; Pannekoek, Hans; Groen, Albert K.; Vries, Carlie J.M. de

    2008-02-22

    NR4A nuclear receptors are induced in the liver upon fasting and regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, we studied the role of nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) in hepatic lipid metabolism. We generated mice expressing hepatic Nur77 using adenoviral vectors, and demonstrate that these mice exhibit a modulation of the plasma lipid profile and a reduction in hepatic triglyceride. Expression analysis of >25 key genes involved in lipid metabolism revealed that Nur77 inhibits SREBP1c expression. This results in decreased SREBP1c activity as is illustrated by reduced expression of its target genes stearoyl-coA desaturase-1, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, fatty acid synthase and the LDL receptor, and provides a mechanism for the physiological changes observed in response to Nur77. Expression of LXR target genes Abcg5 and Abcg8 is reduced by Nur77, and may suggest involvement of LXR in the inhibitory action of Nur77 on SREBP1c expression. Taken together, our study demonstrates that Nur77 modulates hepatic lipid metabolism through suppression of SREBP1c activity.

  10. Blood flow to long bones indicates activity metabolism in mammals, reptiles and dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Smith, Sarah L; White, Craig R; Henderson, Donald M; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela

    2012-02-01

    The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of foramen size correlates well with maximum whole-body metabolic rate during exercise in mammals and reptiles, but less well with resting metabolic rate. This relates to the role of blood flow associated with bone remodelling during and following activity. Mammals and varanid lizards have much higher aerobic metabolic rates and exercise-induced bone remodelling than non-varanid reptiles. Foramen areas of 10 species of dinosaur from five taxonomic groups are generally larger than from mammals, indicating a routinely highly active and aerobic lifestyle. The simple measurement holds possibilities offers the possibility of assessing other groups of extinct and living vertebrates in relation to body size, behaviour and habitat.

  11. Metabolism of Preimplantation Embryo Development: A Bystander or an Active Participant?

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K J

    2016-01-01

    Unicellular organisms are exquisitely sensitive to nutrient availability in the environment and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to sense the levels and types of nutrients, altering gene expression patterns accordingly to adjust the metabolic activities required to survive. Thus, environmental cues induce adaptive metabolic differentiation through transcriptional and posttranscriptional changes. Similarly, preimplantation embryos are exposed to various environmental cues within the maternal reproductive tract prior to implantation. Because only "simple" culture conditions are required, it is assumed that these embryos are genetically preprogrammed to develop with little influence from the environment, with the exception of few "necessities" provided by the environment. However, a wealth of literature now suggests that the developing embryos are greatly influenced by the maternal environment. Even though the developing embryos have the capacity and plasticity to deal with nutritional imbalance posed by an altered maternal environment, there is often a trade-off to the overall fitness of those embryos later in life. Despite these studies that underline the general importance of the reproductive environment during development, it is thought that the primary driver of mammalian development is strictly genetic and that metabolic adaptation by the preimplantation embryo is secondary to genetic control. In this review, I propose that not only does the maternal environment of developing preimplantation embryos influence developmental potential, pregnancy outcomes, and postnatal disease states, but that it has an active role in induction and potentiation of the first differentiation event, the production of trophectoderm and inner cell mass lineages. PMID:27475855

  12. Metabolic and hemodynamic events following changes in neuronal activity: current hypotheses, theoretical predictions and in vivo NMR experimental findings

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico; Tkáč, Ivan; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Olman, Cheryl A.; Maraviglia, Bruno; Di Salle, Francesco; Uğurbil, Kâmil

    2009-01-01

    Unraveling the energy metabolism and the hemodynamic outcomes of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal activity is critical not only for our basic understanding of overall brain function, but also for the understanding of many brain disorders. Methodologies of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are powerful tools for the non-invasive investigation of brain metabolism and physiology. However, the temporal and spatial resolution of in vivo MRS and MRI is not suitable to provide direct evidence for hypotheses that involve metabolic compartmentalization between different cell types, or to untangle the complex neuronal micro-circuitry which results in changes of electrical activity. This review aims at describing how the current models of brain metabolism, mainly built on the basis of in vitro evidence, relate to experimental findings recently obtained in vivo by 1H MRS, 13C MRS and MRI. The hypotheses related to the role of different metabolic substrates, the metabolic neuron-glia interactions, along with the available theoretical predictions of the energy budget of neurotransmission, will be discussed. In addition, the cellular and network mechanisms that characterize different types of increased and suppressed neuronal activity will be considered within the sensitivity-constraints of MRS and MRI. PMID:19002199

  13. Compartment-specific activation of PPARγ governs breast cancer tumor growth, via metabolic reprogramming and symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Avena, Paola; Anselmo, Wanda; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Wang, Chenguang; Pestell, Richard G; Lamb, Rebecca S; Hulit, James; Casaburi, Ivan; Andò, Sebastiano; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lisanti, Michael P; Sotgia, Federica

    2013-05-01

    The role of PPARγ in cancer therapy is controversial, with studies showing either pro-tumorigenic or antineoplastic effects. This debate is very clinically relevant, because PPARγ agonists are used as antidiabetic drugs. Here, we evaluated if the effects of PPARγ on tumorigenesis are determined by the cell type in which PPARγ is activated. Second, we examined if the metabolic changes induced by PPARγ, such as glycolysis and autophagy, play any role in the tumorigenic process. To this end, PPARγ was overexpressed in breast cancer cells or in stromal cells. PPARγ-overexpressing cells were examined with respect to (1) their tumorigenic potential, using xenograft models, and (2) regarding their metabolic features. In xenograft models, we show that when PPARγ is activated in cancer cells, tumor growth is inhibited by 40%. However, when PPARγ is activated in stromal cells, the growth of co-injected breast cancer cells is enhanced by 60%. Thus, the effect(s) of PPARγ on tumorigenesis are dependent on the cell compartment in which PPARγ is activated. Mechanistically, stromal cells with activated PPARγ display metabolic features of cancer-associated fibroblasts, with increased autophagy, glycolysis and senescence. Indeed, fibroblasts overexpressing PPARγ show increased expression of autophagic markers, increased numbers of acidic autophagic vacuoles, increased production of L-lactate, cell hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, PPARγ fibroblasts show increased expression of CDKs (p16/p21) and β-galactosidase, which are markers of cell cycle arrest and senescence. Finally, PPARγ induces the activation of the two major transcription factors that promote autophagy and glycolysis, i.e., HIF-1α and NFκB, in stromal cells. Thus, PPARγ activation in stromal cells results in the formation of a catabolic pro-inflammatory microenvironment that metabolically supports cancer growth. Interestingly, the tumor inhibition observed when PPARγ is

  14. Molecular biology of PCSK9: its role in LDL metabolism.

    PubMed

    Horton, Jay D; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2007-02-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a newly discovered serine protease that destroys low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in liver and thereby controls the level of LDL in plasma. Mutations that increase PCSK9 activity cause hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); mutations that inactivate PCSK9 have the opposite effect, lowering LDL levels and reducing CHD. Although the mechanism of PCSK9 action is not yet clear, the protease provides a new therapeutic target to lower plasma levels of LDL and prevent CHD. PMID:17215125

  15. Metaproteomic analysis reveals microbial metabolic activities in the deep ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Wang, Ming-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Kong, Ling-Fen; Lin, Lin

    2016-04-01

    The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth and holds many and varied microbial life forms. However, little is known about their metabolic activities in the deep ocean. Here, we characterized protein profiles of particulate (>0.22 μm) and dissolved (between 10 kDa and 0.22 μm) fractions collected from the deep South China Sea using a shotgun proteomic approach. SAR324, Alteromonadales and SAR11 were the most abundant groups, while Prasinophyte contributed most to eukaryotes and cyanophage to viruses. The dominant heterotrophic activity was evidenced by the abundant transporters (33%). Proteins participating in nitrification, methanogenesis, methyltrophy and CO2 fixation were detected. Notably, the predominance of unique cellular proteins in dissolved fraction suggested the presence of membrane structures. Moreover, the detection of translation proteins related to phytoplankton indicated that other process rather than sinking particles might be the downward export of living cells. Our study implied that novel extracellular activities and the interaction of deep water with its overlying water could be crucial to the microbial world of deep sea.

  16. The regulatory role of Streptomyces coelicolor TamR in central metabolism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Sivapragasam, Smitha; Grove, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Trans-aconitate methyltransferase regulator (TamR) is a member of the ligand-responsive multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors. In Streptomyces coelicolor, TamR regulates transcription of tamR (encoding TamR), tam (encoding trans-aconitate methyltransferase) and sacA (encoding aconitase); up-regulation of these genes promotes metabolic flux through the citric acid cycle. DNA binding by TamR is attenuated and transcriptional derepression is achieved on binding of ligands such as citrate and trans-aconitate to TamR. In the present study, we show that three additional genes are regulated by S. coelicolor TamR. Genes encoding malate synthase (aceB1; SCO6243), malate dehydrogenase (mdh; SCO4827) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (idh; SCO7000) are up-regulated in vivo when citrate and trans-aconitate accumulate, and TamR binds the corresponding gene promoters in vitro, a DNA binding that is attenuated by cognate ligands. Mutations to the TamR binding site attenuate DNA binding in vitro and result in constitutive promoter activity in vivo. The predicted TamR binding sites are highly conserved in the promoters of these genes in Streptomyces species that encode divergent tam-tamR gene pairs, suggesting evolutionary conservation. Like aconitase and trans-aconitate methyltransferase, malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate synthase are closely related to the citric acid cycle, either catalysing individual reaction steps or, in the case of malate synthase, participating in the glyoxylate cycle to produce malate that enters the citric acid cycle to replenish the intermediate pool. Taken together, our data suggest that TamR plays an important and conserved role in promoting metabolic flux through the citric acid cycle.

  17. Phenomenological correlates of metabolic activity in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Van Gelder, P.; Brodie, J.D.; Overall, J.E.; Cancro, R.; Gomez-Mont, F.

    1987-02-01

    Using (11C)-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography (PET), the authors measured brain metabolism in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia to assess which of the metabolic measures from two test conditions was more closely related to the patients' differing clinical characteristics. The two conditions were resting and activation, and an eye tracking task was used. Patients with more negative symptoms showed lower global metabolic rates and more severe hypofrontality than did the patients with fewer negative symptoms. Differences among the patients were distinguished by the task: sicker patients failed to show a metabolic activation response. These findings suggest that cerebral metabolic patterns reflect clinical characteristics of schizophrenic patients.

  18. Metabolic Roles of AMPK and Metformin in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeon Kyung; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is one of the most widely used anti-diabetic agents in the world, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it may also be effective as an anti-cancer drug. Observational studies have shown that metformin reduces cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality in multiple types of cancer. These results have drawn attention to the mechanisms underlying metformin’s anti-cancer effects, which may include triggering of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, resulting in vulnerability to an energy crisis (leading to cell death under conditions of nutrient deprivation) and a reduction in circulating insulin/IGF-1 levels. Clinical trials are currently underway to determine the benefits, appropriate dosage, and tolerability of metformin in the context of cancer therapy. This review highlights fundamental aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying metformin’s anti-cancer effects, describes the epidemiological evidence and ongoing clinical challenges, and proposes directions for future translational research. PMID:23794020

  19. The metabolic activator FOXO1 binds hepatitis B virus DNA and activates its transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomai, Amir; Shaul, Yosef

    2009-04-17

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA virus that targets the liver and infects humans worldwide. Recently we have shown that the metabolic regulator PGC-1{alpha} coactivates HBV transcription thereby rendering the virus susceptible to fluctuations in the nutritional status of the liver. PGC-1{alpha} coactivation of HBV is mediated through the liver-enriched nuclear receptor HNF4{alpha} and through another yet unknown transcription factor(s). Here we show that the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1, a known target for PGC-1{alpha} coactivation and a central mediator of glucose metabolism in the liver, binds HBV core promoter and activates its transcription. This activation is further enhanced in the presence of PGC-1{alpha}, implying that FOXO1 is a target for PGC-1{alpha} coactivation of HBV transcription. Thus, our results identify another key metabolic regulator as an activator of HBV transcription, thereby supporting the principle that HBV gene expression is regulated in a similar way to key hepatic metabolic genes.

  20. Amlodipine metabolism in human liver microsomes and roles of CYP3A4/5 in the dihydropyridine dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanlin; Wang, Fen; Li, Quan; Zhu, Mingshe; Du, Alicia; Tang, Wei; Chen, Weiqing

    2014-02-01

    Amlodipine is a commonly prescribed calcium channel blocker for the treatment of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. The drug is slowly cleared in humans primarily via dehydrogenation of its dihydropyridine moiety to a pyridine derivative (M9). Results from clinical drug-drug interaction studies suggest that CYP3A4/5 mediate metabolism of amlodipine. However, attempts to identify a role of CYP3A5 in amlodipine metabolism in humans based on its pharmacokinetic differences between CYP3A5 expressers and nonexpressers failed. Objectives of this study were to determine the metabolite profile of amlodipine (a racemic mixture and S-isomer) in human liver microsomes (HLM), and to identify the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in the M9 formation. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed that amlodipine was mainly converted to M9 in HLM incubation. M9 underwent further O-demethylation, O-dealkylation, and oxidative deamination to various pyridine derivatives. This observation is consistent with amlodipine metabolism in humans. Incubations of amlodipine with HLM in the presence of selective P450 inhibitors showed that both ketoconazole (an inhibitor of CYP3A4/5) and CYP3cide (an inhibitor of CYP3A4) completely blocked the M9 formation, whereas chemical inhibitors of other P450 enzymes had little effect. Furthermore, metabolism of amlodipine in expressed human P450 enzymes showed that only CYP3A4 had significant activity in amlodipine dehydrogenation. Metabolite profiles and P450 reaction phenotyping data of a racemic mixture and S-isomer of amlodipine were very similar. The results from this study suggest that CYP3A4, rather than CYP3A5, plays a key role in metabolic clearance of amlodipine in humans. PMID:24301608

  1. The Role of Maternal Dietary Proteins in Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Jahan-Mihan, Alireza; Rodriguez, Judith; Christie, Catherine; Sadeghi, Marjan; Zerbe, Tara

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity has been increasing. Pre-natal environment has been suggested as a factor influencing the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Both observational and experimental studies showed that maternal diet is a major modifier of the development of regulatory systems in the offspring in utero and post-natally. Both protein content and source in maternal diet influence pre- and early post-natal development. High and low protein dams’ diets have detrimental effect on body weight, blood pressure191 and metabolic and intake regulatory systems in the offspring. Moreover, the role of the source of protein in a nutritionally adequate maternal diet in programming of food intake regulatory system, body weight, glucose metabolism and blood pressure in offspring is studied. However, underlying mechanisms are still elusive. The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature related to the role of proteins in maternal diets in development of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in offspring. PMID:26561832

  2. Mitochondrial mayhem: the mitochondrion as a modulator of iron metabolism and its role in disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Michael Li-Hsuan; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

    2011-12-15

    The mitochondrion plays vital roles in various aspects of cellular metabolism, ranging from energy transduction and apoptosis to the synthesis of important molecules such as heme. Mitochondria are also centrally involved in iron metabolism, as exemplified by disruptions in mitochondrial proteins that lead to perturbations in whole-cell iron processing. Recent investigations have identified a host of mitochondrial proteins (e.g., mitochondrial ferritin; mitoferrins 1 and 2; ABCBs 6, 7, and 10; and frataxin) that may play roles in the homeostasis of mitochondrial iron. These mitochondrial proteins appear to participate in one or more processes of iron storage, iron uptake, and heme and iron-sulfur cluster synthesis. In this review, we present and critically discuss the evidence suggesting that the mitochondrion may contribute to the regulation of whole-cell iron metabolism. Further, human diseases that arise from a dysregulation of these mitochondrial molecules reveal the ability of the mitochondrion to communicate with cytosolic iron metabolism to coordinate whole-cell iron processing and to fulfill the high demands of this organelle for iron. This review highlights new advances in understanding iron metabolism in terms of novel molecular players and diseases associated with its dysregulation.

  3. Folate and homocysteine metabolisms and their roles in the biochemical basis of neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Coşar, Alpaslan; Ipçioğlu, Osman Metin; Ozcan, Omer; Gültepe, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The term 'one-carbon metabolism' is commonly used to describe 3 separate metabolic processes: folate metabolism, the homocysteine remethylation cycle, and the transsulfuration pathway. Folate metabolism concerns the biochemical reactions in which endogenous and exogenous one-carbon units are transferred to tetrahydrofolates. The remethylation cycle is used for the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine with one-carbon units that come from folate. This methionine is thenfused for the synthesis of S-adenosyl methionine, which is a general donor of methyl groups for many biochemical reactions in the human body. In the transsulfuration pathway, some amino acids and polypeptides, such as cystathionine, cysteine, and glutathione, are synthesized from homocysteine. The kinetics of the enzymes in this pathway are regulated by the substrates of the remethylation cycle. The methylation process has been thought to have an important role in the biochemical basis of neuropsychiatry. An elevated homocysteine level is the most important marker of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies, and also the most reliable biochemical sign of functional insufficiency. Some neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, such as psychosis, Alzheimer's disease, and autism, have been found to be related to disorders of one-carbon metabolism. This review aims to summarize both one-carbon metabolism and its relationships with neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Salivary composition in obese vs normal-weight subjects: towards a role in postprandial lipid metabolism?

    PubMed

    Vors, C; Drai, J; Gabert, L; Pineau, G; Laville, M; Vidal, H; Guichard, E; Michalski, M-C; Feron, G

    2015-09-01

    In the pathophysiological context of obesity, oral exposure to dietary fat can modulate lipid digestion and absorption, but underlying in-mouth mechanisms have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that salivary components related to dietary fat sensitivity would differ according to body mass index (BMI) and postprandial lipid metabolism in young men. Saliva was collected from nine normal-weight (BMI=22.3±0.5 kg m(-2)) and nine non-morbid obese (BMI=31.7±0.3 kg m(-2)) men before an 8-h postprandial metabolic exploration test involving the consumption of a 40-g fat meal, in which obese subjects revealed a delayed postprandial lipid metabolism. Nine salivary characteristics (flow, protein content, lipolysis, amylase, proteolysis, total antioxidant status, lysozyme, lipocalin 1 and carbonic anhydrase-VI) were investigated. We show that, under fasting conditions, salivary lipolysis was lower in obese vs normal-weight subjects, whereas proteolysis and carbonic anhydrase VI were higher. We reveal through multivariate and Mann-Whitney analysis that differences in fasting salivary lipolysis and proteolysis between both groups are related to differences in postprandial lipid metabolism including exogenous fatty-acid absorption and β-oxidation. These results suggest a potential role of salivary composition on postprandial lipid metabolism and bring novel causal hypotheses on the links between salivary composition, sensitivity to dietary fat oral income and postprandial lipid metabolism according to BMI.

  5. 2D-Visualization of metabolic activity with planar optical chemical sensors (optodes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R. J.; Liebsch, G.

    2015-12-01

    Microbia plays an outstandingly important role in many hydrologic compartments, such as e.g. the benthic community in sediments, or biologically active microorganisms in the capillary fringe, in ground water, or soil. Oxygen, pH, and CO2 are key factors and indicators for microbial activity. They can be measured using optical chemical sensors. These sensors record changing fluorescence properties of specific indicator dyes. The signals can be measured in a non-contact mode, even through transparent walls, which is important for many lab-experiments. They can measure in closed (transparent) systems, without sampling or intruding into the sample. They do not consume the analytes while measuring, are fully reversible and able to measure in non-stirred solutions. These sensors can be applied as high precision fiberoptic sensors (for profiling), robust sensor spots, or as planar sensors for 2D visualization (imaging). Imaging enables to detect thousands of measurement spots at the same time and generate 2D analyte maps over a region of interest. It allows for comparing different regions within one recorded image, visualizing spatial analyte gradients, or more important to identify hot spots of metabolic activity. We present ready-to-use portable imaging systems for the analytes oxygen, pH, and CO2. They consist of a detector unit, planar sensor foils and a software for easy data recording and evaluation. Sensors foils for various analytes and measurement ranges enable visualizing metabolic activity or analyte changes in the desired range. Dynamics of metabolic activity can be detected in one shot or over long time periods. We demonstrate the potential of this analytical technique by presenting experiments on benthic disturbance-recovery dynamics in sediments and microbial degradation of organic material in the capillary fringe. We think this technique is a new tool to further understand how microbial and geochemical processes are linked in (not solely) hydrologic

  6. Obesity-Related Chronic Kidney Disease—The Role of Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Peter; Davies, Matthew; Choy, Suet-Wan; Cook, Natasha; Power, David

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The mechanisms linking obesity and CKD include systemic changes such as high blood pressure and hyperglycemia, and intrarenal effects relating to lipid accumulation. Normal lipid metabolism is integral to renal physiology and disturbances of renal lipid and energy metabolism are increasingly being linked with kidney disease. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) are important regulators of fatty acid oxidation, which is frequently abnormal in the kidney with CKD. A high fat diet reduces renal AMPK activity, thereby contributing to reduced fatty acid oxidation and energy imbalance, and treatments to activate AMPK are beneficial in animal models of obesity-related CKD. Studies have found that the specific cell types affected by excessive lipid accumulation are proximal tubular cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells. Targeting disturbances of renal energy metabolism is a promising approach to addressing the current epidemic of obesity-related kidney disease. PMID:26690487

  7. Critical Role of Glucose Metabolism in Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Carbonell, Ricard; Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Lodi, Alessia; Vicente-Suarez, Ildefonso; Saha, Arindam; Cheroutre, Hilde; Boss, Gerry R.; Tiziani, Stefano; Murphy, Anne N.; Guma, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Objective Up-regulation of glucose metabolism has been implicated not only in tumor cell growth but also in immune cells upon activation. However, little is known about the metabolite profile in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). This study was undertaken to evaluate whether changes in glucose metabolism in RA FLS could play a role in inflammation and joint damage. Methods Synovium and FLS were obtained from patients with RA and patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The rate of glycolysis after stimulation of FLS with lipopolysaccharide and platelet-derived growth factor BB was measured using glycolysis stress test technology. FLS function was evaluated using a glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). After stimulation of the FLS, a migration scratch assay, MTT assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to measure the effect of 2-DG on FLS migration, viability of the FLS, and cytokine secretion, respectively. IRDye 800CW 2-DG was used to assess glucose uptake in the arthritic joints and stromal cells of mice after K/BxN mouse serum transfer. The mice were injected daily, intraperitoneally, with 3-bromopyruvate (BrPa; 5 mg/kg) to assess the effect of inhibition of glycolysis in vivo. Results Compared to human OA FLS, the balance between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation was shifted toward glycolysis in RA FLS. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression correlated with baseline functions of the RA FLS. Glucose deprivation or incubation of the FLS with glycolytic inhibitors impaired cytokine secretion and decreased the rate of proliferation and migration of the cells. In a mouse model of inflammatory arthritis, GLUT1 mRNA expression in the synovial lining cells was observed, and increased levels of glucose uptake and glycolytic gene expression were detected in the stromal compartment of the arthritic mouse joints. Inhibition of glycolysis by BrPa, administered in vivo

  8. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. PMID:25650336

  9. JAK and STAT members of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and their roles in leptin affecting lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    The present study clones and characterizes the full-length cDNA sequences of members in JAK-STAT pathway, explores their mRNA tissue expression and the biological role in leptin influencing lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Full-length cDNA sequences of five JAKs and seven STAT members, including some splicing variants, were obtained from yellow catfish. Compared to mammals, more members of the JAKs and STATs family were found in yellow catfish, which provided evidence that the JAK and STAT family members had arisen by the whole genome duplications during vertebrate evolution. All of these members were widely expressed across the eleven tissues (liver, white muscle, spleen, brain, gill, mesenteric fat, anterior intestine, heart, mid-kidney, testis and ovary) but at the variable levels. Intraperitoneal injection in vivo and incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed triglyceride content and mRNA expression of several JAKs and STATs members, and genes involved in lipid metabolism. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced effects, indicating that the JAK2a/b-STAT3 pathway exerts main regulating actions of leptin on lipid metabolism at transcriptional level. Meanwhile, the different splicing variants were differentially regulated by leptin incubation. Thus, our data suggest that leptin activated the JAK/STAT pathway and increases the expression of target genes, which partially accounts for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish.

  10. Usurping the mitochondrial supremacy: extramitochondrial sources of reactive oxygen intermediates and their role in beta cell metabolism and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Heart, Emma

    2010-05-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells is a process dependent on metabolism. While oxidative stress is a well-known inducer of beta cell toxicity and impairs insulin secretion, recent studies suggest that low levels of metabolically-derived reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) also play a positive role in insulin secretion. Glucose metabolism is directly correlated with ROI production, particularly in beta cells in which glucose uptake is proportional to the extracellular concentration of glucose. Low levels of exogenously added ROI or quinones, which stimulate ROI production, positively affect insulin secretion, while antioxidants block insulin secretion, suggesting that ROI activate unidentified redox-sensitive signal transduction components within these cells. The mitochondria are one source of ROI: increased metabolic flux increases mitochondrial membrane potential resulting in electron leakage and adventitious ROI production. A second source of ROI are cytosolic and plasma membrane oxidoreductases which oxidize NAD(P)H and directly produce ROI through the reduction of molecular oxygen. The mechanism of ROI-mediated potentiation of insulin secretion remains an important topic for future study.

  11. JAK and STAT members of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and their roles in leptin affecting lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    The present study clones and characterizes the full-length cDNA sequences of members in JAK-STAT pathway, explores their mRNA tissue expression and the biological role in leptin influencing lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Full-length cDNA sequences of five JAKs and seven STAT members, including some splicing variants, were obtained from yellow catfish. Compared to mammals, more members of the JAKs and STATs family were found in yellow catfish, which provided evidence that the JAK and STAT family members had arisen by the whole genome duplications during vertebrate evolution. All of these members were widely expressed across the eleven tissues (liver, white muscle, spleen, brain, gill, mesenteric fat, anterior intestine, heart, mid-kidney, testis and ovary) but at the variable levels. Intraperitoneal injection in vivo and incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed triglyceride content and mRNA expression of several JAKs and STATs members, and genes involved in lipid metabolism. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced effects, indicating that the JAK2a/b-STAT3 pathway exerts main regulating actions of leptin on lipid metabolism at transcriptional level. Meanwhile, the different splicing variants were differentially regulated by leptin incubation. Thus, our data suggest that leptin activated the JAK/STAT pathway and increases the expression of target genes, which partially accounts for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish. PMID:26704851

  12. Metabolic signals and innate immune activation in obesity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excess energy intake has led to an increased prevalence of obesity which constitutes a major risk factor for several co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research during the last two decades has revealed that a characteristic feature of obesity linking it to insulin resistance is the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation being indicative of activation of the innate immune system. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the innate immune system in the course of obesity is mediated by metabolic signals, such as free fatty acids (FFAs), being elevated in many obese subjects, through activation of pattern recognition receptors thereby leading to stimulation of critical inflammatory signaling cascades, like IκBα kinase/nuclear factor-κB (IKK/NF- κB), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, that interfere with insulin signaling. Exercise is one of the main prescribed interventions in obesity management improving insulin sensitivity and reducing obesity- induced chronic inflammation. This review summarizes current knowledge of the cellular recognition mechanisms for FFAs, the inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by excess FFAs in obesity and the counteractive effects of both acute and chronic exercise on obesity-induced activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. A deeper understanding of the effects of exercise on inflammatory signaling pathways in obesity is useful to optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:25825956

  13. Metabolic activity of permafrost bacteria below the freezing point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivkina, E. M.; Friedmann, E. I.; McKay, C. P.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic activity was measured in the laboratory at temperatures between 5 and -20 degrees C on the basis of incorporation of (14)C-labeled acetate into lipids by samples of a natural population of bacteria from Siberian permafrost (permanently frozen soil). Incorporation followed a sigmoidal pattern similar to growth curves. At all temperatures, the log phase was followed, within 200 to 350 days, by a stationary phase, which was monitored until the 550th day of activity. The minimum doubling times ranged from 1 day (5 degrees C) to 20 days (-10 degrees C) to ca. 160 days (-20 degrees C). The curves reached the stationary phase at different levels, depending on the incubation temperature. We suggest that the stationary phase, which is generally considered to be reached when the availability of nutrients becomes limiting, was brought on under our conditions by the formation of diffusion barriers in the thin layers of unfrozen water known to be present in permafrost soils, the thickness of which depends on temperature.

  14. Metabolic Activity of Permafrost Bacteria below the Freezing Point

    PubMed Central

    Rivkina, E. M.; Friedmann, E. I.; McKay, C. P.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic activity was measured in the laboratory at temperatures between 5 and −20°C on the basis of incorporation of 14C-labeled acetate into lipids by samples of a natural population of bacteria from Siberian permafrost (permanently frozen soil). Incorporation followed a sigmoidal pattern similar to growth curves. At all temperatures, the log phase was followed, within 200 to 350 days, by a stationary phase, which was monitored until the 550th day of activity. The minimum doubling times ranged from 1 day (5°C) to 20 days (−10°C) to ca. 160 days (−20°C). The curves reached the stationary phase at different levels, depending on the incubation temperature. We suggest that the stationary phase, which is generally considered to be reached when the availability of nutrients becomes limiting, was brought on under our conditions by the formation of diffusion barriers in the thin layers of unfrozen water known to be present in permafrost soils, the thickness of which depends on temperature. PMID:10919774

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-II: its role in metabolic and endocrine disease.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Callum; Borai, Anwar

    2014-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a widely expressed 7·5 kDa mitogenic peptide hormone. Although it is abundant in serum, understanding of its physiological role is limited compared with that of IGF-I. IGF-II regulates foetal development and differentiation, but its role in adults is less well understood. Evidence suggests roles in a number of tissues including skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, bone and ovary. Altered IGF-II expression has been observed in metabolic conditions, notably obesity, diabetes and the polycystic ovary syndrome. This article summarizes what is known about the actions of IGF-II and its dysregulation in metabolic and endocrine diseases. The possible causes and consequences of dysregulation are discussed along with the implications for diagnostic tests and future research.

  16. Application of a hierarchical enzyme classification method reveals the role of gut microbiome in human metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Enzymes are known as the molecular machines that drive the metabolism of an organism; hence identification of the full enzyme complement of an organism is essential to build the metabolic blueprint of that species as well as to understand the interplay of multiple species in an ecosystem. Experimental characterization of the enzymatic reactions of all enzymes in a genome is a tedious and expensive task. The problem is more pronounced in the metagenomic samples where even the species are not adequately cultured or characterized. Enzymes encoded by the gut microbiota play an essential role in the host metabolism; thus, warranting the need to accurately identify and annotate the full enzyme complements of species in the genomic and metagenomic projects. To fulfill this need, we develop and apply a method called ECemble, an ensemble approach to identify enzymes and enzyme classes and study the human gut metabolic pathways. Results ECemble method uses an ensemble of machine-learning methods to accurately model and predict enzymes from protein sequences and also identifies the enzyme classes and subclasses at the finest resolution. A tenfold cross-validation result shows accuracy between 97 and 99% at different levels in the hierarchy of enzyme classification, which is superior to comparable methods. We applied ECemble to predict the entire complements of enzymes from ten sequenced proteomes including the human proteome. We also applied this method to predict enzymes encoded by the human gut microbiome from gut metagenomic samples, and to study the role played by the microbe-derived enzymes in the human metabolism. After mapping the known and predicted enzymes to canonical human pathways, we identified 48 pathways that have at least one bacteria-encoded enzyme, which demonstrates the complementary role of gut microbiome in human gut metabolism. These pathways are primarily involved in metabolizing dietary nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids

  17. Characterization and Functions of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 in Obesity, Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kagota, Satomi; Maruyama, Kana; McGuire, John J

    2016-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a cell surface receptor activated by serine proteinases or specific synthetic compounds. Interest in PAR2 as a pharmaceutical target for various diseases is increasing. Here we asked two questions relevant to endothelial dysfunction and diabetes: How is PAR2 function affected in blood vessels? What role does PAR2 have in promoting obesity, diabetes, and/or metabolic syndrome, specifically via the endothelium and adipose tissues? We conducted a systematic review of the published literature in PubMed and Scopus (July 2015; search terms: par2, par-2, f2lr1, adipose, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome). Seven studies focused on PAR2 and vascular function. The obesity, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome animal models differed amongst studies, but each reported that PAR2-mediated vasodilator actions were preserved in the face of endothelial dysfunction. The remaining studies focused on nonvascular functions and provided evidence supporting the concept that PAR2 activation promoted obesity. Key studies showed that PAR2 activation regulated cellular metabolism, and PAR2 antagonists inhibited adipose gain and metabolic dysfunction in rats. We conclude that PAR2 antagonists for treatment of obesity indeed show early promise as a therapeutic strategy; however, endothelial-specific PAR2 functions, which may offset mechanisms that produce vascular dysfunction in diabetes, warrant additional study. PMID:27006943

  18. Characterization and Functions of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 in Obesity, Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kagota, Satomi; Maruyama, Kana; McGuire, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a cell surface receptor activated by serine proteinases or specific synthetic compounds. Interest in PAR2 as a pharmaceutical target for various diseases is increasing. Here we asked two questions relevant to endothelial dysfunction and diabetes: How is PAR2 function affected in blood vessels? What role does PAR2 have in promoting obesity, diabetes, and/or metabolic syndrome, specifically via the endothelium and adipose tissues? We conducted a systematic review of the published literature in PubMed and Scopus (July 2015; search terms: par2, par-2, f2lr1, adipose, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome). Seven studies focused on PAR2 and vascular function. The obesity, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome animal models differed amongst studies, but each reported that PAR2-mediated vasodilator actions were preserved in the face of endothelial dysfunction. The remaining studies focused on nonvascular functions and provided evidence supporting the concept that PAR2 activation promoted obesity. Key studies showed that PAR2 activation regulated cellular metabolism, and PAR2 antagonists inhibited adipose gain and metabolic dysfunction in rats. We conclude that PAR2 antagonists for treatment of obesity indeed show early promise as a therapeutic strategy; however, endothelial-specific PAR2 functions, which may offset mechanisms that produce vascular dysfunction in diabetes, warrant additional study. PMID:27006943

  19. Transcriptome-Wide Analysis Reveals the Role of PPARγ Controlling the Lipid Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wangsheng; Zhang, Changhui

    2016-01-01

    To explore the large-scale effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), an oligonucleotide microarray platform was used for transcriptome profiling in cells overexpressing PPARG and incubated with or without rosiglitazone (ROSI, a PPARγ agonist). A total of 1143 differentially expressed genes (DEG) due to treatment were detected. The Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA) analysis uncovered the most impacted and induced pathways “fatty acid elongation in mitochondria,” “glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-keratan sulfate,” and “pentose phosphate pathway.” The data highlights the central role of PPARG in milk fatty acid metabolism via controlling fatty acid elongation, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, lipid formation, and lipid secretion; furthermore, its role related to carbohydrate metabolism promotes the production of intermediates required for milk fat synthesis. Analysis of upstream regulators indicated that PPARG participates in multiple physiological processes via controlling or cross talking with other key transcription factors such as PPARD and NR1H3 (also known as liver-X-receptor-α). This transcriptome-wide analysis represents the first attempt to better understand the biological relevance of PPARG expression in ruminant mammary cells. Overall, the data underscored the importance of PPARG in mammary lipid metabolism and transcription factor control.

  20. Physiological and Pathogenic Roles of Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Metabolic Regulations via Multiple Signal Transduction Pathway Modulations

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Yamamotoya, Takeshi; Ueda, Koji; Inoue, Yuki; Mori, Keiichi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Ono, Hiraku; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14). Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer’s disease. On the other hand, recent studies have newly demonstrated Pin1 to be involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, while Pin1 expression is markedly increased by high-fat diet feeding, Pin1 KO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic vascular dysfunction. These phenomena result from the binding of Pin1 to several key factors regulating metabolic functions, which include insulin receptor substrate-1, AMPK, Crtc2 and NF-κB p65. In this review, we focus on recent advances in elucidating the physiological roles of Pin1 as well as the pathogenesis of disorders involving this isomerase, from the viewpoint of the relationships between signal transductions and metabolic functions. PMID:27618008

  1. Physiological and Pathogenic Roles of Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Metabolic Regulations via Multiple Signal Transduction Pathway Modulations.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Yamamotoya, Takeshi; Ueda, Koji; Inoue, Yuki; Mori, Keiichi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Ono, Hiraku; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2016-09-07

    Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14). Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, recent studies have newly demonstrated Pin1 to be involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, while Pin1 expression is markedly increased by high-fat diet feeding, Pin1 KO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic vascular dysfunction. These phenomena result from the binding of Pin1 to several key factors regulating metabolic functions, which include insulin receptor substrate-1, AMPK, Crtc2 and NF-κB p65. In this review, we focus on recent advances in elucidating the physiological roles of Pin1 as well as the pathogenesis of disorders involving this isomerase, from the viewpoint of the relationships between signal transductions and metabolic functions.

  2. Physiological and Pathogenic Roles of Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Metabolic Regulations via Multiple Signal Transduction Pathway Modulations.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Yamamotoya, Takeshi; Ueda, Koji; Inoue, Yuki; Mori, Keiichi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Ono, Hiraku; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14). Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, recent studies have newly demonstrated Pin1 to be involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, while Pin1 expression is markedly increased by high-fat diet feeding, Pin1 KO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic vascular dysfunction. These phenomena result from the binding of Pin1 to several key factors regulating metabolic functions, which include insulin receptor substrate-1, AMPK, Crtc2 and NF-κB p65. In this review, we focus on recent advances in elucidating the physiological roles of Pin1 as well as the pathogenesis of disorders involving this isomerase, from the viewpoint of the relationships between signal transductions and metabolic functions. PMID:27618008

  3. Exercise Counteracts Aging-Related Memory Impairment: A Potential Role for the Astrocytic Metabolic Shuttle.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Pei-Chun; Calkins, Marcus J; Wu, Shih-Ying; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairment has become one of the most common health threats in many countries. The biological substrate of cognition is the interconnection of neurons to form complex information processing networks. Experience-based alterations in the activities of these information processing networks lead to neuroadaptation, which is physically represented at the cellular level as synaptic plasticity. Although synaptic plasticity is known to be affected by aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well described. Astrocytes, a glial cell type that is infrequently investigated in cognitive science, have emerged as energy suppliers which are necessary for meeting the abundant energy demand resulting from glutamatergic synaptic activity. Moreover, the concerted action of an astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle is essential for cognitive function; whereas, energetic incoordination between astrocytes and neurons may contribute to cognitive impairment. Whether altered function of the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle links aging to reduced synaptic plasticity is unexplored. However, accumulated evidence documents significant beneficial effects of long-term, regular exercise on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, exercise increases the effectiveness of astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle by upregulation of astrocytic lactate transporter levels. This review summarizes previous findings related to the neuronal activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle. Moreover, we discuss how aging and exercise may shape the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle in cognition-associated brain areas. PMID:27047373

  4. Exercise Counteracts Aging-Related Memory Impairment: A Potential Role for the Astrocytic Metabolic Shuttle

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Pei-Chun; Calkins, Marcus J.; Wu, Shih-Ying; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairment has become one of the most common health threats in many countries. The biological substrate of cognition is the interconnection of neurons to form complex information processing networks. Experience-based alterations in the activities of these information processing networks lead to neuroadaptation, which is physically represented at the cellular level as synaptic plasticity. Although synaptic plasticity is known to be affected by aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well described. Astrocytes, a glial cell type that is infrequently investigated in cognitive science, have emerged as energy suppliers which are necessary for meeting the abundant energy demand resulting from glutamatergic synaptic activity. Moreover, the concerted action of an astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle is essential for cognitive function; whereas, energetic incoordination between astrocytes and neurons may contribute to cognitive impairment. Whether altered function of the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle links aging to reduced synaptic plasticity is unexplored. However, accumulated evidence documents significant beneficial effects of long-term, regular exercise on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, exercise increases the effectiveness of astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle by upregulation of astrocytic lactate transporter levels. This review summarizes previous findings related to the neuronal activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle. Moreover, we discuss how aging and exercise may shape the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle in cognition-associated brain areas. PMID:27047373

  5. The role of human carboxylesterases in drug metabolism: have we overlooked their importance?

    PubMed Central

    Laizure, S. Casey; Herring, Vanessa; Hu, Zheyi; Witbrodt, Kevin; Parker, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Carboxylesterases are a multi-gene family of enzymes widely distributed throughout the body of mammals that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters, amides, thioesters, and carbamates. In humans, two carboxylesterases, hCE1 and hCE2, are important pathways of drug metabolism. Both are expressed in the liver, but levels of hCE1 greatly exceed those of hCE2. In the intestine only high levels of hCE2 are expressed. The most common drug substrates are ester prodrugs specifically designed to enhance oral bioavailability that must be hydrolyzed to their active carboxylic acid by hydrolysis after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. However, carboxylesterases also play an important role in the hydrolysis of some drugs to inactive metabolites. It has been widely accepted that drugs undergoing hydrolysis by hCE1 and hCE2 are not subject to clinically significant alterations in their disposition, but there is now a significant and growing body of evidence that genetic polymorphisms, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions and other factors are important determinants of the variability in the therapeutic response to carboxylesterase-substrate drugs. The implications for the safe and effective use of drug therapy is far-reaching, as the patient exposure to substrate drugs includes numerous agents from widely prescribed therapeutic classes such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, antiplatelets, HMG-CoA inhibitors, antivirals, and central nervous system agents. PMID:23386599

  6. Galactose Metabolism Plays a Crucial Role in Biofilm Formation by Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yunrong; Beauregard, Pascale B.; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Galactose is a common monosaccharide that can be utilized by all living organisms via the activities of three main enzymes that make up the Leloir pathway: GalK, GalT, and GalE. In Bacillus subtilis, the absence of GalE causes sensitivity to exogenous galactose, leading to rapid cell lysis. This effect can be attributed to the accumulation of toxic galactose metabolites, since the galE mutant is blocked in the final step of galactose catabolism. In a screen for suppressor mutants restoring viability to a galE null mutant in the presence of galactose, we identified mutations in sinR, which is the major biofilm repressor gene. These mutations caused an increase in the production of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) component of the biofilm matrix. We propose that UDP-galactose is the toxic galactose metabolite and that it is used in the synthesis of EPS. Thus, EPS production can function as a shunt mechanism for this toxic molecule. Additionally, we demonstrated that galactose metabolism genes play an essential role in B. subtilis biofilm formation and that the expressions of both the gal and eps genes are interrelated. Finally, we propose that B. subtilis and other members of the Bacillus genus may have evolved to utilize naturally occurring polymers of galactose, such as galactan, as carbon sources. PMID:22893383

  7. Role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in organophosphate metabolism: Implications in neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P.; Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides are a class of compounds that are widely used in agricultural and rural areas. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a phase-I enzyme that is involved in the hydrolysis of organophosphate esters. Environmental poisoning by organophosphate compounds has been the main driving force of previous research on PON1 enzymes. Recent discoveries in animal models have revealed the important role of the enzyme in lipid metabolism. However although PON1 function is well established in experimental models, the contribution of PON1 in neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. In this minireview we summarize the involvement of PON1 genotypes in the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A brief overview of latest epidemiological studies, regarding the two most important PON1 coding region polymorphisms PON1-L55M and PON1-Q192R is presented. Positive and negative associations of PON1 with disease occurrence are reported. Notably the MM and RR alleles contribute a risk enhancing effect for the development of some neurodegenerative diseases, which may be explained by the reduced lipoprotein free radical scavenging activity that may give rise to neuronal damage, through distinct mechanism. Conflicting findings that fail to support this postulate may represent the human population ethnic heterogeneity, different sample size and environmental parameters affecting PON1 status. We conclude that further epidemiological studies are required in order to address the exact contribution of PON1 genome in combination with organophosphate exposure in populations with neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance and Roles of Inflammation-Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Giulio R.; Lee, Jongsoon; Shoelson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its co-morbidities, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), are associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that can be detected both systemically and within specific tissues. Areas of active investigation focus on the molecular bases of ‘metabolic’ inflammation and potential pathogenic roles in insulin resistance, T2D and CVD. An increased accumulation of macrophages occurring in obese adipose tissue has emerged as a key process in ‘metabolic’ inflammation. Recent studies have also begun to unravel the heterogeneity of adipose tissue macrophages, and their physical and functional interactions with adipocytes, endothelial cells and other immune cells within the adipose tissue microenvironment. Translating the information gathered in experimental models of insulin resistance and T2D into meaningful therapeutic interventions is a tantalizing goal with long-term global health implications. In this context, ongoing clinical studies are testing the effects of targeting inflammation systemically on metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:22815343

  9. Tomato responds to green peach aphid infestation with the activation of trehalose metabolism and starch accumulation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-06-01

    The disaccharide trehalose and trehalose-6-phosphate that are present in trace amounts are suggested to have a signaling function in plants. Recently, it was demonstrated that trehalose metabolism contributes to Arabidopsis thaliana defense against the green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae Sülzer), an important insect pest of a large variety of plants. TPS11 (TREHALOSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE11)-dependent trehalose metabolism was shown to curtail GPA infestation by promoting starch accumulation and expression of the PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) gene, which has important roles in regulating antibiosis and antixenosis against GPA. Here we show that trehalose metabolism is similarly activated in leaves of GPA-infested tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and likely contributes to tomato defense against GPA. GPA-infested leaves of tomato accumulated trehalose, which was accompanied by the transient upregulation of SlTPS11, a homolog of the Arabidopsis TPS11. GPA-infestation was also accompanied by starch accumulation and the upregulation of SlPAD4, the tomato homolog of Arabidopsis PAD4. Furthermore, trehalose application induced SlPAD4 expression and starch accumulation, and curtailed GPA infestation, suggesting that like in Arabidopsis trehalose contributes to tomato defense against GPA.

  10. Adenosine, Ketogenic Diet and Epilepsy: The Emerging Therapeutic Relationship Between Metabolism and Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Masino, S.A; Kawamura, M; Wasser, C.D.; Pomeroy, L.T; Ruskin, D.N

    2009-01-01

    For many years the neuromodulator adenosine has been recognized as an endogenous anticonvulsant molecule and termed a “retaliatory metabolite.” As the core molecule of ATP, adenosine forms a unique link between cell energy and neuronal excitability. In parallel, a ketogenic (high-fat, low-carbohydrate) diet is a metabolic therapy that influences neuronal activity significantly, and ketogenic diets have been used successfully to treat medically-refractory epilepsy, particularly in children, for decades. To date the key neural mechanisms underlying the success of dietary therapy are unclear, hindering development of analogous pharmacological solutions. Similarly, adenosine receptor–based therapies for epilepsy and myriad other disorders remain elusive. In this review we explore the physiological regulation of adenosine as an anticonvulsant strategy and suggest a critical role for adenosine in the success of ketogenic diet therapy for epilepsy. While the current focus is on the regulation of adenosine, ketogenic metabolism and epilepsy, the therapeutic implications extend to acute and chronic neurological disorders as diverse as brain injury, inflammatory and neuropathic pain, autism and hyperdopaminergic disorders. Emerging evidence for broad clinical relevance of the metabolic regulation of adenosine will be discussed. PMID:20190967

  11. Adenosine, ketogenic diet and epilepsy: the emerging therapeutic relationship between metabolism and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Masino, S A; Kawamura, M; Wasser, C D; Wasser, C A; Pomeroy, L T; Ruskin, D N

    2009-09-01

    For many years the neuromodulator adenosine has been recognized as an endogenous anticonvulsant molecule and termed a "retaliatory metabolite." As the core molecule of ATP, adenosine forms a unique link between cell energy and neuronal excitability. In parallel, a ketogenic (high-fat, low-carbohydrate) diet is a metabolic therapy that influences neuronal activity significantly, and ketogenic diets have been used successfully to treat medically-refractory epilepsy, particularly in children, for decades. To date the key neural mechanisms underlying the success of dietary therapy are unclear, hindering development of analogous pharmacological solutions. Similarly, adenosine receptor-based therapies for epilepsy and myriad other disorders remain elusive. In this review we explore the physiological regulation of adenosine as an anticonvulsant strategy and suggest a critical role for adenosine in the success of ketogenic diet therapy for epilepsy. While the current focus is on the regulation of adenosine, ketogenic metabolism and epilepsy, the therapeutic implications extend to acute and chronic neurological disorders as diverse as brain injury, inflammatory and neuropathic pain, autism and hyperdopaminergic disorders. Emerging evidence for broad clinical relevance of the metabolic regulation of adenosine will be discussed. PMID:20190967

  12. Combination of physical activity, nutrition, or other metabolic factors and vaccine response

    PubMed Central

    Hance, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Connie J.; Hursting, Stephen D.; Greiner, John W.

    2010-01-01

    A number of lifestyle factors that reduce cancer risk in the primary prevention setting may be potential new targets for use in combination with cancer vaccines. This review discusses the modulation of energy balance (physical activity, calorie restriction, and obesity prevention), and the supplementation with natural and synthetic analogs of vitamins A and E, as potential interventions for use in combination with cancer vaccines. Additionally, the pharmacologic manipulation of nutrient metabolism in the tumor microenvironment (e.g., arachidonic acid, arginine, tryptophan, and glucose metabolism) is discussed. This review includes a brief overview of the role of each agent in primary cancer prevention; outlines the effects of these agents on immune function, specifically adaptive and/or anti-tumor immune mechanisms, when known; and discusses the potential use of these interventions in combination with therapeutic cancer vaccines. Modulation of energy balance through exercise and strategies targeting nutrient metabolism in the tumor microenvironment represent the most promising interventions to partner with therapeutic cancer vaccines. Additionally, the use of vitamin E succinate and the retinoid X receptor-directed rexinoids in combination with cancer vaccines offer promise. In summary, a number of energy balance- and nutrition-related interventions are viable candidates for further study in combination with cancer vaccines. PMID:17569626

  13. Metabolomics Reveals that Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation by Environmental Chemicals Induces Systemic Metabolic Dysfunction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Limin; Hatzakis, Emmanuel; Nichols, Robert G.; Hao, Ruixin; Correll, Jared; Smith, Philip B.; Chiaro, Christopher R.; Perdew, Gary H.; Patterson, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds poses a significant health risk for human health. Developing a better understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is likely to improve the reliability of risk assessment. In this study, the AHR-dependent metabolic response of mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) were assessed using global 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics and targeted metabolic profiling of extracts obtained from serum and liver. 1H NMR analyses revealed that TCDF exposure suppressed gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, stimulated lipogenesis, and triggered inflammatory gene expression in an Ahr-dependent manner. Targeted analyses using gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed TCDF treatment altered the ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids. Consistent with this observation, an increase in hepatic expression of stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 was also observed. In addition, TCDF exposure resulted in inhibition of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis manifested by down-regulation of acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA metabolites and related mRNA levels. In contrast, no significant changes in the levels of glucose and lipid were observed in serum and liver obtained from Ahr-null mice following TCDF treatment, thus strongly supporting the important role of the AHR in mediating the metabolic effects seen following TCDF exposure. PMID:26023891

  14. Regulation of bacterial metabolic activity by dissolved organic carbon and viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; Jing, Hongmei; Sun, Mingming; Harrison, Paul J.; Liu, Hongbin

    2013-12-01

    regulation of bacterial metabolic activity by viruses and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was examined using natural microbial communities in three treatments (active viruses, inactive viruses, and virus free) at two contrasting coastal sites (pristine vs. eutrophic) with substantial differences in environmental conditions during the wet and dry seasons. Our results showed that net growth rates and production of bacterioplankton were reduced primarily by viruses via repressing metabolically active bacteria with high nucleic acid (HNA) content which had a high capacity for incorporating carbon, while bacterial respiration was primarily regulated by DOC lability. The quality of organic matter played a more important role in regulating bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) than the supply of organic matter in eutrophic coastal waters. The lack of HMW-DOC and high carbon demand in the virus-free treatment resulted in a significant increase in cell-specific bacterial respiration, which was responsible for the lowest bacterial growth efficiency among the three treatments. The presence of viruses did not necessarily lower bacterial growth efficiency since virus-induced mortality alleviated bacterial carbon demand and enhanced carbon cycling. Virus-induced mortality was greater in relatively pristine waters than eutrophic waters, likely since the high supply of substrates alleviated the pressure of viral infection, through extracellular proteases produced by bacteria, which might result in the hydrolytic destruction or modification of viral capsids. An important implication of our results was that the input of riverine DOC and nutrients improved bacterial metabolic activity by alleviating virus-induced mortality of bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters.

  15. Relevance of drug metabolizing enzyme activity modulation by tea polyphenols in the inhibition of esophageal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Maliakal, Pius; Sankpal, Umesh T; Basha, Riyaz; Maliakal, Cima; Ledford, Andrea; Wanwimolruk, Sompon

    2011-09-01

    Tea is a popular, socially accepted, drink that is enjoyed by millions of people. A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate consumption of tea may protect against several forms of cancer. It is also known that bioactivation of precarcinogens and detoxification of ultimate carcinogens is carried out mainly by drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP). The present study investigates the effect of tea consumption on modulating CYP and phase II conjugating enzymes, and their association in the chemopreventive effect against esophageal tumorigenesis using both in vitro and in vivo techniques. Female Wistar rats were given aqueous solutions (2% w/v) of six different teas, standard green tea extract (GTE) (0.5% w/v), and dandelion tea (2% w/v) as the sole source of fluid for two weeks prior to and during the entire period of tumour induction (12 weeks). Animals were gavaged with 0.5 mg/kg N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) twice weekly for 12 weeks for esophageal tumor induction and the activities of different CYP isoforms and phase II enzymes were determined in the liver microsomes or cytosols. GTE, green tea and Dandelion tea caused decrease in tumour multiplication, tumour size and tumour volume; however, none of these tea preparations altered tumour incidence. No appreciable changes in drug metabolizing enzyme activity were observed in the treatment groups. Thus, the modulations in the activities of CYP 1A1/ 1A2 and CYP2E enzymes, by pre-treatment with green and dandelion teas, observed in our earlier experiments, seem to be compensated by the tumor inducing agent, NMBA. The balance between phase I carcinogen-activating enzymes and phase II detoxifying enzymes could be important in determining the risk of developing chemically-induced cancer and the present study in conjunction with the previous observations suggest a possible role of drug metabolizing enzymes in the anticancer effect of tea.

  16. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase. PMID:15890680

  17. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase.

  18. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses of Children during Prolonged Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chausow, Sharon A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Metabolic and cardiovascular responses during 45 minutes of continuous moderate intensity exercise were investigated in 11 children, 8-11 years of age. Results indicate that children exhibit metabolic and cardiovascular adjustments similar to those noted in adults during prolonged exercise. (Author/JMK)

  19. Prevention of postprandial metabolic stress in humans: role of fruit-derived products.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Giuseppa; Kucan, Petra; Serafini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of unbalanced meals, consisting of foods rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates and calories, has been associated to a postprandial metabolic stress that involves the increase of the production of free radicals and proinflammatory markers. Growing evidence suggest that dietary polyphenols contained in fruit-derived products, such as fruit juices, are involved in the role played by plant foods in disease prevention. Their association to a calorie-dense meal may help to attenuate the onset of postprandial metabolic and inflammatory stress. The available evidence in the literature investigating the effects of polyphenols rich fruit juices on the modulation of postprandial-induced metabolic stress in humans will be presented and discussed.

  20. Physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in preventing further progression of metabolic syndrome conditions to cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. This study investigated physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients. The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) data were analyzed (n=19,831). A revised definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was used for screening metabolic syndrome patients. Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire, physical activity adherence was defined as participating in 150+ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, 75+ minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. Socioeconomic status was measured by level of education and house-hold income. Among metabolic syndrome patients, physical activity adherence rate of first (lowest), second, third, and fourth quartile house-hold income group were 28.31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.14-30.28%), 34.68% (95% CI, 32.71-36.70), 37.44% (95% CI, 35.66-39.25), and 43.79% (95% CI, 41.85-45.75). Physical activity adherence rate of groups with elementary or lower, middle-school, high-school, and college or higher education degree were 25.17% (95% CI, 22.95-27.54), 38.2% (95% CI, 35.13-41.00), 39.60% (95% CI, 38.24-41.77), and 36.89% (95% CI, 35.77-38.03), respectively. This study found that physical activity adherence rate was lower in socioeconomically disadvantaged metabolic syndrome patients, which may aggravate health inequity status of Korean society.

  1. [Role of laboratory tests in the early diagnosis of metabolic disorders in workers engaged in petrochemical production].

    PubMed

    Timasheva, G V; Kuz'mina, L P; Karimova, L K; Badamshina, G G

    2013-01-01

    Studies of metabolic processes in petrochemical production workers revealed activation of lipid peroxidation, depressed antioxidant system, altered intracellular metabolism, high prevalence of dyslipidemia and increased serum enzymes levels. The metabolic changes of cellular and subcellular levels were seen in asymptomatic individuals--that supports value of laboratory tests in diagnosis of pathologic processes in petrochemical production workers.

  2. Activation of AMP-kinase by Policosanol Requires Peroxisomal Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Ghoshal, Sarbani

    2011-01-01

    Policosanol, a well-defined mixture of very long chain primary alcohols that is available as a nutraceutical product, has been reported to lower blood cholesterol levels. The present studies demonstrate that policosanol promotes the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase in hepatoma cells and in mouse liver after intragastric administration, providing a possible means by which policosanol might lower blood cholesterol levels. Treatment of hepatoma cells with policosanol produced a 2.5-fold or greater increase in the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase, and increased the phosphorylation of Ca++/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK), an upstream AMP-kinase kinase. Intra-gastric administration of policosanol to mice similarly increased the phosphorylation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and AMP-kinase by greater than 2-fold. siRNA-mediated suppression of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, fatty acyl-CoA synthetase 4, and acyl-CoA acetyltransferase expression in hepatoma cells prevented the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase by policosanol, indicating that metabolism of these very long chain alcohols to activated fatty acids is necessary for the suppression of cholesterol synthesis, presumably by increasing cellular AMP levels. Subsequent peroxisomal β-oxidation probably augments this effect. PMID:21359855

  3. Metabolic stress–induced activation of FoxO1 triggers diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Battiprolu, Pavan K.; Hojayev, Berdymammet; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zhao V.; Luo, Xiang; Iglewski, Myriam; Shelton, John M.; Gerard, Robert D.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Gillette, Thomas G.; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is cardiovascular disease; diabetic cardiomyopathy is typified by alterations in cardiac morphology and function, independent of hypertension or coronary disease. However, the molecular mechanism that links diabetes to cardiomyopathy is incompletely understood. Insulin resistance is a hallmark feature of diabetes, and the FoxO family of transcription factors, which regulate cell size, viability, and metabolism, are established targets of insulin and growth factor signaling. Here, we set out to evaluate a possible role of FoxO proteins in diabetic cardiomyopathy. We found that FoxO proteins were persistently activated in cardiac tissue in mice with diabetes induced either genetically or by high-fat diet (HFD). FoxO activity was critically linked with development of cardiomyopathy: cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of FoxO1 rescued HFD-induced declines in cardiac function and preserved cardiomyocyte insulin responsiveness. FoxO1-depleted cells displayed a shift in their metabolic substrate usage, from free fatty acids to glucose, associated with decreased accumulation of lipids in the heart. Furthermore, we found that FoxO1-dependent downregulation of IRS1 resulted in blunted Akt signaling and insulin resistance. Together, these data suggest that activation of FoxO1 is an important mediator of diabetic cardiomyopathy and is a promising therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:22326951

  4. The Emerging Nexus of Active DNA Demethylation and Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Post-Mitotic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Huan; Chen, Guiquan; Gao, Hui-Ming; Song, Xiaoyu; Shi, Yun; Cao, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The variable patterns of DNA methylation in mammals have been linked to a number of physiological processes, including normal embryonic development and disease pathogenesis. Active removal of DNA methylation, which potentially regulates neuronal gene expression both globally and gene specifically, has been recently implicated in neuronal plasticity, learning and memory processes. Model pathways of active DNA demethylation involve ten-eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenases that are dependent on oxidative metabolites. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidizing agents generate oxidative modifications of DNA bases that can be removed by base excision repair proteins. These potentially link the two processes of active DNA demethylation and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in post-mitotic neurons. We review the current biochemical understanding of the DNA demethylation process and discuss its potential interaction with oxidative metabolism. We then summarise the emerging roles of both processes and their interaction in neural plasticity and memory formation and the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. Finally, possible therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases are proposed, including reprogramming therapy by global DNA demethylation and mitohormesis therapy for locus-specific DNA demethylation in post-mitotic neurons. PMID:25490140

  5. A role for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta in T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Mothe-Satney, Isabelle; Murdaca, Joseph; Sibille, Brigitte; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Squillace, Raphaëlle; Le Menn, Gwenaëlle; Rekima, Akila; Larbret, Frederic; Pelé, Juline; Verhasselt, Valérie; Grimaldi, Paul A.; Neels, Jaap G.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism plays an important role in T cell biology and changes in metabolism drive T cell differentiation and fate. Most research on the role of metabolism in T lymphocytes focuses on mature T cells while only few studies have investigated the role of metabolism in T cell development. In this study, we report that activation or overexpression of the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β (PPARβ) increases fatty acid oxidation in T cells. Furthermore, using both in vivo and in vitro models, we demonstrate that PPARβ activation/overexpression inhibits thymic T cell development by decreasing proliferation of CD4−CD8− double-negative stage 4 (DN4) thymocytes. These results support a model where PPARβ activation/overexpression favours fatty acid- instead of glucose-oxidation in developing T cells, thereby hampering the proliferative burst normally occurring at the DN4 stage of T cell development. As a consequence, the αβ T cells that are derived from DN4 thymocytes are dramatically decreased in peripheral lymphoid tissues, while the γδ T cell population remains untouched. This is the first report of a direct role for a member of the PPAR family of nuclear receptors in the development of T cells. PMID:27680392

  6. Influence of host seed on metabolic activity by Enterobacter cloacae in the spermosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known regarding the influences of nutrients released from plants on the metabolic activity of colonizing microbes. To gain a better understanding of these influences, we used bioluminescence- and oxygen consumption-based methods to compare bacterial metabolic activity expressed during col...

  7. Relating Nutrient Uptake And Respiration With Metabolically Active Transient Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argerich, A.; Haggerty, R.; Christensen, C.

    2009-12-01

    Quantification of water transient storage zones is critical to understand stream nutrient uptake, but the common method to measure transient storage parameters (based on the use of conservative solutes as hydrologic tracers) does not allow distinguishing among different transient storage compartments that contribute in different proportions to nutrient uptake. We use an alternative experimental approach, the Resazurin (Raz) “smart” tracer, which in combination with a conservative tracer is expected to give the relation between metabolically active transient storage (MATS) versus whole transient storage. Raz is a weakly fluorescent phenoxazine dye that undergoes an irreversible reduction to highly fluorescent Resorufin (hereafter referred as Rru) in the presence of aerobic respiration. We conducted a combined injection of Raz, NaCl, NH4, and PO4 in WS01 at H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. The injection was performed during low-baseflow conditions (Q<0.5 L/s) at a constant flow rate for 5 days. Changes in time in EC, Raz, Rru and nutrient concentrations were examined at 3 surface sampling sites and at 6 wells. Simultaneously to the injection we measured whole-reach metabolism and we performed an SF6 injection to measure the exchange coefficient of O2 between the atmosphere and stream water. The reach achieved plateau conditions in less than 15 hours after the injection began and recovered to pre-injection conditions 56 hours after the end of the injection. EC corrected by background conditions decreased with distance reflecting a dilution effect caused by the water gaining condition of the reach. Raz concentration increased and Rru concentration decreased along the reach reflecting the transformation of Raz to Rru with distance. The Rru to Raz ratio at surface water was correlated with instantaneous rates of net ecosystem production (NEP) measured over the whole reach. Percentage of surface water in wells during plateau ranged between 50% and 95%. Raz

  8. Characterization of equine cytochrome P450: role of CYP3A in the metabolism of diazepam.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, S M M; Ikenaka, Y; Hayami, A; Mizukawa, H; Darwish, W S; Watanabe, K P; Kawai, Y K; Ishizuka, M

    2016-10-01

    Research on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in large animal species including the horse is scarce because of the challenges in conducting in vivo studies. The metabolic reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are central to drug pharmacokinetics. This study elucidated the characteristics of equine CYPs using diazepam (DZP) as a model compound as this drug is widely used as an anesthetic and sedative in horses, and is principally metabolized by CYPs. Diazepam metabolic activities were measured in vitro using horse and rat liver microsomes to clarify the species differences in enzyme kinetic parameters of each metabolite (temazepam [TMZ], nordiazepam [NDZ], p-hydroxydiazepam [p-OH-DZP], and oxazepam [OXZ]). In both species microsomes, TMZ was the major metabolite, but the formation rate of p-OH-DZP was significantly less in the horse. Inhibition assays with a CYP-specific inhibitors and antibody suggested that CYP3A was the main enzyme responsible for DZP metabolism in horse. Four recombinant equine CYP3A isoforms expressed in Cos-7 cells showed that CYP3A96, CYP3A94, and CYP3A89 were important for TMZ formation, whereas CYP3A97 exhibited more limited activity. Phylogenetic analysis suggested diversification of CYP3As in each mammalian order. Further study is needed to elucidate functional characteristics of each equine CYP3A isoform for effective use of diazepam in horses.

  9. Potential role and therapeutic interests of myo-inositol in metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Croze, Marine L; Soulage, Christophe O

    2013-10-01

    Several inositol isomers and in particular myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), were shown to possess insulin-mimetic properties and to be efficient in lowering post-prandial blood glucose. In addition, abnormalities in inositol metabolism are associated with insulin resistance and with long term microvascular complications of diabetes, supporting a role of inositol or its derivatives in glucose metabolism. The aim of this review is to focus on the potential benefits of a dietary supplement of myo-inositol, by far the most common inositol isomer in foodstuffs, in human disorders associated with insulin resistance (polycystic ovary syndrome, gestational diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome) or in prevention or treatment of some diabetic complications (neuropathy, nephropathy, cataract). The relevance of such a nutritional strategy will be discussed for each context on the basis of the clinical and/or animal studies. The dietary sources of myo-inositol and its metabolism from its dietary uptake to its renal excretion will be also covered in this review. Finally, the actual insights into inositol insulin-sensitizing effects will be addressed and in particular the possible role of inositol glycans as insulin second messengers. PMID:23764390

  10. Potential role and therapeutic interests of myo-inositol in metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Croze, Marine L; Soulage, Christophe O

    2013-10-01

    Several inositol isomers and in particular myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), were shown to possess insulin-mimetic properties and to be efficient in lowering post-prandial blood glucose. In addition, abnormalities in inositol metabolism are associated with insulin resistance and with long term microvascular complications of diabetes, supporting a role of inositol or its derivatives in glucose metabolism. The aim of this review is to focus on the potential benefits of a dietary supplement of myo-inositol, by far the most common inositol isomer in foodstuffs, in human disorders associated with insulin resistance (polycystic ovary syndrome, gestational diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome) or in prevention or treatment of some diabetic complications (neuropathy, nephropathy, cataract). The relevance of such a nutritional strategy will be discussed for each context on the basis of the clinical and/or animal studies. The dietary sources of myo-inositol and its metabolism from its dietary uptake to its renal excretion will be also covered in this review. Finally, the actual insights into inositol insulin-sensitizing effects will be addressed and in particular the possible role of inositol glycans as insulin second messengers.

  11. Metabolic activity of brown, "beige," and white adipose tissues in response to chronic adrenergic stimulation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Sébastien M; Caron, Alexandre; Chechi, Kanta; Laplante, Mathieu; Lecomte, Roger; Richard, Denis

    2016-07-01

    Classical brown adipocytes such as those found in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) represent energy-burning cells, which have been postulated to play a pivotal role in energy metabolism. Brown adipocytes can also be found in white adipose tissue (WAT) depots [e.g., inguinal WAT (iWAT)] following adrenergic stimulation, and they have been referred to as "beige" adipocytes. Whether the presence of these adipocytes, which gives iWAT a beige appearance, can confer a white depot with some thermogenic activity remains to be seen. In consequence, we designed the present study to investigate the metabolic activity of iBAT, iWAT, and epididymal white depots in mice. Mice were either 1) kept at thermoneutrality (30°C), 2) kept at 30°C and treated daily for 14 days with an adrenergic agonist [CL-316,243 (CL)], or 3) housed at 10°C for 14 days. Metabolic activity was assessed using positron emission tomography imaging with fluoro-[(18)F]deoxyglucose (glucose uptake), fluoro-[(18)F]thiaheptadecanoic acid (fatty acid uptake), and [(11)C]acetate (oxidative activity). In each group, substrate uptakes and oxidative activity were measured in anesthetized mice in response to acute CL. Our results revealed iBAT as a major site of metabolic activity, which exhibited enhanced glucose and nonesterified fatty acid uptakes and oxidative activity in response to chronic cold and CL. On the other hand, beige adipose tissue failed to exhibit appreciable increase in oxidative activity in response to chronic cold and CL. Altogether, our results suggest that the contribution of beige fat to acute-CL-induced metabolic activity is low compared with that of iBAT, even after sustained adrenergic stimulation.

  12. The Gut Microbiota as a Therapeutic Target in IBD and Metabolic Disease: A Role for the Bile Acid Receptors FXR and TGR5

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Knol, Jan; Garssen, Johan; van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in regulating many physiological systems of the host, including the metabolic and immune system. Disturbances in microbiota composition are increasingly correlated with disease; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that changes in microbiota composition directly affect the metabolism of bile salts. Next to their role in digestion of dietary fats, bile salts function as signaling molecules for bile salt receptors such as Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5). Complementary to their role in metabolism, FXR and TGR5 are shown to play a role in intestinal homeostasis and immune regulation. This review presents an overview of evidence showing that changes in bile salt pool and composition due to changes in gut microbial composition contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic disease, possibly through altered activation of TGR5 and FXR. We further discuss how dietary interventions, such as pro- and synbiotics, may be used to treat metabolic disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through normalization of bile acid dysregulation directly or indirectly through normalization of the intestinal microbiota.

  13. The Gut Microbiota as a Therapeutic Target in IBD and Metabolic Disease: A Role for the Bile Acid Receptors FXR and TGR5

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Knol, Jan; Garssen, Johan; van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in regulating many physiological systems of the host, including the metabolic and immune system. Disturbances in microbiota composition are increasingly correlated with disease; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that changes in microbiota composition directly affect the metabolism of bile salts. Next to their role in digestion of dietary fats, bile salts function as signaling molecules for bile salt receptors such as Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5). Complementary to their role in metabolism, FXR and TGR5 are shown to play a role in intestinal homeostasis and immune regulation. This review presents an overview of evidence showing that changes in bile salt pool and composition due to changes in gut microbial composition contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic disease, possibly through altered activation of TGR5 and FXR. We further discuss how dietary interventions, such as pro- and synbiotics, may be used to treat metabolic disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through normalization of bile acid dysregulation directly or indirectly through normalization of the intestinal microbiota. PMID:27682110

  14. Spatial memory extinction differentially affects dorsal and ventral hippocampal metabolic activity and associated functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; González-Pardo, Héctor; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L; Conejo, Nélida M

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies showed the involvement of brain regions associated with both spatial learning and associative learning in spatial memory extinction, although the specific role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and the extended hippocampal system including the mammillary body in the process is still controversial. The present study aimed to identify the involvement of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, together with cortical regions, the amygdaloid nuclei, and the mammillary bodies in the extinction of a spatial memory task. To address these issues, quantitative cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied as a metabolic brain mapping method. Rats were trained in a reference memory task using the Morris water maze, followed by an extinction procedure of the previously acquired memory task. Results show that rats learned successfully the spatial memory task as shown by the progressive decrease in measured latencies to reach the escape platform and the results obtained in the probe test. Spatial memory was subsequently extinguished as shown by the descending preference for the previously reinforced location. A control naïve group was added to ensure that brain metabolic changes were specifically related with performance in the spatial memory extinction task. Extinction of the original spatial learning task significantly modified the metabolic activity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, the amygdala and the mammillary bodies. Moreover, the ventral hippocampus, the lateral mammillary body and the retrosplenial cortex were differentially recruited in the spatial memory extinction task, as shown by group differences in brain metabolic networks. These findings provide new insights on the brain regions and functional brain networks underlying spatial memory, and specifically spatial memory extinction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Spatial memory extinction differentially affects dorsal and ventral hippocampal metabolic activity and associated functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; González-Pardo, Héctor; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L; Conejo, Nélida M

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies showed the involvement of brain regions associated with both spatial learning and associative learning in spatial memory extinction, although the specific role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and the extended hippocampal system including the mammillary body in the process is still controversial. The present study aimed to identify the involvement of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, together with cortical regions, the amygdaloid nuclei, and the mammillary bodies in the extinction of a spatial memory task. To address these issues, quantitative cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied as a metabolic brain mapping method. Rats were trained in a reference memory task using the Morris water maze, followed by an extinction procedure of the previously acquired memory task. Results show that rats learned successfully the spatial memory task as shown by the progressive decrease in measured latencies to reach the escape platform and the results obtained in the probe test. Spatial memory was subsequently extinguished as shown by the descending preference for the previously reinforced location. A control naïve group was added to ensure that brain metabolic changes were specifically related with performance in the spatial memory extinction task. Extinction of the original spatial learning task significantly modified the metabolic activity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, the amygdala and the mammillary bodies. Moreover, the ventral hippocampus, the lateral mammillary body and the retrosplenial cortex were differentially recruited in the spatial memory extinction task, as shown by group differences in brain metabolic networks. These findings provide new insights on the brain regions and functional brain networks underlying spatial memory, and specifically spatial memory extinction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27102086

  16. Metabolic control in a state of decreased activation: modulation of red cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jevning, R; Wilson, A F; Pirkle, H; O'Halloran, J P; Walsh, R N

    1983-11-01

    Very little is known in depth of the biochemical and physiological changes induced at the cellular level by human behavioral states. For study of the physiology of behavior at this level, the erythrocyte may be useful, because it is readily available and its metabolism and metabolic control are comparatively well understood. In this report we describe a marked decline of red cell glycolytic rate induced by the transcendental meditation technique (TM). This decline was significantly correlated with decreased plasma lactate concentration and with relaxation as indicated by electrodermal response. The occurrence of sleep was not correlated with the metabolic changes. The observed lack of variation of blood pH, blood gases, glucose, and hematocrit in this behavior implies that the decrease of erythrocyte metabolism is not an epiphenomenon of respiratory change or substrate availability. Based upon further measurements indicating persisting alteration of the red blood cell, we suggest the possibility of attachment of a humoral agent(s) to the cell in the mechanism of this effect. This behavioral effect is unique, and the effector(s) responsible may increase our understanding of metabolic control of the erythrocyte and of TM.

  17. Role of Innate Immune Response in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Metabolic Complications and Therapeutic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Rosaria; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Calignano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common liver disease worldwide, both in adults and children. It is characterized by an aberrant lipid storage in hepatocytes, named hepatic steatosis. Simple steatosis remains a benign process in most affected patients, while some of them develop superimposed necroinflammatory activity with a non-specific inflammatory infiltrate and a progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with or without fibrosis. Deep similarity and interconnections between innate immune cells and those of liver parenchyma have been highlighted and showed to play a key role in the development of chronic liver disease. The liver can be considered as an “immune organ” because it hosts non-lymphoid cells, such as macrophage Kupffer cells, stellate and dendritic cells, and lymphoid cells. Many of these cells are components of the classic innate immune system, enabling the liver to play a major role in response to pathogens. Although the liver provides a “tolerogenic” environment, aberrant activation of innate immune signaling may trigger “harmful” inflammation that contributes to tissue injury, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis. Pathogen recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors, are responsible for the recognition of immunogenic signals, and represent the major conduit for sensing hepatic and non-hepatic noxious stimuli. A pivotal role in liver inflammation is also played by cytokines, which can initiate or have a part in immune response, triggering hepatic intracellular signaling pathways. The sum of inflammatory signals and deranged substrate handling induce most of the metabolic alteration traits: insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and their compounded combined effects. In this review, we discuss the relevant role of innate immune cell activation in relation to NAFLD, the metabolic complications associated to this pathology, and the

  18. Mass spectrometry and its evolving role in assessing tissue specific steroid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Ruth; Homer, Natalie Z M

    2016-04-15

    Glucocorticoid hormones play vital roles in regulating diverse biological processes in health and disease. Tissue levels are regulated by enzymes which activate and inactivate hormones. The enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1), in particular, has been identified as a potential drug target; inhibiting this enzyme attenuates glucocorticoid action by lowering local levels of active hormone. A variety of mass spectrometric approaches have been developed to characterize this enzymein vivo Endogenous glucocorticoids and their metabolites can be profiled in urine by GC-MS and circulating steroids are now more commonly quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Tracer dilution studies have allowed rates of generation of glucocorticoids by the enzyme to be distinguished from hormone generated directly by the adrenal glands and, in combination with arterio-venous (AV) sampling, rates of production by specific tissues have been quantified. This has allowed the contribution of liver, adipose, muscle and brain to cortisol production in metabolic disease and hence prioritized drug targets. Most recently MS imaging in combination with on-tissue derivatization has been developed to profile oxo-steroids in tissue sections, allowing molecular maps to be generated across complex tissues, where regional functions are important. The review provides a synopsis of how measurement of steroids by MS has evolved with technological advances and this has provided insight into the dynamic turnover of glucocorticoidsin vivo, highlighting the milestones that have advanced the field and identifying the remaining challenges for researchers, in terms of analytical chemistry and endocrine physiology and biochemistry. PMID:27068983

  19. Mass spectrometry and its evolving role in assessing tissue specific steroid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Ruth; Homer, Natalie Z M

    2016-04-15

    Glucocorticoid hormones play vital roles in regulating diverse biological processes in health and disease. Tissue levels are regulated by enzymes which activate and inactivate hormones. The enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1), in particular, has been identified as a potential drug target; inhibiting this enzyme attenuates glucocorticoid action by lowering local levels of active hormone. A variety of mass spectrometric approaches have been developed to characterize this enzymein vivo Endogenous glucocorticoids and their metabolites can be profiled in urine by GC-MS and circulating steroids are now more commonly quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Tracer dilution studies have allowed rates of generation of glucocorticoids by the enzyme to be distinguished from hormone generated directly by the adrenal glands and, in combination with arterio-venous (AV) sampling, rates of production by specific tissues have been quantified. This has allowed the contribution of liver, adipose, muscle and brain to cortisol production in metabolic disease and hence prioritized drug targets. Most recently MS imaging in combination with on-tissue derivatization has been developed to profile oxo-steroids in tissue sections, allowing molecular maps to be generated across complex tissues, where regional functions are important. The review provides a synopsis of how measurement of steroids by MS has evolved with technological advances and this has provided insight into the dynamic turnover of glucocorticoidsin vivo, highlighting the milestones that have advanced the field and identifying the remaining challenges for researchers, in terms of analytical chemistry and endocrine physiology and biochemistry.

  20. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-05-01

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 {sup o}C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  1. Novel roles for the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in secondary metabolism and the regulation of cell death in walnut.

    PubMed

    Araji, Soha; Grammer, Theresa A; Gertzen, Ross; Anderson, Stephen D; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Phu, My L; Solar, Anita; Leslie, Charles A; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Escobar, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds into highly reactive quinones. Polymerization of PPO-derived quinones causes the postharvest browning of cut or bruised fruit, but the native physiological functions of PPOs in undamaged, intact plant cells are not well understood. Walnut (Juglans regia) produces a rich array of phenolic compounds and possesses a single PPO enzyme, rendering it an ideal model to study PPO. We generated a series of PPO-silenced transgenic walnut lines that display less than 5% of wild-type PPO activity. Strikingly, the PPO-silenced plants developed spontaneous necrotic lesions on their leaves in the absence of pathogen challenge (i.e. a lesion mimic phenotype). To gain a clearer perspective on the potential functions of PPO and its possible connection to cell death, we compared the leaf transcriptomes and metabolomes of wild-type and PPO-silenced plants. Silencing of PPO caused major alterations in the metabolism of phenolic compounds and their derivatives (e.g. coumaric acid and catechin) and in the expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. Several observed metabolic changes point to a direct role for PPO in the metabolism of tyrosine and in the biosynthesis of the hydroxycoumarin esculetin in vivo. In addition, PPO-silenced plants displayed massive (9-fold) increases in the tyrosine-derived metabolite tyramine, whose exogenous application elicits cell death in walnut and several other plant species. Overall, these results suggest that PPO plays a novel and fundamental role in secondary metabolism and acts as an indirect regulator of cell death in walnut.

  2. Tidal switch on metabolic activity: Salinity induced responses on bacterioplankton metabolic capabilities in a tropical estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thottathil, Shoji D.; Balachandran, K. K.; Jayalakshmy, K. V.; Gupta, G. V. M.; Nair, Shanta

    2008-07-01

    "Biolog" plates were used to study the changes in the metabolic capabilities of bacterioplankton over a complete tidal cycle in a tropical ecosystem (Cochin Estuary) along southwest coast of India. The pattern of utilization of carbon sources showed a definite shift in the community metabolism along a salinity gradient. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed two communities, namely allochthonous bacterioplankton sensitive to salinity and autochthonous bacterioplankton, which are tolerant to wide salinity fluctuations. Regression analysis showed salinity as the most important parameter influencing the physiological profile of bacterioplankton, irrespective of tide. Apart from salinity, limno-tolerant retrievable counts and halo-tolerant retrievable counts also accounted for the metabolic variation of bacterioplankton during low and high tides, respectively. The shift in the substrate utilization from carbohydrates to amino acids appears to be due to the physiological adaptation or nitrogen limitation of bacterial community with increasing salinity.

  3. [The role of vitamin K in the metabolism of connective tissue biopolymers (review)].

    PubMed

    Sharaev, P N

    1984-01-01

    Metabolism of connective tissue biopolymers was studied under conditions of various content of vitamin K in the body. The data obtained suggest the existence of a new metabolic effect of vitamin K--its participation as an allosteric activator in regulation of glucosamine synthetase (EC 5.3.1.19). The anabolic effect of vitamin K on connective tissue is apparently related to an increase in the rate of biosynthesis of glucosamine-6-phosphate--general precursor of glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins and hexosamine-containing glycolipids. PMID:6369774

  4. Unexpected roles of plastoglobules (plastid lipid droplets) in vitamin K1 and E metabolism.

    PubMed

    Spicher, Livia; Kessler, Felix

    2015-06-01

    Tocopherol (vitamin E) and phylloquinone (vitamin K1) are lipid-soluble antioxidants that can only be synthesized by photosynthetic organisms. These compounds function primarily at the thylakoid membrane but are also present in chloroplast lipid droplets, also known as plastoglobules (PG). Depending on environmental conditions and stage of plant development, changes in the content, number and size of PG occur. PG are directly connected to the thylakoid membrane via the outer lipid leaflet. Apart from storage, PG are active in metabolism and likely trafficking of diverse lipid species. This review presents recent advances on how plastoglobules are implicated in the biosynthesis and metabolism of vitamin E and K.

  5. The integration of lipid-sensing and anti-inflammatory effects: how the PPARs play a role in metabolic balance.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Alistair V W; Bell, Jimmy; Barter, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The peroxisomal proliferating-activated receptors (PPARs) are lipid-sensing transcription factors that have a role in embryonic development, but are primarily known for modulating energy metabolism, lipid storage, and transport, as well as inflammation and wound healing. Currently, there is no consensus as to the overall combined function of PPARs and why they evolved. We hypothesize that the PPARs had to evolve to integrate lipid storage and burning with the ability to reduce oxidative stress, as energy storage is essential for survival and resistance to injury/infection, but the latter increases oxidative stress and may reduce median survival (functional longevity). In a sense, PPARs may be an evolutionary solution to something we call the 'hypoxia-lipid' conundrum, where the ability to store and burn fat is essential for survival, but is a 'double-edged sword', as fats are potentially highly toxic. Ways in which PPARs may reduce oxidative stress involve modulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) expression (thus reducing reactive oxygen species, ROS), optimising forkhead box class O factor (FOXO) activity (by improving whole body insulin sensitivity) and suppressing NFkB (at the transcriptional level). In light of this, we therefore postulate that inflammation-induced PPAR downregulation engenders many of the signs and symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, which shares many features with the acute phase response (APR) and is the opposite of the phenotype associated with calorie restriction and high FOXO activity. In genetically susceptible individuals (displaying the naturally mildly insulin resistant 'thrifty genotype'), suboptimal PPAR activity may follow an exaggerated but natural adipose tissue-related inflammatory signal induced by excessive calories and reduced physical activity, which normally couples energy storage with the ability to mount an immune response. This is further worsened when pancreatic decompensation occurs, resulting in gluco

  6. Nickel Availability in Soil as Influenced by Liming and Its Role in Soybean Nitrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo, Fernando G.; Bresolin, Joana D.; Santos, Elcio F.; Furlan, Felipe; Lopes da Silva, Wilson T.; Polacco, Joe C.; Lavres, José

    2016-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) availability in soil varies as a function of pH. Plants require Ni in small quantities for normal development, especially in legumes due its role in nitrogen (N) metabolism. This study investigated the effect of soil base saturation, and Ni amendments on Ni uptake, N accumulation in the leaves and grains, as well as to evaluate organic acids changes in soybean. In addition, two N assimilation enzymes were assayed: nitrate reductase (NR) and Ni-dependent urease. Soybean plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum were cultivated in soil-filled pots under two base-cation saturation (BCS) ratios (50 and 70%) and five Ni rates – 0.0; 0.1; 0.5; 1.0; and 10.0 mg dm-3 Ni. At flowering (R1 developmental stage), plants for each condition were evaluated for organic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, malic, tartaric, fumaric, oxaloacetic, citric and lactic) levels as well as the activities of urease and NR. At the end of the growth period (R7 developmental stage – grain maturity), grain N and Ni accumulations were determined. The available soil-Ni in rhizosphere extracted by DTPA increased with Ni rates, notably in BCS50. The highest concentrations of organic acid and N occurred in BCS70 and 0.5 mg dm-3 of Ni. There were no significant differences for urease activity taken on plants grown at BSC50 for Ni rates, except for the control treatment, while plants cultivated at soil BCS70 increased the urease activity up to 0.5 mg dm-3 of Ni. In addition, the highest values for urease activities were reached from the 0.5 mg dm-3 of Ni rate for both BCS treatments. The NR activity was not affected by any treatment indicating good biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) for all plants. The reddish color of the nodules increased with Ni rates in both BCS50 and 70, also confirms the good BNF due to Ni availability. The optimal development of soybean occurs in BCS70, but requires an extra Ni supply for the production of organic acids and for increased N-shoot and grain

  7. Nickel Availability in Soil as Influenced by Liming and Its Role in Soybean Nitrogen Metabolism.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Fernando G; Bresolin, Joana D; Santos, Elcio F; Furlan, Felipe; Lopes da Silva, Wilson T; Polacco, Joe C; Lavres, José

    2016-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) availability in soil varies as a function of pH. Plants require Ni in small quantities for normal development, especially in legumes due its role in nitrogen (N) metabolism. This study investigated the effect of soil base saturation, and Ni amendments on Ni uptake, N accumulation in the leaves and grains, as well as to evaluate organic acids changes in soybean. In addition, two N assimilation enzymes were assayed: nitrate reductase (NR) and Ni-dependent urease. Soybean plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum were cultivated in soil-filled pots under two base-cation saturation (BCS) ratios (50 and 70%) and five Ni rates - 0.0; 0.1; 0.5; 1.0; and 10.0 mg dm(-3) Ni. At flowering (R1 developmental stage), plants for each condition were evaluated for organic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, malic, tartaric, fumaric, oxaloacetic, citric and lactic) levels as well as the activities of urease and NR. At the end of the growth period (R7 developmental stage - grain maturity), grain N and Ni accumulations were determined. The available soil-Ni in rhizosphere extracted by DTPA increased with Ni rates, notably in BCS50. The highest concentrations of organic acid and N occurred in BCS70 and 0.5 mg dm(-3) of Ni. There were no significant differences for urease activity taken on plants grown at BSC50 for Ni rates, except for the control treatment, while plants cultivated at soil BCS70 increased the urease activity up to 0.5 mg dm(-3) of Ni. In addition, the highest values for urease activities were reached from the 0.5 mg dm(-3) of Ni rate for both BCS treatments. The NR activity was not affected by any treatment indicating good biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) for all plants. The reddish color of the nodules increased with Ni rates in both BCS50 and 70, also confirms the good BNF due to Ni availability. The optimal development of soybean occurs in BCS70, but requires an extra Ni supply for the production of organic acids and for increased N-shoot and grain

  8. Nickel Availability in Soil as Influenced by Liming and Its Role in Soybean Nitrogen Metabolism