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Sample records for metabolically active tissue

  1. Differential CT Attenuation of Metabolically Active and Inactive Adipose Tissues — Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Chung, Sandra A.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates differences in CT Hounsfield units (HUs) between metabolically active (brown fat) and inactive adipose tissues (white fat) due to variations in their densities. PET/CT data from 101 pediatric and adolescent patients were analyzed. Regions of metabolically active and inactive adipose tissues were identified and standard uptake values (SUVs) and HUs were measured. HUs of active brown fat were more positive (p<0.001) than inactive fat (−62.4±5.3 versus −86.7±7.0) and the difference was observed in both males and females. PMID:21245691

  2. Bioorthogonal chemical imaging of metabolic activities in live mammalian hippocampal tissues with stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Wei, Lu; Morrison, Barclay; Min, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Brain is an immensely complex system displaying dynamic and heterogeneous metabolic activities. Visualizing cellular metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids in brain with chemical specificity has been a long-standing challenge. Recent development in metabolic labeling of small biomolecules allows the study of these metabolisms at the global level. However, these techniques generally require nonphysiological sample preparation for either destructive mass spectrometry imaging or secondary labeling with relatively bulky fluorescent labels. In this study, we have demonstrated bioorthogonal chemical imaging of DNA, RNA, protein and lipid metabolism in live rat brain hippocampal tissues by coupling stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with integrated deuterium and alkyne labeling. Heterogeneous metabolic incorporations for different molecular species and neurogenesis with newly-incorporated DNA were observed in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus at the single cell level. We further applied this platform to study metabolic responses to traumatic brain injury in hippocampal slice cultures, and observed marked upregulation of protein and lipid metabolism particularly in the hilus region of the hippocampus within days of mechanical injury. Thus, our method paves the way for the study of complex metabolic profiles in live brain tissue under both physiological and pathological conditions with single-cell resolution and minimal perturbation.

  3. Pleiotropic effects of apolipoprotein C3 on HDL functionality and adipose tissue metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Zvintzou, Evangelia; Lhomme, Marie; Chasapi, Stella; Filou, Serafoula; Theodoropoulos, Vassilis; Xapapadaki, Eva; Kontush, Anatol; Spyroulias, George; Tellis, Constantinos C; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Constantinou, Caterina; Kypreos, Kyriakos E

    2017-09-01

    APOC3 is produced mainly by the liver and intestine and approximately half of plasma APOC3 associates with HDL. Though it was believed that APOC3 associates with HDL by simple binding to preexisting particles, recent data support that biogenesis of APOC3-containing HDL (APOC3-HDL) requires Abca1. Moreover, APOC3-HDL contributes to plasma triglyceride homeostasis by preventing APOC3 association with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Interestingly, APOC3-HDL also shows positive correlation with the morbidly obese phenotype. However, the roles of APOC3 in HDL functionality and adipose tissue metabolic activity remain unknown. Therefore, here we investigated the direct effects of APOC3 expression on HDL structure and function, as well as white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolic activity. C57BL/6 mice were infected with an adenovirus expressing human APOC3 or a recombinant attenuated control adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein and blood and tissue samples were collected at 5 days postinfection. HDL was then analyzed for its apolipoprotein and lipid composition and particle functionality. Additionally, purified mitochondria from BAT and WAT were analyzed for uncoupling protein 1, cytochrome c (Cytc), and Cytc oxidase subunit 4 protein levels as an indirect measure of their metabolic activity. Serum metabolomic analysis was performed by NMR. Combined, our data show that APOC3 modulates HDL structure and function, while it selectively promotes BAT metabolic activation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Human Brown Adipose Tissue Temperature and Fat Fraction Are Related to Its Metabolic Activity.

    PubMed

    Koskensalo, Kalle; Raiko, Juho; Saari, Teemu; Saunavaara, Virva; Eskola, Olli; Nuutila, Pirjo; Saunavaara, Jani; Parkkola, Riitta; Virtanen, Kirsi A

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic activity of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been previously examined using positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to investigate whether the temperature and the fat fraction (FF) of BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) are associated with BAT metabolic activity determined by deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG)-PET. Ten healthy subjects (four women, six men; 25 to 45 years of age) were studied using PET-magnetic resonance imaging during acute cold exposure and at ambient room temperature. BAT and subcutaneous WAT 1H MRS were measured. The tissue temperature and the FF were derived from the spectra. Tissue metabolic activity was studied through glucose uptake using dynamic FDG PET scanning during cold exposure. A 2-hour hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was performed on eight subjects. The metabolic activity of BAT associated directly with the heat production capacity and inversely with the FF of the tissue. In addition, the lipid-burning capacity of BAT associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity. During cold exposure, the FF of BAT was lower than at room temperature, and cold-induced FF of BAT associated inversely with high-density lipoprotein and directly with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Both 1H MRS-derived temperature and FF are promising methods to study BAT activity noninvasively. The association between the lipid-burning capacity of BAT and whole-body insulin sensitivity emphasizes the role of BAT in glucose handling. Furthermore, the relation of FF to high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol suggests that BAT has a role in lipid clearance, thus protecting tissues from excess lipid load. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  5. Inactivation of adipose angiotensinogen reduces adipose tissue macrophages and increases metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    LeMieux, Monique J; Ramalingam, Latha; Mynatt, Randall L; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kim, Jung Han; Moustaïd-Moussa, Naïma

    2016-02-01

    The adipose renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been linked to obesity-induced inflammation, though mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, adipose-specific angiotensinogen knockout mice (Agt-KO) were generated to determine whether Agt inactivation reduces inflammation and alters the metabolic profile of the Agt-KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Adipose tissue-specific Agt-KO mice were created using the Cre-LoxP system with both Agt-KO and WT littermates fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet to assess metabolic changes. White adipose tissue was used for gene/protein expression analyses and WAT stromal vascular cells for metabolic extracellular flux assays. No significant differences were observed in body weight or fat mass between both genotypes on either diet. However, improved glucose clearance was observed in Agt-KO compared to WT littermates, consistent with higher expression of genes involved in insulin signaling, glucose transport, and fatty acid metabolism. Furthermore, Agt inactivation reduced total macrophage infiltration in Agt-KO mice fed both diets. Lastly, stroma vascular cells from Agt-KO mice revealed higher metabolic activity compared to WT mice. These findings indicate that adipose-specific Agt inactivation leads to reduced adipose inflammation and increased glucose tolerance mediated in part via increased metabolic activity of adipose cells. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  6. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Regulates Energy Metabolism through Modulating Thermogenesis in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lingyan; Zhang, Lina; Li, Bohan; Jiang, Haowen; Duan, Yanan; Xie, Zhifu; Shuai, Lin; Li, Jia; Li, Jingya

    2018-01-01

    Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic “brown-like” cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood. To illuminate the effect of adipocyte AMPK on energy metabolism, we generated Adiponectin-Cre-driven adipose tissue-specific AMPK α1/α2 KO mice (AKO). These AKO mice were cold intolerant and their inguinal WAT displayed impaired mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis, and reduced expression of thermogenic markers upon cold exposure. High-fat-diet (HFD)-fed AKO mice exhibited increased adiposity and exacerbated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Meanwhile, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were markedly decreased in the AKO mice both in basal conditions and after stimulation with a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist, CL 316,243. In contrast, we found that in HFD-fed obese mouse model, chronic AMPK activation by A-769662 protected against obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. A-769662 alleviated HFD-induced glucose intolerance and reduced body weight gain and WAT expansion. Notably, A-769662 increased energy expenditure and cold tolerance in HFD-fed mice. A-769662 treatment also induced the browning process in the inguinal fat depot of HFD-fed mice. Likewise, A-769662 enhanced thermogenesis in differentiated inguinal stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells via AMPK signaling pathway. In summary, a lack of adipocyte AMPKα induced thermogenic impairment and obesity in response to cold and nutrient-overload, respectively

  7. Metabolic, anabolic, and mitogenic insulin responses: A tissue-specific perspective for insulin receptor activators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insulin acts as the major regulator of the fasting-to-fed metabolic transition by altering substrate metabolism, promoting energy storage, and helping activate protein synthesis. In addition to its glucoregulatory and other metabolic properties, insulin can also act as a growth factor. The metabolic...

  8. Brown adipose tissue activation is linked to distinct systemic effects on lipid metabolism in humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent studies suggest that brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a role in energy and glucose metabolism in humans. However, the physiological significance of human BAT in lipid metabolism remains unknown. We studied 16 overweight/obese men during prolonged, non-shivering cold and thermoneutral conditio...

  9. Metabolic Mapping: Quantitative Enzyme Cytochemistry and Histochemistry to Determine the Activity of Dehydrogenases in Cells and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Remco J; Khurshed, Mohammed; Hira, Vashendriya V V; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2018-05-26

    Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and infection. The metabolic motor units of cells are enzymes and their activity is heavily regulated at many levels, including the transcriptional, mRNA stability, translational, post-translational and functional level. This complex regulation means that conventional quantitative or imaging assays, such as quantitative mRNA experiments, Western Blots and immunohistochemistry, yield incomplete information regarding the ultimate activity of enzymes, their function and/or their subcellular localization. Quantitative enzyme cytochemistry and histochemistry (i.e., metabolic mapping) show in-depth information on in situ enzymatic activity and its kinetics, function and subcellular localization in an almost true-to-nature situation. We describe a protocol to detect the activity of dehydrogenases, which are enzymes that perform redox reactions to reduce cofactors such as NAD(P) + and FAD. Cells and tissue sections are incubated in a medium that is specific for the enzymatic activity of one dehydrogenase. Subsequently, the dehydrogenase that is the subject of investigation performs its enzymatic activity in its subcellular site. In a chemical reaction with the reaction medium, this ultimately generates blue-colored formazan at the site of the dehydrogenase's activity. The formazan's absorbance is therefore a direct measure of the dehydrogenase's activity and can be quantified using monochromatic light microscopy and image analysis. The quantitative aspect of this protocol enables researchers to draw statistical conclusions from these assays. Besides observational studies, this technique can be used for inhibition studies of specific enzymes. In this context, studies benefit from the true-to-nature advantages of metabolic mapping, giving in situ results that may be physiologically more relevant than in vitro enzyme inhibition studies. In all, metabolic mapping is an

  10. Downregulation of Metabolic Activity Increases Cell Survival Under Hypoxic Conditions: Potential Applications for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaehyun; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Jackson, John D.; Lee, Sang Jin; Atala, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge to the success of cell-based implants for tissue regeneration is an insufficient supply of oxygen before host vasculature is integrated into the implants, resulting in premature cell death and dysfunction. Whereas increasing oxygenation to the implants has been a major focus in the field, our strategy is aimed at lowering oxygen consumption by downregulating cellular metabolism of cell-based implants. Adenosine, which is a purine nucleoside that functions as an energy transferring molecule, has been reported to increase under hypoxia, resulting in reducing the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) demands of the Na+/K+ ATPase. In the present study, we investigated whether adenosine could be used to downregulate cellular metabolism to achieve prolonged survival under hypoxic conditions. Murine myoblasts (C2C12) lacking a self-survival mechanism were treated with adenosine under 0.1% hypoxic stress. The cells, cultured in the presence of 5 mM adenosine, maintained their viability under hypoxia, and regained their normal growth and function of forming myotubes when transferred to normoxic conditions at day 11 without further supply of adenosine, whereas nontreated cells failed to survive. An increase in adenosine concentrations shortened the onset of reproliferation after transfer to normoxic conditions. This increase correlated with an increase in metabolic downregulation during the early phase of hypoxia. A higher intracellular ATP level was observed in adenosine-treated cells throughout the duration of hypoxia. This strategy of increasing cell survival under hypoxic conditions through downregulating cellular metabolism may be utilized for cell-based tissue regeneration applications as well as protecting tissues against hypoxic injuries. PMID:24524875

  11. Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

  12. TRB3 gene silencing activates AMPK in adipose tissue with beneficial metabolic effects in obese and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Song, Ming; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Huimin; Wang, Feng; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Ti, Yun

    2017-06-17

    Our previous study had suggested Tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) might be involved in metabolic syndrome via adipose tissue. Given prior studies, we sought to determine whether TRB3 plays a major role in adipocytes and adipose tissue with beneficial metabolic effects in obese and diabetic rats. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated to induce insulin resistant adipocytes. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were all fed high-fat (HF) diet. Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). Compared with control group, in insulin resistant adipocytes, protein levels of insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), glucose transporter 4(GLUT4) and phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)were reduced, TRB3 protein level and triglyceride level were significantly increased, glucose uptake was markedly decreased. TRB3 silencing alleviated adipocytes insulin resistance. With TRB3 gene silencing, protein levels of IRS-1, GLUT4 and p-AMPK were significantly increased in adipocytes. TRB3 gene silencing decreased blood glucose, ameliorated insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue remodeling in diabetic rats. TRB3 silencing decreased triglyceride, increased glycogen simultaneously in diabetic epididymal and brown adipose tissues (BAT). Consistently, p-AMPK levels were increased in diabetic epididymal adipose tissue, and BAT after TRB3-siRNA treatment. TRB3silencing increased phosphorylation of Akt in liver, and improved liver insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Possible Mechanisms of Local Tissue Renin-Angiotensin System Activation in the Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Melvin R.; Sowers, Kurt M.; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Joginpally, Tejaswini; Krueger, Bennett; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The role of local tissue renin-angiotensin system (tRAS) activation in the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not well understood. To this point, we posit that early redox stress-mediated injury to tissues and organs via accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated wound healing responses might serve as a paradigm to better understand how tRAS is involved. There are at least five common categories responsible for generating ROS that may result in a positive feedback ROS-tRAS axis. These mechanisms include metabolic substrate excess, hormonal excess, hypoxia-ischemia/reperfusion, trauma, and inflammation. Because ROS are toxic to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids they may be the primary instigator, serving as the injury nidus to initiate the wound healing process. Insulin resistance is central to the development of the CRS and T2DM, and there are now thought to be four major organ systems important in their development. In states of overnutrition and tRAS activation, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle (SkM), islet tissues, and liver (the quadrumvirate) are individually and synergistically related to the development of insulin resistance, CRS, and T2DM. The obesity epidemic is thought to be the driving force behind the CRS and T2DM, which results in the impairment of multiple end-organs, including the cardiovascular system, pancreas, kidney, retina, liver, adipose tissue, SkM, and nervous system. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms leading to local tRAS activation and increases in tissue ROS may lead to new therapies emphasizing global risk reduction of ROS resulting in decreased morbidity and mortality. PMID:22096455

  14. Tight coupling of astrocyte energy metabolism to synaptic activity revealed by genetically encoded FRET nanosensors in hippocampal tissue.

    PubMed

    Ruminot, Iván; Schmälzle, Jana; Leyton, Belén; Barros, L Felipe; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2017-01-01

    The potassium ion, K + , a neuronal signal that is released during excitatory synaptic activity, produces acute activation of glucose consumption in cultured astrocytes, a phenomenon mediated by the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 ( SLC4A4). We have explored here the relevance of this mechanism in brain tissue by imaging the effect of neuronal activity on pH, glucose, pyruvate and lactate dynamics in hippocampal astrocytes using BCECF and FRET nanosensors. Electrical stimulation of Schaffer collaterals produced fast activation of glucose consumption in astrocytes with a parallel increase in intracellular pyruvate and biphasic changes in lactate . These responses were blocked by TTX and were absent in tissue slices prepared from NBCe1-KO mice. Direct depolarization of astrocytes with elevated extracellular K + or Ba 2+ mimicked the metabolic effects of electrical stimulation. We conclude that the glycolytic pathway of astrocytes in situ is acutely sensitive to neuronal activity, and that extracellular K + and the NBCe1 cotransporter are involved in metabolic crosstalk between neurons and astrocytes. Glycolytic activation of astrocytes in response to neuronal K + helps to provide an adequate supply of lactate, a metabolite that is released by astrocytes and which acts as neuronal fuel and an intercellular signal.

  15. Hydroperoxide Lyase and Other Hydroperoxide-Metabolizing Activity in Tissues of Soybean, Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Harold W.; Weisleder, David; Plattner, Ronald D.

    1991-01-01

    Hydroperoxide lyase (HPLS) activity in soybean (Glycine max) seed/seedlings, leaves, and chloroplasts of leaves required detergent solubilization for maximum in vitro activity. On a per milligram of protein basis, more HPLS activity was found in leaves, especially chloroplasts, than in seeds or seedlings. The total yield of hexanal from 13(S)-hydroperoxy-cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (13S-HPOD) from leaf or chloroplast preparations was 58 and 66 to 85%, respectively. Because of significant competing hydroperoxide-metabolizing activities from other enzymes in seed/seedling preparations, the hexanal yields from this source were lower (36-56%). Some of the products identified from the seed or seedling preparations indicated that the competing activity was mainly due to both a hydroperoxide peroxygenase and reactions catalyzed by lipoxygenase. Different HPLS isozyme compositions in the seed/seedling versus the leaf/chloroplast preparations were indicated by differences in the activity as a function of pH, the Km values, relative Vmax with 13S-HPOD and 13(S)-hydroperoxy-cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (13S-HPOT), and the specificity with different substrates. With regard to the latter, both seed/seedling and chloroplast HPLS utilized the 13S-HPOD and 13S-HPOT substrates, but only seeds/seedlings were capable of metabolizing 9(S)-hydroperoxy-trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid into 9-oxononanoic acid, isomeric nonenals, and 4-hydroxynonenal. From 13S-HPOD and 13S-HPOT, the products were identified as 12-oxo-cis-9-dodecenoic acid, as well as hexanal from 13S-HPOD and cis-3-hexenal from 13S-HPOT. In seed preparations, there was partial isomerization of the cis-3 or cis-9 into trans-2 or trans-10 double bonds, respectively. PMID:16668490

  16. Substantial Metabolic Activity of Human Brown Adipose Tissue during Warm Conditions and Cold-Induced Lipolysis of Local Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Weir, Graeme; Ramage, Lynne E; Akyol, Murat; Rhodes, Jonathan K; Kyle, Catriona J; Fletcher, Alison M; Craven, Thomas H; Wakelin, Sonia J; Drake, Amanda J; Gregoriades, Maria-Lena; Ashton, Ceri; Weir, Nick; van Beek, Edwin J R; Karpe, Fredrik; Walker, Brian R; Stimson, Roland H

    2018-06-05

    Current understanding of in vivo human brown adipose tissue (BAT) physiology is limited by a reliance on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanning, which has measured exogenous glucose and fatty acid uptake but not quantified endogenous substrate utilization by BAT. Six lean, healthy men underwent 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT scanning to localize BAT so microdialysis catheters could be inserted in supraclavicular BAT under CT guidance and in abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Arterial and dialysate samples were collected during warm (∼25°C) and cold exposure (∼17°C), and blood flow was measured by 133 xenon washout. During warm conditions, there was increased glucose uptake and lactate release and decreased glycerol release by BAT compared with WAT. Cold exposure increased blood flow, glycerol release, and glucose and glutamate uptake only by BAT. This novel use of microdialysis reveals that human BAT is metabolically active during warm conditions. BAT activation substantially increases local lipolysis but also utilization of other substrates such as glutamate. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adrenergic pathway activation enhances brown adipose tissue metabolism: A [18F]FDG PET/CT study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mirbolooki, M. Reza; Upadhyay, Sanjeev Kumar; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pharmacologic approaches to study brown adipocyte activation in vivo with a potential of being translational to humans are desired. The aim of this study was to examine pre- and postsynaptic targeting of adrenergic system for enhancing brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism quantifiable by [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) in mice. Methods A β3-adrenoreceptor selective agonist (CL 316243), an adenylyl cyclase enzyme activator (forskolin) and a potent blocker of presynaptic norepinephrine transporter (atomoxetine) were injected through the tail vein of Swiss Webster mice 30 minutes before intravenous (iv) administration of [18F]FDG. The mice were placed on the PET/CT bed for 30 min PET acquisition followed by 10 min CT acquisition for attenuation correction and anatomical delineation of PET images. Results Activated interscapular (IBAT), cervical, periaortic and intercostal BAT were observed in 3-dimentional analysis of [18F]FDG PET images. CL 316243 increased the total [18F]FDG standard uptake value (SUV) of IBAT 5-fold greater compared to that in placebo-treated mice. It also increased the [18F]FDG SUV of white adipose tissue (2.4-fold), and muscle (2.7-fold), as compared to the control. There was no significant difference in heart, brain, spleen and liver uptakes between groups. Forskolin increased [18F]FDG SUV of IBAT 1.9-fold greater than that in placebo-treated mice. It also increased the [18F]FDG SUV of white adipose tissue (2.2-fold) and heart (5.4-fold) compared to control. There was no significant difference in muscle, brain, spleen, and liver uptakes between groups. Atomoxetine increased [18F]FDG SUV of IBAT 1.7-fold greater than that in placebo-treated mice. There were no significant differences in all other organs compared to placebo-treated mice except liver (1.6 fold increase). A positive correlation between SUV levels of IBAT and CT hounsfiled unit (HU) (R2=0.55, p<0.001) and

  18. Brown adipose tissue and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2018-06-01

    This article explores how the interplay between lipid metabolism and thermogenic adipose tissues enables proper physiological adaptation to cold environments in rodents and humans. Cold exposure triggers systemic changes in lipid metabolism, which increases fatty acid delivery to brown adipose tissue (BAT) by various routes. Next to fatty acids generated intracellularly by de-novo lipogenesis or by lipolysis at lipid droplets, brown adipocytes utilize fatty acids released by white adipose tissue (WAT) for adaptive thermogenesis. WAT-derived fatty acids are internalized directly by BAT, or indirectly after hepatic conversion to very low-density lipoproteins and acylcarnitines. In the postprandial state, chylomicrons hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase - activated specifically in thermogenic adipocytes - are the predominant fatty acid source. Cholesterol-enriched chylomicron remnants and HDL generated by intravascular lipolysis in BAT are cleared more rapidly by the liver, explaining the antiatherogenic effects of BAT activation. Notably, increased cholesterol flux and elevated hepatic synthesis of bile acids under cold exposure further promote BAT-dependent thermogenesis. Although pathways providing fatty acids for activated BAT have been identified, more research is needed to understand the integration of lipid metabolism in BAT, WAT and liver, and to determine the relevance of BAT for human energy metabolism.

  19. Optical metabolic imaging of live tissue cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Alex J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2013-02-01

    The fluorescence properties, both intensity and fluorescence lifetime, of NADH and FAD, two coenzymes of metabolism, are sensitive, high resolution measures of cellular metabolism. However, often in vivo measurements of tissue are not feasible. In this study, we investigate the stability over time of two-photon auto-fluorescence imaging of NADH and FAD in live-cultured tissues. Our results demonstrate that cultured tissues remain viable for at least several days post excision. Furthermore, the optical redox ratio, NADH fluorescence lifetime, and FAD fluorescence lifetime do not significantly change in the cultured tissues over time. With these findings, we demonstrate the potential of sustained tissue culture techniques for optical metabolic imaging.

  20. The Metabolic Microenvironment Steers Bone Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Julia; Duda, Georg N; Sass, F Andrea; Dienelt, Anke

    2018-02-01

    Over the past years, basic findings in cancer research have revealed metabolic symbiosis between different cell types to cope with high energy demands under limited nutrient availability. Although this also applies to regenerating tissues with disrupted physiological nutrient and oxygen supply, the impact of this metabolic cooperation and metabolic reprogramming on cellular development, fate, and function during tissue regeneration has widely been neglected so far. With this review, we aim to provide a schematic overview on metabolic links that have a high potential to drive tissue regeneration. As bone is, aside from liver, the only tissue that can regenerate without excessive scar tissue formation, we will use bone healing as an exemplarily model system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Adipose Tissue in Metabolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Franz, Daniela; Syväri, Jan; Weidlich, Dominik; Baum, Thomas; Rummeny, Ernst J; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2018-06-06

     Adipose tissue has become an increasingly important tissue target in medicine. It plays a central role in the storage and release of energy throughout the human body and has recently gained interest for its endocrinologic function. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established method for quantitative direct evaluation of adipose tissue distribution, and is used increasingly as the modality of choice for metabolic phenotyping. The purpose of this review was the identification and presentation of the currently available literature on MRI of adipose tissue in metabolic dysfunction.  A PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) keyword search up to August 2017 without starting date limitation was performed and reference lists of relevant articles were searched.  MRI provides excellent tools for the evaluation of adipose tissue distribution and further characterization of the tissue. Standard as well as newly developed MRI techniques allow a risk stratification for the development of metabolic dysfunction and enable monitoring without the use of ionizing radiation or contrast material.   · Different types of adipose tissue play a crucial role in various types of metabolic dysfunction.. · Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent tool for noninvasive adipose tissue evaluation with respect to distribution, composition and metabolic activity.. · Both standard and newly developed MRI techniques can be used for risk stratification for the development of metabolic dysfunction and allow monitoring without the use of ionizing radiation or contrast material.. · Franz D, Syväri J, Weidlich D et al. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Adipose Tissue in Metabolic Dysfunction. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; DOI: 10.1055/a-0612-8006. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in type 2 diabetes: findings from the look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Ballantyne, Christie M; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Rushing, Julia; Schwenke, Dawn C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Tracy, Russell P

    2011-07-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic persons whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss (ILI) would decrease PAI-1 levels independently of weight loss and whether PAI-1 reduction would be associated with changes in fibrinogen, an acute phase reactant, or fibrin fragment D-dimer (D-dimer), a marker of ambient coagulation balance. We examined 1-year changes in PAI-1, D-dimer, and fibrinogen levels; adiposity; fitness; glucose; and lipid control with ILI in 1817 participants from Look AHEAD, a randomized trial investigating the effects of ILI, compared with usual care, on cardiovascular events in overweight or obese diabetic persons. Median PAI-1 levels decreased 29% with ILI and 2.5% with usual care (P < 0.0001). Improvements in fitness, glucose control, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were associated with decreased PAI-1, independently of weight loss (P = 0.03 for fitness, P < 0.0001 for others). Fibrinogen and D-dimer remained unchanged. Reductions in PAI-1 levels with ILI in obese diabetic individuals may reflect an improvement in adipose tissue health that could affect cardiovascular risk without changing fibrinogen or d-dimer levels. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00017953. Unique identifier: NCT00017953.

  3. The role of the brown adipose tissue in β3-adrenergic receptor activation-induced sleep, metabolic and feeding responses.

    PubMed

    Szentirmai, Éva; Kapás, Levente

    2017-04-19

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system via β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological stimulation of β3-ARs leads to increased sleep in mice and if this change is BAT dependent. In wild-type (WT) animals, administration of CL-316,243, a selective β3-AR agonist, induced significant increases in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) lasting for 4-10 h. Simultaneously, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) was significantly decreased and body temperature was increased with a delay of 5-6 h. In uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) knockout mice, the middle and highest doses of the β3-AR agonist increased sleep and suppressed SWA, however, these effects were significantly attenuated and shorter-lasting as compared to WT animals. To determine if somnogenic signals arising from BAT in response to β3-AR stimulation are mediated by the sensory afferents of BAT, we tested the effects of CL-316,243 in mice with the chemical deafferentation of the intra-scapular BAT pads. Sleep responses to CL-316,243 were attenuated by ~50% in intra-BAT capsaicin-treated mice. Present findings indicate that the activation of BAT via β3-AR leads to increased sleep in mice and that this effect is dependent on the presence of UCP-1 protein and sleep responses require the intact sensory innervation of BAT.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Metabolism in Leaf Epidermal Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Willmer, C. M.; Pallas, J. E.; Black, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    A number of plant species were surveyed to obtain pure leaf epidermal tissue in quantity. Commelina communis L. and Tulipa gesnariana L. (tulip) were chosen for further work. Chlorophyll a/b ratios of epidermal tissues were 2.41 and 2.45 for C. communis and tulip, respectively. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase, malic enzyme, and NAD+ and NADP+ malate dehydrogenases were assayed with epidermal tissue and leaf tissue minus epidermal tissue. In both species, there was less ribulose 1,5-diphosphate than phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity in epidermal tissue whether expressed on a protein or chlorophyll basis whereas the reverse was true for leaf tissue minus epidermal tissue. In both species, malic enzyme activities were higher in epidermal tissue than in the remaining leaf tissue when expressed on a protein or chlorophyll basis. In both species, NAD+ and NADP+ malate dehydrogenase activities were higher in the epidermal tissue when expressed on a chlorophyll basis; however, on a protein basis, the converse was true. Microautoradiography of C. communis epidermis and histochemical tests for keto acids suggested that CO2 fixation occurred predominantly in the guard cells. The significance and possible location of the enzymes are discussed in relation to guard cell metabolism. Images PMID:16658581

  5. Fructose, Glucocorticoids and Adipose Tissue: Implications for the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Legeza, Balázs; Marcolongo, Paola; Gamberucci, Alessandra; Varga, Viola; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Benedetti, Angiolo; Odermatt, Alex

    2017-04-26

    The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake when combined with overeating and adiposity promotes adverse metabolic health effects including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and inflammation. Similarly, elevated glucocorticoid levels, especially the enhanced generation of active glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue due to increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, have been associated with metabolic diseases. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that fructose stimulates the 11β-HSD1-mediated glucocorticoid activation by enhancing the availability of its cofactor NADPH. In adipocytes, fructose was found to stimulate 11β-HSD1 expression and activity, thereby promoting the adipogenic effects of glucocorticoids. This article aims to highlight the interconnections between overwhelmed fructose metabolism, intracellular glucocorticoid activation in adipose tissue, and their metabolic effects on the progression of the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Fructose, Glucocorticoids and Adipose Tissue: Implications for the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Legeza, Balázs; Marcolongo, Paola; Gamberucci, Alessandra; Varga, Viola; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Benedetti, Angiolo; Odermatt, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake when combined with overeating and adiposity promotes adverse metabolic health effects including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and inflammation. Similarly, elevated glucocorticoid levels, especially the enhanced generation of active glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue due to increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, have been associated with metabolic diseases. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that fructose stimulates the 11β-HSD1-mediated glucocorticoid activation by enhancing the availability of its cofactor NADPH. In adipocytes, fructose was found to stimulate 11β-HSD1 expression and activity, thereby promoting the adipogenic effects of glucocorticoids. This article aims to highlight the interconnections between overwhelmed fructose metabolism, intracellular glucocorticoid activation in adipose tissue, and their metabolic effects on the progression of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:28445389

  7. Intermediary metabolism during brief and prolonged low tissue temperature. [mammalian thermoregulation during hibernation and hypothermia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enteman, C.

    1973-01-01

    The intermediary metabolism of the depressed metabolic state in the hypothermic hamster and the hibernating ground squirrel was studied by observing acetate and palmitic acid metabolisms in their tissues. The oxidative metabolism seemed to be dominant in the depressed state although synthetic reactions such as fat synthesis proceeded in some cases at a faster rate than normothermic metabolism for the same tissues. Fat syntheses proceeded in all tissues with brown fat and liver especially active. Enzymes for the synthesis of cholesterol seemed to be more temperature sensitive than enzymes for fatty acid synthesis. It was concluded that there are no great differences between metabolisms in hypothermic and hibernating animals.

  8. Mechanisms of olfactory toxicity of the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile: Essential roles of CYP2A5 and target-tissue metabolic activation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Fang; Zhou Xin; Behr, Melissa

    The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitril (DCBN) is a potent and tissue-specific toxicant to the olfactory mucosa (OM). The toxicity of DCBN is mediated by cytochrome P450 (P450)-catalyzed bioactivation; however, it is not known whether target-tissue metabolic activation is essential for toxicity. CYP2A5, expressed abundantly in both liver and OM, was previously found to be one of the P450 enzymes active in DCBN bioactivation in vitro. The aims of this study were to determine the role of CYP2A5 in DCBN toxicity in vivo, by comparing the extents of DCBN toxicity between Cyp2a5-null and wild-type (WT) mice, and to determine whether hepatic microsomal P450more » enzymes (including CYP2A5) are essential for the DCBN toxicity, by comparing the extents of DCBN toxicity between liver-Cpr-null (LCN) mice, which have little P450 activity in hepatocytes, and WT mice. We show that the loss of CYP2A5 expression did not alter systemic clearance of DCBN (at 25 mg/kg); but it did inhibit DCBN-induced non-protein thiol depletion and cytotoxicity in the OM. Thus, CYP2A5 plays an essential role in mediating DCBN toxicity in the OM. In contrast to the results seen in the Cyp2a5-null mice, the rates of systemic DCBN clearance were substantially reduced, while the extents of DCBN-induced nasal toxicity were increased, rather than decreased, in the LCN mice, compared to WT mice. Therefore, hepatic P450 enzymes, although essential for DCBN clearance, are not necessary for DCBN-induced OM toxicity. Our findings form the basis for a mechanism-based approach to assessing the potential risks of DCBN nasal toxicity in humans.« less

  9. Monitoring tissue metabolism via time-resolved laser fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerz, Holger K.; Buchholz, Rainer; Emmrich, Frank; Fink, Frank; Geddes, Clive L.; Pfeifer, Lutz; Raabe, Ferdinand; Marx, Uwe

    1999-05-01

    Most assays for drug screening are monitoring the metabolism of cells by detecting the NADH content, which symbolize its metabolic activity, indirectly. Nowadays, the performance of a LASER enables us to monitor the metabolic state of mammalian cells directly and on-line by using time-resolved autofluorescence detection. Therefore, we developed in combination with tissue engineering, an assay for monitoring minor toxic effects of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are accused of inducing Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). Furthermore, we used the Laserfluoroscope (LF) for pharmacological studies on human bone marrow in vitro with special interest in chemotherapy simulation. In cancer research and therapy, the effect of chemostatica in vitro in the so-called oncobiogram is being tested; up to now without great success. However, it showed among other things that tissue structure plays a vital role. Consequently, we succeeded in simulating a chemotherapy in vitro on human bone marrow. Furthermore, after tumor ektomy we were able to distinguish between tumoric and its surrounding healthy tissue by using the LF. With its sensitive detection of metabolic changes in tissues the LF enables a wide range of applications in biotechnology, e.g. for quality control in artificial organ engineering or biocompatability testing.

  10. Metabolic Prosthesis for Oxygenation of Ischemic Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Elias

    2009-01-01

    This communication discloses new ideas and preliminary results on the development of a "metabolic prosthesis" for local oxygenation of ischemic tissue under physiological neutral conditions. We report for the first time the selective electrolysis of physiological saline by repetitively pulsed charge-limited electrolysis for the production of oxygen and suppression of free chlorine. For example, using 800 A amplitude current pulses and <200 sec pulse durations, we demonstrated prompt oxygen production and delayed chlorine production at the surface of a shiny 0.85 mm diameter spherical platinum electrode. The data, interpreted in terms of the ionic structure of the electric double layer,more » suggest a strategy for in situ production of metabolic oxygen via a new class of "smart" prosthetic implants for dealing with ischemic disease such as diabetic retinopathy. We also present data indicating that drift of the local pH of the oxygenated environment can be held constant using a feedback-controlled three electrode electrolysis system that chooses anode and cathode pair based on pH data provided by local microsensors. The work is discussed in the context of diabetic retinopathy since surgical techniques for multielectrode prosthetic implants aimed at retinal degenerative diseases have been developed.« less

  11. Real-time quantitation of internal metabolic activity of three-dimensional engineered tissues using an oxygen microelectrode and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yuki; Haraguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2017-05-01

    Recent progress in tissue engineering technology has enabled us to develop thick tissue constructs that can then be transplanted in regenerative therapies. In clinical situations, it is vital that the engineered tissues to be implanted are safe and functional before use. However, there is currently a limited number of studies on real-time quality evaluation of thick living tissue constructs. Here we developed a system for quantifying the internal activities of engineered tissues, from which we can evaluate its quality in real-time. The evaluation was achieved by measuring oxygen concentration profiles made along the vertical axis and the thickness of the tissues estimated from cross-sectional images obtained noninvasively by an optical coherence tomography system. Using our novel system, we obtained (i) oxygen concentration just above the tissues, (ii) gradient of oxygen along vertical axis formed above the tissues within culture medium, and (iii) gradient of oxygen formed within the tissues in real-time. Investigating whether these three parameters could be used to evaluate engineered tissues during culturing, we found that only the third parameter was a good candidate. This implies that the activity of living engineered tissues can be monitored in real-time by measuring the oxygen gradient within the tissues. The proposed measuring strategy can be applied to developing more efficient culturing methods to support the fabrication of engineered thick tissues, as well as providing methods to confirm the quality in real-time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 855-864, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Non-invasive Assessments of Adipose Tissue Metabolism In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Borowsky, Francis E; Quinn, Kyle P; Bernstein, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with non-invasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored.

  13. Non-invasive assessments of adipose tissue metabolism in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Borowsky, Francis E.; Quinn, Kyle P.; Bernstein, David L.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with noninvasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored. PMID:26399988

  14. METABOLISM AND METABOLIC ACTIVATION OF CHEMICALS: IN-SILICO SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of metabolism in prioritizing chemicals according to their potential adverse health effects is extremely important because innocuous parents can be transformed into toxic metabolites. This work presents the TIssue MEtabolism Simulator (TIMES) platform for simulating met...

  15. The Mice Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Programme: effect of space conditions on skin metabolic activity and vascularization and potential impact of radiations in mice.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusgens, Betty; Lambert, Charles; Liu, Yi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Colige, Alain

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of prolonged microgravity on skin physiology in mice and to identify potentially altered metabolic and vascular parameters. Osteoporosis-induced microgravity is a well documented space flight problem in Man and animals.We have previously demonstrated that fibroblasts from the dermis also sense and react to mechanical forces issued from the surrounding extracellular matrix. Conversely, fibroblasts are able to remodel their environment by a dynamic process of synthesis and degradation. Fibroblasts and cells of the vascular network also react to soluble mediators secreted by the keratinocytes such as IL-1, IL-6, VEGF, .... Skin fibroblasts upon relaxation of mechanical tension adopt a catabolic phenotype and produce significant amount of IL-1 and IL-6, of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) while the collagen synthesis is reduced. In microgravity, we have shown that the expression of MMP-1 and IL-6 by dermal fibroblasts is increased indicating that cell might interpret micro-gravity as a mechanical relaxation. This concept is supported by a reduction of the actin stress fibers and focal adhesions in fibroblasts in microgravity. Altogether, microgravity might alter metabolic equilibrium of the skin and perhaps of other soft connective tissues such as tendons or interstitial matrix of internal organs. The Mice Drawer System (MDS) is an Italian Space Agency facility which is able to support mice onboard the International Space Station during long-duration exploration missions by providing living space, food, water, ventilation and light-ing. Details on the mission that took place from August 28, 2009 to November 27, 2009, can be found at the URL indicated below. A similar ground control mission has been performed using the same wild type and transgenic mice overexpressing OSF-1. Upon receiving mice at KSC, the team has collected pieces of skin that were handled for histological, transcriptomic and biochemical analyses. The

  16. Hyperspectral imaging solutions for brain tissue metabolic and hemodynamic monitoring: past, current and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannoni, Luca; Lange, Frédéric; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technologies have been used extensively in medical research, targeting various biological phenomena and multiple tissue types. Their high spectral resolution over a wide range of wavelengths enables acquisition of spatial information corresponding to different light-interacting biological compounds. This review focuses on the application of HSI to monitor brain tissue metabolism and hemodynamics in life sciences. Different approaches involving HSI have been investigated to assess and quantify cerebral activity, mainly focusing on: (1) mapping tissue oxygen delivery through measurement of changes in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin; and (2) the assessment of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) to estimate oxygen consumption by brain tissue. Finally, we introduce future perspectives of HSI of brain metabolism, including its potential use for imaging optical signals from molecules directly involved in cellular energy production. HSI solutions can provide remarkable insight in understanding cerebral tissue metabolism and oxygenation, aiding investigation on brain tissue physiological processes.

  17. Adipose tissue NAD+-homeostasis, sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases -important players in mitochondrial metabolism and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Riikka; Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pirinen, Eija

    2017-08-01

    Obesity, a chronic state of energy overload, is characterized by adipose tissue dysfunction that is considered to be the major driver for obesity associated metabolic complications. The reasons for adipose tissue dysfunction are incompletely understood, but one potential contributing factor is adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction. Derangements of adipose tissue mitochondrial biogenesis and pathways associate with obesity and metabolic diseases. Mitochondria are central organelles in energy metabolism through their role in energy derivation through catabolic oxidative reactions. The mitochondrial processes are dependent on the proper NAD + /NADH redox balance and NAD + is essential for reactions catalyzed by the key regulators of mitochondrial metabolism, sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Notably, obesity is associated with disturbed adipose tissue NAD + homeostasis and the balance of SIRT and PARP activities. In this review we aim to summarize existing literature on the maintenance of intracellular NAD + pools and the function of SIRTs and PARPs in adipose tissue during normal and obese conditions, with the purpose of comprehending their potential role in mitochondrial derangements and obesity associated metabolic complications. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that are the root cause of the adipose tissue mitochondrial derangements is crucial for developing new effective strategies to reverse obesity associated metabolic complications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between gravitational force and tissue metabolism in periparturient rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzewska, E. I.; Maple, R.; Lintault, L.; Wade, C.; Baer, L.; Ronca, A.; Plaut, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, interest in mammalian reproduction and offspring survival in altered gravity has been growing. Because successful lactation is critical for mammalian neonate survival, we have been studying the effect of gravity metabolism. We have shown an exponential relationship between glucose metabolic rate in mammary tissue of periparturient rats and an increase in gravity load. In this study we showed that changes in mammary metabolic rate due to gravity force were accompanied by a decrease in glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and by a reduced size of adipocytes. We assume that these changes are likely due to changes in prolactin or leptin levels related to altered gravity load.

  19. Age and seasonal differences in the synthesis and metabolism of testosterone by testicular tissue and pineal HIOMT activity of Uinta ground squirrels (Spermophilus armatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, L.C.; Balph, D.F.

    Male Uinta ground squirrels (Spermophilus armatus) were sacrificed from a free-living population during the breeding season, which immediately followed emergence from hibernation; after the reproductive season; and just prior to aestivation/hibernation. HIOMT activity of the pineal gland was assayed and related to the ability of the gonads to synthesize and metabolize testosterone. Older squirrels had higher HIOMT activity than did the younger animals. The activity of this enzyme was lowest in squirrels during the breeding season. HIOMT activity increased after the breeding season to its highest level just before the squirrels enter aestivation/hibernation. At this time, testicular weight increased concomitantmore » with an apparent increase in HIOMT activity. Testicular size and weight were largest at the time of emergence of the animals from hibernation. Androgen synthesis was also greatest during the breeding season. As would be expected, both decreased rapidly thereafter. The testes formed little 17..cap alpha..,20..cap alpha..-dihydroxyprogesterone during or after the breeding season, contrary to what has been reported for rats and house sparrows. The older squirrels demonstrated a greater capacity for testosterone metabolism during the breeding season than did the younger animals.« less

  20. Selected adipose tissue hormones, bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand in postmenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Zofia; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Marek, Bogdan; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Tyrpień-Golder, Krystyna; Wołkowska-Pokrywa, Kinga; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that changes in the production of adipose tissue hormones in obese postmenopausal women might affect their bone status. The aim of this study was to determine whether obese postmenopausal women exhibited any relationship between serum levels of LP, ADIPO, RES, VISF, APE and bone metabolism markers (OC and CTx), OPG, sRANKL, the OPG/sRANKL ratio as well as BMD. 80 postmenopausal women (60 obese and 20 healthy) underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine L2-L4. Serum levels of selected adipose tissue hormones, OC, CTx, OPG and its soluble ligand, sRANKL, were assessed by ELISA. Obese postmenopausal women demonstrated a significant increase in body mass, BMI and WHR associated with significant increases in LP and RES levels, a decrease in ADIPO concentration, suppression of OC, CTx, OPG and sRANKL and an increase in the OPG/sRANKL ratio and BMD. BMI correlated positively with BMD, LP, RES, OPG and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, whereas in the case of ADIPO, OC, CTx, sRANKL the relationship was negative. WHR was positively correlated with the OPG/sRANKL ratio, and negatively with ADIPO and APE. A positive correlation was found between BMD and LP, APE and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, while the correlation between BMD and ADIPO, CTx, sRANKL was negative. Significant positive correlations were also revealed between OC, CTx and ADIPO; OPG and ADIPO; sRANKL and ADIPO, RES; the OPG/sRANKL ratio and LP. OC correlated negatively with LP, RES, VISF, APE; CTx with LP, VISF, APE; OPG with LP; sRANKL with LP and APE; the OPG/sRANKL ratio with VISF. ADIPO was an independent predictor of OC, OPG and sRANKL, while LP turned out to be an independent predictor of CTx, OPG, sRANKL and the OPG/sRANKL ratio. Obesity in postmenopausal women can lead to changes in BMD, circulating levels of bone markers, OPG, sRANKL and/or the OPG/sRANKL ratio; these changes are associated with alterations in the concentrations of adipose tissue hormones

  1. Reconstruction of Tissue-Specific Metabolic Networks Using CORDA

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, André; Qutub, Amina A.

    2016-01-01

    Human metabolism involves thousands of reactions and metabolites. To interpret this complexity, computational modeling becomes an essential experimental tool. One of the most popular techniques to study human metabolism as a whole is genome scale modeling. A key challenge to applying genome scale modeling is identifying critical metabolic reactions across diverse human tissues. Here we introduce a novel algorithm called Cost Optimization Reaction Dependency Assessment (CORDA) to build genome scale models in a tissue-specific manner. CORDA performs more efficiently computationally, shows better agreement to experimental data, and displays better model functionality and capacity when compared to previous algorithms. CORDA also returns reaction associations that can greatly assist in any manual curation to be performed following the automated reconstruction process. Using CORDA, we developed a library of 76 healthy and 20 cancer tissue-specific reconstructions. These reconstructions identified which metabolic pathways are shared across diverse human tissues. Moreover, we identified changes in reactions and pathways that are differentially included and present different capacity profiles in cancer compared to healthy tissues, including up-regulation of folate metabolism, the down-regulation of thiamine metabolism, and tight regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26942765

  2. Towards high resolution analysis of metabolic flux in cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Sims, James K; Manteiga, Sara; Lee, Kyongbum

    2013-10-01

    Metabolism extracts chemical energy from nutrients, uses this energy to form building blocks for biosynthesis, and interconverts between various small molecules that coordinate the activities of cellular pathways. The metabolic state of a cell is increasingly recognized to determine the phenotype of not only metabolically active cell types such as liver, muscle, and adipose, but also other specialized cell types such as neurons and immune cells. This review focuses on methods to quantify intracellular reaction flux as a measure of cellular metabolic activity, with emphasis on studies involving cells of mammalian tissue. Two key areas are highlighted for future development, single cell metabolomics and noninvasive imaging, which could enable spatiotemporally resolved analysis and thereby overcome issues of heterogeneity, a distinctive feature of tissue metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards High Resolution Analysis of Metabolic Flux in Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sims, James K; Manteiga, Sara; Lee, Kyongbum

    2013-01-01

    Metabolism extracts chemical energy from nutrients, uses this energy to form building blocks for biosynthesis, and interconverts between various small molecules that coordinate the activities of cellular pathways. The metabolic state of a cell is increasingly recognized to determine the phenotype of not only metabolically active cell types such as liver, muscle, and adipose, but also other specialized cell types such as neurons and immune cells. This review focuses on methods to quantify intracellular reaction flux as a measure of cellular metabolic activity, with emphasis on studies involving cells of mammalian tissue. Two key areas are highlighted for future development, single cell metabolomics and noninvasive imaging, which could enable spatiotemporally resolved analysis and thereby overcome issues of heterogeneity, a distinctive feature of tissue metabolism. PMID:23906926

  4. Tissue Specific Modulation of cyp2c and cyp3a mRNA Levels and Activities by Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice: The Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Liver and Extra-Hepatic Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chamoun, Michel; Gravel, Sophie; Turgeon, Jacques; Michaud, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    Various diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) may alter drug clearance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of T2D on CYP450 expressions and activities using high-fat diet (HFD) as a model of obesity-dependent diabetes in C57BL6 mice. The cyp450 mRNA expression levels for 15 different isoforms were determined in the liver and extra-hepatic tissues (kidneys, lungs and heart) of HFD-treated animals (n = 45). Modulation of cyp450 metabolic activities by HFD was assessed using eight known substrates for specific human ortholog CYP450 isoforms: in vitro incubations were conducted with liver and extra-hepatic microsomes. Expression levels of cyp3a11 and cyp3a25 mRNA were decreased in the liver (>2–14-fold) and kidneys (>2-fold) of HFD groups which correlated with a significant reduction in midazolam metabolism (by 21- and 5-fold in hepatic and kidney microsomes, respectively, p < 0.001). HFD was associated with decreased activities of cyp2b and cyp2c subfamilies in all organs tested except in the kidneys (for tolbutamide). Other cyp450 hepatic activities were minimally or not affected by HFD. Taken together, our data suggest that substrate-dependent and tissue-dependent modulation of cyp450 metabolic capacities by early phases of T2D are observed, which could modulate drug disposition and pharmacological effects in various tissues. PMID:28954402

  5. Adipose tissue lipolysis and energy metabolism in early cancer cachexia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Tian, Min; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Belury, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a progressive metabolic disorder that results in depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. A growing body of literature suggests that maintaining adipose tissue mass in cachexia may improve quality-of-life and survival outcomes. Studies of lipid metabolism in cachexia, however, have generally focused on later stages of the disorder when severe loss of adipose tissue has already occurred. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism in adipose, liver and muscle tissues during early stage cachexia – before severe fat loss – in the colon-26 murine model of cachexia. White adipose tissue mass in cachectic mice was moderately reduced (34–42%) and weight loss was less than 10% of initial body weight in this study of early cachexia. In white adipose depots of cachectic mice, we found evidence of enhanced protein kinase A - activated lipolysis which coincided with elevated total energy expenditure and increased expression of markers of brown (but not white) adipose tissue thermogenesis and the acute phase response. Total lipids in liver and muscle were unchanged in early cachexia while markers of fatty oxidation were increased. Many of these initial metabolic responses contrast with reports of lipid metabolism in later stages of cachexia. Our observations suggest intervention studies to preserve fat mass in cachexia should be tailored to the stage of cachexia. Our observations also highlight a need for studies that delineate the contribution of cachexia stage and animal model to altered lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia and identify those that most closely mimic the human condition. PMID:25457061

  6. Tissue-specific insulin signaling, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Rask-Madsen, Christian; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Summary Impaired insulin signaling is central to the development of the metabolic syndrome and can promote cardiovascular disease indirectly through development of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension and a proinflammatory state. However, insulin action directly on vascular endothelium, atherosclerotic plaque macrophages, and in the heart, kidney, and retina has now been described, and impaired insulin signaling in these locations can alter progression of cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome and affect development of microvascular complications of diabetes. Recent advances in our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of insulin’s effects on vascular tissues offer new opportunities for preventing these cardiovascular disorders. PMID:22895666

  7. Integrated sensor biopsy device for real time tissue metabolism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Alonso, Jesus; Lieberman, Robert A.; DiCarmine, Paul M.; Berry, David; Guzman, Narciso; Marpu, Sreekar B.

    2018-02-01

    Current methods for guiding cancer biopsies rely almost exclusively on images derived from X-ray, ultrasound, or magnetic resonance, which essentially characterize suspected lesions based only on tissue density. This paper presents a sensor integrated biopsy device for in situ tissue analysis that will enable biopsy teams to measure local tissue chemistry in real time during biopsy procedures, adding a valuable new set of parameters to augment and extend conventional image guidance. A first demonstrator integrating three chemical and biochemical sensors was tested in a mice strain that is a spontaneous breast cancer model. In all cases, the multisensory probe was able to discriminate between healthy tissue, the edge of the tumor, and total insertion inside the cancer tissue, recording real-time information about tissue metabolism.

  8. Molecular Interaction of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue with Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Suchacki, Karla J; Cawthorn, William P

    2018-01-01

    The last decade has seen a resurgence in the study of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) across diverse fields such as metabolism, haematopoiesis, skeletal biology and cancer. Herein, we review the most recent developments of BMAT research in both humans and rodents, including the distinct nature of BMAT; the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine interactions between BMAT and various tissues, both in physiological and pathological scenarios; how these interactions might impact energy metabolism; and the most recent technological advances to quantify BMAT. Though still dwarfed by research into white and brown adipose tissues, BMAT is now recognised as endocrine organ and is attracting increasing attention from biomedical researchers around the globe. We are beginning to learn the importance of BMAT both within and beyond the bone, allowing us to better appreciate the role of BMAT in normal physiology and disease.

  9. The cross-tissue metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae) to functional hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Venter, Leonie; Loots, Du Toit; Mienie, Lodewyk J; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J; Mason, Shayne; Vosloo, Andre; Lindeque, Jeremie Z

    2018-03-23

    Functional hypoxia is a stress condition caused by the abalone itself as a result of increased muscle activity, which generally necessitates the employment of anaerobic metabolism if the activity is sustained for prolonged periods. With that being said, abalone are highly reliant on anaerobic metabolism to provide partial compensation for energy production during oxygen-deprived episodes. However, current knowledge on the holistic metabolic response for energy metabolism during functional hypoxia, and the contribution of different metabolic pathways and various abalone tissues towards the overall accumulation of anaerobic end-products in abalone are scarce. Metabolomics analysis of adductor muscle, foot muscle, left gill, right gill, haemolymph and epipodial tissue samples indicated that South African abalone ( Haliotis midae) subjected to functional hypoxia utilises predominantly anaerobic metabolism, and depends on all of the main metabolite classes (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) for energy supply. Functional hypoxia caused increased levels of anaerobic end-products: lactate, alanopine, tauropine, succinate and alanine. Also, elevation in arginine levels was detected, confirming that abalone use phosphoarginine to generate energy during functional hypoxia. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with functional hypoxia showing excessive changes in the adductor muscle and gills. From this metabolomics investigation, it becomes evident that abalone are metabolically able to produce sufficient amounts of energy when functional hypoxia is experienced. Also, tissue interplay enables the adjustment of H. midae energy requirements as their metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic respiration during functional hypoxia.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. The cross-tissue metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae) to functional hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Leonie; Loots, Du Toit; Mienie, Lodewyk J.; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J.; Mason, Shayne; Vosloo, Andre

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Functional hypoxia is a stress condition caused by the abalone itself as a result of increased muscle activity, which generally necessitates the employment of anaerobic metabolism if the activity is sustained for prolonged periods. With that being said, abalone are highly reliant on anaerobic metabolism to provide partial compensation for energy production during oxygen-deprived episodes. However, current knowledge on the holistic metabolic response for energy metabolism during functional hypoxia, and the contribution of different metabolic pathways and various abalone tissues towards the overall accumulation of anaerobic end-products in abalone are scarce. Metabolomics analysis of adductor muscle, foot muscle, left gill, right gill, haemolymph and epipodial tissue samples indicated that South African abalone (Haliotis midae) subjected to functional hypoxia utilises predominantly anaerobic metabolism, and depends on all of the main metabolite classes (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) for energy supply. Functional hypoxia caused increased levels of anaerobic end-products: lactate, alanopine, tauropine, succinate and alanine. Also, elevation in arginine levels was detected, confirming that abalone use phosphoarginine to generate energy during functional hypoxia. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with functional hypoxia showing excessive changes in the adductor muscle and gills. From this metabolomics investigation, it becomes evident that abalone are metabolically able to produce sufficient amounts of energy when functional hypoxia is experienced. Also, tissue interplay enables the adjustment of H. midae energy requirements as their metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic respiration during functional hypoxia. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. PMID:29572259

  11. The metabolic syndrome as a concept of adipose tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji

    2008-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to directly promote the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, in 2005, the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes jointly stated that no existing definition of the metabolic syndrome meets the criteria of a syndrome, and there have been endless debates on the pros and cons of using the concept of this syndrome. The controversy may stem from confusion between the syndrome and obesity. Obesity is an epidemic, essentially contagious disease caused by an environment of excess nutritional energy and reinforced by deeply rooted social norms. The epidemic of obesity should be prevented or controlled by social and political means, similar to the approaches now being taken to combat global warming. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome is useless for this public purpose. The purpose of establishing criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome is to find individuals who are at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and who require specific therapy including diet and exercise. The syndrome may be an adipose tissue disease different from obesity; in that case, it would be characterized by inflammation clinically detected through systemic inflammatory markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and insulin resistance reflecting histological changes in adipose tissue. However, many problems in defining the optimal diagnostic criteria remain unresolved.

  12. Fructose increases corticosterone production in association with NADPH metabolism alterations in rat epididymal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Prince, Paula D; Santander, Yanina A; Gerez, Estefania M; Höcht, Christian; Polizio, Ariel H; Mayer, Marcos A; Taira, Carlos A; Fraga, Cesar G; Galleano, Monica; Carranza, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an array of closely metabolic disorders that includes glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose, a highly lipogenic sugar, has profound metabolic effects in adipose tissue, and has been associated with the etiopathology of many components of the metabolic syndrome. In adipocytes, the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 amplifies local glucocorticoid production, being a key player in the pathogenesis of central obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by H6PD inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Our focus was to explore the effect of fructose overload on epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) machinery involved in glucocorticoid production and NADPH and oxidants metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a fructose solution (10% (w/v) in tap water) during 9 weeks developed some characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. In addition, high levels of plasma and EWAT corticosterone were detected. Activities and expressions of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, NAPDH content, superoxide anion production, expression of NADPH oxidase 2 subunits, and indicators of oxidative metabolism were measured. Fructose overloaded rats showed an increased potential in oxidant production respect to control rats. In parallel, in EWAT from fructose overloaded rats we found higher expression/activity of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, and NADPH/NADP + ratio. Our in vivo results support that fructose overload installs in EWAT conditions favoring glucocorticoid production through higher H6PD expression/activity supplying NADPH for enhanced 11 β-HSD1 expression/activity, becoming this tissue a potential extra-adrenal source of corticosterone under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced glycogen metabolism in adipose tissue decreases triglyceride mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Markan, Kathleen R.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Allison, Margaret B.; Ye, Honggang; Sutanto, Maria M.; Cohen, Ronald N.

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site for lipid storage containing trace amounts of glycogen. However, refeeding after a prolonged partial fast produces a marked transient spike in adipose glycogen, which dissipates in coordination with the initiation of lipid resynthesis. To further study the potential interplay between glycogen and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, the aP2-PTG transgenic mouse line was utilized since it contains a 100- to 400-fold elevation of adipocyte glycogen levels that are mobilized upon fasting. To determine the fate of the released glucose 1-phosphate, a series of metabolic measurements were made. Basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lactate production in vitro was significantly increased in adipose tissue from transgenic animals. In parallel, basal and isoproterenol-induced release of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) was significantly reduced in transgenic adipose tissue vs. control. Interestingly, glycerol release was unchanged between the genotypes, suggesting that enhanced triglyceride resynthesis was occurring in the transgenic tissue. Qualitatively similar results for NEFA and glycerol levels between wild-type and transgenic animals were obtained in vivo during fasting. Additionally, the physiological upregulation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic isoform (PEPCK-C) expression in adipose upon fasting was significantly blunted in transgenic mice. No changes in whole body metabolism were detected through indirect calorimetry. Yet weight loss following a weight gain/loss protocol was significantly impeded in the transgenic animals, indicating a further impairment in triglyceride mobilization. Cumulatively, these results support the notion that the adipocyte possesses a set point for glycogen, which is altered in response to nutritional cues, enabling the coordination of adipose glycogen turnover with lipid metabolism. PMID:20424138

  14. A multi-tissue type genome-scale metabolic network for analysis of whole-body systems physiology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions provide a biologically meaningful mechanistic basis for the genotype-phenotype relationship. The global human metabolic network, termed Recon 1, has recently been reconstructed allowing the systems analysis of human metabolic physiology and pathology. Utilizing high-throughput data, Recon 1 has recently been tailored to different cells and tissues, including the liver, kidney, brain, and alveolar macrophage. These models have shown utility in the study of systems medicine. However, no integrated analysis between human tissues has been done. Results To describe tissue-specific functions, Recon 1 was tailored to describe metabolism in three human cells: adipocytes, hepatocytes, and myocytes. These cell-specific networks were manually curated and validated based on known cellular metabolic functions. To study intercellular interactions, a novel multi-tissue type modeling approach was developed to integrate the metabolic functions for the three cell types, and subsequently used to simulate known integrated metabolic cycles. In addition, the multi-tissue model was used to study diabetes: a pathology with systemic properties. High-throughput data was integrated with the network to determine differential metabolic activity between obese and type II obese gastric bypass patients in a whole-body context. Conclusion The multi-tissue type modeling approach presented provides a platform to study integrated metabolic states. As more cell and tissue-specific models are released, it is critical to develop a framework in which to study their interdependencies. PMID:22041191

  15. The role of adenosine monophosphate kinase in remodeling white adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gaidhu, Mandeep Pinky; Ceddia, Rolando Bacis

    2011-04-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the enzyme adenosine monophosphate (AMP) kinase exerts important fat-reducing effects in the adipose tissue, which has created great interest in this enzyme as a potential target for obesity treatment. This review summarizes our findings that chronic AMP kinase activation remodels adipocyte glucose and lipid metabolism and enhances the ability of adipose tissue to dissipate energy within itself and reduce adiposity.

  16. Deanol affects choline metabolism in peripheral tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Haubrich, D R; Gerber, N H; Pflueger, A B

    1981-08-01

    Administration of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) to mice induced an increase in both the concentration and the rate of turnover of free choline in blood. Treatment with deanol also caused an increase in the concentration of choline in kidneys, and markedly inhibited the rates of oxidation and phosphorylation of intravenously administered [3H-methyl]choline. In the liver, deanol inhibited the rate of phosphorylation of [3H-methyl]choline, but did not inhibit its rate of oxidation or cause an increase in the level of free choline. These findings suggest that deanol increases the choline concentration in blood by inhibition of its metabolism in tissues. Deanol may ultimately produce its central cholinergic effects by inhibition of choline metabolism in peripheral tissues, causing free choline choline to accumulate in blood, enter the brain, and stimulate cholinergic receptors.

  17. Triacylglycerol Metabolism, Function, and Accumulation in Plant Vegetative Tissues

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Changcheng; Shanklin, John

    2016-02-03

    One of the most abundant energy-dense storage compounds in eukaryotes are oils in the form of triacylglycerols , and their metabolism plays a key role in cellular energy balance, lipid homeostasis, growth, and maintenance. Plants accumulate oils primarily in seeds and fruits. Moreover, plant oils are used for food and feed and, increasingly, as feedstocks for biodiesel and industrial chemicals. Although plant vegetative tissues do not accumulate significant levels of triacylglycerols, they possess a high capacity for their synthesis, storage, and metabolism. The development of plants that accumulate oil in vegetative tissues presents an opportunity for expanded production of triacylglycerolsmore » as a renewable and sustainable bioenergy source. We review recent progress in the understanding of triacylglycerol synthesis, turnover, storage, and function in leaves and discuss emerging genetic engineering strategies targeted at enhancing triacylglycerol accumulation in biomass crops. Such plants could potentially be modified to produce oleochemical feedstocks or nutraceuticals.« less

  18. Triacylglycerol Metabolism, Function, and Accumulation in Plant Vegetative Tissues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changcheng; Shanklin, John

    2016-04-29

    Oils in the form of triacylglycerols are the most abundant energy-dense storage compounds in eukaryotes, and their metabolism plays a key role in cellular energy balance, lipid homeostasis, growth, and maintenance. Plants accumulate oils primarily in seeds and fruits. Plant oils are used for food and feed and, increasingly, as feedstocks for biodiesel and industrial chemicals. Although plant vegetative tissues do not accumulate significant levels of triacylglycerols, they possess a high capacity for their synthesis, storage, and metabolism. The development of plants that accumulate oil in vegetative tissues presents an opportunity for expanded production of triacylglycerols as a renewable and sustainable bioenergy source. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of triacylglycerol synthesis, turnover, storage, and function in leaves and discuss emerging genetic engineering strategies targeted at enhancing triacylglycerol accumulation in biomass crops. Such plants could potentially be modified to produce oleochemical feedstocks or nutraceuticals.

  19. Development, regulation, metabolism and function of bone marrow adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziru; Hardij, Julie; Bagchi, Devika P; Scheller, Erica L; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2018-05-01

    Most adipocytes exist in discrete depots throughout the body, notably in well-defined white and brown adipose tissues. However, adipocytes also reside within specialized niches, of which the most abundant is within bone marrow. Whereas bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) shares many properties in common with white adipose tissue, the distinct functions of BMAT are reflected by its development, regulation, protein secretion, and lipid composition. In addition to its potential role as a local energy reservoir, BMAT also secretes proteins, including adiponectin, RANK ligand, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and stem cell factor, which contribute to local marrow niche functions and which may also influence global metabolism. The characteristics of BMAT are also distinct depending on whether marrow adipocytes are contained within yellow or red marrow, as these can be thought of as 'constitutive' and 'regulated', respectively. The rBMAT for instance can be expanded or depleted by myriad factors, including age, nutrition, endocrine status and pharmaceuticals. Herein we review the site specificity, age-related development, regulation and metabolic characteristics of BMAT under various metabolic conditions, including the functional interactions with bone and hematopoietic cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes in Transport Tissues and Adjacent Sink Structures in Developing Citrus Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Cadance A.; Tomlinson, Patricia T.; Koch, Karen E.

    1989-01-01

    Juice tissues of citrus lack phloem; therefore, photosynthates enroute to juice sacs exit the vascular system on the surface of each segment. Areas of extensive phloem unloading and transport (vascular bundles + segment epidermis) can thus be separated from those of assimilate storage (juice sacs) and adjacent tissues where both processes occur (peel). Sugar composition, dry weight accumulation, and activities of four sucrose-metabolizing enzymes (soluble and cell-wall-bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase, sucrose synthase, and sucrose phosphate synthase) were measured in these transport and sink tissues of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to determine more clearly whether a given enzyme appeared to be more directly associated with assimilate transport versus deposition or utilization. Results were compared at three developmental stages. Activity of sucrose (per gram fresh weight and per milligram protein) extracted from zones of extensive phloem unloading and transport was significantly greater than from adjacent sink tissues during the stages (II and III) when juice sacs grow most rapidly. In stage II fruit, activity of sucrose synthase also significantly surpassed that of all other sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in extracts from the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). In contrast, sucrose phosphate synthase and alkaline invertase at this stage of growth were the most active enzymes from adjacent, rapidly growing, phloem-free sink tissues (juice sacs). Activity of these two enzymes in extracts from juice sacs was significantly greater than that form the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). Soluble acid invertase was the most active enzyme in extracts from all tissues of very young fruit (stage I), including nonvascular regions, but nearly disappeared prior to the onset of juice sac sugar accumulation. The physiological function of high sucrose synthase activity in the transport tissues during rapid sucrose import

  1. Growth versus metabolic tissue replacement in mouse tissues determined by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macavoy, S. E.; Jamil, T.; Macko, S. A.; Arneson, L. S.

    2003-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis is becoming an extensively used tool in animal ecology. The isotopes most commonly used for analysis in terrestrial systems are those of carbon and nitrogen, due to differential carbon fractionation in C3 and C4 plants, and the approximately 3‰ enrichment in 15N per trophic level. Although isotope signatures in animal tissues presumably reflect the local food web, analysis is often complicated by differential nutrient routing and fractionation by tissues, and by the possibility that large organisms are not in isotopic equilibrium with the foods available in their immediate environment. Additionally, the rate at which organisms incorporate the isotope signature of a food through both growth and metabolic tissue replacement is largely unknown. In this study we have assessed the rate of carbon and nitrogen isotopic turnover in liver, muscle and blood in mice following a diet change. By determining growth rates, we were able to determine the proportion of tissue turnover caused by growth versus that caused by metabolic tissue replacement. Growth was found to account for approximately 10% of observed tissue turnover in sexually mature mice (Mus musculus). Blood carbon was found to have the shortest half-life (16.9 days), followed by muscle (24.7 days). Liver carbon turnover was not as well described by the exponential decay equations as other tissues. However, substantial liver carbon turnover was observed by the 28th day after diet switch. Surprisingly, these tissues primarily reflect the carbon signature of the protein, rather than carbohydrate, source in their diet. The nitrogen signature in all tissues was enriched by 3 - 5‰ over their dietary protein source, depending on tissue type, and the isotopic turnover rates were comparable to those observed in carbon.

  2. Magnesium degradation products: effects on tissue and human metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seitz, J-M; Eifler, R; Bach, Fr-W; Maier, H J

    2014-10-01

    Owing to their mechanical properties, metallic materials present a promising solution in the field of resorbable implants. The magnesium metabolism in humans differs depending on its introduction. The natural, oral administration of magnesium via, for example, food, essentially leads to an intracellular enrichment of Mg(2+) . In contrast, introducing magnesium-rich substances or implants into the tissue results in a different decomposition behavior. Here, exposing magnesium to artificial body electrolytes resulted in the formation of the following products: magnesium hydroxide, magnesium oxide, and magnesium chloride, as well as calcium and magnesium apatites. Moreover, it can be assumed that Mg(2+) , OH(-) ions, and gaseous hydrogen are also present and result from the reaction for magnesium in an aqueous environment. With the aid of physiological metabolic processes, the organism succeeds in either excreting the above mentioned products or integrating them into the natural metabolic process. Only a burst release of these products is to be considered a problem. A multitude of general tissue effects and responses from the Mg's degradation products is considered within this review, which is not targeting specific implant classes. Furthermore, common alloying elements of magnesium and their hazardous potential in vivo are taken into account. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Capobianco, Giampiero; Delitala, Giuseppe; Cherchi, Pier Luigi; Dessole, Salvatore

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A detailed literature search on Pubmed was done for articles about PCOS, adipokines, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Original articles, reviews, and meta-analysis were included. PCOS women are prone to visceral fat hypertrophy in the presence of androgen excess and the presence of these conditions is related to insulin resistance and worsens the PCO phenotype. Disturbed secretion of many adipocyte-derived substances (adipokines) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and contributes to insulin resistance. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulate ovarian and adrenal androgen production, and may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, thus creating a vicious cycle. The high prevalence of metabolic disorders mainly related to insulin resistance and CVD risk factors in women with PCOS highlight the need for early lifestyle changes for reducing metabolic risks in these patients.

  4. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) essential oil demonstrates tissue remodeling and metabolism modulating potential in human cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuesheng; Beaumont, Cody; Rodriguez, Damian; Bahr, Tyler

    2018-05-17

    Very few studies have investigated the biological activities of black pepper essential oil (BPEO) in human cells. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the biological activities of BPEO in cytokine-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by analyzing the levels of 17 important protein biomarkers pertinent to inflammation and tissue remodeling. BPEO exhibited significant antiproliferative activity in these skin cells and significantly inhibited the production of Collagen I, Collagen III, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. In addition, we studied the effect of BPEO on the regulation of genome-wide expression and found that BPEO diversely modulated global gene expression. Further analysis showed that BPEO affected many important genes and signaling pathways closely related to metabolism, inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cancer signaling. This study is the first to provide evidence of the biological activities of BPEO in human dermal fibroblasts. The data suggest that BPEO possesses promising potential to modulate the biological processes of tissue remodeling, wound healing, and metabolism. Although further research is required, BPEO appears to be a good therapeutic candidate for a variety of health conditions including wound care and metabolic diseases. Research into the biological and pharmacological mechanisms of action of BPEO and its major active constituents is recommended. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mechanisms of Chronic State of Inflammation as Mediators That Link Obese Adipose Tissue and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Francisco; Badimon, Lina; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiometabolic alterations that include the presence of arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity. Obesity is associated with a chronic inflammatory response, characterized by abnormal adipokine production, and the activation of proinflammatory signalling pathways resulting in the induction of several biological markers of inflammation. Macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration in adipose tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-mediated metabolic disorders. Adiponectin can either act directly on macrophages to shift polarization and/or prime human monocytes into alternative M2-macrophages with anti-inflammatory properties. Meanwhile, the chronic inflammation in adipose tissue is regulated by a series of transcription factors, mainly PPARs and C/EBPs, that in conjunction regulate the expression of hundreds of proteins that participate in the metabolism and storage of lipids and, as such, the secretion by adipocytes. Therefore, the management of the metabolic syndrome requires the development of new therapeutic strategies aimed to alter the main genetic pathways involved in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism. PMID:23843680

  6. Effect of Microgravity on Bone Tissue and Calcium Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA4 includes short reports concerning: (1) Human Bone Tissue Changes after Long-Term Space Flight: Phenomenology and Possible Mechanics; (2) Prediction of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Change in Space; (3) Dietary Calcium in Space; (4) Calcium Metabolism During Extended-Duration Space Flight; (5) External Impact Loads on the Lower Extremity During Jumping in Simulated Microgravity and the Relationship to Internal Bone Strain; and (6) Bone Loss During Long Term Space Flight is Prevented by the Application of a Short Term Impulsive Mechanical Stimulus.

  7. Adipose Tissue in Metabolic Syndrome: Onset and Progression of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Luna-Luna, María; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Coss-Rovirosa, Fernanda; Vargas-Barrón, Jesús; Pérez-Méndez, Óscar

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) should be considered a clinical entity when its different symptoms share a common etiology: obesity/insulin resistance as a result of a multi-organ dysfunction. The main interest in treating MetS as a clinical entity is that the addition of its components drastically increases the risk of atherosclerosis. In MetS, the adipose tissue plays a central role along with an unbalanced gut microbiome, which has become relevant in recent years. Once visceral adipose tissue (VAT) increases, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction follow as additive risk factors. However, when the nonalcoholic fatty liver is present, risk of a cardiovascular event is highly augmented. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) seems to increase simultaneously with the VAT. In this context, the former may play a more important role in the development of the atherosclerotic plaque than the latter. Hence, EAT may act as a paracrine tissue vis-à-vis the coronary arteries favoring the local inflammation and the atheroma calcification. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic Profile of Pancreatic Acinar and Islet Tissue in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Suszynski, Thomas M.; Mueller, Kathryn; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2016-01-01

    The amount and condition of exocrine impurities may affect the quality of islet preparations especially during culture. In this study, the objective was to determine the oxygen demandand viability of islet and acinar tissue post-isolation and whether they change disproportionately while in culture. We compare the OCR normalized to DNA (OCR/DNA, a measure of fractional viability in units nmol/min/mg DNA), and percent change in OCR and DNA recoveries between adult porcine islet and acinar tissue from the same preparation (paired) over a 6-9 days of standard culture. Paired comparisons were done to quantify differences in OCR/DNA between islet and acinar tissue from the same preparation, at specified time points during culture; the mean (± standard error) OCR/DNA was 74.0 (±11.7) units higher for acinar (vs. islet) tissue on the day of isolation (n=16, p<0.0001), but 25.7 (±9.4) units lower after 1 day (n=8, p=0.03), 56.6 (±11.5) units lower after 2 days (n=12, p=0.0004), and 65.9 (±28.7) units lower after 8 days (n=4, p=0.2) in culture. DNA and OCR recoveries decreased at different rates for acinar versus islet tissue over 6-9 days in culture (n=6). DNA recovery decreased to 24±7% for acinar and 75±8% for islets (p=0.002). Similarly, OCR recovery decreased to 16±3% for acinar and remained virtually constant for islets (p=0.005). Differences in the metabolic profile of acinarand islet tissue should be considered when culturing impure islet preparations. OCR-based measurements may help optimize pre-IT culture protocols. PMID:25131082

  9. Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber

    PubMed Central

    Borić, Maja; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment. PMID:22826705

  10. Viral Activation of Cellular Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Erica L.; Lagunoff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To ensure optimal environments for their replication and spread, viruses have evolved to alter many host cell pathways. In the last decade, metabolomic studies have shown that eukaryotic viruses induce large-scale alterations in host cellular metabolism. Most viruses examined to date induce aerobic glycolysis also known as the Warburg effect. Many viruses tested also induce fatty acid synthesis as well as glutaminolysis. These modifications of carbon source utilization by infected cells can increase available energy for virus replication and virion production, provide specific cellular substrates for virus particles and create viral replication niches while increasing infected cell survival. Each virus species also likely requires unique metabolic changes for successful spread and recent research has identified additional virus-specific metabolic changes induced by many virus species. A better understanding of the metabolic alterations required for each virus may lead to novel therapeutic approaches through targeted inhibition of specific cellular metabolic pathways. PMID:25812764

  11. Active dynamics of tissue shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović, Marko; Nandi, Amitabha; Merkel, Matthias; Etournay, Raphaël; Eaton, Suzanne; Jülicher, Frank; Salbreux, Guillaume

    2017-03-01

    We present a hydrodynamic theory to describe shear flows in developing epithelial tissues. We introduce hydrodynamic fields corresponding to state properties of constituent cells as well as a contribution to overall tissue shear flow due to rearrangements in cell network topology. We then construct a generic linear constitutive equation for the shear rate due to topological rearrangements and we investigate a novel rheological behaviour resulting from memory effects in the tissue. We identify two distinct active cellular processes: generation of active stress in the tissue, and actively driven topological rearrangements. We find that these two active processes can produce distinct cellular and tissue shape changes, depending on boundary conditions applied on the tissue. Our findings have consequences for the understanding of tissue morphogenesis during development.

  12. Regulation of metabolic health and adipose tissue function by group 2 innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Cautivo, Kelly M.; Molofsky, Ari B.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is home to an abundance of immune cells. With chronic obesity, inflammatory immune cells accumulate and promote insulin resistance and the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In contrast, recent studies have highlighted the regulation and function of immune cells in lean, healthy adipose tissue, including those associated with type 2 or “allergic” immunity. Although traditionally activated by infection with multicellular helminthes, AT type 2 immunity is active independently of infection, and promotes tissue homeostasis, adipose tissue “browning”, and systemic insulin sensitivity, protecting against obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and T2DM. In particular, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are integral regulators of AT type 2 immunity, producing the cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, promoting eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages, and cooperating with and promoting AT regulatory T (Treg) cells. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in our understanding of ILC2 cells and type 2 immunity in adipose tissue metabolism and homeostasis. PMID:27120716

  13. Interleukin-17A Differentially Induces Inflammatory and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Adipose Tissues of Lean and Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yine; Zhang, Qiuyang; Ma, Siqi; Liu, Sen; Chen, Zhiquan; Mo, Zhongfu; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    The functions of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in adipose tissues and adipocytes have not been well understood. In the present study, male mice were fed with a regular diet (n = 6, lean mice) or a high-fat diet (n = 6, obese mice) for 30 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were analyzed for IL-17A levels. SAT and VAT were treated with IL-17A and analyzed for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. Mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, followed with IL-17A treatment and analysis for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. We found that IL-17A levels were higher in obese SAT than lean SAT; the basal expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes was different between SAT and VAT and between lean and obese adipose tissues. IL-17A differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes, such as tumor necrosis factor α, Il-6, Il-1β, leptin, and glucose transporter 4, in adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. IL-17A also differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes in pre-adipocytes and adipocytes, and IL-17A selectively activated signaling pathways in adipose tissues and adipocytes. These findings suggest that IL-17A differentially induces inflammatory and metabolic gene expression in the adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. PMID:27070576

  14. Elevated temperature and PCO2 shift metabolic pathways in differentially oxidative tissues of Notothenia rossii.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Anneli; Leo, Elettra; Pörtner, Hans O; Mark, Felix C

    2013-09-01

    Mitochondrial plasticity plays a central role in setting the capacity for acclimation of aerobic metabolism in ectotherms in response to environmental changes. We still lack a clear picture if and to what extent the energy metabolism and mitochondrial enzymes of Antarctic fish can compensate for changing temperatures or PCO2 and whether capacities for compensation differ between tissues. We therefore measured activities of key mitochondrial enzymes (citrate synthase (CS), cytochrome c oxidase (COX)) from heart, red muscle, white muscle and liver in the Antarctic fish Notothenia rossii after warm- (7°C) and hypercapnia- (0.2kPa CO2) acclimation vs. control conditions (1°C, 0.04kPa CO2). In heart, enzymes showed elevated activities after cold-hypercapnia acclimation, and a warm-acclimation-induced upward shift in thermal optima. The strongest increase in enzyme activities in response to hypercapnia occurred in red muscle. In white muscle, enzyme activities were temperature-compensated. CS activity in liver decreased after warm-normocapnia acclimation (temperature-compensation), while COX activities were lower after cold- and warm-hypercapnia exposure, but increased after warm-normocapnia acclimation. In conclusion, warm-acclimated N. rossii display low thermal compensation in response to rising energy demand in highly aerobic tissues, such as heart and red muscle. Chronic environmental hypercapnia elicits increased enzyme activities in these tissues, possibly to compensate for an elevated energy demand for acid-base regulation or a compromised mitochondrial metabolism, that is predicted to occur in response to hypercapnia exposure. This might be supported by enhanced metabolisation of liver energy stores. These patterns reflect a limited capacity of N. rossii to reorganise energy metabolism in response to rising temperature and PCO2. © 2013.

  15. Metabolic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease: crosstalk between adipose tissue and bowel.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Pedro; Magro, Fernando; Martel, Fátima

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies show that both the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the proportion of people with obesity and/or obesity-associated metabolic syndrome increased markedly in developed countries during the past half century. Obesity is also associated with the development of more active IBD and requirement for hospitalization and with a decrease in the time span between diagnosis and surgery. Patients with IBD, especially Crohn's disease, present fat-wrapping or "creeping fat," which corresponds to ectopic adipose tissue extending from the mesenteric attachment and covering the majority of the small and large intestinal surface. Mesenteric adipose tissue in patients with IBD presents several morphological and functional alterations, e.g., it is more infiltrated with immune cells such as macrophages and T cells. All these lines of evidence clearly show an association between obesity, adipose tissue, and functional bowel disorders. In this review, we will show that the mesenteric adipose tissue and creeping fat are not innocent by standers but actively contribute to the intestinal and systemic inflammatory responses in patients with IBD. More specifically, we will review evidence showing that adipose tissue in IBD is associated with major alterations in the secretion of cytokines and adipokines involved in inflammatory process, in adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells and adipogenesis, and in the interaction between adipose tissue and other intestinal components (immune, lymphatic, neuroendocrine, and intestinal epithelial systems). Collectively, these studies underline the importance of adipose tissue for the identification of novel therapeutic approaches for IBD.

  16. Systems biology of adipose tissue metabolism: regulation of growth, signaling and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Manteiga, Sara; Choi, Kyungoh; Jayaraman, Arul; Lee, Kyongbum

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) depots actively regulate whole body energy homeostasis by orchestrating complex communications with other physiological systems as well as within the tissue. Adipocytes readily respond to hormonal and nutritional inputs to store excess nutrients as intracellular lipids or mobilize the stored fat for utilization. Co-ordinated regulation of metabolic pathways balancing uptake, esterification, and hydrolysis of lipids is accomplished through positive and negative feedback interactions of regulatory hubs comprising several pleiotropic protein kinases and nuclear receptors. Metabolic regulation in adipocytes encompasses biogenesis and remodeling of uniquely large lipid droplets (LDs). The regulatory hubs also function as energy and nutrient sensors, and integrate metabolic regulation with intercellular signaling. Over-nutrition causes hypertrophic expansion of adipocytes, which, through incompletely understood mechanisms, initiates a cascade of metabolic and signaling events leading to tissue remodeling and immune cell recruitment. Macrophage activation and polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype drives a self-reinforcing cycle of pro-inflammatory signals in the AT, establishing an inflammatory state. Sustained inflammation accelerates lipolysis and elevates free fatty acids in circulation, which robustly correlates with development of obesity-related diseases. The adipose regulatory network coupling metabolism, growth, and signaling of multiple cell types is exceedingly complex. While components of the regulatory network have been individually studied in exquisite detail, systems approaches have rarely been utilized to comprehensively assess the relative engagements of the components. Thus, need and opportunity exist to develop quantitative models of metabolic and signaling networks to achieve a more complete understanding of AT biology in both health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Vinpocetine modulates metabolic activity and function during retinal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nivison-Smith, Lisa; O'Brien, Brendan J; Truong, Mai; Guo, Cindy X; Kalloniatis, Michael; Acosta, Monica L

    2015-05-01

    Vinpocetine protects against a range of degenerative conditions and insults of the central nervous system via multiple modes of action. Little is known, however, of its effects on metabolism. This may be highly relevant, as vinpocetine is highly protective against ischemia, a process that inhibits normal metabolic function. This study uses the ischemic retina as a model to characterize vinpocetine's effects on metabolism. Vinpocetine reduced the metabolic demand of the retina following ex vivo hypoxia and ischemia to normal levels based on lactate dehydrogenase activity. Vinpocetine delivered similar effects in an in vivo model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion, possibly through increasing glucose availability. Vinpocetine's effects on glucose also appeared to improve glutamate homeostasis in ischemic Müller cells. Other actions of vinpocetine following ischemia-reperfusion, such as reduced cell death and improved retinal function, were possibly a combination of the drug's actions on metabolism and other retinal pathways. Vinpocetine's metabolic effects appeared independent of its other known actions in ischemia, as it recovered retinal function in a separate metabolic model where the glutamate-to-glutamine metabolic pathway was inhibited in Müller cells. The results of this study indicate that vinpocetine mediates ischemic damage partly through altered metabolism and has potential beneficial effects as a treatment for ischemia of neuronal tissues. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Dysfunctional adipose tissue and low-grade inflammation in the management of the metabolic syndrome: current practices and future advances

    PubMed Central

    van Greevenbroek, Marleen M. J.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing worldwide obesity epidemic makes the metabolic syndrome an increasingly important entity. In this review, we provide a short background on the metabolic syndrome, we discuss recent developments in the three main options that have been identified for intervention in the metabolic syndrome, i.e. lifestyle and surgical and pharmacological interventions, and we focus on different views in the literature and also include our own viewpoints on the metabolic syndrome. In addition, we discuss some emerging treatment targets for adipose tissue dysfunction and low-grade inflammation, i.e. activation of the inflammasome and the complement system, and consider some selected opportunities for intervention in these processes. PMID:27803798

  19. Fatty acid metabolism and the basis of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan F.; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, leading to severe associated pathologies such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue has become crucial due to its involvement in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance, and traditionally white adipose tissue has captured the most attention. However in the last decade the presence and activity of heat-generating brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has been rediscovered. BAT decreases with age and in obese and diabetic patients. It has thus attracted strong scientific interest, and any strategy to increase its mass or activity might lead to new therapeutic approaches to obesity and associated metabolic diseases. In this review we highlight the mechanisms of fatty acid uptake, trafficking and oxidation in brown fat thermogenesis. We focus on BAT's morphological and functional characteristics and fatty acid synthesis, storage, oxidation and use as a source of energy. PMID:27386151

  20. Lactate metabolism and its effects on glucose metabolism in an excised neural tissue.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, M G

    1995-04-01

    Chains of lumbar sympathetic ganglia, excised from 15-day-old chicken embryos, were incubated for 4 h at 36 degrees C in a bicarbonate-buffered physiological salt solution containing 5.5 mM glucose and equilibrated with 5% CO2-95% O2. [U-14C]Glucose and [U-14C]lactate were used as tracers to measure the products of glucose and lactate metabolism, respectively, including CO2, lactate, and constituents of the tissue. When 5 mM lactate was added to bathing solution containing 5.5 mM glucose, lactate carbon displaced 50-70% of the glucose carbon otherwise used for CO2 production and provided about three times as much carbon for CO2 as did glucose. The lactate addition increased the total carbon incorporated into CO2 and into constituents of the tissue above those observed with glucose alone and also increased the lactate released to the bathing solution from [U-14C]-glucose. The latter increase was evidently due to an interference with reuptake of the lactate released from the ganglion cells, not to an increase in the cellular release itself. When the volume of bathing solution was increased 10-fold relative to that of the tissue, the average output of CO2 from [U-14C]glucose during a 4-h incubation was decreased by 50% when 5 mM lactate was present but was not affected significantly in the absence of added lactate. It is concluded that the effect of changing volume in the presence of lactate was due to the effects of lactate on glucose metabolism described above and resulted from a lower average lactate concentration in the smaller volume than in the larger one, due to metabolic depletion of the added lactate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Adipose Tissue Plasticity During Catch-Up Fat Driven by Thrifty Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Summermatter, Serge; Marcelino, Helena; Arsenijevic, Denis; Buchala, Antony; Aprikian, Olivier; Assimacopoulos-Jeannet, Françoise; Seydoux, Josiane; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Solinas, Giovanni; Dulloo, Abdul G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Catch-up growth, a risk factor for later type 2 diabetes, is characterized by hyperinsulinemia, accelerated body-fat recovery (catch-up fat), and enhanced glucose utilization in adipose tissue. Our objective was to characterize the determinants of enhanced glucose utilization in adipose tissue during catch-up fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS White adipose tissue morphometry, lipogenic capacity, fatty acid composition, insulin signaling, in vivo glucose homeostasis, and insulinemic response to glucose were assessed in a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding. This model is characterized by glucose redistribution from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue during catch-up fat that results solely from suppressed thermogenesis (i.e., without hyperphagia). RESULTS Adipose tissue recovery during the dynamic phase of catch-up fat is accompanied by increased adipocyte number with smaller diameter, increased expression of genes for adipogenesis and de novo lipogenesis, increased fatty acid synthase activity, increased proportion of saturated fatty acids in triglyceride (storage) fraction but not in phospholipid (membrane) fraction, and no impairment in insulin signaling. Furthermore, it is shown that hyperinsulinemia and enhanced adipose tissue de novo lipogenesis occur concomitantly and are very early events in catch-up fat. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that increased adipose tissue insulin stimulation and consequential increase in intracellular glucose flux play an important role in initiating catch-up fat. Once activated, the machinery for lipogenesis and adipogenesis contribute to sustain an increased insulin-stimulated glucose flux toward fat storage. Such adipose tissue plasticity could play an active role in the thrifty metabolism that underlies glucose redistribution from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue. PMID:19602538

  2. mTORC1 is Required for Brown Adipose Tissue Recruitment and Metabolic Adaptation to Cold

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, Sébastien M.; Mouchiroud, Mathilde; Caron, Alexandre; Secco, Blandine; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Lamoureux, Guillaume; Gélinas, Yves; Lecomte, Roger; Bossé, Yohan; Chimin, Patricia; Festuccia, William T.; Richard, Denis; Laplante, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In response to cold, brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases its metabolic rate and expands its mass to produce heat required for survival, a process known as BAT recruitment. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, but its role in regulating BAT recruitment in response to chronic cold stimulation is unknown. Here, we show that cold activates mTORC1 in BAT, an effect that depends on the sympathetic nervous system. Adipocyte-specific mTORC1 loss in mice completely blocks cold-induced BAT expansion and severely impairs mitochondrial biogenesis. Accordingly, mTORC1 loss reduces oxygen consumption and causes a severe defect in BAT oxidative metabolism upon cold exposure. Using in vivo metabolic imaging, metabolomics and transcriptomics, we show that mTORC1 deletion impairs glucose and lipid oxidation, an effect linked to a defect in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity. These analyses also reveal a severe defect in nucleotide synthesis in the absence of mTORC1. Overall, these findings demonstrate an essential role for mTORC1 in the regulation of BAT recruitment and metabolism in response to cold. PMID:27876792

  3. Dissimilarities in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs used in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in colon and vagina tissues.

    PubMed

    To, Elaine E; Hendrix, Craig W; Bumpus, Namandjé N

    2013-10-01

    Attempts to prevent HIV infection through pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) include topical application of anti-HIV drugs to the mucosal sites of infection; however, a potential role for local drug metabolizing enzymes in modulating the exposure of the mucosal tissues to these drugs has yet to be explored. Here we present the first report that enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) families of drug metabolizing enzymes are expressed and active in vaginal and colorectal tissue using biopsies collected from healthy volunteers. In doing so, we discovered that dapivirine and maraviroc, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and an entry inhibitor currently in development as microbicides for HIV PrEP, are differentially metabolized in colorectal tissue and vaginal tissue. Taken together, these data should help to guide the optimization of small molecules being developed for HIV PrEP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissimilarities in the Metabolism of Antiretroviral Drugs used in HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in Colon and Vagina Tissues

    PubMed Central

    To, Elaine E.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Bumpus, Namandjé N.

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to prevent HIV infection through pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) include topical application of anti-HIV drugs to the mucosal sites of infection; however, a potential role for local drug metabolizing enzymes in modulating the exposure of the mucosal tissues to these drugs has yet to be explored. Here we present the first report that enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) families of drug metabolizing enzymes are expressed and active in vaginal and colorectal tissue using biopsies collected from healthy volunteers. In doing so, we discovered that dapivirine and maraviroc, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and an entry inhibitor currently in development as microbicides for HIV PrEP, are differentially metabolized in colorectal tissue and vaginal tissue. Taken together, these data should help to guide the optimization of small molecules being developed for HIV PrEP. PMID:23965226

  5. Industry as a metabolic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, B

    1992-01-01

    The concept of "industrial economic metabolism" can provide a bridge to better understanding between environmentalists and industry. In nature each individual or species reacts to natural stimuli, competing with others for resources, extending its domain until it loses comparative advantage and comes to equilibrium with an adjacent competitor. Those species that succeed over time flourish; those that do not, diminish or disappear. Nature's rule book has no moral or ethical ingredient beyond self-interest. Corporate metabolisms are remarkably similar to those of nature. They too react to stimuli, collect and use resources, and grow or perish based on how effectively they compete. Corporate management recognizes and responds naturally and efficiently to cost and price signals. Through them it selects resources and converts them into useful products. The efficiency with which this is done is measured by profit, the lifeblood of the corporation and its means of growth. Profit thus provides a discipline on corporate behavior, encouraging efficient performers, and, by its absence, weeding out others. Unfettered by influences other than economics, the path to corporate success is unlikely to be a compassionate one. The dilemma of the manager is that to do what is socially "right" often conflicts with what must be done to survive and prosper. Fortunately, corporations' behavior can be altered by society when their purely economic role comes into conflict with other human values. The environment and the economy are not separate systems but intertwined to form a complex natural and social setting. The human-designed economic system depends on natural resource inputs, and in turn its metabolic wastes can overload the ecological system, threatening the long-term survivability of both. Increasing concern for the environment now gives the farsighted manager new latitude. There are competitive benefits in some pollution prevention. But there are not sufficiently strong forces to

  6. Industry as a metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Smart, B

    1992-02-01

    The concept of "industrial economic metabolism" can provide a bridge to better understanding between environmentalists and industry. In nature each individual or species reacts to natural stimuli, competing with others for resources, extending its domain until it loses comparative advantage and comes to equilibrium with an adjacent competitor. Those species that succeed over time flourish; those that do not, diminish or disappear. Nature's rule book has no moral or ethical ingredient beyond self-interest. Corporate metabolisms are remarkably similar to those of nature. They too react to stimuli, collect and use resources, and grow or perish based on how effectively they compete. Corporate management recognizes and responds naturally and efficiently to cost and price signals. Through them it selects resources and converts them into useful products. The efficiency with which this is done is measured by profit, the lifeblood of the corporation and its means of growth. Profit thus provides a discipline on corporate behavior, encouraging efficient performers, and, by its absence, weeding out others. Unfettered by influences other than economics, the path to corporate success is unlikely to be a compassionate one. The dilemma of the manager is that to do what is socially "right" often conflicts with what must be done to survive and prosper. Fortunately, corporations' behavior can be altered by society when their purely economic role comes into conflict with other human values. The environment and the economy are not separate systems but intertwined to form a complex natural and social setting. The human-designed economic system depends on natural resource inputs, and in turn its metabolic wastes can overload the ecological system, threatening the long-term survivability of both. Increasing concern for the environment now gives the farsighted manager new latitude. There are competitive benefits in some pollution prevention. But there are not sufficiently strong forces to

  7. Identification of a Lipokine, a Lipid Hormone Linking Adipose Tissue to Systemic Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Haiming; Gerhold, Kristin; Mayers, Jared R.; Wiest, Michelle M.; Watkins, Steve M.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2008-01-01

    Dysregulation of lipid metabolism in individual tissues can lead to systemic disruption of insulin action and glucose metabolism. Utilizing a comprehensive lipidomic platform and mice deficient in adipose tissue lipid chaperones aP2 and mal1, we explored how metabolic alterations in adipose tissue are linked to whole-body metabolism through lipid signals. A robust increase in de novo lipogenesis rendered the adipose tissue of these mice resistant to the deleterious systemic effects of dietary lipid exposure. Systemic lipid profiling also led to identification of C16:1n7-palmitoleate as an adipose tissue-derived lipid hormone that strongly stimulates muscle insulin action and suppresses hepatosteatosis. Our data reveal a novel, lipid-mediated endocrine network and demonstrate that adipose tissue uses lipokines such as C16:1n7-palmitoleate to communicate with distant organs and regulate systemic metabolic homeostasis. PMID:18805087

  8. Subcellular metabolic contrast in living tissue using dynamic full field OCT (D-FFOCT) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelian, Clement; Harms, Fabrice; Thouvenin, Olivier; Boccara, Claude A.

    2016-03-01

    Cells shape or density is an important marker of tissues pathology. However, individual cells are difficult to observe in thick tissues frequently presenting highly scattering structures such as collagen fibers. Endogenous techniques struggle to image cells in these conditions. Moreover, exogenous contrast agents like dyes, fluorophores or nanoparticles cannot always be used, especially if non-invasive imaging is required. Scatterers motion happening down to the millisecond scale, much faster than the fix and highly scattering structures (global motion of the tissue), allowed us to develop a new approach based on the time dependence of the FF-OCT signals. This method reveals hidden cells after a spatiotemporal analysis based on singular value decomposition and wavelet analysis concepts. It does also give us access to local dynamics of imaged scatterers. This dynamic information is linked with the local metabolic activity that drives these scatterers. Our technique can explore subcellular scales with micrometric resolution and dynamics ranging from the millisecond to seconds. By this mean we studied a wide range of tissues, animal and human in both normal and pathological conditions (cancer, ischemia, osmotic shock…) in different organs such as liver, kidney, and brain among others. Different cells, undetectable with FF-OCT, were identified (erythrocytes, hepatocytes…). Different scatterer clusters express different characteristic times and thus can be related to different mechanisms that we identify with metabolic functions. We are confident that the D-FFOCT, by accessing to a new spatiotemporal metabolic contrast, will be a leading technique on tissue imaging and could lead to better medical diagnosis.

  9. PERFORMANCE, RELIABILITY, AND IMPROVEMENT OF A TISSUE-SPECIFIC METABOLIC SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology is described that has been used to build and enhance a simulator for rat liver metabolism providing reliable predictions within a large chemical domain. The tissue metabolism simulator (TIMES) utilizes a heuristic algorithm to generate plausible metabolic maps using...

  10. Maternal-fetal transfer and metabolism of vitamin A and its precursor β-carotene in the developing tissues.

    PubMed

    Spiegler, Elizabeth; Kim, Youn-Kyung; Wassef, Lesley; Shete, Varsha; Quadro, Loredana

    2012-01-01

    The requirement of the developing mammalian embryo for retinoic acid is well established. Retinoic acid, the active form of vitamin A, can be generated from retinol and retinyl ester obtained from food of animal origin, and from carotenoids, mainly β-carotene, from vegetables and fruits. The mammalian embryo relies on retinol, retinyl ester and β-carotene circulating in the maternal bloodstream for its supply of vitamin A. The maternal-fetal transfer of retinoids and carotenoids, as well as the metabolism of these compounds in the developing tissues are still poorly understood. The existing knowledge in this field has been summarized in this review in reference to our basic understanding of the transport and metabolism of retinoids and carotenoids in adult tissues. The need for future research on the metabolism of these essential lipophilic nutrients during development is highlighted. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intravital microscopy of biosensor activities and intrinsic metabolic states

    PubMed Central

    Winfree, Seth; Hato, Takashi; Day, Richard N.

    2018-01-01

    Intravital microscopy (IVM) is an imaging tool that is capable of detecting subcellular signaling or metabolic events as they occur in tissues in the living animal. Imaging in highly scattering biological tissues, however, is challenging because of the attenuation of signal in images acquired at increasing depths. Depth-dependent signal attenuation is the major impediment to IVM, limiting the depth from which significant data can be obtained. Therefore, making quantitative measurements by IVM requires methods that use internal calibration, or alternatively, a completely different way of evaluating the signals. Here, we describe how ratiometric imaging of genetically encoded biosensor probes can be used to make quantitative measurements of changes in the activity of cell signaling pathways. Then, we describe how fluorescence lifetime imaging can be used for label-free measurements of the metabolic states of cells within the living animal. PMID:28434902

  12. Quiescent Fibroblasts Exhibit High Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Bennett, Bryson D.; Legesse-Miller, Aster; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Raitman, Irene; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    Many cells in mammals exist in the state of quiescence, which is characterized by reversible exit from the cell cycle. Quiescent cells are widely reported to exhibit reduced size, nucleotide synthesis, and metabolic activity. Much lower glycolytic rates have been reported in quiescent compared with proliferating lymphocytes. In contrast, we show here that primary human fibroblasts continue to exhibit high metabolic rates when induced into quiescence via contact inhibition. By monitoring isotope labeling through metabolic pathways and quantitatively identifying fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate pathway back to glycolysis. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway resulted in apoptosis preferentially in quiescent fibroblasts. By feeding the cells labeled glutamine, we also detected a “backwards” flux in the tricarboxylic acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate that was enhanced in contact-inhibited fibroblasts; this flux likely contributes to shuttling of NADPH from the mitochondrion to cytosol for redox defense or fatty acid synthesis. The high metabolic activity of the fibroblasts was directed in part toward breakdown and resynthesis of protein and lipid, and in part toward excretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, reduced metabolic activity is not a hallmark of the quiescent state. Quiescent fibroblasts, relieved of the biosynthetic requirements associated with generating progeny, direct their metabolic activity to preservation of self integrity and alternative functions beneficial to the organism as a whole. PMID:21049082

  13. Adipose tissue branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism modulates circulating BCAA levels.

    PubMed

    Herman, Mark A; She, Pengxiang; Peroni, Odile D; Lynch, Christopher J; Kahn, Barbara B

    2010-04-09

    Whereas the role of adipose tissue in glucose and lipid homeostasis is widely recognized, its role in systemic protein and amino acid metabolism is less well-appreciated. In vitro and ex vivo experiments suggest that adipose tissue can metabolize substantial amounts of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, the role of adipose tissue in regulating BCAA metabolism in vivo is controversial. Interest in the contribution of adipose tissue to BCAA metabolism has been renewed with recent observations demonstrating down-regulation of BCAA oxidation enzymes in adipose tissue in obese and insulin-resistant humans. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we observe alterations in adipose-tissue BCAA enzyme expression caused by adipose-selective genetic alterations in the GLUT4 glucose-transporter expression. We show that the rate of adipose tissue BCAA oxidation per mg of tissue from normal mice is higher than in skeletal muscle. In mice overexpressing GLUT4 specifically in adipose tissue, we observe coordinate down-regulation of BCAA metabolizing enzymes selectively in adipose tissue. This decreases BCAA oxidation rates in adipose tissue, but not in muscle, in association with increased circulating BCAA levels. To confirm the capacity of adipose tissue to modulate circulating BCAA levels in vivo, we demonstrate that transplantation of normal adipose tissue into mice that are globally defective in peripheral BCAA metabolism reduces circulating BCAA levels by 30% (fasting)-50% (fed state). These results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of adipose tissue to catabolize circulating BCAAs in vivo and that coordinate regulation of adipose-tissue BCAA enzymes may modulate circulating BCAA levels.

  14. Atorvastatin reduces cardiac and adipose tissue inflammation in rats with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuichiro; Takeuchi, Shino; Yoneda, Mamoru; Ito, Shogo; Sano, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Kai; Matsuura, Natsumi; Uchinaka, Ayako; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2017-08-01

    Statins are strong inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis and help to prevent cardiovascular disease. They also exert additional pleiotropic effects that include an anti-inflammatory action and are independent of cholesterol, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these additional effects have remained unclear. We have now examined the effects of atorvastatin on cardiac and adipose tissue inflammation in DahlS.Z-Lepr fa /Lepr fa (DS/obese) rats, which we previously established as a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). DS/obese rats were treated with atorvastatin (6 or 20mgkg -1 day -1 ) from 9 to 13weeks of age. Atorvastatin ameliorated cardiac fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation as well as adipose tissue inflammation in these animals at both doses. The high dose of atorvastatin reduced adipocyte hypertrophy to a greater extent than did the low dose. Atorvastatin inhibited the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ gene expression in adipose tissue as well as decreased the serum adiponectin concentration in DS/obese rats. It also activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as inactivated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the heart of these animals. The down-regulation of AMPK and NF-κB activities in adipose tissue of DS/obese rats was attenuated and further enhanced, respectively, by atorvastatin treatment. The present results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of atorvastatin on the heart and adipose tissue are attributable at least partly to increased AMPK activity and decreased NF-κB activity in this rat model of MetS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epicardial adipose tissue and signs of metabolic syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Giuseppe; Piedimonte, Alessandra; Podagrosi, Maria; Mercurio, Roberta; Mosca, Antonella; D'Avanzo, Miriam; Vania, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and predictive parameters for metabolic syndrome (MS) in overweight/obese prepubertal children. 73 prepubertal children, average age of 8.22 years, with no endocrine or syndromic causes of obesity or under drug therapy for chronic disease were enrolled. Weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds' thickness were measured. BMI, BMI z score (z-BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) were calculated. Standard MS-related laboratory parameters were assessed. Finally, all children underwent echocardiographic measurement of EAT. A positive correlation between EAT and z-BMI was found only among overweight/obese children (r = 0.43, p = 0.001). In particular, data showed that 89 % of our sample had a waist (W) >90th percentile. Statistical differences in diastolic blood pressure (DBP; p < 0.01) and EAT (p = 0.02) were observed on comparing W <90th percentile vs W >90th percentile patients. Besides, in patients with W >90th percentile and family history of risk factors for MS, the value of EAT correlated positively with z-BMI, W, WtHR, triglycerides (Tg), insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and negatively with HDL. The EAT and the markers of MS probably share the same pathogenetic factors. Further studies might elucidate whether EAT deserves to be included among the diagnostic factors of MS.

  16. Metabolic Activity - Skylab Experiment M171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This chart details Skylab's Metabolic Activity experiment (M171), a medical evaluation facility designed to measure astronauts' metabolic changes while on long-term space missions. The experiment obtained information on astronauts' physiological capabilities and limitations and provided data useful in the design of future spacecraft and work programs. Physiological responses to physical activity was deduced by analyzing inhaled and exhaled air, pulse rate, blood pressure, and other selected variables of the crew while they performed controlled amounts of physical work with a bicycle ergometer. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  17. The Metabolic Phenotype in Obesity: Fat Mass, Body Fat Distribution, and Adipose Tissue Function.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Gijs H

    2017-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic poses a major public health issue since obesity predisposes towards several chronic diseases. BMI and total adiposity are positively correlated with cardiometabolic disease risk at the population level. However, body fat distribution and an impaired adipose tissue function, rather than total fat mass, better predict insulin resistance and related complications at the individual level. Adipose tissue dysfunction is determined by an impaired adipose tissue expandability, adipocyte hypertrophy, altered lipid metabolism, and local inflammation. Recent human studies suggest that adipose tissue oxygenation may be a key factor herein. A subgroup of obese individuals - the 'metabolically healthy obese' (MHO) - have a better adipose tissue function, less ectopic fat storage, and are more insulin sensitive than obese metabolically unhealthy persons, emphasizing the central role of adipose tissue function in metabolic health. However, controversy has surrounded the idea that metabolically healthy obesity may be considered really healthy since MHO individuals are at increased (cardio)metabolic disease risk and may have a lower quality of life than normal weight subjects due to other comorbidities. Detailed metabolic phenotyping of obese persons will be invaluable in understanding the pathophysiology of metabolic disturbances, and is needed to identify high-risk individuals or subgroups, thereby paving the way for optimization of prevention and treatment strategies to combat cardiometabolic diseases. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Regulation of metabolic health and adipose tissue function by group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Cautivo, Kelly M; Molofsky, Ari B

    2016-06-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is home to an abundance of immune cells. With chronic obesity, inflammatory immune cells accumulate and promote insulin resistance and the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, recent studies have highlighted the regulation and function of immune cells in lean, healthy AT, including those associated with type 2 or "allergic" immunity. Although traditionally activated by infection with multicellular helminthes, AT type 2 immunity is active independently of infection, and promotes tissue homeostasis, AT "browning," and systemic insulin sensitivity, protecting against obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In particular, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are integral regulators of AT type 2 immunity, producing the cytokines interleukin-5 and IL-13, promoting eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages, and cooperating with and promoting AT regulatory T (Treg) cells. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in our understanding of group 2 innate lymphoid cell cells and type 2 immunity in AT metabolism and homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Skeletal muscle IL-6 regulates muscle substrate utilization and adipose tissue metabolism during recovery from an acute bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Jakob G; Gudiksen, Anders; Bertholdt, Lærke; Overby, Peter; Villesen, Ida; Schwartz, Camilla L; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    An acute bout of exercise imposes a major challenge on whole-body metabolism and metabolic adjustments are needed in multiple tissues during recovery to reestablish metabolic homeostasis. It is currently unresolved how this regulation is orchestrated between tissues. This study was undertaken to clarify the role of skeletal muscle derived interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the coordination of the metabolic responses during recovery from acute exercise. Skeletal muscle specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) and littermate Control mice were rested or ran on a treadmill for 2h. Plasma, skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue were obtained after 6 and 10h of recovery. Non-exercised IL-6 MKO mice had higher plasma lactate and lower plasma non-esterified fatty acids than Controls. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form was, in skeletal muscle, higher in IL-6 MKO mice than Controls in non-exercised mice and 6h after exercise. IL-6 MKO mice had lower glucose transporter 4 protein content in inguinal adipose tissue (WAT) than Control in non-exercised mice and 10h after treadmill running. Epididymal WAT hormone sensitive lipase phosphorylation and inguinal WAT mitogen activated kinase P38 phosphorylation were higher in IL-6 MKO than Control mice 6h after exercise. These findings indicate that skeletal muscle IL-6 may play an important role in the regulation of substrate utilization in skeletal muscle, basal and exercise-induced adaptations in adipose tissue glucose uptake and lipolysis during recovery from exercise. Together this indicates that skeletal muscle IL-6 contributes to reestablishing metabolic homeostasis during recovery from exercise by regulating WAT and skeletal muscle metabolism.

  20. Physical activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Biological aging is typically associated with a progressive increase in body fat mass and a loss of lean body mass. Owing to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, specifically changes in diet, physical activity, and exercise, is considered the cornerstone of obesity management. However, for most overweight people it is difficult to lose weight permanently through diet or exercise. Thus, prevention of weight gain is thought to be more effective than weight loss in reducing obesity rates. A key question is whether physical activity can extenuate age-related weight gain and promote metabolic health in adults. Current guidelines suggest that adults should accumulate about 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily to prevent unhealthy weight gain. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to better metabolic control. PMID:23167451

  1. Characterization of alpha-ketobutyrate metabolism in rat tissues: effects of dietary protein and fasting.

    PubMed

    Steele, R D; Weber, H; Patterson, J I

    1984-04-01

    The oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketobutyrate was studied in rat tissue preparations. Decarboxylation was confined to the mitochondrial fraction and required coenzyme A, NAD, TPP and FAD for optimal activity in solubilized preparations. The pH optimum for this reaction in liver was 7.8, somewhat higher than that reported for other alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases. An apparent Km of 0.63 mM for alpha-ketobutyrate was determined for the rat liver system. Competition by other alpha-keto acids at 10 mM concentrations inhibited enzyme activity up to 75%. Tissue distribution of alpha-ketobutyrate dehydrogenase activity relative to liver activity was (in percent): liver, 100; heart, 127; brain, 63; kidney, 57; skeletal muscle, 38; and small intestine, 7. Total liver alpha-ketobutyrate dehydrogenase was decreased by 40% after a 24-hour fast. Similar results were found for kidney and heart activity. alpha-Aminobutyrate-pyruvate aminotransferase activity in liver or kidney was not affected by fasting; however, it was induced in liver by 50% after feeding a 40% casein diet for 10 days compared to rats fed a 20% casein diet. Increasing the dietary casein content from 6 through 40% of the diet resulted in about a fivefold increase in liver alpha-ketobutyrate dehydrogenase activity. The substantial extrahepatic capacity for alpha-ketobutyrate metabolism makes it unlikely that a loss of liver function results in an inability to metabolize alpha-ketobutyrate. Whether alpha-ketobutyrate is decarboxylated by a specific enzyme or by an already characterized complex such as pyruvate dehydrogenase or the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase remains to be established.

  2. Ablation of XP-V gene causes adipose tissue senescence and metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yih-Wen; Harris, Robert A.; Hatahet, Zafer; Chou, Kai-ming

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome have evolved to be major health issues throughout the world. Whether loss of genome integrity contributes to this epidemic is an open question. DNA polymerase η (pol η), encoded by the xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-V) gene, plays an essential role in preventing cutaneous cancer caused by UV radiation-induced DNA damage. Herein, we demonstrate that pol η deficiency in mice (pol η−/−) causes obesity with visceral fat accumulation, hepatic steatosis, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. In comparison to WT mice, adipose tissue from pol η−/− mice exhibits increased DNA damage and a greater DNA damage response, indicated by up-regulation and/or phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), and poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1). Concomitantly, increased cellular senescence in the adipose tissue from pol η−/− mice was observed and measured by up-regulation of senescence markers, including p53, p16Ink4a, p21, senescence-associated (SA) β-gal activity, and SA secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) as early as 4 wk of age. Treatment of pol η−/− mice with a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, reduced adipocyte senescence and attenuated the metabolic abnormalities. Furthermore, elevation of adipocyte DNA damage with a high-fat diet or sodium arsenite exacerbated adipocyte senescence and metabolic abnormalities in pol η−/− mice. In contrast, reduction of adipose DNA damage with N-acetylcysteine or metformin ameliorated cellular senescence and metabolic abnormalities. These studies indicate that elevated DNA damage is a root cause of adipocyte senescence, which plays a determining role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26240351

  3. Metabolic adaptations to HFHS overfeeding: how whole body and tissues postprandial metabolic flexibility adapt in Yucatan mini-pigs.

    PubMed

    Polakof, Sergio; Rémond, Didier; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Rambeau, Mathieu; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Dardevet, Dominique; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed to metabolically characterize the postprandial adaptations of the major tissues involved in energy, lipids and amino acids metabolisms in mini-pigs. Mini-pigs were fed on high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet for 2 months and several tissues explored for metabolic analyses. Further, the urine metabolome was followed over the time to picture the metabolic adaptations occurring at the whole body level following overfeeding. After 2 months of HFHS consumption, mini-pigs displayed an obese phenotype characterized by high circulating insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. At the tissue level, a general (muscle, adipose tissue, intestine) reduction in the capacity to phosphorylate glucose was observed. This was also supported by the enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis potential, despite the concomitant normoglycaemia, suggesting that the high circulating insulin levels would be enough to maintain glucose homoeostasis. The HFHS feeding also resulted in a reduced capacity of two other pathways: the de novo lipogenesis, and the branched-chain amino acids transamination. Finally, the follow-up of the urine metabolome over the time allowed determining breaking points in the metabolic trajectory of the animals. Several features confirmed the pertinence of the animal model, including increased body weight, adiposity and porcine obesity index. At the metabolic level, we observed a perturbed glucose and amino acid metabolism, known to be related to the onset of the obesity. The urine metabolome analyses revealed several metabolic pathways potentially involved in the obesity onset, including TCA (citrate, pantothenic acid), amino acids catabolism (cysteine, threonine, leucine).

  4. Diet-induced weight loss has chronic tissue-specific effects on glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Stomby, A; Simonyte, K; Mellberg, C; Ryberg, M; Stimson, R H; Larsson, C; Lindahl, B; Andrew, R; Walker, B R; Olsson, T

    2015-05-01

    Tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism is altered in obesity, and may increase cardiovascular risk. This dysregulation is normalized by short-term calorie restriction and weight loss, an effect that varies with dietary macronutrient composition. However, tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism has not been studied during long-term (>6 months) dietary interventions. Therefore our aim was to test whether long-term dietary interventions, either a paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a diet according to Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) could normalize tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight and obese women. Forty-nine overweight/obese postmenopausal women were randomized to a paleolithic diet or a diet according to NNR for 24 months. At baseline, 6 and 24 months anthropometric measurements, insulin sensitivity, excretion of urinary glucocorticoid metabolites in 24-hour collections, conversion of orally administered cortisone to plasma cortisol and transcript levels of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) in subcutaneous adipose tissue were studied. Both diet groups achieved significant and sustained weight loss. Weight loss with the PD was greater than on NNR diet after 6 months (P<0.001) but similar at 24 months. Urinary measurement of 5α-reductase activity was increased after 24 months in both groups compared with baseline (P<0.001). Subcutaneous adipose tissue 11βHSD1 gene expression decreased at 6 and 24 months in both diet groups (P=0.036). Consistent with increased liver 11βHSD1, conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol increased at 6 months (P=0.023) but was unchanged compared with baseline by 24 months. Long-term weight loss in postmenopausal women has tissue-specific and time-dependent effects on glucocorticoid metabolism. This may alter local-tissue cortisol exposure contributing to improved metabolic function during weight loss.

  5. Stem cell metabolism in tissue development and aging

    PubMed Central

    Shyh-Chang, Ng; Daley, George Q.; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in metabolomics and computational analysis have deepened our appreciation for the role of specific metabolic pathways in dictating cell fate. Once thought to be a mere consequence of the state of a cell, metabolism is now known to play a pivotal role in dictating whether a cell proliferates, differentiates or remains quiescent. Here, we review recent studies of metabolism in stem cells that have revealed a shift in the balance between glycolysis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress during the maturation of adult stem cells, and during the reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency. These insights promise to inform strategies for the directed differentiation of stem cells and to offer the potential for novel metabolic or pharmacological therapies to enhance regeneration and the treatment of degenerative disease. PMID:23715547

  6. Contributions of white and brown adipose tissues and skeletal muscles to acute cold-induced metabolic responses in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Blondin, Denis P; Labbé, Sébastien M; Phoenix, Serge; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Éric E; Richard, Denis; Carpentier, André C; Haman, François

    2015-01-01

    Cold exposure stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), triggering the activation of cold-defence responses and mobilizing substrates to fuel the thermogenic processes. Although these processes have been investigated independently, the physiological interaction and coordinated contribution of the tissues involved in producing heat or mobilizing substrates has never been investigated in humans. Using [U-13C]-palmitate and [3-3H]-glucose tracer methodologies coupled with positron emission tomography using 11C-acetate and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, we examined the relationship between whole body sympathetically induced white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis and brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism and mapped the skeletal muscle shivering and metabolic activation pattern during a mild, acute cold exposure designed to minimize shivering response in 12 lean healthy men. Cold-induced increase in whole-body oxygen consumption was not independently associated with BAT volume of activity, BAT oxidative metabolism, or muscle metabolism or shivering intensity, but depended on the sum of responses of these two metabolic tissues. Cold-induced increase in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance rate was strongly associated with the volume of metabolically active BAT (r = 0.80, P = 0.005), total BAT oxidative metabolism (r = 0.70, P = 0.004) and BAT glucose uptake (r = 0.80, P = 0.005), but not muscle glucose metabolism. The total glucose uptake was more than one order of magnitude greater in skeletal muscles compared to BAT during cold exposure (674 ± 124 vs. 12 ± 8 μmol min−1, respectively, P < 0.001). Glucose uptake demonstrated that deeper, centrally located muscles of the neck, back and inner thigh were the greatest contributors of muscle glucose uptake during cold exposure due to their more important shivering response. In summary, these results demonstrate for the first time that the increase in plasma NEFA appearance from WAT lipolysis is

  7. Non-Invasive Imaging of In Vivo Breast Cancer Tissue Utilizing Metabolically Incorporated Unnatural Sugars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    or misdiagnosed (4). Therefore, much effort is now directed toward developing alternative breast cancer detection technologies that exploit the...AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0548 TITLE: Non-Invasive Imaging of In Vivo Breast Cancer Tissue Utilizing Metabolically Incorporated Unnatrual Sugars...5. FUNDING NUMBERS Non-Invasive Imaging of In Vivo Breast Cancer Tissue DAMD17-03-1-0548 Utilizing Metabolically Incorporated Unnatrual Sugars 6. A

  8. Selected regulation of gastrointestinal acid-base secretion and tissue metabolism for the diamondback water snake and Burmese python.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    manifested in a depressed gastric and intestinal metabolism, which selectively serves to reduce basal metabolism and hence promote survival between infrequent meals. By maintaining elevated GI performance between meals, fasted water snakes incur the additional cost of tissue activity, which is expressed in a higher standard metabolic rate.

  9. Gene Expression and Metabolism in Tomato Fruit Surface Tissues1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mintz-Oron, Shira; Mandel, Tali; Rogachev, Ilana; Feldberg, Liron; Lotan, Ofra; Yativ, Merav; Wang, Zhonghua; Jetter, Reinhard; Venger, Ilya; Adato, Avital; Aharoni, Asaph

    2008-01-01

    The cuticle, covering the surface of all primary plant organs, plays important roles in plant development and protection against the biotic and abiotic environment. In contrast to vegetative organs, very little molecular information has been obtained regarding the surfaces of reproductive organs such as fleshy fruit. To broaden our knowledge related to fruit surface, comparative transcriptome and metabolome analyses were carried out on peel and flesh tissues during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development. Out of 574 peel-associated transcripts, 17% were classified as putatively belonging to metabolic pathways generating cuticular components, such as wax, cutin, and phenylpropanoids. Orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SHINE2 and MIXTA-LIKE regulatory factors, activating cutin and wax biosynthesis and fruit epidermal cell differentiation, respectively, were also predominantly expressed in the peel. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a flame ionization detector identified 100 metabolites that are enriched in the peel tissue during development. These included flavonoids, glycoalkaloids, and amyrin-type pentacyclic triterpenoids as well as polar metabolites associated with cuticle and cell wall metabolism and protection against photooxidative stress. Combined results at both transcript and metabolite levels revealed that the formation of cuticular lipids precedes phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression patterns of reporter genes driven by the upstream region of the wax-associated SlCER6 gene indicated progressive activity of this wax biosynthetic gene in both fruit exocarp and endocarp. Peel-associated genes identified in our study, together with comparative analysis of genes enriched in surface tissues of various other plant species, establish a springboard for future investigations of plant surface biology. PMID:18441227

  10. Gut microbiota controls adipose tissue expansion, gut barrier and glucose metabolism: novel insights into molecular targets and interventions using prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Geurts, L; Neyrinck, A M; Delzenne, N M; Knauf, C; Cani, P D

    2014-03-01

    Crosstalk between organs is crucial for controlling numerous homeostatic systems (e.g. energy balance, glucose metabolism and immunity). Several pathological conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are characterised by a loss of or excessive inter-organ communication that contributes to the development of disease. Recently, we and others have identified several mechanisms linking the gut microbiota with the development of obesity and associated disorders (e.g. insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis). Among these, we described the concept of metabolic endotoxaemia (increase in plasma lipopolysaccharide levels) as one of the triggering factors leading to the development of metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. Growing evidence suggests that gut microbes contribute to the onset of low-grade inflammation characterising these metabolic disorders via mechanisms associated with gut barrier dysfunctions. We have demonstrated that enteroendocrine cells (producing glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-2) and the endocannabinoid system control gut permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. Recently, we hypothesised that specific metabolic dysregulations occurring at the level of numerous organs (e.g. gut, adipose tissue, muscles, liver and brain) rely from gut microbiota modifications. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms linking gut permeability, adipose tissue metabolism, and glucose homeostasis, and recent findings that show interactions between the gut microbiota, the endocannabinoid system and the apelinergic system. These specific systems are discussed in the context of the gut-to-peripheral organ axis (intestine, adipose tissue and brain) and impacts on metabolic regulation. In the present review, we also briefly describe the impact of a variety of non-digestible nutrients (i.e. inulin-type fructans, arabinoxylans, chitin glucans and polyphenols). Their effects on the composition of the gut microbiota and

  11. Metabolic disturbance in PCOS: clinical and molecular effects on skeletal muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Wagner Silva; Gualano, Bruno; Rocha, Michele Patrocínio; Barcellos, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi; dos Reis Vieira Yance, Viviane; Marcondes, José Antonio Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex hormonal disorder affecting the reproductive and metabolic systems with signs and symptoms related to anovulation, infertility, menstrual irregularity and hirsutism. Skeletal muscle plays a vital role in the peripheral glucose uptake. Since PCOS is associated with defects in the activation and pancreatic dysfunction of β-cell insulin, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in PCOS. Studies of muscle tissue in patients with PCOS reveal defects in insulin signaling. Muscle biopsies performed during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp showed a significant reduction in glucose uptake, and insulin-mediated IRS-2 increased significantly in skeletal muscle. It is recognized that the etiology of insulin resistance in PCOS is likely to be as complicated as in type 2 diabetes and it has an important role in metabolic and reproductive phenotypes of this syndrome. Thus, further evidence regarding the effect of nonpharmacological approaches (e.g., physical exercise) in skeletal muscle of women with PCOS is required for a better therapeutic approach in the management of various metabolic and reproductive problems caused by this syndrome.

  12. Metabolic Disturbance in PCOS: Clinical and Molecular Effects on Skeletal Muscle Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Silva Dantas, Wagner; Gualano, Bruno; Patrocínio Rocha, Michele; Roberto Grimaldi Barcellos, Cristiano; dos Reis Vieira Yance, Viviane; Miguel Marcondes, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex hormonal disorder affecting the reproductive and metabolic systems with signs and symptoms related to anovulation, infertility, menstrual irregularity and hirsutism. Skeletal muscle plays a vital role in the peripheral glucose uptake. Since PCOS is associated with defects in the activation and pancreatic dysfunction of β-cell insulin, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in PCOS. Studies of muscle tissue in patients with PCOS reveal defects in insulin signaling. Muscle biopsies performed during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp showed a significant reduction in glucose uptake, and insulin-mediated IRS-2 increased significantly in skeletal muscle. It is recognized that the etiology of insulin resistance in PCOS is likely to be as complicated as in type 2 diabetes and it has an important role in metabolic and reproductive phenotypes of this syndrome. Thus, further evidence regarding the effect of nonpharmacological approaches (e.g., physical exercise) in skeletal muscle of women with PCOS is required for a better therapeutic approach in the management of various metabolic and reproductive problems caused by this syndrome. PMID:23844380

  13. Changes of gas metabolism, gas homeostasis and tissue respiration in rats during prolonged hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popkov, V. L.; Mailyan, E. S.; Galushko, Y. S.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Zaytseva, Y. I.; Nitochkina, I. A.; Stulova, L. V.; Ryazhskiy, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    The oxygen uptake and tissue gas homeostasis of restrained albinic rats remained relatively constant during a 60 day experiment. The gas metabolism in some tissues changed, and O2 consumption increased in the liver and decreased in the myocardium. Capacity for physical work was reduced by five times. Hypokinesia for 60 days resulted in a delay in the animals growth.

  14. Comparative Aspects of Tissue Glutamine and Proline Metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cellular metabolism of glutamine and proline are closely interrelated since they can be interconverted with glutamate and ornithine via the mitochondrial pathway involving pyrolline-5-carboxylate (P5C). In adults, glutamine and proline are converted via P5C to citrulline in the gut, then citrul...

  15. Metabolic activity of microorganisms in evaporites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Giver, L. J.; White, M. R.; Mancinelli, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline salt is generally considered so hostile to most forms of life that it has been used for centuries as a preservative. Here, we present evidence that prokaryotes inhabiting a natural evaporite crust of halite and gypsum are metabolically active while inside the evaporite for at least 10 months. In situ measurements demonstrated that some of these "endoevaporitic" microorganisms (probably the cyanobacterium Synechococcus Nageli) fixed carbon and nitrogen. Denitrification was not observed. Our results quantified the slow microbial activity that can occur in salt crystals. Implications of this study include the possibility that microorganisms found in ancient evaporite deposits may have been part of an evaporite community.

  16. Tissue-specific Insulin Signaling in the Regulation of Metabolism and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, insulin signaling regulates glucose homeostasis and plays an essential role in metabolism, organ growth, development, fertility, and lifespan. Defects in this signaling pathway contribute to various metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovarian disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. However, reducing the insulin signaling pathway has been found to increase longevity and delay the aging-associated diseases in various animals, ranging from nematodes to mice. These seemly paradoxical findings raise an interesting question as to how modulation of the insulin signaling pathway could be an effective approach to improve metabolism and aging. In this review, we summarize current understanding on tissue-specific functions of insulin signaling in the regulation of metabolism and lifespan. We also discuss potential benefits and limitations in modulating tissue-specific insulin signaling pathway to improve metabolism and healthspan. PMID:25087968

  17. Illuminating a plant’s tissue-specific metabolic diversity using computational metabolomics and information theory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dapeng; Heiling, Sven; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolite diversity is considered an important fitness determinant for plants’ biotic and abiotic interactions in nature. This diversity can be examined in two dimensions. The first one considers metabolite diversity across plant species. A second way of looking at this diversity is by considering the tissue-specific localization of pathways underlying secondary metabolism within a plant. Although these cross-tissue metabolite variations are increasingly regarded as important readouts of tissue-level gene function and regulatory processes, they have rarely been comprehensively explored by nontargeted metabolomics. As such, important questions have remained superficially addressed. For instance, which tissues exhibit prevalent signatures of metabolic specialization? Reciprocally, which metabolites contribute most to this tissue specialization in contrast to those metabolites exhibiting housekeeping characteristics? Here, we explore tissue-level metabolic specialization in Nicotiana attenuata, an ecological model with rich secondary metabolism, by combining tissue-wide nontargeted mass spectral data acquisition, information theory analysis, and tandem MS (MS/MS) molecular networks. This analysis was conducted for two different methanolic extracts of 14 tissues and deconvoluted 895 nonredundant MS/MS spectra. Using information theory analysis, anthers were found to harbor the most specialized metabolome, and most unique metabolites of anthers and other tissues were annotated through MS/MS molecular networks. Tissue–metabolite association maps were used to predict tissue-specific gene functions. Predictions for the function of two UDP-glycosyltransferases in flavonoid metabolism were confirmed by virus-induced gene silencing. The present workflow allows biologists to amortize the vast amount of data produced by modern MS instrumentation in their quest to understand gene function. PMID:27821729

  18. Naphthalene metabolism in relation to target tissue anatomy, physiology, cytotoxicity and tumorigenic mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, Kenneth T.; Benson, Janet M.; Yost, Garold S.; Morris, John B.; Dahl, Alan R.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Krishnan, Kannan; Omiecinski, Curtis J.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a summary of deliberations conducted under the charge for members of Module C Panel participating in the Naphthalene State-of-the-Science Symposium (NS3), Monterey, CA, October 9–12, 2006. The panel was charged with reviewing the current state of knowledge and uncertainty about naphthalene metabolism in relation to anatomy, physiology and cytotoxicity in tissues observed to have elevated tumor incidence in these rodent bioassays. Major conclusions reached concerning scientific claims of high confidence were that: (1) rat nasal tumor occurrence was greatly enhanced, if not enabled, by adjacent, histologically related focal cellular proliferation; (2) elevated incidence of mouse lung tumors occurred at a concentration (30 ppm) cytotoxic to the same lung region at which tumors occurred, but not at a lower and less cytotoxic concentration (tumorigenesis NOAEL = 10 ppm); (3) naphthalene cytotoxicity requires metabolic activation (unmetabolized naphthalene is not a proximate cause of observed toxicity or tumors); (4) there are clear regional and species differences in naphthalene bioactivation; and (5) target tissue anatomy and physiology is sufficiently well understood for rodents, non-human primates and humans to parameterize species-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for nasal and lung effects. Critical areas of uncertainty requiring resolution to enable improved human cancer risk assessment were considered to be that: (1) cytotoxic naphthalene metabolites, their modes of cytotoxic action, and detailed low-dose dose–response need to be clarified, including in primate and human tissues, and neonatal tissues; (2) mouse, rat, and monkey inhalation studies are needed to better define in vivo naphthalene uptake and metabolism in the upper respiratory tract; (3) in vivo validation studies are needed for a PBPK model for monkeys exposed to naphthalene by inhalation, coupled to cytotoxicity studies referred to above; and (4

  19. Nutrition, insulin resistance and dysfunctional adipose tissue determine the different components of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders. Adipose tissue could expand to inflexibility levels. Then, adiposity is associated with a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, with increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release, which interfere with adipose cell differentiation, and the action pattern of adiponectin and leptin until the adipose tissue begins to be dysfunctional. In this state the subject presents insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, probably the first step of a dysfunctional metabolic system. Subsequent to central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypertension and fatty liver are grouped in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS). In subjects with MetS an energy balance is critical to maintain a healthy body weight, mainly limiting the intake of high energy density foods (fat). However, high-carbohydrate rich (CHO) diets increase postprandial peaks of insulin and glucose. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are also increased, which interferes with reverse cholesterol transport lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, CHO-rich diets could move fat from peripheral to central deposits and reduce adiponectin activity in peripheral adipose tissue. All these are improved with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diets. Lastly, increased portions of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids also decrease triglyceride levels, and complement the healthy diet that is recommended in patients with MetS. PMID

  20. The effect of hypokinesia on lipid metabolism in adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, Ladislav; Kvetn̆anský, Richard; Ficková, Mária

    The increase of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in plasma was observed in rats subjected to hypokinesia for 1-60 days. In the period of recovery (7 and 21 days after 60 days immobilization) the content of NEFA returned to control values. The increase of fatty acid release from adipose tissue was observed in hypokinetic rats, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lower in rats exposed to hypokinesis. The decrease of the binding capacity and a diminished number of beta-adrenergic receptors were found in animals after hypokinesia. The augmentation of the incorporation of glucose into lipids and the marked increase in the stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin were found in adipose tissue of rats subjected to long-term hypokinesia. These results showed an important effect of hypokinesia on lipid mobilization, on lipogenesis and on the processes of hormone regulation in adipose tissue.

  1. METABOLIC RESPONSES TO DIETARY LEUCINE RESTRICTION INVOLVE REMODELING OF ADIPOSE TISSUE AND ENHANCED HEPATIC INSULIN SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Desiree; Stone, Kirsten P.; Dille, Kelly; Simon, Jacob; Pierse, Alicia; Gettys, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary leucine was incrementally restricted to test whether limiting this essential amino acid (EAA) would fully reproduce the beneficial responses produced by dietary methionine restriction. Restricting leucine by 85% increased energy intake and expenditure within five to seven days of its introduction and reduced overall accumulation of adipose tissue. Leucine restriction (LR) also improved glucose tolerance, increased hepatic release of FGF21 into the blood stream, and enhanced insulin-dependent activation of Akt in liver. However, LR had no effect on hepatic lipid levels and failed to lower lipogenic gene expression in the liver. LR did affect remodeling of white and brown adipose tissue, increasing expression of both thermogenic and lipogenic genes. These findings illustrate that dietary LR reproduces many but not all of the physiological responses of methionine restriction. The primary differences occur in the liver, where methionine and leucine restriction cause opposite effects on tissue lipid levels and expression of lipogenic genes. Together these findings suggest that the sensing systems which detect and respond to dietary restriction of EAAs act through mechanisms that both leucine and methionine are able to engage, and in the case of hepatic lipid metabolism, may be unique to specific EAAs such as methionine. PMID:26643647

  2. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Osipov YuYu; Spichkov, A N; Filipenkov, S N

    1998-01-01

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha' (ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  3. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  4. [Effects of +Gx load on energy metabolism of brain tissue in rats].

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Xie, Bao-sheng; You, Guang-xing; Liu, Xing-hua; Lu, Sheng-qiang; Huang, Wei-fen

    2002-12-01

    Objective. To observe the changes of energy metabolism of brain tissue in rats under +Gx loads, and to explore its possible role in changes of brain function and work efficiency induced by +Gx stress. Method. Forty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, +5 Gx, +10 Gx, +15 Gx and +20 Gx group. Each group was exposed to the corresponding G value for 3 min. After that, cortical adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and lactic acid (LA) content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were measured. Result. Compared with the control group, the cortical (LA) content increased significantly after +5 Gx, +10 Gx, +15 Gx and +20 Gx exposure (P<0.01). Cortical ADP content and ratio of ADP/AMP and AMP/ATP increased significantly after +10 Gx, +15 Gx and +20 Gx exposure (P<0.01), whereas ATP content, energy charge and LDH activity decreased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01). Cortical AMP content increased significantly after +15 Gx and +20 Gx exposure (P<0.05 and 0.01). Conclusion. It is suggested that +Gx load can result in obvious depression of brain energy metabolism, which could be an important reason for the change of brain function and work efficiency induced by +Gx stress.

  5. Identifying Metabolically Active Chemicals Using a Consensus ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are abundant throughout the environment and can alter neurodevelopment, behavior, and reproductive success of humans and other species by perturbing signaling pathways related to the estrogen receptor (ER). A recent study compared results across 18 ER-related assays in the ToxCast™ in vitro screening program to predict the likelihood of a chemical exhibiting in vivo estrogenic activity, with the purpose of eliminating chemicals that may produce a false signal by interfering with the technological attributes of an individual assay. However, flaws in in vitro assay design can also prevent induction of signal activity by EDCs. Another reason for not observing activity for some EDCs in in vitro assays is that metabolic activation is required to perturb ER-related pathways. In the current study, 1,024 chemicals were identified as lacking ER activity after establishing a consensus across each of the 18 ER-related in vitro assays, and nearly 2,000 primary and 3,700 secondary unique metabolites were predicted for these chemicals. The ER binding activity for each metabolite was then predicted using an existing ER activity quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) consensus model. Binding activity was predicted for 2-3% of the metabolites within each generation. Of the inactive parent compounds generating at least one metabolite predicted to have ER-binding activity, nearly 30% were found to have metabolites from both gene

  6. Seasonal Sucrose Metabolism in Longleaf Pine Tree Stem Cambial Tissues

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; William J. Otrosina; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2004-01-01

    This study was a part of a long-term study on factors contributing to the decline of a 40+-year-old longleaf pine stand where prescribed burning has occurred. Burn treatments were implemented between January and March 1997. From April 2002 through February 2003, stem cambial tissues were sampled periodically from healthy longleaf pine trees preselected from each...

  7. Uptake, Metabolism, and Tissue Distribution of Chemicals in Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will explain how chemicals get into aquatic species, what tissues and organs the chemicals move into, and what can happen to the chemicals once they get there. This will be presented using examples from recent studies conducted using state-of-the-art microscopy with em...

  8. White adipose tissue genome wide-expression profiling and adipocyte metabolic functions after soy protein consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Frigolet, Maria E; Torres, Nimbe; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Rangel, Claudia; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Tovar, Armando R

    2011-02-01

    Obesity is associated with an increase in adipose tissue mass due to an imbalance between high dietary energy intake and low physical activity; however, the type of dietary protein may contribute to its development. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of soy protein versus casein on white adipose tissue genome profiling, and the metabolic functions of adipocytes in rats with diet-induced obesity. The results showed that rats fed a Soy Protein High-Fat (Soy HF) diet gained less weight and had lower serum leptin concentration than rats fed a Casein High-Fat (Cas HF) diet, despite similar energy intake. Histological studies indicated that rats fed the Soy HF diet had significantly smaller adipocytes than those fed the Cas HF diet, and this was associated with a lower triglyceride/DNA content. Fatty acid synthesis in isolated adipocytes was reduced by the amount of fat consumed but not by the type of protein ingested. Expression of genes of fatty acid oxidation increased in adipose tissue of rats fed Soy diets; microarray analysis revealed that Soy protein consumption modified the expression of 90 genes involved in metabolic functions and inflammatory response in adipose tissue. Network analysis showed that the expression of leptin was regulated by the type of dietary protein and it was identified as a central regulator of the expression of lipid metabolism genes in adipose tissue. Thus, soy maintains the size and metabolic functions of adipose tissue through biochemical adaptations, adipokine secretion, and global changes in gene expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of riboflavin metabolism in rat tissues by chlorpromazine, imipramine, and amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Pinto, J; Huang, Y P; Rivlin, R S

    1981-05-01

    Prompted by recognition of the similar structures of riboflavin (vitamin B(2)), phenothiazine drugs, and tricyclic antidepressants, our studies sought to determine effects of drugs of these two types upon the conversion of riboflavin into its active coenzyme derivative, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in rat tissues. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine derivative, and imipramine and amitriptyline, both tricyclic antidepressants, each inhibited the incorporation of [(14)C]riboflavin into [(14)C]FAD in liver, cerebrum, cerebellum, and heart. A variety of psychoactive drugs structurally unrelated to riboflavin were ineffective. Chlorpromazine, imipramine, and amitriptyline in vitro inhibited hepatic flavokinase, the first of two enzymes in the conversion of riboflavin to FAD. Evidence was obtained that chlorpromazine administration for a 3- or 7-wk period at doses comparable on a weight basis to those used clinically has significant effects upon riboflavin metabolism in the animal as a whole: (a) the activity coefficient of erythrocyte glutathione reductase, an FAD-containing enzyme used as an index of riboflavin status physiologically, was elevated, a finding compatible with a deficiency state, (b) the urinary excretion of riboflavin was more than twice that of age- and sex-matched pair-fed control rats, and (c) after administration of chlorpromazine for a 7-wk period, tissue levels of flavin mononucleotide and FAD were significantly lower than those of pair-fed littermates, despite consumption of a diet estimated to contain 30 times the recommended dietary allowance. The present study suggests that certain psychotropic drugs interfere with riboflavin metabolism at least in part by inhibiting the conversion of riboflavin to its coenzyme derivatives, and that as a consequence of such inhibition, the overall utilization of the vitamin is impaired.

  10. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5 h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29 mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65 mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administ

  11. Cyanidin-3-glucoside increases whole body energy metabolism by upregulating brown adipose tissue mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    You, Yilin; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Liu, Xiaomeng; Liang, Chen; Meng, Minghui; Huang, Yuanyuan; Han, Xue; Guo, Jielong; Guo, Yu; Ren, Chenglong; Zhang, Qianwen; Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Guojie; Jin, Wanzhu; Huang, Weidong; Zhan, Jicheng

    2017-11-01

    Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and function increases energy expenditure and may protect against obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is an anthocyanin compound that occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of C3G on the prevention of obesity. Db/db mice received C3G dissolved in drinking water for 16 wk; drinking water served as the vehicle treatment. The total body weight, energy intake, metabolic rate, and physical activity were measured. The lipid droplets, gene expression and protein expression were evaluated by histochemical staining, real-time PCR, and western blots. We found that C3G increased energy expenditure, limited weight gain, maintained glucose homeostasis, reversed hepatic steatosis, improved cold tolerance, and enhanced BAT activity in obese db/db mice. C3G also induces brown-like adipocytes (beige) formation in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) of db/db mice model. We also found that C3G potently regulates the transcription of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) both in BAT and sWAT through increasing mitochondrial number and function. Our results suggest that C3G plays a role in regulating systemic energy balance, which may have potential therapeutic implications for the prevention and control of obesity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training.

  13. Identifying Metabolically Active Chemicals Using a Consensus ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Traditional toxicity testing provides insight into the mechanisms underlying toxicological responses but requires a high investment in a large number of resources. The new paradigm of testing approaches involves rapid screening studies able to evaluate thousands of chemicals across hundreds of biological targets through use of in vitro assays. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are of concern due to their ability to alter neurodevelopment, behavior, and reproductive success of humans and other species. A recent integrated computational model examined results across 18 ER-related assays in the ToxCast in vitro screening program to eliminate chemicals that produce a false signal by possibly interfering with the technological attributes of an individual assay. However, in vitro assays can also lead to false negatives when the complex metabolic processes that render a chemical bioactive in a living system might be unable to be replicated in an in vitro environment. In the current study, the influence of metabolism was examined for over 1,400 chemicals considered inactive using the integrated computational model. Over 2,000 first-generation and over 4,000 second-generation metabolites were generated for the inactive chemicals using in silico techniques. Next, a consensus model comprised of individual structure activity relationship (SAR) models was used to predict ER-binding activity for each of the metabolites. Binding activity was predicted for 8-10% of the meta

  14. Heart over mind: metabolic control of white adipose tissue and liver.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Michinari; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the heart controls the metabolism of peripheral organs. Olson and colleagues previously demonstrated that miR‐208a controls systemic energy homeostasis through the regulation of MED13 in cardiomyocytes (Grueter et al, 2012). In their follow‐up study in this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver are identified as the physiological targets of cardiac MED13 signaling, most likely through cardiac‐derived circulating factors, which boost energy consumption by upregulating metabolic gene expression and increasing mitochondrial numbers (Baskin et al, 2014). In turn, increased energy expenditure in WAT and the liver confers leanness. These findings strengthen the evidence of metabolic crosstalk between the heart and peripheral tissues through cardiokines and also set the stage for the development of novel treatments for metabolic syndrome.

  15. A worm of one's own: how helminths modulate host adipose tissue function and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Guigas, Bruno; Molofsky, Ari B

    2015-09-01

    Parasitic helminths have coexisted with human beings throughout time. Success in eradicating helminths has limited helminth-induced morbidity and mortality but is also correlated with increasing rates of 'western' diseases, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in mice describe how type 2 immune cells, traditionally associated with helminth infection, maintain adipose tissue homeostasis and promote adipose tissue beiging, protecting against obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Here, we review these studies and discuss how helminths and helminth-derived molecules may modulate these physiologic pathways to improve metabolic functions in specific tissues, such as adipose and liver, as well as at the whole-organism level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A worm of one’s own: how helminths modulate host adipose tissue function and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Guigas, Bruno; Molofsky, Ari B.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminths have co-existed with human beings throughout time. Success in eradicating helminths has limited helminth-induced morbidity and mortality but is also correlated with increasing rates of ‘Western’ diseases, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in mice describe how type 2 immune cells, traditionally associated with helminth infection, maintain adipose tissue homeostasis and promote adipose tissue beiging, protecting against obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Here we review these studies and discuss how helminths and helminth-derived molecules may modulate these physiologic pathways to improve metabolic functions in specific tissues, such as adipose and liver, as well as at the whole-organism level. PMID:25991556

  17. Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction independent of adipose tissue expansion.

    PubMed

    Fuster, José J; Zuriaga, María A; Ngo, Doan Thi-Minh; Farb, Melissa G; Aprahamian, Tamar; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Gokce, Noyan; Walsh, Kenneth

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the development of insulin resistance in obese individuals. Cell culture studies and gain-of-function mouse models suggest that canonical Wnt proteins modulate adipose tissue expansion. However, no genetic evidence supports a role for endogenous Wnt proteins in adipose tissue dysfunction, and the role of noncanonical Wnt signaling remains largely unexplored. Here we provide evidence from human, mouse, and cell culture studies showing that Wnt5a-mediated, noncanonical Wnt signaling contributes to obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction by increasing adipose tissue inflammation. Wnt5a expression is significantly upregulated in human visceral fat compared with subcutaneous fat in obese individuals. In obese mice, Wnt5a ablation ameliorates insulin resistance, in parallel with reductions in adipose tissue inflammation. Conversely, Wnt5a overexpression in myeloid cells augments adipose tissue inflammation and leads to greater impairments in glucose homeostasis. Wnt5a ablation or overexpression did not affect fat mass or adipocyte size. Mechanistically, Wnt5a promotes the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages in a Jun NH2-terminal kinase-dependent manner, leading to defective insulin signaling in adipocytes. Exogenous interleukin-6 administration restores insulin resistance in obese Wnt5a-deficient mice, suggesting a central role for this cytokine in Wnt5a-mediated metabolic dysfunction. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noncanonical Wnt signaling contributes to obesity-induced insulin resistance independent of adipose tissue expansion. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Multichannel optical brain imaging to separate cerebral vascular, tissue metabolic, and neuronal effects of cocaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hugang; Luo, Zhongchi; Yuan, Zhijia; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2012-02-01

    Characterization of cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation metabolic changes, as well neuronal function is of great importance to study of brain functions and the relevant brain disorders such as drug addiction. Compared with other neuroimaging modalities, optical imaging techniques have the potential for high spatiotemporal resolution and dissection of the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobing oxygenation and intracellular Ca ([Ca2+]i), which serves as markers of vascular function, tissue metabolism and neuronal activity, respectively. Recently, we developed a multiwavelength imaging system and integrated it into a surgical microscope. Three LEDs of λ1=530nm, λ2=570nm and λ3=630nm were used for exciting [Ca2+]i fluorescence labeled by Rhod2 (AM) and sensitizing total hemoglobin (i.e., CBV), and deoxygenated-hemoglobin, whereas one LD of λ1=830nm was used for laser speckle imaging to form a CBF mapping of the brain. These light sources were time-sharing for illumination on the brain and synchronized with the exposure of CCD camera for multichannel images of the brain. Our animal studies indicated that this optical approach enabled simultaneous mapping of cocaine-induced changes in CBF, CBV and oxygenated- and deoxygenated hemoglobin as well as [Ca2+]i in the cortical brain. Its high spatiotemporal resolution (30μm, 10Hz) and large field of view (4x5 mm2) are advanced as a neuroimaging tool for brain functional study.

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in adipose tissue determines postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in metabolic syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Antonio; Meneses, Maria E; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol A; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Marin, Carmen; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Paniagua, Juan A; Tinahones, Francisco J; Roche, Helen; Malagon, Maria M; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to ascertain whether the quality and quantity of fat in the diet may influence the ER stress at the postprandial state in adipose tissue by analyzing the gene expression of chaperones, folding enzymes, and activators of the UPR. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned 39 MetS patients to one of four diets: high-SFA (HSFA; 38% energy (E) from fat, 16% E as SFA), high MUFA (HMUFA; 38% E from fat, 20% E as MUFA), and two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate (LFHCC; 28% E from fat) diets supplemented with 1.24 g/day of long-chain n-3 PUFA or placebo for 12 wk each. A fat challenge reflecting the same fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post intervention. sXBP-1 is induced in the postprandial state irrespective of the diet consumed (p < 0.001). BiP increases postprandially after consumption of diets HMUFA (p = 0.006), LFHCC (p = 0.028), and LFHCC n-3 (p = 0.028). Postprandial mRNA expression levels of CRL, CNX, PDIA3, and GSTP1 in AT did not differ between the different types of diets. Our results suggest that upregulation of the unfolded protein response at the postprandial state may represent an adaptive mechanism to counteract diet-induced stress. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Apollo experience report: Assessment of metabolic expenditures. [extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Hawkins, W. R.; Humbert, G. F.; Nelson, L. J.; Vogel, S. J.; Kuznetz, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A significant effort was made to assess the metabolic expenditure for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. After evaluation of the real-time data available to the flight controller during extravehicular activity, three independent methods of metabolic assessment were chosen based on the relationship between heart rate and metabolic production, between oxygen consumption and metabolic production, and between the thermodynamics of the liquid-cooled garment and metabolic production. The metabolic assessment procedure is analyzed and discussed. Real-time use of this information by the Apollo flight surgeon is discussed. Results and analyses of the Apollo missions and comments concerning future applications are included.

  1. SIRT3 mediates multi-tissue coupling for metabolic fuel switching.

    PubMed

    Dittenhafer-Reed, Kristin E; Richards, Alicia L; Fan, Jing; Smallegan, Michael J; Fotuhi Siahpirani, Alireza; Kemmerer, Zachary A; Prolla, Tomas A; Roy, Sushmita; Coon, Joshua J; Denu, John M

    2015-04-07

    SIRT3 is a member of the Sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent deacylases and plays a critical role in metabolic regulation. Organism-wide SIRT3 loss manifests in metabolic alterations; however, the coordinating role of SIRT3 among metabolically distinct tissues is unknown. Using multi-tissue quantitative proteomics comparing fasted wild-type mice to mice lacking SIRT3, innovative bioinformatic analysis, and biochemical validation, we provide a comprehensive view of mitochondrial acetylation and SIRT3 function. We find SIRT3 regulates the acetyl-proteome in core mitochondrial processes common to brain, heart, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle, but differentially regulates metabolic pathways in fuel-producing and fuel-utilizing tissues. We propose an additional maintenance function for SIRT3 in liver and kidney where SIRT3 expression is elevated to reduce the acetate load on mitochondrial proteins. We provide evidence that SIRT3 impacts ketone body utilization in the brain and reveal a pivotal role for SIRT3 in the coordination between tissues required for metabolic homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Noninvasive metabolic imaging of engineered 3D human adipose tissue in a perfusion bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Quinn, Kyle P; Bellas, Evangelia; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and economy of most in vitro human models used in research is limited by the lack of a physiologically-relevant three-dimensional perfused environment and the inability to noninvasively quantify the structural and biochemical characteristics of the tissue. The goal of this project was to develop a perfusion bioreactor system compatible with two-photon imaging to noninvasively assess tissue engineered human adipose tissue structure and function in vitro. Three-dimensional (3D) vascularized human adipose tissues were engineered in vitro, before being introduced to a perfusion environment and tracked over time by automated quantification of endogenous markers of metabolism using two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF). Depth-resolved image stacks were analyzed for redox ratio metabolic profiling and compared to prior analyses performed on 3D engineered adipose tissue in static culture. Traditional assessments with H&E staining were used to qualitatively measure extracellular matrix generation and cell density with respect to location within the tissue. The distribution of cells within the tissue and average cellular redox ratios were different between static and perfusion cultures, while the trends of decreased redox ratio and increased cellular proliferation with time in both static and perfusion cultures were similar. These results establish a basis for noninvasive optical tracking of tissue structure and function in vitro, which can be applied to future studies to assess tissue development or drug toxicity screening and disease progression.

  3. Natural compounds regulate energy metabolism by the modulating the activity of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity causes excess fat accumulation in various tissues, most notoriously in the adipose tissue, along with other insulin-responsive organs such as skeletal muscle and the liver, which predisposes an individual to the development of metabolic abnormalities. The molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities have not been completely elucidated; however, in recent years, the search for therapies to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders has increased. It is known that several nuclear receptors, when activated by specific ligands, regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at the transcriptional level. The expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes is directly regulated by the activity of various nuclear receptors via their interaction with specific response elements in promoters of those genes. Many natural compounds act as ligands of nuclear receptors and regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by regulating the activities of these nuclear receptors. In this review, we describe our current knowledge of obesity, the role of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors in energy metabolism, and several examples of food factors that act as agonists or antagonists of nuclear receptors, which may be useful for the management of obesity and the accompanying energy metabolism abnormalities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Involvement of glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism and signaling in rat visceral adipose tissue lipid metabolism after chronic stress combined with high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Bursać, Biljana; Djordjevic, Ana; Veličković, Nataša; Milutinović, Danijela Vojnović; Petrović, Snježana; Teofilović, Ana; Gligorovska, Ljupka; Preitner, Frederic; Tappy, Luc; Matić, Gordana

    2018-05-03

    Both fructose overconsumption and increased glucocorticoids secondary to chronic stress may contribute to overall dyslipidemia. In this study we specifically assessed the effects and interactions of dietary fructose and chronic stress on lipid metabolism in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week 20% high fructose diet and 4-week chronic unpredictable stress, separately and in combination, on VAT histology, glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism, glucocorticoid receptor subcellular redistribution and expression of major metabolic genes. Blood triglycerides and fatty acid composition were also measured to assess hepatic Δ9 desaturase activity. The results showed that fructose diet increased blood triglycerides and Δ9 desaturase activity. On the other hand, stress led to corticosterone elevation, glucocorticoid receptor activation and decrease in adipocyte size, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, adipose tissue triglyceride lipase, FAT/CD36 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) were increased, pointing to VAT lipolysis and glyceroneogenesis. The combination of stress and fructose diet was associated with marked stimulation of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA level and with increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein levels, suggesting a coordinated increase in hexose monophosphate shunt and de novo lipogenesis. It however did not influence the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, SREBP-1c and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein. In conclusion, our results showed that only combination of dietary fructose and stress increase glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism and stimulates lipogenic enzyme expression suggesting that interaction between stress and fructose may be instrumental in promoting VAT expansion and dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiological regulation and metabolic role of browning in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Otasevic, Vesna; Stancic, Ana; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato

    2017-09-01

    Great progress has been made in our understanding of the browning process in white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents. The recognition that i) adult humans have physiologically inducible brown adipose tissue (BAT) that may facilitate resistance to obesity and ii) that adult human BAT molecularly and functionally resembles beige adipose tissue in rodents, reignited optimism that obesity and obesity-related diabetes type 2 can be battled by controlling the browning of WAT. In this review the main cellular mechanisms and molecular mediators of browning of WAT in different physiological states are summarized. The relevance of browning of WAT in metabolic health is considered primarily through a modulation of biological role of fat tissue in overall metabolic homeostasis.

  6. Planar implantable sensor for in vivo measurement of cellular oxygen metabolism in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Akkentli, Fatih; Pumbo, Elena; Tang, Qinggong; Chen, Yu; Erzurumlu, Reha S; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2017-04-01

    Brain imaging methods are continually improving. Imaging of the cerebral cortex is widely used in both animal experiments and charting human brain function in health and disease. Among the animal models, the rodent cerebral cortex has been widely used because of patterned neural representation of the whiskers on the snout and relative ease of activating cortical tissue with whisker stimulation. We tested a new planar solid-state oxygen sensor comprising a polymeric film with a phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive coating on the working side, to monitor dynamics of oxygen metabolism in the cerebral cortex following sensory stimulation. Sensory stimulation led to changes in oxygenation and deoxygenation processes of activated areas in the barrel cortex. We demonstrate the possibility of dynamic mapping of relative changes in oxygenation in live mouse brain tissue with such a sensor. Oxygenation-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is very effective method for functional brain mapping but have high costs and limited spatial resolution. Optical imaging of intrinsic signal (IOS) does not provide the required sensitivity, and voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging (VSDi) has limited applicability due to significant toxicity of the voltage-sensitive dye. Our planar solid-state oxygen sensor imaging approach circumvents these limitations, providing a simple optical contrast agent with low toxicity and rapid application. The planar solid-state oxygen sensor described here can be used as a tool in visualization and real-time analysis of sensory-evoked neural activity in vivo. Further, this approach allows visualization of local neural activity with high temporal and spatial resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Tissue-Specific Approach to the Analysis of Metabolic Changes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Claire; Ipsen, Sabine; Brodesser, Susanne; Mourier, Arnaud; Tolnay, Markus; Frank, Stephan; Trifunović, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The majority of metabolic principles are evolutionarily conserved from nematodes to humans. Caenorhabditis elegans has widely accelerated the discovery of new genes important to maintain organismic metabolic homeostasis. Various methods exist to assess the metabolic state in worms, yet they often require large animal numbers and tend to be performed as bulk analyses of whole worm homogenates, thereby largely precluding a detailed studies of metabolic changes in specific worm tissues. Here, we have adapted well-established histochemical methods for the use on C. elegans fresh frozen sections and demonstrate their validity for analyses of morphological and metabolic changes on tissue level in wild type and various mutant strains. We show how the worm presents on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections and demonstrate their usefulness in monitoring and the identification of morphological abnormalities. In addition, we demonstrate how Oil-Red-O staining on frozen worm cross-sections permits quantification of lipid storage, avoiding the artifact-prone fixation and permeabilization procedures of traditional whole-mount protocols. We also adjusted standard enzymatic stains for respiratory chain subunits (NADH, SDH, and COX) to monitor metabolic states of various C. elegans tissues. In summary, the protocols presented here provide technical guidance to obtain robust, reproducible and quantifiable tissue-specific data on worm morphology as well as carbohydrate, lipid and mitochondrial energy metabolism that cannot be obtained through traditional biochemical bulk analyses of worm homogenates. Furthermore, analysis of worm cross-sections overcomes the common problem with quantification in three-dimensional whole-mount specimens. PMID:22162770

  8. The necessity of a theory of biology for tissue engineering: metabolism-repair systems.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Suman; Hunt, C Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Since there is no widely accepted global theory of biology, tissue engineering and bioengineering lack a theoretical understanding of the systems being engineered. By default, tissue engineering operates with a "reductionist" theoretical approach, inherited from traditional engineering of non-living materials. Long term, that approach is inadequate, since it ignores essential aspects of biology. Metabolism-repair systems are a theoretical framework which explicitly represents two "functional" aspects of living organisms: self-repair and self-replication. Since repair and replication are central to tissue engineering, we advance metabolism-repair systems as a potential theoretical framework for tissue engineering. We present an overview of the framework, and indicate directions to pursue for extending it to the context of tissue engineering. We focus on biological networks, both metabolic and cellular, as one such direction. The construction of these networks, in turn, depends on biological protocols. Together these concepts may help point the way to a global theory of biology appropriate for tissue engineering.

  9. Pivotal role of tissue plasminogen activator in the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Mezzasalma, Marco A U; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-02-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy is an important treatment option for major depressive disorders, acute mania, mood disorders with psychotic features, and catatonia. Several hypotheses have been proposed as electroconvulsive therapy's mechanism of action. Our hypothesis involves many converging pathways facilitated by increased synthesis and release of tissue-plasminogen activator. Human and animal experiments have shown that tissue-plasminogen activator participates in many mechanisms of action of electroconvulsive therapy or its animal variant, electroconvulsive stimulus, including improved N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated signaling, activation of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, increased bioavailability of zinc, purinergic release, and increased mobility of dendritic spines. As a result, tissue-plasminogen activator helps promote neurogenesis in limbic structures, modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity, improves cognitive function, and mediates antidepressant effects. Notably, electroconvulsive therapy seems to influence tissue-plasminogen activator metabolism. For example, electroconvulsive stimulus increases the expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65 isoform in γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing neurons, which enhances the release of tissue-plasminogen activator, and the expression of p11, a protein involved in plasminogen and tissue-plasminogen activator assembling. This paper reviews how electroconvulsive therapy correlates with tissue-plasminogen activator. We suggest that interventions aiming at increasing tissue-plasminogen activator levels or its bioavailability - such as daily aerobic exercises together with a carbohydrate-restricted diet, or normalization of homocysteine levels - be evaluated in controlled studies assessing response and remission duration in patients who undergo electroconvulsive therapy.

  10. Parasites, nutrition, immune responses, and biology of metabolic tissues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutritional immunology, immunometabolism, and identification of novel immunotherapeutic targets, are all areas of active investigation in the field of parasitology. This review is focused on the factors contributing to the ability of parasitic helminths to decrease the risk of developing type 1 dia...

  11. Simultaneous recording of eeg and direct current (DC) potential makes it possible to assess functional and metabolic state of nervous tissue.

    PubMed

    Murik, S E; Shapkin, A G

    2004-08-01

    It has been proposed to assess functional and metabolic state of the brain nervous tissue in terms of bioelectrical parameters. Simultaneous recording of the DC potential level and total slow electrical activity of the nervous tissue was performed in the object of study by nonpolarizable Ag/AgCl electrodes with a DC amplifier. The functional and metabolic state of the brain was determined in terms of enhancement or reduction in the total slow electrical activity and positive or negative shifts in the DC potential level.

  12. Bioprinting of Micro-Organ Tissue Analog for Drug Metabolism Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei

    An evolving application of tissue engineering is to develop in vitro 3D cell/tissue models for drug screening and pharmacological study. In order to test in space, these in vitro models are mostly manufactured through micro-fabrication techniques and incorporate living cells with MEMS or microfluidic devices. These cell-integrated microfluidic devices, or referred as microorgans, are effective in furnishing reliable and inexpensive drug metabolism and toxicity studies [1-3]. This paper will present an on-going research collaborated between Drexel University and NASA JSC Radiation Physics Laboratory for applying a direct cell printing technique to freeform fabrication of 3D liver tissue analog in drug metabolism study. The paper will discuss modeling, design, and solid freeform fabrication of micro-fluidic flow patterns and bioprinting of 3D micro-liver chamber that biomimics liver physiological microenvironment for enhanced drug metabolization. Technical details to address bioprinting of 3D liver tissue analog, integration with a microfluidic device, and basic drug metabolism study for NASA's interests will presented. 1. Holtorf H. Leslie J. Chang R, Nam J, Culbertson C, Sun W, Gonda S, "Development of a Three-Dimensional Tissue-on-a-Chip Micro-Organ Device for Pharmacokinetic Analysis", the 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology, Washington, DC, December 1-5, 2007. 2. Chang, R., Nam, J., Culbertson C., Holtorf, H., Jeevarajan, A., Gonda, S. and Sun, W., "Bio-printing and Modeling of Flow Patterns for Cell Encapsulated 3D Liver Chambers For Pharmacokinetic Study", TERMIS North America 2007 Conference and Exposition, Westin Harbour Castle, Toronto, Canada, June 13-16, 2007. 3.Starly, B., Chang, R., Sun, W., Culbertson, C., Holtorf, H. and Gonda, S., "Bioprinted Tissue-on-chip Application for Pharmacokinetic Studies", Proceedings of World Congress on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, April 24-27, 2006.

  13. METABOLISM AND TISSUE DOSIMETRY OF PENTAVALENT AND TRIVALENT MONOMETHYLATED ARSENIC AFTER ORAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    METABOLISM AND TISSUE DOSIMETRY OF PENTAVALENT AND TRIVALENT MONOMETHYLATED ARSENIC AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION IN MICE
    M F Hughes1, V Devesa2, B M Adair1, M Styblo2, E M Kenyon1, and D J Thomas1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2UNC-CH, CEMALB, Chapel Hi...

  14. A General Map of Iron Metabolism and Tissue-specific Subnetworks

    PubMed Central

    Hower, Valerie; Mendes, Pedro; Torti, Frank M.; Laubenbacher, Reinhard; Akman, Steven; Shulaev, Vladmir; Torti, Suzy V.

    2009-01-01

    Iron is required for survival of mammalian cells. Recently, understanding of iron metabolism and trafficking has increased dramatically, revealing a complex, interacting network largely unknown just a few years ago. This provides an excellent model for systems biology development and analysis. The first step in such an analysis is the construction of a structural network of iron metabolism, which we present here. This network was created using CellDesigner version 3.5.2 and includes reactions occurring in mammalian cells of numerous tissue types. The iron metabolic network contains 151 chemical species and 107 reactions and transport steps. Starting from this general model, we construct iron networks for specific tissues and cells that are fundamental to maintaining body iron homeostasis. We include subnetworks for cells of the intestine and liver, tissues important in iron uptake and storage, respectively; as well as the reticulocyte and macrophage, key cells in iron utilization and recycling. The addition of kinetic information to our structural network will permit the simulation of iron metabolism in different tissues as well as in health and disease. PMID:19381358

  15. Fatty acid metabolism and deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot finished cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pasture finishing versus high-concentrate finishing, over time, on fatty acid metabolism in Angus crossbred (n = 24) steers. Ruminal fluid, serum, and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained on d 0, 28, 84, and 140. Pasture forages and diet ingr...

  16. Impact of brown adipose tissue on body fatness and glucose metabolism in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, M; Yoneshiro, T; Aita, S; Kameya, T; Sugie, H; Saito, M

    2014-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is involved in the regulation of whole-body energy expenditure and adiposity. Some clinical studies have reported an association between BAT and blood glucose in humans. To examine the impact of BAT on glucose metabolism, independent of that of body fatness, age and sex in healthy adult humans. Two hundred and sixty healthy volunteers (184 males and 76 females, 20-72 years old) underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and computed tomography after 2 h of cold exposure to assess maximal BAT activity. Blood parameters including glucose, HbA1c and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured by conventional methods, and body fatness was estimated from body mass index (BMI), body fat mass and abdominal fat area. The impact of BAT on body fatness and blood parameters was determined by logistic regression with the use of univariate and multivariate models. Cold-activated BAT was detected in 125 (48%) out of 260 subjects. When compared with subjects without detectable BAT, those with detectable BAT were younger and showed lower adiposity-related parameters such as the BMI, body fat mass and abdominal fat area. Although blood parameters were within the normal range in the two subject groups, HbA1c, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in the BAT-positive group. Blood glucose also tended to be lower in the BAT-positive group. Logistic regression demonstrated that BAT, in addition to age and sex, was independently associated with BMI, body fat mass, and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas. For blood parameters, multivariate analysis after adjustment for age, sex and body fatness revealed that BAT was a significantly independent determinant of glucose and HbA1c. BAT, independent of age, sex and body fatness, has a significant impact on glucose metabolism in adult healthy humans.

  17. Multiphoton fluorescence imaging of NADH to quantify metabolic changes in epileptic tissue in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Thomas H.; Zinter, Joseph; Spencer, Dennis D.; Williamson, Anne; Levene, Michael J.

    2007-02-01

    A powerful advantage of multiphoton microscopy is its ability to image endogenous fluorophores such as the ubiquitous coenzyme NADH in discrete cellular populations. NADH is integral in both oxidative and non-oxidative cellular metabolism. NADH loses fluorescence upon oxidation to NAD +; thus changes in NADH fluorescence can be used to monitor metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that hypo metabolic astrocytes play an important role in cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Current theories suggest this may be due to defective and/or a reduced number of mitochondria or dysfunction of the neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling. Measuring NADH fluorescence changes following chemical stimulation enables the quantification of the cellular distribution of metabolic anomalies in epileptic brain tissue compared to healthy tissue. We present what we believe to be the first multiphoton microscopy images of NADH from the human brain. We also present images of NADH fluorescence from the hippocampus of the kainate-treated rat TLE model. In some experiments, human and rat astrocytes were selectively labeled with the fluorescent dye sulforhodamine 101 (SR101). Our results demonstrate that multiphoton microscopy is a powerful tool for assaying the metabolic pathologies associated with temporal lobe epilepsy in humans and in rodent models.

  18. The Effect of Marine Derived n-3 Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Function

    PubMed Central

    Todorčević, Marijana; Hodson, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue function is key determinant of metabolic health, with specific nutrients being suggested to play a role in tissue metabolism. One such group of nutrients are the n-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). Results from studies where human, animal and cellular models have been utilised to investigate the effects of EPA and/or DHA on white adipose tissue/adipocytes suggest anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. We review here evidence for these effects, specifically focusing on studies that provide some insight into metabolic pathways or processes. Of note, limited work has been undertaken investigating the effects of EPA and DHA on white adipose tissue in humans whilst more work has been undertaken using animal and cellular models. Taken together it would appear that EPA and DHA have a positive effect on lowering lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis and decreasing inflammation, all of which would be beneficial for adipose tissue biology. What remains to be elucidated is the duration and dose required to see a favourable effect of EPA and DHA in vivo in humans, across a range of adiposity. PMID:26729182

  19. Epicardial adipose tissue is associated with visceral fat, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fernández Muñoz, María J; Basurto Acevedo, Lourdes; Córdova Pérez, Nydia; Vázquez Martínez, Ana Laura; Tepach Gutiérrez, Nayive; Vega García, Sara; Rocha Cruz, Alberto; Díaz Martínez, Alma; Saucedo García, Renata; Zárate Treviño, Arturo; González Escudero, Eduardo Alberto; Degollado Córdova, José Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has been associated with several obesity-related parameters and with insulin resistance. Echocardiographic assessment of this tissue is an easy and reliable marker of cardiometabolic risk. However, there are insufficient studies on the relationship between epicardial fat and insulin resistance during the postmenopausal period, when cardiovascular risk increases in women. The objective of this study was to examine the association between epicardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, body mass index, and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome. All participants underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram and body composition analysis. A positive correlation was observed between epicardial fat and visceral adipose tissue, body mass index, and waist circumference. The values of these correlations of epicardial fat thickness overlying the aorta-right ventricle were r = 0.505 (P < .003), r = 0.545 (P < .001), and r = 0.515 (P < .003), respectively. Epicardial adipose tissue was higher in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome than in those without this syndrome (mean [standard deviation], 544.2 [122.9] vs 363.6 [162.3] mm(2); P = .03). Epicardial fat thickness measured by echocardiography was associated with visceral adipose tissue and other obesity parameters. Epicardial adipose tissue was higher in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, echocardiographic assessment of epicardial fat may be a simple and reliable marker of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of intrinsic fluorescent signals for characterizing tissue metabolic states in health and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Britton

    1996-04-01

    The large content of mitochondria in metabolizing cells, coupled with intrinsic NADH and flavoprotein signals makes these signals ideal for characterizing tissue metabolic states in health and disease. The first few millimeters of tissue are reached by the fluorescence excitation in the exposed surfaces of the cervix, bladder, rectum and esophagus, etc. Thus, extensive use has been made of fluorescent signals by a large number of investigators for tumor diagnosis from an empirical standpoint where the fluorescent signals are generally diminished in precancerous and cancerous tissue. This article reviews the biochemical basis for the fluorescent signals and points to a 'gold standard' for fluorescent signal examination involving freeze trapping and low temperature two- or three-dimensional high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy.

  1. Characterisation of tissue-type metabolic content in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: a magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Ian; Thrippleton, Michael J; Bastin, Mark E; Mollison, Daisy; Dickie, David A; Chappell, Francesca M; Semple, Scott I K; Cooper, Annette; Pavitt, Sue; Giovannoni, Gavin; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Solanky, Bhavana S; Weir, Christopher J; Stallard, Nigel; Hawkins, Clive; Sharrack, Basil; Chataway, Jeremy; Connick, Peter; Chandran, Siddharthan

    2018-05-30

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy yields metabolic information and has proved to be a useful addition to structural imaging in neurological diseases. We applied short-echo time Spectroscopic Imaging in a cohort of 42 patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Linear modelling with respect to brain tissue type yielded metabolite levels that were significantly different in white matter lesions compared with normal-appearing white matter, suggestive of higher myelin turnover (higher choline), higher metabolic rate (higher creatine) and increased glial activity (higher myo-inositol) within the lesions. These findings suggest that the lesions have ongoing cellular activity that is not consistent with the usual assumption of 'chronic' lesions in SPMS, and may represent a target for repair therapies.

  2. Subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue is responsive to, but dispensable for, the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Peppler, Willem T; Townsend, Logan K; Knuth, Carly M; Foster, Michelle T; Wright, David C

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training has robust effects on subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), characterized by a shift to a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like phenotype. Consistent with this, transplantation of exercise-trained iWAT into sedentary rodents activates thermogenesis and improves glucose homeostasis, suggesting that iWAT metabolism may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. However, it is yet to be determined if adaptations in iWAT are necessary for the beneficial systemic effects of exercise. To test this, male C57BL/6 mice were provided access to voluntary wheel running (VWR) or remained as a cage control (SED) for 11 nights after iWAT removal via lipectomy (LIPX) or SHAM surgery. We found that SHAM and LIPX mice with access to VWR ran similar distances and had comparable reductions in body mass, increased food intake, and increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Further, VWR improved indexes of glucose homeostasis and insulin tolerance in both SHAM and LIPX mice. The lack of effect of LIPX in the response to VWR was not explained by compensatory increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis in skeletal muscle, epididymal white adipose tissue, or interscapular brown adipose tissue. Together, these data demonstrate that mice with and without iWAT have comparable adaptations to VWR, suggesting that iWAT may be dispensable for the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

  3. Neuropeptide Y acts directly in the periphery on fat tissue and mediates stress-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Lydia E; Kitlinska, Joanna B; Tilan, Jason U; Li, Lijun; Baker, Stephen B; Johnson, Michael D; Lee, Edward W; Burnett, Mary Susan; Fricke, Stanley T; Kvetnansky, Richard; Herzog, Herbert; Zukowska, Zofia

    2007-07-01

    The relationship between stress and obesity remains elusive. In response to stress, some people lose weight, whereas others gain. Here we report that stress exaggerates diet-induced obesity through a peripheral mechanism in the abdominal white adipose tissue that is mediated by neuropeptide Y (NPY). Stressors such as exposure to cold or aggression lead to the release of NPY from sympathetic nerves, which in turn upregulates NPY and its Y2 receptors (NPY2R) in a glucocorticoid-dependent manner in the abdominal fat. This positive feedback response by NPY leads to the growth of abdominal fat. Release of NPY and activation of NPY2R stimulates fat angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration, and the proliferation and differentiation of new adipocytes, resulting in abdominal obesity and a metabolic syndrome-like condition. NPY, like stress, stimulates mouse and human fat growth, whereas pharmacological inhibition or fat-targeted knockdown of NPY2R is anti-angiogenic and anti-adipogenic, while reducing abdominal obesity and metabolic abnormalities. Thus, manipulations of NPY2R activity within fat tissue offer new ways to remodel fat and treat obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Metabolite and transcriptome analysis during fasting suggest a role for the p53-Ddit4 axis in major metabolic tissues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fasting induces specific molecular and metabolic adaptions in most organisms. In biomedical research fasting is used in metabolic studies to synchronize nutritional states of study subjects. Because there is a lack of standardization for this procedure, we need a deeper understanding of the dynamics and the molecular mechanisms in fasting. Results We investigated the dynamic changes of liver gene expression and serum parameters of mice at several time points during a 48 hour fasting experiment and then focused on the global gene expression changes in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) as well as on pathways common to WAT, liver, and skeletal muscle. This approach produced several intriguing insights: (i) rather than a sequential activation of biochemical pathways in fasted liver, as current knowledge dictates, our data indicates a concerted parallel response; (ii) this first characterization of the transcriptome signature of WAT of fasted mice reveals a remarkable activation of components of the transcription apparatus; (iii) most importantly, our bioinformatic analyses indicate p53 as central node in the regulation of fasting in major metabolic tissues; and (iv) forced expression of Ddit4, a fasting-regulated p53 target gene, is sufficient to augment lipolysis in cultured adipocytes. Conclusions In summary, this combination of focused and global profiling approaches provides a comprehensive molecular characterization of the processes operating during fasting in mice and suggests a role for p53, and its downstream target Ddit4, as novel components in the transcriptional response to food deprivation. PMID:24191950

  5. Expression of connective tissue growth factor in the livers of non-viral hepatocellular carcinoma patients with metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Akahoshi, Keiichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Mogushi, Kaoru; Shimada, Shu; Matsumura, Satoshi; Akiyama, Yoshimitsu; Aihara, Arihiro; Mitsunori, Yusuke; Ban, Daisuke; Ochiai, Takanori; Kudo, Atsushi; Arii, Shigeki; Tanabe, Minoru

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with metabolic risk factors, such as diabetes and obesity, has been increasing. However, the underlying mechanism that links these diseases remains unclear. We performed genome-wide expression analysis of human liver tissues of non-viral HCC patients with or without metabolic risk factors. The upregulated genes that associated with diabetes and obesity were investigated by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and immunohistochemistry of human liver tissues was performed. Among the upregulated genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression was induced to a greater extent by combined glucose and insulin administration to human hepatoma cells. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed upregulation of a chemokine network in CTGF-overexpressing hepatoma cells, which displayed an increased ability to induce in vitro activation of macrophages, and in vivo infiltration of liver macrophages. Immunohistochemistry of human liver tissues validated the correlations between CTGF expression and diabetes or obesity as well as activation of liver macrophages in patients with non-viral HCC. Recurrence-free survival was significantly poorer in the CTGF-positive patients compared with the CTGF-negative patients (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis determined that CTGF expression (HR 2.361; 95 % CI 1.195-4.665; p = 0.013) and vascular invasion (HR 2.367; 95 % CI 1.270-4.410; p = 0.007) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence of non-viral HCC. Our data suggest that CTGF could be involved in oncogenic pathways promoting non-viral HCC associated with metabolic risk factors via induction of liver inflammation and is expected to be a novel HCC risk biomarker and potential therapeutic target.

  6. Antiretroviral drug transporters and metabolic enzymes in human testicular tissue: potential contribution to HIV-1 sanctuary site.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiying; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Vyboh, Kishanda; Whyte, Sana-Kay; Sheehan, Nancy L; Brassard, Pierre; Bélanger, Maud; Chomont, Nicolas; Fletcher, Courtney V; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Bendayan, Reina

    2016-07-01

    The testes are a potential viral sanctuary site for HIV-1 infection. Our study aims to provide insight into the expression and localization of key drug transporters and metabolic enzymes relevant to ART in this tissue compartment. We characterized gene and protein expression of 12 representative drug transporters and two metabolic enzymes in testicular tissue samples obtained from uninfected (n = 8) and virally suppressed HIV-1-infected subjects on ART (n = 5) and quantified antiretroviral drug concentrations in plasma and testicular tissues using LC/MS/MS from HIV-1-infected subjects. Our data demonstrate that key ABC drug transporters (permeability glycoprotein, multidrug-resistance protein 1, 2 and 4, and breast cancer resistance protein), solute carrier transporters (organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 2B1, organic anion transporter 1, concentrative nucleoside transporter 1, equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2) and cytochrome P450 metabolic enzymes (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6) previously shown to interact with many commonly used antiretroviral drugs are expressed at the mRNA and protein level in the testes of both subject groups and localize primarily at the blood-testis barrier, with no significant differences between the two groups. Furthermore, we observed that PIs known to be substrates for ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters, displayed variable testicular tissue penetration, with darunavir concentrations falling below therapeutic values. In contrast, the NRTIs emtricitabine, lamivudine and tenofovir displayed favourable tissue penetration, reaching concentrations comparable to plasma levels. We also demonstrated that nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ exhibited higher gene expression in the testicular tissue compared with pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, suggesting a potential regulatory pathway governing drug transporter and metabolic enzyme expression in this tissue

  7. Metabolism and pathophysiology of sodium and chlorine in tissue after neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Koester, L; Knopf, K; Auberger, T

    1994-01-01

    The photon emission of tissue was measured after radiotherapy with various doses of fission neutrons. Spectral analyses of the decay rates resulted in data for the exchange of sodium and chlorine between the irradiated tissue and the whole body. In 12 cases we found that about three fifths of Na and Cl exchange rapidly between the extravascular and vascular liquids with a turnover half-life of 13 +/- 2 min. Slowly exchangeable or non-exchangeable fractions are deposited in the soft tissue. New defined mass exchange rates for Na and Cl amount to an average of 0.8 mval min-1 kg-1 of soft tissue. The turnover of the electrolytes in tissue with large tumours is about twice that in tissues with small metastasis. Depending on dose, radiotherapy led in all cases to distinct variations of the metabolism. A maximum of the exchange of Cl combined with a minimum of Na occurs at about 85 Gy of conventional or at 10 Gy of lead-filtered fission neutron radiation. These results show directly for the first time the local response of the electrolyte metabolism to therapy.

  8. Quantitative real-time optical imaging of the tissue metabolic rate of oxygen consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghijsen, Michael; Lentsch, Griffin R.; Gioux, Sylvain; Brenner, Matthew; Durkin, Anthony J.; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2018-03-01

    The tissue metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (tMRO2) is a clinically relevant marker for a number of pathologies including cancer and arterial occlusive disease. We present and validate a noncontact method for quantitatively mapping tMRO2 over a wide, scalable field of view at 16 frames / s. We achieve this by developing a dual-wavelength, near-infrared coherent spatial frequency-domain imaging (cSFDI) system to calculate tissue optical properties (i.e., absorption, μa, and reduced scattering, μs‧, parameters) as well as the speckle flow index (SFI) at every pixel. Images of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration ( [ HbO2 ] and [HHb]) are calculated from optical properties and combined with SFI to calculate tMRO2. We validate the system using a series of yeast-hemoglobin tissue-simulating phantoms and conduct in vivo tests in humans using arterial occlusions that demonstrate sensitivity to tissue metabolic oxygen debt and its repayment. Finally, we image the impact of cyanide exposure and toxicity reversal in an in vivo rabbit model showing clear instances of mitochondrial uncoupling and significantly diminished tMRO2. We conclude that dual-wavelength cSFDI provides rapid, quantitative, wide-field mapping of tMRO2 that can reveal unique spatial and temporal dynamics relevant to tissue pathology and viability.

  9. Hyperspectral imaging of endogenous fluorescent metabolic molecules to identify pain states in central nervous system tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staikopoulos, Vasiliki; Gosnell, Martin E.; Anwer, Ayad G.; Mustafa, Sanam; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-12-01

    Fluorescence-based bio-imaging methods have been extensively used to identify molecular changes occurring in biological samples in various pathological adaptations. Auto-fluorescence generated by endogenous fluorescent molecules within these samples can interfere with signal to background noise making positive antibody based fluorescent staining difficult to resolve. Hyperspectral imaging uses spectral and spatial imaging information for target detection and classification, and can be used to resolve changes in endogenous fluorescent molecules such as flavins, bound and free NADH and retinoids that are involved in cell metabolism. Hyperspectral auto-fluorescence imaging of spinal cord slices was used in this study to detect metabolic differences within pain processing regions of non-pain versus sciatic chronic constriction injury (CCI) animals, an established animal model of peripheral neuropathy. By using an endogenous source of contrast, subtle metabolic variations were detected between tissue samples, making it possible to distinguish between animals from non-injured and injured groups. Tissue maps of native fluorophores, flavins, bound and free NADH and retinoids unveiled subtle metabolic signatures and helped uncover significant tissue regions with compromised mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging provides a new non-invasive method to investigate central changes of peripheral neuropathic injury and other neurodegenerative disease models, and paves the way for novel cellular characterisation in health, disease and during treatment, with proper account of intrinsic cellular heterogeneity.

  10. Self-organized energetic model for collective activity on animal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, Michelle C. Varela; Macedo-Filho, Antonio; Dos Santos Lima, Gustavo Zampier; Corso, Gilberto

    We construct a self-organized critical (SOC) model to explain spontaneous collective activity in animal tissue without the necessity of a muscular or a central control nervous system. Our prototype model is an epithelial cuboid tissue formed by a single layer of cells as the internal digestive cavity of primitive animals. The tissue is composed by cells that absorb nutrients and store energy, with probability p, to participate in a collective tissue activity. Each cell can be in two states: at high energy and able to became active or at low metabolic energy and remain at rest. Any cell can spontaneously, with a very low probability, spark a collective activity across its neighbors that share a minimal energy. Cells participating in tissue activity consume all their energy. A power-law relation P(s)∝sγ for the probability of having a collective activity with s cells is observed. By construction this model is analogue to the forest fire SOC model. Our approach produces naturally a critical state for the activity in animal tissue, besides it explains self-sustained activity in a living animal tissue without feedback control.

  11. Comparative tissue transcriptomics highlights dynamic differences among tissues but conserved metabolic transcript prioritization in preparation for arousal from torpor.

    PubMed

    Bogren, Lori K; Grabek, Katharine R; Barsh, Gregory S; Martin, Sandra L

    2017-07-01

    During the hibernation season, 13-lined ground squirrels spend days to weeks in torpor with body temperatures near freezing then spontaneously rewarm. The molecular drivers of the drastic physiological changes that orchestrate and permit torpor are not well understood. Although transcription effectively ceases at the low body temperatures of torpor, previous work has demonstrated that some transcripts are protected from bulk degradation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), consistent with the importance of their protein products for metabolic heat generation during arousal from torpor. We examined the transcriptome of skeletal muscle, heart, and liver to determine the patterns of differentially expressed genes in these tissues, and whether, like BAT, a subset of these were relatively increased during torpor. EDGE-tags were quantified from five distinct physiological states representing the seasonal and torpor-arousal cycles of 13-lined ground squirrels. Supervised clustering on relative transcript abundances with Random Forest separated the two states bracketing prolonged torpor, entrance into and aroused from torpor, in all three tissues. Independent analyses identified 3347, 6784, and 2433 differentially expressed transcripts among all sampling points in heart, skeletal muscle, and liver, respectively. There were few differentially expressed genes in common across all three tissues; these were enriched in mitochondrial and apoptotic pathway components. Divisive clustering of these data revealed unique cohorts of transcripts that increased across the torpor bout in each tissue with patterns reflecting various combinations of cycling within and between seasons as well as between torpor and arousal. Transcripts that increased across the torpor bout were likewise tissue specific. These data shed new light on the biochemical pathways that alter in concert with hibernation phenotype and provide a rich resource for further hypothesis-based studies.

  12. The Effects of Insulin Resistance on Individual Tissues: An Application of a Mathematical Model of Metabolism in Humans.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Taliesin; Wattis, Jonathan A D; King, John R; MacDonald, Ian A; Mazzatti, Dawn J

    2016-06-01

    Whilst the human body expends energy constantly, the human diet consists of a mix of carbohydrates and fats delivered in a discontinuous manner. To deal with this sporadic supply of energy, there are transport, storage and utilisation mechanisms, for both carbohydrates and fats, around all tissues of the body. Insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes and obesity are characterised by reduced efficiency of these mechanisms. Exactly how these insulin-resistant states develop, for example whether there is an order in which tissues become insulin resistant, is an active area of research with the hope of gaining a better overall understanding of insulin resistance. In this paper, we use a previously derived system of 12 first-order coupled differential equations that describe the transport between, and storage in, different tissues of the human body. We briefly revisit the derivation of the model before parametrising the model to account for insulin resistance. We then solve the model numerically, separately simulating each individual tissue as insulin resistant, and discuss and compare these results, drawing three main conclusions. The implications of these results are in accordance with biological intuition. First, insulin resistance in a tissue creates a knock-on effect on the other tissues in the body, whereby they attempt to compensate for the reduced efficiency of the insulin-resistant tissue. Second, insulin resistance causes a fatty liver, and the insulin resistance of tissues other than the liver can cause fat to accumulate in the liver. Finally, although insulin resistance in individual tissues can cause slightly reduced skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility, it is when the whole body is insulin resistant that the biggest effect on skeletal muscle flexibility is seen.

  13. Differential ammonia metabolism in Aedes aegypti fat body and midgut tissues

    PubMed Central

    Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Zhang, Quigfen; Thorson, Kelsey; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Miesfeld, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand at the tissue level how Aedes aegypti copes with toxic ammonia concentrations that result from the rapid metabolism of blood meal proteins, we investigated the incorporation of 15N from 15NH4Cl into amino acids using an in vitro tissue culture system. Fat body or midgut tissues from female mosquitoes were incubated in an Aedes saline solution supplemented with glucose and 15NH4Cl for 10–40 minutes. The media was then mixed with deuterium-labeled amino acids, dried and derivatized. The 15N-labeled and unlabeled amino acids in each sample were quantified by mass spectrometry techniques. The results demonstrate that both tissues efficiently incorporate ammonia into amino acids, however, the specific metabolic pathways are distinct. In the fat body, the 15N from 15NH4Cl is first incorporated into the amide side chain of Gln and then into the amino group of Gln, Glu, Ala and Pro. This process mainly occurs via the glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GltS) pathway. In contrast, 15N in midgut is first incorporated into the amino group of Glu and Ala, and then into the amide side chain of Gln. Interestingly, our data show that the GS/GltS pathway is not functional in the midgut. Instead, midgut cells detoxify ammonia by glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and GS. These data provide new insights into ammonia metabolism in A. aegypti mosquitoes. PMID:20206632

  14. Effects of type 5-phosphodiesterase inhibition on energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in human adipose tissue ex vivo.

    PubMed

    De Toni, L; Strapazzon, G; Gianesello, L; Caretta, N; Pilon, C; Bruttocao, A; Foresta, C

    2011-11-01

    An excess of adipose tissue (AT) in obese individuals is linked to increased cardiovascular risk and mitochondria have been shown to be defective in the muscle and AT of patients with metabolic disorders such as obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a role in mitochondrial biogenesis through cyclic-GMP (cGMP). AT harbors the whole molecular signaling pathway of NO, together with type 5-phosphodiesterase (PDE- 5), the main cGMP catabolising enzyme. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the modulation of NO pathway, through PDE-5 inhibition, on energy metabolism and mitochondria biogenesis in human omental AT. Cultured human omental AT was stimulated with PDE-5 inhibitor, vardenafil, at different concentration for 24 and 72 h. Analysis of the expression of both key-regulator genes of adipocyte metabolism and mitochondria-biogenesis markers was performed. We found an increased gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), adiponectin, and proliferator- activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) after a 24-h stimulation with vardenafil at the lowest concentration employed compared to controls (p<0.05). After 72 h of stimulation, a significant increase of mitochondrial DNA was found compared to control samples (p<0.05). Our data suggest that PDE-5 inhibition could have an impact on mitochondrial content of human AT suggesting a positive effect on energy metabolism and adding new elements in the comprehension of AT pathophysiology.

  15. Metabolic benefits of inhibition of p38α in white adipose tissue in obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengjie; Cao, Hongchao; Li, Yan; Jing, Yanyan; Liu, Shengnan; Ye, Cheng; Wang, Hui; Yu, Shuxian; Peng, Chengyuan; Hui, Lijian; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Haibing; Guo, Feifan; Zhai, Qiwei; Wang, Hui; Huang, Ruimin; Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Jingjing; Liu, Wei; Ying, Hao

    2018-05-01

    p38 has long been known as a central mediator of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in brown adipocytes, which positively regulate the transcription of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). However, the physiological role of p38 in adipose tissues, especially the white adipose tissue (WAT), is largely unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking p38α in adipose tissues display a lean phenotype, improved metabolism, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, ablation of p38α causes minimal effects on brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult mice, as evident from undetectable changes in UCP-1 expression, mitochondrial function, body temperature (BT), and energy expenditure. In contrast, genetic ablation of p38α in adipose tissues not only markedly facilitates the browning in WAT upon cold stress but also prevents diet-induced obesity. Consistently, pharmaceutical inhibition of p38α remarkably enhances the browning of WAT and has metabolic benefits. Furthermore, our data suggest that p38α deficiency promotes white-to-beige adipocyte reprogramming in a cell-autonomous manner. Mechanistically, inhibition of p38α stimulates the UCP-1 transcription through PKA and its downstream cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which form a positive feedback loop that functions to reinforce the white-to-beige phenotypic switch during cold exposure. Together, our study reveals that inhibition of p38α is able to promote WAT browning and confer metabolic benefits. Our study also indicates that p38α in WAT represents an exciting pharmacological target to combat obesity and metabolic diseases.

  16. Is There a Chronic Elevation in Organ-Tissue Sleeping Metabolic Rate in Very Fit Runners?

    PubMed Central

    Midorikawa, Taishi; Tanaka, Shigeho; Ando, Takafumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Masayuki, Konishi; Ohta, Megumi; Torii, Suguru; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the resting metabolic rate of individual organ-tissue in adults with high aerobic fitness is higher than that in untrained adults; in fact, this topic has been debated for years using a two-component model. To address this issue, in the present study, we examined the relationship between the measured sleeping energy expenditure (EE) by using an indirect human calorimeter (IHC) and the calculated resting EE (REE) from organ-tissue mass using magnetic resonance imaging, along with the assumed metabolic rate constants in healthy adults. Seventeen healthy male long-distance runners were recruited and grouped according to the median V·O2peak: very fit group (>60 mL/min/kg; n = 8) and fit group (<60 mL/min/kg; n = 9). Participants performed a graded exercise test for determining V·O2peak; X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging were used to determine organ-tissue mass, and IHC was used to determine sleeping EE. The calculated REE was estimated as the sum of individual organ-tissue masses multiplied by their metabolic rate constants. No significant difference was observed in the measured sleeping EE, calculated REE, and their difference, as well as in the slopes and intercepts of the two regression lines between the groups. Moreover, no significant correlation between V·O2peak and the difference in measured sleeping EE and calculated REE was observed for all subjects. Thus, aerobic endurance training does not result in a chronic elevation in the organ-tissue metabolic rate in cases with V·O2peak of approximately 60 mL/min/kg.

  17. The metabolic disturbances of isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats based on a tissue targeted metabonomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-tao; Jia, Hong-mei; Chang, Xing; Ding, Gang; Zhang, Hong-wu; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2013-11-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality but the precise mechanism of its pathogenesis remains obscure. To achieve the most comprehensive screening of the entire metabolome related to isoproterenol (ISO) induced-MI, we present a tissue targeted metabonomic study using an integrated approach of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Twenty-two metabolites were detected as potential biomarkers related to the formation of MI, and the levels of pantothenic acid (), lysoPC(18:0) (), PC(18:4(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)/18:0) (), taurine (), lysoPC(20:3(8Z,11Z,14Z)) (), threonine (), alanine (), creatine (), phosphocreatine (), glucose 1-phosphate (), glycine (), xanthosine (), creatinine () and glucose () were decreased significantly, while the concentrations of histamine (), L-palmitoylcarnitine (), GSSG (), inosine (), arachidonic acid (), linoelaidic acid (), 3-methylhistamine () and glycylproline () were increased significantly in the MI rats compared with the control group. The identified potential biomarkers were involved in twelve metabolic pathways and achieved the most entire metabolome contributing to the injury of the myocardial tissue. Five pathways, including taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, glycolysis, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and histidine metabolism, were significantly influenced by ISO-treatment according to MetPA analysis and suggested that the most prominent changes included inflammation, interference of calcium dynamics, as well as alterations of energy metabolism in the pathophysiologic process of MI. These findings provided a unique perspective on localized metabolic information of ISO induced-MI, which gave us new insights into the pathogenesis of MI, discovery of targets for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  18. PINK1-Parkin alleviates metabolic stress induced by obesity in adipose tissue and in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chen; Chen, Shihong; Qiao, Jingting; Qing, Li; Wang, Lingshu; He, Tianyi; Wang, Chuan; Liu, Fuqiang; Gong, Lei; Chen, Li; Hou, Xinguo

    2018-04-06

    Mitochondria play an important role in cellular metabolism and are closely related with metabolic stress. Recently, several studies have shown that mitophagy mediated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin may play a critical role in clearing the damaged mitochondria and maintaining the overall balance of intracellular mitochondria in quality and quantity. A previous study showed that PINK1 and Parkin were overexpressed in adipose tissue in obese subjects. However, it is still unclear whether a direct relationship exists between obesity and mitophagy. In this study, we created a high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model and examined the expression of PINK1 and Parkin in adipose tissue using western blot and real-time quantitative PCR. After we confirmed that there is an interesting difference between regular-chow-fed mice and HFD-induced obese mice in the expression of PINK1 and Parkin in vivo, we further tested the expression of PINK1 and Parkin in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in vitro by treating cells with palmitic acid (PA) to induce metabolic stress. To better understand the role of PINK1 and Parkin in metabolic stress, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PINK1 and Parkin followed by PA treatment. Our results showed that under lower concentrations of PA, PINK1 and Parkin can be activated and play a protective role in resisting the harmful effects of PA, including protecting the mitochondrial function and resisting cellular death, while under higher concentrations of PA, the expression of PINK1 and Parkin can be inhibited. These results suggest that PINK1-Parkin can protect mitochondrial function against metabolic stress induced by obesity or PA to a certain degree. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular insights into the role of white adipose tissue in metabolically unhealthy normal weight and metabolically healthy obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Badoud, Flavia; Perreault, Maude; Zulyniak, Michael A; Mutch, David M

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, it is now recognized that a subset of individuals have reduced cardiometabolic risk despite being obese. Paradoxically, a subset of lean individuals is reported to have high risk for cardiometabolic complications. These distinct subgroups of individuals are referred to as metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW) and metabolically healthy obese (MHO). Although the clinical relevance of these subgroups remains debated, evidence shows a critical role for white adipose tissue (WAT) function in the development of these phenotypes. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of our current state of knowledge regarding the molecular and metabolic characteristics of WAT associated with MUNW and MHO. In particular, we discuss the link between different WAT depots, immune cell infiltration, and adipokine production with MUNW and MHO. Furthermore, we also highlight recent molecular insights made with genomic technologies showing that processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and fatty acid β-oxidation differ between these phenotypes. This review provides evidence that WAT function is closely linked with cardiometabolic risk independent of obesity and thus contributes to the development of MUNW and MHO. © FASEB.

  20. Physical activity patterns and metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Methods Participants include 1,994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994–2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Results Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. PMID:25445330

  1. Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein metabolism in whole body and in selected tissues.

    PubMed

    Holecek, M; Muthny, T; Kovarik, M; Sispera, L

    2009-01-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite with protein anabolic effect. The aim of the study was to examine the role of exogenous HMB on leucine and protein metabolism in whole body and selected tissues. Rats were administered by HMB (0.1 g/kg b.w.) or by saline. The parameters of whole-body protein metabolism were evaluated 24 h later using L-[1-14C]leucine and L-[3,4,5-3H]phenylalanine. Changes in proteasome dependent proteolysis and protein synthesis were determined according the "chymotrypsin-like" enzyme activity and labeled leucine and phenylalanine incorporation into the protein. A decrease in leucine clearance and whole-body protein turnover (i.e., a decrease in whole-body proteolysis and protein synthesis) was observed in HMB treated rats. Proteasome-dependent proteolysis decreased significantly in skeletal muscle, changes in heart, liver, jejunum, colon, kidney, and spleen were insignificant. Decrease in protein synthesis was observed in the heart, colon, kidney, and spleen, while an increase was observed in the liver. There were no significant changes in leucine oxidation. We conclude that protein anabolic effect of HMB in skeletal muscle is related to inhibition of proteolysis in proteasome. Alterations in protein synthesis in visceral tissues may affect several important functions and the metabolic status of the whole body.

  2. L-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P < 0.05, for each tissue and enzyme) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively. Arginase I abundance in aorta, heart, and kidney was increased (P < 0.05, for each tissue) in hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P < 0.05, for each tissue). Arginase II was augmented in aorta and kidney (P < 0.05, for each tissue) of hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P < 0.05, for all tissues) in hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P < 0.05) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively, in all organs studied. OAT and proline levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in liver but not in the other tissues. ADC protein levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in all tissues. According to these findings, thyroid hormone treatment positively modulates different l-arginine metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might

  3. l-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats

    PubMed Central

    Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P < 0.05, for each tissue and enzyme) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively. Arginase I abundance in aorta, heart, and kidney was increased (P < 0.05, for each tissue) in hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P < 0.05, for each tissue). Arginase II was augmented in aorta and kidney (P < 0.05, for each tissue) of hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P < 0.05, for all tissues) in hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P < 0.05) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively, in all organs studied. OAT and proline levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in liver but not in the other tissues. ADC protein levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in all tissues. According to these findings, thyroid hormone treatment positively modulates different l-arginine metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might

  4. Effect of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-induced hyperthyroidism on iodothyronine metabolism in the rat: evidence for tissue differences in metabolic responses.

    PubMed

    Chopra, I J; Huang, T S; Hurd, R E; Solomon, D H

    1984-04-01

    We studied the effect of T3-induced hyperthyroidism on the outer ring (5' or 3') monodeiodination of T4 (to T3) and 3',5'-diiodothyronine [3',5'-T2; to 3'-monoiodothyronine (3'-T1)] and on the inner ring (3 or 5) monodeiodination of 3,5-T2 (to 3-T1) by various rat tissues. Weight-matched pairs of male Sprague-Dawley rats were given either saline or T3 (20 micrograms/100 g BW daily) ip for 3 days. The metabolism of the iodothyronines was studied on day 4 in homogenates of the tissues in the presence of 25 mM dithiothreitol. Hyperthyroidism was associated with a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in T4 to T3 monodeiodinating activity in the liver (mean, 95%), kidney (mean, 60%), and heart (mean, 153%), but not in skeletal muscle, small intestine, spleen, testis, cerebral cortex, or cerebellum. The monodeiodinating activity converting 3',5'-T2 to 3'-T1 was greatly increased (P less than 0.05) in the heart (mean, 750%), spleen (mean, 462%), and skeletal muscle (mean, 167%), but not in liver, kidney, small intestine, testis, cerebral cortex, or cerebellum. In the case of liver and kidney, however, there was evidence of an activation of 3',5'-T2 monodeiodinating activity, as suggested by a significant increase in the activity in the absence of added dithiothreitol. The monodeiodination of 3,5-T2 to 3-T1 increased significantly only in the cerebral cortex (mean, 525%) and liver (mean, 69%) and not in any other tissue. The time course of the above-mentioned changes in iodothyronine metabolism was studied in groups of rats (five per group) given T3 (20 micrograms 100 g BW-1 day-1) 6-72 h before death. Significant increases in 3',5'-T2 (to 3'-T1) monodeiodination in the heart and 3,5-T2 (to 3-T1) monodeiodination in the cerebral cortex were evident within 6 h of T3 administration. Changes in T4 to T3 monodeiodinating activity in the kidney and liver, however, did not become statistically significant until 24 and 72 h, respectively. The various effects of T3 on the

  5. Metabolism of 14C-dehydroepiandrosterone in female adipose tissue and venous blood.

    PubMed

    Schindler, A E; Aymar, M

    1975-09-01

    The metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone in female adipose tissue and venous blood in 11 patients was studied by a double isotope method which is described in detail. The main metabolite isolated, identified and quantitated was androstenediol. The conversion rate of dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenediol for adipose tissue ranged between 3.32-14.28% (X = 7.47 +/- 3.34 SD) and for venous blood between 2.88-9.60% (X = 5.84 +/- 1.80 SD). The values found for androstenedione and testostrone did not differ from the control experiments. Oestrone and oestradiol could not be detected. The contribution of the peripheral steroid metabolism to the pool of androgenic steroids is discussed.

  6. Effects of Rosuvastatin on the expression of the genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in rats: adaptive responses by extrahepatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Yasin; Haghjoo, Amir Ghorbani; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Nemati, Mahboob; Bargahi, Nasrin

    2018-06-30

    Statins mostly target the liver; therefore, increase in the synthesis of cholesterol by extra-hepatic tissues and then transferring this cholesterol to the liver can be regarded as adaptive responses by these tissues. In addition to cholesterol, these adaptive responses can increase isoprenoid units as the byproducts of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway; isoprenoids play a key role in regulating cell signaling pathways and cancer development. Thus, there is a primary need for in vivo investigation of the effects of statins on the cholesterol metabolism in the extra-hepatic tissues. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (n = 9) and treatment (n = 9) groups. The treatment group was orally given 10 mg/kg/day of Rosuvastatin for 6 weeks. Then, serum lipid profile, expression levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), ABCA1, ABCG1 and ApoA1, and activity of HMGCR were measured in the liver, intestine and adipose tissues. Rosuvastatin significantly reduced total cholesterol and LDL-C. The expression levels of ABCA1, ABCG1, and ApoA1 in the liver and HMGCR in both liver and intestine were significantly increased in the Rosuvastatin treated-group. However, in the intestine, there were no significant differences in the expression levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1 between the study groups. Rosuvastatin had no effect on the adipose tissue. The HMGCR activity was significantly increased in the liver and intestine of the Rosuvastatin-treated group. In spite of the adipose tissue, the intestine efficiently responses to the reduced levels of cholesterol and increases its cholesterogenesis capacity. However, adipose tissue seems to play a small role in correcting cholesterol deficiency during the course of statin therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Lactococcus lactis Metabolism and Gene Expression during Growth on Plant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been isolated from living, harvested, and fermented plant materials; however, the adaptations these bacteria possess for growth on plant tissues are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated plant habitat-specific traits of Lactococcus lactis during growth in an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue lysate (ATL). L. lactis KF147, a strain originally isolated from plants, exhibited a higher growth rate and reached 7.9-fold-greater cell densities during growth in ATL than the dairy-associated strain L. lactis IL1403. Transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) of KF147 identified 853 induced and 264 repressed genes during growth in ATL compared to that in GM17 laboratory culture medium. Genes induced in ATL included those involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and a total of 140 carbohydrate transport and metabolism genes, many of which are involved in xylose, arabinose, cellobiose, and hemicellulose metabolism. The induction of those genes corresponded with L. lactis KF147 nutrient consumption and production of metabolic end products in ATL as measured by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) untargeted metabolomic profiling. To assess the importance of specific plant-inducible genes for L. lactis growth in ATL, xylose metabolism was targeted for gene knockout mutagenesis. Wild-type L. lactis strain KF147 but not an xylA deletion mutant was able to grow using xylose as the sole carbon source. However, both strains grew to similarly high levels in ATL, indicating redundancy in L. lactis carbohydrate metabolism on plant tissues. These findings show that certain strains of L. lactis are well adapted for growth on plants and possess specific traits relevant for plant-based food, fuel, and feed fermentations. PMID:25384484

  8. Evidence for metabolic activity of airborne bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatigny, M. A.; Wolochow, H.

    1974-01-01

    Aerosols of the bacterium Serratia marcescens, and of uniformly labeled C-14 glucose were produced simultaneously and mixed in tubing leading to an aerosol chamber. During a subsequent period of about 5 hrs, carbon dioxide was produced metabolically within the chamber, and labeled material incorporated within the suspended particles first increased then decreased. This constitutes the first direct evidence of microbial metabolism of bacteria suspended in the air.

  9. Differential Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Nitrogen Metabolism of Maize Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Loyola-Vargas, Victor Manuel; de Jimenez, Estela Sanchez

    1984-01-01

    Both calli and plantlets of maize (Zea mays L. var Tuxpeño 1) were exposed to specific nitrogen sources, and the aminative (NADH) and deaminative (NAD+) glutamate dehydrogenase activities were measured at various periods of time in homogenates of calli, roots, and leaves. A differential effect of the nitrogen sources on the tissues tested was observed. In callus tissue, glutamate, ammonium, and urea inhibited glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. The amination and deamination reactions also showed different ratios of activity under different nitrogen sources. In roots, ammonium and glutamine produced an increase in GDH-NADH activity whereas the same metabolites were inhibitory of this activity in leaves. These data suggest the presence of isoenzymes or conformers of GDH, specific for each tissue, whose activities vary depending on the nutritional requirements of the tissue and the state of differentiation. PMID:16663876

  10. Recent Updates on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ Agonists for the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Ajmer S; Beniwal, Meenu; Pandita, Deepti; Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Lather, Viney

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a disorder described by reduced insulin sensitivity, overweight, hyperlipidaemia, high blood pressure and myocardial disorders, mainly due to high fat diet and lack of physical activity. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are type II nuclear hormone receptors that regulate a number of processes in living systems, such as metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids, growth and differentiation of cell, and inflammatory reactions. Alpha, gamma and delta are the three distinct isoforms of PPAR. The stimulation of PPARδ alters body's energy fuel preference from glucose to fat. The PPARδ isoform is expressed ubiquitously in all tissues, especially in those tissues which involved in metabolism of lipids like adipose tissue, liver, kidney, and muscle. Currently, PPARδ is an emerging therapeutic target for the pharmacological therapy of disorders associated with metabolic syndrome. Several PPARδ selective agonists had been reported in last ten years, many of them had been advanced into the late phase of clinical trials such as Endurobol (GW501516). However, no PPARδ agonists are yet approved for human use. The present work had been planned to cover wide variety of PPARδ agonists reported till now along with their potential role to tackle various metabolic disorders. The present review has been planned to focus mainly the most popular PPARδ agonists.

  11. A new and highly sensitive method of analyzing metabolic activity using FLIM (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, Michael; Salma, Nunciada; Birngruber, Reginald; Evans, Conor L.; Manstein, Dieter

    2017-02-01

    Traditional assessments of cellular metabolism are often destructive, time consuming and without visual information. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides a highly sensitive, non-invasive, and label-free alternative. This study uses FLIM in combination with two-photon microscopy to investigate pharmacological induced metabolic changes of adipocytes via changes in the fluorescence of the metabolic co-factors NADH and FAD. In agreement with recent publications NADH fluorescence suggests the presence of four distinct lifetimes in cell culture and tissue with two unbound and two protein bound states which show different responses to treatment with metabolic modifiers. We evaluated the effects on NADH fluorescence lifetime after systematic manipulations to change the balance between oxidative and glycolytic metabolism using five pharmacological reagents - Oligomycin, 2-DG, FCCP, Rotenone, and Glucose - which interact with different parts of the metabolic pathway. We established several ratios between the four distinct lifetimes of NADH after treatment and compared the results to oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate. We demonstrated, for the first time, a correlation between the two unbound fluorescence lifetimes components and glycolytic and oxidative metabolic activity with a significant higher sensitivity compared to the commonly used free-to-bound ratio of NADH. Analyzing all four lifetime components of NADH has the potential to become a powerful tool to evaluate metabolic activity of adipocytes with subcellular resolution.

  12. [Positron emission tomographic evaluations on hemodynamics and glucose metabolism of brain tumors and perifocal edematous tissues].

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, N; Hino, A; Imahori, Y; Tenjin, H; Yano, I; Yoshino, E; Hirakawa, K; Yamashita, M; Oki, F; Nakahashi, H

    1989-03-01

    Blood flow and glucose metabolism of the tumors and perifocal edematous tissues were evaluated using positron emission tomography (PET). Thirty-one brain tumor cases were investigated 12 non glial tumors (9 meningiomas and 3 metastatic tumors) and 19 gliomas (these were classified in 5 astrocytomas, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas and 7 glioblastomas, according to the malignancy). The diagnosis were confirmed pathologically in 30 cases. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were measured by O-15 labeled gases inhalation methods. Cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMFglu) were measured by F-18 Deoxyglucose intravenous injection method and calculated by Hutchins's formula. The rate constant (ks) and lumped constant (LC) used in this study were the same as those published by Phelps et al. in 1979. The blood flow and glucose metabolic rates of tumors were measured by the same methods. The results were as follows: 1) Meningiomas showed very high blood flow and blood volume with a wide range. The OEF and metabolic rate for glucose (MRglu) values were very low. 2) Metastatic tumors showed the low values of blood flow, metabolic rate for oxygen (MRO2) and OEF. 3) The blood flow and MRglu values on gliomas were varied with no significant differences between the three subgroups. On the other hands, as the malignancy of the glioma increased, a statistically significant increase in blood volume and a decrease in OEF were noted. 4) The OEF values from the various types of tumors studied were significantly lower than those obtained from the normal tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Adipose tissue metabolic and inflammatory responses to a mixed meal in lean, overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Travers, Rebecca L; Motta, Alexandre C; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-02-01

    Most of what we know about adipose tissue is restricted to observations derived after an overnight fast. However, humans spend the majority of waking hours in a postprandial (fed) state, and it is unclear whether increasing adiposity impacts adipose tissue responses to feeding. The aim of this research was to investigate postprandial responses in adipose tissue across varying degrees of adiposity. Thirty males aged 35-55 years with waist circumference 81-118 cm were divided equally into groups categorized as either lean, overweight or obese. Participants consumed a meal and insulinaemic, glycaemic and lipidaemic responses were monitored over 6 h. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained at baseline and after 6 h to examine changes in gene expression and adipose tissue secretion of various adipokines. Following consumption of the meal, insulin and glucose responses were higher with increased adiposity (total AUC effects of group; p = 0.058 and p = 0.027, respectively). At 6 h, significant time effects reflected increases in IL-6 (F = 14.7, p = 0.001) and MCP-1 (F = 10.7, p = 0.003) and reduction in IRS2 adipose tissue gene expression (F = 24.6, p < 0.001), all independent of adiposity. Ex vivo adipokine secretion from adipose tissue explants remained largely unchanged after feeding. Increased systemic measures of postprandial metabolism with greater adiposity do not translate into increased inflammatory responses within adipose tissue. Instead, postprandial adipose tissue changes may represent a normal response to feeding or a (relatively) normalized response with increased adiposity due to either similar net exposure (i.e. per g of adipose) or reduced adipose tissue responsiveness.

  14. Breast carcinoma and the role of iron metabolism. A cytochemical, tissue culture, and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R L; Elliott, M C; Wang, F; Head, J F

    1993-11-30

    Transferrin receptors on proliferating and malignant cells are well documented. Iron is an essential micronutrient for cell growth that plays an important role in energy metabolism and DNA synthesis. Malignant cells requiring more iron modulate a transferrin receptor. Iron-bound transferrin interacts with this receptor, facilitating the transport of iron across the cell membrane. Transferrin is a glycoprotein and is the chief iron transport protein in mammalian blood. The more aggressive the tumor, the higher the transferrin receptor levels and the greater the proliferative index. We have found by cytochemical and ultrastructural studies that ferritin, an iron storage protein, is increased in breast cancer tissue. Anaplastic tumors have higher tissue ferritin levels. Tissue ferritin concentration may be an indirect method of measuring transferrin receptors and thus might be an index of proliferation and a prognostic indicator. Transferrin may be used as a carrier to target toxic therapy selectively to tumor tissue. A platinum transferrin complex (MPTC-63) has been developed and shown to be cytostatic in tissue culture, animal, and human studies. It also sensitizes tissue to agents that produce free radicals, such as adriamycin, and thus is synergistic with other drugs and radiation. Other transferrin complexes and conjugates of gallium, indium, and daunorubicin have also shown growth inhibition in tissue culture and animals. Human studies are in progress. By studying iron metabolism in breast cancer, we may be able to selectively inhibit tumor growth without toxic effects, and with other tumor biologic data be better able to select the stage I patient for adjuvant therapy.

  15. [Coactivators in energy metabolism: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 family].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Chang, Yong-sheng; Fang, Fu-de

    2009-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC1) family is highly expressed in tissues with high energy metabolism. They coactivate transcription factors in regulating genes engaged in processes such as gluconeogenesis, adipose beta-oxydation, lipoprotein synthesis and secretion, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Protein conformation studies demonstrated that they lack DNA binding domains and act as coactivators through physical interaction with transcription factors. PGC1 activity is regulated at transcription level or by multiple covalent chemical modifications such as phosphorylation, methylation and acetylation/deacetylation. Abnormal expression of PGC1 coactivators usually is closely correlated with diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, and arterial and brain neuron necrosis diseases.

  16. Disturbances to neurotransmitter levels and their metabolic enzyme activity in a freshwater planarian exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Li, Mei-Hui; Chen, Jhih-Sheng; Chung, Szu-Yao; Lee, Hui-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Using specific neurobehaviors as endpoints, previous studies suggested that planarian neurotransmission systems could be targets of Cd neurotoxicity. However, direct evidence for disturbed neurotransmission systems by Cd in treated planarians is still lacking. In planarians, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) play critical roles in neuromuscular function, but little is known about their metabolic degradation. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to determine the appearances of DA, 5-HT, and their metabolic products in the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica, characterize the activity of enzymes involved in their metabolism, and investigate the effects of Cd on planarian 5-HTergic and DAergic neurotransmission systems. Only DA, 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were found in planarian tissues. Further enzymatic study revealed the activity of planarian monoamine oxidase (MAO) but not catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). These findings suggest that planarian MAO catalyzes the metabolism of 5-HT into 5-HIAA. However, DA metabolites from the MAO-involved metabolic pathway were not found, which might be due to a lack of COMT activity. Finally, in Cd-treated planarians, tissue levels of 5-HT and DA were decreased and MAO activity altered, suggesting that planarian neurotransmission systems are disturbed following Cd treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Chinese Kale and Global Expression Analysis of Genes Involved in Glucosinolate Metabolism in Multiple Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuanghua; Lei, Jianjun; Chen, Guoju; Chen, Hancai; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming

    2017-01-01

    Chinese kale, a vegetable of the cruciferous family, is a popular crop in southern China and Southeast Asia due to its high glucosinolate content and nutritional qualities. However, there is little research on the molecular genetics and genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism and its regulation in Chinese kale. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the transcriptomes and expression profiles of genes expressed in 11 tissues of Chinese kale. A total of 216 million 150-bp clean reads were generated using RNA-sequencing technology. From the sequences, 98,180 unigenes were assembled for the whole plant, and 49,582~98,423 unigenes were assembled for each tissue. Blast analysis indicated that a total of 80,688 (82.18%) unigenes exhibited similarity to known proteins. The functional annotation and classification tools used in this study suggested that genes principally expressed in Chinese kale, were mostly involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular and molecular functions, the signal transduction, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The expression levels of all unigenes were analyzed in various tissues of Chinese kale. A large number of candidate genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism and its regulation were identified, and the expression patterns of these genes were analyzed. We found that most of the genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were highly expressed in the root, petiole, and in senescent leaves. The expression patterns of ten glucosinolate biosynthetic genes from RNA-seq were validated by quantitative RT-PCR in different tissues. These results provided an initial and global overview of Chinese kale gene functions and expression activities in different tissues. PMID:28228764

  18. Metabolic half-life of somatostatin and peptidase activities are altered in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Weber, S J; Louis, R B; Trombley, L; Bissette, G; Davies, P; Davis, T P

    1992-01-01

    Several reports have described decreased immunoreactive somatostatin levels in specific regions of post-mortem brain tissue from patients diagnosed with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). In an attempt to determine if the metabolism of somatostatin is also altered as a result of SDAT, we examined the regional metabolic half-life of somatostatin-28 (SS-28) and somatostatin-14 (SS-14). The activity of the following peptidases was also determined: neutral endopeptidase E.C. 3.4.24.11; metalloendopeptidase E.C. 3.4.24.15; carboxypeptidase E (E.C. 3.4.17.10); and trypsin-like serine protease. The metabolic half-life of SS-28 was significantly reduced in post-mortem Brodmann Area 22 of SDAT tissue. This decrease in SS-28 metabolic half-life was correlated with a significant increase in trypsin-like serine protease activity in the same SDAT brain region. The formation rate of SS-14 from SS-28 incubated with Brodmann Area 22 homogenates was also increased in SDAT tissues as compared to controls. A regional variation in neutral endopeptidase E.C. 3.4.24.11 was also noted in both controls and SDAT samples. Although postmortem intervals of samples varied significantly, no effect was seen on any biochemical parameter measured. Results from this study provide evidence that a correlation can be made between changes in metabolic half-life somatostatin and alterations in neuropeptidase activities due to SDAT. As these data show alterations in both proteolytic metabolism and peptidase activities, many other biologically active peptide substrates could also be affected in SDAT.

  19. Stem Cell Metabolism in Cancer and Healthy Tissues: Pyruvate in the Limelight

    PubMed Central

    Corbet, Cyril

    2018-01-01

    Normal and cancer stem cells (CSCs) share the remarkable potential to self-renew and differentiate into many distinct cell types. Although most of the stem cells remain under quiescence to maintain their undifferentiated state, they can also undergo cell divisions as required to regulate tissue homeostasis. There is now a growing evidence that cell fate determination from stem cells implies a fine-tuned regulation of their energy balance and metabolic status. Stem cells can shift their metabolic substrate utilization, between glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, during specification and/or differentiation, as well as in order to adapt their microenvironmental niche. Pyruvate appears as a key metabolite since it is at the crossroads of cytoplasmic glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This Review describes how metabolic reprogramming, focusing on pyruvate utilization, drives the fate of normal and CSCs by modulating their capacity for self-renewal, clonal expansion/differentiation, as well as metastatic potential and treatment resistance in cancer. This Review also explores potential therapeutic strategies to restore or manipulate stem cell function through the use of small molecules targeting the pyruvate metabolism. PMID:29403375

  20. Effect of trichloroethylene (TCE) toxicity on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane and oxidative stress in kidney and other rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sheeba; Priyamvada, Shubha; Khan, Sara A; Khan, Wasim; Farooq, Neelam; Khan, Farah; Yusufi, A N K

    2009-07-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, is a major environmental contaminant. Histopathological examinations revealed that TCE caused liver and kidney toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, biochemical mechanism and tissue response to toxic insult are not completely elucidated. We hypothesized that TCE induces oxidative stress to various rat tissues and alters their metabolic functions. Male Wistar rats were given TCE (1000 mg/kg/day) in corn oil orally for 25 d. Blood and tissues were collected and analyzed for various biochemical and enzymatic parameters. TCE administration increased blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase but decreased serum glucose, inorganic phosphate and phospholipids indicating kidney and liver toxicity. Activity of hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase increased in the intestine and liver whereas decreased in renal tissues. Malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase decreased in all tissues whereas increased in medulla. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased but NADP-malic enzyme decreased in all tissues except in medulla. The activity of BBM enzymes decreased but renal Na/Pi transport increased. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities variably declined whereas lipid peroxidation significantly enhanced in all tissues. The present results indicate that TCE caused severe damage to kidney, intestine, liver and brain; altered carbohydrate metabolism and suppressed antioxidant defense system.

  1. Oxygen limitation and tissue metabolic potential of the African fish Barbus neumayeri: roles of native habitat and acclimatization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxygen availability in aquatic habitats is a major environmental factor influencing the ecology, behaviour, and physiology of fishes. This study evaluates the contribution of source population and hypoxic acclimatization of the African fish, Barbus neumayeri, in determining growth and tissue metabolic enzyme activities. Individuals were collected from two sites differing dramatically in concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), Rwembaita Swamp (annual average DO 1.35 mgO2 L-1) and Inlet Stream West (annual average DO 5.58 mgO2 L-1) in Kibale National Park, Uganda, and reciprocally transplanted using a cage experiment in the field, allowing us to maintain individuals under natural conditions of oxygen, food availability, and flow. Fish were maintained under these conditions for four weeks and sampled for growth rate and the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) in four tissues, liver, heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. Results Acclimatization to the low DO site resulted in lower growth rates, lower activities of the aerobic enzyme CCO in heart, and higher activities of the glycolytic enzyme PFK in heart and skeletal muscle. The activity of LDH in liver tissue was correlated with site of origin, being higher in fish collected from a hypoxic habitat, regardless of acclimatization treatment. Conclusions Our results suggest that the influence of site of origin and hypoxic acclimatization in determining enzyme activity differs among enzymes and tissues, but both factors contribute to higher glycolytic capacity and lower aerobic capacity in B. neumayeri under naturally-occurring conditions of oxygen limitation. PMID:21251277

  2. Oxygen limitation and tissue metabolic potential of the African fish Barbus neumayeri: roles of native habitat and acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Mery L; Raynard, Erin L; Rees, Bernard B; Chapman, Lauren J

    2011-01-20

    Oxygen availability in aquatic habitats is a major environmental factor influencing the ecology, behaviour, and physiology of fishes. This study evaluates the contribution of source population and hypoxic acclimatization of the African fish, Barbus neumayeri, in determining growth and tissue metabolic enzyme activities. Individuals were collected from two sites differing dramatically in concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), Rwembaita Swamp (annual average DO 1.35 mgO2 L(-1)) and Inlet Stream West (annual average DO 5.58 mgO2 L(-1)) in Kibale National Park, Uganda, and reciprocally transplanted using a cage experiment in the field, allowing us to maintain individuals under natural conditions of oxygen, food availability, and flow. Fish were maintained under these conditions for four weeks and sampled for growth rate and the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) in four tissues, liver, heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. Acclimatization to the low DO site resulted in lower growth rates, lower activities of the aerobic enzyme CCO in heart, and higher activities of the glycolytic enzyme PFK in heart and skeletal muscle. The activity of LDH in liver tissue was correlated with site of origin, being higher in fish collected from a hypoxic habitat, regardless of acclimatization treatment. Our results suggest that the influence of site of origin and hypoxic acclimatization in determining enzyme activity differs among enzymes and tissues, but both factors contribute to higher glycolytic capacity and lower aerobic capacity in B. neumayeri under naturally-occurring conditions of oxygen limitation.

  3. Alterations of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in ovarian tissues of polycystic ovary syndrome rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Xue, Xinli; Li, Shengxian; Wang, Yuying; Sun, Yun; Liu, Wei; Yin, Huiyong; Tao, Tao

    2018-03-30

    The metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remains poorly characterized in ovarian tissues of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study aimed to explore alterations in the levels of PUFAs and their metabolites in serum and ovarian tissues in a PCOS rat model treated with a high-fat diet and andronate. Levels of PUFAs and their metabolites were measured using gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after the establishment of a PCOS rat model. Only 3 kinds of PUFAs [linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid] were detected in both the circulation and ovarian tissues of the rats, and their concentrations were lower in ovarian tissues than in serum. Moreover, significant differences in the ovarian levels of AA were observed between control, high-fat diet-fed and PCOS rats. The levels of prostaglandins, AA metabolites via the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, in ovarian tissues of the PCOS group were significantly increased compared to those in the controls. Further studies on the mechanism underlying this phenomenon showed a correlation between decreased expression of phosphorylated cytosolic phospholipase A2 (p-cPLA2) and increased mRNA and protein expression of COX2, potentially leading to a deeper understanding of altered AA and prostaglandin levels in ovarian tissues of PCOS rats. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Metabolic pathways in T cell activation and lineage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luís; Lochner, Matthias; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of immunometabolism support the concept that fundamental processes in T cell biology, such as TCR-mediated activation and T helper lineage differentiation, are closely linked to changes in the cellular metabolic programs. Although the major task of the intermediate metabolism is to provide the cell with a constant supply of energy and molecular precursors for the production of biomolecules, the dynamic regulation of metabolic pathways also plays an active role in shaping T cell responses. Key metabolic processes such as glycolysis, fatty acid and mitochondrial metabolism are now recognized as crucial players in T cell activation and differentiation, and their modulation can differentially affect the development of T helper cell lineages. In this review, we describe the diverse metabolic processes that T cells engage during their life cycle from naïve towards effector and memory T cells. We consider in particular how the cellular metabolism may actively support the function of T cells in their different states. Moreover, we discuss how molecular regulators such as mTOR or AMPK link environmental changes to adaptations in the cellular metabolism and elucidate the consequences on T cell differentiation and function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiobesity efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide is associated with peripheral tissue-specific modulation of lipid metabolic regulators.

    PubMed

    Decara, Juan; Arrabal, Sergio; Beiroa, Daniel; Rivera, Patricia; Vargas, Antonio; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Ballesteros, Joan; Dieguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-11-12

    To investigate the role of glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in peripheral lipid metabolism. Both lean and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO) rats were used to compare the peripheral effects of the subcutaneous and repeated administration of the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide on the expression of key regulators involved in lipid metabolism, β-oxidation and thermogenesis in liver, abdominal muscle, and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). We observed that liraglutide reduced caloric intake, body weight, and plasma levels of triglycerides and VLDL in a diet-independent manner. However, changes in liver fat content and the expression of lipid metabolism regulators were produced in a diet and tissue-dependent manner. In lean rats, liraglutide increased the gene/protein expression of elements involved in lipogenesis (ChREBP, Acaca/ACC, Fasn/FAS, Scd1/SCD1, PPARα/γ), β-oxidation (CPT1b), and thermogenesis (Cox4i1, Ucp1/UCP1) in eWAT and muscle, which suggest an increase in fatty-acid flux and utilization to activate energy expenditure. Regarding DIO rats, the specific reduction of liver lipid content by liraglutide was associated with a decreased expression of main elements involved in lipogenesis (phospho-ACC), peroxisomal β-oxidation (ACOX1), and lipid flux/storage (Pparγ/PPARγ) in liver, which suggest a recovery of lipid homeostasis. Interestingly, the muscle of DIO rats treated with liraglutide showed a decreased expression of PPARγ and the thermogenic factor UCP1. These results help us to better understand the peripheral mechanisms regulating lipid metabolism that underlay the effectiveness of GLP-1 analogues for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):600-611, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the scope of the problem of obesity in the United States, noting the health risks associated with being overweight or obese (e.g., gallstones, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and colon cancer); discussing the association of type-II diabetes mellitus with obesity; examining the effects of exercise on metabolic disease; and looking at…

  7. Puberty is an important developmental period for the establishment of adipose tissue mass and metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Holtrup, Brandon; Church, Christopher D; Berry, Ryan; Colman, Laura; Jeffery, Elise; Bober, Jeremy; Rodeheffer, Matthew S

    2017-07-03

    Over the past 2 decades, the incidence of childhood obesity has risen dramatically. This recent rise in childhood obesity is particularly concerning as adults who were obese during childhood develop type II diabetes that is intractable to current forms of treatment compared with individuals who develop obesity in adulthood. While the mechanisms responsible for the exacerbated diabetic phenotype associated with childhood obesity is not clear, it is well known that childhood is an important time period for the establishment of normal white adipose tissue in humans. This association suggests that exposure to obesogenic stimuli during adipose development may have detrimental effects on adipose function and metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we identify the period of development associated with puberty, postnatal days 18-34, as critical for the establishment of normal adipose mass in mice. Exposure of mice to high fat diet only during this time period results in metabolic dysfunction, increased leptin expression, and increased adipocyte size in adulthood in the absence of sustained increased fat mass or body weight. These findings indicate that exposure to obesogenic stimuli during critical developmental periods have prolonged effects on adipose tissue function that may contribute to the exacerbated metabolic dysfunctions associated with childhood obesity.

  8. Inverse association between brown adipose tissue activation and white adipose tissue accumulation in successfully treated pediatric malignancy1234

    PubMed Central

    Chalfant, James S; Smith, Michelle L; Hu, Houchun H; Dorey, Fred J; Goodarzian, Fariba; Fu, Cecilia H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a risk factor for disease, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested to have a protective role against obesity. Objective: We studied whether changes in BAT were related to changes in the amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in children treated for malignancy. Design: We examined the effect of BAT activity on weight, SAT, and VAT in 32 pediatric patients with cancer whose positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) scans at diagnosis showed no BAT activity. Changes in weight, SAT, and VAT from diagnosis to remission for children with metabolically active BAT at disease-free follow-up (BAT+) were compared with those in children without visualized BAT when free of disease (BAT−). Results: Follow-up PET-CT studies (4.7 ± 2.4 mo later) after successful treatment of the cancer showed BAT+ in 19 patients but no active BAT (BAT−) in 13 patients. BAT+ patients, in comparison with BAT− patients, gained significantly less weight (3.3 ± 6.6% compared with 11.0 ± 11.6%; P = 0.02) and had significantly less SAT (18.2 ± 26.5% compared with 67.4 ± 71.7%; P = 0.01) and VAT (22.6 ± 33.5% compared with 131.6 ± 171.8%; P = 0.01) during treatment. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the inverse relations between BAT activation and measures of weight, SAT, and VAT persisted even after age, glucocorticoid treatment, and the season when the PET-CT scans were obtained were accounted for. Conclusion: The activation of BAT in pediatric patients undergoing treatment of malignancy is associated with significantly less adipose accumulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01517581. PMID:22456659

  9. Analytic Models of Oxygen and Nutrient Diffusion, Metabolism Dynamics, and Architecture Optimization in Three-Dimensional Tissue Constructs with Applications and Insights in Cerebral Organoids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion models are important in tissue engineering as they enable an understanding of gas, nutrient, and signaling molecule delivery to cells in cell cultures and tissue constructs. As three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs become larger, more intricate, and more clinically applicable, it will be essential to understand internal dynamics and signaling molecule concentrations throughout the tissue and whether cells are receiving appropriate nutrient delivery. Diffusion characteristics present a significant limitation in many engineered tissues, particularly for avascular tissues and for cells whose viability, differentiation, or function are affected by concentrations of oxygen and nutrients. This article seeks to provide novel analytic solutions for certain cases of steady-state and nonsteady-state diffusion and metabolism in basic 3D construct designs (planar, cylindrical, and spherical forms), solutions that would otherwise require mathematical approximations achieved through numerical methods. This model is applied to cerebral organoids, where it is shown that limitations in diffusion and organoid size can be partially overcome by localizing metabolically active cells to an outer layer in a sphere, a regionalization process that is known to occur through neuroglial precursor migration both in organoids and in early brain development. The given prototypical solutions include a review of metabolic information for many cell types and can be broadly applied to many forms of tissue constructs. This work enables researchers to model oxygen and nutrient delivery to cells, predict cell viability, study dynamics of mass transport in 3D tissue constructs, design constructs with improved diffusion capabilities, and accurately control molecular concentrations in tissue constructs that may be used in studying models of development and disease or for conditioning cells to enhance survival after insults like ischemia or implantation into the body, thereby providing a

  10. ¹H NMR-based metabolic profiling of human rectal cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rectal cancer is one of the most prevalent tumor types. Understanding the metabolic profile of rectal cancer is important for developing therapeutic approaches and molecular diagnosis. Methods Here, we report a metabonomics profiling of tissue samples on a large cohort of human rectal cancer subjects (n = 127) and normal controls (n = 43) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) based metabonomics assay, which is a highly sensitive and non-destructive method for the biomarker identification in biological systems. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to analyze the 1H-NMR profiling data to identify the distinguishing metabolites of rectal cancer. Results Excellent separation was obtained and distinguishing metabolites were observed among the different stages of rectal cancer tissues (stage I = 35; stage II = 37; stage III = 37 and stage IV = 18) and normal controls. A total of 38 differential metabolites were identified, 16 of which were closely correlated with the stage of rectal cancer. The up-regulation of 10 metabolites, including lactate, threonine, acetate, glutathione, uracil, succinate, serine, formate, lysine and tyrosine, were detected in the cancer tissues. On the other hand, 6 metabolites, including myo-inositol, taurine, phosphocreatine, creatine, betaine and dimethylglycine were decreased in cancer tissues. These modified metabolites revealed disturbance of energy, amino acids, ketone body and choline metabolism, which may be correlated with the progression of human rectal cancer. Conclusion Our findings firstly identify the distinguishing metabolites in different stages of rectal cancer tissues, indicating possibility of the attribution of metabolites disturbance to the progression of rectal cancer. The altered metabolites may be as potential biomarkers, which would

  11. Relationship between energy dense diets and white adipose tissue inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Marià

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a widespread pathologic state that manifests as multiple intertwined diseases affecting the entire body. This review analyzes the contribution of adipose tissue inflammation to its development. The main factor in the appearance of MS is an excess of dietary energy (largely fats), eliciting insulin resistance and creating the problem of excess energy disposal. Under these conditions, amino acid catabolism is diminished, which indirectly alters the production of nitric oxide and affects blood flow regulation. The oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrite and nitrate affects microbiota composition and functions. Adipose tissue cannot incorporate excessive nutrients after cell enlargement and loss of function. Tissue damage is a form of aggression, and the response is proinflammatory cytokine release. Cytokines favor the massive penetration of immune system cells, such as macrophages, which unsuccessfully try to fight an elusive danger for which they are not prepared. The consequence is low-level maintenance of the inflammatory state, which affects endoplasmic reticulum function and the endothelial response to excess regulatory mechanisms affecting blood flow and substrate/oxygen supply. When inflammation becomes chronic, the pathologic consequences are disseminated throughout the body because unused substrates and signals from adipose tissue affect energy partitioning and organ function. This maintenance of an unbalanced state ultimately results in the establishment of MS and associated pathologies. New research should focus on identifying ways to disarm the inflammatory response of adipose tissue when the dangers of dietary excess have already been controlled. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, regulates systemic metabolism with dynamic changes in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yuri; Nakada, Satoshi; Yoshihara, Toshinori; Nara, Takeshi; Furuya, Norihiko; Miida, Takashi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri

    2018-05-17

    Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2 -/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2 -/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation. In addition, the Hspg2 -/- -Tg mice demonstrated increased insulin sensitivity. Molecular analysis revealed the significantly relatively increased amount of the muscle fiber type IIA (X) isoform and a larger quantity of mitochondria in the skeletal muscle of Hspg2 -/- -Tg mice. Furthermore, the perlecan-deficient skeletal muscle also had elevated levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) protein. PGC1α expression is activated by exercise, and induces mitochondrial biosynthesis. Thus, perlecan may act as a mechano-regulator of catabolism of both lipids and glucose by shifting the muscle fiber composition to oxidative fibers. Our data suggest that downregulation of perlecan is a promising strategy to control metabolic syndrome.

  13. Key metabolic pathways associated with differences in weight maintenance and gain in mature cow skeletal and adipose tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the production year of a cow, the majority of nutrients are used to support maintenance. Differences in feedstuff utilization and metabolism can impact the ability of the cow to meet maintenance requirements. Tissue specific metabolism is critical to energy homeostasis in the animal, and thus...

  14. TSHB mRNA is linked to cholesterol metabolism in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Moreno, María; Ortega, Francisco; Xifra, Gemma; Hong, Shangyu; Asara, John M; Serrano, José C E; Jové, Mariona; Pissios, Pavlos; Blüher, Matthias; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is known to be associated with increased serum cholesterol. Since thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) exerts an inductor effect on cholesterol biosynthesis, we aimed to investigate the relationship between TSH mRNA and cholesterol metabolism in human adipose tissue (AT). Cross-sectionally, AT TSH-β ( TSHB ) mRNA was evaluated in 4 independent cohorts in association with serum total and LDL cholesterol, and AT lipidomics. Longitudinally, the effects of statins and of diet and exercise on AT TSHB mRNA were also examined. The bidirectional relationship between cholesterol and TSHB were studied in isolated human adipocytes. TSHB mRNA was consistently detected in AT from euthyroid subjects, and positively associated with serum total- and LDL-cholesterol, and with AT-specific cholesterol metabolism-associated lipids [arachidonoyl cholesteryl ester, C8-dihydroceramide, N -stearoyl-d-sphingosine, and GlcCer(18:0, 24:1)]. Reduction of cholesterol with statins and with diet and exercise interventions led to decreased TSHB mRNA in human AT, whereas excess cholesterol up-regulated TSHB mRNA in human adipocytes. In addition, recombinant human TSH α/β administration resulted in increased HMGCR mRNA levels in human adipocytes. In mice, subcutaneous AT Tshb expression levels correlated directly with circulating cholesterol levels. In summary, current results provide novel evidence of TSHB as a paracrine factor that is modulated in parallel with cholesterol metabolism in human AT.-Moreno-Navarrete, J. M., Moreno, M., Ortega, F., Xifra, G., Hong, S., Asara, J. M., Serrano, J. C. E., Jové, M., Pissios, P., Blüher, M., Ricart, W., Portero-Otin, M., Fernández-Real, J. M. TSHB mRNA is linked to cholesterol metabolism in adipose tissue. © FASEB.

  15. Metabolic activity, experiment M171. [space flight effects on human metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Rummel, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab metabolic activity experiment determines if man's metabolic effectiveness in doing mechanical work is progressively altered by a simulated Skylab environment, including environmental factors such as slightly increased pCO2. This test identified several hardware/procedural anomalies. The most important of these were: (1) the metabolic analyzer measured carbon dioxide production and expired water too high; (2) the ergometer load module failed under continuous high workload conditions; (3) a higher than desirable number of erroneous blood pressure measurements were recorded; (4) vital capacity measurements were unreliable; and (5) anticipated crew personal exercise needs to be more structured.

  16. Scaffold-free 3D bio-printed human liver tissue stably maintains metabolic functions useful for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kizawa, Hideki; Nagao, Eri; Shimamura, Mitsuru; Zhang, Guangyuan; Torii, Hitoshi

    2017-07-01

    The liver plays a central role in metabolism. Although many studies have described in vitro liver models for drug discovery, to date, no model has been described that can stably maintain liver function. Here, we used a unique, scaffold-free 3D bio-printing technology to construct a small portion of liver tissue that could stably maintain drug, glucose, and lipid metabolism, in addition to bile acid secretion. This bio-printed normal human liver tissue maintained expression of several kinds of hepatic drug transporters and metabolic enzymes that functioned for several weeks. The bio-printed liver tissue displayed glucose production via cAMP/protein kinase A signaling, which could be suppressed with insulin. Bile acid secretion was also observed from the printed liver tissue, and it accumulated in the culture medium over time. We observed both bile duct and sinusoid-like structures in the bio-printed liver tissue, which suggested that bile acid secretion occurred via a sinusoid-hepatocyte-bile duct route. These results demonstrated that our bio-printed liver tissue was unique, because it exerted diverse liver metabolic functions for several weeks. In future, we expect our bio-printed liver tissue to be applied to developing new models that can be used to improve preclinical predictions of long-term toxicity in humans, generate novel targets for metabolic liver disease, and evaluate biliary excretion in drug development.

  17. Impaired Tissue Oxygenation in Metabolic Syndrome Requires Increased Microvascular Perfusion Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    McClatchey, P. Mason; Wu, Fan; Olfert, I. Mark; Ellis, Christopher G.; Goldman, Daniel; Reusch, Jane E. B.

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese Zucker rats (OZR) is associated with impaired skeletal muscle performance and blunted hyperemia. Studies suggest that reduced O2 diffusion capacity is required to explain compromised muscle performance and that heterogeneous microvascular perfusion distribution is critical. We modeled tissue oxygenation during muscle contraction in control and OZR skeletal muscle using physiologically realistic relationships. Using a network model of Krogh cylinders with increasing perfusion asymmetry and increased plasma skimming, we predict increased perfusion heterogeneity and decreased muscle oxygenation in OZR, with partial recovery following therapy. Notably, increasing O2 delivery had less impact on VO2 than equivalent decreases in O2 delivery, providing a mechanism for previous empirical work associating perfusion heterogeneity and impaired O2 extraction. We demonstrate that increased skeletal muscle perfusion asymmetry is a defining characteristic of MS and must be considered to effectively model and understand blood-tissue O2 exchange in this model of human disease. PMID:28168652

  18. Lipocalin 2, a Regulator of Retinoid Homeostasis and Retinoid-mediated Thermogenic Activation in Adipose Tissue*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hong; Foncea, Rocio; O'Byrne, Sheila M.; Jiang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deis, Jessica A.; Blaner, William S.; Bernlohr, David A.; Chen, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We have recently characterized the role of lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) as a new adipose-derived cytokine in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis via a non-adrenergic pathway. Herein, we explored a potential non-adrenergic mechanism by which Lcn2 regulates thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. We found that Lcn2 is a retinoic acid target gene, and retinoic acid concurrently stimulated UCP1 and Lcn2 expression in adipocytes. Lcn2 KO mice exhibited a blunted effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on body weight and fat mass, lipid metabolism, and retinoic acid signaling pathway activation in adipose tissue under the high fat diet-induced obese condition. We further demonstrated that Lcn2 is required for the full action of ATRA on the induction of UCP1 and PGC-1α expression in brown adipocytes and the restoration of cold intolerance in Lcn2 KO mice. Interestingly, we discovered that Lcn2 KO mice have decreased levels of retinoic acid and retinol in adipose tissue. The protein levels of STRA6 responsible for retinol uptake were significantly decreased in adipose tissue. The retinol transporter RBP4 was increased in adipose tissue but decreased in the circulation, suggesting the impairment of RBP4 secretion in Lcn2 KO adipose tissue. Moreover, Lcn2 deficiency abolished the ATRA effect on RBP4 expression in adipocytes. All the data suggest that the decreased retinoid level and action are associated with impaired retinol transport and storage in adipose tissue in Lcn2 KO mice. We conclude that Lcn2 plays a critical role in regulating metabolic homeostasis of retinoids and retinoid-mediated thermogenesis in adipose tissue. PMID:27008859

  19. Investigate the variation in optical redox ratio of epicardial adipose tissue in patients with CAD through auto-fluorescence metabolic molecular image (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lun-Zhang; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lin, Jong-Wei; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, it has been suggested that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) plays an important role in development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). In this article, we used two-photon fluoresce microscope to measure the fluorescence metabolic image of EAT, which obtained from the patient with/without CAD/DM. We used 740nm and 890nm infrared light to excite the auto-fluorescence of metabolic molecules NADH and FAD respectively. We collected the fluorescence signal at wavelength 450nm to 500nm and 500nm to 550nm to obtain the metabolic image. Through the image, we computed the redox ratio (NADH/FAD) by analyzing the intensity. The preliminary result showed that the redox ratio increase in the patients with CAD. It indicates EAT adipocytes of patient with CAD have decreased cellular metabolic activity. But there were no significant variation of redox ratio in the patients with DM.

  20. Brassica napus seed endosperm - metabolism and signaling in a dead end tissue.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Christin; Rolletschek, Hardy; Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2014-08-28

    Oilseeds are an important element of human nutrition and of increasing significance for the production of industrial materials. The development of the seeds is based on a coordinated interplay of the embryo and its surrounding tissue, the endosperm. This study aims to give insights into the physiological role of endosperm for seed development in the oilseed crop Brassica napus. Using protein separation by two-dimensional (2D) isoelectric focusing (IEF)/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and protein identification by mass spectrometry three proteome projects were carried out: (i) establishment of an endosperm proteome reference map, (ii) proteomic characterization of endosperm development and (iii) comparison of endosperm and embryo proteomes. The endosperm proteome reference map comprises 930 distinct proteins, including enzymes involved in genetic information processing, carbohydrate metabolism, environmental information processing, energy metabolism, cellular processes and amino acid metabolism. To investigate dynamic changes in protein abundance during seed development, total soluble proteins were extracted from embryo and endosperm fractions at defined time points. Proteins involved in sugar converting and recycling processes, ascorbate metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis and redox balancing were found to be of special importance for seed development in B. napus. Implications for the seed filling process and the function of the endosperm for seed development are discussed. The endosperm is of key importance for embryo development during seed formation in plants. We present a broad study for characterizing endosperm proteins in the oilseed plant B. napus. Furthermore, a project on the biochemical interplay between the embryo and the endosperm during seed development is presented. We provide evidence that the endosperm includes a complete set of enzymes necessary for plant primary metabolism. Combination of our results with metabolome data will further

  1. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Hussein, Samer MI; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Hui, Chi-chung; Sung, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, periodic adipose-VEGF overexpression could recapitulate the metabolic improvement of IF in non-fasted animals. Importantly, fasting and adipose-VEGF induce alternative activation of adipose macrophage, which is critical for thermogenesis. Human adipose gene analysis further revealed a positive correlation of adipose VEGF-M2 macrophage-WAT browning axis. The present study uncovers the molecular mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefit and suggests that isocaloric IF can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:29039412

  2. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Hussein, Samer Mi; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Hui, Chi-Chung; Sung, Hoon-Ki

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, periodic adipose-VEGF overexpression could recapitulate the metabolic improvement of IF in non-fasted animals. Importantly, fasting and adipose-VEGF induce alternative activation of adipose macrophage, which is critical for thermogenesis. Human adipose gene analysis further revealed a positive correlation of adipose VEGF-M2 macrophage-WAT browning axis. The present study uncovers the molecular mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefit and suggests that isocaloric IF can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic disorders.

  3. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  4. Metabolic Biofouling of Glucose Sensors in Vivo: Role of Tissue Microhemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Klueh, Ulrike; Liu, Zenghe; Feldman, Ben; Henning, Timothy P; Cho, Brian; Ouyang, Tianmei; Kreutzer, Don

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Based on our in vitro study that demonstrated the adverse effects of blood clots on glucose sensor function, we hypothesized that in vivo local tissue hemorrhages, induced as a consequence of sensor implantation or sensor movement post-implantation, are responsible for unreliable readings or an unexplained loss of functionality shortly after implantation. Research Design and Methods: To investigate this issue, we utilized real-time continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels in a mouse model. Direct injection of blood at the tissue site of sensor implantation was utilized to mimic sensor-induced local tissue hemorrhages. Results: It was found that blood injections, proximal to the sensor, consistently caused lowered sensor glucose readings, designated temporary signal reduction, in vivo in our mouse model, while injections of plasma or saline did not have this effect. Conclusion: These results support our hypothesis that tissue hemorrhage and resulting blood clots near the sensor can result in lowered local blood glucose concentrations due to metabolism of glucose by the clot. The lowered local blood glucose concentration led to low glucose readings from the still functioning sensor that did not reflect the systemic glucose level. PMID:21722574

  5. Reference genes for quantitative PCR in the adipose tissue of mice with metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Oliveira, Fernanda; Leandro, João G B; Ausina, Priscila; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Majerowicz, David

    2017-04-01

    Obesity and diabetes are metabolic diseases and they are increasing in prevalence. The dynamics of gene expression associated with these diseases is fundamental to identifying genes involved in related biological processes. qPCR is a sensitive technique for mRNA quantification and the most commonly used method in gene-expression studies. However, the reliability of these results is directly influenced by data normalization. As reference genes are the major normalization method used, this work aims to identify reference genes for qPCR in adipose tissues of mice with type-I diabetes or obesity. We selected 12 genes that are commonly used as reference genes. The expression of these genes in the adipose tissues of mice was analyzed in the context of three different experimental protocols: 1) untreated animals; 2) high-fat-diet animals; and 3) streptozotocin-treated animals. Gene-expression stability was analyzed using four different algorithms. Our data indicate that TATA-binding protein is stably expressed across adipose tissues in control animals. This gene was also a useful reference when the brown adipose tissues of control and obese mice were analyzed. The mitochondrial ATP synthase F1 complex gene exhibits stable expression in subcutaneous and perigonadal adipose tissue from control and obese mice. Moreover, this gene is the best reference for qPCR normalization in adipose tissue from streptozotocin-treated animals. These results show that there is no perfect stable gene suited for use under all experimental conditions. In conclusion, the selection of appropriate genes is a prerequisite to ensure qPCR reliability and must be performed separately for different experimental protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of hypodynamia on mineral and protein metabolism in calcified tissues of the maxillodental system (experimental radioisotope study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Kondratyev, Y. I.; Ilyushko, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Mineral and protein metabolism was studied in experiments on 60 white rats, using P-32 and Ca-45 uptake in the mineral fractions, 2C-14-glycine in the protein fractions, and P-32 in both fractions of calcified tissues as indices over a 100 day period of experimental hypodynamia. Combined alterations in mineral and protein metabolism occurred in the calcified tissues of the experimental animals. The most pronounced changes were found in P-32 and 2C-14-glycine metabolism. In the incisors and femoral bones, these alterations occurred in two phases: P-32 and 2C-14-glycine uptake first increased, then decreased. Changes in Ca-45 metabolism were less pronounced, particularly in the initial period of the experiment. A marked reduction in P-32, Ca-45, and 2C-14-glycine uptake was found in various fractions of the calcified tissues on the 100th day of experimental hypodynamia.

  7. Evaluation of intestinal metabolism and absorption using the Ussing chamber system equipped with intestinal tissue from rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru; Kondo, Satoshi; Koga, Toshihisa; Yoda, Noriaki; Nakazato, Satoru; Emoto, Chie; Mukai, Tadashi; Toguchi, Hajime

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intestinal metabolism and absorption in a mini-Ussing chamber equipped with animal intestinal tissues, based on the transport index (TI). TI value was defined as the sum of drug amounts transported to the basal-side component (X corr ) and drug amounts accumulated in the tissue (T corr ), which are normalized by AUC of a drug in the apical compartment, as an index for drug absorption. Midazolam was used as a test compound for the evaluation of intestinal metabolism and absorption. The metabolite formulation of midazolam was observed in both rats and dogs. Ketoconazole inhibited the intestinal metabolism of midazolam in rats and improved its intestinal absorption to a statistically significant extent. Therefore, the mini-Ussing chamber, equipped with animal intestinal tissues, showed potential to use the evaluation of the intestinal metabolism and absorption, including the assessment of species differences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A multi-physics model for ultrasonically activated soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Suvranu De, Rahul

    2017-02-01

    A multi-physics model has been developed to investigate the effects of cellular level mechanisms on the thermomechanical response of ultrasonically activated soft tissue. Cellular level cavitation effects have been incorporated in the tissue level continuum model to accurately determine the thermodynamic states such as temperature and pressure. A viscoelastic material model is assumed for the macromechanical response of the tissue. The cavitation model based equation-of-state provides the additional pressure arising from evaporation of intracellular and cellular water by absorbing heat due to structural and viscoelastic heating in the tissue, and temperature to the continuum level thermomechanical model. The thermomechanical response of soft tissue is studied for the operational range of frequencies of oscillations and applied loads for typical ultrasonically activated surgical instruments. The model is shown to capture characteristics of ultrasonically activated soft tissue deformation and temperature evolution. At the cellular level, evaporation of water below the boiling temperature under ambient conditions is indicative of protein denaturation around the temperature threshold for coagulation of tissues. Further, with increasing operating frequency (or loading), the temperature rises faster leading to rapid evaporation of tissue cavity water, which may lead to accelerated protein denaturation and coagulation.

  9. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Chul; Lee, Kyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α, γ, and σ) are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators. PMID:18566691

  10. Detection of follicular transport of lidocaine and metabolism in adipose tissue in pig ear skin by DESI mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Alvise, Janina; Mortensen, Rasmus; Hansen, Steen H; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is demonstrated as a detection technique for penetration experiments of drugs in skin. Lidocaine ointment was used as the model compound in ex vivo experiments with whole pig ears as the skin model. Follicular transport of lidocaine into the deeper skin layers is demonstrated for the first time. Furthermore, metabolism of lidocaine to 3-OH-lidocaine was observed in subcutaneous tissue as well as in lobules of white adipose tissue surrounding the hair follicles. These results suggest that it is advantageous to use full thickness skin, including subcutaneous tissue, for skin metabolism studies.

  11. Structural and metabolic characterization of RNAs from rats with experimental Guerin tumor - II. metabolic peculiarities of RNAs from the liver and tumor tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, A; Galasinski, W

    1976-01-01

    Metabolic peculiarities of RNAs in the liver of the tumor bearing and in the tumor tissue were found. The synthesis of nuclear RNA in liver of tumor bearing rats is distinctly disordered in comparison to that of control rats. The level of 14C-orotic acid incorporation into RNA of cancer tissue is manifold lower than that into the liver RNA. The studies on turnover rate showed the metabolic heterogeneity of the nuclear RNAs. The part of them showed a short turnover, the other RNAs were degraded much slower.

  12. Novel Loci for Metabolic Networks and Multi-Tissue Expression Studies Reveal Genes for Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Michael; Ripatti, Samuli; Kettunen, Johannes; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Oksala, Niku; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Savolainen, Markku J.; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Palotie, Aarno; de Bakker, Paul I. W.

    2012-01-01

    Association testing of multiple correlated phenotypes offers better power than univariate analysis of single traits. We analyzed 6,600 individuals from two population-based cohorts with both genome-wide SNP data and serum metabolomic profiles. From the observed correlation structure of 130 metabolites measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified 11 metabolic networks and performed a multivariate genome-wide association analysis. We identified 34 genomic loci at genome-wide significance, of which 7 are novel. In comparison to univariate tests, multivariate association analysis identified nearly twice as many significant associations in total. Multi-tissue gene expression studies identified variants in our top loci, SERPINA1 and AQP9, as eQTLs and showed that SERPINA1 and AQP9 expression in human blood was associated with metabolites from their corresponding metabolic networks. Finally, liver expression of AQP9 was associated with atherosclerotic lesion area in mice, and in human arterial tissue both SERPINA1 and AQP9 were shown to be upregulated (6.3-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively) in atherosclerotic plaques. Our study illustrates the power of multi-phenotype GWAS and highlights candidate genes for atherosclerosis. PMID:22916037

  13. [Influence of conjugated linoleic acids on metabolic processes in cells and tissues].

    PubMed

    Siwiec, Ewa; Stachowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are constitutional and geometric isomers of this acid. The most commonly consumed geometric isomers are cis-9,trans-11 (c9, t11) CLA and trans-10, cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA. These isomers together with trans-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,trans-12 CLA constitute about 90% of all CLA in natural products. Different structure of the isomers affects their functions in the body. Differences in the effects on organs and tissues are sometimes small and sometimes opposed, sometimes the isomers work synergistically. Diverse influence has been shown mainly in neoplastic processes and lipid metabolism. For example, differences in inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cells are explained by different pathways: t10,c12 CLA acts on apoptosis and cell cycle control genes, while c9,t11 CLA regulates genes involved in metabolism of arachidonic acid with subsequent impairment of eicosanoids synthesis. Other studies have shown that t10,c12 CLA, but not c9,t11 CLA, can induce fat reduction in adipose tissue and apoptosis of adipocytes in mice.

  14. Biologically active chitosan systems for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Kumbar, Sangamesh G; Nair, Lakshmi S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are widely used as a temporary extracellular matrix in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. By physical adsorption of biomolecules on scaffold surface, physical entrapment of biomolecules in polymer microspheres or hydrogels, and chemical immobilization of oligopeptides or proteins on biomaterials, biologically active biomaterials and scaffolds can be derived. These bioactive systems show great potential in tissue engineering in rendering bioactivity and/or specificity to scaffolds. This review highlights some of the biologically active chitosan systems for tissue engineering application and the associated strategies to develop such bioactive chitosan systems.

  15. Partial inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity without alteration of fat mass.

    PubMed

    Girousse, Amandine; Tavernier, Geneviève; Valle, Carine; Moro, Cedric; Mejhert, Niklas; Dinel, Anne-Laure; Houssier, Marianne; Roussel, Balbine; Besse-Patin, Aurèle; Combes, Marion; Mir, Lucile; Monbrun, Laurent; Bézaire, Véronic; Prunet-Marcassus, Bénédicte; Waget, Aurélie; Vila, Isabelle; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Louche, Katie; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Mairal, Aline; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Galitzky, Jean; Holm, Cecilia; Mouisel, Etienne; Thalamas, Claire; Viguerie, Nathalie; Sulpice, Thierry; Burcelin, Rémy; Arner, Peter; Langin, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT) provides fatty acids (FAs) for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) participates in the breakdown of WAT triacylglycerol into FAs. HSL haploinsufficiency and treatment with a HSL inhibitor resulted in improvement of insulin tolerance without impact on body weight, fat mass, and WAT inflammation in high-fat-diet-fed mice. In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. The reduction in FA turnover was accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism with a shift in respiratory quotient, increase of glucose uptake in WAT and skeletal muscle, and enhancement of de novo lipogenesis and insulin signalling in liver. In human adipocytes, HSL gene silencing led to improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, resulting in increased de novo lipogenesis and activation of cognate gene expression. In clinical studies, WAT lipolytic rate was positively and negatively correlated with indexes of insulin resistance and WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression, respectively. In obese individuals, chronic inhibition of lipolysis resulted in induction of WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression. Thus, reduction in WAT lipolysis reshapes FA fluxes without increase of fat mass and improves glucose metabolism through cell-autonomous induction of fat cell de novo lipogenesis, which contributes to improved insulin sensitivity.

  16. Metabolic fingerprinting of joint tissue of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat: In vitro, high resolution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Sharma, Shikha; Sharma, Rajkumar; Sinha, Neeraj; Mandal, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, Deepak

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose major characteristics persistent joint inflammation that results in joint destruction and failure of the function. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat is an autoimmune disease model and in many ways shares features with RA. The CIA is associated with systemic manifestations, including alterations in the metabolism. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics has been successfully applied to the perchloric acid extract of the joint tissue of CIA rat and control rat for the analysis of aqueous metabolites. GPC (Glycerophosphocholine), carnitine, acetate, and creatinine were important discriminators of CIA rats as compared to control rats. Level of lactate (significance; p = 0.004), alanine (p = 0.025), BCA (Branched-chain amino acids) (p = 0.006) and creatinine (p = 0.023) was significantly higher in CIA rats as compared to control rats. Choline (p = 0.038) and GPC (p = 0.009) were significantly reduced in CIA rats as compared to control rats. Choline to GPC correlation was good and negative (Pearson correlation = -0.63) for CIA rats as well as for control rats (Pearson correlation = -0.79). All these analyses collectively considered as metabolic fingerprinting of the joint tissue of CIA rat as compared to control rat. The metabolic fingerprinting of joint tissue of CIA rats was different as compared to control rats. The metabolic fingerprinting reflects inflammatory disease activity in CIA rats with synovitis, demonstrating that underlying inflammatory process drives significant changes in metabolism that can be measured in the joint tissue. Therefore, the outcome of this study may be helpful for understanding the mechanism of metabolic processes in RA. This may be also helpful for the development of advanced diagnostic methods and therapy for RA. PMID:29743863

  17. Metabolic fingerprinting of joint tissue of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat: In vitro, high resolution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy based analysis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Sharma, Shikha; Sharma, Rajkumar; Sinha, Neeraj; Mandal, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, Deepak

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose major characteristics persistent joint inflammation that results in joint destruction and failure of the function. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat is an autoimmune disease model and in many ways shares features with RA. The CIA is associated with systemic manifestations, including alterations in the metabolism. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics has been successfully applied to the perchloric acid extract of the joint tissue of CIA rat and control rat for the analysis of aqueous metabolites. GPC (Glycerophosphocholine), carnitine, acetate, and creatinine were important discriminators of CIA rats as compared to control rats. Level of lactate (significance; p = 0.004), alanine (p = 0.025), BCA (Branched-chain amino acids) (p = 0.006) and creatinine (p = 0.023) was significantly higher in CIA rats as compared to control rats. Choline (p = 0.038) and GPC (p = 0.009) were significantly reduced in CIA rats as compared to control rats. Choline to GPC correlation was good and negative (Pearson correlation = -0.63) for CIA rats as well as for control rats (Pearson correlation = -0.79). All these analyses collectively considered as metabolic fingerprinting of the joint tissue of CIA rat as compared to control rat. The metabolic fingerprinting of joint tissue of CIA rats was different as compared to control rats. The metabolic fingerprinting reflects inflammatory disease activity in CIA rats with synovitis, demonstrating that underlying inflammatory process drives significant changes in metabolism that can be measured in the joint tissue. Therefore, the outcome of this study may be helpful for understanding the mechanism of metabolic processes in RA. This may be also helpful for the development of advanced diagnostic methods and therapy for RA.

  18. Mouse arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects metabolism and tissue dosimetry of arsenicals after arsenite administration in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baowei; Arnold, Lora L; Cohen, Samuel M; Thomas, David J; Le, X Chris

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) producing a number of methylated arsenic metabolites. Although methylation has been commonly considered a pathway for detoxification of arsenic, some highly reactive methylated arsenicals may contribute to toxicity associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic. Here, adult female wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and female As3mt knockout (KO) mice received drinking water that contained 1, 10, or 25 ppm (mg/l) of arsenite for 33 days and blood, liver, kidney, and lung were taken for arsenic speciation. Genotype markedly affected concentrations of arsenicals in tissues. Summed concentrations of arsenicals in plasma were higher in WT than in KO mice; in red blood cells, summed concentrations of arsenicals were higher in KO than in WT mice. In liver, kidney, and lung, summed concentrations of arsenicals were greater in KO than in WT mice. Although capacity for arsenic methylation is much reduced in KO mice, some mono-, di-, and tri-methylated arsenicals were found in tissues of KO mice, likely reflecting the activity of other tissue methyltransferases or preabsorptive metabolism by the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract. These results show that the genotype for arsenic methylation determines the phenotypes of arsenic retention and distribution and affects the dose- and organ-dependent toxicity associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic.

  19. Extracellular vesicles are independent metabolic units with asparaginase activity

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Tommaso; Costa, Ana S. H.; Cossetti, Chiara; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Bernstock, Joshua D.; Saini, Harpreet K.; Gelati, Maurizio; Vescovi, Angelo Luigi; Bastos, Carlos; Faria, Nuno; Occhipinti, Luigi G.; Enright, Anton J.; Frezza, Christian; Pluchino, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane particles involved in the exchange of a broad range of bioactive molecules between cells and the microenvironment. While it has been shown that cells can traffic metabolic enzymes via EVs much remains to be elucidated with regard to their intrinsic metabolic activity. Accordingly, herein we assessed the ability of neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC)-derived EVs to consume and produce metabolites. Both our metabolomics and functional analyses revealed that EVs harbour L-asparaginase activity catalysed by the enzyme Asparaginase-like protein 1 (Asrgl1). Critically, we show that Asrgl1 activity is selective for asparagine and is devoid of glutaminase activity. We found that mouse and human NSC-derived EVs traffic ASRGL1. Our results demonstrate for the first time that NSC EVs function as independent, extracellular metabolic units able to modify the concentrations of critical nutrients, with the potential to affect the physiology of their microenvironment. PMID:28671681

  20. Chilling-related cell damage of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit cortical tissue impacts antioxidant, lipid and phenolic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Leisso, Rachel S; Buchanan, David A; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James P; Sater, Chris; Hanrahan, Ines; Watkins, Christopher B; Gapper, Nigel; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2015-02-01

    'Soggy breakdown' (SB) is an internal flesh disorder of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit that occurs during low temperature storage. The disorder is a chilling injury (CI) in which visible symptoms typically appear after several weeks of storage, but information about the underlying metabolism associated with its induction and development is lacking. The metabolic profile of flesh tissue from wholly healthy fruit and brown and healthy tissues from fruit with SB was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and correlation networks revealed correlation among ester volatile compounds by composition and differences in phytosterol, phenolic and putative triacylglycerides (TAGs) metabolism among the tissues. anova-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was used to test the significance of metabolic changes linked with tissue health status. ASCA-significant components included antioxidant compounds, TAGs, and phytosterol conjugates. Relative to entirely healthy tissues, elevated metabolite levels in symptomatic tissue included γ-amino butyric acid, glycerol, sitosteryl (6'-O-palmitoyl) β-d-glucoside and sitosteryl (6'-O-stearate) β-d-glucoside, and TAGs containing combinations of 16:0, 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 fatty acids. Reduced metabolite levels in SB tissue included 5-caffeoyl quinate, β-carotene, catechin, epicatechin, α-tocopherol, violaxanthin and sitosteryl β-d glucoside. Pathway analysis indicated aspects of primary metabolism differed according to tissue condition, although differences in metabolites involved were more subtle than those of some secondary metabolites. The results implicate oxidative stress and membrane disruption processes in SB development and constitute a diagnostic metabolic profile for the disorder. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Biochemical and nutritional markers and antioxidant activity in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bernabé García, Juana; Zafrilla Rentero, Pilar; Mulero Cánovas, Juana; Gómez Jara, Purificación; Leal Hernández, Mariano; Abellán Alemán, José

    2014-01-01

    1) Nutritional assessment of the diet followed by patients with metabolic syndrome, and 2) biochemical analysis of the oxidation-reduction level in patients with metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with metabolic syndrome in Murcia. Fifty-three patients, 33 with and 20 without (control group) metabolic syndrome, were selected. The intervention consisted of completion of a recall survey and a test to nutritionally assess dietary intake. Anthropometric and laboratory variables, including those related to antioxidant activity, were also tested. Antioxidant activity was within normal limits in both groups (1.7 ± 0.2 mmol/L in the control group and 1.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L in the metabolic syndrome group) (NS). Superoxide dismutase levels were not significantly different between the groups. Mean glutathione reductase levels (U/L) were higher in the control group as compared to patients with metabolic syndrome (P<.05). As regards oxidative stress biomarkers, mean isoprostane levels were higher in the control group (4.9 ± 6.2 ng/mL) than in metabolic syndrome patients (3.5 ± 3.9 ng/mL) (P<.05). Oxidized LDL values tended to be higher in metabolic syndrome patients (96 ± 23.2U/L) as compared to the control group (86.2 ± 17.3 U/L), but differences were not significant. There is a trend to a poorer nutritional and biochemical profile in patients with metabolic syndrome, who also tend to have a greater degree of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical Activity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Overweight in Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Davis, Catherine L.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Lewis, Richard D.; Yin, Zenong

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research suggests significant health differences between rural dwelling youth and their urban counterparts with relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study was conducted to (1) determine relationships between physical activity and markers of metabolic syndrome, and (2) to explore factors relating to physical activity in a…

  3. Diurnal Changes in Volume and Specific Tissue Weight of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng-Shu; Black, Clanton C.

    1983-01-01

    The diurnal variations in volume and in specific weight were determined for green stems and leaves of Crassulacen acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Volume changes were measured by a water displacement method. Diurnal variations occurred in the volume of green CAM tissues. Their volume increased early in the light period reaching a maximum about mid-day, then the volume decreased to a minimum near midnight. The maximum volume increase each day was about 2.7% of the total volume. Control leaves of C3 and C4 plants exhibited reverse diurnal volume changes of 0.2 to 0.4%. The hypothesis is presented and supported that green CAM tissues should exhibit a diurnal increase in volume due to the increase of internal gas pressure from CO2 and O2 when their stomata are closed. Conversely, the volume should decrease when the gas pressure is decreased. The second hypothesis presented and supported was that the specific weight (milligrams of dry weight per square centimeter of green surface area) of green CAM tissues should increase at night due to the net fixation of CO2. Green CAM tissues increased their specific weight at night in contrast to control C3 and C4 leaves which decreased their specific weight at night. With Kalanchoë daigremontiana leaves, the calculated increase in specific leaf weight at night based on estimates of carbohydrate available for net CO2 fixation was near 6% and the measured increase in specific leaf weight was 6%. Diurnal measurements of CAM tissue water content were neither coincident nor reciprocal with their diurnal patterns of either volume or specific weight changes. PMID:16662833

  4. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. Methods First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Results Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. Conclusions The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported. PMID:23988084

  5. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-08-29

    Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported.

  6. Metabolic Functions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gaudel, Céline; Grimaldi, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that act as lipid sensors and adapt the metabolic rates of various tissues to the concentration of dietary lipids. PPARs are pharmacological targets for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PPARα and PPARγ are activated by hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizer compounds, such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones. The roles of PPARβ/δ in metabolic regulations remained unclear until recently. Treatment of obese monkeys and rodents by specific PPARβ/δ agonists promoted normalization of metabolic parameters and reduction of adiposity. Recent evidences strongly suggested that some of these beneficial actions are related to activation of fatty acid catabolism in skeletal muscle and also that PPARβ/δ is involved in the adaptive responses of skeletal muscle to environmental changes, such as long-term fasting or physical exercise, by controlling the number of oxidative myofibers. These observations indicated that PPARβ/δ agonists might have therapeutic usefulness in metabolic syndrome by increasing fatty acid consumption in skeletal muscle and reducing obesity. PMID:17389772

  7. High throughput measurement of metabolism in planarians reveals activation of glycolysis during regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Osuma, Edie A.; Riggs, Daniel W.; Gibb, Andrew A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Planarians are outstanding models for studying mechanisms of regeneration; however, there are few methods to measure changes in their metabolism. Examining metabolism in planarians is important because the regenerative process is dependent on numerous integrated metabolic pathways, which provide the energy required for tissue repair as well as the ability to synthesize the cellular building blocks needed to form new tissue. Therefore, we standardized an extracellular flux analysis method to measure mitochondrial and glycolytic activity in live planarians during normal growth as well as during regeneration. Small, uninjured planarians showed higher rates of oxygen consumption compared with large planarians, with no difference in glycolytic activity; however, glycolysis increased during planarian regeneration. Exposure of planarians to koningic acid, a specific inhibitor of glyceraldehyde‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase, completely abolished extracellular acidification with little effect on oxygen consumption, which suggests that the majority of glucose catabolized in planarians is fated for aerobic glycolysis. These studies describe a useful method for measuring respiration and glycolysis in planarians and provide data implicating changes in glucose metabolism in the regenerative response. PMID:29721328

  8. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of nitrofurantoin in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Plakas, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of the drug nitrofurantoin were examined in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after intravascular or oral dosing. Mean plasma concentrations of nitrofurantoin after intravascular administration at 1 and 10 mg/kg of body weight were best fit to two- and three-compartment pharmacokinetic models, respectively. Nitrofurantoin was rapidly eliminated from the plasma after intravascular dosing; at 1 and 10 mg/kg, the terminal half-lives were 23 and 46 min, respectively. After oral dosing at 1 mg/kg, peak plasma concentrations (0.06 mu g/ml) occurred at 2 h; the bioavailability was 17%. Residues of nitrofurantoin and its metabolites in the tissues were initially eliminated rapidly but persisted at the later sampling times. Residue concentrations were highest in the plasma and excretory tissues. Approximately 21% and 4% of the oral dose were eliminated in the urine and bile, respectively. Parent nitrofurantoin was the major radiolabelled compound found in the urine; however, the percentage of total residues composed of metabolites increased with time. Biliary residues consisted mostly of nitrofurantoin metabolites. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of at least five metabolites in the urine and bile.

  9. Uptake, tissue distribution, and metabolism of malachite green in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plakas, S.M.; El Said, K. R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Allen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of malachite green was determined in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after intravascular dosing (0.8 mg . Kg-1) or waterborne exposure (0.8 mg . L-1 for 1 h). After intravascular dosing, mean plasma concentrations of the parent compound exhibited a triphasic decline with a terminal elimination half-life of 6.2 h. Malachite green was rapidly absorbed and concentrated in the tissues during waterborne exposure. The rate of accumulation was directly related to pH of the exposure water. After waterborne exposure, elimination of the parent compound from plasma also was triphasic with a terminal half-life of 4.7 h. In muscle, the half-life of the parent compound was approximately 67 h. Malachite green and its metabolites were widely distributed in all tissues. In fish exposed to C-14-labeled malachite green, total drug equivalent concentrations were highest in abdominal fat and lowest in plasma. Malachite green was rapidly and extensively metabolized to its reduced form, leucomalachite green, which was slowly eliminated from the tissues. Leucomalachite green is an appropriate target analyte for monitoring exposure of channel catfish to this drug.

  10. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    PubMed

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. [Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors PPARs: their role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism].

    PubMed

    Andrééva-Gatéva, P

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) belong to a family of nuclear receptors broadly distributed in the organism. Their pleiotropic role has been recently proved as well as their pathogenic significance in diabetes, obesity, cell cycle controlling, carcinogenesis, inflammation and atherosclerosis. The three types of PPAR identified until today have different tissue localization. PPARgamma, primarily identified in macrophages and adipocytes, play an important role in the expression of proteins essential for lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. PPARalpha are localized predominantly in hepatocytes and have also an important role in lipid metabolism. PPAR are though to be lipid sensors in organism. Carbohydrate metabolism is also under the control of PPAR and their exogenous ligands, (ie: thiasolidinediones), are important antidiabetic drugs.

  12. Physical activity effects on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Smith, E L; Gilligan, C

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures rises exponentially with age and is increasing faster than the demographic increase in the aging population. Physical activity has great potential to reduce the risk for osteoporotic fractures. Three independent but interactive factors contribute to the risk of fractures: bone strength, the risk of falling, and the effectiveness of neuromuscular response that protects the skeleton from injury. Exercise can reduce fracture risk not only by preventing bone loss, but by decreasing the risk of falling and the force of impact by improving strength, flexibility, balance, and reaction time. Extreme inactivity causes rapid bone loss of up to 40%, while athletic activity results in bone hypertrophy of up to 40%. Exercise intervention programs have reduced bone loss or increased bone mass in both men and women of various ages and initial bone status. These benefits have been shown for arm bone mineral content, total body calcium, spine, calcium bone index, tibia, and calcaneus. In both middle-aged and elderly women, physical activity intervention reduced bone loss or increased bone mass. The mechanisms for maintenance of skeletal integrity rely on a cellular response to hormonal and mechanical load stimuli. Studies in animal models show that training affects cellular activity. In osteoporotics, cellular erosion is increased and mineral apposition rate (MAR) decreased compared with normal age-matched controls. In contrast to this, sows trained on a treadmill 20 min per day for 20 weeks had greater active periosteal surface, periosteal MAR, and osteonal MAR than untrained sows.

  13. Natural Killer Cell Activity and Interleukin-12 in Metabolically Healthy versus Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the immune system is involved in the different metabolic circumstances in healthy and unhealthy overweight individuals. We examined the metabolic and immune characteristics of 117 overweight individuals. Subjects were classified as metabolically healthy overweight (MHO, n = 72) or metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO, n = 45). The immune response was measured by circulating levels of natural killer (NK) cell activity and cytokines. Both groups were comparable with regards to age, sex distribution, smoking and drinking status, and body mass index. When compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglyceride, glucose, glucose-related markers, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed 39% lower interferon-γ levels (not significant) and 41% lower interleukin (IL)-12 levels (significant). The MUO group also showed lower NK cell activity at E:T ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 (all Ps < 0.05) than the MHO group. This study indicates that individuals displaying the MUO phenotype present an unfavorable immune system with lower NK cell activities under all assay conditions and lower serum levels of IL-12 than the activities and levels in similarly overweight MHO individuals. This result suggests that the immune system may be altered in overweight individuals who are at risk for overweight/obesity-related comorbidities. PMID:29238351

  14. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L; Vercoe, Phillip E; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods. Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related) and humans (more distantly related). Results. The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E-46), across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids) along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be different

  15. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L.; Vercoe, Phillip E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods. Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related) and humans (more distantly related). Results. The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E−46), across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids) along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be different

  16. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation, and functions.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Clovis S; Ostrowski, Matias; Balderson, Brad; Christian, Nicole; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The "Warburg effect" originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here, we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  17. Placental transfer and metabolism: an overview of the experimental models utilizing human placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Myllynen, Päivi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2013-02-01

    Over the decades several ex vivo and in vitro models which utilize delivered human placenta have been developed to study various placental functions. The use of models originating from human placenta to study transplacental transfer and related mechanisms is an attractive option because human placenta is relatively easily available for experimental studies. After delivery placenta has served its purpose and is usually disposed of. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the use of human placental models for the studies on human placental transfer and related mechanisms such as transporter functions and xenobiotic metabolism. Human placental perfusion, the most commonly used continuous cell lines, primary cells and tissue culture, as well as subcellular fractions are briefly introduced and their major advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adipose tissue metabolism and its role in adaptations to undernutrition in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Faulconnier, Y; Bonnet, M; Rouel, J; Bocquier, F

    2000-02-01

    Changes in the amount and metabolism of adipose tissue (AT) occur in underfed ruminants, and are amplified during lactation, or in fat animals. The fat depot of the tail of some ovine breeds seems to play a particular role in adaptation to undernutrition; this role could be linked to its smaller adipocytes and high sensitivity to the lipolytic effect of catecholamines. Glucocorticoids and growth hormone probably interact to induce teleophoretic changes in the AT responses to adenosine and catecholamines during lactation. Fat mobilization in dry ewes is related both to body fatness and to energy balance. The in vivo beta-adrenergic lipolytic potential is primarily related to energy balance, whereas basal postprandial plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are related to body fatness, and preprandial plasma NEFA is the best predictor of the actual body lipid loss. Several mechanisms seem to be aimed at avoiding excessive fat mobilization and/or insuring a return to the body fatness homeostatic set point. As well as providing the underfed animal with fatty acids as oxidative fuels, AT acts as an endocrine gland. The yield of leptin by ruminant AT is positively related to body fatness, decreased by underfeeding, beta-adrenergic stimulation and short day length, and increased by insulin and glucocorticoids. This finding suggests that the leptin chronic (or acute) decrease in lean (or underfed respectively) ruminants is, as in rodents, a signal for endocrine, metabolic and behavioural adaptations aimed at restoring homeostasis.

  19. Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-01-16

    The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimatemore » human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.« less

  20. Bioglass Activated Skin Tissue Engineering Constructs for Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongfei; Peng, Jinliang; Xu, Yuhong; Chang, Jiang; Li, Haiyan

    2016-01-13

    Wound healing is a complicated process, and fibroblast is a major cell type that participates in the process. Recent studies have shown that bioglass (BG) can stimulate fibroblasts to secrete a multitude of growth factors that are critical for wound healing. Therefore, we hypothesize that BG can stimulate fibroblasts to have a higher bioactivity by secreting more bioactive growth factors and proteins as compared to untreated fibroblasts, and we aim to construct a bioactive skin tissue engineering graft for wound healing by using BG activated fibroblast sheet. Thus, the effects of BG on fibroblast behaviors were studied, and the bioactive skin tissue engineering grafts containing BG activated fibroblasts were applied to repair the full skin lesions on nude mouse. Results showed that BG stimulated fibroblasts to express some critical growth factors and important proteins including vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, collagen I, and fibronectin. In vivo results revealed that fibroblasts in the bioactive skin tissue engineering grafts migrated into wound bed, and the migration ability of fibroblasts was stimulated by BG. In addition, the bioactive BG activated fibroblast skin tissue engineering grafts could largely increase the blood vessel formation, enhance the production of collagen I, and stimulate the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in the wound site, which would finally accelerate wound healing. This study demonstrates that the BG activated skin tissue engineering grafts contain more critical growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins that are beneficial for wound healing as compared to untreated fibroblast cell sheets.

  1. Defining the Adipose Tissue Proteome of Dairy Cows to Reveal Biomarkers Related to Peripartum Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Status.

    PubMed

    Zachut, Maya

    2015-07-02

    Adipose tissue is a central regulator of metabolism in dairy cows; however, little is known about the association between various proteins in adipose tissue and the metabolic status of peripartum cows. Therefore, the objectives were to (1) examine total protein expression in adipose tissue of dairy cows and (2) identify biomarkers in adipose that are linked to insulin resistance and to cows' metabolic status. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from eight multiparous cows at -17 and +4 days relative to parturition. Proteins were analyzed by intensity-based, label-free, quantitative shotgun proteomics (nanoLC-MS/MS). Cows were divided into groups with insulin-resistant (IR) and insulin-sensitive (IS) adipose according to protein kinase B phosphorylation following insulin stimulation. Cows with IR adipose lost more body weight postpartum compared with IS cows. Differential expression of 143 out of 586 proteins was detected in prepartum versus postpartum adipose. Comparing IR to IS adipose revealed differential expression of 18.9% of the proteins; those related to lipolysis (hormone-sensitive lipase, perilipin, monoglycerol lipase) were increased in IR adipose. In conclusion, we found novel biomarkers related to IR in adipose and to metabolic status that could be used to characterize high-yielding dairy cows that are better adapted to peripartum metabolic stress.

  2. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseedmeal in the diets of broiler chickens*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  3. Adipose tissue dysregulation and metabolic consequences in childhood and adolescent obesity: potential impact of dietary fat quality.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Aoibheann M; Connaughton, Ruth M; Lithander, Fiona E; Roche, Helen M

    2015-02-01

    Evidence suggests that at a population level, childhood and adolescent obesity increase the long-term risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and CVD. At an individual level, however, the metabolic consequences of obesity in youth vary immensely. Despite comparable BMI, some adolescents develop impaired glucose tolerance while others maintain normal glucose homeostasis. It has been proposed that the variation in the capacity to store lipid in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) may partially discriminate metabolically healthy from unhealthy obesity. In positive energy balance, a decreased capacity to expand SAT may drive lipid accumulation to visceral adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle. This state of lipotoxicity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. The present review examines the differential adipose tissue development and function in children and adolescents who exhibit metabolic dysregulation compared with those who are protected. Additionally, the role of manipulating dietary fat quality to potentially prevent and treat metabolic dysfunction in obesity will be discussed. The findings of the present review highlight the need for further randomised controlled trials to establish the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA on the metabolic phenotype of obese children and adolescents. Furthermore, using a personalised nutrition approach to target interventions to those at risk of, or those with established metabolic dysregulation may optimise the efficacy of modifying dietary fat quality.

  4. Copper sulphate (CuSO4) toxicity on tissue phosphatases activity and carbohydrates turnover in Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, K; Indra, D

    2002-04-01

    A time course study on the sublethal toxicity of CuSO4 on tissue carbohydrate metabolites level and their phosphatases activity in Achatina fulica revealed differential response. The levels of total carbohydrates and glycogen in the body mass muscle, foot muscle and hemolymph revealed their involvement in the endogenous derivation of energy during stress. The same metabolites in digestive gland revealed its importance to reproduction and development. The lactate accumulated in all the tissues implied the mechanism of CuSO4 toxicosis in the metabolic acidosis. The decrease of pyruvate in foot muscle, body mass muscle and hemolymph inferred the preponderance of glycolysis in energy derivation. In contrast, the pyruvate concentration in digestive gland revealed its differential response in the stress metabolic sequence of changes, as a unique tissue. The lactate/pyruvate ratio and the calcium content in tissues constitute direct evidences for the snails adaptation to toxic stress.

  5. Butyrate reduces appetite and activates brown adipose tissue via the gut-brain neural circuit.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuang; Yi, Chun-Xia; Katiraei, Saeed; Kooijman, Sander; Zhou, Enchen; Chung, Chih Kit; Gao, Yuanqing; van den Heuvel, José K; Meijer, Onno C; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Heijink, Marieke; Giera, Martin; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Groen, Albert K; Rensen, Patrick C N; Wang, Yanan

    2017-11-03

    Butyrate exerts metabolic benefits in mice and humans, the underlying mechanisms being still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of butyrate on appetite and energy expenditure, and to what extent these two components contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of butyrate. Acute effects of butyrate on appetite and its method of action were investigated in mice following an intragastric gavage or intravenous injection of butyrate. To study the contribution of satiety to the metabolic benefits of butyrate, mice were fed a high-fat diet with butyrate, and an additional pair-fed group was included. Mechanistic involvement of the gut-brain neural circuit was investigated in vagotomised mice. Acute oral, but not intravenous, butyrate administration decreased food intake, suppressed the activity of orexigenic neurons that express neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus, and decreased neuronal activity within the nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal vagal complex in the brainstem. Chronic butyrate supplementation prevented diet-induced obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and hepatic steatosis, largely attributed to a reduction in food intake. Butyrate also modestly promoted fat oxidation and activated brown adipose tissue (BAT), evident from increased utilisation of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids. This effect was not due to the reduced food intake, but explained by an increased sympathetic outflow to BAT. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy abolished the effects of butyrate on food intake as well as the stimulation of metabolic activity in BAT. Butyrate acts on the gut-brain neural circuit to improve energy metabolism via reducing energy intake and enhancing fat oxidation by activating BAT. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species Report Title Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were...ribosomal RNA when newly harvested Bacillus subtilis spores are incubated at physiological temperatures, as well as some evidence for transcription in

  7. Impaired autophagy activity is linked to elevated ER-stress and inflammation in aging adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Amiya Kumar; Mau, Theresa; O'Brien, Martin; Garg, Sanjay; Yung, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction in aging is associated with inflammation, metabolic syndrome and other diseases. We propose that impaired protein homeostasis due to compromised lysosomal degradation (micro-autophagy) might promote aberrant ER stress response and inflammation in aging adipose tissue. Using C57BL/6 mouse model, we demonstrate that adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells from old (18-20 months) mice have reduced expression of autophagy markers as compared to the younger (4-6 months) cohort. Elevated expressions of ER-stress marker CHOP and autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 are observed in old SVFs compared to young, when treated with either vehicle or with thapsigargin (Tg), an ER stress inducer. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 (Baf), a vacuolar-type H (+)-ATPase, or Tg elevated expressions of CHOP, and SQSTM1/p62 and LC-3-II, in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes. We also demonstrate impaired autophagy activity in old SVFs by analyzing increased accumulation of autophagy substrates LC3-II and p62. Compromised autophagy activity in old SVFs is correlated with enhanced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Finally, SVFs from calorie restricted old mice (CR-O) have shown enhanced autophagy activity compared to ad libitum fed old mice (AL-O). Our results support the notion that diminished autophagy activity with aging contributes to increased adipose tissue ER stress and inflammation. PMID:27777379

  8. Impaired autophagy activity is linked to elevated ER-stress and inflammation in aging adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amiya Kumar; Mau, Theresa; O'Brien, Martin; Garg, Sanjay; Yung, Raymond

    2016-10-24

    Adipose tissue dysfunction in aging is associated with inflammation, metabolic syndrome and other diseases. We propose that impaired protein homeostasis due to compromised lysosomal degradation (micro-autophagy) might promote aberrant ER stress response and inflammation in aging adipose tissue. Using C57BL/6 mouse model, we demonstrate that adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells from old (18-20 months) mice have reduced expression of autophagy markers as compared to the younger (4-6 months) cohort. Elevated expressions of ER-stress marker CHOP and autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 are observed in old SVFs compared to young, when treated with either vehicle or with thapsigargin (Tg), an ER stress inducer. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 (Baf), a vacuolar-type H (+)-ATPase, or Tg elevated expressions of CHOP, and SQSTM1/p62 and LC-3-II, in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes. We also demonstrate impaired autophagy activity in old SVFs by analyzing increased accumulation of autophagy substrates LC3-II and p62. Compromised autophagy activity in old SVFs is correlated with enhanced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Finally, SVFs from calorie restricted old mice (CR-O) have shown enhanced autophagy activity compared to ad libitum fed old mice (AL-O). Our results support the notion that diminished autophagy activity with aging contributes to increased adipose tissue ER stress and inflammation.

  9. Alternatively activated macrophages do not synthesize catecholamines or contribute to adipose tissue adaptive thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katrin; Ruiz, Henry H; Jhun, Kevin; Finan, Brian; Oberlin, Douglas J; van der Heide, Verena; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Petrovic, Natasa; Wolf, Yochai; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Shin, Andrew C; Divanovic, Senad; Brombacher, Frank; Glasmacher, Elke; Keipert, Susanne; Jastroch, Martin; Nagler, Joachim; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Medrikova, Dasa; Collden, Gustav; Woods, Stephen C; Herzig, Stephan; Homann, Dirk; Jung, Steffen; Nedergaard, Jan; Cannon, Barbara; Tschöp, Matthias H; Müller, Timo D; Buettner, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Adaptive thermogenesis is the process of heat generation in response to cold stimulation. It is under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, whose chief effector is the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE). NE enhances thermogenesis through β3-adrenergic receptors to activate brown adipose tissue and by 'browning' white adipose tissue. Recent studies have reported that alternative activation of macrophages in response to interleukin (IL)-4 stimulation induces the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a key enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis pathway, and that this activation provides an alternative source of locally produced catecholamines during the thermogenic process. Here we report that the deletion of Th in hematopoietic cells of adult mice neither alters energy expenditure upon cold exposure nor reduces browning in inguinal adipose tissue. Bone marrow-derived macrophages did not release NE in response to stimulation with IL-4, and conditioned media from IL-4-stimulated macrophages failed to induce expression of thermogenic genes, such as uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), in adipocytes cultured with the conditioned media. Furthermore, chronic treatment with IL-4 failed to increase energy expenditure in wild-type, Ucp1 -/- and interleukin-4 receptor-α double-negative (Il4ra -/- ) mice. In agreement with these findings, adipose-tissue-resident macrophages did not express TH. Thus, we conclude that alternatively activated macrophages do not synthesize relevant amounts of catecholamines, and hence, are not likely to have a direct role in adipocyte metabolism or adaptive thermogenesis.

  10. Thyroid hormone status defines brown adipose tissue activity and browning of white adipose tissues in mice.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Juliane; Kranz, Mathias; Klöting, Nora; Kunath, Anne; Steinhoff, Karen; Rijntjes, Eddy; Köhrle, Josef; Zeisig, Vilia; Hankir, Mohammed; Gebhardt, Claudia; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Heiker, John T; Kralisch, Susan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Sabri, Osama; Hesse, Swen; Brust, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Krause, Kerstin

    2016-12-12

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of thyroid hormone dysfunction on brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in mice. Twenty randomized female C57BL/6NTac mice per treatment group housed at room temperature were rendered hypothyroid or hyperthyroid. In-vivo small animal 18 F-FDG PET/MRI was performed to determine the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on BAT mass and BAT activity. Ex-vivo 14 C-acetate loading assay and assessment of thermogenic gene and protein expression permitted analysis of oxidative and thermogenic capacities of WAT and BAT of eu-, hyper and hypothyroid mice. 18 F-FDG PET/MRI revealed a lack of brown adipose tissue activity in hypothyroid mice, whereas hyperthyroid mice displayed increased BAT mass alongside enhanced 18 F-FDG uptake. In white adipose tissue of both, hyper- and hypothyroid mice, we found a significant induction of thermogenic genes together with multilocular adipocytes expressing UCP1. Taken together, these results suggest that both the hyperthyroid and hypothyroid state stimulate WAT thermogenesis most likely as a consequence of enhanced adrenergic signaling or compensation for impaired BAT function, respectively.

  11. Testosterone differentially regulates targets of lipid and glucose metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of the testicular feminised mouse.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel M; Akhtar, Samia; Sellers, Donna J; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and their clinical consequences-hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. The testicular feminised mouse (non-functional androgen receptor and low testosterone) develops fatty liver and aortic lipid streaks on a high-fat diet, whereas androgen-replete XY littermate controls do not. Testosterone treatment ameliorates these effects, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared the influence of testosterone on the expression of regulatory targets of glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in muscle, liver, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Testicular feminised mice displayed significantly reduced GLUT4 in muscle and glycolytic enzymes in muscle, liver and abdominal subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase required for fatty acid uptake was only reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue; enzymes of fatty acid synthesis were increased in liver and subcutaneous tissue. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 that catalyses oleic acid synthesis and is associated with insulin resistance was increased in visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol efflux components (ABCA1, apoE) were decreased in subcutaneous and liver tissue. Master regulator nuclear receptors involved in metabolism-Liver X receptor expression was suppressed in all tissues except visceral adipose tissue, whereas PPARγ was lower in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and PPARα only in abdominal subcutaneous. Testosterone treatment improved the expression (androgen receptor independent) of some targets but not all. These exploratory data suggest that androgen deficiency may reduce the buffering capability for glucose uptake and utilisation in abdominal subcutaneous and muscle and fatty acids in abdominal subcutaneous. This would lead to an overspill and uptake of excess glucose and triglycerides into visceral adipose tissue, liver and arterial walls.

  12. Chronic AMPK activation via loss of FLCN induces functional beige adipose tissue through PGC-1α/ERRα

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ming; Audet-Walsh, Étienne; Manteghi, Sanaz; Dufour, Catherine Rosa; Walker, Benjamin; Baba, Masaya; St-Pierre, Julie; Giguère, Vincent; Pause, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor folliculin (FLCN) forms a repressor complex with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Given that AMPK is a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, we generated an adipose-specific Flcn (Adipoq-FLCN) knockout mouse model to investigate the role of FLCN in energy metabolism. We show that loss of FLCN results in a complete metabolic reprogramming of adipose tissues, resulting in enhanced oxidative metabolism. Adipoq-FLCN knockout mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Importantly, FLCN ablation leads to chronic hyperactivation of AMPK, which in turns induces and activates two key transcriptional regulators of cellular metabolism, proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα). Together, the AMPK/PGC-1α/ERRα molecular axis positively modulates the expression of metabolic genes to promote mitochondrial biogenesis and activity. In addition, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins as well as other markers of brown fat are up-regulated in both white and brown FLCN-null adipose tissues, underlying the increased resistance of Adipoq-FLCN knockout mice to cold exposure. These findings identify a key role of FLCN as a negative regulator of mitochondrial function and identify a novel molecular pathway involved in the browning of white adipocytes and the activity of brown fat. PMID:27151976

  13. AMP-activated protein kinase and metabolic control

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, is a major regulator of cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis that coordinates metabolic pathways in order to balance nutrient supply with energy demand. It is now recognized that pharmacological activation of AMPK improves blood glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and blood pressure in insulin-resistant rodents. Indeed, AMPK activation mimics the beneficial effects of physical activity or those of calorie restriction by acting on multiple cellular targets. In addition it is now demonstrated that AMPK is one of the probable (albeit indirect) targets of major antidiabetic drugs including, the biguanides (metformin) and thiazolidinediones, as well as of insulin sensitizing adipokines (e.g., adiponectin). Taken together, such findings highlight the logic underlying the concept of targeting the AMPK pathway for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21484577

  14. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates cardiac injury and adipose tissue inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ito, S.; Sano, Y.; Nagasawa, K.; Matsuura, N.; Yamada, Y.; Uchinaka, A.; Murohara, T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction n‐3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are abundant in fish oil, have been shown to delay the onset of cardiovascular events. We previously established DahlS.Z‐Lepr fa/Lepr fa (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt‐sensitive and Zucker rats, as a model of metabolic syndrome. This study has now explored the influence of highly purified EPA on cardiac and adipose tissue pathophysiology in this animal model. Materials and methods DS/obese rats were administered EPA (300 or 1,000 mg kg−1 d−1, per os) or vehicle from age 9 to 13 weeks. Homozygous lean (DahlS.Z‐Lepr +/Lepr +, or DS/lean) littermates were studied as controls. Results Whereas EPA had no effect on body weight, food intake or systolic blood pressure in DS/obese rats, it attenuated cardiac fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation in these animals. In addition, EPA did not affect insulin resistance but reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation in visceral fat of DS/obese rats. Moreover, EPA increased circulating levels of adiponectin as well as attenuated both the down‐regulation of AMP‐activated protein kinase phosphorylation and the up‐regulation of phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor‐kB in the heart of DS/obese rats. Conclusions Treatment of DS/obese rats with EPA did not affect hypertension but reduced cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, with the latter effects being accompanied by AMP‐activated protein kinase activation and inactivation of nuclear factor‐kB signalling in the heart, possibly as a result of an increase in adiponectin secretion. EPA may be suitable for the treatment of cardiac injury associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27708849

  15. Survival of tissue-resident memory T cells requires exogenous lipid uptake and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Youdong; Tian, Tian; Park, Chang Ook; Lofftus, Serena Y.; Mei, Shenglin; Liu, Xing; Luo, Chi; O’Malley, John T.; Gehad, Ahmed; Teague, Jessica E.; Divito, Sherrie J.; Fuhlbrigge, Robert; Puigserver, Pere; Krueger, James G.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Clark, Rachael A.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells persist indefinitely in epithelial barrier tissues and protect the host against pathogens1–4. However, the biological pathways that enable the long-term survival of TRM cells are obscure4,5. Here we show that mouse CD8+ TRM cells generated by viral infection of the skin differentially express high levels of several molecules that mediate lipid uptake and intracellular transport, including fatty-acid-binding proteins 4 and 5 (FABP4 and FABP5). We further show that T-cell-specific deficiency of Fabp4 and Fabp5 (Fabp4/Fabp5) impairs exogenous free fatty acid (FFA) uptake by CD8+ TRM cells and greatly reduces their long-term survival in vivo, while having no effect on the survival of central memory T (TCM) cells in lymph nodes. In vitro, CD8+ TRM cells, but not CD8+ TCM, demonstrated increased mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the presence of exogenous FFAs; this increase was not seen in Fabp4/Fabp5 double-knockout CD8+ TRM cells. The persistence of CD8+ TRM cells in the skin was strongly diminished by inhibition of mitochondrial FFA β-oxidation in vivo. Moreover, skin CD8+ TRM cells that lacked Fabp4/Fabp5 were less effective at protecting mice from cutaneous viral infection, and lung Fabp4/Fabp5 double-knockout CD8+ TRM cells generated by skin vaccinia virus (VACV) infection were less effective at protecting mice from a lethal pulmonary challenge with VACV. Consistent with the mouse data, increased FABP4 and FABP5 expression and enhanced extracellular FFA uptake were also demonstrated in human CD8+ TRM cells in normal and psoriatic skin. These results suggest that FABP4 and FABP5 have a critical role in the maintenance, longevity and function of CD8+ TRM cells, and suggest that CD8+ TRM cells use exogenous FFAs and their oxidative metabolism to persist in tissue and to mediate protective immunity. PMID:28219080

  16. Effects of different acute hypoxic regimens on tissue oxygen profiles and metabolic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Christian; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Drager, Luciano F; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2011-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep. Both obesity and OSA are associated with insulin resistance and systemic inflammation, which may be attributable to tissue hypoxia. We hypothesized that a pattern of hypoxic exposure determines both oxygen profiles in peripheral tissues and systemic metabolic outcomes, and that obesity has a modifying effect. Lean and obese C57BL6 mice were exposed to 12 h of intermittent hypoxia 60 times/h (IH60) [inspired O₂ fraction (Fi(O₂)) 21-5%, 60/h], IH 12 times/h (Fi(O₂) 5% for 15 s, 12/h), sustained hypoxia (SH; Fi(O₂) 10%), or normoxia while fasting. Tissue oxygen partial pressure (Pti(O₂)) in liver, skeletal muscle and epididymal fat, plasma leptin, adiponectin, insulin, blood glucose, and adipose tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. In lean mice, IH60 caused oxygen swings in the liver, whereas fluctuations of Pti(O₂) were attenuated in muscle and abolished in fat. In obese mice, baseline liver Pti(O₂) was lower than in lean mice, whereas muscle and fat Pti(O₂) did not differ. During IH, Pti(O₂) was similar in obese and lean mice. All hypoxic regimens caused insulin resistance. In lean mice, hypoxia significantly increased leptin, especially during SH (44-fold); IH60, but not SH, induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in TNF-α secretion by fat. Obesity was associated with striking increases in leptin and TNF-α, which overwhelmed effects of hypoxia. In conclusion, IH60 led to oxygen fluctuations in liver and muscle and steady hypoxia in fat. IH and SH induced insulin resistance, but inflammation was increased only by IH60 in lean mice. Obesity caused severe inflammation, which was not augmented by acute hypoxic regimens.

  17. Effects of different acute hypoxic regimens on tissue oxygen profiles and metabolic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Drager, Luciano F.; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep. Both obesity and OSA are associated with insulin resistance and systemic inflammation, which may be attributable to tissue hypoxia. We hypothesized that a pattern of hypoxic exposure determines both oxygen profiles in peripheral tissues and systemic metabolic outcomes, and that obesity has a modifying effect. Lean and obese C57BL6 mice were exposed to 12 h of intermittent hypoxia 60 times/h (IH60) [inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) 21–5%, 60/h], IH 12 times/h (FiO2 5% for 15 s, 12/h), sustained hypoxia (SH; FiO2 10%), or normoxia while fasting. Tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtiO2) in liver, skeletal muscle and epididymal fat, plasma leptin, adiponectin, insulin, blood glucose, and adipose tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. In lean mice, IH60 caused oxygen swings in the liver, whereas fluctuations of PtiO2 were attenuated in muscle and abolished in fat. In obese mice, baseline liver PtiO2 was lower than in lean mice, whereas muscle and fat PtiO2 did not differ. During IH, PtiO2 was similar in obese and lean mice. All hypoxic regimens caused insulin resistance. In lean mice, hypoxia significantly increased leptin, especially during SH (44-fold); IH60, but not SH, induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in TNF-α secretion by fat. Obesity was associated with striking increases in leptin and TNF-α, which overwhelmed effects of hypoxia. In conclusion, IH60 led to oxygen fluctuations in liver and muscle and steady hypoxia in fat. IH and SH induced insulin resistance, but inflammation was increased only by IH60 in lean mice. Obesity caused severe inflammation, which was not augmented by acute hypoxic regimens. PMID:21737828

  18. Effects of variation in cerebral haemodynamics during aneurysm surgery on brain tissue oxygen and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kett-White, R; Hutchinson, P J; Czosnyka, M; al-Rawi, P; Gupta, A; Pickard, J D; Kirkpatrick, P J

    2002-01-01

    This study explores the sensitivities of multiparameter tissue gas sensors and microdialysis to variations in blood pressure, CSF drainage and to well-defined periods of ischaemia accompanying aneurysm surgery, and their predictive value for infarction. A Neurotrend sensor [brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PBO2), carbon dioxide (PBCO2), brain pH (pHB) and temperature] and microdialysis catheter were inserted into the appropriate vascular territory prior to craniotomy. Baseline data showed a clear correlation between PBO2 and mean arterial pressure (MAP) below a threshold of 80 mmHg. PBO2 improved with CSF drainage in 20 out of 28 (Wilcoxon: P < 0.05) cases where data was available. In 26 patients the effects of temporary vascular clipping (TC) (mean duration 16 minutes) were assessed. 2 patients subsequently declared infarction in the region of the probes. PBO2 fell from a mean 3.2 (95% CI 2.4-4.1) kPa to a minimum of 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.0) kPa in the non-infarct group. There was a lower baseline PBO2 (mean 0.8 kPa) in the patients who infarcted. PBCO2 mirrored PBO2 changes, whereas pHB did not change significantly in either group. Microdialysis changes associated with decreased PBO2 included a delayed increase in lactate, a raised lactate/pyruvate ratio and more rarely an increased glutamate. These changes were seen in 11 patients but were not predictive of infarction. Hypotension during aneurysm surgery is associated with a low PBO2. Multiparameter sensors can be sensitive to acute ischaemia. Microdialysis shows potential in the detection of metabolic changes during tissue hypoxia.

  19. Plasticity in body temperature and metabolic capacity sustains winter activity in a small endotherm (Rattus fuscipes).

    PubMed

    Glanville, Elsa J; Seebacher, Frank

    2010-03-01

    Small mammals that remain active throughout the year at a constant body temperature have a much greater energy and food requirement in winter. Lower body temperatures in winter may offset the increased energetic cost of remaining active in the cold, if cellular metabolism is not constrained by a negative thermodynamic effect. We aimed to determine whether variable body temperatures can be advantageous for small endotherms by testing the hypothesis that body temperature fluctuates seasonally in a wild rat (Rattus fuscipes); conferring an energy saving and reducing food requirements during resource restricted winter. Additionally we tested whether changes in body temperature affected tissue specific metabolic capacity. Winter acclimatized rats had significantly lower body temperatures and thicker fur than summer acclimatized rats. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption and the activity of enzymes that control oxidative (citrate synthase, cytochrome c-oxidase) and anaerobic (lactate dehydrogenase) metabolism were elevated in winter and were not negatively affected by the lower body temperature. Energy transfer modeling showed that lower body temperatures in winter combined with increased fur thickness to confer a 25 kJ day(-1) energy saving, with up to 50% owing to reduced body temperature alone. We show that phenotypic plasticity at multiple levels of organization is an important component of the response of a small endotherm to winter. Mitochondrial function compensates for lower winter body temperatures, buffering metabolic heat production capacity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The metabolic ER stress sensor IRE1α suppresses alternative activation of macrophages and impairs energy expenditure in obesity.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bo; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chi; Xia, Zhixiong; Dai, Jianli; Shao, Mengle; Zhao, Feng; He, Shengqi; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Mingliang; Nan, Fajun; Li, Jia; Liu, Jianmiao; Liu, Jianfeng; Jia, Weiping; Qiu, Yifu; Song, Baoliang; Han, Jing-Dong J; Rui, Liangyou; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are key players orchestrating metabolic inflammation, and ER stress enhances macrophage activation. However, whether ER stress pathways underlie ATM regulation of energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we identified inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) as a critical switch governing M1-M2 macrophage polarization and energy balance. Myeloid-specific IRE1α abrogation in Ern1 f/f ; Lyz2-Cre mice largely reversed high-fat diet (HFD)-induced M1-M2 imbalance in white adipose tissue (WAT) and blocked HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, WAT browning and energy expenditure were significantly higher in Ern1 f/f ; Lyz2-Cre mice. Furthermore, IRE1α ablation augmented M2 polarization of macrophages in a cell-autonomous manner. Thus, IRE1α senses protein unfolding and metabolic and immunological states, and consequently guides ATM polarization. The macrophage IRE1α pathway drives obesity and metabolic syndrome through impairing BAT activity and WAT browning.

  1. Upregulation of aldolase B and overproduction of methylglyoxal in vascular tissues from rats with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghai; Wang, Rui; Desai, Kaushik; Wu, Lingyun

    2011-12-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) overproduction has been reported in metabolic syndrome with hyperglycaemia (diabetes) or without hyperglycaemia (hypertension), and the underlying mechanism was investigated. Contributions of different pathways or enzymes to MG formation were evaluated in aorta or cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In all four animal models of metabolic syndrome, i.e. chronically fructose-fed hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats, obese non-diabetic Zucker rats, and diabetic Zucker rats, serum and aortic MG and fructose levels were increased, and the expression of GLUT5 (transporting fructose) and aldolase B (converting fructose to MG) in aorta were up-regulated. Aortic expressions of aldolase A, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1), accounting for MG formation during glycolysis, protein, and lipid metabolism, respectively, was unchanged/reduced. Fructose (25 mM) treatment of VSMCs up-regulated the expression of GLUT5 and aldolase B and accelerated MG formation. Insulin (100 nM) increased GLUT5 expression and augmented fructose-increased cellular fructose accumulation and MG formation. Glucose (25 mM) treatment activated the polyol pathway and enhanced fructose formation, leading to aldolase B upregulation and MG overproduction. Inhibition of the polyol pathway reduced the glucose-increased aldolase B expression and MG generation. The excess formation of MG in under these conditions was eliminated by knock-down of aldolase B, but not by knock-down of aldolase A or inhibition of SSAO or CYP 2E1. Upregulation of aldolase B by accumulated fructose is a common mechanism for MG overproduction in VSMCs and aorta in different models of metabolic syndrome.

  2. BAT Exosomes: Metabolic Crosstalk with Other Organs and Biomarkers for BAT Activity.

    PubMed

    Goody, Deborah; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2018-04-10

    In the last decade, exosomes have gained interest as a new type of intercellular communication between cells and tissues. Exosomes are circulating, cell-derived lipid vesicles smaller than 200 nm that contain proteins and nucleic acids, including microRNAs (miRNAs), and are able to modify cellular targets. Exosomal miRNAs function as signalling molecules that regulate the transcription of their target genes and can cause phenotypic transformation of recipient cells. Recent studies have shown that brown fat secretes exosomes as a form of communication with other metabolic organs such as the liver. Moreover, it has been shown that levels of miRNAs in BAT-derived exosomes change after BAT activation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, BAT-derived exosomes can be used as potential biomarkers of BAT activity. Here, we review the present knowledge about BAT-derived exosomes and their role in metabolism.

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor A Ligands as Anticancer Drugs Targeting Mitochondrial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cells show metabolic features distinctive from normal tissues, with characteristically enhanced aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis and lipid synthesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) is activated by nutrients (fatty acids and their derivatives) and influences these metabolic pathways acting antagonistically to oncogenic Akt and c-Myc. Therefore PPAR α can be regarded as a candidate target molecule in supplementary anticancer pharmacotherapy as well as dietary therapeutic approach. This idea is based on hitting the cancer cell metabolic weak points through PPAR α mediated stimulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis with simultaneous reduction of glucose and glutamine consumption. PPAR α activity is induced by fasting and its molecular consequences overlap with the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet (CRKD). CRKD induces increase of NAD+/NADH ratio and drop in ATP/AMP ratio. The first one is the main stimulus for enhanced protein deacetylase SIRT1 activity; the second one activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). Both SIRT1 and AMPK exert their major metabolic activities such as fatty acid oxidation and block of glycolysis and protein, nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis through the effector protein peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 1 α coactivator (PGC-1α). PGC-1α cooperates with PPAR α and their activities might contribute to potential anticancer effects of CRKD, which were reported for various brain tumors. Therefore, PPAR α activation can engage molecular interplay among SIRT1, AMPK, and PGC-1α that provides a new, low toxicity dietary approach supplementing traditional anticancer regimen. PMID:21133850

  4. Biotransformation and tissue distribution of protopine and allocryptopine and effects of Plume Poppy Total Alkaloid on liver drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Pi; Zhang, Zhuo-Yi; Tian, Shi-Jie; Sun, Zhi-Liang; Zeng, Jian-Guo; Liu, Zhao-Ying

    2018-01-11

    In this study, the biotransformation in the plasma, urine and feces of rats following oral administration of protopine (PRO) and allocryptopine (ALL)were explored using HPLC-QqTOF MS. An HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of tissues was developed and applied to the tissue distribution study in rats following intragastric administration of Plume Poppy Total Alkaloid for 3 weeks. A total of ten PRO metabolites and ten ALL metabolites were characterized in rats in vivo. Among these metabolites, six PRO metabolites and five ALL metabolites were reported for the first time. The predicated metabolic pathways including ring cleavage, demethylation following ring cleavage, and glucuronidation were proposed. The low-concentration residue of PRO and ALL in various tissues was detected at 24 h and 48 h after dosing, which indicated that both compounds could be widely distributed in tissues and exist as low levels of residue. The activities of erythromycin N-demethylase, aminopyrine N-demethylase and NAD (P)H quinone oxidoreductase in female rats can be induced post-dose, but these activities were inhibited in male rats. The proposed biotransformation and residues of PRO and ALL and their effects on enzymes may provide a basis for clarifying the metabolism and interpreting pharmacokinetics.

  5. Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xinxin; Kaminsky, Laurence S

    2003-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in extrahepatic tissues often play a dominant role in target tissue metabolic activation of xenobiotic compounds. They may also determine drug efficacy and influence the tissue burden of foreign chemicals or bioavailability of therapeutic agents. This review focuses on xenobiotic-metabolizing CYPs of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, including the lung, trachea, nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosa, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon. Many CYPs are expressed in one or more of these organs, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP2F1, CYP2J2, CYP2S1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP4B1. Of particular interest are the preferential expression of certain CYPs in the respiratory tract and the regional differences in CYP expression profile in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Current research activities on the characterization of CYP expression, function, and regulation in these tissues, as well as future research needs, are discussed.

  6. Activating Transcription Factor 3 Regulates Immune and Metabolic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D.; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins. PMID:22851689

  7. Cyanide Metabolism in Relation to Ethylene Production in Plant Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Wing-Kin; Yang, Shang Fa

    1988-01-01

    HCN is the putative product of C-1 and amino moieties of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) during its conversion to ethylene. In apple (Malus sylvestrus Mill.) slices or auxin-treated mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyls, which produced ethylene at high rates, the steady state concentration of HCN was found to be no higher than 0.2 micromolar, which was too low to inhibit respiration (reported Ki for HCN to inhibit respiration was 10-20 micromolar). However, these tissues became cyanogenic when treated with ACC, the precursor of ethylene, and with 2-aminoxyacetic acid, which inhibits β-cyanoalanine synthase, the main enzyme to detoxify HCN; the HCN levels in these tissues went up to 1.7 and 8.1 micromolar, respectively. Although ethylene production by avocado (Persea gratissima) and apple fruits increased several hundred-fold during ripening, β-cyanoalanine synthase activity increased only one- to two-fold. These findings support the notion that HCN is a co-product of ethylene biosynthesis and that the plant tissues possess ample capacity to detoxify HCN formed during ethylene biosynthesis so that the concentration of HCN in plant tissues is kept at a low level. PMID:16666329

  8. Nocturnal Accumulation of Malic Acid Occurs in Mesophyll Tissue without Proton Transport to Epidermal Tissue in the Inducible Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Klaus; Edwards, Gerald E.; Holtum, Joseph A. M.

    1981-01-01

    The inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, accumulates malic acid, i.e. equivalent amounts of malate anions and protons in the mesophyll cells at night. Levels of malate and titratable acidity are low in the epidermal tissue and do not change significantly during the day/night cycle. This result is in contrast to a recent report (Bloom 1979 Plant Physiol 64: 919-923) that the synthesis of malic acid during dark CO2 fixation is associated with an equivalent exchange of inorganic cations from epidermal tissue with protons in the mesophyll cells. PMID:16661916

  9. Alternatively activated macrophages do not synthesize catecholamines or contribute to adipose tissue adaptive thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Katrin; Ruiz, Henry H.; Jhun, Kevin; Finan, Brian; Oberlin, Douglas J.; van der Heide, Verena; Kalinovich, Anastasia V.; Petrovic, Natasa; Wolf, Yochai; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Shin, Andrew C.; Divanovic, Senad; Brombacher, Frank; Glasmacher, Elke; Keipert, Susanne; Jastroch, Martin; Nagler, Joachim; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Medrikova, Dasa; Collden, Gustav; Woods, Stephen C.; Herzig, Stephan; Homann, Dirk; Jung, Steffen; Nedergaard, Jan; Cannon, Barbara; Tschöp, Matthias H.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive thermogenesis is the process of heat generation in response to cold stimulation and is under the control of the sympathetic nervous system whose chief effector is the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE). NE enhances thermogenesis through beta3 adrenergic receptors to activate brown adipose tissue and by “browning” white adipose tissue. Recent studies reported that the alternative activation of macrophages in response to IL-4 stimulation induces the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a key enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis pathway, and to provide an alternative source of locally produced catecholamines during the thermogenic process. We here report that the deletion of Th in hematopoetic cells of adult mice neither alters energy expenditure upon cold exposure nor reduces browning in inguinal adipose tissue. Bone marrow-derived macrophages did not release NE in response to stimulation with Interleukin-4 (IL-4), and conditioned media from IL-4 stimulated macrophages failed to induce expression of thermogenic genes, such as the one for uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) in adipocytes cultured with the conditioned media. Further, chronic IL-4 treatment failed to increase energy expenditure in WT, Ucp1-/- and Il4ra-/- mice. Consistent with these findings, adipose tissue-resident macrophages did not express TH. Thus, we conclude that alternatively activated macrophages do not synthesize relevant amounts of catecholamines and hence are not likely to play a direct role in adipocyte metabolism or adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:28414329

  10. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  11. Systemic inhibition of Janus kinase induces browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity-related metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Qurania, Kikid Rucira; Ikeda, Koji; Wardhana, Donytra Arby; Barinda, Agian Jeffilano; Nugroho, Dhite Bayu; Kuribayashi, Yuko; Rahardini, Elda Putri; Rinastiti, Pranindya; Ryanto, Gusty Rizky Teguh; Yagi, Keiko; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Emoto, Noriaki

    2018-07-07

    Browning of white adipose tissue is a promising strategy to tackle obesity. Recently, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition was shown to induce white-to-brown metabolic conversion of adipocytes in vitro; however effects of JAK inhibition on browning and systemic metabolic health in vivo remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that systemic administration of JAK inhibitor (JAKi) ameliorated obesity-related metabolic disorders. Administration of JAKi in mice fed a high-fat diet increased UCP-1 and PRDM16 expression in white adipose tissue, indicating the browning of white adipocyte. Food intake was increased in JAKi-treated mice, while the body weight and adiposity was similar between the JAKi- and vehicle-treated mice. In consistent with the browning, thermogenic capacity was enhanced in mice treated with JAKi. Chronic inflammation in white adipose tissue was not ameliorated by JAKi-treatment. Nevertheless, insulin sensitivity was well preserved in JAKi-treated mice comparing with that in vehicle-treated mice. Serum levels of triglyceride and free fatty acid were significantly reduced by JAKi-treatment, which is accompanied by ameliorated hepatosteatosis. Our data demonstrate that systemic administration of JAKi has beneficial effects in preserving metabolic health, and thus inhibition of JAK signaling has therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity and its-related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of carbon-11 labeled acryl amides for selective PET imaging of active tissue transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    van der Wildt, Berend; Wilhelmus, Micha M M; Bijkerk, Jonne; Haveman, Lizeth Y F; Kooijman, Esther J M; Schuit, Robert C; Bol, John G J M; Jongenelen, Cornelis A M; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Drukarch, Benjamin; Windhorst, Albert D

    2016-04-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme capable of forming metabolically and mechanically stable crosslinks between the γ-carboxamide of a glutamine acyl-acceptor substrate and the ε-amino functionality of a lysine acyl-donor substrate resulting in protein oligomers. High TG2 crosslinking activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases including celiac disease, cancer and fibrotic and neurodegenerative diseases. Development of a PET tracer specific for active TG2 provides a novel tool to further investigate TG2 biology in vivo in disease states. Recently, potent irreversible active site TG2 inhibitors carrying an acrylamide warhead were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized. Three of these inhibitors, compound 1, 2 and 3, were successfully radiolabeled with carbon-11 on the acrylamide carbonyl position using a palladium mediated [(11)C]CO aminocarbonylation reaction. Ex vivo biodistribution and plasma stability were evaluated in healthy Wistar rats. Autoradiography was performed on MDA-MB-231 tumor sections. [(11)C]1, -2 and -3 were obtained in decay corrected radiochemical yields of 38-55%. Biodistribution showed low uptake in peripheral tissues, with the exception of liver and kidney. Low brain uptake of <0.05% ID/g was observed. Blood plasma analysis demonstrated that [(11)C]1 and [(11)C]2 were rapidly metabolized, whereas [(11)C]3 was metabolized at a more moderate rate (63.2 ± 6.8 and 28.7 ± 10.8% intact tracer after 15 and 45 min, respectively). Autoradiography with [(11)C]3 on MDA-MB-231 tumor sections showed selective and specific binding of the radiotracer to the active state of TG2. Taken together, these results identify [(11)C]3 as the most promising of the three compounds tested for development as PET radiotracer for the in vivo investigation of TG2 activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In ovo uptake, metabolism, and tissue-specific distribution of chiral PCBs and PBDEs in developing chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zong-Rui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Li-Qian; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with environmental doses of 4 chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 8 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to investigate their uptake, metabolism in the embryo, and distribution in the neonate chicken. PCB95 uptake was the most efficient (80%) whereas BDE209 was the least (56%). Embryos metabolized approximately 52% of the PCBs absorbed. Though some degree of metabolism in the first 18 days, most of the PCBs and PBDEs was metabolized in the last three days, when BDE85, 99, 153, and 209 decrease by 11–37%. Enantioselective metabolism of the (+) enantiomers of PCB95, 149, and 132 and the (−) enantiomer of PCB91 was observed. The enantioselective reactivity was higher with the two penta-PCBs than the two tetra-PCBs. Liver, exhibited high affinity for high lipophilic chemicals, enrich all chemicals that was deflected in other tissues except for some special chemicals in a given tissues. Lipid composition, time of organ formation, and metabolism contribute to the distribution of chemicals in the neonate chicken. The result of this study will improve our understanding on the fate and potential adverse effects of PCBs and PBDEs in the neonate chicken. PMID:27819361

  14. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis reveals dysregulation of energy-related metabolism in insulin-sensitive tissues of type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Wang, X C; Zhao, L; Zhang, Y; Yao, L L; Lin, Y; Peng, Y D; Hu, R M

    2014-06-17

    Impaired insulin action within skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the liver is an important characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In order to identify common underlying defects in insulin-sensitive tissues that may be involved in the pathogenesis of T2D, the gene expression profiles of skeletal muscle, visceral adipose tissue, and liver from autopsy donors with or without T2D were examined using oligonucleotide microarrays and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Compared with controls, 691 genes were commonly dysregulated in these three insulin-sensitive tissues of humans with T2D. These co-expressed genes were enriched within the mitochondrion, with suggested involvement in energy metabolic processes such as glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, fatty acid beta oxidative, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and electron transport. Genes related to energy metabolism were mostly downregulated in diabetic skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue, while they were upregulated in the diabetic liver. This observed dysregulation in energy-related metabolism may be the underlying factor leading to the molecular mechanisms responsible for the insulin resistance of patients with T2D.

  15. Low-intensity lasers, modern filling materials, and bonding systems influence on mineral metabolism of hard dental tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Yesaulenko, I. E.; Zoibelmann, M.; Pankova, Svetlana N.; Ippolitov, Yu. A.; Oleinik, Olga I.; Popova, T. A.; Koretskaya, I. V.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Podolskaya, Elana E.

    2001-10-01

    One of the main reasons of low quality filling is breaking Ca-P balance in hard tissues. Our research was done with the purpose of studying the influence of low intensity lasers, diodic radiation, the newest filling and bonding systems on the processes of mineral metabolism in hard dental tissues while filling a tooth. 250 patients having caries and its compli-cations were examined and treated. Our complex research included: visual and instrumental examination, finding out the level of oral cavity hygiene, acid enamel biopsy, scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray spectrum microanalysis. Filling processes may produce a negative effect on mineral metabolism of hard dental tissues the latter is less pronounced when applying fluoride-containing filling materials with bonding systems. It has also been found that bonding dentin and enamel systems are designed for both a better filling adhesion (i.e. mechanical adhesion) and migration of useful microelements present in them by their sinking into hard dental tissues (i.e. chemical adhesion). Our research showed a positive influence of low intensity laser and diodic beams accompanying the use of modern filling and bonding systems on mineral metabolism of hard dental tissues.

  16. Bioluminescence-Activated Deep-Tissue Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yi Rang; Kim, Seonghoon; Choi, Jin Woo; Choi, Sung Yong; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Homin; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Koh, Gou Young; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Optical energy can trigger a variety of photochemical processes useful for therapies. Owing to the shallow penetration of light in tissues, however, the clinical applications of light-activated therapies have been limited. Bioluminescence resonant energy transfer (BRET) may provide a new way of inducing photochemical activation. Here, we show that efficient bioluminescence energy-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) of macroscopic tumors and metastases in deep tissue. For monolayer cell culture in vitro incubated with Chlorin e6, BRET energy of about 1 nJ per cell generated as strong cytotoxicity as red laser light irradiation at 2.2 mW/cm2 for 180 s. Regional delivery of bioluminescence agents via draining lymphatic vessels killed tumor cells spread to the sentinel and secondary lymph nodes, reduced distant metastases in the lung and improved animal survival. Our results show the promising potential of novel bioluminescence-activated PDT. PMID:26000054

  17. 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, metabolism and exercise.

    PubMed

    Aschenbach, William G; Sakamoto, Kei; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-01-01

    The 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a member of a metabolite-sensing protein kinase family that functions as a metabolic 'fuel gauge' in skeletal muscle. AMPK is a ubiquitous heterotrimeric protein, consisting of an alpha catalytic, and beta and gamma regulatory subunits that exist in multiple isoforms and are all required for full enzymatic activity. During exercise, AMPK becomes activated in skeletal muscle in response to changes in cellular energy status (e.g. increased adenosine monophosphate [AMP]/adenosine triphosphate [ATP] and creatine/phosphocreatine ratios) in an intensity-dependent manner, and serves to inhibit ATP-consuming pathways, and activate pathways involved in carbohydrate and fatty-acid metabolism to restore ATP levels. Recent evidence shows that although AMPK plays this key metabolic role during acute bouts of exercise, it is also an important component of the adaptive response of skeletal muscles to endurance exercise training because of its ability to alter muscle fuel reserves and expression of several exercise-responsive genes. This review discusses the putative roles of AMPK in acute and chronic exercise responses, and suggests avenues for future AMPK research in exercise physiology and biochemistry.

  18. Measurements of radon activity concentration in mouse tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Ishimori, Yuu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon activity concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m 3 of radon in air. Radon activity concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon activity concentration in mouse blood was 0.410 ± 0.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration in air. In addition, average partition coefficients obtained were 0.74 ± 0.19 for liver, 0.46 ± 0.13 for muscle, 9.09 ± 0.49 for adipose tissue, and 0.22 ± 0.04 for other organs. With these results, a value of 0.414 for the blood-to-air partition coefficient was calculated by means of our physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The time variation of radon activity concentration in mouse blood during exposure to radon was also calculated. All results are compared in detail with those found in the literature.

  19. Interactive effects of high stocking density and food deprivation on carbohydrate metabolism in several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus.

    PubMed

    Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Guzmán, José M; Láiz-Carrión, Raúl; Míguez, Jesús M; Martín Del Río, María P; Mancera, Juan M; Soengas, José L

    2005-09-01

    The influence of high stocking density (HSD) and food deprivation was assessed on carbohydrate metabolism of several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus for 14 days. Fish were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: (1) fed fish under normal stocking density (NSD) (4 kg m(-3)); (2) fed fish under HSD (70 kg m(-3)); (3) food-deprived fish under NSD; and (4) food-deprived fish under HSD. After 14 days, samples were taken from the plasma, liver, gills, kidney and brain for the assessment of plasma cortisol, levels of metabolites and the activity of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. HSD conditions alone elicited important changes in energy metabolism of several tissues that in some cases were confirmatory (5-fold increase in plama cortisol, 20% increase in plasma glucose, 60% decrease in liver glycogen and 20% increase in gluconeogenic potential in the liver) whereas in others provided new information regarding metabolic adjustments to cope with HSD in the liver (100% increase in glucose phosphorylating capacity), gills (30% decrease in capacity for phosphorylating glucose), kidney (80% increase in the capacity of phosphorylating glucose) and brain (2.5-fold increase in ATP levels). On the other hand, food deprivation alone resulted in increased plasma cortisol, and metabolic changes in the liver (enhanced gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic potential of 13% and 18%, respectively) and brain (10% increase in glycolytic capacity), confirmatory of previous studies, whereas new information regarding metabolic adjustments during food deprivation was obtained in the gills and kidney (decreased lactate levels in both tissues of 45% and 55%, respectively). Furthermore, the results obtained provided, for the first time in fish, information indicating that food deprivation increased the sensitivity of gilthead sea bream to the stress induced by HSD compared with the fed controls, as demonstrated by increased plasma cortisol levels (50% increase vs

  20. Metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid by orange (Citrus sinensis) flavedo tissue during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Chamarro, J; Ostin, A; Sandberg, G

    2001-05-01

    [5-3H, 1'-14C, 13C6, 12C] Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), was applied to the flavedo (epicarp) of intact orange fruits at different stages of development. After incubation in the dark, at 25 degrees C, the tissue was extracted with MeOH and the partially purified extracts were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC-RC. Six major metabolite peaks were detected and subsequently analyzed by combined HPLC-frit-FAB MS. The metabolite peak 6 contained oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA), indole-3-acetyl-N-aspartic acid (IAAsp) and also indole-3-acetyl-N-glutamic acid (IAGlu). The nature of metabolite 5 remains unknown. Metabolites 3 and 4 were diastereomers of oxindole-3-acetyl-N-aspartic acid (OxIAAsp). Metabolite 2 was identified as dioxindole-3-acetic acid and metabolite 1 as a DiOx-IAA linked in position three to a hexose, which is suggested to be 3-(-O-beta-glucosyl) dioxindole-3-acetic acid (DiOxIAGlc). Identification work as well as feeding experiments with the [5-3H]IAA labeled metabolites suggest that IAA is metabolized in flavedo tissue mainly through two pathways, namely IAA-OxIAA-DiOxIAA-DiOxIAGlc and IAA-IAAsp-OxIAAsp. The flavedo of citrus fruit has a high capacity for IAA catabolism until the beginning of fruit senescence, with the major route having DiOxIAGlc as end product. This capacity is operative even at high IAA concentrations and is accelerated by pretreatment with the synthetic auxins 2,4-D, NAA and the gibberellin GA3.

  1. CREB and the CRTC co-activators: sensors for hormonal and metabolic signals

    PubMed Central

    Altarejos, Judith Y.; Montminy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is phosphorylated in response to a wide variety of signals, yet target gene transcription is only increased in a subset of cases. Recent studies indicate that CREB functions in concert with a family of latent cytoplasmic co-activators called cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activators (CRTCs), which are activated through dephosphorylation. A dual requirement for CREB phosphorylation and CRTC dephosphorylation is likely to explain how these activator–co-activator cognates discriminate between different stimuli. Following their activation, CREB and CRTCs mediate the effects of fasting and feeding signals on the expression of metabolic programmes in insulin-sensitive tissues. PMID:21346730

  2. Abdominal adipose tissue: early metabolic dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and oxidative stress induced by an unbalanced diet.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, O R; Marra, C A; Raschia, A; Rodriguez, S; Gagliardino, J J

    2008-11-01

    The possible contribution of early changes in lipid composition, function, and antioxidant status of abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) induced by a fructose-rich diet (FRD) to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress (OS) was studied. Wistar rats were fed with a commercial diet with (FRD) or without 10% fructose in the drinking water for 3 weeks. The glucose (G), triglyceride (TG), and insulin (I) plasma levels, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, lyposoluble antioxidants, total glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation as TBARS, fatty acid (FA) composition of AAT-TG as well as their release by incubated pieces of AAT were measured. Rats fed with a FRD have significantly higher plasma levels of G, TG, and I. Their AAT showed a marked increase in content and ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs, TBARS, and catalase, GSH-transferase and GSH-reductase, together with a decrease in superoxide dismutase and GSH-peroxidase activity, and total GSH, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene content. Incubated AAT from FRD released in vitro higher amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) with higher ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs. Our data suggest that FRD induced an early prooxidative state and metabolic dysfunction in AAT that would favor the overall development of IR and OS and further development of pancreatic beta-cell failure; therefore, its early control would represent an appropriate strategy to prevent alterations such as the development of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on energy metabolism of brain tissue of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoxin; Li, Xinzhong

    2017-12-01

    The protective effect and mechanism of low-intensity laser acupoint irradiation on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) injury in rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham group, a CIR model (model) group, and a model plus laser irradiation (laser) group. The focal CIR model was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in all except the rats in the sham group. After modeling, the Baihui, Mingmen, and left Zusanli points of the rats in the laser group were irradiated with 15 mW using a semiconductor laser, and each point was irradiated for 15 min once a day for 7 d. The treatments used in the sham and model groups were the same as in the laser group except that the laser output power was zero. After treatment, the expressions of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and serum malonaldehyde (MDA) content, the expression of growth-associated protein (GAP-43), the activities of succinic dehydrogenase and lactic dehydrogenase in brain tissue, were measured. The results showed that acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve energy metabolism, enhance the expression of GAP-43, increase the levels of expression of serum SOD, and decrease the serum MDA content in a rat model of focal CIR, suggesting the mechanism for reduction of CIR injury.

  4. Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Lena; Hoem, Nils; Banni, Sebastiano; Berge, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    The biological activities of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) have been under extensive study for several decades. However, not much attention has been paid to differences of dietary forms, such as triglycerides (TGs) versus ethyl esters or phospholipids (PLs). New innovative marine raw materials, like krill and fish by-products, present n-3 FAs mainly in the PL form. With their increasing availability, new evidence has emerged on n-3 PL biological activities and differences to n-3 TGs. In this review, we describe the recently discovered nutritional properties of n-3 PLs on different parameters of metabolic syndrome and highlight their different metabolic bioavailability in comparison to other dietary forms of n-3 FAs. PMID:23203133

  5. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) as a novel metabolic target.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Angel; Habegger, Kirk M; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Holleman, Cassie; Müller, Timo D; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Li, Pengyun; Agrawal, Archita S; Finan, Brian; Drucker, Daniel J; Tschöp, Matthias H; DiMarchi, Richard D; Kharitonenkov, Alexei

    2016-10-01

    Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a serine protease belonging to a S9B prolyl oligopeptidase subfamily. This enzyme has been implicated in cancer development and recently reported to regulate degradation of FGF21, a potent metabolic hormone. Using a known FAP inhibitor, talabostat (TB), we explored the impact of FAP inhibition on metabolic regulation in mice. To address this question we evaluated the pharmacology of TB in various mouse models including those deficient in FGF21, GLP1 and GIP signaling. We also studied the ability of FAP to process FGF21 in vitro and TB to block FAP enzymatic activity. TB administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) animals led to profound decreases in body weight, reduced food consumption and adiposity, increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and lowered cholesterol levels. Total and intact plasma FGF21 were observed to be elevated in TB-treated DIO mice but not lean animals where the metabolic impact of TB was significantly attenuated. Furthermore, and in stark contrast to naïve DIO mice, the administration of TB to obese FGF21 knockout animals demonstrated no appreciable effect on body weight or any other measures of metabolism. In support of these results we observed no enzymatic degradation of human FGF21 at either end of the protein when FAP was inhibited in vitro by TB. We conclude that pharmacological inhibition of FAP enhances levels of FGF21 in obese mice to provide robust metabolic benefits not observed in lean animals, thus validating this enzyme as a novel drug target for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  6. Tissue-dependent cerebral energy metabolism in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Jonathan; DelBello, Melissa P; Weber, Wade A; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M; Lee, Jing-Huei

    2016-02-01

    To investigate tissue-dependent cerebral energy metabolism by measuring high energy phosphate levels in unmedicated adolescents diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data were acquired over the entire brain of 24 adolescents with bipolar I disorder and 19 demographically matched healthy comparison adolescents. Estimates of phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, determined from the γ-resonance) in homogeneous gray and white matter in the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum of each subject were obtained by extrapolation of linear regression analyses of metabolite concentrations vs. voxel gray matter fractions. Multivariate analyses of variance showed a significant effect of group on high energy phosphate concentrations in the right cerebrum (p=0.0002) but not in the left (p=0.17). Post-hoc testing in the right cerebrum revealed significantly reduced concentrations of PCr in gray matter and ATP in white matter in both manic (p=0.002 and 0.0001, respectively) and euthymic (p=0.004 and 0.002, respectively) bipolar I disorder subjects relative to healthy comparisons. The small sample sizes yield relatively low statistical power between manic and euthymic groups; cross-sectional observations limit the ability to determine if these findings are truly independent of mood state. Our results suggest bioenergetic impairment - consistent with downregulation of creatine kinase - is an early pathophysiological feature of bipolar I disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Telomerase activity as a marker for malignancy in feline tissues.

    PubMed

    Cadile, C D; Kitchell, B E; Biller, B J; Hetler, E R; Balkin, R G

    2001-10-01

    To establish the diagnostic significance of the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay in detecting feline malignancies. Solid tissue specimens collected from 33 client-owned cats undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between July 1997 and September 1999 and an additional 20 tissue samples were collected from 3 clinically normal control cats euthanatized at the conclusion of an unrelated study. The TRAP assay was used for detection of telomerase activity. Each result was compared to its respective histopathologic diagnosis. Twenty-nine of 31 malignant and 1 of 22 benign or normal tissue samples had telomerase activity, indicating 94% sensitivity and 95% specificity of the TRAP assay in our laboratory. The diagnostic significance of telomerase activity has been demonstrated in humans and recently in dogs by our laboratory. We tested feline samples to determine whether similar patterns of telomerase activity exist. On the basis of our results, the TRAP assay may be clinically useful in providing a rapid diagnosis of malignancy in cats. The telomerase enzyme may also serve as a therapeutic target in feline tumors.

  8. Acetate metabolism does not reflect astrocytic activity, contributes directly to GABA synthesis, and is increased by silent information regulator 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Benjamin D; Klugmann, Matthias; Rae, Caroline D

    2017-03-01

    [ 13 C]Acetate is known to label metabolites preferentially in astrocytes rather than neurons and it has consequently been used as a marker for astrocytic activity. Recent discoveries suggest that control of acetate metabolism and its contributions to the synthesis of metabolites in brain is not as simple as first thought. Here, using a Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slice model metabolizing [1- 13 C]D-glucose and [1,2- 13 C]acetate, we investigated control of acetate metabolism and the degree to which it reflects astrocytic activity. Using a range of [1,2- 13 C]acetate concentrations, we found that acetate is a poor substrate for metabolism and will inhibit metabolism of itself and of glucose at concentrations in excess of 2 mmol/L. By activating astrocytes using potassium depolarization, we found that use of [1,2- 13 C]acetate to synthesize glutamine decreases significantly under these conditions showing that acetate metabolism does not necessarily reflect astrocytic activity. By blocking synthesis of glutamine using methionine sulfoximine, we found that significant amount of [1,2- 13 C]acetate are still incorporated into GABA and its metabolic precursors in neurons, with around 30% of the GABA synthesized from [1,2- 13 C]acetate likely to be made directly in neurons rather than from glutamine supplied by astrocytes. Finally, to test whether activity of the acetate metabolizing enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase is under acetylation control in the brain, we incubated slices with the AceCS1 deacetylase silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) activator SRT 1720 and showed consequential increased incorporation of [1,2- 13 C]acetate into metabolites. Taken together, these data show that acetate metabolism is not directly nor exclusively related to astrocytic metabolic activity, that use of acetate is related to enzyme acetylation and that acetate is directly metabolized to a significant degree in GABAergic neurons. Changes in acetate metabolism should be interpreted as

  9. Physiological community ecology: variation in metabolic activity of ecologically important rocky intertidal invertebrates along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P; Stillman, Jonathon H; Menge, Bruce A

    2002-08-01

    Rocky intertidal invertebrates live in heterogeneous habitats characterized by steep gradients in wave activity, tidal flux, temperature, food quality and food availability. These environmental factors impact metabolic activity via changes in energy input and stress-induced alteration of energetic demands. For keystone species, small environmentally induced shifts in metabolic activity may lead to disproportionately large impacts on community structure via changes in growth or survival of these key species. Here we use biochemical indicators to assess how natural differences in wave exposure, temperature and food availability may affect metabolic activity of mussels, barnacles, whelks and sea stars living at rocky intertidal sites with different physical and oceanographic characteristics. We show that oxygen consumption rate is correlated with the activity of key metabolic enzymes (e.g., citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase) for some intertidal species, and concentrations of these enzymes in certain tissues are lower for starved individuals than for those that are well fed. We also show that the ratio of RNA to DNA (an index of protein synthetic capacity) is highly variable in nature and correlates with short-term changes in food availability. We also observed striking patterns in enzyme activity and RNA/DNA in nature, which are related to differences in rocky intertidal community structure. Differences among species and habitats are most pronounced in summer and are linked to high nearshore productivity at sites favored by suspension feeders and to exposure to stressful low-tide air temperatures in areas of low wave splash. These studies illustrate the great promise of using biochemical indicators to test ecological models, which predict changes in community structure along environmental gradients. Our results also suggest that biochemical indices must be carefully validated with laboratory studies, so that the indicator selected is likely to respond to the

  10. Uptake and metabolism of 14C-palmitate by fetal rabbit tissues.

    PubMed

    Hudson, D G; Hull, D

    1977-01-01

    The uptake and esterification of 14C-palmitate into lipid classes in placenta, fetal brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of rabbits were investigated in vitro. Fetal BAT showed a high rate of fatty acid uptake, 8.5 mumol-a-1 tissue-h-1. From 5 min onwards, the majority of incorporated label was in the triglyceride fraction. The placenta and fetal liver also incorporated I-[14C]-palmitate into both FFA and esterified lipid fractions, although at much lower rates than observed for BAT. In the liver, triglycerides, but in the placenta phospholipids, contained the majority of the label after 1 h incubation. BAT from both fetal and newborn rabbits released 14CO2 and the production of 14 CO2 was greater in the presence of noradrenaline. The specific activity of the CO2 was the same in stimulated and unstimulated tissue. It is concluded that BAT as well as the liver are important sites of free fatty acid removal from the fetal circulation. The potential for fatty acid oxidation is present in BAT of the 28-day rabbit fetus.

  11. NNMT activation can contribute to the development of fatty liver disease by modulating the NAD + metabolism.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Motoaki; Kanda, Takeshi; Urai, Hidenori; Kurokochi, Arata; Kitahama, Rina; Shigaki, Shuhei; Ono, Takashi; Yukioka, Hideo; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Tokuyama, Hirobumi; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Wakino, Shu; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2018-06-05

    Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) catalyses the reaction between nicotinamide (NAM) and S-adenosylmethionine to produce 1-methylnicotinamide and S-adenosylhomocysteine. Recently, this enzyme has also been reported to modulate hepatic nutrient metabolism, but its role in the liver has not been fully elucidated. We developed transgenic mice overexpressing NNMT to elucidate its role in hepatic nutrient metabolism. When fed a high fat diet containing NAM, a precursor for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + , these NNMT-overexpressing mice exhibit fatty liver deterioration following increased expression of the genes mediating fatty acid uptake and decreased very low-density lipoprotein secretion. NNMT overactivation decreased the NAD + content in the liver and also decreased gene activity related to fatty acid oxidation by inhibiting NAD + -dependent deacetylase Sirt3 function. Moreover, the transgenic mice showed liver fibrosis, with the induction of inflammatory and fibrosis genes. Induced NNMT expression decreased the tissue methylation capacity, thereby reducing methylation of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene promoter, resulting in increased CTGF expression. These data indicate that NNMT links the NAD + and methionine metabolic pathways and promotes liver steatosis and fibrosis. Therefore, targeting NNMT may serve as a therapeutic strategy for treating fatty liver and fibrosis.

  12. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine Activates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis in Hypothyroid Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality) in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient) and mitochondria (longer lasting), suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis. PMID:25658324

  13. Tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion of 3, 3′-dichloro-4′-sulfooxy-biphenyl in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian A.; He, Xianran; Teesch, Lynn M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Duffel, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with lower numbers of chlorine atoms exhibit a greater susceptibility to metabolism than their higher-chlorinated counterparts. Following initial hydroxylation of these lower chlorinated PCBs, metabolic sulfation to form PCB sulfates is increasingly recognized as an important component of their toxicology. Since procedures for the quantitative analysis of PCB sulfates in tissue samples have not been previously available, we have now developed an efficient, LC-ESI-MS/MS based, protocol for the quantitative analysis of 4-PCB 11 sulfate in biological samples. This procedure was used to determine the distribution of 4-PCB 11 sulfate in liver, kidney, lung, and brain, as well as its excretion profile, following its intravenous administration to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following initial uptake of 4-PCB 11 sulfate, its concentration in these tissues and serum declined within the first hour following injection. Although biliary secretion was detected, analysis of 24 hour collections of urine and feces revealed recovery of less than 4% of the administered 4-PCB 11 sulfate. High-resolution LC-MS analysis of bile, urine, and feces showed metabolic products derived from 4-PCB 11 sulfate. Thus, 4-PCB 11 sulfate at this dose was not directly excreted in the urine, but was, instead, re-distributed to tissues and/or subjected to further metabolism. PMID:26046945

  14. Bidirectional Control of Blood Flow by Astrocytes: A Role for Tissue Oxygen and Other Metabolic Factors.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Grant R J; Howarth, Clare; MacVicar, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Altering cerebral blood flow through the control of cerebral vessel diameter is critical so that the delivery of molecules important for proper brain functioning is matched to the activity level of neurons. Although the close relationship of brain glia known as astrocytes with cerebral blood vessels has long been recognized, it is only recently that these cells have been demonstrated to translate information on the activity level and energy demands of neurons to the vasculature. In particular, astrocytes respond to elevations in extracellular glutamate as a consequence of synaptic transmission through the activation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors. These Gq-protein coupled receptors elevate intracellular calcium via IP3 signaling. A close examination of astrocyte endfeet calcium signals has been shown to cause either vasoconstriction or vasodilation. Common to both vasomotor responses is the generation of arachidonic acid in astrocytes by calcium sensitive phospholipase A2. Vasoconstriction ensues from the conversion of arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, while vasodilation ensues from the production of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids or prostaglandins. Factors that determine whether constrictor or dilatory pathways predominate include brain oxygen, lactate, adenosine as well as nitric oxide. Changing the oxygen level itself leads to many downstream changes that facilitate the switch from vasoconstriction at high oxygen to vasodilation at low oxygen. These findings highlight the importance of astrocytes as sensors of neural activity and metabolism to coordinate the delivery of essential nutrients via the blood to the working cells.

  15. Activity syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.

  16. Physical activity in prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lakka, Timo A; Laaksonen, David E

    2007-02-01

    Randomised controlled trials have shown that exercise training has a mild or moderate favourable effect on many metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors that constitute or are related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Epidemiological studies suggest that regular physical activity prevents type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality in large part through these risk factors. Although randomized controlled trials with the prevention or treatment of the MetS as the main outcome have not been published, several large randomized controlled trials provide strong evidence that favourable lifestyle changes, including regular physical activity, are effective in the prevention of type 2 diabetes in individuals who are overweight and have impaired glucose tolerance. Compliance with the current recommendations to increase the total volume of moderate-intensity physical activity and to maintain good cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness appears to markedly decrease the likelihood of developing the MetS, especially in high-risk groups. Walking is the most common form of physical activity--it improves health in many ways and is generally safe. Therefore, brisk walking for at least 30 min daily can be recommended as the principal form of physical activity at the population level. If there are no contraindications, more vigorous physical exercise or resistance training should also be considered to obtain additional health benefits. Unstructured and low-intensity physical activity may also decrease the likelihood of developing the MetS, especially when substituted for sedentary behaviours such as watching television. The measurement of maximal oxygen consumption may provide an efficient means to target even individuals with relatively few metabolic risk factors who may benefit from more intensive intervention.

  17. Improvement of metabolic disorders by an EP2 receptor agonist via restoration of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Ryoichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model. We found ectopic fat accumulation and impaired glucose homeostasis with wasting of SAT in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice) reared on a high-fat diet. ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, improved angiogenesis and subsequently adipogenesis, and finally improved ectopic fat accumulation and glucose homeostasis with restoration of the capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT. These results suggest that metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occured in underweight COPD is partially due to the less capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT, though the precise mechanism is uncertained. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for metabolic disorders in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the capacity for storage of surplus energy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Shaping tissues by balancing active forces and geometric constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foolen, Jasper; Yamashita, Tadahiro; Kollmannsberger, Philip

    2016-02-01

    The self-organization of cells into complex tissues during growth and regeneration is a combination of physical-mechanical events and biochemical signal processing. Cells actively generate forces at all stages in this process, and according to the laws of mechanics, these forces result in stress fields defined by the geometric boundary conditions of the cell and tissue. The unique ability of cells to translate such force patterns into biochemical information and vice versa sets biological tissues apart from any other material. In this topical review, we summarize the current knowledge and open questions of how forces and geometry act together on scales from the single cell to tissues and organisms, and how their interaction determines biological shape and structure. Starting with a planar surface as the simplest type of geometric constraint, we review literature on how forces during cell spreading and adhesion together with geometric constraints impact cell shape, stress patterns, and the resulting biological response. We then move on to include cell-cell interactions and the role of forces in monolayers and in collective cell migration, and introduce curvature at the transition from flat cell sheets to three-dimensional (3D) tissues. Fibrous 3D environments, as cells experience them in the body, introduce new mechanical boundary conditions and change cell behaviour compared to flat surfaces. Starting from early work on force transmission and collagen remodelling, we discuss recent discoveries on the interaction with geometric constraints and the resulting structure formation and network organization in 3D. Recent literature on two physiological scenarios—embryonic development and bone—is reviewed to demonstrate the role of the force-geometry balance in living organisms. Furthermore, the role of mechanics in pathological scenarios such as cancer is discussed. We conclude by highlighting common physical principles guiding cell mechanics, tissue patterning and

  19. Proteomic Profiles of Adipose and Liver Tissues from an Animal Model of Metabolic Syndrome Fed Purple Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Hala M; McDonald, Mary Ruth; Sullivan, James Alan; Tsao, Rong; Meckling, Kelly A

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder that predisposes an individual to Cardiovascular Diseases and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Proteomics and bioinformatics have proven to be an effective tool to study complex diseases and mechanisms of action of nutrients. We previously showed that substitution of the majority of carbohydrate in a high fat diet by purple potatoes (PP) or purple carrots (PC) improved insulin sensitivity and hypertension in an animal model of MetS (obese Zucker rats) compared to a control sucrose-rich diet. In the current study, we used TMT 10plex mass tag combined with LC-MS/MS technique to study proteomic modulation in the liver (n = 3 samples/diet) and adipose tissue (n = 3 samples/diet) of high fat diet-fed rats with or without substituting sucrose for purple vegetables, followed by functional enrichment analysis, in an attempt to elucidate potential molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic changes seen with purple vegetable feeding. Protein folding, lipid metabolism and cholesterol efflux were identified as the main modulated biological themes in adipose tissue, whereas lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress were the main modulated themes in liver. We propose that enhanced protein folding, increased cholesterol efflux and higher free fatty acid (FFA) re-esterification are mechanisms by which PP and PC positively modulate MetS pathologies in adipose tissue, whereas, decreased de novo lipogenesis, oxidative stress and FFA uptake, are responsible for the beneficial effects in liver. In conclusion, we provide molecular evidence for the reported metabolic health benefits of purple carrots and potatoes and validate that these vegetables are good choices to replace other simple carbohydrate sources for better metabolic health. PMID:29642414

  20. Glucose deprivation reversibly down-regulates tissue plasminogen activator via proteasomal degradation in rat primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu Suk; Joo, So Hyun; Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Ki Chan; Ko, Hyun Myung; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Pitna; Hur, Jun; Lee, Sung Hoon; Bahn, Geon Ho; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Lee, Jongmin; Han, Seol-Heui; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Shin, Chan Young

    2013-05-20

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an essential neuromodulator whose involvement in multiple functions such as synaptic plasticity, cytokine-like immune function and regulation of cell survival mandates rapid and tight tPA regulation in the brain. We investigated the possibility that a transient metabolic challenge induced by glucose deprivation may affect tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes, the main cell type responsible for metabolic regulation in the CNS. Rat primary astrocytes were incubated in serum-free DMEM without glucose. Casein zymography was used to determine tPA activity, and tPA mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. The signaling pathways regulating tPA activity were identified by Western blotting. Glucose deprivation rapidly down-regulated the activity of tPA without affecting its mRNA level in rat primary astrocytes; this effect was mimicked by translational inhibitors. The down-regulation of tPA was accompanied by increased tPA degradation, which may be modulated by a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Glucose deprivation induced activation of PI3K-Akt-GSK3β, p38 and AMPK, and inhibition of these pathways using LY294002, SB203580 and compound C significantly inhibited glucose deprivation-induced tPA down-regulation, demonstrating the essential role of these pathways in tPA regulation in glucose-deprived astrocytes. Rapid and reversible regulation of tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes during metabolic crisis may minimize energy-requiring neurologic processes in stressed situations. This effect may thereby increase the opportunity to invest cellular resources in cell survival and may allow rapid re-establishment of normal cellular function after the crisis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Global dynamic optimization approach to predict activation in metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    de Hijas-Liste, Gundián M; Klipp, Edda; Balsa-Canto, Eva; Banga, Julio R

    2014-01-06

    During the last decade, a number of authors have shown that the genetic regulation of metabolic networks may follow optimality principles. Optimal control theory has been successfully used to compute optimal enzyme profiles considering simple metabolic pathways. However, applying this optimal control framework to more general networks (e.g. branched networks, or networks incorporating enzyme production dynamics) yields problems that are analytically intractable and/or numerically very challenging. Further, these previous studies have only considered a single-objective framework. In this work we consider a more general multi-objective formulation and we present solutions based on recent developments in global dynamic optimization techniques. We illustrate the performance and capabilities of these techniques considering two sets of problems. First, we consider a set of single-objective examples of increasing complexity taken from the recent literature. We analyze the multimodal character of the associated non linear optimization problems, and we also evaluate different global optimization approaches in terms of numerical robustness, efficiency and scalability. Second, we consider generalized multi-objective formulations for several examples, and we show how this framework results in more biologically meaningful results. The proposed strategy was used to solve a set of single-objective case studies related to unbranched and branched metabolic networks of different levels of complexity. All problems were successfully solved in reasonable computation times with our global dynamic optimization approach, reaching solutions which were comparable or better than those reported in previous literature. Further, we considered, for the first time, multi-objective formulations, illustrating how activation in metabolic pathways can be explained in terms of the best trade-offs between conflicting objectives. This new methodology can be applied to metabolic networks with arbitrary

  2. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jialin; Donepudi, Ajay C; Moscovitz, Jamie E; Slitt, Angela L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD), regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting). Male C57BL/6 (WT) and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase) and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36) and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  3. Keap1-Knockdown Decreases Fasting-Induced Fatty Liver via Altered Lipid Metabolism and Decreased Fatty Acid Mobilization from Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jialin; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Moscovitz, Jamie E.; Slitt, Angela L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD), regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting). Methods and Results Male C57BL/6 (WT) and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase) and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36) and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters — CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Conclusion Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation. PMID:24224011

  4. Metabolic plasticity in resting and thrombin activated platelets.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Saranya; Chacko, Balu; Sawada, Hirotaka; Kramer, Philip A; Johnson, Michelle S; Benavides, Gloria A; O'Donnell, Valerie; Marques, Marisa B; Darley-Usmar, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Platelet thrombus formation includes several integrated processes involving aggregation, secretion of granules, release of arachidonic acid and clot retraction, but it is not clear which metabolic fuels are required to support these events. We hypothesized that there is flexibility in the fuels that can be utilized to serve the energetic and metabolic needs for resting and thrombin-dependent platelet aggregation. Using platelets from healthy human donors, we found that there was a rapid thrombin-dependent increase in oxidative phosphorylation which required both glutamine and fatty acids but not glucose. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation or glutamine utilization could be compensated for by increased glycolytic flux. No evidence for significant mitochondrial dysfunction was found, and ATP/ADP ratios were maintained following the addition of thrombin, indicating the presence of functional and active mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation during the early stages of aggregation. Interestingly, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and glutaminolysis alone or in combination is not sufficient to prevent platelet aggregation, due to compensation from glycolysis, whereas inhibitors of glycolysis inhibited aggregation approximately 50%. The combined effects of inhibitors of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were synergistic in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. In summary, both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation contribute to platelet metabolism in the resting and activated state, with fatty acid oxidation and to a smaller extent glutaminolysis contributing to the increased energy demand.

  5. Imaging of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Bone Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Terence P.; Motley, Matthew W.; Beattie, Bradley J.; Bhakta, Roshni; Boskey, Adele L.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a paradigm for quantitative molecular imaging of bone cell activity. We hypothesized the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of the osteoblast enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using a small imaging molecule in combination with 19Flourine magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (19FMRSI). 6, 8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP), a fluorinated ALP substrate that is activatable to a fluorescent hydrolysis product was utilized as a prototype small imaging molecule. The molecular structure of DiFMUP includes two Fluorine atoms adjacent to a phosphate group allowing it and its hydrolysis product to be distinguished using 19Fluorine magnetic resonance spectroscopy (19FMRS) and 19FMRSI. ALP-mediated hydrolysis of DiFMUP was tested on osteoblastic cells and bone tissue, using serial measurements of fluorescence activity. Extracellular activation of DiFMUP on ALP-positive mouse bone precursor cells was observed. Concurringly, DiFMUP was also activated on bone derived from rat tibia. Marked inhibition of the cell and tissue activation of DiFMUP was detected after the addition of the ALP inhibitor levamisole. 19FMRS and 19FMRSI were applied for the non-invasive measurement of DiFMUP hydrolysis. 19FMRS revealed a two-peak spectrum representing DiFMUP with an associated chemical shift for the hydrolysis product. Activation of DiFMUP by ALP yielded a characteristic pharmacokinetic profile, which was quantifiable using non-localized 19FMRS and enabled the development of a pharmacokinetic model of ALP activity. Application of 19FMRSI facilitated anatomically accurate, non-invasive imaging of ALP concentration and activity in rat bone. Thus, 19FMRSI represents a promising approach for the quantitative imaging of bone cell activity during bone formation with potential for both preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:21799916

  6. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  7. Relative Abundance of Integral Plasma Membrane Proteins in Arabidopsis Leaf and Root Tissue Determined by Metabolic Labeling and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bernfur, Katja; Larsson, Olaf; Larsson, Christer; Gustavsson, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic labeling of proteins with a stable isotope (15N) in intact Arabidopsis plants was used for accurate determination by mass spectrometry of differences in protein abundance between plasma membranes isolated from leaves and roots. In total, 703 proteins were identified, of which 188 were predicted to be integral membrane proteins. Major classes were transporters, receptors, proteins involved in membrane trafficking and cell wall-related proteins. Forty-one of the integral proteins, including nine of the 13 isoforms of the PIP (plasma membrane intrinsic protein) aquaporin subfamily, could be identified by peptides unique to these proteins, which made it possible to determine their relative abundance in leaf and root tissue. In addition, peptides shared between isoforms gave information on the proportions of these isoforms. A comparison between our data for protein levels and corresponding data for mRNA levels in the widely used database Genevestigator showed an agreement for only about two thirds of the proteins. By contrast, localization data available in the literature for 21 of the 41 proteins show a much better agreement with our data, in particular data based on immunostaining of proteins and GUS-staining of promoter activity. Thus, although mRNA levels may provide a useful approximation for protein levels, detection and quantification of isoform-specific peptides by proteomics should generate the most reliable data for the proteome. PMID:23990937

  8. The Association between the Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Isolated Metabolic Syndrome Patients: A Multimarker Approach

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Bulent; Demir, Esra; Acıksarı, Gonul; Uygun, Turgut; Utku, Irem Kırac; Gedikbasi, Asuman; Caglar, Ilker Murat; Pirhan, Osman; Tureli, Hande Oktay; Oflar, Ersan; Ungan, İsmail; Ciftci, Serkan; Karakaya, Osman

    2014-01-01

    The risk for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus significantly increases in the patient population with metabolic syndrome (MeS). The present study aimed to investigate the association between the epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT) and the oxidative stress parameters in MeS patients. The study included 181 patients as a patient group of 92 consecutive patients with MeS and a control group of 89 consecutive patients with similar age and gender. EATT was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. Serum levels of total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidative capacity (TAS), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), and arylesterase activities were measured. EATT was higher in the MeS group compared to the control group (6.0 ± 2.0 mm and 4.0 ± 1.0 mm, resp.; P < 0.001). The level of TOS was higher in the MeS group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Additionally, the TAS level was higher in the MeS group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the serum levels of PON-1 and arylesterase were lower in the MeS group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). EAT may cause an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases by leading to increased oxidative stress in patients with MeS. PMID:25530760

  9. ACSL5 Genotype Influence On Fatty Acid Metabolism: A Cellular, Tissue, And Whole-Body Study.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Abishankari; Liaghati, Awa; Chan, Jessica; Lamothe, Gilles; Dent, Robert; Doucet, Éric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Prud'homme, Denis; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Tesson, Frédérique

    2018-03-29

    Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long Chain 5 (ACSL5) gene's rs2419621 T/C polymorphism was associated with ACSL5 mRNA expression and response to lifestyle interventions. However, the mechanistic understanding of the increased response in T allele carriers is lacking. Study objectives were to investigate the effect of rs2419621 genotype and ACSL5 human protein isoforms on fatty acid oxidation and respiration. Human ACSL5 overexpression in C2C12 mouse myoblasts was conducted to measure 14 C palmitic acid oxidation and protein isoform localization in vitro. 14 C palmitic acid oxidation studies and western blot analysis of ACSL5 proteins were carried out in rectus abdominis primary myotubes from 5 rs2419621 T allele carriers and 4 non-carriers. In addition, mitochondrial high-resolution respirometry was conducted on vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from 4 rs2419621 T allele carriers and 4 non-carriers. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the association between rs2419621 genotype and respiratory quotient related pre- and post-lifestyle intervention measurements in postmenopausal women with overweight or obesity. In comparison to rs2419621 non-carriers, T allele carriers displayed higher levels of i) 683aa ACSL5 isoform, localized mainly in the mitochondria, playing a greater role in fatty acid oxidation in comparison to the 739aa protein isoform. ii) in vitro CO 2 production in rectus abdominis primary myotubes iii) in vivo fatty acid oxidation and lower carbohydrate oxidation post-intervention iv) ex vivo complex I and II tissue respiration in vastus lateralis muscle. These results support the conclusion that rs2419621 T allele carriers, are more responsive to lifestyle interventions partly due to an increase in the short ACSL5 protein isoform, increasing cellular, tissue and whole-body fatty acid utilization. With the increasing effort to develop personalized medicine to combat obesity, our findings provide additional insight into genotypes that can

  10. An integrated multi-layered analysis of the metabolic networks of different tissues uncovers key genetic components of primary metabolism in maize.

    PubMed

    Wen, Weiwei; Jin, Min; Li, Kun; Liu, Haijun; Xiao, Yingjie; Zhao, Mingchao; Alseekh, Saleh; Li, Wenqiang; de Abreu E Lima, Francisco; Brotman, Yariv; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R; Yan, Jianbing

    2018-03-01

    Primary metabolism plays a pivotal role in normal plant growth, development and reproduction. As maize is a major crop worldwide, the primary metabolites produced by maize plants are of immense importance from both calorific and nutritional perspectives. Here a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 61 primary metabolites using a maize association panel containing 513 inbred lines identified 153 significant loci associated with the level of these metabolites in four independent tissues. The genome-wide expression level of 760 genes was also linked with metabolite levels within the same tissue. On average, the genetic variants at each locus or transcriptional variance of each gene identified here were estimated to have a minor effect (4.4-7.8%) on primary metabolic variation. Thirty-six loci or genes were prioritized as being worthy of future investigation, either with regard to functional characterization or for their utility for genetic improvement. This target list includes the well-known opaque 2 (O2) and lkr/sdh genes as well as many less well-characterized genes. During our investigation of these 36 loci, we analyzed the genetic components and variations underlying the trehalose, aspartate and aromatic amino acid pathways, thereby functionally characterizing four genes involved in primary metabolism in maize. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of PAI-1 on adipose tissue growth and metabolic parameters in a murine model of diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Morange, P E; Lijnen, H R; Alessi, M C; Kopp, F; Collen, D; Juhan-Vague, I

    2000-04-01

    urokinase-type PA activity and antigen levels were similar in both groups. In plasma, nonobese PAI-1(-/-) mice displayed 62% higher insulin levels (P<0.05) than did PAI-1(+/+) mice. Obese PAI-1(-/-) mice displayed 68% higher triglyceride levels (P<0.01) and 21% lower glucose levels (P<0.05) than did PAI-1(+/+) mice. These data support an effect of PAI-1 on weight gain and adipose tissue cellularity in the induction of obesity in mice. Moreover, PAI-1 influences glucidolipidic metabolism. The elevated expression of PAI-1 observed in human obesity could be involved in mechanisms that control adipose tissue development.

  12. Epicardial Adipose Tissue in the General Middle-aged Population and Its Association With Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Calabuig, Álvaro; Barba, Joaquín; Guembe, María Jesús; Díez, Javier; Berjón, Jesús; Martínez-Vila, Eduardo; Irimia, Pablo; Toledo, Estefanía

    2017-04-01

    There is currently increasing interest in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) as a marker of cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to describe EAT, measured by transthoracic echocardiography, and to assess its association with metabolic syndrome (MS) in the RIVANA population-based study. Physical examination was performed in 880 participants aged 45 to 74 years (492 of them with MS according to the harmonized definition). Fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and C-reactive protein concentrations were determined in a blood sample. In all participants, EAT thickness was measured with transthoracic echocardiography at end-systole. Among participants without MS, the prevalence of EAT ≥ 5mm significantly increased with age (OR > 65 years vs 45-54 years=8.22; 95%CI, 3.90-17.35; P for trend<.001). Increasing EAT quintiles were significantly associated with MS (OR fifth quintile vs first quintile=3.26; 95%CI, 1.59-6.71; P for trend=.001). Considering the different MS criteria, increasing quintiles of EAT were independently associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR fifth quintile vs first quintile=2.65; 95%CI, 1.16-6.05; P for trend=.028), high triglycerides (OR fifth quintile vs first quintile=2.22; 95%CI, 1.26-3.90; P for trend=.003), and elevated waist circumference (OR fifth quintile vs first quintile=6.85; 95%CI, 2.91-16.11; P for trend<.001). In a subsample of the general population, EAT measured by echocardiography increased significantly and independently with age. Increased EAT thickness was independently associated with MS and with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and elevated waist circumference as individual criteria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. [Cut-off point of epicardial adipose tissue thickness for predicting metabolic syndrome in Venezuelan population].

    PubMed

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Donis, José H; Odreman, Rodolfo; Torres, Christopher; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2013-12-01

    To define an echocardiographically-assessed cut-off point for epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness associated to metabolic syndrome (MS) components in Venezuelan subjects. Fifty-two subjects aged 20-65 years diagnosed with MS according to International Diabetes Federation criteria and 45 sex- and age-matched controls were selected. Blood glucose and plasma lipids were tested; EAT thickness and left ventricular mass were measured by echocardiography. No significant age and sex differences were found between the two groups. Body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher (P=.0001) in the MS group. This group showed significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose (P=.0001), total cholesterol (P=.002), LDL-C (P=.007), non-HDL-C (P=.0001), triglycerides (P=.0001), Tg-HDL-C ratio (P=.0001), and lower HDL-C levels (P=.0001) as compared to the control group. EAT thickness (P=.0001) and left ventricular mass (P=.017) were significantly higher in the MS group. The ROC curve showed an AUC of 0.852 (P=.0001) with a power of the test of 0.99. A 5-mm EAT thickness showed a sensitivity of 84.62% (95%CI: 71.9-93.1) and a specificity of 71.11% (95%CI: 55.7-83.6) for predicting MS. The odds ratio of this population for experiencing MS due to an EAT ≥ 5 mm was 8.25 (95%CI: 3.15-21.56; P=.0001). An EAT value ≥ 5 mm has good sensitivity and specificity for predicting MS in the Venezuelan population. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol on adipose-tissue metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rognstad, Robert; Katz, Joseph

    1969-01-01

    1. The effect of dinitrophenol on the metabolism of glucose labelled with 14C and tritium by epididymal fat-pad segments from fed rats was studied. Dinitrophenol at concentrations of 0·1–0·3mm: (a) had little effect on glucose utilization; (b) depressed synthesis of fatty acids and greatly increased that of lactate; (c) increased the T/14C ratio in fatty acids synthesized from [U-14C,3-T]glucose and decreased that in fatty acids synthesized from [U-14C,4-T]glucose; (d) abolished randomization of 14C from [6-14C]glucose in lactate. 2. Dinitrophenol stimulated oxidation of pyruvate and greatly inhibited the oxidation of lactate. It inhibited lipogenesis from pyruvate and lactate. 3. From the isotope data it was calculated that: (a) dinitrophenol stimulates oxidation via the tricarboxylic acid cycle three- to six-fold; (b) dinitrophenol depresses markedly the operation of the pentose cycle; (c) in the presence of dinitrophenol, NADPH formed in the pentose cycle provides all the hydrogen equivalents for fatty acid reduction, whereas, in its absence, NADPH provides 50–70% of the hydrogen equivalents; (d) in the presence of dinitrophenol, there is an excess of ATP produced in the cytoplasm, which flows into the mitochondria. A reverse flow operates in the absence of dinitrophenol. 4. A balance of formation and utilization of reduced nicotinamide nucleotides in the cytoplasm was established. With dinitrophenol there is some excess of NADH. There are indications that this excess may be transferred into mitochondria in the form of malate. 5. Our results are interpreted to indicate the absence from adipose tissue of the α-glycerophosphate shuttle for transferring reducing equivalents from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. 6. The effects of dinitrophenol are accounted for in terms of decreased ATP concentrations in the cells, leading to marked decrease in pyruvate carboxylation in the mitochondria and depression of fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasm. PMID:4388239

  15. Tissue Factor promotes breast cancer stem cell activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Hudhaifah; Harrison, Hannah; Clarke, Robert; Landberg, Goran; Bundred, Nigel J; Versteeg, Henri H; Kirwan, Cliona C

    2017-04-18

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells that can self-renew and initiate tumours. The clotting-initiating protein Tissue Factor (TF) promotes metastasis and may be overexpressed in cancer cells with increased CSC activity. We sought to determine whether TF promotes breast CSC activity in vitro using human breast cancer cell lines. TF expression was compared in anoikis-resistant (CSC-enriched) and unselected cells. In cells sorted into of TF-expressing and TF-negative (FACS), and in cells transfected to knockdown TF (siRNA) and overexpress TF (cDNA), CSC activity was compared by (i) mammosphere forming efficiency (MFE) (ii) holoclone colony formation (Hc) and (iii) ALDH1 activity. TF expression was increased in anoikis-resistant and high ALDH1-activity T47D cells compared to unselected cells. FACS sorted TF-expressing T47Ds and TF-overexpressing MCF7s had increased CSC activity compared to TF-low cells. TF siRNA cells (MDAMB231,T47D) had reduced CSC activity compared to control cells. FVIIa increased MFE and ALDH1 in a dose-dependent manner (MDAMB231, T47D). The effects of FVIIa on MFE were abrogated by TF siRNA (T47D). Breast CSCs (in vitro) demonstrate increased activity when selected for high TF expression, when induced to overexpress TF, and when stimulated (with FVIIa). Targeting the TF pathway in vivo may abrogate CSC activity.

  16. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Metabolism. In: Tortora GJ, Derrickson ... Physiology . 14th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2014:chap ...

  17. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... El metabolismo Metabolism Basics Our bodies get the energy they need from food through metabolism, the chemical ... that convert the fuel from food into the energy needed to do everything from moving to thinking ...

  18. Expression pattern of L-FABP gene in different tissues and its regulation of fat metabolism-related genes in duck.

    PubMed

    He, Jun; Tian, Yong; Li, Jinjun; Shen, Junda; Tao, Zhengrong; Fu, Yan; Niu, Dong; Lu, Lizhi

    2013-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is a member of intracellular lipid-binding proteins responsible for the transportation of fatty acids. The expression pattern of duck L-FABP mRNA was examined in this study by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that duck L-FABP gene was expressed in many tissues, including heart, lung, kidney, muscle, ovary, brain, intestine, stomach and adipocyte tissues, and highly expressed in liver. Several lipid metabolism-related genes were selected to detect the regulation of L-FABP in duck. The expression of L-FABP and lipoprotein lipase was promoted by oleic acid. The L-FABP knockdown decreased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), fatty acid synthase and lipoprotein lipase by 61.1, 42.3 and 53.7 %, respectively (P < 0.05), but had no influences on the mRNA levels of PPARγ and leptin receptor. L-FABP might function through the PPARα to regulate the fat metabolism-related gene expression and play important roles in lipid metabolism in duck hepatocytes.

  19. Brain and spinal cord metabolic activity during propofol anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Cavazzuti, M; Porro, C A; Barbieri, A; Galetti, A

    1991-04-01

    We have investigated the effects of propofol anaesthesia on the metabolic activity pattern of 35 regions of the rat brain and cervical spinal cord using the 14C-2-deoxyglucose technique. Anaesthesia was produced by an i.v. bolus of the commercial preparation of the drug (8 mg kg-1) and maintained with successive bolus administrations of 6 mg kg-1. Functional activity values (expressed as rates of local utilization of glucose) were reduced in 31 grey matter and two white matter structures in a propofol group relative both to saline-injected and vehicle-injected (aqueous emulsion containing 10% soya bean oil, 1.2% egg phosphatide and 2.25% glycerol) controls. Values from the two control groups did not differ significantly. Propofol-induced depression of metabolic activity was present in central nervous system regions belonging to sensory (auditory, visual and somatosensory), motor and limbic systems, including spinal cord grey matter. Mean percentage decreases ranged from 40% (vestibular nuclei) to 76% (cingulate cortex). Although these values may be slightly overestimated because of the modest increase in PaCo2 in the anaesthetized group, propofol appeared to elicit generalized reduction of central nervous system functional activity.

  20. The modulation of corticosteroid metabolism by hydrocortisone therapy in patients with hypopituitarism increases tissue glucocorticoid exposure.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, Mark; Behan, Lucy Ann; Hannon, Mark J; Alonso, Aurora Aragon; Thompson, Christopher J; Murray, Robert D; Crabtree, Nicola; Hughes, Beverly A; Arlt, Wiebke; Agha, Amar; Toogood, Andrew A; Stewart, Paul M

    2015-11-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have increased morbidity and mortality. There is ongoing debate about the optimum glucocorticoid (GC) replacement therapy. To assess the effect of GC replacement in hypopituitarism on corticosteroid metabolism and its impact on body composition. We assessed the urinary corticosteroid metabolite profile (using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and body composition (clinical parameters and full body DXA) of 53 patients (19 female, median age 46 years) with hypopituitarism (33 ACTH-deficient/20 ACTH-replete) (study A). The corticosteroid metabolite profile of ten patients with ACTH deficiency was then assessed prospectively in a cross over study using three hydrocortisone (HC) dosing regimens (20/10 mg, 10/10 mg and 10/5 mg) (study B) each for 6 weeks. 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity was assessed by urinary THF+5α-THF/THE. Endocrine Centres within University Teaching Hospitals in the UK and Ireland. Urinary corticosteroid metabolite profile and body composition assessment. In study A, when patients were divided into three groups - patients not receiving HC and patients receiving HC≤20 mg/day or HC>20 mg/day - patients in the group receiving the highest daily dose of HC had significantly higher waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) than the ACTH replete group. They also had significantly elevated THF+5α-THF/THE (P=0.0002) and total cortisol metabolites (P=0.015). In study B, patients on the highest HC dose had significantly elevated total cortisol metabolites and all patients on HC had elevated THF+5α-THF/THE ratios when compared to controls. In ACTH-deficient patients daily HC doses of >20 mg/day have increased WHR, THF+5α-THF/THE ratios and total cortisol metabolites. GC metabolism and induction of 11β-HSD1 may play a pivitol role in the development of the metabolically adverse hypopituitary phenotype. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. A method for measuring total thiaminase activity in fish tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Brown, Scott B.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate, quantitative, and rapid method for the measurement of thiaminase activity in fish samples is required to provide sufficient information to characterize the role of dietary thiaminase in the onset of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines. A radiometric method that uses 14C-thiamine was optimized for substrate and co-substrate (nicotinic acid) concentrations, incubation time, and sample dilution. Total thiaminase activity was successfully determined in extracts of selected Great Lakes fishes and invertebrates. Samples included whole-body and selected tissues of forage fishes. Positive control material prepared from frozen alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in Lake Michigan enhanced the development and application of the method. The method allowed improved discrimination of thiaminolytic activity among forage fish species and their tissues. The temperature dependence of the thiaminase activity observed in crude extracts of Lake Michigan alewives followed a Q10 = 2 relationship for the 1-37??C temperature range, which is consistent with the bacterial-derived thiaminase I protein. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. TRPV1 Activation Counters Diet-Induced Obesity Through Sirtuin-1 activation and PRDM-16 Deacetylation in Brown Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Padmamalini; Krishnan, Vivek; Fettel, Kevin; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Zhiming; Ren, Jun; Thyagarajan, Baskaran

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Increasing metabolism and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) can help in overcoming obesity. Here, we investigated the effect of activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) in the upregulation of thermogenic proteins in BAT to counter diet-induced obesity. Subjects/Methods We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) on the expression of metabolically important thermogenic proteins in BAT of wild type and TRPV1−/− mice that received either a normal chow or high fat (± capsaicin; TRPV1 activator) diet by immunoblotting. We measured the metabolic activity, respiratory quotient and BAT lipolysis. Results CAP antagonized high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity without decreasing energy intake in mice. HFD suppressed TRPV1 expression and activity in BAT and CAP countered this effect. HFD feeding caused glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia and decreased the plasma concentration of glucagon like peptide-1 and CAP countered these effects. HFD suppressed the expression of metabolically important thermogenic genes, ucp-1, bmp8b, sirtuin 1, pgc-1α and prdm-16 in BAT and CAP prevented this effect. CAP increased the phosphorylation of sirtuin 1 and induced an interaction between PPARγ with PRDM-16. Further, CAP treatment, in vitro, decreased the acetylation of PRDM-16, which was antagonized by inhibition of TRPV1 by capsazepine, chelation of intracellular Ca2+ by cell permeable BAPTA-AM or the inhibition of SIRT-1 by EX 527. Further, CAP supplementation, post HFD, promoted weight loss and enhanced the respiratory exchange ratio. CAP did not have any effect in TRPV1−/− mice. Conclusions Our data show that activation of TRPV1 in BAT enhances the expression of SIRT-1, which facilitates the deacetylation and interaction of PPARγ and PRDM-16. These data suggest that TRPV1 activation is a novel strategy to

  3. Expression and activity of the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway in selected tissues during chicken embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M; Richards, M P

    2009-01-01

    The 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved serine-threonine protein kinase and a key part of a kinase-signaling cascade that senses cellular energy status (adenosine monophosphate:adenosine triphosphate ratio) and acts to maintain energy homeostasis by coordinately regulating energy-consuming and energy-generating metabolic pathways. The objective of this study was to investigate aspects of the AMPK pathway in the liver, brain, breast muscle, and heart from d 12 of incubation through hatch in chickens. We first determined mRNA and protein expression profiles for a major upstream AMPK kinase, LKB1, which is known to activate (phosphorylate) AMPK in response to increases in the adenosine monophosphate:adenosine triphosphate ratio. Expression of LKB1 protein was greatest in the brain, which demonstrated tissue-specific patterns for phosphorylation. Next, AMPK subunit mRNA and protein expression profiles were determined. Significant changes in AMPK subunit mRNA expression occurred in all tissues from d 12 of incubation to hatch. Differences in the levels of active (phosphorylated) AMPK as well as alpha and beta subunit proteins were observed in all 4 tissues during embryonic development. Finally, we determined the protein level and phosphorylation status of an important downstream target for AMPK, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. The expression of acetyl-co-enzyme A carboxylase and phosphorylated acetyl-coenzyme A was greater in the brain than the liver, but was undetectable by Western blotting in the breast muscle and heart throughout the period of study. Together, our results are the first to demonstrate the expression and activity of the AMPK pathway in key tissues during the transition from embryonic to posthatch development in chickens.

  4. Increased O-GlcNAcylation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Compromises the Anti-contractile Properties of Perivascular Adipose Tissue in Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Rafael M; da Silva, Josiane F; Alves, Juliano V; Dias, Thiago B; Rassi, Diane M; Garcia, Luis V; Lobato, Núbia de Souza; Tostes, Rita C

    2018-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) negatively modulates vascular contractility. This property is lost in experimental and human obesity and in the metabolic syndrome, indicating that changes in PVAT function may contribute to vascular dysfunction associated with increased body weight and hyperglycemia. The O -linked β-N-acetylglucosamine ( O -GlcNAc) modification of proteins ( O -GlcNAcylation) is a unique posttranslational process that integrates glucose metabolism with intracellular protein activity. Increased flux of glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and the consequent increase in tissue-specific O -GlcNAc modification of proteins have been linked to multiple facets of vascular dysfunction in diabetes and other pathological conditions. We hypothesized that chronic consumption of glucose, a condition that progresses to metabolic syndrome, leads to increased O -GlcNAc modification of proteins in the PVAT, decreasing its anti-contractile effects. Therefore, the current study was devised to determine whether a high-sugar diet increases O -GlcNAcylation in the PVAT and how increased O -GlcNAc interferes with PVAT vasorelaxant function. To assess molecular mechanisms by which O -GlcNAc contributes to PVAT dysfunction, thoracic aortas surrounded by PVAT were isolated from Wistar rats fed either a control or high sugar diet, for 10 and 12 weeks. Rats chronically fed a high sugar diet exhibited metabolic syndrome features, increased O -GlcNAcylated-proteins in the PVAT and loss of PVAT anti-contractile effect. PVAT from high sugar diet-fed rats for 12 weeks exhibited decreased NO formation, reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increased O -GlcNAcylation of eNOS. High sugar diet also decreased OGA activity and increased superoxide anion generation in the PVAT. Visceral adipose tissue samples from hyperglycemic patients showed increased levels of O -GlcNAc-modified proteins, increased ROS

  5. Adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan monomer and its metabolic products.

    PubMed

    Halassy, Beata; Krstanović, Marina; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2003-02-14

    Peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) is a natural compound of bacterial origin. It is a non-toxic, non-pyrogenic, water-soluble immunostimulator potentiating humoral immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. It is fast degraded and its metabolic products-the pentapeptide (PP) and the disaccharide (DS)-are excreted from the mammalian organism upon parenteral administration. The present study investigates: (a). whether PGM could influence the long-living memory generation; (b). whether metabolic products retain adjuvant properties of the parent compound and contribute to its adjuvanticity. We report now that mice immunised twice with OVA+PGM had significantly higher anti-OVA IgG levels upon challenge with antigen alone 6 months later in comparison to control group immunised with OVA only. PP and DS were prepared enzymatically in vitro as apyrogenic and chemically pure compounds. When mice were immunised with OVA plus PP and DS, respectively, the level of anti-OVA IgGs in sera was not higher than in mice immunised with OVA alone, while PGM raised the level of specific antibodies. Results implicate that the adjuvant active molecule, capable of enhancing long-living memory generation, is PGM itself, and none of its metabolic products.

  6. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activation in Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Makiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) plays critical roles in cancer progression through its specific receptor, MET. HGF/SF is usually synthesized and secreted as an inactive proform (pro-HGF/SF) by stromal cells, such as fibroblasts. Several serine proteases are reported to convert pro-HGF/SF to mature HGF/SF and among these, HGF activator (HGFA) and matriptase are the most potent activators. Increased activities of both proteases have been observed in various cancers. HGFA is synthesized mainly by the liver and secreted as an inactive pro-form. In cancer tissues, pro-HGFA is likely activated by thrombin and/or human kallikrein 1-related peptidase (KLK)-4 and KLK-5. Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease that is expressed by most epithelial cells and is also synthesized as an inactive zymogen. Matriptase activation is likely to be mediated by autoactivation or by other trypsin-like proteases. Recent studies revealed that matriptase autoactivation is promoted by an acidic environment. Given the mildly acidic extracellular environment of solid tumors, matriptase activation may, thus, be accelerated in the tumor microenvironment. HGFA and matriptase activities are regulated by HGFA inhibitor (HAI)-1 (HAI-1) and/or HAI-2 in the pericellular microenvironment. HAIs may have an important role in cancer cell biology by regulating HGF/SF-activating proteases. PMID:25268161

  7. Colchicine to decrease NLRP3-activated inflammation and improve obesity-related metabolic dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Demidowich, Andrew P.; Davis, Angela I.; Dedhia, Nicket; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk-factor for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Circulating molecules associated with obesity, such as saturated fatty acids and cholesterol crystals, stimulate the innate immune system to incite a chronic inflammatory state. Studies in mouse models suggest that suppressing the obesity-induced chronic inflammatory state may prevent or reverse obesity-associated metabolic dysregulation. Human studies, however, have been far less positive, possibly because targeted interventions were too far downstream of the inciting inflammatory events. Recently, it has been shown that, within adipose tissue macrophages, assembly of a multi-protein member of the innate immune system, the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, is essential for the induction of this inflammatory state. Microtubules enable the necessary spatial arrangement of the components of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the cell, leading to its activation and propagation of the inflammatory cascade. Colchicine, a medication classically used for gout, mediates its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting tubulin polymerization, and has been shown to attenuate macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome arrangement and activation in vitro and in vivo. Given these findings, we hypothesize that, in at-risk individuals (those with obesity-induced inflammation and metabolic dysregulation), long-term colchicine use will lead to suppression of inflammation and thus cause improvements in insulin sensitivity and other obesity-related metabolic impairments. PMID:27241260

  8. Colchicine to decrease NLRP3-activated inflammation and improve obesity-related metabolic dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Demidowich, Andrew P; Davis, Angela I; Dedhia, Nicket; Yanovski, Jack A

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a major risk-factor for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Circulating molecules associated with obesity, such as saturated fatty acids and cholesterol crystals, stimulate the innate immune system to incite a chronic inflammatory state. Studies in mouse models suggest that suppressing the obesity-induced chronic inflammatory state may prevent or reverse obesity-associated metabolic dysregulation. Human studies, however, have been far less positive, possibly because targeted interventions were too far downstream of the inciting inflammatory events. Recently, it has been shown that, within adipose tissue macrophages, assembly of a multi-protein member of the innate immune system, the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, is essential for the induction of this inflammatory state. Microtubules enable the necessary spatial arrangement of the components of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the cell, leading to its activation and propagation of the inflammatory cascade. Colchicine, a medication classically used for gout, mediates its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting tubulin polymerization, and has been shown to attenuate macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome arrangement and activation in vitro and in vivo. Given these findings, we hypothesize that, in at-risk individuals (those with obesity-induced inflammation and metabolic dysregulation), long-term colchicine use will lead to suppression of inflammation and thus cause improvements in insulin sensitivity and other obesity-related metabolic impairments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Transcriptional profiling unravels potential metabolic activities of the olive leaf non-glandular trichome

    PubMed Central

    Koudounas, Konstantinos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Kourti, Anna; Banilas, Georgios; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2015-01-01

    The olive leaf trichomes are multicellular peltate hairs densely distributed mainly at the lower leaf epidermis. Although, non-glandular, they have gained much attention since they significantly contribute to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of olive leaves. The exact mechanisms by which olive trichomes achieve these goals are not fully understood. They could act as mechanical barrier but they also accumulate high amounts of flavonoids among other secondary metabolites. However, little is currently known about the exact compounds they produce and the respective metabolic pathways. Here we present the first EST analysis from olive leaf trichomes by using 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 5368 unigenes were identified out of 7258 high quality reads with an average length of 262 bp. Blast search revealed that 27.5% of them had high homologies to known proteins. By using Blast2GO, 1079 unigenes (20.1%) were assigned at least one Gene Ontology (GO) term. Most of the genes were involved in cellular and metabolic processes and in binding functions followed by catalytic activity. A total of 521 transcripts were mapped to 67 KEGG pathways. Olive trichomes represent a tissue of highly unique transcriptome as per the genes involved in developmental processes and the secondary metabolism. The results indicate that mature olive trichomes are trancriptionally active, mainly through the potential production of enzymes that contribute to phenolic compounds with important roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26322070

  10. Tributyltin toxicity in abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) assessed by antioxidant enzyme activity, metabolic response, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Xiao-shan; Cai, Zhong-hua

    2010-11-15

    A toxicity test was performed to investigate the possible harmful effects of tributyltin (TBT) on abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta). Animals were exposed to TBT in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (2, 10 and 50 ng/L) for 30 days under laboratory conditions. TBT-free conditions were used as control treatments. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), along with levels of haemolymph metabolites, and hepatopancreas histopathology were analyzed. The results showed that TBT decreased SOD activity, and increased POD level and MDA production in a dose-dependent way, indicating that oxidative injury was induced by TBT. Haemolymph metabolite measurements showed that TBT increased alanine and glutamate levels, and decreased glucose content, which suggested perturbation of energy metabolism. Elevated levels of acetate and pyruvate in the haemolymph indicated partial alteration of lipid metabolism. A decrease in lactate and an increase in succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, indicated disturbance of amino acid metabolism. Hepatopancreas tissues also exhibited inflammatory responses characterized by histopathological changes such as cell swelling, granular degeneration, and inflammation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TBT was a potential toxin with a variety of deleterious effects on abalone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic and adipose tissue signatures in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome: a model of extreme adiposity.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Delphine; Moutel, Sandrine; Coupaye, Muriel; Huvenne, Hélène; Faucher, Pauline; Pelloux, Véronique; Rouault, Christine; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Cagnard, Nicolas; Dubern, Béatrice; Clément, Karine; Poitou, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), the most frequent syndrome of obesity, is a model of early fat mass (FM) development, but scarce data exist on adipose tissue characteristics. The objective of the study was to compare metabolic, fat distribution, and transcriptomic signatures of sc adipose tissue (scAT) in PWS adults, with matched obese adults with primary obesities. Hormonal and metabolic assessments, systemic inflammation, and gene expression in scAT were compared between PWS patients and obese controls (OCs). Each 42nd PWS patient was matched with one randomly paired control with primary obesity. Matching factors were age, gender, fat mass (percentage), and diabetic status. Compared with OCs, the PWS group had a decreased percentage of trunk FM and a better metabolic profile with decreased insulin and homeostasis model assessment, an index of insulin-resistance, and increased concentrations of serum adiponectin and ghrelin. Adipocyte size relative to body fat was significantly higher in PWS vs OCs. scAT in PWS patients was characterized by a transcriptomic functional signature with enrichment of themes related to immunoinflammation, the extracellular matrix, and angiogenesis. A RT-PCR targeted study revealed that candidate genes encoding proinflammatory markers and remodeling molecules, CD68, CD3e, IL-1β, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, collagen type 4-α, and lysyl oxidase, were down-regulated. Matched for FM, PWS subjects have a better metabolic profile, a phenotype that could be linked to changes in scAT remodeling and promotion of adipocyte growth.

  12. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears.

  13. Field Metabolic Rate and PCB Adipose Tissue Deposition Efficiency in East Greenland Polar Bears Derived from Contaminant Monitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J.; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2′,4,4′,55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears. PMID:25101837

  14. Fabp4-Cre-mediated Sirt6 deletion impairs adipose tissue function and metabolic homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiwen; Zhang, Cuicui; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Rui; Qian, Xinlai; Dong, X Charlie

    2017-06-01

    SIRT6 is a member of sirtuin family of deacetylases involved in diverse processes including genome stability, metabolic homeostasis and anti-inflammation. However, its function in the adipose tissue is not well understood. To examine the metabolic function of SIRT6 in the adipose tissue, we generated two mouse models that are deficient in Sirt6 using the Cre-lox approach. Two commonly used Cre lines that are driven by either the mouse Fabp4 or Adipoq gene promoter were chosen for this study. The Sirt6- knockout mice generated by the Fabp4-Cre line ( Sirt6 f/f : Fabp4-Cre) had a significant increase in both body weight and fat mass and exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance as compared with the control wild-type mice. At the molecular levels, the Sirt6 f/f :Fabp4-Cre-knockout mice had increased expression of inflammatory genes including F4/80, TNFα, IL-6 and MCP-1 in both white and brown adipose tissues. Moreover, the knockout mice showed decreased expression of the adiponectin gene in the white adipose tissue and UCP1 in the brown adipose tissue, respectively. In contrast, the Sirt6 knockout mice generated by the Adipoq-Cre line ( Sirt6 f/f :Adipoq-Cre) only had modest insulin resistance. In conclusion, our data suggest that the function of SIRT6 in the Fabp4-Cre-expressing cells in addition to mature adipocytes plays a critical role in body weight maintenance and metabolic homeostasis. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissues as new potential mechanisms for metabolic benefits of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Fen; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Weiguo; Fu, Chun-Ling; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fiber consumption is associated with reduced risk for the development of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on the levels of proteins involved in lipolysis and thermogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of C57 BL/6 J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed normal chow diet (Chow), HFD, HFD plus oat fiber (H-oat), or HFD plus wheat bran fiber (H-wheat) for 24 wk. Body weight and food intake were recorded weekly. Serum adiponectin was assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Western blotting was used to assess the protein expressions of adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), cAMP protein kinase catalytic subunit (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), perilipin A, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR), and proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 α (PGC-1 α) in the WAT and BAT. At the end of the feeding period, body and adipose tissues weight in both H-oat and H-wheat groups were lower than in the HFD group. Mice in the H-oat and H-wheat groups showed an increasing trend in serum adiponectin level. Compared with the HFD group, cereal dietary fiber increased protein expressions involved in the lipolysis and browning process. Compared with the H-wheat group, H-oat was more effective in protein expressions of PKA, PGC-1 α, and UCP1 of the WAT samples. Compared with the H-oat group, H-wheat was more effective in protein expressions of PKA, ATGL, UCP1, β3AR, and FGF-21 of the BAT samples. Taken together, our results suggested that cereal dietary fiber enhanced adipocyte lipolysis by the cAMP-PKA-HSL pathway and promoted WAT browning by activation of UCP1, and consequently reduced visceral fat mass in response to HFD feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Review: Metabolic Control of Immune System Activation in Rheumatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Perl, Andras

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic pathways mediate lineage specification within the immune system through the regulation of glucose utilization, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP and synthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids to enable cell growth, proliferation, and survival. CD4+ T cells, a proinflammatory cell subset, preferentially produce ATP through glycolysis, whereas cells with an antiinflammatory lineage, such as memory and regulatory T cells, favor mitochondrial ATP generation. In conditions of metabolic stress or a shortage of nutrients, cells rely on autophagy to secure amino acids and other substrates, while survival depends on the sparing of mitochondria and maintenance of a reducing environment. The pentose phosphate pathway acts as a key gatekeeper of inflammation by supplying ribose-5-phosphate for cell proliferation and NADPH for antioxidant defenses. Increased lysosomal catabolism, accumulation of branched amino acids, glutamine, kynurenine, and histidine, and depletion of glutathione and cysteine activate the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), an arbiter of lineage development within the innate and adaptive immune systems. Mapping the impact of susceptibility genes to metabolic pathways allows for better understanding and therapeutic targeting of disease-specific expansion of proinflammatory cells. Therapeutic approaches aimed at glutathione depletion and mTOR pathway activation appear to be safe and effective for treating lupus, while an opposing intervention may be of benefit in rheumatoid arthritis. Environmental sources of origin for metabolites within immune cells may include microbiota and plants. Thus, a better understanding of the pathways of immunometabolism could provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of the rheumatic diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

  18. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of benzene in Zymbal gland and other key target tissues after oral administration in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Low, L K; Meeks, J R; Norris, K J; Mehlman, M A; Mackerer, C R

    1989-01-01

    Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic oral administration of benzene. The cause for the specificity of such lesions remains unclear, but it is possible that tissue-specific metabolism or pharmacokinetics of benzene is responsible. Metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in our laboratory with 14C-benzene at oral doses of 0.15 to 500 mg/kg to ascertain tissue retention, metabolite profile, and elimination kinetics in target and nontarget organs and in blood. Findings from those studies indicate the following: a) the Zymbal gland is not a sink or a site of accumulation for benzene or its metabolites even after a single high dose (500 mg/kg) or after repeated oral administration; b) the metabolite profile is quantitatively different in target tissues (e.g., Zymbal gland, nasal cavity), nontarget tissues and blood; and (c) pharmacokinetic studies show that the elimination of radioactivity from the Zymbal gland is biphasic. PMID:2792043

  19. Lysosomes Integrate Metabolic-Inflammatory Cross-talk in Primary Macrophage Inflammasome Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kassandra; Schilling, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage dysfunction and inflammasome activation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Prolonged inflammation and impaired healing are hallmarks of the diabetic response to tissue injury, and excessive inflammasome activation has been associated in these phenotypes. However, the mechanisms that regulate the inflammasome in response to lipid metabolic and inflammatory stress are incompletely understood. We have shown previously that IL-1β secretion is induced in primary macrophages exposed to the dietary saturated fatty acid palmitate in combination with LPS. In this study, we sought to unravel the mechanisms underlying the activation of this lipotoxic inflammasome. We demonstrate that palmitate-loaded primary macrophages challenged with LPS activate the NLRP3 inflammasome through a mechanism that involves the lysosome. Interestingly, the lysosome was involved in both the regulation of pro-IL-1β levels and its subsequent cleavage/release. The lysosomal protease cathepsin B was required for IL-1β release but not pro-IL-1β production. In contrast, disrupting lysosomal calcium regulation decreased IL-1β release by reducing pro-IL-1β levels. The calcium pathway involved the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, which stabilized IL-1β mRNA. Our findings provide evidence that the lysosome plays a key role in both the priming and assembly phases of the lipostoxic inflammasome. These findings have potential relevance to the hyperinflammatory phenotypes observed in diabetics during tissue damage or infection and identify lysosomes and calcineurin as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24532802

  20. Brain Hyperglycemia Induced by Heroin: Association with Metabolic Neural Activation.

    PubMed

    Solis, Ernesto; Bola, R Aaron; Fasulo, Bradley J; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2017-02-15

    Glucose enters the brain extracellular space from arterial blood, and its proper delivery is essential for metabolic activity of brain cells. By using enzyme-based biosensors coupled with high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats, we previously showed that glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) display high variability, increasing rapidly following exposure to various arousing stimuli. In this study, the same technology was used to assess NAc glucose fluctuations induced by intravenous heroin. Heroin passively injected at a low dose optimal for maintaining self-administration behavior (100 μg/kg) induces a rapid but moderate glucose rise (∼150-200 μM or ∼15-25% over resting baseline). When the heroin dose was doubled and tripled, the increase became progressively larger in magnitude and longer in duration. Heroin-induced glucose increases also occurred in other brain structures (medial thalamus, lateral striatum, hippocampus), suggesting that brain hyperglycemia is a whole-brain phenomenon but changes were notably distinct in each structure. While local vasodilation appears to be the possible mechanism underlying the rapid rise in extracellular glucose levels, the driving factor for this vasodilation (central vs peripheral) remains to be clarified. The heroin-induced NAc glucose increases positively correlated with increases in intracerebral heat production determined in separate experiments using multisite temperature recordings (NAc, temporal muscle and skin). However, glucose levels rise very rapidly, preceding much slower increases in brain heat production, a measure of metabolic activation associated with glucose consumption.

  1. α-Mangostin: Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Metabolism by Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Failla, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Information about the anti-inflammatory activity and metabolism of α-mangostin (α-MG), the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, in human cells is limited. On the basis of available literature, we hypothesized that α-MG will inhibit the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by control and activated macrophage-like THP-1, hepatic HepG2, enterocyte-like Caco-2, and colon HT-29 human cell lines, as well as primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and that such activity would be influenced by the extent of metabolism of the xanthone. α-MG attenuated TNF-α and IL-8 secretion by the various cell lines but increased TNF-α output by both quiescent and LPS-treated MDM. The relative amounts of free and phase II metabolites of α-MG and other xanthones present in media 24 h after addition of α-MG was shown to vary by cell type and inflammatory insult. Increased transport of xanthones and their metabolites across Caco-2 cell monolayers suggests enhanced absorption during an inflammatory episode. The anti-inflammatory activities of xanthones and their metabolites in different tissues merit consideration. PMID:23578285

  2. Linking Metabolic Activity, Microbial Identity, and Microscale Spatial Arrangements in Chemosynthetic Seafloor Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlow, J.; Hatzenpichler, R.; Girguis, P.

    2018-05-01

    With an innovative combination of metabolic tracers, fluorescent probes, and microscopy, we present a novel way to pinpoint the geobiological drivers of metabolic activity at silicate and carbonate-based chemosynthetic seafloor habitats.

  3. Multi-Cellular 3D Human Primary Liver Cell Cultures Elevate Metabolic Activity Under Fluidic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Mandy B.; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Wang, Ying I.; Miller, Paula; Llamas-Vidales, Jose Ricardo; Naughton, Brian A.; Applegate, Dawn R.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting drug-induced liver injury with in vitro cell culture models more accurately would be of significant value to the pharmaceutical industry. To this end we have developed a low-cost liver cell culture device that creates fluidic flow over a 3D primary liver cell culture that consists of multiple liver cell types, including hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells (fibroblasts, stellate cells, and Kupffer cells). We tested the performance of the cell culture under fluidic flow for 14 days, finding that hepatocytes produced albumin and urea at elevated levels compared to static cultures. Hepatocytes also responded with induction of P450 (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4) enzyme activity when challenged with P450 inducers, although we did not find significant differences between static and fluidic cultures. Non-parenchymal cells were similarly responsive, producing interleukin 8 (IL-8) when challenged with 10 μM bacterial lipoprotein (LPS). To create the fluidic flow in an inexpensive manner, we used a rocking platform that tilts the cell culture devices at angles between ±12°, resulting in a periodically changing hydrostatic pressure drop and bidirectional fluid flow (average flow rate of 650 μL/min, and a maximum shear stress of 0.64 dyne/cm2). The increase in metabolic activity is consistent with the hypothesis that, similar to unidirectional fluidic flow, primary liver cell cultures derived from human tissues increase their metabolic activity in response to bidirectional fluidic flow. Since bidirectional flow drastically changes the behavior of other cells types that are shear sensitive, the finding that bidirectional flow increases the metabolic activity of primary liver cells also supports the theory that this increase in metabolic activity is likely caused by increased levels of gas and metabolite exchange or by the accumulation of soluble growth factors rather than by shear sensing. Our results indicate that device operation with bi-directional gravity-driven medium

  4. Correlation of BAT activity with thyroid metabolic activity in patients with fibromyalgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A. P. C.; Maia, J. M.; Brioschi, M. L.; Machado, J. E. M. M.

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this research is to correlate the brown fat activity (BAT) with the metabolic activity of thyroid in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS). For the development of the research, it was select a database containing 132 patients of a thermography clinic, male and female, with age over 18 years old; where the images selected were anteroposterior orthostasis top and anteroposterior in cervical extension. In the program Flir Report, it was possible to demarcate the region of the left and right interscapular and thyroid of each patient by getting the respective temperatures, in addition to view the hyper-radiation ("signal of mantle") in the interscapular. Temperature was organized in table format, and statistical analysis was performed in the program Microcal Origin 6.0. As conclusion, it was found that the greater the metabolic activity of thyroid in patients with fibromyalgia, the greater will be the metabolic rate of brown fat (BAT).

  5. Development of radiometric assays for quantification of enzyme activities of the key enzymes of thyroid hormones metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, S

    2014-01-01

    We newly elaborated and adapted several radiometric enzyme assays for the determination of activities of the key enzymes engaged in the biosynthesis (thyroid peroxidase, TPO) and metabolic transformations (conjugating enzymes and iodothyronine deiodinases, IDs) of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland and in peripheral tissues, especially in white adipose tissue (WAT). We also elaborated novel, reliable radiometric methods for extremely sensitive determination of enzyme activities of IDs of types 1, 2 and 3 in microsomal fractions of different rat and human tissues, as well as in homogenates of cultured mammalian cells. The use of optimized TLC separation of radioactive products from the unconsumed substrates and film-less autoradiography of radiochromatograms, taking advantage of storage phosphor screens, enabled us to determine IDs enzyme activities as low as 10(-18) katals. In studies of the interaction of fluoxetine (Fluox) with the metabolism of THs, we applied adapted radiometric enzyme assays for iodothyronine sulfotransferases (ST) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronyltransferase (UDP-GT). Fluox is the most frequently used representative of a new group of non-tricyclic antidepressant drugs--selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. We used the elaborated assays for quantification the effects of Fluox and for the assessment of the degree of potential induction of rat liver ST and/or UDP-GT enzyme activities by Fluox alone or in combination with T(3). Furthermore, we studied possible changes in IDs activities in murine adipose tissue under the conditions that promoted either tissue hypertrophy (obesogenic treatment) or involution (caloric restriction), and in response to leptin, using our newly developed radiometric enzyme assays for IDs. Our results suggest that deiodinase D1 has a functional role in WAT, with D1 possibly being involved in the control of adipose tissue metabolism and/or accumulation of the tissue. Significant positive correlation between

  6. An Approximation to the Temporal Order in Endogenous Circadian Rhythms of Genes Implicated in Human Adipose Tissue Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    GARAULET, MARTA; ORDOVÁS, JOSÉ M.; GÓMEZ-ABELLÁN, PURIFICACIÓN; MARTÍNEZ, JOSE A.; MADRID, JUAN A.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well established that human adipose tissue (AT) shows circadian rhythmicity, published studies have been discussed as if tissues or systems showed only one or few circadian rhythms at a time. To provide an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human AT including genes implicated in metabolic processes such as energy intake and expenditure, insulin resistance, adipocyte differentiation, dyslipidemia, and body fat distribution. Visceral and subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies (n = 6) were obtained from morbid obese women (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). To investigate rhythmic expression pattern, AT explants were cultured during 24-h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 08:00, 14:00, 20:00, 02:00 h using quantitative real-time PCR. Clock genes, glucocorticoid metabolism-related genes, leptin, adiponectin and their receptors were studied. Significant differences were found both in achrophases and relative-amplitude among genes (P <0.05). Amplitude of most genes rhythms was high (>30%). When interpreting the phase map of gene expression in both depots, data indicated that circadian rhythmicity of the genes studied followed a predictable physiological pattern, particularly for subcutaneous AT. Interesting are the relationships between adiponectin, leptin, and glucocorticoid metabolism-related genes circadian profiles. Their metabolic significance is discussed. Visceral AT behaved in a different way than subcutaneous for most of the genes studied. For every gene, protein mRNA levels fluctuated during the day in synchrony with its receptors. We have provided an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human adipose tissue. PMID:21520059

  7. Osthole improves glucose and lipid metabolism via modulation of PPARα/γ-mediated target gene expression in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle in fatty liver rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhi-Gang; Zhao, Xi; Zhong, Wen; Xie, Mei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Osthole may be a dual agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α/γ and ameliorate the insulin resistance (IR), but its mechanisms are not yet understood completely. We investigated the effects of osthole on PPARα/γ-mediated target genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle in fatty liver and IR rats. The rat model was established by orally feeding high-fat and high-sucrose emulsion for 9 weeks. The experimental rats were treated with osthole 5-10 mg/kg by gavage after feeding the emulsion for 6 weeks, and were sacrificed 4 weeks after administration. After treatment with osthole 5-10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, the lipid levels in serum and liver were decreased by 37.9-67.2% and 31.4-38.5% for triglyceride, 33.1-47.5% and 28.5-31.2% for free fatty acid, respectively, the fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of IR were also decreased by 17.2-22.7%, 25.9-26.7%, and 37.5-42.8%, respectively. Osthole treatment might simultaneously decrease the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and fatty acid synthase mRNA expressions in liver and adipose tissue, and increase the carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A mRNA expression in liver and glucose transporter-4 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle, especially in the osthole 10 mg/kg group (p < 0.01). Osthole can improve glucose and lipid metabolism in fatty liver and IR rats, and its mechanisms may be associated with synergic modulation of PPARα/γ-mediated target genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle.

  8. Nattokinase-promoted tissue plasminogen activator release from human cells.

    PubMed

    Yatagai, Chieko; Maruyama, Masugi; Kawahara, Tomoko; Sumi, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    When heated to a temperature of 70 degrees C or higher, the strong fibrinolytic activity of nattokinase in a solution was deactivated. Similar results were observed in the case of using Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA, which are synthetic substrates of nattokinase. In the current study, tests were conducted on the indirect fibrinolytic effects of the substances containing nattokinase that had been deactivated through heating at 121 degrees C for 15 min. Bacillus subtilis natto culture solutions made from three types of bacteria strain were heat-treated and deactivated, and it was found that these culture solutions had the ability to generate tissue plasminogen activators (tPA) from vascular endothelial cells and HeLa cells at certain concentration levels. For example, it was found that the addition of heat-treated culture solution of the Naruse strain (undiluted solution) raises the tPA activity of HeLa cells to about 20 times that of the control. Under the same conditions, tPA activity was raised to a level about 5 times higher for human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), and to a level about 24 times higher for nattokinase sold on the market. No change in cell count was observed for HeLa cells and HUVEC in the culture solution at these concentrations, and the level of activity was found to vary with concentration. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Artemisia extracts activate PPARγ, promote adipogenesis, and enhance insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue of obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Burris, Thomas P.; Sanchez-Infantes, David; Wang, Yongjun; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have shown that the inability of adipose tissue to properly expand during the obese state or respond to insulin can lead to metabolic dysfunction. Artemisia is a diverse group of plants that has a history of medicinal use. This study examines the ability of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia scoparia (SCO) and Artemisia santolinifolia (SAN) to modulate adipocyte development in cultured adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Research Design & Procedures Adipogenesis was assessed using Oil Red O staining and immunoblotting. A nuclear receptor specificity assay was used to examine the specificity of SCO- and SAN-induced PPARγ activation. C57BL/6J mice, fed a high-fat diet, were gavaged with saline, SCO, or SAN for 2 weeks. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was examined using insulin tolerance tests. WAT depots were assessed via immunoblotting for markers of insulin action and adipokine production. Results We established that SCO and SAN were highly specific activators of PPARγ and did not activate other nuclear receptors. After a one-week daily gavage, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had lower insulin-induced glucose disposal rates than control mice. At the end of the 2-week treatment period, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had enhanced insulin-responsive Akt serine-473 phosphorylation and significantly decreased MCP-1 levels in visceral WAT relative to control mice; these differences were depot specific. Moreover, plasma adiponectin levels were increased following SCO treatment. Conclusion Overall, these studies demonstrate that extracts from two Artemisia species can have metabolically favorable effects on adipocytes and WAT. PMID:24985103

  10. Multi-timescale Modeling of Activity-Dependent Metabolic Coupling in the Neuron-Glia-Vasculature Ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Jolivet, Renaud; Coggan, Jay S.; Allaman, Igor; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the main energy substrate in the adult brain under normal conditions. Accumulating evidence, however, indicates that lactate produced in astrocytes (a type of glial cell) can also fuel neuronal activity. The quantitative aspects of this so-called astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) are still debated. To address this question, we developed a detailed biophysical model of the brain’s metabolic interactions. Our model integrates three modeling approaches, the Buxton-Wang model of vascular dynamics, the Hodgkin-Huxley formulation of neuronal membrane excitability and a biophysical model of metabolic pathways. This approach provides a template for large-scale simulations of the neuron-glia-vasculature (NGV) ensemble, and for the first time integrates the respective timescales at which energy metabolism and neuronal excitability occur. The model is constrained by relative neuronal and astrocytic oxygen and glucose utilization, by the concentration of metabolites at rest and by the temporal dynamics of NADH upon activation. These constraints produced four observations. First, a transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons emerged in response to activity. Second, constrained by activity-dependent NADH transients, neuronal oxidative metabolism increased first upon activation with a subsequent delayed astrocytic glycolysis increase. Third, the model correctly predicted the dynamics of extracellular lactate and oxygen as observed in vivo in rats. Fourth, the model correctly predicted the temporal dynamics of tissue lactate, of tissue glucose and oxygen consumption, and of the BOLD signal as reported in human studies. These findings not only support the ANLS hypothesis but also provide a quantitative mathematical description of the metabolic activation in neurons and glial cells, as well as of the macroscopic measurements obtained during brain imaging. PMID:25719367

  11. Multi-timescale modeling of activity-dependent metabolic coupling in the neuron-glia-vasculature ensemble.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Renaud; Coggan, Jay S; Allaman, Igor; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2015-02-01

    Glucose is the main energy substrate in the adult brain under normal conditions. Accumulating evidence, however, indicates that lactate produced in astrocytes (a type of glial cell) can also fuel neuronal activity. The quantitative aspects of this so-called astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) are still debated. To address this question, we developed a detailed biophysical model of the brain's metabolic interactions. Our model integrates three modeling approaches, the Buxton-Wang model of vascular dynamics, the Hodgkin-Huxley formulation of neuronal membrane excitability and a biophysical model of metabolic pathways. This approach provides a template for large-scale simulations of the neuron-glia-vasculature (NGV) ensemble, and for the first time integrates the respective timescales at which energy metabolism and neuronal excitability occur. The model is constrained by relative neuronal and astrocytic oxygen and glucose utilization, by the concentration of metabolites at rest and by the temporal dynamics of NADH upon activation. These constraints produced four observations. First, a transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons emerged in response to activity. Second, constrained by activity-dependent NADH transients, neuronal oxidative metabolism increased first upon activation with a subsequent delayed astrocytic glycolysis increase. Third, the model correctly predicted the dynamics of extracellular lactate and oxygen as observed in vivo in rats. Fourth, the model correctly predicted the temporal dynamics of tissue lactate, of tissue glucose and oxygen consumption, and of the BOLD signal as reported in human studies. These findings not only support the ANLS hypothesis but also provide a quantitative mathematical description of the metabolic activation in neurons and glial cells, as well as of the macroscopic measurements obtained during brain imaging.

  12. Interleukin-15 Modulates Adipose Tissue by Altering Mitochondrial Mass and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Barra, Nicole G.; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Denou, Emmanuel; Chew, Marianne V.; Gillgrass, Amy; Walker, Tina D.; Kong, Josh; Richards, Carl D.; Jordana, Manel; Collins, Stephen M.; Trigatti, Bernardo L.; Holloway, Alison C.; Raha, Sandeep; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Ashkar, Ali A.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that affects body mass regulation independent of lymphocytes; however, the underlying mechanism(s) involved remains unknown. In an effort to investigate these mechanisms, we performed metabolic cage studies, assessed intestinal bacterial diversity and macronutrient absorption, and examined adipose mitochondrial activity in cultured adipocytes and in lean IL-15 transgenic (IL-15tg), overweight IL-15 deficient (IL-15−/−), and control C57Bl/6 (B6) mice. Here we show that differences in body weight are not the result of differential activity level, food intake, or respiratory exchange ratio. Although intestinal microbiota differences between obese and lean individuals are known to impact macronutrient absorption, differing gut bacteria profiles in these murine strains does not translate to differences in body weight in colonized germ free animals and macronutrient absorption. Due to its contribution to body weight variation, we examined mitochondrial factors and found that IL-15 treatment in cultured adipocytes resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased lipid deposition. Lastly, IL-15tg mice have significantly elevated mitochondrial activity and mass in adipose tissue compared to B6 and IL-15−/− mice. Altogether, these results suggest that IL-15 is involved in adipose tissue regulation and linked to altered mitochondrial function. PMID:25517731

  13. Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-α and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Madani, Zohra; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Ait Yahia, Dalila

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims at exploring the effects of sardine protein on insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed sardine protein (S) or casein (C) diets supplemented or not with high-fructose (HF) for 2 months. Rats fed the HF diets had greater body weight and adiposity and lower food intake as compared to control rats. Increased plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1C, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was observed in HF-fed rats. Moreover, a decline in adipose tissues antioxidant status and a rise in lipid peroxidation and plasma TNF-α and fibrinogen were noted. Rats fed sardine protein diets exhibited lower food intake and fat mass than those fed casein diets. Sardine protein diets diminished plasma insulin and insulin resistance. Plasma triacylglycerol and free fatty acids were also lower, while those of α-tocopherol, taurine and calcium were enhanced as compared to casein diets. Moreover, S-HF diet significantly decreased plasma glucose and HbA1C. Sardine protein consumption lowered hydroperoxide levels in perirenal and brown adipose tissues. The S-HF diet, as compared to C-HF diet decreased epididymal hydroperoxides. Feeding sardine protein diets decreased brown adipose tissue carbonyls and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Perirenal and epididymal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and brown catalase activity were significantly greater in S-HF group than in C-HF group. Sardine protein diets also prevented hyperleptinemia and reduced inflammatory status in comparison with rats fed casein diets. Taken together, these results support the beneficial effect of sardine protein in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on such variables as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative and inflammatory status, suggesting the possible use of sardine protein as a protective

  14. ATM activation in normal human tissues and testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Bartkova, Jirina; Bakkenist, Christopher J; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Sehested, Maxwell; Lukas, Jiri; Kastan, Michael B; Bartek, Jiri

    2005-06-01

    The ATM kinase is a tumor suppressor and key regulator of biological responses to DNA damage. Cultured cells respond to genotoxic insults that induce DNA double-strand breaks by prompt activation of ATM through its autophosphorylation on serine 1981. However, whether ATM-S1981 becomes phosphorylated in vivo, for example during physiological processes that generate DSBs, is unknown. Here we produced phospho-specific monoclonal antibodies against S1981-phosphorylated ATM (pS-ATM), and applied them to immunohistochemical analyses of a wide range of normal human tissues and testicular tumors. Our data show that regardless of proliferation and differentiation, most human tissues contain only the S1981-nonphosphorylated, inactive form of ATM. In contrast, nuclear staining for pS-ATM was detected in subsets of bone-marrow lymphocytes and primary spermatocytes in the adult testes, cell types in which DSBs are generated during physiological V(D)J recombination and meiotic recombination, respectively. Among testicular germ-cell tumors, an aberrant constitutive pS-ATM was observed especially in embryonal carcinomas, less in seminomas, and only modestly in teratomas and the pre-invasive carcinoma-in-situ stage. Compared with pS-ATM, phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX), another DNA damage marker and ATM substrate, was detected in a higher proportion of cancer cells, and also in normal fetal gonocytes, and a wider range of adult spermatocyte differentiation stages. Collectively, our results strongly support the physiological relevance of the recently proposed model of ATM autoactivation, and provide further evidence for constitutive activation of the DNA damage machinery during cancer development. The new tools characterized here should facilitate monitoring of ATM activation in clinical specimens, and help develop future treatment strategies.

  15. Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome among Ethiopian Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is on the rise, with the majority of the growth occurring among populations in developing countries. Few studies have quantified the health benefits for physical activity among sub-Saharan African adults. We examined associations of physical activity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Ethiopian men and women. METHODS This cross-sectional study of 1,843 individuals (1,117 men and 726 women) was conducted among working adults (public schools and bank employees) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in accordance with the STEPwise approach of the World Health Organization. Physical activity was assessed using a previously validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The odds of MetS was inversely associated with physical activity in men (P trend = 0.02) but not women (P trend = 0.85). Among men, the OR of MetS comparing those with high vs. low levels of physical activity was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.33–0.97). For women, the corresponding OR was 1.07 (95% CI = 0.57–2.01). Physical activity was significantly and inversely associated with high waist circumference and hypertriglyceridemia among men, but no such associations were observed among women. CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of physical activity were inversely associated with MetS and several individual components among men. No similar trends were observed among women in this cohort, in part because of the small sample size. PMID:23422933

  16. Analysis of drug metabolism activities in a miniaturized liver cell bioreactor for use in pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Stefan A; Müller-Vieira, Ursula; Biemel, Klaus; Knobeloch, Daniel; Heydel, Sandra; Lübberstedt, Marc; Nüssler, Andreas K; Andersson, Tommy B; Gerlach, Jörg C; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2012-12-01

    Based on a hollow fiber perfusion technology with internal oxygenation, a miniaturized bioreactor with a volume of 0.5 mL for in vitro studies was recently developed. Here, the suitability of this novel culture system for pharmacological studies was investigated, focusing on the model drug diclofenac. Primary human liver cells were cultivated in bioreactors and in conventional monolayer cultures in parallel over 10 days. From day 3 on, diclofenac was continuously applied at a therapeutic concentration (6.4 µM) for analysis of its metabolism. In addition, the activity and gene expression of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were assessed. Diclofenac was metabolized in bioreactor cultures with an initial conversion rate of 230 ± 57 pmol/h/10(6) cells followed by a period of stable conversion of about 100 pmol/h/10(6) cells. All CYP activities tested were maintained until day 10 of bioreactor culture. The expression of corresponding mRNAs correlated well with the degree of preservation. Immunohistochemical characterization showed the formation of neo-tissue with expression of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 and the drug transporters breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) in the bioreactor. In contrast, monolayer cultures showed a rapid decline of diclofenac conversion and cells had largely lost activity and mRNA expression of the assessed CYP isoforms at the end of the culture period. In conclusion, diclofenac metabolism, CYP activities and gene expression levels were considerably more stable in bioreactor cultures, making the novel bioreactor a useful tool for pharmacological or toxicological investigations requiring a highly physiological in vitro representation of the liver. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Early changes in tissue amino acid metabolism and nutrient routing in rats fed a high-fat diet: evidence from natural isotope abundances of nitrogen and carbon in tissue proteins.

    PubMed

    Mantha, Olivier L; Polakof, Sergio; Huneau, Jean-François; Mariotti, François; Poupin, Nathalie; Zalko, Daniel; Fouillet, Helene

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about how diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance affect protein and amino acid (AA) metabolism in tissues. The natural relative abundances of the heavy stable isotopes of C (δ 13C) and N (δ 15N) in tissue proteins offer novel and promising biomarkers of AA metabolism. They, respectively, reflect the use of dietary macronutrients for tissue AA synthesis and the relative metabolic use of tissue AA for oxidation v. protein synthesis. In this study, δ 13C and δ 15N were measured in the proteins of various tissues in young adult rats exposed perinatally and/or fed after weaning with a normal- or a high-fat (HF) diet, the aim being to characterise HF-induced tissue-specific changes in AA metabolism. HF feeding was shown to increase the routing of dietary fat to all tissue proteins via non-indispensable AA synthesis, but did not affect AA allocation between catabolic and anabolic processes in most tissues. However, the proportion of AA directed towards oxidation rather than protein synthesis was increased in the small intestine and decreased in the tibialis anterior muscle and adipose tissue. In adipose tissue, the AA reallocation was observed in the case of perinatal or post-weaning exposure to HF, whereas in the small intestine and tibialis anterior muscle the AA reallocation was only observed after HF exposure that covered both the perinatal and post-weaning periods. In conclusion, HF exposure induced an early reorganisation of AA metabolism involving tissue-specific effects, and in particular a decrease in the relative allocation of AA to oxidation in several peripheral tissues.

  18. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-02-01

    Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.

  19. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dario B; Maccarini, Paolo F; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J S; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R

    2013-02-26

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm 3 ) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm 3 ) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.

  20. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3–10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2–6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results The optimized frequency band was 1.5–2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2–9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4–15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2–6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism. PMID:24244831

  1. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Helin; Xie, Qingjun; Xiang, Xiaoe; Li, Jianqiao; Zheng, Suning; Xu, Xinying; Guo, Haolun; Ye, Wenxue

    2015-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld), phloem-peeling (Pe), and selective silique darkening (Sd). Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA), organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of the oil

  2. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with amore » high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.« less

  3. Molecular, cellular, and tissue impact of depleted uranium on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, Yann; Rouas, Caroline; Monin, Audrey; Manens, Line; Stefani, Johanna; Delissen, Olivia; Grison, Stéphane; Dublineau, Isabelle

    2014-02-01

    Enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics (XME) are well recognized in experimental models as representative indicators of organ detoxification functions and of exposure to toxicants. As several in vivo studies have shown, uranium can alter XME in the rat liver or kidneys after either acute or chronic exposure. To determine how length or level of exposure affects these changes in XME, we continued our investigation of chronic rat exposure to depleted uranium (DU, uranyl nitrate). The first study examined the effect of duration (1-18 months) of chronic exposure to DU, the second evaluated dose dependence, from a level close to that found in the environment near mining sites (0.2 mg/L) to a supra-environmental dose (120 mg/L, 10 times the highest level naturally found in the environment), and the third was an in vitro assessment of whether DU exposure directly affects XME and, in particular, CYP3A. The experimental in vivo models used here demonstrated that CYP3A is the enzyme modified to the greatest extent: high gene expression changed after 6 and 9 months. The most substantial effects were observed in the liver of rats after 9 months of exposure to 120 mg/L of DU: CYP3A gene and protein expression and enzyme activity all decreased by more than 40 %. Nonetheless, no direct effect of DU by itself was observed after in vitro exposure of rat microsomal preparations, HepG2 cells, or human primary hepatocytes. Overall, these results probably indicate the occurrence of regulatory or adaptive mechanisms that could explain the indirect effect observed in vivo after chronic exposure.

  4. Connective tissue activation. XXXII. Structural and biologic characteristics of mesenchymal cell-derived connective tissue activating peptide-V.

    PubMed

    Cabral, A R; Cole, L A; Walz, D A; Castor, C W

    1987-12-01

    Connective tissue activating peptide-V (CTAP-V) is a single-chain, mesenchymal cell-derived anionic protein with large and small molecular forms (Mr of 28,000 and 16,000, respectively), as defined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins have similar specific activities with respect to stimulation of hyaluronic acid and DNA formation in human synovial fibroblast cultures. S-carboxymethylation or removal of sialic acid residues did not modify CTAP-V biologic activity. Rabbit antibodies raised separately against each of the purified CTAP-V proteins reacted, on immunodiffusion and on Western blot, with each antigen and neutralized mitogenic activity. The amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the CTAP-V proteins, determined by 2 laboratories, confirmed their structural similarities. The amino-terminal sequence through 37 residues was demonstrated for the smaller protein. The first 10 residues of CTAP-V (28 kd) were identical to the N-terminal decapeptide of CTAP-V (16 kd). The C-terminal sequence, determined by carboxypeptidase Y digestion, was the same for both CTAP-V molecular species. The 2 CTAP-V peptides had similar amino acid compositions, whether residues were expressed as a percent of the total or were normalized to mannose. Reduction of native CTAP-V protein released sulfhydryl groups in a protein:disulfide ratio of 1:2; this suggests that CTAP-V contains 2 intramolecular disulfide bonds. Clearly, CTAP-V is a glycoprotein. The carbohydrate content of CTAP-V (16 kd) and CTAP-V (28 kd) is 27% and 25%, respectively. CTAP-V may have significance in relation to autocrine mechanisms for growth regulation of connective tissue cells and other cell types.

  5. Silencing CCR2 in Macrophages Alleviates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and the Associated Metabolic Syndrome in Dietary Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongkil; Chung, Kunho; Choi, Changseon; Beloor, Jagadish; Ullah, Irfan; Kim, Nahyeon; Lee, Kuen Yong; Lee, Sang-Kyung; Kumar, Priti

    2016-01-26

    Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM)-mediated inflammation is a key feature contributing to the adverse metabolic outcomes of dietary obesity. Recruitment of macrophages to obese adipose tissues (AT) can occur through the engagement of CCR2, the receptor for MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), which is expressed on peripheral monocytes/macrophages. Here, we show that i.p. administration of a rabies virus glycoprotein-derived acetylcholine receptor-binding peptide effectively delivers complexed siRNA into peritoneal macrophages and ATMs in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Treatment with siRNA against CCR2 inhibited macrophage infiltration and accumulation in AT and, therefore, proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages. Consequently, the treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity profiles, and also alleviated the associated symptoms of hepatic steatosis and reduced hepatic triglyceride production. These results demonstrate that disruption of macrophage chemotaxis to the AT through cell-targeted gene knockdown strategies can provide a therapeutic intervention for obesity-related metabolic diseases. The study also highlights a siRNA delivery approach for targeting specific monocyte subsets that contribute to obesity-associated inflammation without affecting the function of other tissue-resident macrophages that are essential for host homeostasis and survival.

  6. Systems approaches evaluating the perturbation of xenobiotic metabolism in response to cigarette smoke exposure in nasal and bronchial tissues.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Anita R; Martin, Florian; Talikka, Marja; Schlage, Walter K; Kostadinova, Radina; Mathis, Carole; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2013-01-01

    Capturing the effects of exposure in a specific target organ is a major challenge in risk assessment. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) implicates the field of tissue injury in the lung as well as nasal and airway epithelia. Xenobiotic metabolism in particular becomes an attractive tool for chemical risk assessment because of its responsiveness against toxic compounds, including those present in CS. This study describes an efficient integration from transcriptomic data to quantitative measures, which reflect the responses against xenobiotics that are captured in a biological network model. We show here that our novel systems approach can quantify the perturbation in the network model of xenobiotic metabolism. We further show that this approach efficiently compares the perturbation upon CS exposure in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells in vivo samples obtained from smokers. Our observation suggests the xenobiotic responses in the bronchial and nasal epithelial cells of smokers were similar to those observed in their respective organotypic models exposed to CS. Furthermore, the results suggest that nasal tissue is a reliable surrogate to measure xenobiotic responses in bronchial tissue.

  7. Systems Approaches Evaluating the Perturbation of Xenobiotic Metabolism in Response to Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Nasal and Bronchial Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Anita R.; Martin, Florian; Talikka, Marja; Schlage, Walter K.; Mathis, Carole; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2013-01-01

    Capturing the effects of exposure in a specific target organ is a major challenge in risk assessment. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) implicates the field of tissue injury in the lung as well as nasal and airway epithelia. Xenobiotic metabolism in particular becomes an attractive tool for chemical risk assessment because of its responsiveness against toxic compounds, including those present in CS. This study describes an efficient integration from transcriptomic data to quantitative measures, which reflect the responses against xenobiotics that are captured in a biological network model. We show here that our novel systems approach can quantify the perturbation in the network model of xenobiotic metabolism. We further show that this approach efficiently compares the perturbation upon CS exposure in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells in vivo samples obtained from smokers. Our observation suggests the xenobiotic responses in the bronchial and nasal epithelial cells of smokers were similar to those observed in their respective organotypic models exposed to CS. Furthermore, the results suggest that nasal tissue is a reliable surrogate to measure xenobiotic responses in bronchial tissue. PMID:24224167

  8. Energy metabolism of broiler breeder hens. 2. Contribution of tissues to total heat production in fed and fasted hens.

    PubMed

    Spratt, R S; McBride, B W; Bayley, H S; Leeson, S

    1990-08-01

    In vitro rates of O2 consumption were investigated using excised biopsies from the liver, ileum, magnum, and latissimus dorsi muscle of Hubbard (H) broiler-breeder hens fed four levels of ME intake. Diet had no effect on O2 consumption of any tissue. The overall mean initial O2 consumption (microL of O2 per mg of dry weight per h) for latissimus dorsi, liver, ileum, and magnum tissues were 4.38, 13.33, 10.54, and 8.01, respectively. The Na+ and K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase-dependent respiration (ouabain-sensitive respiration) was 16% of the initial rate for latissimus dorsi, liver, and magnum tissues and 22% for ileum tissues. Fasting heat production of H and Arbor Acre (AA) meat-type hens measured over 3 days following an initial 24-h fast was 219 and 216 kilojoules (kJ) per kg per day (1 kJ = .239 kcal). There were no strain differences in the partitioning of O2 consumption into tissue components of fasted H and AA hens. Fasting metabolism accounted for 75% of the maintenance energy requirement in the hens. The liver, gut, and reproductive tract, which together make up 5 to 6% of BW, account for 26 and 30% of the total energy expenditure in fed and fasted hens, respectively.

  9. Alterations to metabolically active bacteria in the mucosa of the small intestine predict anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities of grape seed extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Laura E; Witrick, Katherine A; Klotz, Courtney; Dorenkott, Melanie R; Goodrich, Katheryn M; Fundaro, Gabrielle; McMillan, Ryan P; Hulver, Matthew W; Ponder, Monica A; Neilson, Andrew P

    2017-10-18

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that grapes and grape-derived products may reduce the risk for chronic disease. Grape seed extract specifically has been gaining interest due to its reported ability to prevent weight gain, moderate hyperglycemia, and reduce inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of two doses of grape seed extract (10 and 100 mg kg -1 body wt per d in mice) on markers of metabolic syndrome in the context of a moderately high-fat diet. After 12 weeks, the lower dose of grape seed extract was more effective at inhibiting fat gain and improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Neither the high fat diet nor grape seed extract altered skeletal muscle substrate metabolism. Most interestingly, when examining the profile of metabolically active microbiota in the mucosa of the small intestine, cecum, and colonic tissue, grape seed extract seemed to have the most dramatic effect on small intestinal tissue, where the population of Firmicutes was lower compared to control groups. This effect was not observed in the cecal or colonic tissues, suggesting that the main alterations to gut microbiota due to flavan-3-ol supplementation occur in the small intestine, which has not been reported previously. These findings suggest that grape seed extract can prevent early changes in glucose tolerance and alter small intestinal gut microbiota, prior to the onset of skeletal muscle metabolic derangements, when grape seed extract is consumed at a low dose in the context of a moderately high fat diet.

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid regulates brown adipose tissue gene expression and metabolism in high fat fed mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue, a key regulator of energy balance and a potential therapeutic target for obesity. We previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduced high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, independent of energy intake. We hy...

  11. Thrombolytic Therapy by Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-01-01

    Clinicians need to make decisions about the use of thrombolytic (fibrinolytic) therapy for pulmonary embolism (PE) after carefully considering the risks of major complications from bleeding, and the benefits of treatment, for each individual patient. They should probably not use systemic thrombolysis for PE patients with normal blood pressure. Treatment by human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), alteplase, saves the lives of high-risk PE patients, that is, those with hypotension or in shock. Even in the absence of strong evidence, clinicians need to choose the most appropriate regimen for administering alteplase for individual patients, based on assessment of the urgency of the situation, risks for major complications from bleeding, and patient's body weight. In addition, invasive strategies should be considered when absolute contraindications for thrombolytic therapy exist, serious complications arise, or thrombolytic therapy fails.

  12. INCREASED ENDOCRINE ACTIVITY OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS AS MEDIATED BY METABOLIC ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is part of an effort to develop in vitro assays and QSARs applicable to untested chemicals on EPA inventories through study of estrogen receptor (ER) binding and estrogen mediated gene expression in fish. The current effort investigates metabolic activation of chemi...

  13. Activation of SF1 Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus by DREADD Technology Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Peripheral Tissues.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Eulalia A; Okamoto, Shiki; Ishikawa, Ayako Wendy; Yokota, Shigefumi; Wada, Nobuhiro; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Saito, Kumiko; Sato, Tatsuya; Takagi, Kazuyo; Wang, Chen-Chi; Kobayashi, Kenta; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Shioda, Seiji; Yoshimura, Yumiko; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko

    2017-09-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) regulates glucose and energy metabolism in mammals. Optogenetic stimulation of VMH neurons that express steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) induces hyperglycemia. However, leptin acting via the VMH stimulates whole-body glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in some peripheral tissues, and this effect of leptin appears to be mediated by SF1 neurons. We examined the effects of activation of SF1 neurons with DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technology. Activation of SF1 neurons by an intraperitoneal injection of clozapine- N -oxide (CNO), a specific hM3Dq ligand, reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure in mice expressing hM3Dq in SF1 neurons. It also increased whole-body glucose utilization and glucose uptake in red-type skeletal muscle, heart, and interscapular brown adipose tissue, as well as glucose production and glycogen phosphorylase a activity in the liver, thereby maintaining blood glucose levels. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, such activation of SF1 neurons increased insulin-induced glucose uptake in the same peripheral tissues and tended to enhance insulin-induced suppression of glucose production by suppressing gluconeogenic gene expression and glycogen phosphorylase a activity in the liver. DREADD technology is thus an important tool for studies of the role of the brain in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Biologically active and biomimetic dual gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, P; Pedraz, J L; Orive, G

    2017-05-01

    We have designed, developed and optimized Genipin cross-linked 3D gelatin scaffolds that were biologically active and biomimetic, show a dual activity both for growth factor and cell delivery. Type B gelatin powder was dissolved in DI water. 100mg of genipin was dissolved in 10ml of DI water. Three genipin concentrations were prepared: 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% (w/v). Solutions were mixed at 40°C and under stirring and then left crosslinking for 72h. Scaffolds were obtained by punching 8 mm-cylinders into ethanol 70% solution for 10min and then freeze-drying. Scaffolds were biologically, biomechanically and morphologically evaluated. Cell adhesion and morphology of D1-Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and L-929 fibroblast was studied. Vascular endothelial grwoth factor (VEGF) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) were used as model proteins. Swelling ratio increased and younǵs module decreased along with the concentration of genipin. All scaffolds were biocompatible according to the toxicity test. MSC and L-929 cell adhesion improved in 0.2% of genipin, obtaining better results with MSCs. VEGF and SHH were released from the gels. This preliminary study suggest that the biologically active and dual gelatin scaffolds may be used for tissue engineering approaches like bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Arrhenius temperature dependence of in vitro tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, George J.; Dhamija, Ashima; Bavani, Nazli; Wagner, Kenneth R.; Holland, Christy K.

    2007-06-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease and a leading cause of death and disability. Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the intravenous administration of the thrombolytic medication, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this treatment has many contraindications and can have dangerous side effects such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. These treatment limitations have led to much interest in potential adjunctive therapies, such as therapeutic hypothermia (T <= 35 °C) and ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis. Such interest may lead to combining these therapies with tPA to treat stroke, however little is known about the effects of temperature on the thrombolytic efficacy of tPA. In this work, we measure the temperature dependence of the fractional clot mass loss Δm(T) resulting from tPA exposure in an in vitro human clot model. We find that the temperature dependence is well described by an Arrhenius temperature dependence with an effective activation energy Eeff of 42.0 ± 0.9 kJ mole-1. Eeff approximates the activation energy of the plasminogen-to-plasmin reaction of 48.9 kJ mole-1. A model to explain this temperature dependence is proposed. These results will be useful in predicting the effects of temperature in future lytic therapies.

  16. Arrhenius temperature dependence of in vitro tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Shaw, George J; Dhamija, Ashima; Bavani, Nazli; Wagner, Kenneth R; Holland, Christy K

    2007-06-07

    Stroke is a devastating disease and a leading cause of death and disability. Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the intravenous administration of the thrombolytic medication, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this treatment has many contraindications and can have dangerous side effects such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. These treatment limitations have led to much interest in potential adjunctive therapies, such as therapeutic hypothermia (T activation energy E(eff) of 42.0 +/- 0.9 kJ mole(-1). E(eff) approximates the activation energy of the plasminogen-to-plasmin reaction of 48.9 kJ mole(-1). A model to explain this temperature dependence is proposed. These results will be useful in predicting the effects of temperature in future lytic therapies.

  17. Leptin modulates dose-dependently the metabolic and cytolytic activities of NK-92 cells.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Bruno; Goncalves-Mendes, Nicolas; Nachat-Kappes, Rachida; Rossary, Adrien; Caldefie-Chezet, Florence; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Farges, Marie-Chantal

    2013-06-01

    Leptin, a hormone-cytokine produced primarily in the adipose tissue, has pleiotropic effects on many biological systems and in several cell types, including immune cells. Hyperleptinemia is associated with immune dysfunction and carcinogenesis. Natural killer (NK) cells are critical mediators of anti-tumor immunity, and leptin receptor deficiency in mice leads to impaired NK function. It was thus decided to explore the in vitro effects of leptin on human NK cell function. NK-92 cells were cultured during 48 h with different leptin concentrations [absence, 10 (physiological), 100 (obesity), or 200 ng/ml (pharmacology)]. Their metabolic activity was assessed using the resazurin test. NK-92 cell cytotoxicity and intracellular IFN-γ production were analyzed by flow cytometry. NK-92 cell mRNA and protein expression levels of cytotoxic effectors were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot. In our conditions, leptin exerted a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on NK-92 cell metabolic activity. In addition, high leptin concentrations enhanced NK-92 cell cytotoxicity against K562-EGFP and MDA-MB-231-EGFP target cells and inversely reduced cytotoxicity against the MCF-7-EGFP target. At 100 ng/ml, leptin up-regulated both NK cell granzyme B and TRAIL protein expressions and concomitantly down-regulated perforin expression without affecting Fas-L expression. In response to PMA/ionomycin stimulation, the proportion of IFN-γ expressing NK-92 cells increased with 100 and 200 ng/ml of leptin. In conclusion, leptin concentration, at obesity level, variably increased NK-92 cell metabolic activity and modulated NK cell cytotoxicity according to the target cells. The underlying mechanisms are partly due to an up-regulation of TRAIL and IFN-γ expression and a down-regulation of perforin. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tissue distribution, metabolism and hepatic tissue injury in Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) after a single oral administration of lambda-cyhalothrin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jing; Li, Jitong; Wang, Huili; Wang, Yinghuan; Guo, Baoyuan; Yin, Jing; Hao, Weiyu; Li, Wei; Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a widely used pyrethroid with neurotoxicity. However, little is known about the toxicokinetics of LCT in reptiles. In this study, the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of LCT in Chinese lizards (Eremias Argus) were determined following a single dose (10 mg kg -1 ) treatment. In the liver, brain, gonads and skin, LCT levels peaked within several hours and then decreased rapidly. However, the concentration of LCT gradually increased in the fat tissue. More than 90% of the LCT dose was excreted in the faeces. One LCT metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), was detected in lizard plasma and tissues. PBA preferentially accumulates in the brain and plasma. The half-life of PBA in the brain was 3.2 days, which was 35.4-fold greater than that of LCT. In the plasma, the concentration of PBA was significantly higher than that of LCT. The bioaccumulation of LCT in tissues was enantioselective, and the enantiomeric fractions (EF) ranged from 0.72 to 0.26. The preferential accumulation of enantiomers changed according to exposure time, but the reasons behind this phenomenon were not clear. For pathological analysis, vacuolation of the cytoplasm and large areas of necrosis were observed in the liver sections after 168 h of dosing. The liver tissues exhibited both decreases in the hepatosomatic index and histopathological lesions during the exposure period. In this study, the effect concentration of LCT in lizards was 200-fold lower than its LD 50 value used in risk assessments for birds. These results may provide additional information for the risk assessment of LCT for reptiles and indicate that birds may not be an ideal surrogate for reptile toxicity evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Source of metabolizable energy affects gene transcription in metabolic pathways in adipose and liver tissue of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crookenden, M A; Mandok, K S; Grala, T M; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; Roche, J R

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if transcript abundance of genes involved in metabolic pathways in adipose and liver tissue could provide some explanation for the low efficiency with which ME in autumn pasture is used for BW gain. Nonlactating, pregnant (208 ± 19 d of gestation or approximately 75 d precalving) dairy cows (n = 90) were randomly allocated to either a control diet (i.e., offered fresh autumn pasture to maintenance requirements: 0.55 MJ ME/kg of measured metabolic BW [BW0.75] per day) or, in addition to the control diet, 1 of 2 supplement amounts (2.5 and 5.0 kg DM/d) of autumn pasture or 1 of 4 supplementary feeds (i.e., a control and 2 levels of feeding for each of 5 feeds: 11 groups of cows). Along with autumn pasture, evaluated feeds included spring pasture silage, maize silage, maize grain, and palm kernel expeller. Adipose and liver tissues were biopsied in wk 4 of the experiment and transcript abundance of genes involved in metabolic pathways associated with energy metabolism, lipolysis, and lipogenesis was determined. Additional feed, irrespective of type, increased BW gain (P < 0.01) and this effect was reflected in the expression of genes in adipose and liver tissue. However, autumn pasture had lower energy-use efficiency than the other feeds. Genes involved in both lipogenesis (ACACA, THRSP, GPAM, GPD1, and LPL) and lipolysis (PNPLA2) were upregulated (P < 0.05) in adipose tissue in response to increased ME intake/kilogram BW0.75. Hepatic expression of APOA1 decreased and that of APOB increased (P < 0.05) in cows offered maize grain and maize silage (i.e., starch-containing feeds). In comparison, pasture-fed cows demonstrated a degree of uncoupling of the somatotropic axis, with lower hepatic transcript abundance of both GHR1A and IGF-1 compared with cows offered any of the other 4 feeds. Changes to gene transcription indicate a possible molecular mechanism for the poor BW gain evident in ruminants consuming autumn

  20. Effect of metabolic gases and water vapor, perfluorocarbon emulsions, and nitric oxide on tissue bubbles during decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Randsøe, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    In aviation and diving, fast decrease in ambient pressure, such as during accidental loss of cabin pressure or when a diver decompresses too fast to sea level, may cause nitrogen (N2) bubble formation in blood and tissue resulting in decompression sickness (DCS). Conventional treatment of DCS is oxygen (O2) breathing combined with recompression.  However, bubble kinetic models suggest, that metabolic gases, i.e. O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor contribute significantly to DCS bubble volume and growth at hypobaric altitude exposures. Further, perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFC) and nitric oxide (NO) donors have, on an experimental basis, demonstrated therapeutic properties both as treatment and prophylactic intervention against DCS. The effect was ascribed to solubility of respiratory gases in PFC, plausible NO elicited nuclei demise and/or N2 washout through enhanced blood flow rate. Accordingly, by means of monitoring injected bubbles in exposed adipose tissue or measurements of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs) in anaesthetized rats, the aim of this study was to: 1) evaluate the contribution of metabolic gases and water vapor to bubble volume at different barometrical altitude exposures, 2) clarify the O2 contribution and N2 solubility from bubbles during administration of PFC at normo- and hypobaric conditions and, 3) test the effect of different NO donors on SEPs during DCS upon a hyperbaric air dive and, to study the influence of  NO on tissue bubbles at high altitude exposures. The results support the bubble kinetic models and indicate that metabolic gases and water vapor contribute significantly to bubble volume at 25 kPa (~10,376 m above sea level) and constitute a threshold for bubble stabilization or decay at the interval of 47-36 kPa (~6,036 and ~7,920 m above sea level). The effect of the metabolic gases and water vapor seemed to compromise the therapeutic properties of both PFC and NO at altitude, while PFC significantly increased bubble

  1. [Serum creatine kinase activity in dogs and cats with metabolic diseases].

    PubMed

    Neumann, S

    2005-09-01

    Elevated Creatine kinase-activitiy (CK) indicates disturbances of the muscle cell integrity. In addition to primary muscle disease, like trauma, inflammation or dystrophy, diseases of other organs can lead to secondary muscle involvement, which will be indicated by increased serum activities of the CK. The mechanisms of muscle cell disturbance are still unknown. An elevated protein catabolism in the muscle cell is suspected. In the present study we investigated, if dogs and cats with metabolic diseases have increased CK-activity in the serum. From 34 dogs and cats in a group with different metabolic diseases without metabolic acidosis 19% of the dogs and 50% of the cats had increased CK-activity in the serum. From 33 dogs and cats with different metabolic diseases connected with metabolic acidosis 86% of the dogs and 95% of the cats had simultaneously increased CK-activity in the serum. In comparison to healthy dogs and cats animals with metabolic diseases have significant and in cases of metabolic di-seases with metabolic acidosis cats have high significant elevation (dogs significant) of CK-activity in the serum. There was no significant correlation between the groups of patients. In conclusion we think that our results show that metabolic diseases often induce secondary myopathy, measured by CK-activity in the serum, but metabolic acidosis has no direct influence on elevated CK activity in dogs and cats.

  2. The metabolic activator FOXO1 binds hepatitis B virus DNA and activates its transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomai, Amir, E-mail: amirsh@tasmc.health.gov.il; Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver disease, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizmann street, Tel-Aviv; Shaul, Yosef

    2009-04-17

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA virus that targets the liver and infects humans worldwide. Recently we have shown that the metabolic regulator PGC-1{alpha} coactivates HBV transcription thereby rendering the virus susceptible to fluctuations in the nutritional status of the liver. PGC-1{alpha} coactivation of HBV is mediated through the liver-enriched nuclear receptor HNF4{alpha} and through another yet unknown transcription factor(s). Here we show that the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1, a known target for PGC-1{alpha} coactivation and a central mediator of glucose metabolism in the liver, binds HBV core promoter and activates its transcription. This activation is further enhancedmore » in the presence of PGC-1{alpha}, implying that FOXO1 is a target for PGC-1{alpha} coactivation of HBV transcription. Thus, our results identify another key metabolic regulator as an activator of HBV transcription, thereby supporting the principle that HBV gene expression is regulated in a similar way to key hepatic metabolic genes.« less

  3. The prediction of drug metabolism, tissue distribution, and bioavailability of 50 structurally diverse compounds in rat using mechanism-based absorption, distribution, and metabolism prediction tools.

    PubMed

    De Buck, Stefan S; Sinha, Vikash K; Fenu, Luca A; Gilissen, Ron A; Mackie, Claire E; Nijsen, Marjoleen J

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a physiologically based modeling approach for predicting drug metabolism, tissue distribution, and bioavailability in rat for a structurally diverse set of neutral and moderate-to-strong basic compounds (n = 50). Hepatic blood clearance (CL(h)) was projected using microsomal data and shown to be well predicted, irrespective of the type of hepatic extraction model (80% within 2-fold). Best predictions of CL(h) were obtained disregarding both plasma and microsomal protein binding, whereas strong bias was seen using either blood binding only or both plasma and microsomal protein binding. Two mechanistic tissue composition-based equations were evaluated for predicting volume of distribution (V(dss)) and tissue-to-plasma partitioning (P(tp)). A first approach, which accounted for ionic interactions with acidic phospholipids, resulted in accurate predictions of V(dss) (80% within 2-fold). In contrast, a second approach, which disregarded ionic interactions, was a poor predictor of V(dss) (60% within 2-fold). The first approach also yielded accurate predictions of P(tp) in muscle, heart, and kidney (80% within 3-fold), whereas in lung, liver, and brain, predictions ranged from 47% to 62% within 3-fold. Using the second approach, P(tp) prediction accuracy in muscle, heart, and kidney was on average 70% within 3-fold, and ranged from 24% to 54% in all other tissues. Combining all methods for predicting V(dss) and CL(h) resulted in accurate predictions of the in vivo half-life (70% within 2-fold). Oral bioavailability was well predicted using CL(h) data and Gastroplus Software (80% within 2-fold). These results illustrate that physiologically based prediction tools can provide accurate predictions of rat pharmacokinetics.

  4. [Effect of fenicoberan on parameters of carbohydrate metabolism and electrolyte levels in blood vessel tissue].

    PubMed

    Puchkova, V A; Iakusheva, E N

    1989-01-01

    The spasmolysant fenicaberane was found to induce diverse changes in electrolyte levels, a significant increase of lactate content in all vascular zones, various changes in pyruvate levels depending on the vascular tissue type.

  5. Carbohydrates and activity of natural and recombinant tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Krudysz-Amblo, Jolanta; Jennings, Mark E; Mann, Kenneth G; Butenas, Saulius

    2010-01-29

    The effect of glycosylation on tissue factor (TF) activity was evaluated, and site-specific glycosylation of full-length recombinant TF (rTF) and that of natural TF from human placenta (pTF) were studied by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The amidolytic activity of the TF.factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex toward a fluorogenic substrate showed that the catalytic efficiency (V(max)) of the complex increased in the order rTF(1-243) (Escherichia coli) < rTF(1-263) (Sf9 insect cells) < pTF for the glycosylated and deglycosylated forms. Substrate hydrolysis was unaltered by deglycosylation. In FXase, the K(m) of FX for rTF(1-263)-FVIIa remained unchanged after deglycosylation, whereas the k(cat) decreased slightly. A pronounced decrease, 4-fold, in k(cat) was observed for pTF.FVIIa upon deglycosylation, whereas the K(m) was minimally altered. The parameters of FX activation by both rTF(1-263D)-FVIIa and pTF(D)-FVIIa were identical and similar to those for rTF(1-243)-FVIIa. In conclusion, carbohydrates significantly influence the activity of TF proteins. Carbohydrate analysis revealed glycosylation on asparagines 11, 124, and 137 in both rTF(1-263) and pTF. The carbohydrates of rTF(1-263) contain high mannose, hybrid, and fucosylated glycans. Natural pTF contains no high mannose glycans but is modified with hybrid, highly fucosylated, and sialylated sugars.

  6. Determinants of Human Adipose Tissue Gene Expression: Impact of Diet, Sex, Metabolic Status, and Cis Genetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José; Roussel, Balbine; Combes, Marion; Valle, Carine; Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Iacovoni, Jason S.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Vidal, Hubert; Clément, Karine; Hager, Jorg; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT) are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification of environmental and individual factors controlling AT adaptation is therefore essential. Here, expression of 271 transcripts, selected for regulation according to obesity and weight changes, was determined in 515 individuals before, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss, and after 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases. PMID:23028366

  7. Effects of Rapid Weight Loss on Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolism in Obese Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Alemán, José O; Iyengar, Neil M; Walker, Jeanne M; Milne, Ginger L; Da Rosa, Joel Correa; Liang, Yupu; Giri, Dilip D; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Pollak, Michael N; Hudis, Clifford A; Breslow, Jan L; Holt, Peter R; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with subclinical white adipose tissue inflammation, as defined by the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes encircled by macrophages. In humans, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss leads to a decrease in CLSs, but the effects of rapid diet-induced weight loss on CLSs and metabolism are unclear. To determine the effects of rapid very-low-calorie diet-induced weight loss on CLS density, systemic biomarkers of inflammation, and metabolism in obese postmenopausal women. Prospective cohort study. Rockefeller University Hospital, New York, NY. Ten obese, postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.6 years (standard deviation, ±3.6 years). Effects on CLS density and gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, cardiometabolic risk factors, white blood count, circulating metabolites, and oxidative stress (urinary isoprostane-M) were measured. Obese subjects lost approximately 10% body weight over a mean of 46 days. CLS density increased in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an associated increase in proinflammatory gene expression. Weight loss was accompanied by decreased fasting blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, lactate, and kynurenine, and increased circulating levels of free fatty acids, glycerol, β -hydroxybutyrate, and 25 hydroxyvitamin D. Levels of urinary isoprostane-M declined. Rapid weight loss stimulated lipolysis and an increase in CLS density in subcutaneous adipose tissue in association with changes in levels of circulating metabolites, and improved systemic biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. The observed change in levels of metabolites ( i.e. , lactate, β -hydroxybutyrate, 25 hydroxyvitamin D) may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of rapid weight loss.

  8. Effects of Rapid Weight Loss on Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolism in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Neil M.; Walker, Jeanne M.; Milne, Ginger L.; Da Rosa, Joel Correa; Liang, Yupu; Giri, Dilip D.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Pollak, Michael N.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Breslow, Jan L.; Holt, Peter R.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Obesity is associated with subclinical white adipose tissue inflammation, as defined by the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes encircled by macrophages. In humans, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss leads to a decrease in CLSs, but the effects of rapid diet-induced weight loss on CLSs and metabolism are unclear. Objective: To determine the effects of rapid very-low-calorie diet-induced weight loss on CLS density, systemic biomarkers of inflammation, and metabolism in obese postmenopausal women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Rockefeller University Hospital, New York, NY. Participants: Ten obese, postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.6 years (standard deviation, ±3.6 years). Main Outcome Measures: Effects on CLS density and gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, cardiometabolic risk factors, white blood count, circulating metabolites, and oxidative stress (urinary isoprostane-M) were measured. Results: Obese subjects lost approximately 10% body weight over a mean of 46 days. CLS density increased in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an associated increase in proinflammatory gene expression. Weight loss was accompanied by decreased fasting blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, lactate, and kynurenine, and increased circulating levels of free fatty acids, glycerol, β-hydroxybutyrate, and 25 hydroxyvitamin D. Levels of urinary isoprostane-M declined. Conclusion: Rapid weight loss stimulated lipolysis and an increase in CLS density in subcutaneous adipose tissue in association with changes in levels of circulating metabolites, and improved systemic biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. The observed change in levels of metabolites (i.e., lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate, 25 hydroxyvitamin D) may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of rapid weight loss. PMID:29264516

  9. Tissue metabolic changes for effects of pirfenidone in rats of acute paraquat poisoning by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianshe; Sun, Fa; Chen, Bingbao; Tu, Xiaoting; Peng, Xiufa; Wen, Congcong; Hu, Lufeng; Wang, Xianqin

    2017-12-01

    We developed a metabolomic method to evaluate the effect of pirfenidone on rats with acute paraquat (PQ) poisoning, through the analysis of various tissues (lung, liver, kidney, and heart), by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-eight rats were randomly divided into a control group, an acute PQ (20 mg kg -1 ) poisoning group, a pirfenidone (20 mg kg -1 ) treatment group, and a pirfenidone (40 mg kg -1 ) treatment group. Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) revealed metabolic alterations in rat tissue samples from the two pirfenidone treatment groups after acute PQ poisoning. The PLS-DA 3D score chart showed that the rats in the acute PQ poisoning group were clearly distinguished from the rats in the control group. Also, the two pirfenidone treatment groups were distinguished from the acute PQ poisoning group and control group. Additionally, the pirfenidone (40 mg kg -1 ) treatment group was separated farther than the pirfenidone (20 mg kg -1 ) treatment group from the acute PQ poisoning group. Evaluation of the pathological changes in the rat tissues revealed that treatment with pirfenidone appeared to decrease pulmonary fibrosis in the acute PQ poisoning rats. The results indicate that pirfenidone induced beneficial metabolic alterations in the tissues of rats with acute PQ poisoning. Rats with acute PQ poisoning exhibited a certain reduction in biochemical indicators after treatment with pirfenidone, indicating that pirfenidone could protect liver and kidney function. Accordingly, the developed metabolomic approach proved to be useful to elucidate the effect of pirfenidone in rats of acute PQ poisoning.

  10. Modulating Composition and Metabolic Activity of the Gut Microbiota in IBD Patients.

    PubMed

    Matijašić, Mario; Meštrović, Tomislav; Perić, Mihaela; Čipčić Paljetak, Hana; Panek, Marina; Vranešić Bender, Darija; Ljubas Kelečić, Dina; Krznarić, Željko; Verbanac, Donatella

    2016-04-19

    The healthy intestine represents a remarkable interface where sterile host tissues come in contact with gut microbiota, in a balanced state of homeostasis. The imbalance of gut homeostasis is associated with the onset of many severe pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic gastrointestinal disorder increasing in incidence and severely influencing affected individuals. Despite the recent development of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics, the current scientific knowledge of specific triggers and diagnostic markers to improve interventional approaches in IBD is still scarce. In this review we present and discuss currently available and emerging therapeutic options in modulating composition and metabolic activity of gut microbiota in patients affected by IBD. Therapeutic approaches at the microbiota level, such as dietary interventions alone or with probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics, administration of antibiotics, performing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and the use of nematodes, all represent a promising opportunities towards establishing and maintaining of well-being as well as improving underlying IBD symptoms.

  11. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  12. Impact of Perturbed Pancreatic β-Cell Cholesterol Homeostasis on Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Blake J.; Hou, Liming; Manavalan, Anil Paul Chirackal; Moore, Benjamin M.; Tabet, Fatiha; Sultana, Afroza; Cuesta Torres, Luisa; Tang, Shudi; Shrestha, Sudichhya; Senanayake, Praween; Patel, Mili; Ryder, William J.; Bongers, Andre; Maraninchi, Marie; Wasinger, Valerie C.; Westerterp, Marit; Tall, Alan R.; Barter, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated pancreatic β-cell cholesterol levels impair insulin secretion and reduce plasma insulin levels. This study establishes that low plasma insulin levels have a detrimental effect on two major insulin target tissues: adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Mice with increased β-cell cholesterol levels were generated by conditional deletion of the ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, in β-cells (β-DKO mice). Insulin secretion was impaired in these mice under basal and high-glucose conditions, and glucose disposal was shifted from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue. The β-DKO mice also had increased body fat and adipose tissue macrophage content, elevated plasma interleukin-6 and MCP-1 levels, and decreased skeletal muscle mass. They were not, however, insulin resistant. The adipose tissue expansion and reduced skeletal muscle mass, but not the systemic inflammation or increased adipose tissue macrophage content, were reversed when plasma insulin levels were normalized by insulin supplementation. These studies identify a mechanism by which perturbation of β-cell cholesterol homeostasis and impaired insulin secretion increase adiposity, reduce skeletal muscle mass, and cause systemic inflammation. They further identify β-cell dysfunction as a potential therapeutic target in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:27702832

  13. Metabolic Portraits of Breast Cancer by HR MAS MR Spectroscopy of Intact Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Haukaas, Tonje H; Euceda, Leslie R; Giskeødegård, Guro F; Bathen, Tone F

    2017-05-16

    Despite progress in early detection and therapeutic strategies, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women globally. Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of tumor biology, breast cancer patients with similar diagnosis might have different prognosis and response to treatment. Thus, deeper understanding of individual tumor properties is necessary. Cancer cells must be able to convert nutrients to biomass while maintaining energy production, which requires reprogramming of central metabolic processes in the cells. This phenomenon is increasingly recognized as a potential target for treatment, but also as a source for biomarkers that can be used for prognosis, risk stratification and therapy monitoring. Magnetic resonance (MR) metabolomics is a widely used approach in translational research, aiming to identify clinically relevant metabolic biomarkers or generate novel understanding of the molecular biology in tumors. Ex vivo proton high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS) MR spectroscopy is widely used to study central metabolic processes in a non-destructive manner. Here we review the current status for HR MAS MR spectroscopy findings in breast cancer in relation to glucose, amino acid and choline metabolism.

  14. Bioirrigation impacts on sediment respiration and microbial metabolic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. A.; Lewandowski, J.; Romeijn, P.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Some bioturbators build tubes in the sediment and pump water through their burrows (ventilation). Oxygen is transferred through the burrow walls in the adjacent sediment (bioirrigation). Bioirrigation is playing a pivotal role in the mediation of biogeochemical processes in lake sediments and has the potential to enhance nutrient cycling. The present study investigates the impact of bioirrigation on lake sediment metabolism, respiration rates and in particular, the biogeochemical impacts of bioirrigation intensity as a function of organism density. We therefore apply the bioreactive Resazurin/Resorufin smart tracer system for quantifying the impact of different densities of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae (0-2112 larvae/m2) on lake sediment respiration in a microcosm experiment. Tracer decay has been found to be proportional to the amount of the aerobic respiration at the sediment-water interface. Tracer transformation was in good agreement with Chironomidae density (correlation, r=0.9). Tracer transformation rates (and sediment respiration) were found to be correlated to Chironomidae density, with highest transformation rates observed in the microcosms with highest density of 2112 larvae/m2. This relationship was not linear though, with sediment respiration rates at the highest larvae densities declining from the linear trend predicted from lower and intermediate larvae density-respiration relationships. We interpret this effect as a density dependent suppression of the Chironomid's metabolic activity. The observations of this study have implications for eutrophied lakes with high densities of bioirrigators. Despite high density of bioirrigirrigating benthos, mineralization of the organic matter in such habitats would likely be lower than in lakes with intermediate densities of the bioturbators.

  15. Plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue disposition, excretion and metabolism of vinorelbine in mice as determined by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    van Tellingen, O; Kuijpers, A V; Beijnen, J H; Nooijen, W J; Bult, A

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the pharmacokinetics of the investigational semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid vinorelbine (navelbine, NVB). The analyses have been performed by using a sensitive and selective method based on ion-exchange normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection combined with liquid-liquid extraction for sample clean-up. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in male FVB mice receiving 12 mg/kg NVB through intravenous injection. The results have been compared to those obtained for vinblastine (VBL). The plasma pharmacokinetics of NVB can be described by a three compartment model. The elimination half-life is significantly longer and the plasma AUC values higher for NVB compared to VBL. This is reflected in tissues, where, 24 hr after drug administration, the concentration of NVB is 5 to 10-fold higher compared to VBL. Qualitatively, the tissue distribution and retention of the drugs is very similar. The drug concentrations in most tissues decline parallel with the circulating plasma levels, whereas prolonged retention is found in tissues of lymphatic and testicular origin. Deacetylation yielding deacetylnavelbine (DNVB) is the primary metabolic route for NVB. This cytotoxic metabolite accounts for a substantial part of the overall disposition of drug. Only 58% of the administered dose is excreted in the urine (17%) and faeces (41%) as NVB or DNVB. No other metabolites have been detected.

  16. Tissue distribution and metabolism of triadimefon and triadimenol enantiomers in Chinese lizards (Eremias argus).

    PubMed

    Li, Jitong; Wang, Yinghuan; Li, Wei; Xu, Peng; Guo, Baoyuan; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2017-08-01

    Triadimefon (TF, S-(+)-TF, R-(-)-TF) and its metabolite triadimenol (TN, TN-A1, A2 and TN-B1, B2) are two systemic fungicides and both of them are chiral pharmaceuticals which are widely used in agricultural industry. Many researches focused on the toxicity effects of triadimefon on mammals, while the ecotoxicological data of tiradimefon on reptiles is limited. In order to understand the toxicity mechanism of triadimefon in reptiles, the current study administrated S-(+)-TF or R-(-)-TF traidimefon (50mg/kg bw ) to Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) respectively, the absorption, distribution of triadimefon and the formation of triadimenol were analysed at different sampling times. The metabolic pathways were demonstrated through relative gene expression using quantitative real-time PCR reaction. During the experiment time, triadimefon was quickly peaked to the maximum concentration within 12h in liver, brain, kidney, and plasma, eliminated slowly. The biotransformation in kidney was the lowest and fat possessed the worst degradation ability among others. The metabolite, triadimenol was detected in blood in 2h and reached to a plateau at about 12h in most organs (fat excepted), while the process of metabolism is stereoselective. The mainly metabolite in R-(-)-TF treated group was TN-B1, and TN-A2 in S-(+)-TF group which showed the selective metabolism to other species caused by environmental conditions, differences in the animal models and concentration of TF. The related gene expression of cyp1a1, cyp3a1 and hsd11β mRNA level in lizards showed different metabolic pathways in the liver and brain. Both P450s enzymes and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase participated in metabolic reaction in liver, while no 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase pathway observed in brain. This diversity in liver and brain may cause different degradation rate and ecotoxicological effect in different organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  18. Metabolic signals and innate immune activation in obesity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excess energy intake has led to an increased prevalence of obesity which constitutes a major risk factor for several co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research during the last two decades has revealed that a characteristic feature of obesity linking it to insulin resistance is the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation being indicative of activation of the innate immune system. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the innate immune system in the course of obesity is mediated by metabolic signals, such as free fatty acids (FFAs), being elevated in many obese subjects, through activation of pattern recognition receptors thereby leading to stimulation of critical inflammatory signaling cascades, like IκBα kinase/nuclear factor-κB (IKK/NF- κB), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, that interfere with insulin signaling. Exercise is one of the main prescribed interventions in obesity management improving insulin sensitivity and reducing obesity- induced chronic inflammation. This review summarizes current knowledge of the cellular recognition mechanisms for FFAs, the inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by excess FFAs in obesity and the counteractive effects of both acute and chronic exercise on obesity-induced activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. A deeper understanding of the effects of exercise on inflammatory signaling pathways in obesity is useful to optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Exercise and Immunology. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence, biological activity and metabolism of 6-shogaol.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xingran; Wang, Xiaoqi; Ji, Ruya; Liu, Lang; Qiao, Yening; Lou, Zaixiang; Ma, Chaoyang; Li, Shiming; Wang, Hongxin; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2018-03-01

    As one of the main bioactive compounds of dried ginger, 6-shogaol has been widely used to alleviate many ailments. It is also a major pungent flavor component, and its precursor prior to dehydration is 6-gingerol, which is reported to be responsible for the pungent flavor and biological activity of fresh ginger. Structurally, gingerols including 6-gingerol have a β-hydroxyl ketone moiety and is liable to dehydrate to generate an α,β-unsaturated ketone under heat and/or acidic conditions. The conjugation of the α,β-unsaturated ketone skeleton in the chemical structure of 6-shogaol explicates its higher potency and efficacy than 6-gingerol in terms of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiemetic and other bioactivities. Research on the health benefits of 6-shogaol has been conducted and results have been reported recently; however, scientific data are scattered due to a lack of systematic collection. In addition, action mechanisms of the preventive and/or therapeutic actions of 6-shogaol remain obscurely non-collective. Herein, we review the preparations, biological activity and mechanisms, and metabolism of 6-shogaol as well as the properties of 6-shogaol metabolites.

  20. Metabolic activity of permafrost bacteria below the freezing point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivkina, E. M.; Friedmann, E. I.; McKay, C. P.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic activity was measured in the laboratory at temperatures between 5 and -20 degrees C on the basis of incorporation of (14)C-labeled acetate into lipids by samples of a natural population of bacteria from Siberian permafrost (permanently frozen soil). Incorporation followed a sigmoidal pattern similar to growth curves. At all temperatures, the log phase was followed, within 200 to 350 days, by a stationary phase, which was monitored until the 550th day of activity. The minimum doubling times ranged from 1 day (5 degrees C) to 20 days (-10 degrees C) to ca. 160 days (-20 degrees C). The curves reached the stationary phase at different levels, depending on the incubation temperature. We suggest that the stationary phase, which is generally considered to be reached when the availability of nutrients becomes limiting, was brought on under our conditions by the formation of diffusion barriers in the thin layers of unfrozen water known to be present in permafrost soils, the thickness of which depends on temperature.

  1. Tissue oxidative metabolism can increase the difference between local temperature and arterial blood temperature by up to 1.3oC: Implications for brain, brown adipose tissue, and muscle physiology.

    PubMed

    Zaretsky, Dmitry V; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Molkov, Yaroslav I

    2018-01-01

    Tissue temperature increases, when oxidative metabolism is boosted. The source of nutrients and oxygen for this metabolism is the blood. The blood also cools down the tissue, and this is the only cooling mechanism, when direct dissipation of heat from the tissue to the environment is insignificant, e.g. , in the brain. While this concept is relatively simple, it has not been described quantitatively. The purpose of the present work was to answer two questions: 1) to what extent can oxidative metabolism make the organ tissue warmer than the body core, and, 2) how quickly are changes in the local metabolism reflected in the temperature of the tissue? Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that, at equilibrium, given that heat exchange with the organ is provided by the blood, the temperature difference between the organ tissue and the arterial blood is proportional to the arteriovenous difference in oxygen content, does not depend on the blood flow, and cannot exceed 1.3 o C. Unlike the equilibrium temperature difference, the rate of change of the local temperature, with respect to time, does depend on the blood flow. In organs with high perfusion rates, such as the brain and muscles, temperature changes occur on a time scale of a few minutes. In organs with low perfusion rates, such changes may have characteristic time constants of tens or hundreds of minutes. Our analysis explains, why arterial blood temperature is the main determinant of the temperature of tissues with limited heat exchange, such as the brain.

  2. Prolonged daily light exposure increases body fat mass through attenuation of brown adipose tissue activity

    PubMed Central

    Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Rosa; Ramkisoensing, Ashna; Boon, Mariëtte R.; Kuipers, Eline N.; Loef, Marieke; Zonneveld, Tom C. M.; Lucassen, Eliane A.; Sips, Hetty C. M.; Chatzispyrou, Iliana A.; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Meijer, Johanna H.; Coomans, Claudia P.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythmicity is associated with obesity and related disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Specifically, prolonged artificial light exposure associates with obesity in humans, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that increasing the daily hours of light exposure increases body adiposity through attenuation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, a major contributor of energy expenditure. Mice exposed to a prolonged day length of 16- and 24-h light, compared with regular 12-h light, showed increased adiposity without affecting food intake or locomotor activity. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that prolonged day length decreases sympathetic input into BAT and reduces β3-adrenergic intracellular signaling. Concomitantly, prolonging day length decreased the uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, as well as of glucose from plasma selectively by BAT. We conclude that impaired BAT activity is an important mediator in the association between disturbed circadian rhythm and adiposity, and anticipate that activation of BAT may overcome the adverse metabolic consequences of disturbed circadian rhythmicity. PMID:25964318

  3. Proteomic analysis indicates that mitochondrial energy metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue is negatively correlated with feed efficiency in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liangliang; Xu, Yueyuan; Hou, Ye; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhou, Lian; Liu, Huiying; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Miao, Yuanxin; Zhao, Shuhong; Liu, Huazhen; Li, Xinyun

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a highly important economic trait in pig production. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of FE is essential for trait improvement. In this study, the skeletal muscle proteome of high-FE and low-FE pigs were investigated by the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1780 proteins were identified, among which 124 proteins were differentially expressed between the high- and low-FE pigs, with 74 up-regulated and 50 down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Ten randomly selected differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were validated by Western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that all the 25 DEPs located in mitochondria were down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Furthermore, the glucose-pyruvate-tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism signaling pathway was found to differ between high- and low-FE pigs. The key enzymes involved in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate were up-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Thus, our results suggested mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle tissue was negatively correlated with FE in pigs, and glucose utilization to generate ATP was more efficient in the skeletal muscle tissue of high-FE pigs. This study offered new targets and pathways for improvement of FE in pigs. PMID:28345649

  4. Proteomic analysis indicates that mitochondrial energy metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue is negatively correlated with feed efficiency in pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Liangliang; Xu, Yueyuan; Hou, Ye; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhou, Lian; Liu, Huiying; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Miao, Yuanxin; Zhao, Shuhong; Liu, Huazhen; Li, Xinyun

    2017-03-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a highly important economic trait in pig production. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of FE is essential for trait improvement. In this study, the skeletal muscle proteome of high-FE and low-FE pigs were investigated by the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1780 proteins were identified, among which 124 proteins were differentially expressed between the high- and low-FE pigs, with 74 up-regulated and 50 down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Ten randomly selected differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were validated by Western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that all the 25 DEPs located in mitochondria were down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Furthermore, the glucose-pyruvate-tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism signaling pathway was found to differ between high- and low-FE pigs. The key enzymes involved in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate were up-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Thus, our results suggested mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle tissue was negatively correlated with FE in pigs, and glucose utilization to generate ATP was more efficient in the skeletal muscle tissue of high-FE pigs. This study offered new targets and pathways for improvement of FE in pigs.

  5. Use of diphosphonates to correct disorders in calcium metabolism and mineral composition of bone tissue with 60-day hypokinesia in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morukov, B. V.; Zaychik, V. YE.; Ivanov, V. M.; Orlov, O. I.

    1988-01-01

    Compounds of the diphosphonate group suppress bone resorption and bone tissue metabolism, from which it was assumed that they can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis and disorders of calcium homeostasis in humans during space flight. Two compounds of this group were used for preventive purposes in 60 day hypokinesia in rats. The results showed that diphosphonates have a marked effect on calcium metabolism and the condition of the bone tissues under conditions of long term hypokinesia: they reduce the content of ionized calcium in blood, delay the loss of calcium and phosphorus by the bone tissue, and to a considerable degree prevent reduction of bone density. This confirms the possibility of using compounds of this group for correcting and preventing changes of bone tissue and mineral metabolism during long term hypokinesia.

  6. Pathway Activity Profiling (PAPi): from the metabolite profile to the metabolic pathway activity.

    PubMed

    Aggio, Raphael B M; Ruggiero, Katya; Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato

    2010-12-01

    Metabolomics is one of the most recent omics-technologies and uses robust analytical techniques to screen low molecular mass metabolites in biological samples. It has evolved very quickly during the last decade. However, metabolomics datasets are considered highly complex when used to relate metabolite levels to metabolic pathway activity. Despite recent developments in bioinformatics, which have improved the quality of metabolomics data, there is s