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Sample records for metabolites acutely relax

  1. Comparison of T1 and T2 metabolite relaxation times in glioma and normal brain at 3 T

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Srinivasan, Radhika; Ratiney, Helene; Lu, Ying; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To measure T1 and T2 relaxation times of metabolites in glioma patients at 3T and to investigate how these values influence the observed metabolite levels. Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with gliomas and ten volunteers were studied with single voxel 2D J-resolved PRESS using a 3T MR scanner. Voxels were chosen in normal appearing white matter and in regions of tumor. The T1 and T2 of choline containing compounds (Cho), creatine (Cr) and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) were estimated. Results Metabolite T1 relaxation values in gliomas were not significantly different from values in normal white matter. The T2 of Cho and Cr were statistically significantly longer for Grade 4 gliomas than for normal white matter but the T2 of NAA was similar. These differences were large enough to impact the corrections of metabolite levels for relaxation times with tumor grade in terms of metabolite ratios (P<0.001). Conclusion The differential increase in T2 for Cho and Cr relative to NAA means that the ratios of Cho/NAA and Cr/NAA are higher in tumor at longer echo times relative to values in normal appearing brain. Having this information may be useful in defining the acquisition parameters for optimizing contrast between tumor and normal tissue in MRSI data, where limited time is available and only one echo time can be used. PMID:18666155

  2. In vivo estimation of transverse relaxation time constant (T2 ) of 17 human brain metabolites at 3T.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Patrik O; Bianchini, Claudio; Scheidegger, Milan; Giapitzakis, Ioannis A; Hock, Andreas; Fuchs, Alexander; Henning, Anke

    2018-08-01

    The transverse relaxation times T 2 of 17 metabolites in vivo at 3T is reported and region specific differences are addressed. An echo-time series protocol was applied to one, two, or three volumes of interest with different fraction of white and gray matter including a total number of 106 healthy volunteers and acquiring a total number of 128 spectra. The data were fitted with the 2D fitting tool ProFit2, which included individual line shape modeling for all metabolites and allowed the T 2 calculation of 28 moieties of 17 metabolites. The T 2 of 10 metabolites and their moieties have been reported for the first time. Region specific T 2 differences in white and gray matter enriched tissue occur in 16 of 17 metabolites examined including single resonance lines and coupled spin systems. The relaxation time T 2 is regions specific and has to be considered when applying tissue composition correction for internal water referencing. Magn Reson Med 80:452-461, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation training in reducing anxiety in patients with acute schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chun; Chu, Hsin; Lu, Ru-Band; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Chen, Chung-Hua; Chang, Yue-Cune; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation training on anxiety in patients with acute schizophrenia. Many empirical studies have found progressive muscle relaxation training beneficial in reducing the psychological effects of anxiety. Progressive muscle relaxation training is also effective in reducing the distress symptoms associated with the symptomatology of schizophrenia. An experimental randomised controlled trial using repeated measures. The study was designed to examine the effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Study participants were acute psychiatric inpatients in Taiwan. Eighteen patients were block randomised and then assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group received progressive muscle relaxation training and the control group received a placebo intervention. Results from the Beck anxiety inventory were compared between groups as a pretest before intervention, on day 11 of intervention and one week post-test after the intervention was completed. Changes in finger temperature were measured throughout the experiment. The degree of anxiety improvement was significantly higher in the progressive muscle relaxation training group than in the control group after progressive muscle relaxation training intervention (p < 0.0001) and at follow-up (p = 0.0446; the mean BAI score fell from 16.4 pretest to -5.8 post-test. After adjusting for the change in patient finger temperature, the mean change in temperature was significantly different between the two patient groups. The average body temperature increased significantly after applying the progressive muscle relaxation training to patients with schizophrenia. This study demonstrated that progressive muscle relaxation training can effectively alleviate anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. Progressive muscle relaxation training is potentially an effective nursing intervention in the

  4. Metabolite diffusion up to very high b in the mouse brain in vivo: Revisiting the potential correlation between relaxation and diffusion properties

    PubMed Central

    Ligneul, Clémence; Palombo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the potential correlation between metabolites diffusion and relaxation in the mouse brain, which is of importance for interpreting and modeling metabolite diffusion based on pure geometry, irrespective of relaxation properties (multicompartmental relaxation or surface relaxivity). Methods A new diffusion‐weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence is introduced, dubbed “STE‐LASER,” which presents several nice properties, in particular the absence of cross‐terms with selection gradients and a very clean localization. Metabolite diffusion is then measured in a large voxel in the mouse brain at 11.7 Tesla using a cryoprobe, resulting in excellent signal‐to‐noise ratio, up to very high b‐values under different echo time, mixing time, and diffusion time combinations. Results Our results suggest that the correlation between relaxation and diffusion properties is extremely small or even nonexistent for metabolites in the mouse brain. Conclusion The present work strongly supports the interpretation and modeling of metabolite diffusion primarily based on geometry, irrespective of relaxation properties, at least under current experimental conditions. Magn Reson Med 77:1390–1398, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID:27018415

  5. Metabolite diffusion up to very high b in the mouse brain in vivo: Revisiting the potential correlation between relaxation and diffusion properties.

    PubMed

    Ligneul, Clémence; Palombo, Marco; Valette, Julien

    2017-04-01

    To assess the potential correlation between metabolites diffusion and relaxation in the mouse brain, which is of importance for interpreting and modeling metabolite diffusion based on pure geometry, irrespective of relaxation properties (multicompartmental relaxation or surface relaxivity). A new diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence is introduced, dubbed "STE-LASER," which presents several nice properties, in particular the absence of cross-terms with selection gradients and a very clean localization. Metabolite diffusion is then measured in a large voxel in the mouse brain at 11.7 Tesla using a cryoprobe, resulting in excellent signal-to-noise ratio, up to very high b-values under different echo time, mixing time, and diffusion time combinations. Our results suggest that the correlation between relaxation and diffusion properties is extremely small or even nonexistent for metabolites in the mouse brain. The present work strongly supports the interpretation and modeling of metabolite diffusion primarily based on geometry, irrespective of relaxation properties, at least under current experimental conditions. Magn Reson Med 77:1390-1398, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Nitric oxide metabolite levels in acute vaso-occlusive sickle-cell crisis.

    PubMed

    Lopez, B L; Barnett, J; Ballas, S K; Christopher, T A; Davis-Moon, L; Ma, X

    1996-12-01

    1) To measure nitric oxide (NO) metabolite levels in patients presenting to the ED in acute vaso-occlusive sickle-cell crisis (SCC), and 2) to determine whether a relationship exists between NO metabolite levels and pain. A prospective, observational study of patients with documented sickle-cell anemia (SCA), aged > or = 18 years, presenting in typical, acute SCC was conducted in an urban, university teaching hospital. Excluded were those with atypical pain or acute, coexistent disease (as evidenced by fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, or hypotension). Pain scores were measured by a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Blood NO metabolite levels for SCC patients and control subjects (healthy volunteers, n = 9; SCA control subjects not in SCC, n = 10) were determined using an NO-specific chemiluminescence technique that measured plasma nitrite and nitrate, the stable end-products of NO. The acute SCC patients were divided into 3 groups, with the range for the SCC-normal (n = 5) group defined as within 2 SD of the healthy volunteer control patients. The SCC-low patients (n = 21) had NO metabolite levels below this range and the SCC-high (n = 21) patients had levels above this range. The SCA and healthy volunteer control groups had similar NO metabolite levels (25.3 vs 22.6 mumol; p = 0.10). The 3 acute SCC groups had the following mean NO levels: 1) SCC-normal = 21.3 +/- 1.6 mumol; 2) SCC-low = 7.2 +/- 1.1 mumol; and 3) SCC-high = 43.7 +/- 3.5 mumol. The SCC-high NO-level group had significantly lower VAS pain scores when compared with the SCC-low and SCC-normal NO-level groups (6.52 +/- 1.85 cm vs 8.76 +/- 0.83 cm, and 8.62 +/- 1.29 cm, p = 0.02). NO metabolite levels vary in SCC patients. Elevated levels are associated with lower pain scores, while lower levels are associated with higher pain scores, indicating that NO metabolites may potentially represent a marker for compensatory mechanisms in SCC tissue ischemia. Further work is needed to delineate the usefulness of NO

  7. Acute toxicity and mutagenesis of three metabolites mixture of nitrobenzene in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guixia; Zhang, Xiuying; Yao, Chunzhu; Tian, Meizhan

    2011-03-01

    Nitrobenzene is a synthetic compound, more than 95% of which is used in the production of aniline. Nitrobenzene has been demonstrated to be substantially metabolized to p-Nitrophenol, p-Aminophenol and p-Nitroaniline in food animals (e.g., bovines, fowls). There have been no studies on the acute toxicity and the mutagenesis of the mixture of the three metabolites mentioned above. The aim of the present study is to testify the acute toxicity and the mutagenesis of the three metabolites mixture. Seventy Kunming mice (half male, half female) received an intragastric administration exposure to metabolites-containing suspension of 750, 638, 542, 461, 392, 333 mg kg(-1) body weight and 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control), followed by a 14-day observation. The medial lethal dose (LD(50)) concentration for nitrobenzene metabolites mixture in this study was 499.92 mg/kg. Their mutagenic toxicology was studied through micronucleus and sperm abnormality test. Kunming mice were twice intragastrically exposed to 1/5 LD(50), 1/10 LD(50), 1/20 LD(50) mg kg(-1) nitrobenzene metabolites-containing suspension spaced 24-h apart. Cyclophosphamide, pure water and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose served as doses of the positive group, the negative group and the solvent control group, respectively. The incidence of micronucleus and sperm abnormality increased significantly in the 1/5 LD(50) and 1/10 LD(50) group compared with the negative and solvent control group. A dose-related increase in the incidence of micronucleus and sperm abnormality was noted. In conclusion, the three metabolites mixture of nitrobenzene was secondary toxicity and mutagenic substances in mice.

  8. The utility of QSARs in predicting acute fish toxicity of pesticide metabolites: A retrospective validation approach.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Maynard, Samuel K; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    The European Plant Protection Products Regulation 1107/2009 requires that registrants establish whether pesticide metabolites pose a risk to the environment. Fish acute toxicity assessments may be carried out to this end. Considering the total number of pesticide (re-) registrations, the number of metabolites can be considerable, and therefore this testing could use many vertebrates. EFSA's recent "Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters" outlines opportunities to apply non-testing methods, such as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. However, a scientific evidence base is necessary to support the use of QSARs in predicting acute fish toxicity of pesticide metabolites. Widespread application and subsequent regulatory acceptance of such an approach would reduce the numbers of animals used. The work presented here intends to provide this evidence base, by means of retrospective data analysis. Experimental fish LC50 values for 150 metabolites were extracted from the Pesticide Properties Database (http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/aeru/ppdb/en/atoz.htm). QSAR calculations were performed to predict fish acute toxicity values for these metabolites using the US EPA's ECOSAR software. The most conservative predicted LC50 values generated by ECOSAR were compared with experimental LC50 values. There was a significant correlation between predicted and experimental fish LC50 values (Spearman rs = 0.6304, p < 0.0001). For 62% of metabolites assessed, the QSAR predicted values are equal to or lower than their respective experimental values. Refined analysis, taking into account data quality and experimental variation considerations increases the proportion of sufficiently predictive estimates to 91%. For eight of the nine outliers, there are plausible explanation(s) for the disparity between measured and predicted LC50 values. Following detailed consideration of the robustness of

  9. Acute toxicity of 353-nonylphenol and its metabolites for zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Kammann, Ulrike; Vobach, Michael; Wosniok, Werner; Schäffer, Andreas; Telscher, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) can be detected in the aquatic environment all over the world. It is applied as a technical mixture of isomers of which 353-NP is the most relevant both in terms of abundance (about 20% of total mass) and endocrine potential. 353-NP is metabolised in sewage sludge. The aims of the present study were to determine and to compare the acute toxicity of t-NP, 353-NP and its metabolites as well as to discuss if the toxicity of 353-NP changes during degradation. 353-NP and two of its metabolites were synthesised. The zebrafish embryo test was performed according to standard protocols. Several lethal and non-lethal endpoints during embryonal development were reported. NOEL, LOEL and EC50 were calculated. All tested compounds caused lethal as well as non-lethal malformations during embryo development. 353-NP showed a higher toxicity (EC50 for lethal endpoints 6.7 mg/L) compared to its metabolites 4-(3.5-dimethyl-3-heptyl)-2-nitrophenol (EC50 13.3 mg/L) and 4-(3,5-dimethyl-3-heptyl)-2-bromophenol (EC50 27.1 mg/L). In surface water, concentrations of NP are far below the NOEC identified by the zebrafish embryo test. However, in soils and sewage sludge, concentrations may reach or even exceed these concentrations. Therefore, sludge-treated sites close to surface waters should be analysed for NP and its metabolites in order to detect an unduly high contamination due to runoff events. The results of the present study point out that the toxicity of 353-NP probably declines during metabolisation in water, sediment and soil, but does not vanish since the major metabolites exhibit a clear toxic potential for zebrafish embryos. Metabolites of environmental pollutants should be included in the ecotoxicological test strategy for a proper risk assessment.

  10. Carbamazepine and its 10,11-epoxide metabolite in acute mania: clinical and pharmacokinetic correlates.

    PubMed

    Petit, P; Lonjon, R; Cociglio, M; Sluzewska, A; Blayac, J P; Hue, B; Alric, R; Pouget, R

    1991-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the antimanic profile of carbamazepine as a first-line drug in affective or schizoaffective disorders, to correlate the clinical efficacy with the plasma level of carbamazepine and its 10,11-epoxide metabolite, and to test the potential value of monitoring the salivary level. It was administered alone for 3 weeks to 21 acute manic inpatients. During the first week, the dosage was rapidly increased to 800 mg/day in order to produce steady-state plasma levels of carbamazepine on Day 7. The individual dose was then adjusted to maintain the therapeutic range of 8-12 mg/l. Plasma and saliva levels of the drug and its metabolite, as well as clinical status were assessed weekly. Overall, there was 62% globally improved patients and 77% in affective disorders. The improvement of manic symptoms was significantly lower in schizoaffective than in affective disorders, whereas the dropout rate and the need for antipsychotic medication was higher in the former group. The antimanic response was significantly correlated with the plasma levels both of carbamazepine and its epoxide metabolite, with a time-lag consistent with a delayed drug effect. Drug and metabolite concentrations in saliva were close to their plasma free fraction and were strongly correlated with their plasma levels, suggesting the potential value of salivary drug monitoring.

  11. Quercetin acutely relaxes airway smooth muscle and potentiates β-agonist-induced relaxation via dual phosphodiesterase inhibition of PLCβ and PDE4

    PubMed Central

    Emala, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease of the airways with symptoms including exaggerated airway narrowing and airway inflammation. Early asthma therapies used methylxanthines to relieve symptoms, in part, by inhibiting cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the enzyme responsible for degrading cAMP. The classification of tissue-specific PDE subtypes and the clinical introduction of PDE-selective inhibitors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (i.e., roflumilast) have reopened the possibility of using PDE inhibition in the treatment of asthma. Quercetin is a naturally derived PDE4-selective inhibitor found in fruits, vegetables, and tea. We hypothesized that quercetin relaxes airway smooth muscle via cAMP-mediated pathways and augments β-agonist relaxation. Tracheal rings from male A/J mice were mounted in myographs and contracted with acetylcholine (ACh). Addition of quercetin (100 nM-1 mM) acutely and concentration-dependently relaxed airway rings precontracted with ACh. In separate studies, pretreatment with quercetin (100 μM) prevented force generation upon exposure to ACh. In additional studies, quercetin (50 μM) significantly potentiated isoproterenol-induced relaxations. In in vitro assays, quercetin directly attenuated phospholipase C activity, decreased inositol phosphate synthesis, and decreased intracellular calcium responses to Gq-coupled agonists (histamine or bradykinin). Finally, nebulization of quercetin (100 μM) in an in vivo model of airway responsiveness significantly attenuated methacholine-induced increases in airway resistance. These novel data show that the natural PDE4-selective inhibitor quercetin may provide therapeutic relief of asthma symptoms and decrease reliance on short-acting β-agonists. PMID:23873842

  12. Distribution of trans-resveratrol and its metabolites after acute or sustained administration in mouse heart, brain, and liver.

    PubMed

    Menet, Marie-Claude; Baron, Stephanie; Taghi, Meryam; Diestra, Remi; Dargère, Delphine; Laprévote, Olivier; Nivet-Antoine, Valérie; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Bédarida, Tatiana; Cottart, Charles-Henry

    2017-08-01

    Trans-resveratrol is widely studied for its potentially beneficial effects on numerous disorders. It is rapidly metabolized and its metabolites can exhibit biological activity. The present study aimed to investigate whether acute or sustained trans-resveratrol administration impacted on the distribution of trans-resveratrol and its metabolites in brain, heart, and liver. We used ultra-HPLC quadrupole-TOF (UHPLC-Q-TOF) in a full-scan mode to identify and assess large numbers of resveratrol metabolites. For acute intake, mice were overfed with a single dose of trans-resveratrol (150 mg/kg) and organs were collected after 30 and 60 min. For sustained intake, trans-resveratrol was given in the chow (0.04% w/w corresponding to 40 mg/kg/day), and plasma and the organs were collected after 3 months of this resveratrol diet. We found that trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and resveratrol-3-sulfate were the main metabolites found after acute intake, and free trans-resveratrol (in the brain and heart) and dihydroresveratrol derivatives were found after sustained administration CONCLUSIONS: Our results show notable differences between acute and sustained administration of trans-resveratrol and distribution of trans-resveratrol and its metabolites in mouse heart, brain, and liver. The results suggest a strategy for development of galenic forms of resveratrol. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Fast mapping of the T2 relaxation time of cerebral metabolites using proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Posse, Stefan; Lin, Yi-Ru; Ko, Cheng-Wen; Otazo, Ricardo; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2007-05-01

    Metabolite T2 is necessary for accurate quantification of the absolute concentration of metabolites using long-echo-time (TE) acquisition schemes. However, lengthy data acquisition times pose a major challenge to mapping metabolite T2. In this study we used proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) at 3T to obtain fast T2 maps of three major cerebral metabolites: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre), and choline (Cho). We showed that PEPSI spectra matched T2 values obtained using single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS). Data acquisition for 2D metabolite maps with a voxel volume of 0.95 ml (32 x 32 image matrix) can be completed in 25 min using five TEs and eight averages. A sufficient spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for T2 estimation was validated by high Pearson's correlation coefficients between logarithmic MR signals and TEs (R2 = 0.98, 0.97, and 0.95 for NAA, Cre, and Cho, respectively). In agreement with previous studies, we found that the T2 values of NAA, but not Cre and Cho, were significantly different between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM; P < 0.001). The difference between the T2 estimates of the PEPSI and SVS scans was less than 9%. Consistent spatial distributions of T2 were found in six healthy subjects, and disagreement among subjects was less than 10%. In summary, the PEPSI technique is a robust method to obtain fast mapping of metabolite T2. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Acute toxicity of emamectin benzoate and its desmethyl metabolite to Eohaustorius estuarius.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jen-Ni; Buday, Craig; van Aggelen, Graham; Ikonomou, Michael George; Pasternak, John

    2010-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate is one of the active ingredients of the anti-sealice drug SLICE. Ten-day acute sediment lethal tests (10-d LC50) of emamectin benzoate and its desmethyl metabolite (AB1) were conducted to determine LC50 values using a sensitive representative West Coast amphipod crustacean, Eohaustorius estuarius. The 10-d LC50s of emamectin benzoate and AB1 to E. estuarius were 0.185 and 0.019 mg/kg wet weight sediment (0.146 and 0.015 mg/kg dry wt), respectively. The degradation properties of emamectin benzoate and AB1 during the 10-d period were also measured and described. No obvious decay patterns were observed for either emamectin benzoate and AB1 over the 10-d period. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  15. The association between fasting hypoglycemia and methylated mercaptopurine metabolites in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Melachuri, Samyuktha; Gandrud, Laura; Bostrom, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Symptomatic fasting hypoglycemia has been reported as an unusual side effect in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on maintenance therapy. We evaluated the relation of the red cell 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) metabolite 6-methyl-mercaptopurine (6MMP) with hypoglycemia. We retrospectively reviewed charts of three patients with ALL and symptomatic hypoglycemia while fasting who were noted to have high levels of 6MMP. All patients had an empiric trial of switching from evening to morning 6-MP administration, and two patients were subsequently switched to twice daily dosing. Patients also received complex carbohydrates at bedtime. Switching 6-MP from evening to morning administration reduced 6MMP levels yet preserved adequate levels of the active metabolite red cell 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6TGN). All patients had decreased hypoglycemic events when changed from evening to morning dosing. Two patients showed a rebound in 6MMP levels with return of hypoglycemic symptoms. Both were then switched to twice daily 6-MP dosing with one having a decrease in 6MMP and hypoglycemic symptoms. High levels of 6MMP are associated with symptomatic hypoglycemia which may be mitigated by switching to morning or twice daily 6-MP dose administration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and relaxant activity of fruits of callistemon citrinus curtis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Niaz; Ahmed, Ghayour; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ghias, Mehreen; Khan, Imran

    2011-10-24

    Callistemon citrinus Curtis belongs to family Myrtaceae that has a great medicinal importance. In our previous work, fruits of Callistemon citrinus were reported to have relaxant (antispasmodic) activity. The current work describes the screening of fractions of the crude methanol extract for tracing spasmolytic constituents so that it shall help us for isolation of bioactive compounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract are also performed to standardize it. The crude methanol extract was obtained by maceration with distilled water (500 ml) three times and fractionated successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol (300 ml of each solvent). Phytochemical analysis for crude methanol extract was performed. Acute toxicity studies were performed in mice. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity studies were performed to determine its cytotoxicity and standardize it. In other series of experiments, rabbits' jejunum preparations were used in screening for possible relaxant activities of various fractions. They were applied in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations. In similar fashion, fractions were also tested on KCl (80 mM) -induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed in K-rich Tyrode's solution. The effects of various fractions were tested on calcium chloride curves at concentrations 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Curves of verapamil used as reference drug at concentration 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM were also constructed. The curves were compared with their respective controls for possible right shift. Methanol extract tested strongly positive for saponins and tannins. However, it tested mild positive for presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. LD(50) value for crude methanol extract is 476.25 ± 10.3 (470-481, n = 4) mg/ml. Similarly, EC(50) value for brine shrimp cytotoxicity is 65.5 ± 7.28 (60.8- 69.4, n

  17. Acute changes in knee cartilage transverse relaxation time after running and bicycling.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Anthony A; Noseworthy, Michael D; Stratford, Paul W; Brenneman, Elora C; Totterman, Saara; Tamez-Peña, José; Maly, Monica R

    2017-02-28

    To compare the acute effect of running and bicycling of an equivalent cumulative load on knee cartilage composition and morphometry in healthy young men. A secondary analysis investigated the relationship between activity history and the change in cartilage composition after activity. In fifteen men (25.8±4.2 years), the vertical ground reaction force was measured to determine the cumulative load exposure of a 15-min run. The vertical pedal reaction force was recorded during bicycling to define the bicycling duration of an equivalent cumulative load. On separate visits that were spaced on average 17 days apart, participants completed these running and bicycling bouts. Mean cartilage transverse relaxation times (T 2 ) were determined for cartilage on the tibia and weight-bearing femur before and after each exercise. T 2 was measured using a multi-echo spin-echo sequence and 3T MRI. Cartilage of the weight bearing femur and tibia was segmented using a highly-automated segmentation algorithm. Activity history was captured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The response of T 2 to bicycling and running was different (p=0.019; mean T 2 : pre-running=34.27ms, pre-bicycling=32.93ms, post-running=31.82ms, post-bicycling=32.36ms). While bicycling produced no change (-1.7%, p=0.300), running shortened T 2 (-7.1%, p<0.001). Greater activity history predicted smaller changes in tibial, but not femoral, T 2 . Changes in knee cartilage vary based on activity type, independent of total load exposure, in healthy young men. Smaller changes in T 2 were observed after bicycling relative to running. Activity history was inversely related to tibial T 2 , suggesting cartilage conditioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The 1H-NMR-based metabolite profile of acute alcohol consumption: A metabolomics intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Shayne; Mienie, Lodewyk J.; Wevers, Ron A.; Westerhuis, Johan A.

    2018-01-01

    Metabolomics studies of disease conditions related to chronic alcohol consumption provide compelling evidence of several perturbed metabolic pathways underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. The objective of the present study was to utilize proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics to study the holistic metabolic consequences of acute alcohol consumption in humans. The experimental design was a cross-over intervention study which included a number of substances to be consumed—alcohol, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) supplement, and a benzoic acid-containing flavoured water vehicle. The experimental subjects—24 healthy, moderate-drinking young men—each provided six hourly-collected urine samples for analysis. Complete data sets were obtained from 20 of the subjects and used for data generation, analysis and interpretation. The results from the NMR approach produced complex spectral data, which could be resolved sufficiently through the application of a combination of univariate and multivariate methods of statistical analysis. The metabolite profiles resulting from acute alcohol consumption indicated that alcohol-induced NAD+ depletion, and the production of an excessive amount of reducing equivalents, greatly perturbed the hepatocyte redox homeostasis, resulting in essentially three major metabolic disturbances—up-regulated lactic acid metabolism, down-regulated purine catabolism and osmoregulation. Of these, the urinary excretion of the osmolyte sorbitol proved to be novel, and suggests hepatocyte swelling due to ethanol influx following acute alcohol consumption. Time-dependent metabolomics investigations, using designed interventions, provide a way of interpreting the variation induced by the different factors of a designed experiment, thereby also giving methodological significance to this study. The outcomes of this approach have the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the serious impact of

  19. Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype–phenotype discordance and thiopurine active metabolite formation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Lennard, Lynne; Cartwright, Cher Suzanne; Wade, Rachel; Richards, Susan M; Vora, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Aims In children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) bone marrow activity can influence red blood cell (RBC) kinetics, the surrogate tissue for thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate TPMT phenotype–genotype concordance in ALL, and the influence of TPMT on thiopurine metabolite formation. Methods We measured TPMT (activity, as units ml−1 packed RBCs and genotype) at diagnosis (n = 1150) and TPMT and thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) and methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (MeMPN) metabolites (pmol/8 × 108 RBCs) during chemotherapy (n = 1131) in children randomized to thioguanine or mercaptopurine on the United Kingdom trial ALL97. Results Median TPMT activity at diagnosis (8.5 units) was significantly lower than during chemotherapy (13.8 units, median difference 5.1 units, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8, 5.4, P < 0.0001). At diagnosis genotype–phenotype was discordant. During chemotherapy the overall concordance was 92%, but this fell to 55% in the intermediate activity cohort (45% had wild-type genotypes). For both thiopurines TGN concentrations differed by TPMT status. For mercaptopurine, median TGNs were higher in TPMT heterozygous genotype (754 pmol) than wild-type (360 pmol) patients (median difference 406 pmol, 95% CI 332, 478, P < 0.0001), whilst median MeMPNs, products of the TPMT reaction, were higher in wild-type (10 650 pmol) than heterozygous patients (3868 pmol) (P < 0.0001). In TPMT intermediate activity patients with a wild-type genotype, TGN (median 366 pmol) and MeMPN (median 8590 pmol) concentrations were similar to those in wild-type, high activity patients. Conclusions In childhood ALL, TPMT activity should not be used to predict heterozygosity particularly in blood samples obtained at disease diagnosis. Genotype is a better predictor of TGN accumulation during chemotherapy. PMID:23252716

  20. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Caudal, Dorian; Guinobert, Isabelle; Lafoux, Aude; Bardot, Valérie; Cotte, César; Ripoche, Isabelle; Chalard, Pierre; Huchet, Corinne

    2018-04-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE) of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os) or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip), a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone) was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly.

  1. Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype-phenotype discordance and thiopurine active metabolite formation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lennard, Lynne; Cartwright, Cher Suzanne; Wade, Rachel; Richards, Susan M; Vora, Ajay

    2013-07-01

    In children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) bone marrow activity can influence red blood cell (RBC) kinetics, the surrogate tissue for thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate TPMT phenotype-genotype concordance in ALL, and the influence of TPMT on thiopurine metabolite formation. We measured TPMT (activity, as units ml(-1) packed RBCs and genotype) at diagnosis (n = 1150) and TPMT and thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) and methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (MeMPN) metabolites (pmol/8 × 10(8) RBCs) during chemotherapy (n = 1131) in children randomized to thioguanine or mercaptopurine on the United Kingdom trial ALL97. Median TPMT activity at diagnosis (8.5 units) was significantly lower than during chemotherapy (13.8 units, median difference 5.1 units, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8, 5.4, P < 0.0001). At diagnosis genotype-phenotype was discordant. During chemotherapy the overall concordance was 92%, but this fell to 55% in the intermediate activity cohort (45% had wild-type genotypes). For both thiopurines TGN concentrations differed by TPMT status. For mercaptopurine, median TGNs were higher in TPMT heterozygous genotype (754 pmol) than wild-type (360 pmol) patients (median difference 406 pmol, 95% CI 332, 478, P < 0.0001), whilst median MeMPNs, products of the TPMT reaction, were higher in wild-type (10 650 pmol) than heterozygous patients (3868 pmol) (P < 0.0001). In TPMT intermediate activity patients with a wild-type genotype, TGN (median 366 pmol) and MeMPN (median 8590 pmol) concentrations were similar to those in wild-type, high activity patients. In childhood ALL, TPMT activity should not be used to predict heterozygosity particularly in blood samples obtained at disease diagnosis. Genotype is a better predictor of TGN accumulation during chemotherapy. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Acute resistance exercise reduces blood pressure and vascular reactivity, and increases endothelium-dependent relaxation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Faria, Thaís de Oliveira; Targueta, Gabriel Pelegrineti; Angeli, Jhuli Keli; Almeida, Edna Aparecida Silveira; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Lizardo, Juliana Hott de Fúcio

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of acute dynamic resistance exercise on resting blood pressure (BP) and on endothelial function of vascular bed of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hemodynamic measurements were performed before and after acute dynamic resistance exercise in conscious animals. After exercise, the tail artery was cannulated for mean perfusion pressure with constant flow measurement and for performing concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and dose-response curves to phenylephrine (PHE). PHE protocol was also repeated with damaged endothelium and after L-NAME and indomethacin perfusion on the tail. The maximal response (E(max)) and sensitivity (pD(2)) were evaluated to these drugs. Exercise reduced resting systolic and diastolic BP (Delta -79 +/- 1.8; -23 +/- 2.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). ACh-induced relaxation increased in the exercise group (pD(2) = 9.8 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) when compared with control rats (pD(2) = 8.7 +/- 0.1). The E(max) to PHE with intact endothelium decreased following exercise condition (439 +/- 18 mmHg, P < 0.05) when compared with control rats (276 +/- 22 mmHg). This response was abolished after L-NAME and indomethacin administration. After damage of the endothelium, PHE responses were not significantly different between the groups; however, E(max) and pD(2) increased when compared with responses obtained with intact endothelium. The results demonstrated that acute dynamic resistance exercise decreased resting BP and reactivity to PHE and increased endothelium-dependent relaxation. Nitric oxide and vasodilators prostanoids appear to be involved in post-exercise endothelial and pressor responses.

  3. The differential metabolite profiles of acute lymphoblastic leukaemic patients treated with 6-mercaptopurine using untargeted metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Bannur, Z; Teh, L K; Hennesy, T; Rosli, W R W; Mohamad, N; Nasir, A; Ankathil, R; Zakaria, Z A; Baba, A; Salleh, M Z

    2014-04-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) has posed challenges to the clinician due to variable patients' responses and late diagnosis. With the advance in metabolomics, early detection and personalised treatment are possible. Metabolomic profile of 21 ALL patients treated with 6-mercaptopurine and 10 healthy volunteers were analysed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry quadrupole-time of flight (LC/MS Q-TOF). Principal components analysis (PCA), recursive analysis, clustering and pathway analysis were performed using MassHunter Qualitative and Mass Profiler Professional (MPP) software. Several metabolites were found to be expressed differently in patients treated with 6-mercaptopurine. Interestingly, 13 metabolites were significantly differently expressed [p-value <0.01 (unpaired t-test) and 2-fold change] in 19% of the patients who had relapses in their treatment. Down-regulated metabolites in relapsed patients were 1-tetrahexanoyl-2-(8-[3]-ladderane-octanyl)-sn-GPEtn, GPEtn (18:1(9Z)/0:0), GPCho(O-6:0/O-6:0), GPCho(O-2:0/O-1:0), methyl 8-[2-(2-formyl-vinyl)-3-hydroxy-5-oxo-cyclopentyl]-octanoate and plasma free amino acids (PFAA). Characterizing the subjects according to their ITPA 94C>A genotypes reveal differential expression of metabolites. Our research contributes to identification of metabolites that could be used to monitor disease progress of patients and allow targeted therapy for ALL at different stages, especially in preventing complication of relapse. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Acute Effects of Hold-Relax Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation With Vibration Therapy on Glenohumeral Internal-Rotation Deficit.

    PubMed

    Tucker, W Steven; Slone, Stephen W

    2016-08-01

    Clinicians use various stretching techniques to prevent the onset of and treat glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD). It is unknown which stretching technique is the most effective. To investigate the acute effects of hold-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) with and without vibration therapy on internal rotation in individuals with GIRD. 2-within (stretch × time) comparison with repeated measures. Controlled laboratory. 11 male current and former overhead athletes (19.8 ± 1.4 y, 184.5 ± 4.5 cm, 91.8 ± 11.6 kg) who presented with GIRD. At 3 separate sessions, participants performed 1 of 3 randomly assigned stretches: hold-relax PNF (PNF), hold-relax PNF in combination with a whole-body-vibration unit set at 30 Hz (PNF-V), and static stretch (SS). Pretest and posttest maximum passive glenohumeral internal-rotation measurements were taken with a digital protractor. The dependent variables were the mean glenohumeral internal-rotation measurements taken at the pretest and posttest. The influence of stretch (PNF, PNF-V, and SS) and time (pretest and posttest) on mean glenohumeral internal rotation was compared using a 3 × 2 factorial ANOVA with repeated measures on both variables (P ≤ .05). There was a stretch-by-time interaction (F2,20 = 34.697, P < .001). Post hoc testing revealed that the PNF posttest (73.0° ± 10.4°) was greater than the PNF pretest (60.0° ± 11.8°), the PNF-V posttest (74.7° ± 10.0°) was greater than the PNF-V pretest (57.4° ± 10.4°), and the SS posttest (67.0° ± 10.7°) was greater than the SS pretest (60.1° ± 9.4°). When comparing the posttest values, the PNF-V posttest was greater than the SS posttest. All 3 stretches (PNF, PNF-V, and SS) resulted in acute increases in glenohumeral internal rotation in individuals presenting with GIRD. The PNF-V stretch resulted in the greatest increase and would be the most clinically beneficial for patients with GIRD.

  5. Urinary Metabolite Profiles May be Predictive of Cognitive Performance Under Conditions of Acute Sleep Deprivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    temporal changes in urinary metabolite profiles mirrored cognitive performance during continuous wakefulness. Additionally , subjects identified by...profiles mirrored cognitive performance during continuous wakefulness. Additionally , subjects identified by cognitive assessments as having a high...field studies and would have little useful application in occupational or military operational environments. Addition - ally, their usefulness is

  6. Changes in MR Relaxation Times of the Meniscus With Acute Loading: An In Vivo Pilot Study in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Souza, Richard B.; Wyman, Bradley T.; Le Graverand-Gastineau, Marie-Pierre Hellio; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate changes in T1ρ and T2 relaxation times in the meniscal body with acute loading using MRI in osteoarthritic knees and to compare these findings with those of age-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods Female subjects above 40 years of age with (N1 = 20) and without osteoarthritis (OA) (N2 = 10) were imaged on a 3 Tesla MR scanner using a custom made loading device. MR images were acquired, with the knee flexed at 20°, with and without a compressive load of 50% of the subject's bodyweight. The subjects were categorized based on the radiographic evidence of OA. Three different zones (outer, middle, and inner) of meniscus body were defined (each occupying 1/3rd the width). After adjusting for age and body mass index in the general linear regression model, repeated measures analysis of variance was used to detect significant differences in T1ρ and T2 with and without loading. Results In the unloaded condition, the average T1ρ and T2 times were elevated in the outer and middle zones of the medial meniscus in OA subjects compared with the controls. In the loaded condition, T1ρ and T2 times of the outer zone of the medial meniscus was significantly elevated in OA subjects compared with controls. Finally the change (from unloaded to loaded) was significantly higher in controls than OA subjects (15.1% versus 8.3%; P = 0.039 for ΔT1ρ, and 11.5% versus 6.9%, P = 0.049 for ΔT2). Conclusion These findings suggest that while the OA process appears to affect the relaxation times of all regions within the meniscus, it may affect some regions sooner or to a greater degree. Furthermore, the differences in the change in relaxation times between unloaded and loaded conditions may reveal evidence about load transmission failure of the outer zone of the medial meniscus in subjects with knee OA. It is possible that these metrics (ΔT1ρ and ΔT2) may be valuable as an early biomechanical biomarker, which could be used to predict load

  7. Acute effects of a guided relaxation routine (body scan) on tobacco withdrawal symptoms and cravings in abstinent smokers.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Mark; Ussher, Michael; Charitou, Elli

    2007-06-01

    To examine the acute effects of a guided relaxation routine (body scan) on desire to smoke and tobacco withdrawal symptoms in overnight abstinent smokers. Experimental. Thirty individuals reporting to smoke 10 or more cigarettes daily for at least 3 years. Participants were assigned randomly to complete a 10-minute body scan (experimental group n = 15) or listen to a natural history passage for 10 minutes (control group n = 15). Ratings of strength of desire to smoke and smoking withdrawal symptoms were assessed at baseline, immediately after the interventions, and 5, 10 and 15 minutes post-intervention. There was a significant group x time interaction for strength of desire to smoke. The mean desire to smoke rating was significantly lower in the body scan group relative to the control group immediately after the intervention, and 5 minutes post-intervention. The body scan group also reported lower ratings of irritability, tension and restlessness, relative to the controls. A brief body scan intervention reduces strength of desire to smoke and some tobacco withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstaining smokers. The body scan may be beneficial as a technique for managing cigarette cravings and withdrawal.

  8. Urinary composition and postprandial blood changes in H-secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) metabolites in rats do not differ between acute and chronic SDG treatments.

    PubMed

    Rickard, S E; Thompson, L U

    2000-09-01

    Although chronic exposure to secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) was shown to alter (3)H-SDG metabolite disposition in rats, the proportion of measured radioactivity attributed to known or unknown SDG metabolites was not determined. Using HPLC and GC-MS, two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of acute (1 d) vs. chronic (10 d) SDG treatment on major urinary metabolites of (3)H-SDG in female, Sprague-Dawley rats (70-72-d-old) over a 48-h period and if new urinary metabolites were detectable in rats fed nonradioactive flaxseed or SDG. A third experiment was conducted to determine changes in postprandial blood levels of (3)H-SDG metabolites over a 24-h period with acute or chronic SDG treatment. Regardless of treatment, enterodiol, enterolactone and secoisolariciresinol accounted for 75-80% of urine radioactivity. Four potential new lignan metabolites, two of which were detected in the urine of rats fed nonradioactive flaxseed or SDG, were found. Type of treatment had no effect on levels of individual urinary metabolites of (3)H-SDG. As observed for plasma lignans in women fed flaxseed, blood radioactivity peaked at 9 h and remained high until 24 h in both treatment groups, suggesting that blood lignan kinetics might be similar with flaxseed or SDG consumption and that they were comparable between humans and rats. In conclusion, the main urinary lignan metabolites were enterodiol, enterolactone and secoisolariciresinol. Urinary composition or blood levels of radioactive lignans were not affected by the duration of SDG exposure. Thus, while chronic SDG exposure alters lignan disposition in rats, it does not change the metabolite profile.

  9. Mercaptopurine metabolite levels are predictors of bone marrow toxicity following high-dose methotrexate therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Vang, Sophia Ingeborg; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Frandsen, Thomas; Rosthøj, Susanne; Nersting, Jacob

    2015-05-01

    High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) courses with concurrent oral low-dose MTX/6-mercaptopurine (6MP) for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are often followed by neutro- and thrombocytopenia necessitating treatment interruptions. Plasma MTX during HD-MTX therapy guides folinic acid rescue to prevent toxicities, but myelosuppression can also be prevented by pre-HD-MTX 6MP dose reductions. Accordingly, we monitored pre-HD-MTX erythrocyte levels of methylated 6MP metabolites (Ery-MeMP) and of thioguanine nucleotides (Ery-6TGN) as well as DNA-incorporated thioguanine nucleotides (DNA-TGN) in circulating leucocytes to identify patients at highest risk of post-HD-MTX myelosuppression. In multiple linear regression analyses of neutrophil and thrombocyte nadir values (adjusted for gender, age, risk group and 6MP dose) after 48 HD-MTX courses in 17 childhood ALL patients on MTX/6MP maintenance therapy, the pre-HD-MTX DNA-TGN levels in neutrophils (P < 0.0001), Ery-MeMP (P < 0.0001) and Ery-6TGN (P = 0.01) levels were significant predictors of post-HD-MTX neutrophil nadirs, whereas Ery-MeMP (P < 0.0001) was the only predictor of post-HD-MTX thrombocyte nadir. In conclusion, pre-HD-MTX 6MP metabolite levels may be applicable for 6MP dose adjustments to prevent HD-MTX-induced myelosuppression.

  10. Amiodarone biokinetics, the formation of its major oxidative metabolite and neurotoxicity after acute and repeated exposure of brain cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Pomponio, Giuliana; Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle; Schultz, Luise; Weiss, Dieter G; Romanelli, Luca; Gramowski-Voss, Alexandra; Di Consiglio, Emma; Testai, Emanuela

    2015-12-25

    The difficulty in mimicking nervous system complexity and cell-cell interactions as well as the lack of kinetics information has limited the use of in vitro neurotoxicity data. Here, we assessed the biokinetic profile as well as the neurotoxicity of Amiodarone after acute and repeated exposure in two advanced rodent brain cell culture models, consisting of both neurons and glial cells organized in 2 or 3 dimensions to mimic the brain histiotypic structure and function. A strategy was applied to evidence the abiotic processes possibly affecting Amiodarone in vitro bioavailability, showing its ability to adsorb to the plastic devices. At clinically relevant Amiodarone concentrations, known to induce neurotoxicity in some patients during therapeutic treatment, a complete uptake was observed in both models in 24 h, after single exposure. After repeated treatments, bioaccumulation was observed, especially in the 3D cell model, together with a greater alteration of neurotoxicity markers. After 14 days, Amiodarone major oxidative metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) was detected at limited levels, indicating the presence of active drug metabolism enzymes (i.e. cytochrome P450) in both models. The assessment of biokinetics provides useful information on the relevance of in vitro toxicity data and should be considered in the design of an Integrated Testing Strategy aimed to identify specific neurotoxic alerts, and to improve the neurotoxicity assay predictivity for human acute and repeated exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Turning Towards or Turning Away: A Comparison of Mindfulness Meditation and Guided Imagery Relaxation in Patients with Acute Depression.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana; Barnhofer, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    Disengaging from maladaptive thinking is an important imperative in the treatment of depression. Mindfulness training is aimed at helping patients acquire relevant skills for this purpose. It remains unclear, however, whether this practice is helpful when patients are acutely depressed. In order to investigate effects of mindfulness on symptoms and self-regulatory capacities in this group, the current study compared a brief training in mindfulness (n = 19) to guided imagery relaxation (n = 18). Participants were introduced to the respective techniques in a single session, and practised daily over one week. Self-reported severity of symptoms, difficulties in emotion-regulation, attentional control, the ability to decentre, and mindfulness were assessed pre and postintervention, and at a one-week follow-up. Symptoms of depression significantly decreased and self-regulatory functioning significantly increased in both groups, with changes being maintained during follow-up. When controlling for change in depressive symptoms, results showed significantly higher improvements in emotion regulation at follow-up in the mindfulness group. The ability to decentre predicted changes in symptoms from pre to postintervention, while mindfulness skills predicted changes in symptoms during the maintenance phase. The findings suggest that both practices can help to instigate reductions in symptoms and enhance self-regulatory functioning in depression. However, in order to improve emotion regulation above levels explained by reductions in symptoms more intentional mental training seems necessary. Furthermore, while the ability to disengage from negative patterns of thinking seems crucial for initial reduction of symptoms, maintenance of gains might require broader skills in mindfulness.

  12. Assessment of mercaptopurine (6MP) metabolites and 6MP metabolic key-enzymes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wojtuszkiewicz, Anna; Barcelos, Ana; Dubbelman, Boas; De Abreu, Ronney; Brouwer, Connie; Bökkerink, Jos P; de Haas, Valerie; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester; Jansen, Gerrit; Kaspers, Gertjan L; Cloos, Jacqueline; Peters, G J

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is treated with combination chemotherapy including mercaptopurine (6MP) as an important component. Upon its uptake, 6MP undergoes a complex metabolism involving many enzymes and active products. The prognostic value of all the factors engaged in this pathway still remains unclear. This study attempted to determine which components of 6MP metabolism in leukemic blasts and red blood cells are important for 6MP's sensitivity and toxicity. In addition, changes in the enzymatic activities and metabolite levels during the treatment were analyzed. In a cohort (N=236) of pediatric ALL patients enrolled in the Dutch ALL-9 protocol, we studied the enzymes inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) as well as thioguanine nucleotides (TGN) and methylthioinosine nucleotides (meTINs). Activities of selected enzymes and levels of 6MP derivatives were measured at various time points during the course of therapy. The data obtained and the toxicity related parameters available for these patients were correlated with each other. We found several interesting relations, including high concentrations of two active forms of 6MP--TGN and meTIN--showing a trend toward association with better in vitro antileukemic effect of 6MP. High concentrations of TGN and elevated activity of HGPRT were found to be significantly associated with grade III/IV leucopenia. However, a lot of data of enzymatic activities and metabolite concentrations as well as clinical toxicity were missing, thereby limiting the number of assessed relations. Therefore, although a complex study of 6MP metabolism in ALL patients is feasible, it warrants more robust and strict data collection in order to be able to draw more reliable conclusions.

  13. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver metabolites in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats: T2 relaxation times in methylene protons.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyu-Ho; Baek, Hyeon-Man; Lee, Do-Wan; Choe, Bo-Young

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the transverse relaxation time of methylene resonance as compared to other lipid resonances. The examinations were performed using a 3.0 T scanner with a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Lipid relaxation time in a lipid phantom filled with canola oil was estimated with a repetition time (TR) of 6000ms and echo time (TE) of 40-550ms. For in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a normal-chow (NC) and another eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a high-fat (HF) diet. Both groups drank water ad libitum. T2 measurements in the rats' livers were conducted at a fixed TR of 6000ms and TE of 40-220ms. Exponential curve fitting quality was calculated through the coefficients of determination (R(2)). Chemical analyses of the phantom and livers were not performed, but T2 decay curves were acquired. The T2 relaxation time of methylene resonance was estimated as follows: NC rats, 37.1±4.3ms; HF rats, 31.4±1.8ms (p<0.05). The extrapolated M0 values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p<0.005). This study of (1)H MRS led to sufficient spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio differences to characterize the T2 relaxation times of methylene resonance. (1)H MRS relaxation times may be useful for quantitative characterization of various liver diseases, including fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ACUTE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The relationship of exposure dose and tissue concentration of parent chemical and metabolites is a critical issue in cases where toxicity may be mediated by a metabolite or parent chemical and metabolite acting together. This has emerged as an issue for inorganic ars...

  15. Lipoxin A4, a 5-lipoxygenase pathway metabolite, modulates immune response during acute respiratory tularemia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anju; Rahman, Tabassum; Bartiss, Rose; Arabshahi, Alireza; Prasain, Jeevan; Barnes, Stephen; Musteata, Florin Marcel; Sellati, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    Respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis (Ft) is characterized by a muted, acute host response, followed by sepsis-like syndrome that results in death. Infection with Ft establishes a principally anti-inflammatory environment that subverts host-cell death programs to facilitate pathogen replication. Although the role of cytokines has been explored extensively, the role of eicosanoids in tularemia pathogenesis is not fully understood. Given that lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ) has anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether this lipid mediator affects host responses manifested early during infection. The addition of exogenous LXA 4 inhibits PGE 2 release by Ft-infected murine monocytes in vitro and diminishes apoptotic cell death. Tularemia pathogenesis was characterized in 5‑lipoxygenase-deficient (Alox5 -/- ) mice that are incapable of generating LXA 4 Increased release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as increased apoptosis, was observed in Alox5 -/- mice as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Alox5 -/- mice also exhibited elevated recruitment of neutrophils during the early phase of infection and increased resistance to lethal challenge. Conversely, administration of exogenous LXA 4 to Alox5 -/- mice made them more susceptible to infection thus mimicking wild-type animals. Taken together, our results suggest that 5-LO activity is a critical regulator of immunopathology observed during the acute phase of respiratory tularemia, regulating bacterial burden and neutrophil recruitment and production of proinflammatory modulators and increasing morbidity and mortality. These studies identify a detrimental role for the 5-LO-derived lipid mediator LXA 4 in Ft-induced immunopathology. Targeting this pathway may have therapeutic benefit as an adjunct to treatment with antibiotics and conventional antimicrobial peptides, which often have limited efficacy against intracellular bacteria. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  16. Preliminary effects of progressive muscle relaxation on cigarette craving and withdrawal symptoms in experienced smokers in acute cigarette abstinence: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Limsanon, Thatsanee; Kalayasiri, Rasmon

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette craving usually occurs in conjunction with unpleasant feelings, including stress, as part of a withdrawal syndrome. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), a behavioral technique used to reduce stress by concentrating on achieving muscle relaxation, may reduce levels of cigarette craving and other substance-related negative feelings and withdrawal symptoms. Demographic and cigarette use data were collected from 32 experienced smokers at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. Participants were asked to refrain from smoking for at least 3 hours before the visit (acute abstinence) and were randomly allocated to a 1-session PMR group (n =16) or a control activity group (e.g., reading newspaper, n =16). The intervention group was instructed to practice PMR individually in a quiet, private, air-conditioned room for about 20minutes. Craving, other substance-related feelings, and autonomic nervous responses (e.g., blood pressure and pulse rate) were assessed immediately before and after the 1-session intervention. There were no differences in demographics, cigarette use/dependence, and baseline craving characteristics between the PMR and control groups. However, the control group had higher levels of high and paranoia feeling, and pulse rate than the PMR group at baseline. After practicing PMR, but not after a control activity, smokers undergoing acute abstinence had significantly lower levels of cigarette craving, withdrawal symptoms, and systolic blood pressure than at baseline. After controlling for baseline differences, abstaining smokers using PMR had lower levels of cigarette craving, withdrawal symptoms, and systolic blood pressure than smokers who undertook a control activity. PMR significantly reduces cigarette craving, withdrawal symptoms, and blood pressure in smokers undergoing acute abstinence. PMR may be used as an adjunct to cigarette dependency treatments

  17. Effect of switching to risperidone after unsuccessful treatment with aripiprazole on plasma monoamine metabolites level in the treatment of acute schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miura, Itaru; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Katsumi, Akihiko; Kanno, Keiko; Watanabe, Kenya; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Niwa, Shin-Ichi

    2012-09-01

    In the treatment of acute schizophrenia, risperidone and aripiprazole are both placed the first line antipsychotics. These two antipsychotics have different pharmacological effects. We investigated the effects of risperidone on plasma levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4hydroxyphenylglycol after unsuccessful aripiprazole treatment in acute schizophrenia. Ten Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia were enrolled to this study. Plasma levels of monoamine metabolites were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Risperidone improved the symptoms and 4 of 10 patients were responders. Risperidone showed a tendency to decrease plasma HVA (pHVA) levels in responders (p = 0.068), but not in non-responders (p = 1.0). At baseline, pHVA levels of responders were significantly higher than that of non-responders (p = 0.033). A trend for negative correlation was found between pHVA at baseline and the changes in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Total (p = 0.061, r = -0.61). Our results suggest that high pHVA level before switching may predict good response to the second line antipsychotics after unsuccessful first antipsychotic treatment. If aripiprazole is not effective in acute schizophrenia, switching to risperidone may be effective and reasonable strategy for improving symptoms. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Potential antiproliferative activity of polyphenol metabolites against human breast cancer cells and their urine excretion pattern in healthy subjects following acute intake of a polyphenol-rich juice of grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, L L; Costa, G R; Dörr, F A; Ong, T P; Pinto, E; Lajolo, F M; Hassimotto, N M A

    2017-06-21

    The bioavailability and metabolism of anthocyanins and ellagitannins following acute intake of grumixama fruit, native Brazilian cherry, by humans, and its in vitro antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) were investigated. A single dose of grumixama juice was administered to healthy women (n = 10) and polyphenol metabolites were analyzed in urine and plasma samples collected over 24 h. The majority of the metabolites circulating and excreted in urine were phenolic acids and urolithin conjugates, the gut microbiota catabolites of both classes of polyphenols, respectively. According to pharmacokinetic parameters, the subjects were divided into two distinct groups, high and low urinary metabolite excretors. The pool of polyphenol metabolites found in urine samples showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings demonstrate the large interindividual variability concerning the polyphenol metabolism, which possibly could reflect in health promotion.

  19. Nitric oxide metabolites as biomarkers for influenza-like acute respiratory infections presenting to the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Mian, Asad I; Laham, Federico R; Cruz, Andrea T; Garg, Harsha; Macias, Charles G; Caviness, A Chantal; Piedra, Pedro A

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is increased in the respiratory tract in pulmonary infections. The aim was to determine whether nasal wash NO metabolites could serve as biomarkers of viral pathogen and disease severity in children with influenza-like illness (ILI) presenting to the emergency department (ED) during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic. Children ≤18 years old presenting to the ED with ILI were eligible. Nasal wash specimens were tested for NO metabolites, nitrate and nitrite, by HPLC and for respiratory viruses by real-time PCR. Eighty-nine patients with ILI were prospectively enrolled during Oct-Dec, 2009. In the entire cohort, nasal wash nitrite was low to undetectable (interquartile range [IQR], 0 - 2 μM), while median nitrate was 3.4 μM (IQR 0-8.6). Rhinovirus (23%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (20%), novel H1N1 (19%), and adenovirus (11%) were the most common viruses found. Children with RSV subtype B-associated ILI had higher nitrate compared to all other viruses combined (P=0.002). Concentration of NO-derived nitrate in nasal secretions in children in the ED is suggestive of viral pathogen causative for ILI, and thus might be of clinical utility. Predictive potential of this putative biomarker for ILI needs further evaluation in sicker patients in a prospective manner.

  20. Melatonin metabolite, N(1)-acetyl-N(1)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK), attenuates acute pancreatitis in the rat: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Jaworek, J; Szklarczyk, J; Bonior, J; Kot, M; Goralska, M; Pierzchalski, P; Reiter, R J; Czech, U; Tomaszewska, R

    2016-06-01

    Melatonin protects the pancreas from inflammation and free radical damage but the effect of the melatonin metabolite: N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) on acute pancreatitis is unknown. This study assessed the effects of AFMK on acute pancreatitis (AP) in the rats in vivo and on pancreatic cell line AR42J in vitro. AFMK (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min prior to the induction of AP by subcutaneous caerulein infusion (25 μg/kg). Lipid peroxidation products (MDA + 4-HNE) and the activity of an antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in pancreatic tissue. Blood samples were taken for evaluation of amylase activity and TNF-α concentration. GPx, TNF-α, proapoptotic Bax protein, antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and the executor of apoptosis, caspase-3, were determined by Western blot in AR42J cells subjected to AFMK or to melatonin (both used at 10(-12), 10(-10), or 10(-8)M), without or with addition of caerulein (10(-8)M). AP was confirmed by histological examination and by serum increases of amylase and TNF-α (by 800% and 300%, respectively). In AP rats, pancreatic MDA + 4-HNE levels were increased by 300%, whereas GPx was reduced by 50%. AFMK significantly diminished histological manifestations of AP, decreased serum amylase activity and TNF-α concentrations, reduced MDA + 4-HNE levels and augmented GPx in the pancreas of AP rats. In AR42J cells, AFMK combined with caerulein markedly increased protein signals for GPx, Bax, caspase-3 and reduced these for TNF-α and Bcl-2. In conclusion, AFMK significantly attenuated acute pancreatitis in the rat. This may relate to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of this molecule and possibly to the stimulation of proapoptotic signal transduction pathway.

  1. Relaxation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  2. The anti-inflammatory effects of Yunnan Baiyao are involved in regulation of the phospholipase A2/arachidonic acid metabolites pathways in acute inflammation rat model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaobin; Zhang, Mingzhu; Chen, Lingxiang; Zhang, Wanli; Huang, Yu; Luo, Huazhen; Li, Ling; He, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Yunnan Baiyao (YNB) has been reported to possess anti‑inflammatory properties, however its mechanism of action remains unclear. It was previously reported that YNB ameliorated depression of arachidonic acid (AA) levels in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis. In the current study, the capacity of YNB to ameliorate inflammation was compared in carrageenan‑induced and AA‑induced acute inflammation of the rat paw with celecoxib and mizolastine, respectively (n=24 per group). The capacity of YNB to affect the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/AA pathway (using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and release of inflammatory lipid mediators (by ELISA) were investigated. Celecoxib ameliorated carrageenan‑induced paw edema, and mizolastine ameliorated AA‑induced rat paw edema. YNB alleviated paw edema and inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the two models. YNB inhibited production of 5‑LOX AA metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and suppressed expression of 5‑LOX, cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), 5‑LOX‑activating protein, and LTB4 receptor mRNA in the AA‑induced inflammation model (P<0.05). YNB Inhibited the production of the COX‑2 AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and suppressed expression of COX‑2, cPLA2, PGE2 mRNA in the carrageenan‑induced inflammation mode (P<0.05). Taken together, the data suggest that modulation of COX and LOX pathways in AA metabolism represent a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of YNB.

  3. Pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin and its metabolites induce liver injury through the activation of oxidative stress and proinflammatory gene expression in rats following acute and subchronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Aouey, Bakhta; Derbali, Mohamed; Chtourou, Yassine; Bouchard, Michèle; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Fetoui, Hamadi

    2017-02-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) [α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo-propanecarboxylate] is a synthetic type II pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in residential and agricultural areas. The potential hepatotoxicity of pyrethroids remains unclear and could easily be assessed by measuring common clinical indicators of liver disease. To understand more about the potential risks for humans associated with LTC exposure, male adult rats were orally exposed to 6.2 and 31.1 mg/kg bw of LTC for 7, 30, 45, and 60 days. Histopathological changes and alterations of main parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the liver were evaluated. Further, lambda-cyhalothrin metabolites [3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (CFMP), 4-hydroxyphenoxybenzoic acid (4-OH-3-PBA), and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA)] in the liver tissues were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadripole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-Q-ToF). Results revealed that LTC exposure significantly increased markers of hepatic oxidative stress in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, and this was associated with an accumulation of CFMP and 3-PBA in the liver tissues. In addition, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6 and IL-1β) gene expressions were significantly increased in the liver of exposed rats compared to controls. Correlation analyses revealed that CFMP and 3-PBA metabolite levels in the liver tissues were significantly correlated with the indexes of oxidative stress, redox status, and inflammatory markers in rats exposed to lambda-cyhalothin. Overall, this study provided novel evidence that hepatic damage is likely due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation under the condition of acute and subchronic exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin and that LTC metabolites (CFMP and 3-PBA) could be used as

  4. Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome during maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with continuous asparaginase therapy and mercaptopurine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Toksvang, Linea Natalie; De Pietri, Silvia; Nielsen, Stine N; Nersting, Jacob; Albertsen, Birgitte K; Wehner, Peder S; Rosthøj, Steen; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Nilsson, Daniel; Nystad, Tove A; Grell, Kathrine; Frandsen, Thomas L; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2017-09-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) during treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has mainly been associated with 6-thioguanine. The occurrence of several SOS cases after the introduction of extended pegylated asparaginase (PEG-asparaginase) therapy in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL2008 protocol led us to hypothesize that PEG-asparaginase, combined with other drugs, may trigger SOS during 6-thioguanine-free maintenance therapy. In children with ALL treated in Denmark according to the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol, we investigated the risk of SOS during methotrexate (MTX)/6-mercaptopurine (6MP) maintenance therapy that included PEG-asparaginase until week 33 (randomized to two- vs. six-week intervals), as well as alternating high-dose MTX or vincristine/dexamethasone pulses every four weeks. Among 130 children receiving PEG-asparaginase biweekly, 29 developed SOS (≥2 criteria: hyperbilirubinemia, hepatomegaly, ascites, weight gain ≥2.5%, unexplained thrombocytopenia <75 × 10 9 l -1 ) at a median of 30 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 17-66) into maintenance (cumulative incidence: 27%). SOS cases fulfilling one, two, or three Ponte di Legno criteria were classified as possible (n = 2), probable (n = 8), or verified (n = 19) SOS, respectively. Twenty-six cases (90%) occurred during PEG-asparaginase treatment, including 21 (81%) within 14 days from the last chemotherapy pulse compared with the subsequent 14 days (P = 0.0025). Cytotoxic 6MP metabolites were significantly higher on PEG-asparaginase compared to after its discontinuation. Time-dependent Cox regression analysis showed increased SOS hazard ratio (HR) for erythrocyte levels of methylated 6MP metabolites (HR: 1.09 per 1,000 nmol/mmol hemoglobin increase, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.14). Six-week PEG-asparaginase intervals significantly reduced SOS-specific hazards (P < 0.01). PEG-asparaginase increases cytotoxic 6MP metabolite levels and

  5. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT AS A SENSITIVE END-POINT FOLLOWING ACUTE PERNATAL EXPOSURE TO A LOW DOSE ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE IN FEMALE LONG EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to characterize the potential developmental effects of atrazine (ATR) metabolites at low doses, an environmentally-based mixture (EBM) of ATR and its metabolites hydroxyatrazine, diaminochlorotriazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine was formulated based on surv...

  6. Relaxation Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Colonel Robert Fowler for sponsoring this project, Major Richard Hartson for diligently editing each draft and the men of ACSC Seminar A-li ( Mix 1...and AWC Seminar 15 ( Mix 1) for encouraging the author to introduce relaxation techniques to other military officers through this videotape. Special...anytime and without having to stop what you’re doing. The individuals were usually surprised at how easily deep breathing initiated a feeling of

  7. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Health Information Doctors & Departments Clinical Research & Science Education & Training Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ...

  8. Comparison of different cardiac relaxation indices.

    PubMed

    Alipov, N N; Izrail'tyan, I M; Sokolov, A V; Trubetskaya, L V; Kuznetsova, T E

    2001-05-01

    Sensitivity (response to epinephrine infusion) and specificity (response to changes in pre- and afterload) of some cardiac relaxation indices were compared in acute experiments on cats treated with ganglionic blocker arfonad. Some new indices proposed by us provide better characteristics than widely used relaxation time constant (t) and maximum first derivative of the left ventricular pressure (-dP/dt)max.

  9. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  10. Volatile Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Daryl D.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (volatiles) comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals) both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites. PMID:24957243

  11. The influence of microvascular injury on native T1 and T2* relaxation values after acute myocardial infarction: implications for non-contrast-enhanced infarct assessment.

    PubMed

    Robbers, Lourens F H J; Nijveldt, Robin; Beek, Aernout M; Teunissen, Paul F A; Hollander, Maurits R; Biesbroek, P Stefan; Everaars, Henk; van de Ven, Peter M; Hofman, Mark B M; van Royen, Niels; van Rossum, Albert C

    2018-02-01

    Native T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging offer detailed characterisation of the myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated the effects of microvascular injury (MVI) and intramyocardial haemorrhage on local T1 and T2* values in patients with a reperfused AMI. Forty-three patients after reperfused AMI underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 4 [3-5] days, including native MOLLI T1 and T2* mapping, STIR, cine imaging and LGE. T1 and T2* values were determined in LGE-defined regions of interest: the MI core incorporating MVI when present, the core-adjacent MI border zone (without any areas of MVI), and remote myocardium. Average T1 in the MI core was higher than in the MI border zone and remote myocardium. However, in the 20 (47%) patients with MVI, MI core T1 was lower than in patients without MVI (MVI 1048±78ms, no MVI 1111±89ms, p=0.02). MI core T2* was significantly lower in patients with MVI than in those without (MVI 20 [18-23]ms, no MVI 31 [26-39]ms, p<0.001). The presence of MVI profoundly affects MOLLI-measured native T1 values. T2* mapping suggested that this may be the result of intramyocardial haemorrhage. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of native T1 values shortly after AMI. • Microvascular injury after acute myocardial infarction affects local T1 and T2* values. • Infarct zone T1 values are lower if microvascular injury is present. • T2* mapping suggests that low infarct T1 values are likely haemorrhage. • T1 and T2* values are complimentary for correctly assessing post-infarct myocardium.

  12. After stress comes relax(ation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, Lucio

    2015-11-01

    Viscoelastic materials take a finite time to relax and dissipate stress and this time scale is directly connected to the microstructure of the material itself. In their paper, Gomez-Solano and Bechinger (2015 New J. Phys. 17 103032) perform ‘miniaturized’ mechanical tests on a range of viscoelastic materials by dragging a micron-sized bead across them using optical tweezers. Upon switching off all the external forces, they watch the bead recoil to its original position and by tracking its motion they pinpoint the relaxation time of the material. These experiments open up a new range of possibilities to characterize stress relaxation at the microscale just by watching it.

  13. TEACHING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NORRIS, JEANNE E.; STEINHAUS, ARTHUR H.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER (1) THE METHODS FOR ATTAINING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION THAT HAVE PROVED FRUITFUL IN THE ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLINIC CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO THE TEACHER-CLASS RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLASSROOM AND GYMNASIUM, AND (2) NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION CAN BE TAUGHT SUCCESSFULLY BY AN APPROPRIATELY TRAINED…

  14. Mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolites are associated with vigilance, whereas immediate cortisol levels better reflect acute anti-predator responses in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Voellmy, Irene K; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Manser, Marta B

    2014-11-01

    Adrenal hormones likely affect anti-predator behavior in animals. With experimental field studies, we first investigated associations between mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGC) excretion and vigilance and with behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks in free-ranging meerkats (Suricata suricatta). We then tested how vigilance and behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks were affected in individuals administered exogenous cortisol. We found a positive association between mean fGC concentrations and vigilance behavior, but no relationship with the intensity of behavioral responses to alarm calls. However, in response to alarm call playbacks, individuals administered cortisol took slightly longer to resume foraging than control individuals treated with saline solution. Vigilance behavior, which occurs in the presence and absence of dangerous stimuli, serves to detect and avoid potential dangers, whereas responses to alarm calls serve to avoid immediate predation. Our data show that mean fGC excretion in meerkats was associated with vigilance, as a re-occurring anti-predator behavior over long time periods, and experimentally induced elevations of plasma cortisol affected the response to immediate threats. Together, our results indicate an association between the two types of anti-predator behavior and glucocorticoids, but that the underlying mechanisms may differ. Our study emphasizes the need to consider appropriate measures of adrenal activity specific to different contexts when assessing links between stress physiology and different anti-predator behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relaxation therapies for asthma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, A; White, A; Ernst, E

    2002-01-01

    Background: Emotional stress can either precipitate or exacerbate both acute and chronic asthma. There is a large body of literature available on the use of relaxation techniques for the treatment of asthma symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if there is any evidence for or against the clinical efficacy of such interventions. Methods: Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data from trials that statistically compared the treatment group with that of the control were extracted in a standardised predefined manner and assessed critically by two independent reviewers. Results: Fifteen trials were identified, of which nine compared the treatment group with the control group appropriately. Five RCTs tested progressive muscle relaxation or mental and muscular relaxation, two of which showed significant effects of therapy. One RCT investigating hypnotherapy, one of autogenic training, and two of biofeedback techniques revealed no therapeutic effects. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was poor. Conclusions: There is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of relaxation therapies in the management of asthma. This deficiency is due to the poor methodology of the studies as well as the inherent problems of conducting such trials. There is some evidence that muscular relaxation improves lung function of patients with asthma but no evidence for any other relaxation technique. PMID:11828041

  16. Relaxation therapies for asthma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Huntley, A; White, A R; Ernst, E

    2002-02-01

    Emotional stress can either precipitate or exacerbate both acute and chronic asthma. There is a large body of literature available on the use of relaxation techniques for the treatment of asthma symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if there is any evidence for or against the clinical efficacy of such interventions. Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data from trials that statistically compared the treatment group with that of the control were extracted in a standardised predefined manner and assessed critically by two independent reviewers. Fifteen trials were identified, of which nine compared the treatment group with the control group appropriately. Five RCTs tested progressive muscle relaxation or mental and muscular relaxation, two of which showed significant effects of therapy. One RCT investigating hypnotherapy, one of autogenic training, and two of biofeedback techniques revealed no therapeutic effects. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was poor. There is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of relaxation therapies in the management of asthma. This deficiency is due to the poor methodology of the studies as well as the inherent problems of conducting such trials. There is some evidence that muscular relaxation improves lung function of patients with asthma but no evidence for any other relaxation technique.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde, and fetolethality in the third-trimester pregnant guinea pig for oral administration of acute, multiple-dose ethanol.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D W; Steenaart, N A; Slack, C J; Brien, J F

    1986-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde, were determined in the third-trimester pregnant guinea pig (56-59 days gestation) for oral intubation of four doses of 1 g ethanol/kg maternal body weight, administered at 1-h intervals. Animals (n = 4-7) were sacrificed at each of selected times during the 26-h study. Ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations were determined by headspace gas-liquid chromatography. The maternal and fetal blood ethanol concentration-time curves were virtually superimposable, which indicated unimpeded bidirectional placental transfer of ethanol in the maternal-fetal unit. The blood and brain ethanol concentrations were similar in each of the maternal and fetal compartments during the study, which indicated rapid equilibrium distribution of ethanol. There was accumulation of ethanol in the amniotic fluid resulting in higher ethanol concentration compared with maternal and fetal blood during the elimination phase, which indicated that the amniotic fluid may serve as a reservoir for ethanol in utero. Acetaldehyde was measurable in all the biological fluids and tissues at concentrations that were at least 1,000-fold less than the respective ethanol concentrations and were variable. There was ethanol-induced fetolethality that was delayed and variable among animals, and was 55% at 23 h. At this time interval, the ethanol concentrations in maternal blood and brain, fetal brain, and amniotic fluid were 35- to 53-fold greater and the acetaldehyde concentrations in maternal blood and fetal brain were four- to five-fold higher in the animals with dead fetuses compared with the guinea pigs with live litters. These data indicated that decreased ethanol elimination from the maternal-fetal unit was related temporally to the fetolethality.

  18. High Resolution Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Secoiridoids and Metabolites as Biomarkers of Acute Olive Oil Intake-An Approach to Study Interindividual Variability in Humans.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sandra; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Figueira, Maria Eduardo; Combet, Emilie; Mullen, William; Bronze, Maria Rosário

    2018-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are minor components of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Secoiridoids are the major components contributing to the phenolic content of EVOO. Information is lacking regarding their potential as biomarkers for EVOO intake. Healthy volunteers (n = 9) ingested 50 mL of EVOO in a single dose containing 322 mg kg -1 total phenolic content (caffeic acid equivalents) and 6 mg 20 g -1 hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives. Plasma is collected before (0 h) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after ingestion. Urine samples are collected prior to ingestion (0 h) and at 0-4, 4-8, 8-15, and 15-24 h. Samples are analyzed by UPLC coupled with an Exactive Orbitrap MS. Partial least squares discriminant analysis with orthogonal signal correction is applied to screen for metabolites that allow sample discrimination. Plasma biomarkers and urine biomarkers are selected although individual variability is observed among volunteers. Results are in accordance with in vitro experiments performed (in vitro digestion and hepatic microsomal activity assays). Plasma (elenolic acid + H 2 ; p-HPEA-EA + H 2 + glucuronide) and urinary (3,4-DHPEA-EA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA + H 2 +glucuronide, methyl 3,4-DHPEA-EA + H 2 +glucuronide) secoiridoid compounds are selected as biomarkers to monitor EVOO intake showing good predictive ability according to multivariate analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effects of aripiprazole and the Taq1A polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor gene on the clinical response and plasma monoamine metabolites level during the acute phase of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miura, Itaru; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Katsumi, Akihiko; Mori, Azuma; Kanno, Keiko; Yang, Qiaohui; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Numata, Yoshihiko; Niwa, Shin-Ichi

    2012-02-01

    The Taq1A polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene could be related to the response to antipsychotics. We examined the effects of the Taq1A polymorphism on the plasma monoamine metabolites during the treatment of schizophrenia with aripiprazole, a DRD2 partial agonist. Thirty Japanese patients with schizophrenia were treated with aripiprazole for 6 weeks. We measured plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) before and after treatment. The Taq1A polymorphism was genotyped with polymerase chain reaction. Aripiprazole improved the acute symptoms of schizophrenia and decreased pHVA in responders (P = 0.023) but not in nonresponders (P = 0.28). Although A1 allele carriers showed a tendency to respond to aripiprazole (61.5%) compared to A1 allele noncarriers (29.4%) (P = 0.078), there was not statistically significant difference in the response between the 2 genotype groups. There were significant effect for response (P = 0.013) and genotype × response interaction (P = 0.043) on the change of pHVA. The changes of pHVA differ between responders and nonresponders in A1 allele carriers but not in A1 allele noncarriers. There were no genotype or response effects or genotype × response interaction on the changes of the plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4hydroxyphenylglycol. Our preliminary results suggest that Taq1A polymorphism may be partly associated with changes in pHVA during acute schizophrenia.

  20. Relaxation techniques for stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your body. These sensors measure your skin temperature, brain waves, breathing, and muscle activity. You can ... more about any of these techniques through local classes, books, videos, or online. Alternative Names Relaxation response ...

  1. Relaxation training after stroke: potential to reduce anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, Ian; Walker-Samuel, Natalie; Swanston, Jennifer; Otto, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    To consider the feasibility of setting up a relaxation group to treat symptoms of post stroke anxiety in an in-patient post-acute setting; and to explore the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing self-reported tension. A relaxation group protocol was developed in consultation with a multidisciplinary team and a user group. Over a period of 24 months, 55 stroke patients attended group autogenic relaxation training on a rehabilitation ward. Attendance ranged between one and eleven sessions. Self-reported tension was assessed pre and post relaxation training using the Tension Rating Circles (TRCs). The TRCs identified a significant reduction in self-reported tension from pre to post training, irrespective of the number of sessions attended; z = -3.656, p < 0.001, r = -0.67, for those who attended multiple sessions, z = -2.758, p < 0.01, r = -0.6 for those who attended a single session. The routine use of relaxation techniques in treating anxiety in patients undergoing post-stroke rehabilitation shows potential. Self-reported tension decreased after attendance at relaxation training. The TRCs proved acceptable to group members, but should be validated against standard anxiety measures. Further exploration of the application of relaxation techniques in clinical practice is desirable. Implications for Rehabilitation Anxiety is prevalent after stroke and likely affects rehabilitation outcomes. Relaxation training is a well proven treatment for anxiety in the non-stroke population. A significant within session reduction in tension, a hallmark symptom of anxiety, was evidenced via group relaxation training delivered in a post-acute, in-patient stroke unit setting. Relaxation training a shows promise as a treatment for anxiety after stroke.

  2. Development and validation of LC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous determination of methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine and its active metabolite 6-thioguanine in plasma of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Correlation with genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Hassan, Said A; Abdelaziz, Doaa H; Elhosseiny, Noha M; Sabry, Nirmeen A; Attia, Ahmed S; El-Sayed, Manal H

    2016-12-01

    Individualized therapy is a recent approach aiming to specify dosage regimen for each patient according to its genetic state. Cancer chemotherapy requires continuous monitoring of the plasma concentration levels of active forms of cytotoxic drugs and subsequent dose adjustment. In order to attain optimum therapeutic efficacy, correlation to pharmacogenetics data is crucial. In this study, a specific, accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of methotrexate (MTX), 6-mercaptopurine (MP) and its metabolite 6-thioguanine nucleotide (TG) in human plasma. Based on the basic character of the studied compounds, solid phase extraction using a strong cation exchanger was found the optimum approach to achieve good extraction recovery. Chromatographic separation was carried out using RP-HPLC and isocratic elution by acetonitrile: 0.1% aqueous formic acid (85:15v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8mL/min at 40°C. The detection was performed by tandem mass spectrometry in MRM mode via electrospray ionization source in positive ionization mode. Analysis was carried out within 1.0min over a concentration range of 6.25-200.00ng/mL for the studied analytes. Validation was carried out according to FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation and satisfactory results were obtained. The applicability of the assay for the monitoring of the MTX, MP and TG and subsequent application to personalized therapy was demonstrated in a clinical study on children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Results confirmed the need for implementation of reliable analysis tools for therapeutic dose adjustment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  4. Fast relaxations in foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishan, Kapilanjan; Helal, Ahmed; Höhler, Reinhard; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie

    2010-07-01

    Aqueous foams present an anomalous macroscopic viscoelastic response at high frequency, previously shown to arise from collective relaxations in the disordered bubble packing. We demonstrate experimentally how these mesoscopic dynamics are in turn tuned by physico-chemical processes on the scale of the gas-liquid interfaces. Two specific local dissipation processes are identified, and we show how the rigidity of the interfaces selects the dominant one, depending on the choice of the surfactant.

  5. Relaxation from particle production

    DOE PAGES

    Hook, Anson; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo

    2016-12-20

    Here, we consider using particle production as a friction force by which to implement a “Relaxion” solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. Using this approach, we are able to avoid superplanckian field excursions and avoid any conflict with the strong CP problem. The relaxation mechanism can work before, during or after inflation allowing for inflationary dynamics to play an important role or to be completely decoupled.

  6. A Comparison of Relaxation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    Some researchers argue that all relaxation techniques produce a single relaxation response while others support a specific-effects hypothesis which suggests that progressive relaxation affects the musculoskeletal system and that guided imagery affects cognitive changes. Autogenics is considered a technique which is both somatic and cognitive. This…

  7. The development of ultrashort acting neuromuscular relaxant tropane derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gyermek, Laszlo; Lee, Chingmuh

    2009-03-01

    There is a need for neuromuscular relaxant (NMR) agents that are of the "nondepolarizing type" and produce rapidly developing and short-lasting skeletal muscle relaxation in anesthesiology. Many efforts have been directed to produce such agents. Our research focused on the design, synthesis, and evaluation of numerous "bisquaternary" derivatives of the cyclic aminoalkanes: tropane and granatane. Through systematic "steric structure-activity relationship" studies, we arrived at some new bisquaternary tropine and granatanol diesters, which in laboratory studies appeared to be the fastest and shortest acting NMRs recognized so far. Their ultrashort duration action-mechanism was, however, linked to the formation of nephrotoxic metabolites, precluding further development. Even so, we believe that the scientific information gained from more than a thousand such agents, will be useful toward developing the "ideal," ultrashort-acting NMR that could be clinically successful without the use of "reversing" agents, at least until "new biotechnology" may solve all problematic aspects of "transient" muscle relaxation.

  8. RELAX: detecting relaxed selection in a phylogenetic framework.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Joel O; Murrell, Ben; Smith, Martin D; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Scheffler, Konrad

    2015-03-01

    Relaxation of selective strength, manifested as a reduction in the efficiency or intensity of natural selection, can drive evolutionary innovation and presage lineage extinction or loss of function. Mechanisms through which selection can be relaxed range from the removal of an existing selective constraint to a reduction in effective population size. Standard methods for estimating the strength and extent of purifying or positive selection from molecular sequence data are not suitable for detecting relaxed selection, because they lack power and can mistake an increase in the intensity of positive selection for relaxation of both purifying and positive selection. Here, we present a general hypothesis testing framework (RELAX) for detecting relaxed selection in a codon-based phylogenetic framework. Given two subsets of branches in a phylogeny, RELAX can determine whether selective strength was relaxed or intensified in one of these subsets relative to the other. We establish the validity of our test via simulations and show that it can distinguish between increased positive selection and a relaxation of selective strength. We also demonstrate the power of RELAX in a variety of biological scenarios where relaxation of selection has been hypothesized or demonstrated previously. We find that obligate and facultative γ-proteobacteria endosymbionts of insects are under relaxed selection compared with their free-living relatives and obligate endosymbionts are under relaxed selection compared with facultative endosymbionts. Selective strength is also relaxed in asexual Daphnia pulex lineages, compared with sexual lineages. Endogenous, nonfunctional, bornavirus-like elements are found to be under relaxed selection compared with exogenous Borna viruses. Finally, selection on the short-wavelength sensitive, SWS1, opsin genes in echolocating and nonecholocating bats is relaxed only in lineages in which this gene underwent pseudogenization; however, selection on the functional

  9. Differentiable McCormick relaxations

    DOE PAGES

    Khan, Kamil A.; Watson, Harry A. J.; Barton, Paul I.

    2016-05-27

    McCormick's classical relaxation technique constructs closed-form convex and concave relaxations of compositions of simple intrinsic functions. These relaxations have several properties which make them useful for lower bounding problems in global optimization: they can be evaluated automatically, accurately, and computationally inexpensively, and they converge rapidly to the relaxed function as the underlying domain is reduced in size. They may also be adapted to yield relaxations of certain implicit functions and differential equation solutions. However, McCormick's relaxations may be nonsmooth, and this nonsmoothness can create theoretical and computational obstacles when relaxations are to be deployed. This article presents a continuously differentiablemore » variant of McCormick's original relaxations in the multivariate McCormick framework of Tsoukalas and Mitsos. Gradients of the new differentiable relaxations may be computed efficiently using the standard forward or reverse modes of automatic differentiation. Furthermore, extensions to differentiable relaxations of implicit functions and solutions of parametric ordinary differential equations are discussed. A C++ implementation based on the library MC++ is described and applied to a case study in nonsmooth nonconvex optimization.« less

  10. Dynamics of relaxed inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangarife, Walter; Tobioka, Kohsaku; Ubaldi, Lorenzo; Volansky, Tomer

    2018-02-01

    The cosmological relaxation of the electroweak scale has been proposed as a mechanism to address the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model. A field, the relaxion, rolls down its potential and, in doing so, scans the squared mass parameter of the Higgs, relaxing it to a parametrically small value. In this work, we promote the relaxion to an inflaton. We couple it to Abelian gauge bosons, thereby introducing the necessary dissipation mechanism which slows down the field in the last stages. We describe a novel reheating mechanism, which relies on the gauge-boson production leading to strong electro-magnetic fields, and proceeds via the vacuum production of electron-positron pairs through the Schwinger effect. We refer to this mechanism as Schwinger reheating. We discuss the cosmological dynamics of the model and the phenomenological constraints from CMB and other experiments. We find that a cutoff close to the Planck scale may be achieved. In its minimal form, the model does not generate sufficient curvature perturbations and additional ingredients, such as a curvaton field, are needed.

  11. Enhanced metabolite generation

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambaram, Devicharan

    The present invention relates to the enhanced production of metabolites by a process whereby a carbon source is oxidized with a fermentative microbe in a compartment having a portal. An electron acceptor is added to the compartment to assist the microbe in the removal of excess electrons. The electron acceptor accepts electrons from the microbe after oxidation of the carbon source. Other transfers of electrons can take place to enhance the production of the metabolite, such as acids, biofuels or brewed beverages.

  12. Anomalous relaxation in fractal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, S.; Yonezawa, F.

    1995-03-01

    For the purpose of studying some interesting properties of anomalous relaxation in fractal structures, we carry out Monte Carlo simulations of random walks on two-dimensional fractal structures (Sierpinski carpets with different cutouts and site-percolation clusters in a square lattice at the critical concentration). We find that the relaxation is of the Cole-Cole type [J. Chem. Phys. 9, 341 (1941)], which is one of the empirical laws of anomalous relaxation. Scaling properties are found in the relaxation function as well as in the particle density. We also find that, in strucures with almost the same fractal dimension, relaxation in structures withmore » dead ends is slower than that in structures without them. This paper ascertains that the essential aspects of the anomalous relaxation due to many-body effects can be explained in the framework of the one-body model.« less

  13. NOTE: The effects of paramagnetic contrast agents on metabolite protons in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Philip S.; Leach, Martin O.; Rowland, Ian J.

    2002-03-01

    The longitudinal (R1) and transverse (R2) relaxivities of the clinically used contrast agents Gd(DTPA)2-, Gd(DOTA)- and Gd(DTPA-BMA) have been determined in mixed aqueous metabolite solutions for choline, creatine and N-acetylaspartate. Measurements were performed at 1.5 T using a STEAM sequence on 25 mM metabolite solutions at pH = 7.4 and 22 °C. The data showed that for all the contrast agents and metabolites, R1 ~ R2. The largest range of relaxivity values was found for Gd(DTPA)2-, where R2 = 6.8 +/- 0.3 mM-1 s-1 for choline and 1.5 +/- 0.4 mM-1 s-1 for N-acetylaspartate. Variation in relaxivity values was attributed primarily to differences between the charges of the paramagnetic agent and metabolite. The maximum potential influence of the contrast agents on in vivo metabolite signals was calculated using the measured relaxivities.

  14. Relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Yang, Cui; Chan, Shun Wan; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Leung, George Pak Heng

    2015-01-01

    The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels. The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5' nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate. Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5' nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may not be related to endothelial dysfunction

  15. Relaxation Effect of Abacavir on Rat Basilar Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Yang, Cui; Chan, Shun Wan; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Leung, George Pak Heng

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels. Methods The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5′ nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate. Results Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5’ nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries. Conclusion Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may

  16. [Indications for relaxation in geriatrics].

    PubMed

    Richard, J; Picot, A; de Bus, P; Andreoli, A; Dalakaki, X

    1975-11-01

    On a three years base experience in the geriatiic department of Geneva's University Psychiatric Clinic the paper studies the problem of selecting aged patients to be treated by relaxation according to the method of J. De Ajuriaguerra et M. Cahen. Observations are presented in an attempt to define three main points: a) the role played by relaxation when there is an objective [corrected] impairment of the body's integrity; b) relaxation effect on aged persons neurotic states evolution; c) the reality of considering dementia as a counter-indication of relaxation therapy. These remarks complete those presented previously about the training of therapists in relaxation, the type of control to be organized for them and their patients, the technical management of the cure, the place of relaxation in the post graduate psychiatric training, the effects of the therapy on the patients human environnement behavior in and out of the hospital, the way body is perceived through relaxation by the aged patients and it's consequences on the adjustment of an aging person.

  17. Secondary metabolites from Ganoderma.

    PubMed

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushrooms. This review deals with secondary metabolites isolated from Ganoderma and their biological significance. Phytochemical studies over the last 40years led to the isolation of 431 secondary metabolites from various Ganoderma species. The major secondary compounds isolated are (a) C30 lanostanes (ganoderic acids), (b) C30 lanostanes (aldehydes, alcohols, esters, glycosides, lactones, ketones), (c) C27 lanostanes (lucidenic acids), (d) C27 lanostanes (alcohols, lactones, esters), (e) C24, C25 lanostanes (f) C30 pentacyclic triterpenes, (g) meroterpenoids, (h) farnesyl hydroquinones (meroterpenoids), (i) C15 sesquiterpenoids, (j) steroids, (k) alkaloids, (l) prenyl hydroquinone (m) benzofurans, (n) benzopyran-4-one derivatives and (o) benzenoid derivatives. Ganoderma lucidum is the species extensively studied for its secondary metabolites and biological activities. Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma colossum, Ganoderma sinense, Ganoderma cochlear, Ganoderma tsugae, Ganoderma amboinense, Ganoderma orbiforme, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma hainanense, Ganoderma concinna, Ganoderma pfeifferi, Ganoderma neo-japonicum, Ganoderma tropicum, Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Ganoderma fornicatum, Ganoderma lipsiense (synonym G. applanatum), Ganoderma mastoporum, Ganoderma theaecolum, Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma capense and Ganoderma annulare are the other Ganoderma species subjected to phytochemical studies. Further phytochemical studies on Ganoderma could lead to the discovery of hitherto unknown biologically active secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodukhin, S. N.

    2005-03-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  19. Quasiparticle relaxation in superconducting nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savich, Yahor; Glazman, Leonid; Kamenev, Alex

    2017-09-01

    We examine energy relaxation of nonequilibrium quasiparticles in "dirty" superconductors with the electron mean free path much shorter than the superconducting coherence length. Relaxation of low-energy nonequilibrium quasiparticles is dominated by phonon emission. We derive the corresponding collision integral and find the quasiparticle relaxation rate. The latter is sensitive to the breaking of time reversal symmetry (TRS) by a magnetic field (or magnetic impurities). As a concrete application of the developed theory, we address quasiparticle trapping by a vortex and a current-biased constriction. We show that trapping of hot quasiparticles may predominantly occur at distances from the vortex core, or the constriction, significantly exceeding the superconducting coherence length.

  20. Metabolomics for secondary metabolite research.

    PubMed

    Breitling, Rainer; Ceniceros, Ana; Jankevics, Andris; Takano, Eriko

    2013-11-11

    Metabolomics, the global characterization of metabolite profiles, is becoming an increasingly powerful tool for research on secondary metabolite discovery and production. In this review we discuss examples of recent technological advances and biological applications of metabolomics in the search for chemical novelty and the engineered production of bioactive secondary metabolites.

  1. Relaxation Dynamics in Heme Proteins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Reinhard Wilhelm

    A protein molecule possesses many conformational substates that are likely arranged in a hierarchy consisting of a number of tiers. A hierarchical organization of conformational substates is expected to give rise to a multitude of nonequilibrium relaxation phenomena. If the temperature is lowered, transitions between substates of higher tiers are frozen out, and relaxation processes characteristic of lower tiers will dominate the observational time scale. This thesis addresses the following questions: (i) What is the energy landscape of a protein? How does the landscape depend on the environment such as pH and viscosity, and how can it be connected to specific structural parts? (ii) What relaxation phenomena can be observed in a protein? Which are protein specific, and which occur in other proteins? How does the environment influence relaxations? (iii) What functional form best describes relaxation functions? (iv) Can we connect the motions to specific structural parts of the protein molecule, and are these motions important for the function of the protein?. To this purpose, relaxation processes after a pressure change are studied in carbonmonoxy (CO) heme proteins (myoglobin-CO, substrate-bound and substrate-free cytochrome P450cam-CO, chloroperoxidase-CO, horseradish peroxidase -CO) between 150 K and 250 K using FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the CO bound to the heme iron. Two types of p -relaxation experiments are performed: p-release (200 to ~eq40 MPa) and p-jump (~eq40 to 200 MPa) experiments. Most of the relaxations fall into one of three groups and are characterized by (i) nonexponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM1( nu), FIM1(Gamma)); (ii) exponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM0(A_{i}to A_{j})); exponential time dependence and Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIMX( nu)). The influence of pH is studied in myoglobin-CO and shown to have a strong influence on the substate population of the

  2. Comparison of relaxation with counterpressure massage techniques for reduce pain first stage of labor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisa, U. F.; Jalina, M.; Marniati

    2017-09-01

    Based on interviews of so me mother who entered the first stage of labor lack of care from health workers to the effort to reducing the acuteof labor. Health care workers appertain hospital in effective in implement maternity nursing interventions in reducing acute the first stage of labor. The reducing acute have two method are pharmacological and non-pharmacological. In this case, has several techniques there are: relaxation and counterpressure massage techniques that capable to reducing acute first stage of labor. The of non-pharmacological is one of authority which must be implemented by midwives especially breathing relaxation techniquesand massage. The research is Quasi Exsperimen with pretes-posttest design. The statistic test has T test paired and unpairedt test. To indicatea reducing the level of acute before and after given relaxation technique result p-value <0.001 with value mean after being given the treatment as much as 44.00 and the ranges of value 10-90, a reducing the level of acute before and after the counter pressure massage techniques p-value <0.001 with value mean after being given the treatment as much as 42.67 and the ranges of value 10-90. It is no significant difference between the relaxation and counter pressure massage techniques in reducing acute in the first stage of labor, because both techniques are highly effective use in reducing acute of labor the result p-value is 0.891. The relaxation and counter pressure massage techniques useful in provide an affection of mother care because both techniques are very effective work in reducing acute to focus on the point of pain. Therefore, the health of workers, especially for a study to apply relaxation and massage to provide of mother care, mainly to the primigravida who in experienced in process of labor.

  3. How does a clinical trial fit into the real world? The RELAX-AHF study population into the EAHFE registry.

    PubMed

    Miró, Òscar; Gil, Víctor; Müller, Christian; Mebazaa, Alexander; Bueno, Héctor; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Herrero, Pablo; Jacob, Javier; Llorens, Pere

    2015-10-01

    To test how accurate the recently published RELAX-AHF trial was in recruiting real-world patients with acute-decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We compared clinical and outcome data of patients receiving serelaxin in the RELAX-AHF trial (RELAX group, n = 581) with patients included in the EAHFE registry [5497 ADHF from 29 Spanish emergency departments (EDs)]. The EAHFE registry was split into two groups: EAHFE-non-RELAX (patients not fulfilling the RELAX-AHF inclusion criteria; n = 3205, 58.3 %) and EAHFE-RELAX A (patients fulfilling RELAX-AHF inclusion criteria; n = 2292, 41.7 %). The latter group was further refined by also applying exclusion criteria (EAHFE-RELAX B; n = 964, 17.4 %). Both EAHFE-RELAX groups differed from the EAHFE-non-RELAX group in multiple aspects, with the lower the proportion of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillator and with pulmonary diseases the greater the differences found. The RELAX group, compared with the EAHFE-RELAX groups, significantly included fewer females, younger patients, less in NYHA class I/II, less with implantable cardiac defibrillator and on beta-blocker treatment, and patients had lower systolic blood pressure and cardiac and respiratory rates at ED arrival. The EAHFE-RELAX groups had a significantly lower all-cause mortality than EAHFE-non-RELAX group, and qualitative analysis suggested that EAHFE-RELAX groups had a higher mortality than the RELAX group. Patients included in the RELAX-AHF trial showed unanticipated differences when compared with a population from the EAHFE registry fulfilling very similar inclusion and exclusion criteria.

  4. Benzene: a case study in parent chemical and metabolite interactions.

    PubMed

    Medinsky, M A; Kenyon, E M; Schlosser, P M

    1995-12-28

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol for example) is apparently necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergistic effect of phenol on myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinone to the reactive metabolite benzoquinone. Since benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. In vitro studies of the metabolic oxidation of benzene, phenol and hydroquinone are consistent with the mechanism of competitive interaction among the metabolites. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes such as enzymatic oxidation and deactivation processes such as conjugation and excretion. Phenol, the primary benzene metabolite, can undergo both oxidation and conjugation. Thus, the potential exists for competition among various enzymes for phenol. However, zonal localization of Phase I and Phase II enzymes in various regions of the liver acinus regulates this competition. Biologically-based dosimetry models that incorporate the important determinants of benzene flux, including interactions with other chemicals, will enable prediction of target tissue doses of benzene and metabolites at low exposure concentrations relevant for humans.

  5. [Relaxation techniques for chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Diezemann, A

    2011-08-01

    Relaxation techniques are an integral part of the psychological therapy of chronic pain and follow very different objectives. These techniques lead to muscular and vegetative stabilization, serve as distraction from pain, to build up the internal focus of control and thus to improve self-efficacy. Additional targets are improvement of body awareness and stress management, shielding from sensory stimuli and recurrence prevention of migraine as well a sleeping aid. The most commonly used and best studied method is progressive muscle relaxation which has a good compliance because it is easy to learn and has a high plausibility for patients.

  6. Distributed Relaxation for Conservative Discretizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2001-01-01

    A multigrid method is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work that is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in one target-grid residual evaluation. The way to achieve this efficiency is the distributed relaxation approach. TME solvers employing distributed relaxation have already been demonstrated for nonconservative formulations of high-Reynolds-number viscous incompressible and subsonic compressible flow regimes. The purpose of this paper is to provide foundations for applications of distributed relaxation to conservative discretizations. A direct correspondence between the primitive variable interpolations for calculating fluxes in conservative finite-volume discretizations and stencils of the discretized derivatives in the nonconservative formulation has been established. Based on this correspondence, one can arrive at a conservative discretization which is very efficiently solved with a nonconservative relaxation scheme and this is demonstrated for conservative discretization of the quasi one-dimensional Euler equations. Formulations for both staggered and collocated grid arrangements are considered and extensions of the general procedure to multiple dimensions are discussed.

  7. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Cancer.gov

    Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind; Relieve Stress; best ways to relieve stress; best way to relieve stress; different ways to relieve stress; does smoking relieve stress; does tobacco relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; reduce stress; does smoking reduce stress; how can I reduce stress; how to reduce stress; reduce stress; reduce stress levels; reducing stress; smoking reduce stress; smoking reduces stress; stress reducing techniques; techniques to reduce stress; stress relief; best stress relief; natural stress relief; need stress relief; relief for stress; relief from stress; relief of stress; smoking and stress relief; smoking for stress relief; smoking stress relief; deal with stress; dealing with stress; dealing with anger; dealing with stress; different ways of dealing with stress; help dealing with stress; how to deal with anger; how to deal with stress; how to deal with stress when quitting smoking; stress management; free stress management; how can you manage stress; how do you manage stress; how to manage stress; manage stress; management of stress; management stress; managing stress; strategies for managing stress; coping with stress; cope with stress; copeing with stress; coping and stress; coping skills for stress; coping strategies for stress; coping strategies with stress; coping strategy for stress; coping with stress; coping with stress and anxiety; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; deep relaxation; deep breathing relaxation techniques; deep muscle relaxation; deep relaxation; deep relaxation meditation; deep relaxation technique; deep relaxation techniques; meditation exercises; mindful exercises; mindful meditation exercises; online relaxation exercises; relaxation breathing exercises; relaxation exercise; relaxation exercises; stress relaxation; methods of relaxation for stress; relax stress; relax techniques stress

  8. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T

    2015-03-01

    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results implymore » that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.« less

  9. Effects of progressive relaxation and classical music on measurements of attention, relaxation, and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, P M

    2000-04-01

    The present experiment examined relaxation using different experimental conditions to test whether the effects of individual elements of relaxation could be measured, whether specific effects were revealed, or whether relaxation resulted from a generalized "relaxation response." Sixty-seven normal, male volunteers were exposed to a stress manipulation and then to one of two relaxation (Progressive Relaxation, Music) or control (Attention Control, Silence) conditions. Measurements of attention, relaxation, and stress responses were obtained during each phase of the experiment. All four groups exhibited similar performance on behavioral measures of attention that suggested a reduction in physiological arousal following their relaxation or control condition, as well as a decreased heart rate. Progressive Relaxation, however, resulted in the greatest effects on behavioral and self-report measures of relaxation, suggesting that cognitive cues provided by stress management techniques contribute to relaxation.

  10. The active metabolite of prasugrel, R-138727, improves cerebral blood flow and reduces cerebral infarction and neurologic deficits in a non-human primate model of acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Sugidachi, Atsuhiro; Mizuno, Makoto; Ohno, Kousaku; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Tomizawa, Atsuyuki

    2016-10-05

    Previously, we showed preventive effects of prasugrel, a P2Y12 antagonist, in a non-human primate model of thrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); however, it remains unclear if P2Y12 inhibition after MCAO reduces cerebral injury and dysfunction. Here we investigated the effects of R-138727, the major active metabolite of prasugrel, on ex vivo platelet aggregation at 5min, 15min, 60min, and 24h after administration to non-human primates (n=3). A single intravenous dose of R-138727 (0.03-0.3mg/kg) resulted in significant and sustained dose-related effects on platelets for up to 24h. R-138727 was administered 1h after MCAO induction, and its effects on thrombosis, cerebral infarction, and neurological deficits were determined (n=8-10). R-138727 (0.3mg/kg) significantly increased total patency rate of the MCA (P=0.0211). Although there was no effect on the patency rate before R-138727 dosing (P=0.3975), it increased 1h after dosing (P=0.0114). R-138727 significantly reduced total ischaemic infarction volumes (P=0.0147), including those of basal ganglia (P=0.0028), white matter (P=0.0393), and haemorrhagic infarction (P=0.0235). Additionally, treatment with R-138727 reduced overall neurological deficits (P=0.0019), including the subcategories of consciousness (P=0.0042), sensory system (P=0.0045), motor system (P=0.0079) and musculoskeletal coordination (P=0.0082). These findings support the possible utility of P2Y12 inhibition during early-onset MCAO to limit the progression and degree of cerebral ischaemia and infarction and also associated neurological deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relaxation and Distraction in Experimental Desensitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)

  12. Relaxation as a Factor in Semantic Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, James E.; McNamara, J. Regis

    1975-01-01

    Relaxation and semantic desensitization were used to alleviate the fear of phobic females. Results showed that semantic desensitization, alone or in combination with relaxation, failed to modify the evaluative meanings evoked by the feared object. (SE)

  13. Models of violently relaxed galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David; Tremaine, Scott; Johnstone, Doug

    1989-02-01

    The properties of spherical self-gravitating models derived from two distribution functions that incorporate, in a crude way, the physics of violent relaxation are investigated. The first distribution function is identical to the one discussed by Stiavelli and Bertin (1985) except for a change in the sign of the 'temperature', i.e., e exp(-aE) to e exp(+aE). It is shown that these 'negative temperature' models provide a much better description of the end-state of violent relaxation than 'positive temperature' models. The second distribution function is similar to the first except for a different dependence on angular momentum. Both distribution functions yield single-parameter families of models with surface density profiles very similar to the R exp 1/4 law. Furthermore, the central concentration of models in both families increases monotonically with the velocity anisotropy, as expected in systems that formed through cold collapse.

  14. Relaxation dynamics of C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Tiffany R.; Wales, David J.

    1998-10-01

    The relaxation dynamics of C60 from high-energy isomers to Buckminsterfullerene is examined using a master equation approach. An exhaustive catalog of the C60 fullerene isomers containing only five- and six-membered rings is combined with knowledge of the Stone-Wales rearrangements that connect all such isomers. Full geometry optimizations have been performed for all the minima and the transition states which connect them up to six Stone-Wales steps away from the global minimum. A density-functional tight-binding potential was employed to provide a quantum mechanical description of the bonding. The resulting picture of the potential energy landscape reveals a "weeping willow" structure which offers a clear explanation for the relatively long relaxation times observed experimentally. We also predict the most important transient local minima on the annealing pathway.

  15. Nonlinear Relaxation in Population Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirone, Markus A.; de Pasquale, Ferdinando; Spagnolo, Bernardo

    We analyze the nonlinear relaxation of a complex ecosystem composed of many interacting species. The ecological system is described by generalized Lotka-Volterra equations with a multiplicative noise. The transient dynamics is studied in the framework of the mean field theory and with random interaction between the species. We focus on the statistical properties of the asymptotic behaviour of the time integral of the ith population and on the distribution of the population and of the local field.

  16. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  17. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  19. Absolute Quantitation of Water and Metabolites in the Human Brain. II. Metabolite Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, R.; Ernst, T.; Ross, B. D.

    A method for determining absolute metabolite concentrations with in vivo1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy is presented. Using the compartmentation model introduced in the preceding paper of this series ( J. Magn. Reson. B102, 1, 1993), it is possible to express NMR results in terms of most commonly used concentration units. The proposed scheme, involving the measurement of an external standard as well as of the localized water signal, is verified on cerebral spectra obtained from 22 subjects. Besides concentrations, longitudinal and transverse relaxation times are determined for parietal white and occipital gray matter. The determination of these quantities crucially depends on the analysis of the T2 signal decay as a function of echo time. The in vivo concentrations of the four metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine plus phosphocreatine, choline, and myo-inositol are in good agreement with biochemical determinations performed in vitro. Two clinical examples emphasize the relevance of absolute quantitation in the investigation of human neuropathology and normal development.

  20. Relaxation-Induced Anxiety: Paradoxical Anxiety Enhancement Due to Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heide, Frederick J.; Borkovec, T. D.

    1983-01-01

    Documented relaxation-induced anxiety in 14 subjects suffering from tension who were given training in progressive relaxation and mantra meditation. Four of the subjects displayed clinical evidence of an anxiety reaction during a preliminary practice period. Progressive relaxation produced less evidence of relaxation-induced anxiety. (Author/JAC)

  1. Relation between Direct Observation of Relaxation and Self-Reported Mindfulness and Relaxation States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Lacey S.; Lundervold, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Forty-four individuals, 18-47 (MN 21.8, SD 5.63) years of age, took part in a study examining the magnitude and direction of the relationship between self-report and direct observation measures of relaxation and mindfulness. The Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS), a valid direct observation measure of relaxation, was used to assess relaxed behavior…

  2. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng

    2017-08-01

    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  3. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  4. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    PubMed

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  5. Serum Metabonomics of Mild Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongmin; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Huan; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Jie; Liu, Shuye

    2016-11-01

    Mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) is a common acute abdominal disease, and exhibits rising incidence in recent decades. As an important component of systemic biology, metabonomics is a new discipline developed following genomics and proteomics. In this study, the objective was to analyze the serum metabonomics of patients with MAP, aiming to screen metabolic markers with potential diagnostic values. An analysis platform with ultra performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to screen the difference metabolites related to MAP diagnosis and disease course monitoring. A total of 432 endogenous metabolites were screened out from 122 serum samples, and 49 difference metabolites were verified, among which 12 difference metabolites were identified by nonparametric test. After material identification, eight metabolites exhibited reliable results, and their levels in MAP serum were higher than those in healthy serum. Four metabolites exhibited gradual downward trend with treatment process going on, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Metabonomic analysis has revealed eight metabolites with potential diagnostic values toward MAP, among which four metabolites can be used to monitor the disease course. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Relaxation Training and Opioid Inhibition of Blood Pressure Response to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbin, James A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Sought to determine the role of endogenous opioid mechanisms in the circulatory effects of relaxation training. Subjects were 32 young men with mildly elevated casual arterial pressure. Assessed opioid mechanisms by examining the effects of opioid receptor blockade with naltrexone on acute cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stress before and…

  7. Longitudinal Relaxation of Ferromagnetic Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würger, Alois

    1998-07-01

    We study the activated longitudinal dynamics of a small single-domain magnet with uniaxial anisotropy, coupled to quantum noise. The smallest finite eigenvalue λ1 = γ0e-EB/kBT of the relaxation matrix is evaluated in a controlled approximation. For white noise we find γ0~T-1 at moderate temperatures and γ0 = const at very low T. Coupling to elastic waves leads to a prefactor that is linear in T or constant, depending on temperature. At very low T, the discreteness of the energy spectrum is crucial.

  8. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kelecom, Alphonse

    2002-03-01

    After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  9. [Autocontrol of muscle relaxation with vecuronium].

    PubMed

    Sibilla, C; Zatelli, R; Marchi, M; Zago, M

    1990-01-01

    The optimal conditions for maintaining desired levels of muscle relaxation with vecuronium are obtained by means of the continuous infusion (I.V.) technique. A frequent correction of the infusion flow is required, since it is impossible to predict the exact amount for the muscle relaxant in single case. In order to overcome such limits the authors propose a very feasible infusion system for the self-control of muscle relaxation; furthermore they positively consider its possible daily clinical application.

  10. Hypotensive effect of agmatine, arginine metabolite, is affected by NO synthase.

    PubMed

    Gerová, M; Török, J

    2004-01-01

    The metabolites of arginine were recently shown to be involved in cardiovascular control. The study addresses the general cardiovascular response of anaesthetized rats to agmatine, a decarboxylated arginine. The relation between two arginine metabolic pathways governed by arginine decarboxylase and nitric oxide synthase was investigated. Intravenous administration of agmatine 30 and 60 microM/0.1 ml saline elicited remarkable hypotension of 42.6+/-4.6 and 70.9+/-6.5 mm Hg, respectively. The hypotension was characterized by long duration with half-time of return 171.6+/-2.9 and 229.2+/-3.8 s, respectively. The time of total blood pressure BP recovery was about 10 min. Dose-dependent relaxation to agmatine was also found in aorta rings in vitro. Both doses of agmatine administered 60-180 min after NO synthase inhibition L-NAME 40 mg/kg i.v. caused greater hypotension 59.0+/-7.6 and 95.8 8.8 mm Hg P<0.01 both compared to animals with intact NO synthase, but this was accompanied by a significant shortening of the half-time of BP return. If agmatine was administered to hypertensive NO-deficient rats treated with 40 mg/kg/day L-NAME for 4 weeks, similar significant enhancement of hypotension was observed at both agmatine doses, again with a significant shortening of half-time of BP return. It can be summarized that the long-lasting hypotension elicited by agmatine was amplified after acute or chronic NO synthase inhibition, indicating a feedback relation between the two metabolic pathways of arginine.

  11. Lavender fragrance cleansing gel effects on relaxation.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Cisneros, Wendy; Feijo, Larissa; Vera, Yanexy; Gil, Karla; Grina, Diana; Claire He, Qing

    2005-02-01

    Alertness, mood, and math computations were assessed in 11 healthy adults who sniffed a cosmetic cleansing gel with lavender floral blend aroma, developed to be relaxing using Mood Mapping. EEG patterns and heart rate were also recorded before, during, and after the aroma session. The lavender fragrance blend had a significant transient effect of improving mood, making people feel more relaxed, and performing the math computation faster. The self-report and physiological data are consistent with relaxation profiles during other sensory stimuli such as massage and music, as reported in the literature. The data suggest that a specific cosmetic fragrance can have a significant role in enhancing relaxation.

  12. Pair plasma relaxation time scales.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2010-04-01

    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  13. Spectral analysis of the central nervous system effects of the relaxation response elicited by autogenic training.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G D; Lubar, J F

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the relaxation response, elicited by autogenic training, on central nervous system (CNS) activity. We used computerized spectral analysis of EEG activity as a dependent measure. After baseline EEG data were obtained for all subjects, the experimental group practiced standard autogenic exercises for 15 experimental sessions with home practice. The control subjects received the same number of sessions under identical conditions, except that they listened to a pleasant radio show without home practice. Subjects were then posttested to assess the acute and chronic effects of autogenic training and the relaxation response on CNS activity. The results indicated significant acute effects differences between groups; the experimental group showed greater increases in theta and greater decreases in alpha percent total power. The results suggest that the relaxation response elicited by autogenic training produces significant acute changes in EEG activity and a characteristic spectral pattern; the results also suggest that focusing attention on a repetitive, internal stimulus is a key element in Benson's relaxation response model.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    PubMed

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  15. Natural products: Hunting microbial metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Eric W.

    2015-05-01

    Symbiotic bacteria synthesize many specialized small molecules; however, establishing the role these chemicals play in human health and disease has been difficult. Now, the chemical structure and mechanism of the Escherichia coli product colibactin provides insight into the link between this secondary metabolite and colorectal cancer.

  16. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...

  17. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    My program examines the plant secondary metabolites (i.e. phenolics) important for human health, and which impart the organoleptic properties that are quality indicators for fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions; a...

  18. Automated analysis of oxidative metabolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furner, R. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An automated system for the study of drug metabolism is described. The system monitors the oxidative metabolites of aromatic amines and of compounds which produce formaldehyde on oxidative dealkylation. It includes color developing compositions suitable for detecting hyroxylated aromatic amines and formaldehyde.

  19. Structural relaxation in supercooled orthoterphenyl.

    PubMed

    Chong, S-H; Sciortino, F

    2004-05-01

    We report molecular-dynamics simulation results performed for a model of molecular liquid orthoterphenyl in supercooled states, which we then compare with both experimental data and mode-coupling-theory (MCT) predictions, aiming at a better understanding of structural relaxation in orthoterphenyl. We pay special attention to the wave number dependence of the collective dynamics. It is shown that the simulation results for the model share many features with experimental data for real system, and that MCT captures the simulation results at the semiquantitative level except for intermediate wave numbers connected to the overall size of the molecule. Theoretical results at the intermediate wave number region are found to be improved by taking into account the spatial correlation of the molecule's geometrical center. This supports the idea that unusual dynamical properties at the intermediate wave numbers, reported previously in simulation studies for the model and discernible in coherent neutron-scattering experimental data, are basically due to the coupling of the rotational motion to the geometrical-center dynamics. However, there still remain qualitative as well as quantitative discrepancies between theoretical prediction and corresponding simulation results at the intermediate wave numbers, which call for further theoretical investigation.

  20. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players' mood states.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.

  1. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Relaxation on Young Soccer Players’ Mood States

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. Methods Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusion These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players’ mood states. PMID:22375225

  2. Relaxation processes in disaccharide sugar glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yoon-Hwae; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Seo, Jeong-Ah; Shin, Dong-Myeong; Ha, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyung-Kook

    2013-02-01

    We represented relaxation processes of disaccharide sugars (anhydrous trehalose and maltose) in supercooled and glassy states by using several spectroscopy techniques which include a broadband dielectric loss spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (Retvield analysis) methods which are powerful tools to measure the dynamics in glass forming materials. In a dielectric loss spectroscopy study, we found that anhydrous trehalose and maltose glasses have an extra relaxation process besides α-, JG β- and γ-relaxations which could be related to a unique property of glycoside bond in disaccharides. In photon correlation spectroscopy study, we found an interesting compressed exponential relaxation at temperatures above 140°C. The q-1 dependence of its relaxation time corresponds to an ultraslow ballistic motion due to the local structure rearrangements. In the same temperature range, we found the glycosidic bond structure changes in trehalose molecule from the Raman and the Retvield X-ray diffraction measurements indicating that the observed compressed exponential relaxation in supercooled liquid trehalose could be resulted in the glycosidic bond structure change. Therefore, the overall results from this study might support the fact that the superior bioprotection ability of disaccharide sugar glasses might originate from this unique relaxation process of glycosidic bond.

  3. Slow relaxation in weakly open rational polygons.

    PubMed

    Kokshenev, Valery B; Vicentini, Eduardo

    2003-07-01

    The interplay between the regular (piecewise-linear) and irregular (vertex-angle) boundary effects in nonintegrable rational polygonal billiards (of m equal sides) is discussed. Decay dynamics in polygons (of perimeter P(m) and small opening Delta) is analyzed through the late-time survival probability S(m) approximately equal t(-delta). Two distinct slow relaxation channels are established. The primary universal channel exhibits relaxation of regular sliding orbits, with delta=1. The secondary channel is given by delta>1 and becomes open when m>P(m)/Delta. It originates from vertex order-disorder dual effects and is due to relaxation of chaoticlike excitations.

  4. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  5. The mechanism of gentisic acid-induced relaxation of the guinea pig isolated trachea: the role of potassium channels and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, J F; Campestrini, F D; Calixto, J B; Scremin, A; Paulino, N

    2001-03-01

    We examined some of the mechanisms by which the aspirin metabolite and the naturally occurring metabolite gentisic acid induced relaxation of the guinea pig trachea in vitro. In preparations with or without epithelium and contracted by histamine, gentisic acid caused concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation, with mean EC(50) values of 18 microM and E(max) of 100% (N = 10) or 20 microM and E(max) of 92% (N = 10), respectively. The relaxation caused by gentisic acid was of slow onset in comparison to that caused by norepinephrine, theophylline or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The relative rank order of potency was: salbutamol 7.9 > VIP 7.0 > gentisic acid 4.7 > theophylline 3.7. Gentisic acid-induced relaxation was markedly reduced (24 +/- 7.0, 43 +/- 3.9 and 78 +/- 5.6%) in preparations with elevated potassium concentration in the medium (20, 40 or 80 mM, respectively). Tetraethylammonium (100 microM), a nonselective blocker of the potassium channels, partially inhibited the relaxation response to gentisic acid, while 4-AP (10 microM), a blocker of the voltage potassium channel, inhibited gentisic acid-induced relaxation by 41 +/- 12%. Glibenclamide (1 or 3 microM), at a concentration which markedly inhibited the relaxation induced by the opener of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, levcromakalim, had no effect on the relaxation induced by gentisic acid. Charybdotoxin (0.1 or 0.3 microM), a selective blocker of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, caused rightward shifts (6- and 7-fold) of the gentisic acid concentration-relaxation curve. L-N(G)-nitroarginine (100 microM), a NO synthase inhibitor, had no effect on the relaxant effect of gentisic acid, and caused a slight displacement to the right in the relaxant effect of the gentisic acid curve at 300 microM, while methylene blue (10 or 30 microM) or ODQ (1 microM), the inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, all failed to affect gentisic acid-induced relaxation. D-(P)-Cl-Phe(6),Leu(17

  6. Secondary Metabolites from Polar Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Li, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Feng-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Polar organisms have been found to develop unique defences against the extreme environment environment, leading to the biosynthesis of novel molecules with diverse bioactivities. This review covers the 219 novel natural products described since 2001, from the Arctic and the Antarctic microoganisms, lichen, moss and marine faunas. The structures of the new compounds and details of the source organism, along with any relevant biological activities are presented. Where reported, synthetic and biosynthetic studies on the polar metabolites have also been included. PMID:28241505

  7. Relaxation dynamics of a multihierarchical polymer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurjiu, Aurel; Biter, Teodor Lucian; Turcu, Flaviu

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study the relaxation dynamics of a multihierarchical polymer network built by replicating the Vicsek fractal in dendrimer shape. The relaxation dynamics is investigated in the framework of the generalized Gaussian structure model by employing both Rouse and Zimm approaches. In the Rouse-type approach, we show the iterative procedure whereby the whole eigenvalue spectrum of the connectivity matrix of the multihierarchical structure can be obtained. Remarkably, the general picture that emerges from both approaches, even though we have a mixed growth algorithm, is that the obtained multihierarchical structure preserves the individual relaxation behaviors of its components. The theoretical findings with respect to the splitting of the intermediate domain of the relaxation quantities are well supported by experimental results.

  8. Metabolites in vertebrate Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Strand, Martin Frank; Krauss, Stefan; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2014-04-11

    The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is critical in embryonic development, stem cell biology, tissue homeostasis, chemoattraction and synapse formation. Irregular HH signaling is associated with a number of disease conditions including congenital disorders and cancer. In particular, deregulation of HH signaling has been linked to skin, brain, lung, colon and pancreatic cancers. Key mediators of the HH signaling pathway are the 12-pass membrane protein Patched (PTC), the 7-pass membrane protein Smoothened (SMO) and the GLI transcription factors. PTC shares homology with the RND family of small-molecule transporters and it has been proposed that it interferes with SMO through metabolites. Although a conclusive picture is lacking, substantial efforts are made to identify and understand natural metabolites/sterols, including cholesterol, vitamin D3, oxysterols and glucocorticoides, that may be affected by, or influence the HH signaling cascade at the level of PTC and SMO. In this review we will elaborate the role of metabolites in HH signaling with a focus on oxysterols, and discuss advancements in modern analytical approaches in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromatographic analysis of tryptophan metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Sadok, Ilona; Gamian, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway generates multiple tryptophan metabolites called collectively kynurenines and leads to formation of the enzyme cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The first step in this pathway is tryptophan degradation, initiated by the rate‐limiting enzymes indoleamine 2,3‐dioxygenase, or tryptophan 2,3‐dioxygenase, depending on the tissue. The balanced kynurenine metabolism, which has been a subject of multiple studies in last decades, plays an important role in several physiological and pathological conditions such as infections, autoimmunity, neurological disorders, cancer, cataracts, as well as pregnancy. Understanding the regulation of tryptophan depletion provide novel diagnostic and treatment opportunities, however it requires reliable methods for quantification of kynurenines in biological samples with complex composition (body fluids, tissues, or cells). Trace concentrations, interference of sample components, and instability of some tryptophan metabolites need to be addressed using analytical methods. The novel separation approaches and optimized extraction protocols help to overcome difficulties in analyzing kynurenines within the complex tissue material. Recent developments in chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry provide new opportunity for quantification of tryptophan and its degradation products in various biological samples. In this review, we present current accomplishments in the chromatographic methodologies proposed for detection of tryptophan metabolites and provide a guide for choosing the optimal approach. PMID:28590049

  10. Rapid wall relaxation in elongating tissues.

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Maruyama, S; Boyer, J S

    1988-04-01

    Reported differences in the relaxation of cell walls in enlarging stem tissues of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) cause measurements of the yield threshold turgor, an important growth parameter, to be in doubt. Using the pressure probe and guillotine psychrometer, we investigated wall relaxation in these species by excising the elongating tissue in air to remove the water supply. We found that the rapid kinetics usually exhibited by soybean could be delayed and made similar to the slow kinetics previously reported for pea if slowly growing or mature tissue was left attached to the rapidly growing tissue when relaxation was initiated. The greater the amount of attached tissue, the slower the relaxation, suggesting that slowly growing tissue acted as a water source. Consistent with this concept was a lower water potential in the rapidly elongating tissue than in the slowly growing tissue. Previous reports of wall relaxation in pea included slowly growing tissue. If this tissue was removed from pea, relaxation became as rapid as usually exhibited by soybean. It is concluded that the true relaxation of cell walls to the yield threshold requires only a few minutes and that the yield threshold should be constant during so short a time, thus reflecting the yield threshold in the intact plant before excision. Under these conditions, the yield threshold was close to the turgor in the intact plant regardless of the species. The presence of slowly growing or mature tissue delays wall relaxation and should be avoided during such measurements. However, this delay can be used to advantage when turgor of intact growing tissues is being measured using excised tissues because turgor does not change for a considerable time after excision.

  11. Rapid Wall Relaxation in Elongating Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Matyssek, Rainer; Maruyama, Sachio; Boyer, John S.

    1988-01-01

    Reported differences in the relaxation of cell walls in enlarging stem tissues of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) cause measurements of the yield threshold turgor, an important growth parameter, to be in doubt. Using the pressure probe and guillotine psychrometer, we investigated wall relaxation in these species by excising the elongating tissue in air to remove the water supply. We found that the rapid kinetics usually exhibited by soybean could be delayed and made similar to the slow kinetics previously reported for pea if slowly growing or mature tissue was left attached to the rapidly growing tissue when relaxation was initiated. The greater the amount of attached tissue, the slower the relaxation, suggesting that slowly growing tissue acted as a water source. Consistent with this concept was a lower water potential in the rapidly elongating tissue than in the slowly growing tissue. Previous reports of wall relaxation in pea included slowly growing tissue. If this tissue was removed from pea, relaxation became as rapid as usually exhibited by soybean. It is concluded that the true relaxation of cell walls to the yield threshold requires only a few minutes and that the yield threshold should be constant during so short a time, thus reflecting the yield threshold in the intact plant before excision. Under these conditions, the yield threshold was close to the turgor in the intact plant regardless of the species. The presence of slowly growing or mature tissue delays wall relaxation and should be avoided during such measurements. However, this delay can be used to advantage when turgor of intact growing tissues is being measured using excised tissues because turgor does not change for a considerable time after excision. PMID:16666048

  12. Rindler fluid with weak momentum relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khimphun, Sunly; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2018-01-01

    We realize the weak momentum relaxation in Rindler fluid, which lives on the time-like cutoff surface in an accelerating frame of flat spacetime. The translational invariance is broken by massless scalar fields with weak strength. Both of the Ward identity and the momentum relaxation rate of Rindler fluid are obtained, with higher order correction in terms of the strength of momentum relaxation. The Rindler fluid with momentum relaxation could also be approached through the near horizon limit of cutoff AdS fluid with momentum relaxation, which lives on a finite time-like cutoff surface in Anti-de Sitter(AdS) spacetime, and further could be connected with the holographic conformal fluid living on AdS boundary at infinity. Thus, in the holographic Wilson renormalization group flow of the fluid/gravity correspondence with momentum relaxation, the Rindler fluid can be considered as the Infrared Radiation(IR) fixed point, and the holographic conformal fluid plays the role of the ultraviolet(UV) fixed point.

  13. Rounded stretched exponential for time relaxation functions.

    PubMed

    Powles, J G; Heyes, D M; Rickayzen, G; Evans, W A B

    2009-12-07

    A rounded stretched exponential function is introduced, C(t)=exp{(tau(0)/tau(E))(beta)[1-(1+(t/tau(0))(2))(beta/2)]}, where t is time, and tau(0) and tau(E) are two relaxation times. This expression can be used to represent the relaxation function of many real dynamical processes, as at long times, t>tau(0), the function converges to a stretched exponential with normalizing relaxation time, tau(E), yet its expansion is even or symmetric in time, which is a statistical mechanical requirement. This expression fits well the shear stress relaxation function for model soft soft-sphere fluids near coexistence, with tau(E)relaxation (both the modulus and viscosity forms). It is shown that both the dielectric spectra and dynamic shear modulus imaginary parts approach the real axis with a slope equal to 0 at high frequency, whereas the dynamic viscosity has an infinite slope in the same limit. This indicates that inertial effects at high frequency are best discerned in the modulus rather than the viscosity Cole-Cole plot. As a consequence of the even expansion in time of the shear stress relaxation function, the value of the storage modulus derived from it at very high frequency exceeds that in the infinite frequency limit (i.e., G(infinity)).

  14. Dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Navjeet; Singh, Mohan, E-mail: mohansinghphysics@gmail.com; Singh, Lakhwant

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The present article reports the effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of muscovite mica. • Dielectric and electrical relaxations have been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and Cole–Cole formalisms. • The frequency dependent electrical conductivity has been rationalized using Johnsher’s universal power law. • The experimentally measured electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted using Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation function. - Abstract: In the present research, the dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica was studied in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz–10 MHz and temperature range of 653–853 K, usingmore » the dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. The dielectric constants (ϵ′ and ϵ′′) are found to be high for gamma irradiated muscovite mica as compared to the pristine sample. The frequency dependence of the imaginary part of complex electric modulus (M′′) and dc conductivity data conforms Arrhenius law with single value of activation energy for pristine sample and two values of activation energy for gamma irradiated mica sample. The experimentally assessed electric modulus and conductivity information have been interpreted by the Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation explanation. Using the Cole–Cole framework, an analysis of real and imaginary characters of the electric modulus for pristine and gamma irradiated sample was executed which reflects the non-Debye relaxation mechanism.« less

  15. Sivelestat relaxes vascular smooth muscle contraction in human gastric arteries.

    PubMed

    Amemori, Hiroko; Maeda, Yoshinori; Torikai, Arisu; Nakashima, Mikio

    2011-12-01

    Sivelestat sodium hydrate (sivelestat) is a novel synthetic drug and specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase that has been approved in Japan as a treatment for acute lung injury associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. It is important to determine how sivelestat affects hemodynamics and the regulatory mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We recently found that sivelestat relaxes porcine coronary artery VSM via selective inhibition of Ca(2+) sensitization induced by a receptor agonist without affecting the normal Ca(2+)-induced contraction. Although sivelestat relaxes porcine artery, its effects on human artery are unknown; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of sivelestat on human artery. In the present study, sivelestat induced concentration-dependent (1 × 10(-6) to 3 × 10(-4) M) vasorelaxation in U46619 (1 nM) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) (30 mM)-precontracted human gastric artery with or without endothelium, but sivelestat did not induce vasorelaxation in conditions of high K(+) (40 mM) depolarization. Sivelestat inhibited VSM contraction by an agonist and SPC, and it did not affect Ca(2+)-induced normal physiologic contraction.

  16. Degradation in soil and water and ecotoxicity of rimsulfuron and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Martins, J M; Chevre, N; Spack, L; Tarradellas, J; Mermoud, A

    2001-11-01

    The degradation and ecotoxicity of sulfonylurea herbicide rimsulfuron and its major metabolites were examined in batch samples of an alluvial sandy loam and in freshwater. An HPLC-DAD method was adapted to simultaneously identify and quantify rimsulfuron and its metabolites, which was successfully validated by GC-MS analysis. In aqueous solutions, pure rimsulfuron was rapidly hydrolyzed into metabolite 1 (N-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N-(3-(ethylsulfonyl)-2-pyridinylurea)), which itself was transformed into the more stable metabolite 2 (N-((3-(ethylsulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)-4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidineamine)), with half-life (t(1/2)) values of 2 and 2.5 days, respectively. Hydrolysis was instantaneous under alkaline conditions (pH = 10). In aqueous suspensions of the alluvial soil (pH = 8), formulated rimsulfuron had a half-life of 7 days, whereas that of metabolite 1 was similar to that in water (about 3.5 days). The degradation of the two major metabolites was also studied in soil suspensions with the pure compounds at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg l(-1). The half-life of metabolite 1 ranged from 3.9 to 5 days, close to the previous values. Metabolite 2 was more persistent and its degradation is strongly dependent on the initial concentration (C0): half-life values ranged from 8.1 to 55 days at 2-10 mg l(-1), respectively. These values are higher than those determined from the kinetics of metabolite 1 transformation into metabolite 2 (t(1/2) = 8-19 days). The ecotoxicity of the three chemicals was evaluated through their effect on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri (Microtox bioassay). No effect was observed on D. magna with 24 and 48 h acute toxicity tests. Similarly, no toxic effect was observed with the Microtox test for the three chemicals in the range of concentrations tested that included the field application dose. Thus, being of low persistence and lacking acute toxicity, these chemicals present a low environmental risk. However, chronic effects

  17. Engineering Microbial Metabolite Dynamics and Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Alexander C; Hartline, Christopher J; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2017-10-01

    As yields for biological chemical production in microorganisms approach their theoretical maximum, metabolic engineering requires new tools, and approaches for improvements beyond what traditional strategies can achieve. Engineering metabolite dynamics and metabolite heterogeneity is necessary to achieve further improvements in product titers, productivities, and yields. Metabolite dynamics, the ensemble change in metabolite concentration over time, arise from the need for microbes to adapt their metabolism in response to the extracellular environment and are important for controlling growth and productivity in industrial fermentations. Metabolite heterogeneity, the cell-to-cell variation in a metabolite concentration in an isoclonal population, has a significant impact on ensemble productivity. Recent advances in single cell analysis enable a more complete understanding of the processes driving metabolite heterogeneity and reveal metabolic engineering targets. The authors present an overview of the mechanistic origins of metabolite dynamics and heterogeneity, why they are important, their potential effects in chemical production processes, and tools and strategies for engineering metabolite dynamics and heterogeneity. The authors emphasize that the ability to control metabolite dynamics and heterogeneity will bring new avenues of engineering to increase productivity of microbial strains. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Methionine Metabolites in Patients With Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Orren; Gough, Michael S; Morgan, Mary Anne M; Mack, Cynthia M; Apostolakos, Michael J; Doolin, Kathleen P; Mooney, Robert A; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pietropaoli, Anthony P

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by microvascular dysfunction and thrombophilia. Several methionine metabolites may be relevant to this sepsis pathophysiology. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) serves as the methyl donor for trans-methylation reactions. S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is the by-product of these reactions and serves as the precursor to homocysteine. Relationships between plasma total homocysteine concentrations (tHcy) and vascular disease and thrombosis are firmly established. We hypothesized that SAM, SAH, and tHcy levels are elevated in patients with sepsis and associated with mortality. This was a combined case-control and prospective cohort study consisting of 109 patients with sepsis and 50 control participants without acute illness. The study was conducted in the medical and surgical intensive care units of the University of Rochester Medical Center. Methionine, SAM, SAH, and tHcy concentrations were compared in patients with sepsis versus control participants and in sepsis survivors versus nonsurvivors. Patients with sepsis had significantly higher plasma SAM and SAH concentrations than control participants (SAM: 164 [107-227] vs73 [59-87 nM], P < .001; SAH: 99 [60-165] vs 35 [28-45] nM, P < .001). In contrast, plasma tHcy concentrations were lower in sepsis patients compared to healthy control participants (4 [2-6]) vs 7 [5-9] μM; P = .04). In multivariable analysis, quartiles of SAM, SAH, and tHcy were independently associated with sepsis ( P = .006, P = .05, and P < .001, respectively). Sepsis nonsurvivors had significantly higher plasma SAM and SAH concentrations than survivors (SAM: 223 [125-260] vs 136 [96-187] nM; P = .01; SAH: 139 [81-197] vs 86 [55-130] nM, P = .006). Plasma tHcy levels were similar in survivors vs nonsurvivors. The associations between SAM or SAH and hospital mortality were no longer significant after adjusting for renal dysfunction. Methionine metabolite concentrations are abnormal in sepsis and linked with clinical outcomes

  19. Isothermal enthalpy relaxation of glassy 1,2,6-hexanetriol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransson, Å.; Bäckström, G.

    The isothermal enthalpy relaxation of glassy 1,2,6-hexanetriol has been measured at six temperatures. The relaxation time and the distribution parameters extracted from fits of the Williams-Watts relaxation function are compared with parameters obtained by other techniques and on other substances. A detailed comparison of the Williams-Watts and the Davidson-Cole relaxation functions is presented.

  20. Time scales of relaxation dynamics during transient conditions in two-phase flow: RELAXATION DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlüter, Steffen; Berg, Steffen; Li, Tianyi

    2017-06-01

    The relaxation dynamics toward a hydrostatic equilibrium after a change in phase saturation in porous media is governed by fluid reconfiguration at the pore scale. Little is known whether a hydrostatic equilibrium in which all interfaces come to rest is ever reached and which microscopic processes govern the time scales of relaxation. Here we apply fast synchrotron-based X-ray tomography (X-ray CT) to measure the slow relaxation dynamics of fluid interfaces in a glass bead pack after fast drainage of the sample. The relaxation of interfaces triggers internal redistribution of fluids, reduces the surface energy stored in the fluid interfaces, andmore » relaxes the contact angle toward the equilibrium value while the fluid topology remains unchanged. The equilibration of capillary pressures occurs in two stages: (i) a quick relaxation within seconds in which most of the pressure drop that built up during drainage is dissipated, a process that is to fast to be captured with fast X-ray CT, and (ii) a slow relaxation with characteristic time scales of 1–4 h which manifests itself as a spontaneous imbibition process that is well described by the Washburn equation for capillary rise in porous media. The slow relaxation implies that a hydrostatic equilibrium is hardly ever attained in practice when conducting two-phase experiments in which a flux boundary condition is changed from flow to no-flow. Implications for experiments with pressure boundary conditions are discussed.« less

  1. Convex relaxations for gas expansion planning

    DOE PAGES

    Borraz-Sanchez, Conrado; Bent, Russell Whitford; Backhaus, Scott N.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of natural gas networks is a critical process involving substantial capital expenditures with complex decision-support requirements. Here, given the non-convex nature of gas transmission constraints, global optimality and infeasibility guarantees can only be offered by global optimisation approaches. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art global optimisation solvers are unable to scale up to real-world size instances. In this study, we present a convex mixed-integer second-order cone relaxation for the gas expansion planning problem under steady-state conditions. The underlying model offers tight lower bounds with high computational efficiency. In addition, the optimal solution of the relaxation can often be used to derive high-quality solutionsmore » to the original problem, leading to provably tight optimality gaps and, in some cases, global optimal solutions. The convex relaxation is based on a few key ideas, including the introduction of flux direction variables, exact McCormick relaxations, on/off constraints, and integer cuts. Numerical experiments are conducted on the traditional Belgian gas network, as well as other real larger networks. The results demonstrate both the accuracy and computational speed of the relaxation and its ability to produce high-quality solution« less

  2. Load relaxation of olivine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Reid F.; Stone, Donald S.; Plookphol, Thawatchai

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of ferromagnesian olivine (San Carlos, AZ, peridot; Fo88-90) have been deformed in both uniaxial creep and load relaxation under conditions of ambient pressure, T = 1500°C and pO2 = 10-10 atm; creep stresses were in the range 40 ≤ σ1 (MPa) ≤ 220. The crystals were oriented such that the applied stress was parallel to [011]c, which promotes single slip on the slowest slip system in olivine, (010)[001]. The creep rates at steady state match well the results of earlier investigators, as does the stress sensitivity (a power law exponent of n = 3.6). Dislocation microstructures, including spatial distribution of low-angle (subgrain) boundaries, additionally confirm previous investigations. Inverted primary creep (an accelerating strain rate with an increase in stress) was observed. Load relaxation, however, produced a singular response—a single hardness curve—regardless of the magnitude of creep stress or total accumulated strain preceding relaxation. The log stress versus log strain rate data from load-relaxation and creep experiments overlap to within experimental error. The load-relaxation behavior is distinctly different than that described for other crystalline solids, where the flow stress is affected strongly by work hardening such that a family of distinct hardness curves is generated, which are related by a scaling function. The response of olivine for the conditions studied, we argue, indicates flow that is rate limited by dislocation glide, reflecting specifically a high intrinsic lattice resistance (Peierls stress).

  3. Biotransformation of glyceryl trinitrate occurs concurrently with relaxation of rabbit aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Brien, J.F.; McLaughlin, B.E.; Breedon, T.H.

    1986-05-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that biotransformation of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is involved in GTN-induced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Isolated rabbit aortic strips (RAS) were contracted submaximally with phenylephrine (PE) and then were incubated with 0.5 microM (/sup 14/C)GTN in a time course study. GTN-induced relaxation (inhibition of PE-induced tone) of RAS was monitored and tissue GTN and glyceryl-1,2- and 1,3-dinitrate (GDN) concentrations were measured by thin-layer chromatography and liquid scintillation spectrometry at 0.5, 1, 2 and 20 min after incubation. Biotransformation of GTN to GDN occurred during GTN-induced relaxation of RAS. The tissue GDN concentrationmore » was dependent on the time duration of incubation with GTN and was related to the magnitude of GTN-induced tissue relaxation. At the 20-min interval, the GDN concentration in the incubation medium indicated appreciable efflux of GDN metabolites from the RAS. In the biotransformation of GTN by RAS, there was about 4-fold preferential formation of 1,2-GDN compared with 1,3-GDN. RAS were made tolerant to GTN in vitro by incubation with 500 microM GTN for 1 hr. After washing, GTN-tolerant and nontolerant (incubation with vehicle for 1 hr) RAS were contracted submaximally with PE, and then were incubated with 0.5 microM (/sup 14/C)GTN for 2 min. GTN-induced relaxation of RAS and tissue GDN concentration were significantly less for GTN-tolerant tissue compared with nontolerant tissue. Tissue GTN concentration was similar for both GTN-tolerant and nontolerant RAS, which indicated that the tissue uptake of GTN was similar and that GTN biotransformation was diminished in tolerant tissue.(ABST« less

  4. Acute Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... headache. Acute sinusitis is mostly caused by the common cold. Unless a bacterial infection develops, most cases resolve ... Acute sinusitis is most often caused by the common cold, which is a viral infection. In some cases, ...

  5. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  6. Characterization of proflavine metabolites in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z; Hayton, W L; Chan, K K

    1997-04-01

    Proflavine (3,6-diaminoacridine) has potential for use as an antiinfective in fish, and its metabolism by rainbow trout was therefore studied. Fourteen hours after intraarterial bolus administration of 10 mg/kg of proflavine, three metabolites were found in liver and bile, and one metabolite was found in plasma using reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection at 262 nm. Treatment with hydrochloric acid converted the three metabolites to proflavine, which suggested that the metabolites were proflavine conjugates. Treatment with beta-glucuronidase and saccharic acid 1,4-lactone, a specific beta-glucuronidase inhibitor, revealed that two metabolites were proflavine glucuronides. For determination of UV-VIS absorption and mass spectra, HPLC-purified metabolites were isolated from liver. Data from these experiments suggested that the proflavine metabolites were 3-N-glucuronosyl proflavine (PG), 3-N-glucuronosyl,6-N-acetyl proflavine (APG), and 3-N-acetylproflavine (AP). The identities of the metabolites were verified by chemical synthesis. When synthetic PG and AP were compared with the two metabolites isolated from trout, they had the same molecular weight as determined by matrix-assisted, laser desorption ionization, time-of-flight MS. In addition, they coeluted on HPLC under different mobile phase conditions. Finally, the in vitro incubation with liver subcellular preparations confirmed this characterization and provided the evidence that APG can be formed by glucuronidation of AP or acetylation of PG.

  7. A general relaxation theory of simple liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merilo, M.; Morgan, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    A relatively simple relaxation theory to account for the behavior of liquids under dynamic conditions was proposed. The general dynamical equations are similar in form to the phenomenological relaxation equations used in theories of viscoelasticity, however, they differ in that all the coefficients of the present equations are expressed in terms of thermodynamic and molecular quantities. The theory is based on the concept that flow in a liquid distorts both the radial and the velocity distribution functions, and that relaxation equations describing the return of these functions to their isotropic distributions, characterizing a stationary liquid, can be written. The theory was applied to the problems of steady and oscillatory shear flows and to the propagation of longitudinal waves. In all cases classical results are predicted for strain rates, and an expression for the viscosity of a liquid, simular to the Macedo-Litovitz equation, is obtained.

  8. Dielectric relaxation in AC powder electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Su, Haibin; Tan, Chuan Seng; Wong, Terence Kin Shun; Teo, Ronnie Jin Wah

    2017-01-01

    The dielectric properties of AC powder electroluminescent devices were measured and analyzed using complex impedance spectroscopy to determine the relaxation processes occurring within the devices. The relaxation processes identified were ascribed to the electrode polarization caused by ion accumulation at the electrode/resin interfaces, the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars effects at the (ZnS or BaTiO3) particle/resin interfaces, and the dipolar reorientation of polymer chains in the resin matrix. Each relaxation process was represented by its corresponding equivalent circuit component. Space charge polarization at the electrodes were represented by a Warburg element, a resistor, and a constant phase element. The resin matrix, ZnS/resin and BaTiO3/resin interfaces could each be modeled by a resistor and a capacitor in parallel. The simulated equivalent circuits for three different printed structures showed good fitting with their experimental impedance results.

  9. Substrate stress relaxation regulates cell spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Gu, Luo; Darnell, Max; Klumpers, Darinka; Bencherif, Sidi A.; Weaver, James C.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.

    2015-02-01

    Studies of cellular mechanotransduction have converged upon the idea that cells sense extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity by gauging resistance to the traction forces they exert on the ECM. However, these studies typically utilize purely elastic materials as substrates, whereas physiological ECMs are viscoelastic, and exhibit stress relaxation, so that cellular traction forces exerted by cells remodel the ECM. Here we investigate the influence of ECM stress relaxation on cell behaviour through computational modelling and cellular experiments. Surprisingly, both our computational model and experiments find that spreading for cells cultured on soft substrates that exhibit stress relaxation is greater than cells spreading on elastic substrates of the same modulus, but similar to that of cells spreading on stiffer elastic substrates. These findings challenge the current view of how cells sense and respond to the ECM.

  10. [Relaxant effects of protopine on smooth muscles].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y H; Zhang, Z Z; Jiang, J X

    1991-01-01

    The relaxant effects of protopine (Pro) on smooth muscles were studied by recording isotonic contraction and radioimmunoassay. Pro relaxed the contraction of rabbit thoracic aorta, mesenteric artery, portal vein and guinea pig ileum and taenia colon induced by high K+ (70 mmol.L-1). Pro also inhibited the contraction of rabbit thoracic aorta, mesenteric artery, portal vein induced by NE (0.3 mumol.L-1) and guinea pig taenia colon induced by BaCl2 (1 mmol.L-1). Pro inhibited the intracellular Ca2+ release, but did not inhibit Ca2+ influx induced by NE. These results suggested that the smooth muscle relaxant mechanism of action of Pro may be the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release.

  11. Dielectric relaxation of high-k oxides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Frequency dispersion of high-k dielectrics was observed and classified into two parts: extrinsic cause and intrinsic cause. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant (dielectric relaxation), that is the intrinsic frequency dispersion, could not be characterized before considering the effects of extrinsic frequency dispersion. Several mathematical models were discussed to describe the dielectric relaxation of high-k dielectrics. For the physical mechanism, dielectric relaxation was found to be related to the degree of polarization, which depended on the structure of the high-k material. It was attributed to the enhancement of the correlations among polar nanodomain. The effect of grain size for the high-k materials' structure mainly originated from higher surface stress in smaller grain due to its higher concentration of grain boundary. PMID:24180696

  12. The Unquiet State of Violent Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Richard

    2005-08-01

    In 1967 Lynden-Bell presented a statistical mechanical theory for the relaxation of collisionless systems. Since then this theory has been studied numerically and theoretically by many authors. Nakamura in 2000 gave an alternate theory that differed from that of Lynden- Bell by predicting a Gaussian equilibrium distribution function rather than Fermi-Dirac. More recently Henriksen in 2004 has used a coarsegraining technique on cosmological infall systems that also predicts a Gaussian equilibrium distribution function. These relaxed states are thought to occur from the centre of the system outwards. Simulations of cosmological cold dark-matter halos however persist in finding central density cusps (the NFWprofile), which are inconsistent with the predicted distribution functions and perhaps with the observations of some galaxies. Some numerical studies (e.g.Merrall & Henriksen 2003) that attempt to measure the distribution function of dark matter do find Gaussian functions, provided that the initial asymmetry is not too great. Moreover recent work at Queen's reported here by MacMillan, suggests that it is the growth of asymmetry during the infall that produces the cusped behaviour. So put briefly, the essential physics of dark-matter relaxation remains "obscure" as does the validity of the theoretical predictions. "Violent virialization" occurs rapidly, well before subscale relaxation, but the scale at which the relaxation stops (and why) remains unclear. I will present some results that argue for wave-particle relaxation (Landau damping as frequently suggested by Kandrup) and in addition I will suggest that the evolution of isolated systems is very different from that of systems constantly disturbed by infall. Isolated systems may become trapped in an unrelaxed state by the development or existence of multipolar internal structure. Nevertheless a suitable coarse graining of the system may restore the predicted distribution functions.

  13. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and ...

  14. Nonlocal and collective relaxation in stellar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1993-01-01

    The modal response of stellar systems to fluctuations at large scales is presently investigated by means of analytic theory and n-body simulation; the stochastic excitation of these modes is shown to increase the relaxation rate even for a system which is moderately far from instability. The n-body simulations, when designed to suppress relaxation at small scales, clearly show the effects of large-scale fluctuations. It is predicted that large-scale fluctuations will be largest for such marginally bound systems as forming star clusters and associations.

  15. Dynamics of the cosmological relaxation after reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyungjin; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

    2017-04-01

    We examine if the cosmological relaxation mechanism, which was proposed recently as a new solution to the hierarchy problem, can be compatible with high reheating temperature well above the weak scale. As the barrier potential disappears at high temperature, the relaxion rolls down further after the reheating, which may ruin the successful implementation of the relaxation mechanism. It is noted that if the relaxion is coupled to a dark gauge boson, the new frictional force arising from dark gauge boson production can efficiently slow down the relaxion motion, which allows the relaxion to be stabilized after the electroweak phase transition for a wide range of model parameters, while satisfying the known observational constraints.

  16. Relaxational effects in radiating stellar collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Megan; Maartens, Roy; Maharaj, Sunil D.

    1999-12-01

    Relaxational effects in stellar heat transport can in many cases be significant. Relativistic Fourier-Eckart theory is inherently quasi-stationary, and cannot incorporate these effects. The effects are naturally accounted for in causal relativistic thermodynamics, which provides an improved approximation to kinetic theory. Recent results, based on perturbations of a static star, show that relaxation effects can produce a significant increase in the central temperature and temperature gradient for a given luminosity. We use a simple stellar model that allows for non-perturbative deviations from staticity, and confirms qualitatively the predictions of the perturbative models.

  17. Vibrational relaxation in hypersonic flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Willard E.; Miner, Gilda A.; Heinbockel, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical formulations of vibrational relaxation are derived from first principles for application to fluid dynamic computations of hypersonic flow fields. Relaxation within and immediately behind shock waves is shown to be substantially faster than that described in current numerical codes. The result should be a significant reduction in nonequilibrium radiation overshoot in shock layers and in radiative heating of hypersonic vehicles; these results are precisely the trends needed to bring theoretical predictions more in line with flight data. Errors in existing formulations are identified and qualitative comparisons are made.

  18. Antitrypanosomal Activity of Fexinidazole Metabolites, Potential New Drug Candidates for Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Alvaro F. S.; Mazzeti, Ana Lia; Marques, Luiz F.; Gonçalves, Karolina R.; Mota, Ludmilla W. R.; Diniz, Lívia de F.; Caldas, Ivo S.; Talvani, André; Shackleford, David M.; Koltun, Maria; Saunders, Jessica; White, Karen L.; Scandale, Ivan; Charman, Susan A.; Chatelain, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to verify the in vivo efficacy of sulfoxide and sulfone fexinidazole metabolites following oral administration in a murine model of Chagas disease. Female Swiss mice infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi were treated orally once per day with each metabolite at doses of 10 to 100 mg/kg of body weight for a period of 20 days. Parasitemia was monitored throughout, and cures were detected by parasitological and PCR assays. The results were compared with those achieved with benznidazole treatment at the same doses. Fexinidazole metabolites were effective in reducing the numbers of circulating parasites and protecting mice against death, compared with untreated mice, but without providing cures at daily doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg. Both metabolites were effective in curing mice at 50 mg/kg/day (30% to 40%) and 100 mg/kg/day (100%). In the benznidazole-treated group, parasitological cure was detected only in animals treated with the higher dose of 100 mg/kg/day (80%). Single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters for each metabolite were obtained from a parallel group of uninfected mice and were used to estimate the profiles following repeated doses. Pharmacokinetic data suggested that biological efficacy most likely resides with the sulfone metabolite (or subsequent reactive metabolites formed following reduction of the nitro group) following administration of either the sulfoxide or the sulfone and that prolonged plasma exposure over the 24-h dosing window is required to achieve high cure rates. Fexinidazole metabolites were effective in treating T. cruzi in a mouse model of acute infection, with cure rates superior to those achieved with either fexinidazole itself or benznidazole. PMID:24841257

  19. Correcting ligands, metabolites, and pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Martin A; Vriend, Gert

    2006-01-01

    Background A wide range of research areas in bioinformatics, molecular biology and medicinal chemistry require precise chemical structure information about molecules and reactions, e.g. drug design, ligand docking, metabolic network reconstruction, and systems biology. Most available databases, however, treat chemical structures more as illustrations than as a datafield in its own right. Lack of chemical accuracy impedes progress in the areas mentioned above. We present a database of metabolites called BioMeta that augments the existing pathway databases by explicitly assessing the validity, correctness, and completeness of chemical structure and reaction information. Description The main bulk of the data in BioMeta were obtained from the KEGG Ligand database. We developed a tool for chemical structure validation which assesses the chemical validity and stereochemical completeness of a molecule description. The validation tool was used to examine the compounds in BioMeta, showing that a relatively small number of compounds had an incorrect constitution (connectivity only, not considering stereochemistry) and that a considerable number (about one third) had incomplete or even incorrect stereochemistry. We made a large effort to correct the errors and to complete the structural descriptions. A total of 1468 structures were corrected and/or completed. We also established the reaction balance of the reactions in BioMeta and corrected 55% of the unbalanced (stoichiometrically incorrect) reactions in an automatic procedure. The BioMeta database was implemented in PostgreSQL and provided with a web-based interface. Conclusion We demonstrate that the validation of metabolite structures and reactions is a feasible and worthwhile undertaking, and that the validation results can be used to trigger corrections and improvements to BioMeta, our metabolite database. BioMeta provides some tools for rational drug design, reaction searches, and visualization. It is freely available

  20. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The effect of relaxation therapy on autonomic functioning, symptoms and daily functioning, in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo; Vanderheiden, Tanja; Baert, Isabel; Descheemaeker, Filip; Struyf, Filip

    2015-03-01

    To establish the effects of relaxation therapy on autonomic function, pain, fatigue and daily functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. A systematic literature study was performed. Using specific keywords related to fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome and relaxation therapy, the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science were searched. Included articles were assessed for their risk of bias and relevant information regarding relaxation was extracted. The review was conducted and reported according to the PRISMA-statement. Thirteen randomized clinical trials of sufficient quality were included, resulting in a total of 650 fibromyalgia patients (11 studies) and 88 chronic fatigue syndrome patients (3 studies). None of the studies reported effects on autonomic function. Six studies reported the effect of guided imagery on pain and daily functioning in fibromyalgia. The acute effect of a single session of guided imagery was studied in two studies and seems beneficial for pain relief. For other relaxation techniques (eg. muscle relaxation, autogenic training) no conclusive evidence was found for the effect on pain and functioning in fibromyalgia patients comparison to multimodal treatment programs. For fatigue a multimodal approach seemed better than relaxation, as shown in the sole three studies on chronic fatigue syndrome patients. There is moderate evidence for the acute effect of guided imagery on pain, although the content of the visualization is a matter of debate. Other relaxation formats and the effects on functionality and autonomic function require further study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Microsomal metabolism of trenbolone acetate metabolites ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic growth promoter widely used in animal agriculture, and its metabolites are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds in agriculturally impacted receiving waters. However, beyond the three widely recognized TBA metabolites (17-trenbolone, 17-trenbolone and trendione), little is known about other metabolites formed in vivo and subsequently discharged into the environment, with some evidence suggesting these unknown metabolites comprise a majority of the TBA mass dosed to the animal. Here, we explored the metabolism of the three known TBA metabolites using rat liver microsome studies. All TBA metabolites are transformed into a complex mixture of monohydroxylated products. Based on product characterization, the majority are more polar than the parent metabolites but maintain their characteristic trienone backbone. A minor degree of interconversion between known metabolites was also observed, as were higher order hydroxylated products with a greater extent of reaction. Notably, the distribution and yield of products were generally comparable across a series of variably induced rat liver microsomes, as well as during additional studies with human and bovine liver microsomes. Bioassays conducted with mixtures of these transformation products suggest that androgen receptor (AR) binding activity is diminished as a result of the microsomal treatment, suggesting that the transformation products are generally less potent than

  3. Studying relaxation phenomena via effective master equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, David; Wan, Jones T. K.; Chu, L. L.; Yu, K. W.

    2000-04-01

    The real-time dynamics of various relaxation phenomena can be conveniently formulated by a master equation with the enumeration of transition rates between given classes of conformations. To study the relaxation time towards equilibrium, it suffices to solve for the second largest eigenvalue of the resulting eigenvalue equation. Generally speaking, there is no analytic solution for the dynamic equation. Mean-field approaches generally yield misleading results while the presumably exact Monte-Carlo methods require prohibitive time steps in most real systems. In this work, we propose an exact decimation procedure for reducing the number of conformations significantly, while there is no loss of information, i.e., the reduced (or effective) equation is an exact transformed version of the original one. However, we have to pay the price: the initial Markovianity of the evolution equation is lost and the reduced equation contains memory terms in the transition rates. Since the transformed equation has significantly reduced number of degrees of freedom, the systems can readily be diagonalized by iterative means, to obtain the exact second largest eigenvalue and hence the relaxation time. The decimation method has been applied to various relaxation equations with generally desirable results. The advantages and limitations of the method will be discussed.

  4. Relaxation for Children. (Revised and Expanded Edition.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Jenny

    Intended as a guide to reduce negative stress in children, this book suggests relaxation and meditation techniques to help children cope with stressful events. Part 1 provides an introduction to the format of the book. Part 2 contains summaries of the 10 sessions that make up the program. Each session has six sequential stages in which students…

  5. Dipole Relaxation in an Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Derives an expression for the orientational entropy of a rigid rod (electric dipole) from Boltzmann's equation. Subsequent application of Newton's second law of motion produces Debye's classical expression for the relaxation of an electric dipole in a viscous medium. (Author/GS)

  6. MAGNETIC RELAXATION IN RARE EARTH DOPED GARNET.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in resonance measurements by the constant low temperature linewidth due to two magnon scattering. In contrast, the PPI relaxation rate is independent...of two magnon scattering. The 4.5K doublet may well be related to a near crossing of energy levels which probably causes the anomalous low temperature peaks in delta H and resonance field observed by Dillon. (Author)

  7. Relaxation/Covert Rehearsal for Problematic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fling, Sheila; McKenzie, Patricia

    A study was conducted to determine whether group relaxation training combined with guided fantasy as a method of covert cognitive rehearsal would be more effective than story-listening or no special treatment in enabling "problematic" children to decrease muscle tension, activity level, and behavior problems and to increase academic performance…

  8. Dynamical relaxation in 2HDM models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalak, Zygmunt; Markiewicz, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Dynamical relaxation provides an interesting solution to the hierarchy problem in face of the missing signatures of any new physics in recent experiments. Through a dynamical process taking place in the inflationary phase of the Universe it manages to achieve a small electroweak scale without introducing new states observable in current experiments. Appropriate approximation makes it possible to derive an explicit formula for the final vevs in the double-scanning scenario extended to a model with two Higgs doublets (2HDM). Analysis of the relaxation in the 2HDM confirms that in a general case it is impossible to keep vevs of both scalars small, unless fine-tuning is present or additional symmetries are cast upon the Lagrangian. Within the slightly constrained variant of the 2HDM, where odd powers of the fields’ expectation values are not present (which can be easily enforced by requiring that the doublets have different gauge transformations or by imposing a global symmetry) it is shown that the difference between the vevs of two scalars tends to be proportional to the cutoff. The analysis of the relaxation in 2HDM indicates that in a general case the relaxation would be stopped by the first doublet that gains a vev, with the other one remaining vevless with a mass of the order of the cutoff. This happens to conform with the inert doublet model.

  9. Charge Relaxation Dynamics of an Electrolytic Nanocapacitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ion relaxation dynamics in overlapping electric double layers (EDLs) is critical for the development of efficient nanotechnology-based electrochemical energy storage, electrochemomechanical energy conversion, and bioelectrochemical sensing devices as well as the controlled synthesis of nanostructured materials. Here, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is employed to simulate an electrolytic nanocapacitor subjected to a step potential at t = 0 for various degrees of EDL overlap, solvent viscosities, ratios of cation-to-anion diffusivity, and electrode separations. The use of a novel continuously varying and Galilean-invariant molecular-speed-dependent relaxation time (MSDRT) with the LB equation recovers a correct microscopic description of the molecular-collision phenomena and enhances the stability of the LB algorithm. Results for large EDL overlaps indicated oscillatory behavior for the ionic current density, in contrast to monotonic relaxation to equilibrium for low EDL overlaps. Further, at low solvent viscosities and large EDL overlaps, anomalous plasmalike spatial oscillations of the electric field were observed that appeared to be purely an effect of nanoscale confinement. Employing MSDRT in our simulations enabled modeling of the fundamental physics of the transient charge relaxation dynamics in electrochemical systems operating away from equilibrium wherein Nernst–Einstein relation is known to be violated. PMID:25678941

  10. Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettus, Dodi

    2010-01-01

    One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…

  11. Relaxation Treatment for Insomnia: A Component Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfolk, Robert L.; McNulty, Terrence F.

    1983-01-01

    Compared four relaxation treatments for sleep onset insomnia with a waiting-list control. Treatments varied in presence or absence of muscular tension-release instructions and in foci of attention. Results showed all treatment conditions reduced latency of sleep onset and fatigue; visual focusing best reduced the number of nocturnal awakenings.…

  12. Relaxation dynamics of multilayer triangular Husimi cacti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiceanu, Mircea; Jurjiu, Aurel

    2016-09-01

    We focus on the relaxation dynamics of multilayer polymer structures having, as underlying topology, the Husimi cactus. The relaxation dynamics of the multilayer structures is investigated in the framework of generalized Gaussian structures model using both Rouse and Zimm approaches. In the Rouse type-approach, we determine analytically the complete eigenvalues spectrum and based on it we calculate the mechanical relaxation moduli (storage and loss modulus) and the average monomer displacement. First, we monitor these physical quantities for structures with a fixed generation number and we increase the number of layers, such that the linear topology will smoothly come into play. Second, we keep constant the size of the structures, varying simultaneously two parameters: the generation number of the main layer, G, and the number of layers, c. This fact allows us to study in detail the crossover from a pure Husimi cactus behavior to a predominately linear chain behavior. The most interesting situation is found when the two limiting topologies cancel each other. For this case, we encounter in the intermediate frequency/time domain regions of constant slope for different values of the parameter set (G, c) and we show that the number of layers follows an exponential-law of G. In the Zimm-type approach, which includes the hydrodynamic interactions, the quantities that describe the mechanical relaxation dynamics do not show scaling behavior as in the Rouse model, except the limiting case, namely, a very high number of layers and low generation number.

  13. Vasorelaxing Action of the Kynurenine Metabolite, Xanthurenic Acid: The Missing Link in Endotoxin-Induced Hypotension?

    PubMed

    Fazio, Francesco; Carrizzo, Albino; Lionetto, Luana; Damato, Antonio; Capocci, Luca; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bruno, Valeria; Madonna, Michele; Simmaco, Maurizio; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Vecchione, Carmine

    2017-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism is activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. L-kynurenine, an upstream metabolite of the pathway, acts as a putative endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and has been hypothesized to play a causative role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced hypotension. Here, we show that xanthurenic acid (XA), the transamination product of 3-hydroxykynurenine, is more efficacious than L-kynurenine in causing relaxation of a resistance artery, but fails to relax pre-contracted aortic rings. In the mesenteric artery, XA enhanced activating phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the relaxing action of XA was abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of NOS and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Systemic injection of XA reduced blood pressure in mice, and serum levels of XA increased by several fold in response to a pulse with the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced hypotension in mice was prevented by pre-treatment with the kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor, Ro-618048, which lowered serum levels of XA but enhanced serum levels of L-kynurenine. UPF 648, another KMO inhibitor, could also abrogate LPS-induced hypotension. Our data identify XA as a novel vasoactive compound and suggest that formation of XA is a key event in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced hypotension.

  14. Vasorelaxing Action of the Kynurenine Metabolite, Xanthurenic Acid: The Missing Link in Endotoxin-Induced Hypotension?

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Francesco; Carrizzo, Albino; Lionetto, Luana; Damato, Antonio; Capocci, Luca; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bruno, Valeria; Madonna, Michele; Simmaco, Maurizio; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Vecchione, Carmine

    2017-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism is activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. L-kynurenine, an upstream metabolite of the pathway, acts as a putative endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and has been hypothesized to play a causative role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced hypotension. Here, we show that xanthurenic acid (XA), the transamination product of 3-hydroxykynurenine, is more efficacious than L-kynurenine in causing relaxation of a resistance artery, but fails to relax pre-contracted aortic rings. In the mesenteric artery, XA enhanced activating phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the relaxing action of XA was abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of NOS and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Systemic injection of XA reduced blood pressure in mice, and serum levels of XA increased by several fold in response to a pulse with the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced hypotension in mice was prevented by pre-treatment with the kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor, Ro-618048, which lowered serum levels of XA but enhanced serum levels of L-kynurenine. UPF 648, another KMO inhibitor, could also abrogate LPS-induced hypotension. Our data identify XA as a novel vasoactive compound and suggest that formation of XA is a key event in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced hypotension. PMID:28507519

  15. Tryptophan Metabolism in Rat Liver After Administration of Tryptophan, Kynurenine Metabolites, and Kynureninase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B; Bano, Samina

    2016-01-01

    Rat liver tryptophan (Trp), kynurenine pathway metabolites, and enzymes deduced from product/substrate ratios were assessed following acute and/or chronic administration of kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), Trp, and the kynureni-nase inhibitors benserazide (BSZ) and carbidopa (CBD). KA activated Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), possibly by increasing liver 3-HAA, but inhibited kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) and kynureninase activities with 3-HK as substrate. 3-HK inhibited kynureninase activity from 3-HK. 3-HAA stimulated TDO, but inhibited kynureninase activity from K and 3-HK. Trp (50 mg/kg) increased kynurenine metabolite concentrations and KAT from K, and exerted a temporary stimulation of TDO. The kynureninase inhibitors BSZ and CBD also inhibited KAT, but stimulated TDO. BSZ abolished or strongly inhibited the Trp-induced increases in liver Trp and kynurenine metabolites. The potential effects of these changes in conditions of immune activation, schizophrenia, and other disease states are discussed.

  16. Yoga Nidra relaxation increases heart rate variability and is unaffected by a prior bout of Hatha yoga.

    PubMed

    Markil, Nina; Whitehurst, Michael; Jacobs, Patrick L; Zoeller, Robert F

    2012-10-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often applied as an index of autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance and, therefore, myocardial stability. Previous studies have suggested that relaxation or mind-body exercise can influence ANS balance positively as measured by HRV but may act via different mechanisms. No studies, to the authors' knowledge, have examined the acute response in HRV to interventions combining relaxation and mind-body exercise. The objective of this study was to compare the acute HRV responses to Yoga Nidra relaxation alone versus Yoga Nidra relaxation preceded by Hatha yoga. This was a randomized counter-balanced trial. The trial was conducted in a university exercise physiology laboratory. Subjects included 20 women and men (29.15±6.98 years of age, with a range of 18-47 years). Participants completed a yoga plus relaxation (YR) session and a relaxation only (R) session. The YR condition produced significant changes from baseline in heart rate (HR; beats per minute [bpm], p<0.001) and indices of HRV: R-R (ms, p<0.001), pNN50 (%, p=0.009), low frequency (LF; %, p=0.008) and high frequency (HF; %, p=0.035). The R condition produced significant changes from baseline in heart rate (bpm, p<0.001) as well as indices of HRV: R-R (ms, p<0.001), HF (ms(2), p=0.004), LF (%, p=0.005), HF (%, p=0.008) and LF:HF ratio (%, p=0.008). There were no significant differences between conditions at baseline nor for the changes from baseline for any of the variables. These changes demonstrate a favorable shift in autonomic balance to the parasympathetic branch of the ANS for both conditions, and that Yoga Nidra relaxation produces favorable changes in measures of HRV whether alone or preceded by a bout of Hatha yoga.

  17. Load Relaxation of Olivine Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. F.; Stone, D. S.; Plookphol, T.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of ferromagnesian olivine (San Carlos, AZ, peridot; Fo90-92) have been deformed in both uniaxial creep and load relaxation under conditions of ambient pressure, T = 1500ºC and pO2 = 10-10 atm; creep stresses were in the range 40 ≤ σ1 (MPa) ≤ 220. The crystals were oriented such that the applied stress was parallel to [011]c, which promotes single slip on the slowest slip system in olivine, (010)[001]. The creep rates at steady state match well the results of earlier investigators, as does the stress sensitivity (a power-law exponent of n = 3.6). Dislocation microstructures, including spatial distribution of low-angle (subgrain) boundaries, additionally confirm previous investigations. Inverted primary creep (an accelerating strain rate with an increase in stress) was observed. Load-relaxation, however, produced a singular response—a single hardness curve—regardless of the magnitude of creep stress or total accumulated strain preceding relaxation. The log-stress v. log-strain rate data from load-relaxation and creep experiments overlap to within experimental error. The load-relaxation behavior is distinctly different that that described for other crystalline solids, where the flow stress is affected strongly by work hardening such that a family of distinct hardness curves is generated, which are related by a scaling function. The response of olivine for the conditions studied, thus, indicates flow that is rate-limited by dislocation glide, reflecting specifically a high intrinsic lattice resistance (Peierls stress).

  18. A New Paradigm for Known Metabolite Identification in Metabonomics/Metabolomics: Metabolite Identification Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Jeremy R.

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm is proposed for assessing confidence in the identification of known metabolites in metabonomics studies using NMR spectroscopy approaches. This new paradigm is based upon the analysis of the amount of metabolite identification information retrieved from NMR spectra relative to the molecular size of the metabolite. Several new indices are proposed including: metabolite identification efficiency (MIE) and metabolite identification carbon efficiency (MICE), both of which can be easily calculated. These indices, together with some guidelines, can be used to provide a better indication of known metabolite identification confidence in metabonomics studies than existing methods. Since known metabolite identification in untargeted metabonomics studies is one of the key bottlenecks facing the science currently, it is hoped that these concepts based on molecular spectroscopic informatics, will find utility in the field. PMID:25750701

  19. A new paradigm for known metabolite identification in metabonomics/metabolomics: metabolite identification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Everett, Jeremy R

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm is proposed for assessing confidence in the identification of known metabolites in metabonomics studies using NMR spectroscopy approaches. This new paradigm is based upon the analysis of the amount of metabolite identification information retrieved from NMR spectra relative to the molecular size of the metabolite. Several new indices are proposed including: metabolite identification efficiency (MIE) and metabolite identification carbon efficiency (MICE), both of which can be easily calculated. These indices, together with some guidelines, can be used to provide a better indication of known metabolite identification confidence in metabonomics studies than existing methods. Since known metabolite identification in untargeted metabonomics studies is one of the key bottlenecks facing the science currently, it is hoped that these concepts based on molecular spectroscopic informatics, will find utility in the field.

  20. Parasympathomimetic effect of shilajit accounts for relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sarabjeet; Kumar, Pravin; Kumar, Deo; Kharya, M D; Singh, Nityanand

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have reported an enhancement of central cholinergic signal cascade by shilajit. For the present study, it was hypothesized that parasympathomimetic effect of shilajit accounting for relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum may be one of the major mechanisms attributing to its traditional role as an aphrodisiac. To test this hypothesis, the acute peripheral effect of standard acetylcholine (ACh), shilajit, and their combination was evaluated on cardiorespiratory parameters such as mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and neuromuscular transmission (NMT). Furthermore, in vitro effect of standard ACh, shilajit, and their combination was tested on the rat corpus cavernosum. Six groups were used for the in vivo study (N = 5): Group I (control-saline), Group II (ACh), Group III (Sh), Group IV (Sh followed by ACh), Group V (Atropine followed by ACh), and Group VI (Atropine followed by Sh). The in vitro study included four groups: Group I (control-saline), Group II (ACh), Group III (Sh), and Group IV (Sh followed by ACh). The results of the in vivo study confirmed the peripheral parasympathomimetic effect of shilajit (400 µg/mL). The in vitro results revealed that shilajit (400 and 800 µg/mL) relaxed cavernous strips' concentration dependently and enhanced ACh-mediated relaxations. The peripheral parasympathomimetic effects of shilajit were confirmed by blockade of shilajit-induced relaxations (in vitro) and shilajit-induced lowering of MABP and HR (in vivo) by atropine.

  1. Effects of Stress and Relaxation on Central Pain Modulation in Chronic Whiplash and Fibromyalgia Patients Compared to Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Iris; Cagnie, Barbara; Nijs, Jo; van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Danneels, Lieven; De Pauw, Robby; Meeus, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Compelling evidence has demonstrated that impaired central pain modulation contributes to persistent pain in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and fibromyalgia (FM). However, there is limited research concerning the influence of stress and relaxation on central pain modulation in patients with chronic WAD and FM. The present study aims to investigate the effects of acute cognitive stress and relaxation on central pain modulation in chronic WAD and FM patients compared to healthy individuals. A randomized crossover design was employed. The present study took place at the University of Brussels, the University Hospital Brussels, and the University of Antwerp. Fifty-nine participants (16 chronic WAD patients, 21 FM, 22 pain-free controls) were enrolled and subjected to various pain measurements. Temporal summation (TS) of pain and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated. Subsequently, participants were randomly allocated to either a group that received progressive relaxation therapy or a group that performed a battery of cognitive tests (= cognitive stressor). Afterwards, all pain measurements were repeated. One week later participant groups were switched. A significant difference was found between the groups in the change in TS in response to relaxation (P = 0.008) and cognitive stress (P = 0.003). TS decreased in response to relaxation and cognitive stress in chronic WAD patients and controls. In contrast, TS increased after both interventions in FM patients. CPM efficacy decreased in all 3 groups in response to relaxation (P = 0.002) and cognitive stress (P = 0.001). The obtained results only apply for a single session of muscle relaxation therapy and cognitive stress, whereby no conclusions can be made for effects on pain perception and modulation of chronic cognitive stress and long-term relaxation therapies. A single relaxation session as well as cognitive stress may have negative acute effects on pain modulation in patients with

  2. Chloride channel blockade relaxes airway smooth muscle and potentiates relaxation by β-agonists

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Peter; Rinderspacher, Alison; Fu, Xiao Wen; Zhang, Yi; Landry, Donald W.; Emala, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Severe bronchospasm refractory to β-agonists continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in asthmatic patients. We questioned whether chloride channels/transporters are novel targets for the relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We have screened a library of compounds, derivatives of anthranilic and indanyloxyacetic acid, that were originally developed to antagonize chloride channels in the kidney. We hypothesized that members of this library would be novel calcium-activated chloride channel blockers for the airway. The initial screen of this compound library identified 4 of 20 compounds that relaxed a tetraethylammonium chloride-induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings. The two most effective compounds, compounds 1 and 13, were further studied for their potential to either prevent the initiation of or relax the maintenance phase of an acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction or to potentiate β-agonist-mediated relaxation. Both relaxed an established ACh-induced contraction in human and guinea pig ex vivo ASM. In contrast, the prevention of an ACh-induced contraction required copretreatment with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter blocker bumetanide. The combination of compound 13 and bumetanide also potentiated relaxation by the β-agonist isoproterenol in guinea pig tracheal rings. Compounds 1 and 13 hyperpolarized the plasma cell membrane of human ASM cells and blocked spontaneous transient inward currents, a measure of chloride currents in these cells. These functional and electrophysiological data suggest that modulating ASM chloride flux is a novel therapeutic target in asthma and other bronchoconstrictive diseases. PMID:24879056

  3. Transient Postseismic Relaxation With Burger's Body Viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetland, E. A.; Hager, B. H.; O'Connell, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    Typical models used to investigate postseismic deformation are composed of an elastic layer over a Maxwell viscoelastic region. Geodetic observations made after a number of large earthquakes show a rapid exponential decay in postseismic velocity immediately after the rupture, followed by a more slowly decaying (or constant) velocity at a later time. Models of a Maxwell viscoelastic interior predict a single exponential postseismic velocity relaxation. To account for observed rapid, short-term relaxation decay, surprisingly low viscosities in the lower-crust or upper-mantle have been proposed. To model the difference in short and long time decay rates, the Maxwell element is sometimes modified to have a non-linear rheology, which results in a lower effective viscosity immediately after the rupture, evolving to a higher effective viscosity as the co-seismic stresses relax. Incorporation of models of after-slip in the lower crust on a down-dip extension of the fault have also had some success at modeling the above observations. When real rocks are subjected to a sudden change in stress or strain, e.g., that caused by an earthquake, they exhibit a transient response. The transient deformation is typically accommodated by grain boundary sliding and the longer-time deformation is accommodated by motion of dislocations. Both a short-term transient response and long-term steady creep are exhibited by a Burger's body, a Maxwell element (a spring in series with a viscous dash-pot) in series with a Voigt element (a spring in parallel with a viscous dash-pot). Typically the (transient) viscosity of the Voigt element is 10 - 100 times less than the (steady) viscosity of the Maxwell element. Thus, with a Burger's body, stress relaxation is a superposition of two exponential decays. For a model composed of an elastic layer over a viscoelastic region, the coseismic changes in stress (and strain) depend only on the elastic moduli, and are independent of the description of the

  4. Accuracy investigation of phthalate metabolite standards.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Éric; Leblanc, Alain; Simard, Yves; Thellen, Claude

    2012-05-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous compounds whose metabolites are usually determined in urine for biomonitoring studies. Following suspect and unexplained results from our laboratory in an external quality-assessment scheme, we investigated the accuracy of all phthalate metabolite standards in our possession by comparing them with those of several suppliers. Our findings suggest that commercial phthalate metabolite certified solutions are not always accurate and that lot-to-lot discrepancies significantly affect the accuracy of the results obtained with several of these standards. These observations indicate that the reliability of the results obtained from different lots of standards is not equal, which reduces the possibility of intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory comparisons of results. However, agreements of accuracy have been observed for a majority of neat standards obtained from different suppliers, which indicates that a solution to this issue is available. Data accuracy of phthalate metabolites should be of concern for laboratories performing phthalate metabolite analysis because of the standards used. The results of our investigation are presented from the perspective that laboratories performing phthalate metabolite analysis can obtain accurate and comparable results in the future. Our findings will contribute to improving the quality of future phthalate metabolite analyses and will affect the interpretation of past results.

  5. Reward and Toxicity of Cocaine Metabolites Generated by Cocaine Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vishakantha; Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Jordan D; Reyes, Santiago; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) gene therapy is emerging as a promising concept for treatment of cocaine addiction. BChE levels after gene transfer can rise 1000-fold above those in untreated mice, making this enzyme the second most abundant plasma protein. For months or years, gene transfer of a BChE mutated into a cocaine hydrolase (CocH) can maintain enzyme levels that destroy cocaine within seconds after appearance in the blood stream, allowing little to reach the brain. Rapid enzyme action causes a sharp rise in plasma levels of two cocaine metabolites, benzoic acid (BA) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), a smooth muscle relaxant that is mildly hypotensive and, at best, only weakly rewarding. The present study, utilizing Balb/c mice, tested reward effects and cardiovascular effects of administering EME and BA together at molar levels equivalent to those generated by a given dose of cocaine. Reward was evaluated by conditioned place preference. In this paradigm, cocaine (20 mg/kg) induced a robust positive response but the equivalent combined dose of EME + BA failed to induce either place preference or aversion. Likewise, mice that had undergone gene transfer with mouse CocH (mCocH) showed no place preference or aversion after repeated treatments with a near-lethal 80 mg/kg cocaine dose. Furthermore, a single administration of that same high cocaine dose failed to affect blood pressure as measured using the noninvasive tail-cuff method. These observations confirm that the drug metabolites generated after CocH gene transfer therapy are safe even after a dose of cocaine that would ordinarily be lethal.

  6. Application of dried blood spot cards to determine olive oil phenols (hydroxytyrosol metabolites) in human blood.

    PubMed

    de Las Hazas, María Carmen López; Motilva, Maria José; Piñol, Carme; Macià, Alba

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a fast and simple blood sampling and sample pre-treatment method based on the use of the dried blood spot (DBS) cards and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the quantification of olive oil phenolic metabolites in human blood was developed and validated. After validation, the method was applied to determine hydroxytyrosol metabolites in human blood samples after the acute intake of an olive oil phenolic extract. Using the FTA DMPK-A DBS card under optimum conditions, with 20µL as the blood solution volume, 100µL of methanol/Milli-Q water (50/50, v/v) as the extraction solvent and 7 disks punched out from the card, the main hydroxytyrosol metabolites (hydroxytyrosol-3-O-sulphate and hydroxytyrosol acetate sulphate) were identified and quantified. The developed methodology allowed detecting and quantifying the generated metabolites at low μM levels. The proposed method is a significant improvement over existing methods to determine phenolic metabolites circulating in blood and plasma samples, thus making blood sampling possible with the volunteer pricking their own finger, and the subsequent storage of the blood in the DBS cards prior to chromatographic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Androgens are bronchoactive drugs that act by relaxing airway smooth muscle and preventing bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Luis M; Espinoza, Julia; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Chávez, Jaime; Perusquía, Mercedes

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the androgen levels in asthmatic men may be associated with the severity of asthma. Androgens induce a nongenomic relaxation in airway smooth muscle, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential bronchorelaxing action of testosterone (TES) and its metabolites (5α- and 5β-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). A preventive effect on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced bronchospasm was observed in sensitized guinea pigs for each androgen. Androgens were studied in response to bronchoconstrictors: carbachol (CCh) and KCl in isolated trachea rings with and without epithelium from non-sensitized and sensitized animals as well as on OVA-induced contraction. Androgens concentration-dependently abolished the contraction in response to CCh, KCl, and OVA. There were significant differences in the sensitivity to the relaxation induced by each androgen. 5β-DHT was more potent for relaxing KCl-induced contraction, while TES and 5α-DHT were more potent for CCh- and OVA-induced contraction. No differences were found in preparations with and without epithelium or in the presence of a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor or an inhibitor of K(+) channels. These data indicate the absence of involvement of the epithelium-, NO- and K(+) channels-dependent pathway in androgen-induced relaxation. However, in dissociated tracheal myocytes loaded with the calcium-binding fluorescent dye Fura -2, physiological concentrations of androgens decreased the KCl-induced [Ca(2+)]i increment. 5β-DHT was the most potent at decreasing KCl-induced [Ca(2+)]i increment and preventing bronchospasm. We suggest that androgen-induced brochorelaxation was mediated via decreased Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+)channels but additional Ca(2+) entry blockade may be involved. Molecular changes in androgen structure may determine its preferential site of action. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Structural Relaxation of Vit4Amorphous Alloy by the Enthalpy Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, James; Hammond, Vincent

    2002-03-01

    The structural relaxation of an amorphous alloy designated Vit4 has been investigated as a function of thermal history using differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicate that the width of the glass transition region is approximately 30 °C, which is broader than molecular or polymeric glasses but similar to inorganic glasses. The broad transition implies a large distribution of relaxation times, a low activation energy, or a combination of these effects. The Tool-Narayanaswamy model for structural relaxation has been used to analyze the change in fictive temperature that occurs for a series of cooling rates. The activation energy calculated from these data the is 187 kJ/mol, a value that is low compared to other glasses. Using optimization programs, the other relaxation parameters, the characteristic relaxation time, the non-linearity parameter, x, and the fractional exponent of distribution of relaxation times, b, were determined from the experimental specific heat curves. Although the parameters were in good agreement with values typical of other glassy materials, there appears to be less correlation between them than is observed in molecular and polymeric glasses. The results obtained in this study indicate that the structural relaxation of Vit 4 is similar to other glasses except for a low activation energy with high glass transition. This could be due to a low free volume or configurational entropy. The width of the glass transition could result from a large distribution of relaxation times or a low activation energy. The exponent of the distribution of relaxation times, b, is 0.45±0.1 and the non-linearity parameter, x =0.5±0.2. The structural relaxation of Vit 4 is dominated by a low activation energy which is related to the atomic jump motion of hard spheres. The DCp at Tg should be 11.7 J/mol. deg per bead according to Wunderlich’s rule. This means that the change in Cp at Tg in Vit4 can be accounted for by one bead although there are five metal

  9. Biosynthesis of human diazepam and clonazepam metabolites.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Núbia C; Araujo Cordeiro, Kelly C F; de Melo Souza, Paula L; Nogueira, Diogo F; da Silva e Sousa, Diego B; Costa, Maísa B; Noël, François; de Oliveira, Valéria

    2015-03-01

    A screening of fungal and microbial strains allowed to select the best microorganisms to produce in high yields some of the human metabolites of two benzodiazepine drugs, diazepam and clonazepam, in order to study new pharmacological activities and for chemical standard proposes. Among the microorganisms tested, Cunninghamella echinulata ATCC 9244 and Rhizopus arrhizus ATCC 11145 strains, were the most active producers of the mains metabolites of diazepam which included demethylated, hydroxylated derivatives. Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159 and Chaetomium indicum LCP 984200 produced the 7 amino-clonazepam metabolite and a product of acid hydrolysis of this benzodiazepine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  11. Antimalarial Activity of Plant Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Hui; Xu, Xin-Ya; Shi, Ni; Tsang, Siu Wai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2018-05-06

    Malaria, as a major global health problem, continues to affect a large number of people each year, especially those in developing countries. Effective drug discovery is still one of the main efforts to control malaria. As natural products are still considered as a key source for discovery and development of therapeutic agents, we have evaluated more than 2000 plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum . As a result, we discovered dozens of plant leads that displayed antimalarial activity. Our phytochemical study of some of these plant extracts led to the identification of several potent antimalarial compounds. The prior comprehensive review article entitled “Antimalarial activity of plant metabolites” by Schwikkard and Van Heerden (2002) reported structures of plant-derived compounds with antiplasmodial activity and covered literature up to the year 2000. As a continuation of this effort, the present review covers the antimalarial compounds isolated from plants, including marine plants, reported in the literature from 2001 to the end of 2017. During the span of the last 17 years, 175 antiplasmodial compounds were discovered from plants. These active compounds are organized in our review article according to their plant families. In addition, we also include ethnobotanical information of the antimalarial plants discussed.

  12. Potential metabolite markers of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Chen, T; Sun, L; Zhao, Z; Qi, X; Zhou, K; Cao, Y; Wang, X; Qiu, Y; Su, M; Zhao, A; Wang, P; Yang, P; Wu, J; Feng, G; He, L; Jia, W; Wan, C

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects 0.5-1% of the population worldwide. Current diagnostic methods are based on psychiatric interviews, which are subjective in nature. The lack of disease biomarkers to support objective laboratory tests has been a long-standing bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis and evaluation of schizophrenia. Here we report a global metabolic profiling study involving 112 schizophrenic patients and 110 healthy subjects, who were divided into a training set and a test set, designed to identify metabolite markers. A panel of serum markers consisting of glycerate, eicosenoic acid, β-hydroxybutyrate, pyruvate and cystine was identified as an effective diagnostic tool, achieving an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.945 in the training samples (62 patients and 62 controls) and 0.895 in the test samples (50 patients and 48 controls). Furthermore, a composite panel by the addition of urine β-hydroxybutyrate to the serum panel achieved a more satisfactory accuracy, which reached an AUC of 1 in both the training set and the test set. Multiple fatty acids and ketone bodies were found significantly (P<0.01) elevated in both the serum and urine of patients, suggesting an upregulated fatty acid catabolism, presumably resulting from an insufficiency of glucose supply in the brains of schizophrenia patients.

  13. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turzi, Stefano S.

    2017-11-01

    I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium. In a simple one-dimensional channel geometry, we show that the interaction between nonuniform nematic order and activity results in either a spontaneous flow of particles or a self-organization into subchannels flowing in opposite directions.

  14. Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR

    DOEpatents

    Grunewald, Elliot D.; Walsh, David O.

    2017-03-21

    NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.sub.1 and T.sub.2* as a function of position as well as one-dimensional and two-dimension distributions of T.sub.1 versus T.sub.2* as a function of subsurface position.

  15. Tuning energy relaxation along quantum Hall channels.

    PubMed

    Altimiras, C; le Sueur, H; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Mailly, D; Pierre, F

    2010-11-26

    The chiral edge channels in the quantum Hall regime are considered ideal ballistic quantum channels, and have quantum information processing potentialities. Here, we demonstrate experimentally, at a filling factor of ν(L)=2, the efficient tuning of the energy relaxation that limits quantum coherence and permits the return toward equilibrium. Energy relaxation along an edge channel is controllably enhanced by increasing its transmission toward a floating Ohmic contact, in quantitative agreement with predictions. Moreover, by forming a closed inner edge channel loop, we freeze energy exchanges in the outer channel. This result also elucidates the inelastic mechanisms at work at ν(L)=2, informing us, in particular, that those within the outer edge channel are negligible.

  16. Effective temperature in relaxation of Coulomb glasses.

    PubMed

    Somoza, A M; Ortuño, M; Caravaca, M; Pollak, M

    2008-08-01

    We study relaxation in two-dimensional Coulomb glasses up to macroscopic times. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm especially designed to escape efficiently from deep valleys around metastable states. We find that, during the relaxation process, the site occupancy follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature much higher than the real temperature T. Long electron-hole excitations are characterized by T(eff), while short ones are thermalized at T. We argue that the density of states at the Fermi level is proportional to T(eff) and is a good thermometer to measure it. T(eff) decreases extremely slowly, roughly as the inverse of the logarithm of time, and it should affect hopping conductance in many experimental circumstances.

  17. Spin relaxation 1/f noise in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, S.; Guimarães, M. H. D.; Kaverzin, A.; van Wees, B. J.; Vera-Marun, I. J.

    2017-02-01

    We report the first measurement of 1/f type noise associated with electronic spin transport, using single layer graphene as a prototypical material with a large and tunable Hooge parameter. We identify the presence of two contributions to the measured spin-dependent noise: contact polarization noise from the ferromagnetic electrodes, which can be filtered out using the cross-correlation method, and the noise originated from the spin relaxation processes. The noise magnitude for spin and charge transport differs by three orders of magnitude, implying different scattering mechanisms for the 1/f fluctuations in the charge and spin transport processes. A modulation of the spin-dependent noise magnitude by changing the spin relaxation length and time indicates that the spin-flip processes dominate the spin-dependent noise.

  18. Effects of Nicotine Metabolites on Nicotine Withdrawal Behaviors in Mice.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Sagi; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-06-01

    Rodent studies suggest that nicotine metabolites and minor tobacco alkaloids such as nornicotine and cotinine may promote cigarette smoking by enhancing nicotine rewarding and reinforcing effects. However, there is little information on the effects of these minor tobacco alkaloids on nicotine withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to determine whether the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine and cotinine exhibit nicotine-like behavioral effects in a mouse model of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. Mice were infused with nicotine or saline for 14 days. Experiments were conducted on day 15, 18-24 hours after minipump removal. Ten minutes prior to testing, nicotine-dependent ICR male mice received an acute injection of nicotine (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg), nornicotine (2.5 and 25 mg/kg), or cotinine (5 and 50 mg/kg) to determine effects on somatic signs, anxiety-like behaviors, and hyperalgesia spontaneous signs of withdrawal. Nicotine and the minor tobacco alkaloid nornicotine, but not cotinine, produced dose-dependent reversal of nicotine withdrawal signs in the mouse. The minor tobacco alkaloid and nicotine metabolite nornicotine at high doses have nicotinic like effects that may contribute to tobacco consumption and dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. On real statistics of relaxation in gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzovlev, Yu. E.

    2016-02-01

    By example of a particle interacting with ideal gas, it is shown that the statistics of collisions in statistical mechanics at any value of the gas rarefaction parameter qualitatively differ from that conjugated with Boltzmann's hypothetical molecular chaos and kinetic equation. In reality, the probability of collisions of the particle in itself is random. Because of that, the relaxation of particle velocity acquires a power-law asymptotic behavior. An estimate of its exponent is suggested on the basis of simple kinematic reasons.

  20. Electrode Reactions in Slowly Relaxing Media

    SciTech Connect

    Matyushov, Dmitry V.; Newton, Marshall D.

    Here, standard models of reaction kinetics in condensed materials rely on the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution for the population of reactants at the top of the free energy barrier separating them from the products. While energy dissipation and quantum effects at the barrier top can potentially affect the transmission coefficient entering the rate preexponential factor, much stronger dynamical effects on the reaction barrier are caused by the breakdown of ergodicity for populating the reaction barrier (violation of the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics). When the spectrum of medium modes coupled to the reaction coordinate includes fluctuations slower than the reaction rate, such nuclear motions dynamicallymore » freeze on the reaction time-scale and do not contribute to the activation barrier. In this paper, we consider the consequences of this scenario for electrode reactions in slowly relaxing media. Changing electrode overpotential speeds electrode electron transfer up, potentially cutting through the spectrum of nuclear modes coupled to the reaction coordinate. The reorganization energy of electrochemical electron transfer becomes a function of the electrode overpotential, switching between the thermodynamic value at low rates to the nonergodic limit at higher rates. The sharpness of this transition depends of the relaxation spectrum of the medium. The reorganization energy experiences a sudden drop with increasing overpotential for a medium with a Debye relaxation, but becomes a much shallower function of the overpotential for media with stretched exponential dynamics. The latter scenario characterizes electron transfer in ionic liquids. The analysis of electrode reactions in room-temperature ionic liquids shows that the magnitude of the free energy of nuclear solvation is significantly below its thermodynamic limit. Finally, this result applies to reaction times faster than microseconds and is currently limited by the available dielectric relaxation data.« less

  1. Controlling spin relaxation with a cavity

    DOE PAGES

    Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; ...

    2016-02-15

    Spontaneous emission of radiation is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which an excited quantum system returns to equilibrium. For spins, however, spontaneous emission is generally negligible compared to other non-radiative relaxation processes because of the weak coupling between the magnetic dipole and the electromagnetic field. In 1946, Purcell realized that the rate of spontaneous emission can be greatly enhanced by placing the quantum system in a resonant cavity. This effect has since been used extensively to control the lifetime of atoms and semiconducting heterostructures coupled to microwave or optical cavities, and is essential for the realization of high-efficiency single-photonmore » sources. In this paper, we report the application of this idea to spins in solids. By coupling donor spins in silicon to a superconducting microwave cavity with a high quality factor and a small mode volume, we reach the regime in which spontaneous emission constitutes the dominant mechanism of spin relaxation. The relaxation rate is increased by three orders of magnitude as the spins are tuned to the cavity resonance, demonstrating that energy relaxation can be controlled on demand. Our results provide a general way to initialize spin systems into their ground state and therefore have applications in magnetic resonance and quantum information processing. Finally, they also demonstrate that the coupling between the magnetic dipole of a spin and the electromagnetic field can be enhanced up to the point at which quantum fluctuations have a marked effect on the spin dynamics; as such, they represent an important step towards the coherent magnetic coupling of individual spins to microwave photons.« less

  2. Electrode Reactions in Slowly Relaxing Media

    DOE PAGES

    Matyushov, Dmitry V.; Newton, Marshall D.

    2017-11-17

    Here, standard models of reaction kinetics in condensed materials rely on the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution for the population of reactants at the top of the free energy barrier separating them from the products. While energy dissipation and quantum effects at the barrier top can potentially affect the transmission coefficient entering the rate preexponential factor, much stronger dynamical effects on the reaction barrier are caused by the breakdown of ergodicity for populating the reaction barrier (violation of the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics). When the spectrum of medium modes coupled to the reaction coordinate includes fluctuations slower than the reaction rate, such nuclear motions dynamicallymore » freeze on the reaction time-scale and do not contribute to the activation barrier. In this paper, we consider the consequences of this scenario for electrode reactions in slowly relaxing media. Changing electrode overpotential speeds electrode electron transfer up, potentially cutting through the spectrum of nuclear modes coupled to the reaction coordinate. The reorganization energy of electrochemical electron transfer becomes a function of the electrode overpotential, switching between the thermodynamic value at low rates to the nonergodic limit at higher rates. The sharpness of this transition depends of the relaxation spectrum of the medium. The reorganization energy experiences a sudden drop with increasing overpotential for a medium with a Debye relaxation, but becomes a much shallower function of the overpotential for media with stretched exponential dynamics. The latter scenario characterizes electron transfer in ionic liquids. The analysis of electrode reactions in room-temperature ionic liquids shows that the magnitude of the free energy of nuclear solvation is significantly below its thermodynamic limit. Finally, this result applies to reaction times faster than microseconds and is currently limited by the available dielectric relaxation data.« less

  3. Relaxation Phenomena in Optically Pumped Mercury Isotopes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-31

    transmitting envelope, containing a small quantity of 1991tg and 2 0 11g in approximately equal amounts. A variety of ultraviolet- transmitting glasses ...is male from a glass , Corning 9741. During the course of this project approximately 300 cells from a number of materials were made and tested in... glass and fused silica surfaces. The general pattern of the dependence of relaxation times as a function of temperature in "stable" NMR cells has

  4. Picosecond Electronic Relaxations In Amorphous Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauc, Jan

    1983-11-01

    Using the pump and probe technique the relaxation processes of photogenerated carriers in amorphous tetrahedral semiconductors and chalcogenide glasses in the time domain from 0.5 Ps to 1.4 ns have been studied. The results obtained on the following phenomena are reviewed: hot carrier thermalization in amorphous silicon; trapping of carriers in undoped a-Si:H; trapping of carriers in deep traps produced by doping; geminate recombination in As2S3-xSex glasses.

  5. Relaxation Techniques for Handicapped Children: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipkin, Dvora

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses four major relaxation training approaches used with handicapped children: progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, yoga, and mental relaxation, which includes guided fantasy, imagery, and meditation. Descriptions of these techniques, the effects of their use with various populations, and reviews of recent studies of their…

  6. Is Relaxation Training Effective in the Treatment of Clinical Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    The process of relaxation is a complex triarchic phenomenon that incorporates behavioral, cognitive, and physiological components. Existing literature is surveyed in order to determine the efficacy of treating various forms of depression with cognitive-behavioral relaxation strategies. Relaxation training has been shown to be effective in treating…

  7. 46 CFR 46.10-1 - Relaxation from regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relaxation from regulations. 46.10-1 Section 46.10-1... PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-1 Relaxation from regulations. (a) New passenger vessels making... engaged in foreign voyages by sea may be permitted relaxation from the requirements of this part if, in...

  8. 46 CFR 46.10-1 - Relaxation from regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relaxation from regulations. 46.10-1 Section 46.10-1... PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-1 Relaxation from regulations. (a) New passenger vessels making... engaged in foreign voyages by sea may be permitted relaxation from the requirements of this part if, in...

  9. Alternate Forms Reliability of the Behavioral Relaxation Scale: Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Dunlap, Angel L.

    2006-01-01

    Alternate forms reliability of the Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS; Poppen,1998), a direct observation measure of relaxed behavior, was examined. A single BRS score, based on long duration observation (5-minute), has been found to be a valid measure of relaxation and is correlated with self-report and some physiological measures. Recently,…

  10. Relaxation Training: Its Usefulness in the Middle School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    A study examined multiple outcomes of relaxation training simultaneously in seventh grade classrooms. "Project Relaxation" measured cognitive (achievement) and affective (discipline, attendance, tardiness, and self-concept) changes with a program of relaxation training for 532 seventh grade students in 10 private and public middle schools in South…

  11. The Efficacy of Relaxation Training in Treating Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francesco, Pagnini; Mauro, Manzoni Gian; Gianluca, Castelnuovo; Enrico, Molinari

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of scientific literature about relaxation training and its effects on anxiety. Research investigating progressive relaxation, meditation, applied relaxation and autogenic training were considered. All these methods proved to be effective in reducing anxiety in all kind of samples, affected or not by physical or…

  12. Graph Matching: Relax at Your Own Risk.

    PubMed

    Lyzinski, Vince; Fishkind, Donniell E; Fiori, Marcelo; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Priebe, Carey E; Sapiro, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Graph matching-aligning a pair of graphs to minimize their edge disagreements-has received wide-spread attention from both theoretical and applied communities over the past several decades, including combinatorics, computer vision, and connectomics. Its attention can be partially attributed to its computational difficulty. Although many heuristics have previously been proposed in the literature to approximately solve graph matching, very few have any theoretical support for their performance. A common technique is to relax the discrete problem to a continuous problem, therefore enabling practitioners to bring gradient-descent-type algorithms to bear. We prove that an indefinite relaxation (when solved exactly) almost always discovers the optimal permutation, while a common convex relaxation almost always fails to discover the optimal permutation. These theoretical results suggest that initializing the indefinite algorithm with the convex optimum might yield improved practical performance. Indeed, experimental results illuminate and corroborate these theoretical findings, demonstrating that excellent results are achieved in both benchmark and real data problems by amalgamating the two approaches.

  13. Ultrafast electronic relaxation in superheated bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaly, E. G.; Rode, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Interaction of moving electrons with vibrating ions in the lattice forms the basis for many physical properties from electrical resistivity and electronic heat capacity to superconductivity. In ultrafast laser interaction with matter the electrons are heated much faster than the electron-ion energy equilibration, leading to a two-temperature state with electron temperature far above that of the lattice. The rate of temperature equilibration is governed by the strength of electron-phonon energy coupling, which is conventionally described by a coupling constant, neglecting the dependence on the electron and lattice temperature. The application of this constant to the observations of fast relaxation rate led to a controversial notion of ‘ultra-fast non-thermal melting’ under extreme electronic excitation. Here we provide theoretical grounds for a strong dependence of the electron-phonon relaxation time on the lattice temperature. We show, by taking proper account of temperature dependence, that the heating and restructuring of the lattice occurs much faster than were predicted on the assumption of a constant, temperature independent energy coupling. We applied the temperature-dependent momentum and energy transfer time to experiments on fs-laser excited bismuth to demonstrate that all the observed ultra-fast transformations of the transient state of bismuth are purely thermal in nature. The developed theory, when applied to ultrafast experiments on bismuth, provides interpretation of the whole variety of transient phase relaxation without the non-thermal melting conjecture.

  14. Ideal relaxation of the Hopf fibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiet, Christopher Berg; Candelaresi, Simon; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2017-07-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics relaxation is the topology-conserving reconfiguration of a magnetic field into a lower energy state where the net force is zero. This is achieved by modeling the plasma as perfectly conducting viscous fluid. It is an important tool for investigating plasma equilibria and is often used to study the magnetic configurations in fusion devices and astrophysical plasmas. We study the equilibrium reached by a localized magnetic field through the topology conserving relaxation of a magnetic field based on the Hopf fibration in which magnetic field lines are closed circles that are all linked with one another. Magnetic fields with this topology have recently been shown to occur in non-ideal numerical simulations. Our results show that any localized field can only attain equilibrium if there is a finite external pressure, and that for such a field a Taylor state is unattainable. We find an equilibrium plasma configuration that is characterized by a lowered pressure in a toroidal region, with field lines lying on surfaces of constant pressure. Therefore, the field is in a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium. Localized helical magnetic fields are found when plasma is ejected from astrophysical bodies and subsequently relaxes against the background plasma, as well as on earth in plasmoids generated by, e.g., a Marshall gun. This work shows under which conditions an equilibrium can be reached and identifies a toroidal depression as the characteristic feature of such a configuration.

  15. Precession relaxation of viscoelastic oblate rotators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouard, Julien; Efroimsky, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Perturbations of all sorts destabilize the rotation of a small body and leave it in a non-principal spin state. In such a state, the body experiences alternating stresses generated by the inertial forces. This yields nutation relaxation, i.e. evolution of the spin towards the principal rotation about the maximal-inertia axis. Knowledge of the time-scales needed to damp the nutation is crucial in studies of small bodies' dynamics. In the literature hitherto, nutation relaxation has always been described with aid of an empirical quality factor Q introduced to parametrize the energy dissipation rate. Among the drawbacks of this approach was its inability to describe the dependence of the relaxation rate upon the current nutation angle. This inability stemmed from our lack of knowledge of the quality factor's dependence on the forcing frequency. In this article, we derive our description of nutation damping directly from the rheological law obeyed by the material. This renders us the nutation damping rate as a function of the current nutation angle, as well as of the shape and the rheological parameters of the body. In contradistinction from the approach based on an empirical Q factor, our development gives a zero damping rate in the spherical-shape limit. Our method is generic and applicable to any shape and to any linear rheological law. However, to simplify the developments, here we consider a dynamically oblate rotator with a Maxwell rheology.

  16. Tension and relaxation in the individual.

    PubMed

    Newbury, C R

    1979-06-01

    Increasing materialism in society is resulting in more wide spread nervous tension in all age groups. While some degree of nervous tension is necessary in everyday living, its adverse effects require that we must learn to bring it under control. Total tension is shown to have two components: a controllable element arising from factors in the environment and the inbuilt uncontrollable residue which is basic in the individual temperament. The effects of excessive or uncontrolled stress can be classified as 1) emotional reactions such as neurotic behaviour (anxiety hypochondria, hysteria, phobia, depression obsessions and compulsions) or psychotic behaviour and 2) psychosomatic reactions (nervous asthma, headache, insomnia, heart attack). Nervous energy can be wastefully expended by such factors as loss of temper, wrong attitudes to work, job frustration and marital strains. Relaxation is the only positive way to control undesirable nervous tension and its techniques require to be learned. A number of techniques (progressive relaxation, differential relaxation, hypnosis, the use of biofeedback, Yoga and Transcendental Meditation) are described and their application to dental practice is discussed.

  17. OCT-based approach to local relaxations discrimination from translational relaxation motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Lev A.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Sirotkina, Marina A.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Vitkin, Alex; Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.

    2016-04-01

    Multimodal optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging tool for tissue state characterization. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an approach to mapping mechanical properties of tissue based on OCT. One of challenging problems in OCE is elimination of the influence of residual local tissue relaxation that complicates obtaining information on elastic properties of the tissue. Alternatively, parameters of local relaxation itself can be used as an additional informative characteristic for distinguishing the tissue in normal and pathological states over the OCT image area. Here we briefly present an OCT-based approach to evaluation of local relaxation processes in the tissue bulk after sudden unloading of its initial pre-compression. For extracting the local relaxation rate we evaluate temporal dependence of local strains that are mapped using our recently developed hybrid phase resolved/displacement-tracking (HPRDT) approach. This approach allows one to subtract the contribution of global displacements of scatterers in OCT scans and separate the temporal evolution of local strains. Using a sample excised from of a coronary arteria, we demonstrate that the observed relaxation of local strains can be reasonably fitted by an exponential law, which opens the possibility to characterize the tissue by a single relaxation time. The estimated local relaxation times are assumed to be related to local biologically-relevant processes inside the tissue, such as diffusion, leaking/draining of the fluids, local folding/unfolding of the fibers, etc. In general, studies of evolution of such features can provide new metrics for biologically-relevant changes in tissue, e.g., in the problems of treatment monitoring.

  18. Evidence of direct smooth muscle relaxant effects of the fibrate gemfibrozil.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Laura E; Peuler, Jacob D

    2010-01-01

    Fibrates are commonly employed to treat abnormal lipid metabolism via their unique ability to stimulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Interestingly, they also decrease systemic arterial pressure, despite recent evidence that PPAR alpha may contribute to expression of renin and related hypertension. Yet, mechanisms responsible for their potential antihypertensive activity remain unresolved. Rapid decreases in arterial pressure following bolus intravenous injections of bezafibrate strongly suggest they may relax arterial smooth muscle directly. But since bezafibrate is highly susceptible to photodegradation in aqueous media, it has never been critically tested for this possibility in vitro with isolated arterial smooth muscle preparations. Accordingly, we tested gemfibrozil which is resistant to photodegradation. We examined it over a therapeutically-relevant range (50-400 microM) for both acute and delayed relaxant effects on contractions of the isolated rat tail artery; contractions induced by either depolarizing its smooth muscle cell membranes with high potassium or stimulating its membrane-bound receptors with norepinephrine and arginine-vasopressin. We also examined these same gemfibrozil levels for effects on spontaneously-occurring phasic rhythmic contractile activity, typically not seen in arteries under in vitro conditions but commonly exhibited by smooth muscle of uterus, duodenum and bladder. We found that gemfibrozil significantly relaxed all induced forms of contraction in the rat tail artery, acutely at the higher test levels and after a delay of a few hours at the lower test levels. The highest test level of gemfibrozil (400 microM) also completely abolished spontaneously-occurring contractile activity of the isolated uterus and duodenum and markedly suppressed it in the bladder. This is the first evidence that a fibrate drug can directly relax smooth muscle contractions, either induced by various contractile agents or

  19. The flavonoid quercetin induces acute vasodilator effects in healthy volunteers: correlation with beta-glucuronidase activity.

    PubMed

    Perez, Almudena; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Jimenez, Rosario; Perez-Abud, Rocío; Haro, Jose M; Osuna, Antonio; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Duarte, Juan; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    Quercetin exerts vasodilator, antiplatelet and antiproliferative effects and reduces blood pressure, oxidative status and end-organ damage in hypertensive humans and animal models. We hypothesized that oral quercetin might induce vasodilator effects in humans and that they might be related to the deconjugation of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA). double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fifteen healthy volunteers (26±5 years, 6 female) were given a capsule containing placebo, 200 or 400mg of quercetin in random order in three consecutive weeks. At 2h a dose-dependent increase in Q3GA was observed in plasma (∼0.4 and 1μM for 200 and 400mg, respectively) with minor levels of quercetin and isorhamnetin. No changes were observed in blood pressure. At 5h quercetin induced and increase in brachial arterial diameter that correlated with the product of the levels of Q3GA by the plasma glucuronidase activity. There was an increase in urinary levels of glutathione but there was no increase in nitrites plus nitrates. Quercetin and isorhamnetin also relaxed human umbilical arteries in vitro while Q3GA was without effect. In conclusions, quercetin exerts acute vasodilator effects in vivo in normotensive, normocholesterolemic human subjects. These results are consistent with the effects being due to the deconjugation of the metabolite Q3GA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation, synthesis, and pharmacology of metabolites of 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2(1H)-pyrimidone.

    PubMed

    Schwan, T J; Ellis, K O; Wessels, F L; Pugh, D; Bell, R

    1980-10-01

    The metabolism of 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2(1H)-pyrimidone, an antianxiety/antidepressant agent, in dogs is reported. Two metabolites, 3-[1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1-ureido]propanoic acid and 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)uracil, were isolated, characterized, and synthesized. Neither metabolite was acutely toxic, and they did not exhibit antidepressant or antianxiety/anticonvulsant activity.

  1. Data Normalization of (1)H NMR Metabolite Fingerprinting Data Sets in the Presence of Unbalanced Metabolite Regulation.

    PubMed

    Hochrein, Jochen; Zacharias, Helena U; Taruttis, Franziska; Samol, Claudia; Engelmann, Julia C; Spang, Rainer; Oefner, Peter J; Gronwald, Wolfram

    2015-08-07

    Data normalization is an essential step in NMR-based metabolomics. Conducted properly, it improves data quality and removes unwanted biases. The choice of the appropriate normalization method is critical and depends on the inherent properties of the data set in question. In particular, the presence of unbalanced metabolic regulation, where the different specimens and cohorts under investigation do not contain approximately equal shares of up- and down-regulated features, may strongly influence data normalization. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the Shapiro-Wilk test to detect such unbalanced regulation. Next, employing a Latin-square design consisting of eight metabolites spiked into a urine specimen at eight different known concentrations, we show that commonly used normalization and scaling methods fail to retrieve true metabolite concentrations in the presence of increasing amounts of glucose added to simulate unbalanced regulation. However, by learning the normalization parameters on a subset of nonregulated features only, Linear Baseline Normalization, Probabilistic Quotient Normalization, and Variance Stabilization Normalization were found to account well for different dilutions of the samples without distorting the true spike-in levels even in the presence of marked unbalanced metabolic regulation. Finally, the methods described were applied successfully to a real world example of unbalanced regulation, namely, a set of plasma specimens collected from patients with and without acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass use.

  2. Secondary metabolites of cyanobacteria Nostoc sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Akio; Kajiyama, Shin-Ichiro

    1998-03-01

    Cyanobacteria attracted much attention recently because of their secondary metabolites with potent biological activities and unusual structures. This paper reviews some recent studies on the isolation, structural, elucidation and biological activities of the bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria Nostoc species.

  3. Regulation and Role of Fungal Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Macheleidt, Juliane; Mattern, Derek J; Fischer, Juliane; Netzker, Tina; Weber, Jakob; Schroeckh, Volker; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A

    2016-11-23

    Fungi have the capability to produce a tremendous number of so-called secondary metabolites, which possess a multitude of functions, e.g., communication signals during coexistence with other microorganisms, virulence factors during pathogenic interactions with plants and animals, and in medical applications. Therefore, research on this topic has intensified significantly during the past 10 years and thus knowledge of regulatory mechanisms and the understanding of the role of secondary metabolites have drastically increased. This review aims to depict the complexity of all the regulatory elements involved in controlling the expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters, ranging from epigenetic control and signal transduction pathways to global and specific transcriptional regulators. Furthermore, we give a short overview on the role of secondary metabolites, focusing on the interaction with other microorganisms in the environment as well as on pathogenic relationships.

  4. Trichoderma secondary metabolites that affect plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vinale, Francesco; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Ruocco, Michelina; Wood, Sheridan; Lorito, Matteo

    2012-11-01

    Recently, there have been many exciting new developments relating to the use of Trichoderma spp. as agents for biocontrol of pathogens and as plant growth promoters. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the positive effects of these microorganisms on the plant host. One factor that contributes to their beneficial biological activities is related to the wide variety of metabolites that they produce. These metabolites have been found not only to directly inhibit the growth and pathogenic activities of the parasites, but also to increase disease resistance by triggering the system of defence in the plant host. In addition, these metabolites are also capable of enhancing plant growth, which enables the plant to counteract the disease with compensatory vegetative growth by the augmented production of root and shoot systems. This review takes into account the Trichoderma secondary metabolites that affect plant metabolism and that may play an important role in the complex interactions of this biocontrol agent with the plant and pathogens.

  5. Cellular stress created by intermediary metabolite imbalances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jun; Trostel, Andrei; Le, Phuoc; Harinarayanan, Rajendran; Fitzgerald, Peter C; Adhya, Sankar

    2009-11-17

    Small molecules generally activate or inhibit gene transcription as externally added substrates or as internally accumulated end-products, respectively. Rarely has a connection been made that links an intracellular intermediary metabolite as a signal of gene expression. We report that a perturbation in the critical step of a metabolic pathway--the D-galactose amphibolic pathway--changes the dynamics of the pathways leading to accumulation of the intermediary metabolite UDP-galactose. This accumulation causes cell stress and transduces signals that alter gene expression so as to cope with the stress by restoring balance in the metabolite pool. This underscores the importance of studying the global effects of alterations in the level of intermediary metabolites in causing stress and coping with it by transducing signals to genes to reach a stable state of equilibrium (homeostasis). Such studies are an essential component in the integration of metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics.

  6. In vivo quantification of brain metabolites by 1H-MRS using water as an internal standard.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, P; Henriksen, O; Stubgaard, M; Gideon, P; Larsson, H B

    1993-01-01

    The reliability of absolute quantification of average metabolite concentrations in the human brain in vivo by 1H-MRS using the fully relaxed water signal as an internal standard was tested in a number of in vitro as well as in vivo measurements. The experiments were carried out on a SIEMENS HELICON SP 63/84 wholebody MR-scanner operating at 1.5 T using a STEAM sequence. In vitro studies indicate a very high correlation between metabolite signals (area under peaks) and concentration, R = 0.99 as well as between metabolite signals and the volume of the selected voxel, R = 1.00. The error in quantification of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration was about 1-2 mM (6-12%). Also in vivo a good linearity between water signal and selected voxel size was seen. The same was true for the studied metabolites, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr), and choline (Cho). Calculated average concentrations of NAA, Cr/PCr, and Cho in the occipital lobe of the brain in five healthy volunteers were (mean +/- 1 SD) 11.6 +/- 1.3 mM, 7.6 +/- 1.4 mM, and 1.7 +/- 0.5 mM. The results indicate that the method presented offers reasonable estimation of metabolite concentrations in the brain in vivo and therefore is useful in clinical research.

  7. Metabolite Identification of Halon Replacement Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    inhalation to a 1 % atmosphere for 2 h. Tlissues were analyzed for volatile metabolites, and urine was analyzed for fluoride and carboxylic acid metabolites...M*vass Spectrometry, lialocarbons, 35 lialon 1211, IICFC- 123, IICIFC 124, IICFC 142b, llvdro~chlorofluoro-tcarbIonis ( 1 ICFCs), Inhalation Exposure...trifluoroethane HCFC- 142b 1 -Chloro-1,1 - difluoroethane HCI Hydrochloric acid kg Kilogram L Liter m Meter M Moles/liter mg Milligram MHz Megahertz min Minute

  8. The Significance of Lichens and Their Metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneck, S.

    Lichens, symbiontic organisms of fungi and algae, synthesize numerous metabolites, the "lichen substances," which comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and terpenic compounds. Lichens and their metabolites have a manifold biological activity: antiviral, antibiotic, antitumor, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, and enzyme inhibitory. Usnic acid, a very active lichen substance is used in pharmaceutical preparations. Large amounts of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Evernia prunastri are processed in the perfume industry, and some lichens are sensitive reagents for the evaluation of air pollution.

  9. Hydrophobicity and Charge Shape Cellular Metabolite Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Even, Arren; Noor, Elad; Flamholz, Avi; Buescher, Joerg M.; Milo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    What governs the concentrations of metabolites within living cells? Beyond specific metabolic and enzymatic considerations, are there global trends that affect their values? We hypothesize that the physico-chemical properties of metabolites considerably affect their in-vivo concentrations. The recently achieved experimental capability to measure the concentrations of many metabolites simultaneously has made the testing of this hypothesis possible. Here, we analyze such recently available data sets of metabolite concentrations within E. coli, S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis and human. Overall, these data sets encompass more than twenty conditions, each containing dozens (28-108) of simultaneously measured metabolites. We test for correlations with various physico-chemical properties and find that the number of charged atoms, non-polar surface area, lipophilicity and solubility consistently correlate with concentration. In most data sets, a change in one of these properties elicits a ∼100 fold increase in metabolite concentrations. We find that the non-polar surface area and number of charged atoms account for almost half of the variation in concentrations in the most reliable and comprehensive data set. Analyzing specific groups of metabolites, such as amino-acids or phosphorylated nucleotides, reveals even a higher dependence of concentration on hydrophobicity. We suggest that these findings can be explained by evolutionary constraints imposed on metabolite concentrations and discuss possible selective pressures that can account for them. These include the reduction of solute leakage through the lipid membrane, avoidance of deleterious aggregates and reduction of non-specific hydrophobic binding. By highlighting the global constraints imposed on metabolic pathways, future research could shed light onto aspects of biochemical evolution and the chemical constraints that bound metabolic engineering efforts. PMID:21998563

  10. Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi.

    PubMed

    Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B

    2016-11-01

    Many Fungi have a well-developed secondary metabolism. The diversity of fungal species and the diversification of biosynthetic gene clusters underscores a nearly limitless potential for metabolic variation and an untapped resource for drug discovery and synthetic biology. Much of the ecological success of the filamentous fungi in colonizing the planet is owed to their ability to deploy their secondary metabolites in concert with their penetrative and absorptive mode of life. Fungal secondary metabolites exhibit biological activities that have been developed into life-saving medicines and agrochemicals. Toxic metabolites, known as mycotoxins, contaminate human and livestock food and indoor environments. Secondary metabolites are determinants of fungal diseases of humans, animals, and plants. Secondary metabolites exhibit a staggering variation in chemical structures and biological activities, yet their biosynthetic pathways share a number of key characteristics. The genes encoding cooperative steps of a biosynthetic pathway tend to be located contiguously on the chromosome in coregulated gene clusters. Advances in genome sequencing, computational tools, and analytical chemistry are enabling the rapid connection of gene clusters with their metabolic products. At least three fungal drug precursors, penicillin K and V, mycophenolic acid, and pleuromutilin, have been produced by synthetic reconstruction and expression of respective gene clusters in heterologous hosts. This review summarizes general aspects of fungal secondary metabolism and recent developments in our understanding of how and why fungi make secondary metabolites, how these molecules are produced, and how their biosynthetic genes are distributed across the Fungi. The breadth of fungal secondary metabolite diversity is highlighted by recent information on the biosynthesis of important fungus-derived metabolites that have contributed to human health and agriculture and that have negatively impacted crops

  11. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in endothelium‐independent relaxation to raloxifene in rat aorta

    PubMed Central

    Au, Chak Leung; Tsang, Suk Ying; Lau, Chi Wai; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Raloxifene can induce both endothelium‐dependent and ‐independent relaxation in different arteries. However, the underlying mechanisms by which raloxifene triggers endothelium‐independent relaxation are still incompletely understood. The purpose of present study was to examine the roles of NOSs and Ca2+ channels in the relaxant response to raloxifene in the rat isolated, endothelium‐denuded aorta. Experimental Approach Changes in isometric tension, cGMP, nitrite, inducible NOS protein expression and distribution in response to raloxifene in endothelium‐denuded aortic rings were studied by organ baths, radioimmunoassay, Griess reaction, western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Key Results Raloxifene reduced the contraction to CaCl2 in a Ca2+‐free, high K+‐containing solution in intact aortic rings. Raloxifene also acutely relaxed the aorta primarily through an endothelium‐independent mechanism involving NO, mostly from inducible NOS (iNOS) in vascular smooth muscle layers. This effect of raloxifene involved the generation of cGMP and nitrite. Also, it was genomic in nature, as it was inhibited by a classical oestrogen receptor antagonist and inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis. Raloxifene‐induced stimulation of iNOS gene expression was partly mediated through activation of the NF‐κB pathway. Raloxifene was more potent than 17β‐estradiol or tamoxifen at relaxing endothelium‐denuded aortic rings by stimulation of iNOS. Conclusions and Implications Raloxifene‐mediated vasorelaxation in rat aorta is independent of a functional endothelium and is mediated by oestrogen receptors and NF‐κB. This effect is mainly mediated through an enhanced production of NO, cGMP and nitrite, via the induction of iNOS and inhibition of calcium influx through Ca2+ channels in rat aortic smooth muscle. PMID:28138957

  12. Activation of endogenous GABAA channels on airway smooth muscle potentiates isoproterenol-mediated relaxation.

    PubMed

    Gallos, George; Gleason, Neil R; Zhang, Yi; Pak, Sang-Woo; Sonett, J R; Yang, Jay; Emala, Charles W

    2008-12-01

    Reactive airway disease predisposes patients to episodes of acute smooth muscle mediated bronchoconstriction. We have for the first time recently demonstrated the expression and function of endogenous ionotropic GABA(A) channels on airway smooth muscle cells. We questioned whether endogenous GABA(A) channels on airway smooth muscle could augment beta-agonist-mediated relaxation. Guinea pig tracheal rings or human bronchial airway smooth muscles were equilibrated in organ baths with continuous digital tension recordings. After pretreatment with or without the selective GABA(A) antagonist gabazine (100 muM), airway muscle was contracted with acetylcholine or beta-ala neurokinin A, followed by relaxation induced by cumulatively increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (1 nM to 1 muM) in the absence or presence of the selective GABA(A) agonist muscimol (10-100 muM). In separate experiments, guinea pig tracheal rings were pretreated with the large conductance K(Ca) channel blocker iberiotoxin (100 nM) after an EC(50) contraction with acetylcholine but before cumulatively increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (1 nM to 1 uM) in the absence or presence of muscimol (100 uM). GABA(A) activation potentiated the relaxant effects of isoproterenol after an acetylcholine or tachykinin-induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings or an acetylcholine-induced contraction in human endobronchial smooth muscle. This muscimol-induced potentiation of relaxation was abolished by gabazine pretreatment but persisted after blockade of the maxi K(Ca) channel. Selective activation of endogenous GABA(A) receptors significantly augments beta-agonist-mediated relaxation of guinea pig and human airway smooth muscle, which may have important therapeutic implications for patients in severe bronchospasm.

  13. Antifungal activity of microbial secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jeffrey J; Ghosh, Suman; Okoli, Ikechukwu; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are well known for their ability to impede other microorganisms. Reanalysis of a screen of natural products using the Caenorhabditis elegans-Candida albicans infection model identified twelve microbial secondary metabolites capable of conferring an increase in survival to infected nematodes. In this screen, the two compound treatments conferring the highest survival rates were members of the epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) family of fungal secondary metabolites, acetylgliotoxin and a derivative of hyalodendrin. The abundance of fungal secondary metabolites indentified in this screen prompted further studies investigating the interaction between opportunistic pathogenic fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus, because of the ability of the fungus to produce a plethora of secondary metabolites, including the well studied ETP gliotoxin. We found that cell-free supernatant of A. fumigatus was able to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans through the production of a secreted product. Comparative studies between a wild-type and an A. fumigatus ΔgliP strain unable to synthesize gliotoxin demonstrate that this secondary metabolite is the major factor responsible for the inhibition. Although toxic to organisms, gliotoxin conferred an increase in survival to C. albicans-infected C. elegans in a dose dependent manner. As A. fumigatus produces gliotoxin in vivo, we propose that in addition to being a virulence factor, gliotoxin may also provide an advantage to A. fumigatus when infecting a host that harbors other opportunistic fungi.

  14. Testosterone metabolism revisited: discovery of new metabolites.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Oscar J; Marcos, Josep; Ventura, Rosa; Fabregat, Andreu; Segura, Jordi

    2010-10-01

    The metabolism of testosterone is revisited. Four previously unreported metabolites were detected in urine after hydrolysis with KOH using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method and precursor ion scan mode. The metabolites were characterized by a product ion scan obtained with accurate mass measurements. Androsta-4,6-dien-3,17-dione, androsta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione, 17-hydroxy-androsta-4,6-dien-3-one and 15-androsten-3,17-dione were proposed as feasible structures for these metabolites on the basis of the mass spectrometry data. The proposed structures were confirmed by analysis of synthetic reference compounds. Only 15-androsten-3,17-dione could not be confirmed, owing to the lack of a commercially available standard. That all four compounds are testosterone metabolites was confirmed by the qualitative analysis of several urine samples collected before and after administration of testosterone undecanoate. The metabolite androsta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione has a structure analogous to that of the exogenous anabolic steroid boldenone. Specific transitions for boldenone and its metabolite 17β-hydroxy-5β-androst-1-en-3-one were also monitored. Both compounds were also detected after KOH treatment, suggesting that this metabolic pathway is involved in the endogenous detection of boldenone previously reported by several authors.

  15. Antifungal Activity of Microbial Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Okoli, Ikechukwu; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are well known for their ability to impede other microorganisms. Reanalysis of a screen of natural products using the Caenorhabditis elegans-Candida albicans infection model identified twelve microbial secondary metabolites capable of conferring an increase in survival to infected nematodes. In this screen, the two compound treatments conferring the highest survival rates were members of the epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) family of fungal secondary metabolites, acetylgliotoxin and a derivative of hyalodendrin. The abundance of fungal secondary metabolites indentified in this screen prompted further studies investigating the interaction between opportunistic pathogenic fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus, because of the ability of the fungus to produce a plethora of secondary metabolites, including the well studied ETP gliotoxin. We found that cell-free supernatant of A. fumigatus was able to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans through the production of a secreted product. Comparative studies between a wild-type and an A. fumigatus ΔgliP strain unable to synthesize gliotoxin demonstrate that this secondary metabolite is the major factor responsible for the inhibition. Although toxic to organisms, gliotoxin conferred an increase in survival to C. albicans-infected C. elegans in a dose dependent manner. As A. fumigatus produces gliotoxin in vivo, we propose that in addition to being a virulence factor, gliotoxin may also provide an advantage to A. fumigatus when infecting a host that harbors other opportunistic fungi. PMID:21966496

  16. Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; Levett, Kate M; Collins, Carmel T; Crowther, Caroline A

    2011-12-07

    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of relaxation therapies for pain management in labour. To examine the effects of relaxation methods for pain management in labour on maternal and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2010), The Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Trials Register (November 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 November 2010), CINAHL (1980 to 30 November 2010), the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (30 November 2010), Chinese Clinical Trial Register (30 November 2010), Current Controlled Trials (30 November 2010), ClinicalTrials.gov, (30 November 2010) ISRCTN Register (30 November 2010), National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (30 November 2010) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (30 November 2010). Randomised controlled trials comparing relaxation methods with standard care, no treatment, other non-pharmacological forms of pain management in labour or placebo. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality. We attempted to contact study authors for additional information. We included 11 studies (1374 women) in the review. Relaxation was associated with a reduction in pain intensity during the latent phase (mean difference (MD) -1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.97 to -0.53, one trial, 40 women) and active phase of labour (MD -2.48, 95% CI -3.13 to 0.83, two trials, 74 women). There was evidence of improved outcomes from relaxation instruction with increased satisfaction with pain

  17. Relaxation drag history of shock accelerated microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bordoloi, Ankur D.; Martinez, Adam A.; Prestridge, Katherine

    Experimental measurements of the displacements of shock accelerated microparticles from shortly after shock interaction to the particle relaxation time show time-dependent drag coefficients (more » $$C_{D}$$) that are much higher than those predicted by quasi-steady and unsteady drag models. Nylon particles with mean diameter of $$4~\\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\\text{m}$$, accelerated by one-dimensional normal shocks (Mach number$$M_{s}=1.2$$, 1.3 and 1.4), have measured$$C_{D}$$values that follow a power-law behaviour. The drag is a function of the time-dependent Knudsen number,$$Kn^{\\ast }=M_{s}/Re_{p}$$, where the particle Reynolds number ($$Re_{p}$$) is calculated using the time-dependent slip velocity. Also, some portion of the drag can be attributed to quasi-steady forces, but the total drag cannot be predicted by current unsteady force models that are based on the Basset–Boussinesq–Oseen equation and pressure drag. The largest contribution to the total drag is the unsteady component ($$C_{D,us}$$) until the particle attains$$Kn^{\\ast }\\approx 0.5{-}1.0$$, then the unsteady contribution decays. The quasi-steady component ($$C_{D,qs}$$) increases almost linearly with$$Kn^{\\ast }$$, intersects the$$C_{D,us}$$at$$Kn^{\\ast }\\approx 2$$and becomes the primary contributor to the drag towards the end of the relaxation zone as$$Re_{p}\\rightarrow 0$$. Finally, there are currently no analytical models that are able to predict the nonlinear behaviour of the shock accelerated particles during the relaxation phase of the flow.« less

  18. Relaxation drag history of shock accelerated microparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Bordoloi, Ankur D.; Martinez, Adam A.; Prestridge, Katherine

    2017-06-21

    Experimental measurements of the displacements of shock accelerated microparticles from shortly after shock interaction to the particle relaxation time show time-dependent drag coefficients (more » $$C_{D}$$) that are much higher than those predicted by quasi-steady and unsteady drag models. Nylon particles with mean diameter of $$4~\\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\\text{m}$$, accelerated by one-dimensional normal shocks (Mach number$$M_{s}=1.2$$, 1.3 and 1.4), have measured$$C_{D}$$values that follow a power-law behaviour. The drag is a function of the time-dependent Knudsen number,$$Kn^{\\ast }=M_{s}/Re_{p}$$, where the particle Reynolds number ($$Re_{p}$$) is calculated using the time-dependent slip velocity. Also, some portion of the drag can be attributed to quasi-steady forces, but the total drag cannot be predicted by current unsteady force models that are based on the Basset–Boussinesq–Oseen equation and pressure drag. The largest contribution to the total drag is the unsteady component ($$C_{D,us}$$) until the particle attains$$Kn^{\\ast }\\approx 0.5{-}1.0$$, then the unsteady contribution decays. The quasi-steady component ($$C_{D,qs}$$) increases almost linearly with$$Kn^{\\ast }$$, intersects the$$C_{D,us}$$at$$Kn^{\\ast }\\approx 2$$and becomes the primary contributor to the drag towards the end of the relaxation zone as$$Re_{p}\\rightarrow 0$$. Finally, there are currently no analytical models that are able to predict the nonlinear behaviour of the shock accelerated particles during the relaxation phase of the flow.« less

  19. Relaxation dynamics of maximally clustered networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaise, Janis; Johnson, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of fully clustered networks (maximal number of triangles) to an unclustered state under two different edge dynamics—the double-edge swap, corresponding to degree-preserving randomization of the configuration model, and single edge replacement, corresponding to full randomization of the Erdős-Rényi random graph. We derive expressions for the time evolution of the degree distribution, edge multiplicity distribution and clustering coefficient. We show that under both dynamics networks undergo a continuous phase transition in which a giant connected component is formed. We calculate the position of the phase transition analytically using the Erdős-Rényi phenomenology.

  20. Bulk Modulus Relaxation in Partially Molten Dunite?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, I.; Cline, C. J., II

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic solgel-derived Fo90 olivine was mixed with 3.5 wt % basaltic glass and hot-pressed within Ni/Fe foil to produce a dense aggregate expected to contain a small melt fraction at temperatures ≥ 1100°C. This specimen was precision ground and tested in both torsional and flexural forced oscillation to determine the relaxation behavior of both shear (G) and bulk (K) moduli at seismic frequencies. A recent upgrade of our experimental facility allows such measurements to be made without alteration of the driver/detector geometry, and uses an oscillating bending force rather than a bending moment, as previously described. The torsional and flexural tests were conducted in a gas apparatus at 200 MPa confining pressure, with oscillation periods ranging between 1 and 1000 s, during slow staged-cooling from 1300 to 25°C. Shear modulus and associated dissipation data are consistent with those for melt-bearing olivine specimens previously tested in torsion, with a pronounced dissipation peak superimposed on high-temperature background within the 1-1000 s observational window at temperatures of 1100-1200°C. A filament elongation model relates the observed flexural measurements to the variations along the experimental assembly of the complex Young's modulus (E*), bending moment and diametral moment of inertia. With E* given by 1/E*=1/(3G*) + 1/(9K*), and the complex shear modulus (G*) derived from torsional oscillation, any relaxation of K can be identified. Preliminary modeling shows that the viscoelastic properties in flexure are broadly consistent with those expected from the shear-mode viscoelasticity with anharmonic (real) values of K. However, some discrepancies between modeled results and flexure data at super-solidus temperatures require further investigation of possible differences in shear modulus relaxation between the torsional and flexural modes, and of potential relaxation of the bulk modulus through stress-induced changes in melt redistribution and

  1. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D

    2002-12-01

    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  2. Bronchitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... have been present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes ... DO NOT smoke. Avoid secondhand smoke and air pollution. Wash your hands (and your children's hands) often ...

  3. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is inflammation of your bronchial tree. The bronchial tree consists of tubes that carry air into your ... weeks or months. This happens because the bronchial tree takes a while to heal. A lasting cough ...

  4. [Secondary Metabolites from Marine Microorganisms. I. Secondary Metabolites from Marine Actinomycetes].

    PubMed

    Orlova, T I; Bulgakova, V G; Polin, A N

    2015-01-01

    Review represents data on new active metabolites isolated from marine actinomycetes published in 2007 to 2014. Marine actinomycetes are an unlimited source of novel secondary metabolites with various biological activities. Among them there are antibiotics, anticancer compounds, inhibitors of biochemical processes.

  5. Localized 2D COSY sequences: Method and experimental evaluation for a whole metabolite quantification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Dimitri; Tse Ve Koon, K.; Le Fur, Yann; Ratiney, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional spectroscopy offers the possibility to unambiguously distinguish metabolites by spreading out the multiplet structure of J-coupled spin systems into a second dimension. Quantification methods that perform parametric fitting of the 2D MRS signal have recently been proposed for resolved PRESS (JPRESS) but not explicitly for Localized Correlation Spectroscopy (LCOSY). Here, through a whole metabolite quantification approach, correlation spectroscopy quantification performances are studied. The ability to quantify metabolite relaxation constant times is studied for three localized 2D MRS sequences (LCOSY, LCTCOSY and the JPRESS) in vitro on preclinical MR systems. The issues encountered during implementation and quantification strategies are discussed with the help of the Fisher matrix formalism. The described parameterized models enable the computation of the lower bound for error variance - generally known as the Cramér Rao bounds (CRBs), a standard of precision - on the parameters estimated from these 2D MRS signal fittings. LCOSY has a theoretical net signal loss of two per unit of acquisition time compared to JPRESS. A rapid analysis could point that the relative CRBs of LCOSY compared to JPRESS (expressed as a percentage of the concentration values) should be doubled but we show that this is not necessarily true. Finally, the LCOSY quantification procedure has been applied on data acquired in vivo on a mouse brain.

  6. Profiles of metabolites and gene expression in rats with chemically induced hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Heijne, Wilbert H M; Lamers, Robert-Jan A N; van Bladeren, Peter J; Groten, John P; van Nesselrooij, Joop H J; van Ommen, Ben

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated whether integrated analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics data increased the sensitivity of detection and provided new insight in the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Metabolite levels in plasma or urine were analyzed in relation to changes in hepatic gene expression in rats that received bromobenzene to induce acute hepatic centrilobular necrosis. Bromobenzene-induced lesions were only observed after treatment with the highest of 3 dose levels. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that metabolite profiles of blood plasma were largely different from controls when the rats were treated with bromobenzene, also at doses that did not elicit histopathological changes. Changes in levels of genes and metabolites were related to the degree of necrosis, providing putative novel markers of hepatotoxicity. Levels of endogenous metabolites like alanine, lactate, tyrosine and dimethylglycine differed in plasma from treated and control rats. The metabolite profiles of urine were found to be reflective of the exposure levels. This integrated analysis of hepatic transcriptomics and plasma metabolomics was able to more sensitively detect changes related to hepatotoxicity and discover novel markers. The relation between gene expression and metabolite levels was explored and additional insight in the role of various biological pathways in bromobenzene-induced hepatic necrosis was obtained, including the involvement of apoptosis and changes in glycolysis and amino acid metabolism. The complete Table 2 is available as a supplemental file online at http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/openurlasp?genre=journal&issn=0192-6233. To access the file, click on the issue link for 33(4), then select this article. A download option appears at the bottom of this abstract. In order to access the full article online, you must either have an individual subscription or a member subscription accessed through www.toxpath.org.

  7. Acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Vege, Santhi S

    2015-09-01

    To summarize recent data on classification systems, cause, risk factors, severity prediction, nutrition, and drug treatment of acute pancreatitis. Comparison of the Revised Atlanta Classification and Determinant Based Classification has shown heterogeneous results. Simvastatin has a protective effect against acute pancreatitis. Young black male, alcohol, smoldering symptoms, and subsequent diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis are risk factors associated with readmissions after acute pancreatitis. A reliable clinical or laboratory marker or a scoring system to predict severity is lacking. The PYTHON trial has shown that oral feeding with on demand nasoenteric tube feeding after 72 h is as good as nasoenteric tube feeding within 24 h in preventing infections in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Male sex, multiple organ failure, extent of pancreatic necrosis, and heterogeneous collection are factors associated with failure of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic collections. The newly proposed classification systems of acute pancreatitis need to be evaluated more critically. New biomarkers are needed for severity prediction. Further well designed studies are required to assess the type of enteral nutritional formulations for acute pancreatitis. The optimal minimally invasive method or combination to debride the necrotic collections is evolving. There is a great need for a drug to treat the disease early on to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  8. Interface roughness mediated phonon relaxation rates in Si quantum dots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdous, Rifat; Hsueh, Yuling; Klimeck, Gerhard; Rahman, Rajib

    2015-03-01

    Si QDs are promising candidates for solid-state quantum computing due to long spin coherence times. However, the valley degeneracy in Si adds an additional degree of freedom to the electronic structure. Although the valley and orbital indices can be uniquely identified in an ideal Si QD, interface roughness mixes valley and orbital states in realistic dots. Such valley-orbit coupling can strongly influence T1 times in Si QDs. Recent experimental measurements of various relaxation rates differ from previous predictions of phonon relaxation in ideal Si QDs. To understand how roughness affects different relaxation rates, for example spin relaxation due to spin-valley coupling, which is a byproduct of spin-orbit and valley-orbit coupling, we need to understand the effect of valley-orbit coupling on valley relaxation first. Using a full-band atomistic tight-binding description for both the system's electron and electron-phonon hamiltonian, we analyze the effect of atomic-scale interface disorder on phonon induced valley relaxation and spin relaxation in a Si QD. We find that, the valley splitting dependence of valley relaxation rate governs the magnetic field dependence of spin relaxation rate. Our results help understand experimentally measured relaxation times.

  9. Bimodal dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions in weakly polar solvents.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Koda, Shinobu

    2014-12-28

    The dielectric relaxation spectra of dilute electrolyte solutions in solvents of small dielectric constants are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical calculation in our previous work [T. Yamaguchi, T. Matsuoka, and S. Koda, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 164511 (2011)] is reanalyzed, and it is shown that the dielectric relaxation spectra are composed of three components, namely, the relaxation of ionic atmosphere, the reorientational relaxation of ion pairs, and the collision between ions. The relaxation frequency of the slowest one increases with increasing the concentration, and the slower two relaxations, those of ionic atmosphere and ion pairs, merge into one at the concentration where the Debye length is comparable to the size of ions. Experimentally, the dielectric relaxation spectra of some electrolytes in two solvents, tetrahydrofuran and tetraglyme, are determined at frequencies from 300 kHz to 200 MHz, and the presence of the slower two relaxations was confirmed. The concentration dependence of the relaxation frequency is also in harmony with the theoretical calculation. The relationship between the dielectric relaxation spectra and the concentration dependence of the ionic conductivity is discussed.

  10. Bimodal dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions in weakly polar solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Koda, Shinobu

    2014-12-01

    The dielectric relaxation spectra of dilute electrolyte solutions in solvents of small dielectric constants are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical calculation in our previous work [T. Yamaguchi, T. Matsuoka, and S. Koda, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 164511 (2011)] is reanalyzed, and it is shown that the dielectric relaxation spectra are composed of three components, namely, the relaxation of ionic atmosphere, the reorientational relaxation of ion pairs, and the collision between ions. The relaxation frequency of the slowest one increases with increasing the concentration, and the slower two relaxations, those of ionic atmosphere and ion pairs, merge into one at the concentration where the Debye length is comparable to the size of ions. Experimentally, the dielectric relaxation spectra of some electrolytes in two solvents, tetrahydrofuran and tetraglyme, are determined at frequencies from 300 kHz to 200 MHz, and the presence of the slower two relaxations was confirmed. The concentration dependence of the relaxation frequency is also in harmony with the theoretical calculation. The relationship between the dielectric relaxation spectra and the concentration dependence of the ionic conductivity is discussed.

  11. 'Relaxers' damage hair: evidence from amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Khumalo, Nonhlanhla P; Stone, Janet; Gumedze, Freedom; McGrath, Emily; Ngwanya, Mzudumile R; de Berker, David

    2010-03-01

    'Relaxers' are used by more than two thirds of African females to straighten hair, with easy grooming and increased length often cited as reasons. A recent study reported relaxed hair lengths much shorter than expected, suggesting increased fragility; the potential for scalp inflammation and scarring alopecia remains unclear. To investigate the biochemical effects of 'relaxers' on hair. With informed consent, included participants represented 3 groups: natural hair, asymptomatic relaxed hair, and symptomatic (brittle) relaxed hair. Biochemical analysis was performed by using a Biochrom 30 amino acid analyzer. Differences in amino acid levels were assessed using either Wilcoxon rank sum test or matched-pairs signed-rank test. There was a decrease in cystine, citrulline, and arginine; however, an increase in glutamine was found in all relaxed compared to natural hair. Cystine levels (milligram per gram amino acid nitrogen) were similar in natural proximal and distal hair: 14 mg/g (range, 4-15 mg/g) versus 14 mg/g (range, 12-15 mg/g); P = .139. In asymptomatic relaxed hair, cystine levels were higher in less frequently relaxed samples proximal to scalp: 7.5 mg/g (5.6-12) versus 3.3 mg/g (1.3-9.2); P = .005. Cystine levels in distal asymptomatic relaxed and symptomatic relaxed hair were similar to each other and to those in the genetic hair fragility disease trichothiodystrophy. It was not possible to analyze lye and no-lye 'relaxers' separately. 'Relaxers' are associated with reduced cystine consistent with fragile damaged hair. A decrease in citrulline and glutamine has been associated with inflammation; prospective studies are needed to investigate whether or how 'relaxers' induce inflammation. Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relaxation of creep strain in paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustalahti, Mika; Rosti, Jari; Koivisto, Juha; Alava, Mikko J.

    2010-07-01

    In disordered, viscoelastic or viscoplastic materials a sample response exhibits a recovery phenomenon after the removal of a constant load or after creep. We study experimentally the recovery in paper, a quasi-two-dimensional system with intrinsic structural disorder. The deformation is measured by using the digital image correlation (DIC) method. By the DIC we obtain accurate displacement data and the spatial fields of deformation and recovered strains. The averaged results are first compared to several heuristic models for viscoelastic polymer materials in particular. The most important experimental quantity is the permanent creep strain, and we analyze whether it is non-zero by fitting the empirical models of viscoelasticity. We then present in more detail the spatial recovery behavior results from DIC, and show that they indicate a power-law-type relaxation. We outline results on variation from sample to sample and collective, spatial fluctuations in the recovery behavior. An interpretation is provided for the relaxation in the general context of glassy, interacting systems with barriers.

  13. Magnetic nanoparticle thermometry independent of Brownian relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jing; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2018-01-01

    An improved method of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) thermometry is proposed. The phase lag ϕ of the fundamental f 0 harmonic is measured to eliminate the influence of Brownian relaxation on the ratio of 3f 0 to f 0 harmonic amplitudes applying a phenomenological model, thus allowing measurements in high-frequency ac magnetic fields. The model is verified by simulations of the Fokker-Planck equation. An MNP spectrometer is calibrated for the measurements of the phase lag ϕ and the amplitudes of 3f 0 and f 0 harmonics. Calibration curves of the harmonic ratio and tanϕ are measured by varying the frequency (from 10 Hz to 1840 Hz) of ac magnetic fields with different amplitudes (from 3.60 mT to 4.00 mT) at a known temperature. A phenomenological model is employed to fit the calibration curves. Afterwards, the improved method is proposed to iteratively compensate the measured harmonic ratio with tanϕ, and consequently calculate temperature applying the static Langevin function. Experimental results on SHP-25 MNPs show that the proposed method significantly improves the systematic error to 2 K at maximum with a relative accuracy of about 0.63%. This demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed method for MNP thermometry with SHP-25 MNPs even if the MNP signal is affected by Brownian relaxation.

  14. Nonlinear relaxation algorithms for circuit simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, R.A.

    Circuit simulation is an important Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tool in the design of Integrated Circuits (IC). However, the standard techniques used in programs such as SPICE result in very long computer-run times when applied to large problems. In order to reduce the overall run time, a number of new approaches to circuit simulation were developed and are described. These methods are based on nonlinear relaxation techniques and exploit the relative inactivity of large circuits. Simple waveform-processing techniques are described to determine the maximum possible speed improvement that can be obtained by exploiting this property of large circuits. Three simulation algorithmsmore » are described, two of which are based on the Iterated Timing Analysis (ITA) method and a third based on the Waveform-Relaxation Newton (WRN) method. New programs that incorporate these techniques were developed and used to simulate a variety of industrial circuits. The results from these simulations are provided. The techniques are shown to be much faster than the standard approach. In addition, a number of parallel aspects of these algorithms are described, and a general space-time model of parallel-task scheduling is developed.« less

  15. Dynamic Relaxational Behaviour of Hyperbranched Polyether Polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Gorris, A.; Garcia-Bernabé, A.; Stiriba, S.-E.

    2008-08-01

    Hyperbranched polymers are highly cascade branched polymers easily accessible via one-pot procedure from ABm type monomers. A key property of hyperbranched polymers is their molecular architecture, which allows core-shell morphology to be manipulated for further specific applications in material and medical sciences. Since the discovery of hyperbranched polymer materials, an increasing number of reports have been published describing synthetic procedures and technological applications of such materials, but their physical properties have remained less studied until the last decade. In the present work, different esterified hyperbranched polyglycerols have been prepared starting from polyglycerol precursors in presence of acetic acid, thus generating functionalization degree with range from 0 to 94%. Thermal analysis of the obtained samples has been studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Dielectric Spectroscopy measurements have been analyzed by combining loss spectra deconvolution with the modulus formalism. In this regard, all acetylated polyglycerols exhibited a main relaxation related to the glass transition (α process) and two sub-glassy relaxations (β and γ processes) which vanish at high functionalization degrees.

  16. Relaxation of the composite Higgs little hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batell, Brian; Fedderke, Michael A.; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2017-12-01

    We describe a composite Higgs scenario in which a cosmological relaxation mechanism naturally gives rise to a hierarchy between the weak scale and the scale of spontaneous global symmetry breaking. This is achieved through the scanning of sources of explicit global symmetry breaking by a relaxion field during an exponentially long period of inflation in the early universe. We explore this mechanism in detail in a specific composite Higgs scenario with QCD-like dynamics, based on an ultraviolet SU( N )TC `technicolor' confining gauge theory with three Dirac technifermion flavors. We find that we can successfully generate a hierarchy of scales ξ≡〈 h〉2/ F π 2 ≳ 1.2 × 10- 4 (i.e., compositeness scales F π ˜ 20 TeV) without tuning. This evades all current electroweak precision bounds on our (custodial violating) model. While directly observing the heavy composite states in this model will be challenging, a future electroweak precision measurement program can probe most of the natural parameter space for the model. We also highlight signatures of more general composite Higgs models in the cosmological relaxation framework, including some implications for flavor and dark matter.

  17. Stringency and relaxation among the halobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Cimmino, C; Scoarughi, G L; Donini, P

    1993-01-01

    Accumulation of stable RNA and production of guanosine polyphosphates (ppGpp and pppGpp) were studied during amino acid starvation in four species of halobacteria. In two of the four species, stable RNA was under stringent control, whereas one of the remaining two species was relaxed and the other gave an intermediate phenotype. The stringent reaction was reversed by anisomycin, an effect analogous to the chloroamphenicol-induced reversal of stringency in the eubacteria. During the stringent response, neither ppGpp nor pppGpp accumulation took place during starvation. In both growing and starved cells a very low basal level of the two polyphosphates appeared to be present. In the stringent species the intracellular concentration of GTP did not diminish but actually increased during the course of the stringent response. These data demonstrate that (i) wild-type halobacteria can have either the stringent or the relaxed phenotype (all wild-type eubacteria tested have been shown to be stringent); (ii) stringency in the halobacteria is dependent on the deaminoacylation of tRNA, as in the eubacteria; and (iii) in the halobacteria, ppGpp is not an effector of stringent control over stable-RNA synthesis. Images PMID:7691798

  18. Charge relaxation and dynamics in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, H. L.

    2006-08-01

    Charge relaxation in dispersive materials is often described in terms of the stretched exponential function (Kohlrausch law). The process can be explained using a "hopping" model which in principle, also applies to charge transport such as current conduction. This work analyzed reported transient photoconductivity data on functionalized pentacene single crystals using a geometric hopping model developed by B. Sturman et al and extracted values (or range of values) on the materials parameters relevant to charge relaxation as well as charge transport. Using the correlated disorder model (CDM), we estimated values of the carrier mobility for the pentacene samples. From these results, we observed the following: i) the transport site density appeared to be of the same order of magnitude as the carrier density; ii) it was possible to extract lower bound values on the materials parameters linked to the transport process; and iii) by matching the simulated charge decay to the transient photoconductivity data, we were able to refine estimates on the materials parameters. The data also allowed us to simulate the stretched exponential decay. Our observations suggested that the stretching index and the carrier mobility were related. Physically, such interdependence would allow one to demarcate between localized molecular interactions and distant coulomb interactions.

  19. Viscosity bound versus the universal relaxation bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2017-10-01

    For gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual, the AdS/CFT correspondence predicts a universal value for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, η / s = 1 / 4 π. The holographic calculations have motivated the formulation of the celebrated KSS conjecture, according to which all fluids conform to the lower bound η / s ≥ 1 / 4 π. The bound on η / s may be regarded as a lower bound on the relaxation properties of perturbed fluids and it has been the focus of much recent attention. In particular, it was argued that for a class of field theories with Gauss-Bonnet gravity dual, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η / s, could violate the conjectured KSS bound. In the present paper we argue that the proposed violations of the KSS bound are strongly constrained by Bekenstein's generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown that physical consistency of the Gauss-Bonnet theory with the GSL requires its coupling constant to be bounded by λGB ≲ 0 . 063. We further argue that the genuine physical bound on the relaxation properties of physically consistent fluids is ℑω(k > 2 πT) > πT, where ω and k are respectively the proper frequency and the wavenumber of a perturbation mode in the fluid.

  20. Transverse relaxation of scalar-coupled protons.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Takuya F; Baishya, Bikash; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-10-25

    In a preliminary communication (B. Baishya, T. F. Segawa, G. Bodenhausen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 17538-17539), we recently demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clean echo decays of protons in biomolecules despite the presence of homonuclear scalar couplings. These unmodulated decays allow one to determine apparent transverse relaxation rates R(2) (app) of individual protons. Herein, we report the observation of R(2) (app) for three methyl protons, four amide H(N) protons, and all 11 backbone H(α) protons in cyclosporin A. If the proton resonances overlap, their R(2) (app) rates can be measured by transferring their magnetization to neighboring (13)C nuclei, which are less prone to overlap. The R(2) (app) rates of protons attached to (13)C are faster than those attached to (12)C because of (13)C-(1)H dipolar interactions. The differences of these rates allow the determination of local correlation functions. Backbone H(N) and H(α) protons that have fast decay rates R(2) (app) also feature fast longitudinal relaxation rates R(1) and intense NOESY cross peaks that are typical of crowded environments. Variations of R(2) (app) rates of backbone H(α) protons in similar amino acids reflect differences in local environments.

  1. Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Holb, Imre J.; Pócsi, István

    2015-01-01

    Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed. PMID:26300892

  2. Functional metabolite assemblies—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, Ruth; Tao, Kai; Rencus-Lazar, Sigal; Gazit, Ehud

    2018-05-01

    Metabolites are essential for the normal operation of cells and fulfill various physiological functions. It was recently found that in several metabolic disorders, the associated metabolites could self-assemble to generate amyloid-like structures, similar to canonical protein amyloids that have a role in neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, assemblies with typical amyloid characteristics are also known to have physiological function. In addition, many non-natural proteins and peptides presenting amyloidal properties have been used for the fabrication of functional nanomaterials. Similarly, functional metabolite assemblies are also found in nature, demonstrating various physiological roles. A notable example is the structural color formed by guanine crystals or fluorescent crystals in feline eyes responsible for enhanced night vision. Moreover, some metabolites have been used for the in vitro fabrication of functional materials, such as glycine crystals presenting remarkable piezoelectric properties or indigo films used to assemble organic semi-conductive electronic devices. Therefore, we believe that the study of metabolite assemblies is not only important in order to understand their role in normal physiology and in pathology, but also paves a new route in exploring the fabrication of organic, bio-compatible materials.

  3. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    PubMed

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  4. Pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites of marine actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-04-01

    Marine actinobacteria are one of the most efficient groups of secondary metabolite producers and are very important from an industrial point of view. Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinobacteria from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, for many important antibiotics, anticancer, antitumor and immunosuppressive agents. However, frequent rediscovery of the same compounds from the terrestrial actinobacteria has made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinobacteria isolated from the marine environment have currently received considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. They are efficient producers of new secondary metabolites that show a range of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitumor, cytotoxic, cytostatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, anti-malaria, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, etc. In this review, an evaluation is made on the current status of research on marine actinobacteria yielding pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Bioactive compounds from marine actinobacteria possess distinct chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of new drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogens. With the increasing advancement in science and technology, there would be a greater demand for new bioactive compounds synthesized by actinobacteria from various marine sources in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The in vivo relaxivity of MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuter, Borys

    1999-11-01

    Post-contrast clinical 1H Magnetic Resonance Images have to date been interpreted with little regard for possible variations in the in-vivo properties of injected magnetic pharmaceuticals (contrast agents), particularly in their relaxivity or ability to alter tissue relaxation rates, T2-1 and T 2-1, per unit concentration. The relaxivities of contrast agents have only rarely been measured in-vivo, measurements usually being performed on excised tissues and at magnetic field strengths lower than used in clinical practice. Some researchers have simply assumed that relaxivities determined in homogeneous tissue phantoms were applicable in-vivo. In this thesis, the relaxivities of two contrast agents, Gd-DTPA and Gd-EOB-DTPA, were measured in simple tissue phantoms and in the kidney and liver of intact, but sacrificed, Wistar rats using a clinical MR scanner with a magnetic field of 1.5 Tesla. T1 and T2 were determined from sets of images acquired using a standard clinical spin-echo pulse sequence. The contrast agent concentration in tissue was assessed by radioassay of 153Gd-DTPA or 153Gd-EOB-DTPA, mixed with the normal compound prior to injection. Relaxivity was taken as the slope of a linear regression fit of relaxation rate against Gd concentration. The relaxivities of Gd-EOB-DTPA were similarly determined in normal and biliary- obstructed guinea pigs. Relaxivities in tissue differed significantly from values obtained in simple phantoms. Kidney T1 relaxivity was reduced for both compounds in normal animals. Three days or more of biliary obstruction produced further reductions in kidney T1 relaxivity of Gd-EOB-DTPA, providing strong evidence that disease affects contrast agent relaxivity. Kidney T2 relaxivity was much greater than T1 relaxivity and was also depressed by biliary obstruction. Liver T1 and T 2 relaxivites were increased above phantom values, but were not affected by the biliary obstruction. Water compartmentalisation, macromolecular binding, proton

  6. Uninvolved versus target muscle contraction during contract: relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Daniel Camara; Melo, Raphael Marques; Alves Corrêa, Ricardo Vidal; Chalmers, Gordon

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of the contract-relax (CR) stretching technique on knee active range of motion (ROM) using target muscle contraction or an uninvolved muscle contraction. pre-test post-test control experimental design. Clinical research laboratory. Sixty healthy men were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The Contract-Relax group (CR) performed a traditional hamstring CR stretch, the Modified Contract-Relax group (MCR) performed hamstring CR stretching using contraction of an uninvolved muscle distant from the target muscle, and the Control group (CG) did not stretch. Active knee extension test was performed before and after the stretching procedure. Two-way between-within analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed a significant interaction between group and pre-test to post-test (p < 0.001). Post-hoc examination of individual groups showed no significant change in ROM for the CG (0.8°, p = 0.084), and a significant moderate increase in ROM for both the CR (7.0°, p < 0.001) and MCR (7.0°, p < 0.001) groups. ROM gain following a CR PNF procedure is the same whether the target stretching muscle is contracted, or an uninvolved muscle is contracted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of metabolites, clinical chemistry markers and transcripts associated with hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Buness, Andreas; Roth, Adrian; Herrmann, Annika; Schmitz, Oliver; Kamp, Hennicke; Busch, Kristina; Suter, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Early and accurate pre-clinical and clinical biomarkers of hepatotoxicity facilitate the drug development process and the safety monitoring in clinical studies. We selected eight known model compounds to be administered to male Wistar rats to identify biomarkers of drug induced liver injury (DILI) using transcriptomics, metabolite profiling (metabolomics) and conventional endpoints. We specifically explored early biomarkers in serum and liver tissue associated with histopathologically evident acute hepatotoxicity. A tailored data analysis strategy was implemented to better differentiate animals with no treatment-related findings in the liver from animals showing evident hepatotoxicity as assessed by histopathological analysis. From the large number of assessed parameters, our data analysis strategy allowed us to identify five metabolites in serum and five in liver tissue, 58 transcripts in liver tissue and seven clinical chemistry markers in serum that were significantly associated with acute hepatotoxicity. The identified markers comprised metabolites such as taurocholic acid and putrescine (measured as sum parameter together with agmatine), classical clinical chemistry markers like AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), and bilirubin, as well as gene transcripts like Igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1) and Egr1 (early growth response protein 1). The response pattern of the identified biomarkers was concordant across all types of parameters and sample matrices. Our results suggest that a combination of several of these biomarkers could significantly improve the robustness and accuracy of an early diagnosis of hepatotoxicity.

  8. Use of mass spectrometry fingerprinting to identify urinary metabolites after consumption of specific foods.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Amanda J; Favé, Gaëlle; Beckmann, Manfred; Lin, Wanchang; Tailliart, Kathleen; Xie, Long; Mathers, John C; Draper, John

    2011-10-01

    The lack of robust biological markers of dietary exposure hinders the quantitative understanding of causal relations between diet and health. We aimed to develop an efficient procedure to discover metabolites in urine that may have future potential as biomarkers of acute exposure to foods of high public health importance. Twenty-four participants were provided with a test breakfast in which the cereal component of a standardized breakfast was replaced by 1 of 4 foods of high public health importance; 1.5-, 3-, and 4.5-h postprandial urine samples were collected. Flow infusion electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry followed by supervised multivariate data analysis was used to discover signals resulting from consumption of each test food. Fasted-state urine samples provided a universal comparator for food biomarker lead discovery in postprandial urine. The filtering of data features associated with consumption of the common components of the standardized breakfast improved discrimination models and readily identified metabolites that showed consumption of specific test foods. A combination of trimethylamine-N-oxide and 1-methylhistidine was associated with salmon consumption. Novel ascorbate derivatives were discovered in urine after consumption of either broccoli or raspberries. Sulphonated caffeic acid and sulphonated methyl-epicatechin concentrations increased dramatically after consumption of raspberries. This biomarker lead discovery strategy can identify urinary metabolites associated with acute exposure to individual foods. Future studies are required to validate the specificity and utility of potential biomarkers in an epidemiologic context.

  9. Immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianhua; Han, Haifeng; Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2012-01-01

    As an alterative version of the lattice Boltzmann models, the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model introduces much less numerical boundary slip than the single relaxation time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann model if some special relationship between the relaxation time parameters is chosen. On the other hand, most current versions of the immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method, which was first introduced by Feng and improved by many other authors, suffer from numerical boundary slip as has been investigated by Le and Zhang. To reduce such a numerical boundary slip, an immerse boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times is proposed in this paper. A special formula is given between two relaxation time parameters in the model. A rigorous analysis and the numerical experiments carried out show that the numerical boundary slip reduces dramatically by using the present model compared to the single-relaxation-time-based model.

  10. Magnetic relaxation pathways in lanthanide single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Blagg, Robin J; Ungur, Liviu; Tuna, Floriana; Speak, James; Comar, Priyanka; Collison, David; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; McInnes, Eric J L; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2013-08-01

    Single-molecule magnets are compounds that exhibit magnetic bistability caused by an energy barrier for the reversal of magnetization (relaxation). Lanthanide compounds are proving promising as single-molecule magnets: recent studies show that terbium phthalocyanine complexes possess large energy barriers, and dysprosium and terbium complexes bridged by an N2(3-) radical ligand exhibit magnetic hysteresis up to 13 K. Magnetic relaxation is typically controlled by single-ion factors rather than magnetic exchange (whether one or more 4f ions are present) and proceeds through thermal relaxation of the lowest excited states. Here we report polylanthanide alkoxide cage complexes, and their doped diamagnetic yttrium analogues, in which competing relaxation pathways are observed and relaxation through the first excited state can be quenched. This leads to energy barriers for relaxation of magnetization that exceed 800 K. We investigated the factors at the lanthanide sites that govern this behaviour.

  11. Relaxation Time of High-Density Amorphous Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handle, Philip H.; Seidl, Markus; Loerting, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Amorphous water plays a fundamental role in astrophysics, cryoelectron microscopy, hydration of matter, and our understanding of anomalous liquid water properties. Yet, the characteristics of the relaxation processes taking place in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) are unknown. We here reveal that the relaxation processes in HDA at 110-135 K at 0.1-0.2 GPa are of collective and global nature, resembling the alpha relaxation in glassy material. Measured relaxation times suggest liquid-like relaxation characteristics in the vicinity of the crystallization temperature at 145 K. By carefully relaxing pressurized HDA for several hours at 135 K, we produce a state that is closer to the ideal glass state than all HDA states discussed so far in literature.

  12. Distribution of grape seed flavanols and their metabolites in pregnant rats and their fetuses.

    PubMed

    Arola-Arnal, Anna; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Crescenti, Anna; del Bas, Josep Maria; Ras, Maria Rosa; Arola, Lluís; Caimari, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    Polyphenols have been demonstrated to provide health benefits affecting cellular and physiological processes. This study aims to evaluate the bioavailability and distribution of grape seed flavanol compounds during pregnancy and whether fetuses could be exposed to these compounds. The distribution of flavanols and their metabolites in rat plasma, liver, white adipose tissue, brain, amniotic fluid, placenta, and fetuses after 1 and 2 h of an acute intake of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract was examined by LC-ESI-TOF/MS. Flavanols and their metabolites were widely distributed in both pregnant and nonpregnant rat plasma and tissues. In liver, the conjugated forms of flavanols were less available in pregnant than nonpregnant rats. Flavanol metabolites were abundant in maternal placenta but detected at low levels in fetuses and amniotic fluid. Flavanol metabolization appears to be less active in the liver during pregnancy. Moreover, data indicated that transport across the placenta is not efficient and for flavanols and their metabolites, the placenta seems to act as a barrier. However, these compounds target the fetus and are excreted in the amniotic fluid. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its main metabolites on cardiovascular function in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Thorndike, Eric B; Blough, Bruce E; Tella, Srihari R; Goldberg, Steven R; Baumann, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects produced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') contribute to its acute toxicity, but the potential role of its metabolites in these cardiovascular effects is not known. Here we examined the effects of MDMA metabolites on cardiovascular function in rats. Radiotelemetry was employed to evaluate the effects of s.c. administration of racemic MDMA and its phase I metabolites on BP, heart rate (HR) and locomotor activity in conscious male rats. MDMA (1-20 mg·kg(-1)) produced dose-related increases in BP, HR and activity. The peak effects on HR occurred at a lower dose than peak effects on BP or activity. The N-demethylated metabolite, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), produced effects that mimicked those of MDMA. The metabolite 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA; 1-10 mg·kg(-1)) increased HR more potently and to a greater extent than MDMA, whereas 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA) increased HR, but to a lesser extent than HHMA. Neither dihydroxy metabolite altered motor activity. The metabolites 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA) did not affect any of the parameters measured. The tachycardia produced by MDMA and HHMA was blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Our results demonstrate that HHMA may contribute significantly to the cardiovascular effects of MDMA in vivo. As such, determining the molecular mechanism of action of HHMA and the other hydroxyl metabolites of MDMA warrants further study. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its main metabolites on cardiovascular function in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Charles W; Thorndike, Eric B; Blough, Bruce E; Tella, Srihari R; Goldberg, Steven R; Baumann, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The cardiovascular effects produced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ‘Ecstasy’) contribute to its acute toxicity, but the potential role of its metabolites in these cardiovascular effects is not known. Here we examined the effects of MDMA metabolites on cardiovascular function in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Radiotelemetry was employed to evaluate the effects of s.c. administration of racemic MDMA and its phase I metabolites on BP, heart rate (HR) and locomotor activity in conscious male rats. KEY RESULTS MDMA (1–20 mg·kg−1) produced dose-related increases in BP, HR and activity. The peak effects on HR occurred at a lower dose than peak effects on BP or activity. The N-demethylated metabolite, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), produced effects that mimicked those of MDMA. The metabolite 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA; 1–10 mg·kg−1) increased HR more potently and to a greater extent than MDMA, whereas 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA) increased HR, but to a lesser extent than HHMA. Neither dihydroxy metabolite altered motor activity. The metabolites 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA) did not affect any of the parameters measured. The tachycardia produced by MDMA and HHMA was blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results demonstrate that HHMA may contribute significantly to the cardiovascular effects of MDMA in vivo. As such, determining the molecular mechanism of action of HHMA and the other hydroxyl metabolites of MDMA warrants further study. PMID:24328722

  15. Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; Levett, Kate M; Collins, Carmel T; Armour, Mike; Dahlen, Hannah G; Suganuma, Machiko

    2018-03-28

    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute to the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence on the use of relaxation therapies for pain management in labour. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To examine the effects of mind-body relaxation techniques for pain management in labour on maternal and neonatal well-being during and after labour. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (9 May 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 5 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 24 May 2017), CINAHL (1980 to 24 May 2017), the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (18 May 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov (18 May 2017), the ISRCTN Register (18 May 2017), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (18 May 2017), and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (including quasi randomised and cluster trials) comparing relaxation methods with standard care, no treatment, other non-pharmacological forms of pain management in labour or placebo. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We attempted to contact study authors for additional information. We assessed evidence quality with GRADE methodology. This review update includes 19 studies (2519 women), 15 of which (1731 women) contribute data. Interventions examined included relaxation, yoga, music and mindfulness. Approximately half of the studies had a low risk of bias for random sequence generation and attrition bias. The majority of studies had a high risk of bias for performance and detection bias, and unclear risk of bias for, allocation concealment, reporting bias and other bias. We assessed the evidence from these studies as ranging from low to very low quality, and

  16. Multilayer Relaxation and Surface Energies of Metallic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Agustin M.; Ferrante, John

    1994-01-01

    The perpendicular and parallel multilayer relaxations of fcc (210) surfaces are studied using equivalent crystal theory (ECT). A comparison with experimental and theoretical results is made for AI(210). The effect of uncertainties in the input parameters on the magnitudes and ordering of surface relaxations for this semiempirical method is estimated. A new measure of surface roughness is proposed. Predictions for the multilayer relaxations and surface energies of the (210) face of Cu and Ni are also included.

  17. Relaxations to Sparse Optimization Problems and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skau, Erik West

    Parsimony is a fundamental property that is applied to many characteristics in a variety of fields. Of particular interest are optimization problems that apply rank, dimensionality, or support in a parsimonious manner. In this thesis we study some optimization problems and their relaxations, and focus on properties and qualities of the solutions of these problems. The Gramian tensor decomposition problem attempts to decompose a symmetric tensor as a sum of rank one tensors.We approach the Gramian tensor decomposition problem with a relaxation to a semidefinite program. We study conditions which ensure that the solution of the relaxed semidefinite problem gives the minimal Gramian rank decomposition. Sparse representations with learned dictionaries are one of the leading image modeling techniques for image restoration. When learning these dictionaries from a set of training images, the sparsity parameter of the dictionary learning algorithm strongly influences the content of the dictionary atoms.We describe geometrically the content of trained dictionaries and how it changes with the sparsity parameter.We use statistical analysis to characterize how the different content is used in sparse representations. Finally, a method to control the structure of the dictionaries is demonstrated, allowing us to learn a dictionary which can later be tailored for specific applications. Variations of dictionary learning can be broadly applied to a variety of applications.We explore a pansharpening problem with a triple factorization variant of coupled dictionary learning. Another application of dictionary learning is computer vision. Computer vision relies heavily on object detection, which we explore with a hierarchical convolutional dictionary learning model. Data fusion of disparate modalities is a growing topic of interest.We do a case study to demonstrate the benefit of using social media data with satellite imagery to estimate hazard extents. In this case study analysis we

  18. [Autism and Autism-associated Metabolites].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2016-06-01

    Gene-microbiota interactions are now proposed to be a special case of gene-environmental interaction. Preclinical and clinical data summarized in this article reveal that a specific serum metabolite, associated with alterations in gut microbiome composition, might have an emerging role in the onset and pathogenesis of autism. Altered level of this specified metabolite may induce perturbations in the epigenome and modulate the expression of key disease susceptible genes in neurons and their associated cells during critical periods of neurodevelopment. The gut microbiota itself is now regarded as a reservoir for environmental epigenetic factors.

  19. Streptomyces metabolites in divergent microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Tatsuya; Amano, Sho-ichi; Beppu, Teruhiko; Kobayashi, Michihiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Streptomyces and related bacteria produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites. Of these, many compounds have industrial applications, but the question of why this group of microorganism produces such various kinds of biologically active substances has not yet been clearly answered. Here, we overview the results from our studies on the novel function and role of Streptomyces metabolites. The diverged action of negative and positive influences onto the physiology of various microorganisms infers the occurrence of complex microbial interactions due to the effect of small molecules produced by Streptomyces. The interactions may serve as a basis for the constitution of biological community.

  20. Efficient and optimized identification of generalized Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation spectra

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Behzad; Davarian, Ali; Pryse, Kenneth M.; Elson, Elliot L.; Genin, Guy M.

    2017-01-01

    Viscoelastic relaxation spectra are essential for predicting and interpreting the mechanical responses of materials and structures. For biological tissues, these spectra must usually be estimated from viscoelastic relaxation tests. Interpreting viscoelastic relaxation tests is challenging because the inverse problem is expensive computationally. We present here an efficient algorithm that enables rapid identification of viscoelastic relaxation spectra. The algorithm was tested against trial data to characterize its robustness and identify its limitations and strengths. The algorithm was then applied to identify the viscoelastic response of reconstituted collagen, revealing an extensive distribution of viscoelastic time constants. PMID:26523785

  1. Ultra-Slow Dielectric Relaxation Process in Polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, Yoshiki; Minoguchi, Ayumi; Nozaki, Ryusuke

    2004-04-01

    Dielectric relaxation processes with relaxation times larger than that for the structural α process are reported for glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol and their mixtures for the first time. Appearance of this ultra-slow process depends on cooling rate. More rapid cooling gives larger dielectric relaxation strength. However, relaxation time is not affected by cooling rate and shows non-Arrhenius temperature dependence with correlation to the α process. It can be considered that non-equilibrium dynamic structure causes the ultra-slow process. Scale of such structure would be much larger than that of the region for the cooperative molecular orientations for the α process.

  2. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2010-10-18

    Picosecond absorption relaxation-central to many disciplines-is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, were measured at 576 nm. The added advantages in dispersion susceptibility, laser-wavelength availability, reflection sensing, and expense foster the study of natural-including strongly scattering and nonfluorescent-materials.

  3. Efficient and optimized identification of generalized Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation spectra.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Behzad; Davarian, Ali; Pryse, Kenneth M; Elson, Elliot L; Genin, Guy M

    2015-03-01

    Viscoelastic relaxation spectra are essential for predicting and interpreting the mechanical responses of materials and structures. For biological tissues, these spectra must usually be estimated from viscoelastic relaxation tests. Interpreting viscoelastic relaxation tests is challenging because the inverse problem is expensive computationally. We present here an efficient algorithm that enables rapid identification of viscoelastic relaxation spectra. The algorithm was tested against trial data to characterize its robustness and identify its limitations and strengths. The algorithm was then applied to identify the viscoelastic response of reconstituted collagen, revealing an extensive distribution of viscoelastic time constants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Appel GB, Radhakrishnan J. Glomerular disorders and nephrotic syndromes. In: Goldman L, ...

  5. Slow secondary relaxation in a free-energy landscape model for relaxation in glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diezemann, Gregor; Mohanty, Udayan; Oppenheim, Irwin

    1999-02-01

    Within the framework of a free-energy landscape model for the relaxation in supercooled liquids the primary (α) relaxation is modeled by transitions among different free-energy minima. The secondary (β) relaxation then corresponds to intraminima relaxation. We consider a simple model for the reorientational motions of the molecules associated with both processes and calculate the dielectric susceptibility as well as the spin-lattice relaxation times. The parameters of the model can be chosen in a way that both quantities show a behavior similar to that observed in experimental studies on supercooled liquids. In particular we find that it is not possible to obtain a crossing of the time scales associated with α and β relaxation. In our model these processes always merge at high temperatures and the α process remains above the merging temperature. The relation to other models is discussed.

  6. Spatially resolved nuclear spin relaxation, electron spin relaxation and light absorption in swift heavy ion irradiated LiF crystals.

    PubMed

    Stork, H; Dinse, K-P; Ditter, M; Fujara, F; Masierak, W; Neumann, R; Schuster, B; Schwartz, K; Trautmann, C

    2010-05-12

    Spatially resolved (19)F and (7)Li spin-lattice relaxation rates are measured for LiF single crystals after irradiation with two kinds of swift heavy ions ((12)C of 133 MeV and (208)Pb of 1.78 GeV incident energy). Like in earlier studies on (130)Xe and (238)U irradiated LiF crystals, we found a strong enhancement of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate within the ion penetration depth and a slight--but still significant--enhancement beyond. By evaluating the nuclear relaxation rate enhancement within the ion range after irradiation with different projectiles, a universal relationship between the spin-lattice relaxation rate and the dose is deduced. The results of accompanying X-band electron paramagnetic resonance relaxation measurements and optical absorption spectroscopy are included in a physical interpretation of this relationship. Also the reason for the enhanced relaxation rate beyond the ion range is further discussed.

  7. Temperature relaxation in supernova remnants, revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itoh, H.

    1984-01-01

    Some supernova remnants are expanding into a partially neutral medium. The neutral atoms which are engulfed by the fast blast shock are collisionally ionized to eject low-energy secondary electrons. Calculations are conducted of the temperature relaxation through Coulomb collisions among the secondary electrons, the shocked electrons, and the ions, assuming that the three species have Maxwellian velocity distributions. The results are applied to a self-similar blast wave. If the efficiency of collisionless electron heating at the shock front is high in young remnants such as Tycho, the secondary electrons may be much cooler than both the shocked electrons and the ions. In this case, the emergent X-ray continuum spectrum will have a two-temperature, or a power-law, appearance. This effect may have been observed in the bright rim of the remnant of SN 1006.

  8. Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in electrical imaging.

    PubMed

    Korjenevsky, A V

    2005-04-01

    The electric field tomography (EFT) method exploits interaction of high-frequency electric field with an inhomogeneous conductive medium without contact with the electrodes. The interaction is accompanied by a high-frequency redistribution of free charges inside the medium and leads to small and regular phase shifts of the field in the area surrounding an object. Such a kind of phenomenon is referred to as the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation. Measuring the perturbations of the field using the set of electrodes placed around the object enables us to reconstruct the internal structure of the medium, generally the spatial distribution of a nonlinear combination of permittivity and resistivity. In the case of biomedical applications the result of measurements is determined mainly by the resistivity of the tissues. Three-dimensional simulation based on the finite element method has demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  9. Collisionless relaxation in spiral galaxy models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohl, F.

    1974-01-01

    The increase in random kinetic energy of stars by rapidly fluctuating gravitational fields (collisionless or violent relaxation) in disk galaxy models is investigated for three interaction potentials of the stars corresponding to (1) point stars, (2) rod stars of length 2 kpc, and (3) uniform density spherical stars of radius 2 kpc. To stabilize the galaxy against the large scale bar forming instability, a fixed field corresponding to a central core or halo component of stars was added with the stars containing at most 20 percent of the total mass of the galaxy. Considerable heating occurred for both the point stars and the rod stars, whereas the use of spherical stars resulted in a very low heating rate. The use of spherical stars with the resulting low heating rate will be desirable for the study of large scale galactic stability or density wave propagation, since collective heating effects will no longer mask the phenomena under study.

  10. Onset of Plasticity via Relaxation Analysis (OPRA)

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit; Wheeler, Robert; Shyam, Amit

    In crystalline metals and alloys, plasticity occurs due to the movement of mobile dislocations and the yield stress for engineering applications is traditionally quantified based on strain. The onset of irreversible plasticity or “yielding” is generally identified by a deviation from linearity in the stress-strain plot or by some standard convention such as 0.2 % offset strain relative to the “linear elastic response”. In the present work, we introduce a new methodology for the determination of the true yield point based on stress relaxation. We show experimentally that this determination is self-consistent in nature and, as such, provides an objectivemore » observation of the very onset of plastic flow. Lastly, our designation for yielding is no longer related to the shape of the stress-strain curve but instead reflects the earliest signature of the activation of concerted irreversible dislocation motion in a test specimen under increasing load.« less

  11. Onset of Plasticity via Relaxation Analysis (OPRA)

    DOE PAGES

    Pandey, Amit; Wheeler, Robert; Shyam, Amit; ...

    2016-03-17

    In crystalline metals and alloys, plasticity occurs due to the movement of mobile dislocations and the yield stress for engineering applications is traditionally quantified based on strain. The onset of irreversible plasticity or “yielding” is generally identified by a deviation from linearity in the stress-strain plot or by some standard convention such as 0.2 % offset strain relative to the “linear elastic response”. In the present work, we introduce a new methodology for the determination of the true yield point based on stress relaxation. We show experimentally that this determination is self-consistent in nature and, as such, provides an objectivemore » observation of the very onset of plastic flow. Lastly, our designation for yielding is no longer related to the shape of the stress-strain curve but instead reflects the earliest signature of the activation of concerted irreversible dislocation motion in a test specimen under increasing load.« less

  12. Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Stein, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.

  13. Surface Tension: Mechanics, Thermodynamics, and Relaxation Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2018-06-01

    A microscopic analysis is presented of the existing definitions of equilibrium surface tension, which can be divided into two types: mechanical and thermodynamic. Each type of definition can be studied from the presentation below according to thermodynamic hypotheses or molecular calculations. An analysis of the planar interface is given and its generalization for curved (spherical) interfaces is considered. The distinction between approaches describing the surface tension of metastable and equilibrium droplets is discussed. Based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics, it is shown that the introduction of metastable droplets is due to a violation of the relationship between the times of impulse and chemical potential relaxation in condensed phases. Problems of calculating the surface tension in nonequilibrium situations are created.

  14. Pre-relaxation in weakly interacting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Bruno; Fagotti, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    We consider time evolution in models close to integrable points with hidden symmetries that generate infinitely many local conservation laws that do not commute with one another. The system is expected to (locally) relax to a thermal ensemble if integrability is broken, or to a so-called generalised Gibbs ensemble if unbroken. In some circumstances expectation values exhibit quasi-stationary behaviour long before their typical relaxation time. For integrability-breaking perturbations, these are also called pre-thermalisation plateaux, and emerge e.g. in the strong coupling limit of the Bose-Hubbard model. As a result of the hidden symmetries, quasi-stationarity appears also in integrable models, for example in the Ising limit of the XXZ model. We investigate a weak coupling limit, identify a time window in which the effects of the perturbations become significant and solve the time evolution through a mean-field mapping. As an explicit example we study the XYZ spin-\\frac{1}{2} chain with additional perturbations that break integrability. One of the most intriguing results of the analysis is the appearance of persistent oscillatory behaviour. To unravel its origin, we study in detail a toy model: the transverse-field Ising chain with an additional nonlocal interaction proportional to the square of the transverse spin per unit length (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 197203). Despite being nonlocal, this belongs to a class of models that emerge as intermediate steps of the mean-field mapping and shares many dynamical properties with the weakly interacting models under consideration.

  15. Determinants of relaxation rate in rabbit skinned skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ye; Davis, Jonathan P; Smillie, Lawrence B; Rall, Jack A

    2002-01-01

    The influence of Ca2+-activated force, the rate of dissociation of Ca2+ from troponin C (TnC) and decreased crossbridge detachment rate on the time course of relaxation induced by flash photolysis of diazo-2 in rabbit skinned psoas fibres was investigated at 15 °C. The rate of relaxation increased as the diazo-2 chelating capacity (i.e. free [diazo-2]/free [Ca2+]) increased. At a constant diazo-2 chelating capacity, the rate of relaxation was independent of the pre-photolysis Ca2+-activated force in the range 0.3-0.8 of maximum isometric force. A TnC mutant that exhibited increased Ca2+ sensitivity caused by a decreased Ca2+ dissociation rate in solution (M82Q TnC) also increased the Ca2+ sensitivity of steady-state force and decreased the rate of relaxation in fibres by approximately twofold. In contrast, a TnC mutant with decreased Ca2+ sensitivity caused by an increased Ca2+ dissociation rate in solution (NHdel TnC) decreased the Ca2+ sensitivity of steady-state force but did not accelerate relaxation. Decreasing the rate of crossbridge kinetics by reducing intracellular inorganic phosphate concentration ([Pi]) slowed relaxation by approximately twofold and led to two phases of relaxation, a slow linear phase followed by a fast exponential phase. In fibres, M82Q TnC further slowed relaxation in low [Pi] conditions by approximately twofold, whereas NHdel TnC had no significant effect on relaxation. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the Ca2+-dissociation rate and crossbridge detachment rate are similar in fast-twitch skeletal muscle, such that decreasing either rate slows relaxation, but accelerating Ca2+ dissociation has little effect on relaxation. PMID:12482894

  16. Dynamics of human serum albumin studied by acoustic relaxation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hushcha, T; Kaatze, U; Peytcheva, A

    Sonic absorption spectra of solutions of human serum albumin (SA) in water and in aqueous phosphate buffer systems have been measured between 0.2 and 2000 MHz at different temperatures (15-35 degrees C), pH values (1.8-12.3), and protein concentrations (1-40 g/L). Several spectra, indicating relaxation processes in the whole frequency range, have been found. The spectra at neutral pH could be fitted well with an analytical function consisting of the asymptotic high frequency absorption and two relaxation contributions, a Debye-type relaxation term with discrete relaxation time and a term with asymmetric continuous distribution of relaxation times. Both relaxation contributions were observed in water and in buffer solutions and increased with protein concentration. The contribution represented by a Debye-type term is practically independent of temperature and was attributed to cooperative conformational changes of the polypeptide chain featuring a relaxation time of about 400 ns. The distribution of the relaxation times corresponding to the second relaxation contribution was characterized by a short time cutoff, between about 0.02 and 0.4 ns depending on temperature, and a long time tail extending to microseconds. Such relaxation behavior was interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interactions reflecting various hydration layers of HSA molecules. At acid and alkaline pH, an additional Debye-type contribution with relaxation time in the range of 30-100 ns exists. It seems to be due to proton transfer reactions of protein side-chain groups. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of these processes have been estimated from these first measurements to indicate the potential of acoustic spectra for the investigation of the elementary kinetics of albumin processes. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers, 2004

  17. A new sesquiterpenoid metabolite from Psilocybe samuiensis.

    PubMed

    Pornpakakul, Surachai; Suwancharoen, Sunisa; Petsom, Amorn; Roengsumran, Sophon; Muangsin, Nongnuj; Chaichit, Narongsak; Piapukiew, Jittra; Sihanonth, Prakistin; Allen, John W

    2009-01-01

    A novel 2,3-secoaromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoid metabolite, psilosamuiensin A (1), was isolated from the broth of Psilocybe samuiensis. The structure of psilosamuiensin A was established by spectroscopic data and its configurations were confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. This is the first report of psilosamuiensin A found in the genus Psilocybes.

  18. Microbial metabolism part 13 metabolites of hesperetin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungal culture, Mucor ramannianus (ATCC 2628) transformed hesperitin to four metabolites: 4'-methoxy -5, 7, 8, 3'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (8-hydroxyhesperetin), 5, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (eriodictyol), 4'-methoxy-5, 3'-dihydroxyflavanone 7-sulfate (hesperetin 7-sulfate) and 5, 7, 3'-tri...

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid ATP metabolites in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lazzarino, G; Amorini, A M; Eikelenboom, M J; Killestein, J; Belli, A; Di Pietro, V; Tavazzi, B; Barkhof, F; Polman, C H; Uitdehaag, B M J; Petzold, A

    2010-05-01

    Increased axonal energy demand and mitochondrial failure have been suggested as possible causes for axonal degeneration and disability in multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to test whether ATP depletion precedes clinical, imaging and biomarker evidence for axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis. The method consisted of a longitudinal study which included 21 patients with multiple sclerosis. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify biomarkers of the ATP metabolism (oxypurines and purines) from the cerebrospinal fluid at baseline. The Expanded Disability Status Scale, MRI brain imaging measures for brain atrophy (ventricular and parenchymal fractions), and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for axonal damage (phosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated neurofilaments) were quantified at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Central ATP depletion (sum of ATP metabolites >19.7 micromol/litre) was followed by more severe progression of disability if compared to normal ATP metabolites (median 1.5 versus 0, p< 0.05). Baseline ATP metabolite levels correlated with change of Expanded Disability Status Scale in the pooled cohort (r= 0.66, p= 0.001) and subgroups (relapsing-remitting patients: r= 0.79, p< 0.05 and secondary progressive/primary progressive patients: r= 0.69, p< 0.01). There was no relationship between central ATP metabolites and either biomarker or MRI evidence for axonal degeneration. The data suggests that an increased energy demand in multiple sclerosis may cause a quantifiable degree of central ATP depletion. We speculate that the observed clinical disability may be related to depolarisation associated conduction block.

  20. A fast determination method for transverse relaxation of spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jixi, E-mail: lujixi@buaa.edu.cn; Qian, Zheng; Fang, Jiancheng

    2015-04-15

    We propose a fast and accurate determination method for transverse relaxation of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. This method is based on the measurement of magnetic resonance linewidth via a chirped magnetic field excitation and the amplitude spectrum analysis. Compared with the frequency sweeping via separate sinusoidal excitation, our method can realize linewidth determination within only few seconds and meanwhile obtain good frequency resolution. Therefore, it can avoid the drift error in long term measurement and improve the accuracy of the determination. As the magnetic resonance frequency of the SERF magnetometer is very low, we include the effect of the negativemore » resonance frequency caused by the chirp and achieve the coefficient of determination of the fitting results better than 0.998 with 95% confidence bounds to the theoretical equation. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis.« less

  1. Active Components of Ginger Potentiate β-Agonist–Induced Relaxation of Airway Smooth Muscle by Modulating Cytoskeletal Regulatory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Wakita, Ryo; Emala, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    β-Agonists are the first-line therapy to alleviate asthma symptoms by acutely relaxing the airway. Purified components of ginger relax airway smooth muscle (ASM), but the mechanisms are unclear. By elucidating these mechanisms, we can explore the use of phytotherapeutics in combination with traditional asthma therapies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine if 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol potentiate β-agonist–induced ASM relaxation; and (2) define the mechanism(s) of action responsible for this potentiation. Human ASM was contracted in organ baths. Tissues were relaxed dose dependently with β-agonist, isoproterenol, in the presence of vehicle, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol (100 μM). Primary human ASM cells were used for cellular experiments. Purified phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D or phospholipase C β enzyme was used to assess inhibitory activity of ginger components using fluorescent assays. A G-LISA assay was used to determine the effects of ginger constituents on Ras homolog gene family member A activation. Significant potentiation of isoproterenol-induced relaxation was observed with each of the ginger constituents. 6-Shogaol showed the largest shift in isoproterenol half-maximal effective concentration. 6-Gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol significantly inhibited PDE4D, whereas 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol also inhibited phospholipase C β activity. 6-Shogaol alone inhibited Ras homolog gene family member A activation. In human ASM cells, these constituents decreased phosphorylation of 17-kD protein kinase C–potentiated inhibitory protein of type 1 protein phosphatase and 8-gingerol decreased myosin light chain phosphorylation. Isolated components of ginger potentiate β-agonist–induced relaxation in human ASM. This potentiation involves PDE4D inhibition and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. Together with β-agonists, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol may augment existing asthma therapy, resulting in relief of symptoms

  2. MHD simulation of relaxation transition to a flipped relaxed state in spherical torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro

    2008-11-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated in the HIST device that in spite of the violation of the Kruskal-Shafranov stability condition, a normal spherical torus (ST) plasma has relaxed to a flipped ST state through a transient reversed-field pinch-like state when the vacuum toroidal field is decreased and its direction is reversed [1]. It has been also observed during this relaxation transition process that not only the toroidal field but also the poloidal field reverses polarity spontaneously and that the ion flow velocity is strongly fluctuated and abruptly increased up to > 50 km/s. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the plasma flows and the relevant MHD relaxation phenomena to elucidate this transition mechanism by using three-dimensional MHD simulations [2]. It is found from the numerical results that the magnetic reconnection between the open and closed field lines occurs due to the non-linear growth of the n=1 kink instability of the central open flux, generating the toroidal flow ˜ 60 km/s in the direction of the toroidal current. The n=1 kink instability and the plasma flows driven by the magnetic reconnection are consider to be responsible for the self-reversal of the magnetic fields. [1] M. Nagata el al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 225001 (2003). [2] Y. Kagei el al., Plasma. Phys. Control. Fusion 45, L17 (2003).

  3. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email this page Print this page My Cart Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is ... Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Other diseases What is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)? ALL is a fast-growing ...

  4. Discovering the secondary metabolite potential encoded within Entomopathogenic Fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article discusses the secondary metabolite potential of the insect pathogens Metarhizium and Beauveria, including a bioinformatics analysis of secondary metabolite genes for which no products are yet identified....

  5. Definition, evaluation, and management of brain relaxation during craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gelb, A W; Flexman, A M; Ji, F; Meng, L

    2016-06-01

    The term 'brain relaxation' is routinely used to describe the size and firmness of the brain tissue during craniotomy. The status of brain relaxation is an important aspect of neuroanaesthesia practice and is relevant to the operating conditions, retraction injury, and likely patient outcomes. Brain relaxation is determined by the relationship between the volume of the intracranial contents and the capacity of the intracranial space (i.e. a content-space relationship). It is a concept related to, but distinct from, intracranial pressure. The evaluation of brain relaxation should be standardized to facilitate clinical communication and research collaboration. Both advantageous and disadvantageous effects of the various interventions for brain relaxation should be taken into account in patient care. The outcomes that matter the most to patients should be emphasized in defining, evaluating, and managing brain relaxation. To date, brain relaxation has not been reviewed specifically, and the aim of this manuscript is to discuss the current approaches to the definition, evaluation, and management of brain relaxation, knowledge gaps, and targets for future research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Communication: Relaxation-limited electronic currents in extended reservoir simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruss, Daniel; Smolyanitsky, Alex; Zwolak, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Open-system approaches are gaining traction in the simulation of charge transport in nanoscale and molecular electronic devices. In particular, "extended reservoir" simulations, where explicit reservoir degrees of freedom are present, allow for the computation of both real-time and steady-state properties but require relaxation of the extended reservoirs. The strength of this relaxation, γ, influences the conductance, giving rise to a "turnover" behavior analogous to Kramers turnover in chemical reaction rates. We derive explicit, general expressions for the weak and strong relaxation limits. For weak relaxation, the conductance increases linearly with γ and every electronic state of the total explicit system contributes to the electronic current according to its "reduced" weight in the two extended reservoir regions. Essentially, this represents two conductors in series—one at each interface with the implicit reservoirs that provide the relaxation. For strong relaxation, a "dual" expression-one with the same functional form-results, except now proportional to 1/γ and dependent on the system of interest's electronic states, reflecting that the strong relaxation is localizing electrons in the extended reservoirs. Higher order behavior (e.g., γ2 or 1/γ2) can occur when there is a gap in the frequency spectrum. Moreover, inhomogeneity in the frequency spacing can give rise to a pseudo-plateau regime. These findings yield a physically motivated approach to diagnosing numerical simulations and understanding the influence of relaxation, and we examine their occurrence in both simple models and a realistic, fluctuating graphene nanoribbon.

  7. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  8. [Specifics of bio-controlled training in directed relaxation].

    PubMed

    Baranov, V M; Sentiabrev, N N; Solopov, I N

    2005-01-01

    Studies of personal and general patterns of acquisition of skills in biocontrolled relaxation based on biological feedback (EMG) permitted classification of human subjects by the ability to relax voluntarily muscles. In the process of skill acquisition changes were minimal at the beginning, grew progressively further on and stabilized on completion of the course of training.

  9. An experiment in multispectral, multitemporal crop classification using relaxation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. S.; Wang, C.-Y.; Xie, H.-C

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the result of an experimental study concerning the use of probabilistic relaxation for improving pixel classification rates. Two LACIE sites were used in the study and in both cases, relaxation resulted in a marked improvement in classification rates.

  10. Relaxation in x-space magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Croft, Laura R; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality that noninvasively images the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). MPI has demonstrated high contrast and zero attenuation with depth, and MPI promises superior safety compared to current angiography methods, X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging angiography. Nanoparticle relaxation can delay the SPIO magnetization, and in this work we investigate the open problem of the role relaxation plays in MPI scanning and its effect on the image. We begin by amending the x-space theory of MPI to include nanoparticle relaxation effects. We then validate the amended theory with experiments from a Berkeley x-space relaxometer and a Berkeley x-space projection MPI scanner. Our theory and experimental data indicate that relaxation reduces SNR and asymmetrically blurs the image in the scanning direction. While relaxation effects can have deleterious effects on the MPI scan, we show theoretically and experimentally that x-space reconstruction remains robust in the presence of relaxation. Furthermore, the role of relaxation in x-space theory provides guidance as we develop methods to minimize relaxation-induced blurring. This will be an important future area of research for the MPI community.

  11. Relaxation Theory for Rural Youth. Research Bulletin No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    This document synthesizes research findings to formulate a theory to guide relaxation training in educational settings, particularly rural schools. Young people experience many intense life events that require coping skills or relaxation. Family-related stress factors include instability in the home, lack of a support system, conflicting values,…

  12. Improving the Performance of Poor Readers through Autogenic Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    Reports that the addition of 15 minutes of relaxation training to weekly remedial reading periods for disabled readers throughout a school year raised concentration levels and decreased anxiety, neuroticism, and number of reading errors. Describes a few types of relaxation exercises that may be helpful. (ET)

  13. Emerging new strategies for successful metabolite identification in metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Bingol, Kerem; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Bo; Xie, Mouzhe; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses strategies for the identification of metabolites in complex biological mixtures, as encountered in metabolomics, which have emerged in the recent past. These include NMR database-assisted approaches for the identification of commonly known metabolites as well as novel combinations of NMR and MS analysis methods for the identification of unknown metabolites. The use of certain chemical additives to the NMR tube can permit identification of metabolites with specific physical chemical properties. PMID:26915807

  14. Vitamin C metabolites, independent of smoking status, significantly enhance leukocyte, but not plasma ascorbate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A; Combs, Maile A; Vrablic, Angelica S; Velasquez, Janet; Turner, Benilda; Bernal, Samuel

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effects of acute doses of vitamin C alone, calcium ascorbate with vitamin C metabolites, and placebo, on total plasma and leukocyte vitamin C concentrations over 24 hours. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover study was performed consisting of four separate phases lasting 24 hours each and utilizing one of four oral 1000-mg preparations within each phase (one of vitamin C alone, two separate vitamin C formulations of calcium ascorbate with vitamin C metabolites, and placebo). There was a 7-day washout between phases, and blood draws at seven time points within each phase of the study for a total of 28 serologic measurements per subject and 420 total measurements for the entire clinical trial. Vitamin C concentration in plasma and leukocytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline and at six sequential time periods over 24 hours. Fifteen healthy males were enrolled, aged 18-39 years; nine were had never smoked and six were chronic smokers. No significant difference in plasma vitamin C levels was observed when comparing the different preparations. However, at 24 hours, calcium ascorbate with metabolites resulted in significantly higher concentrations of vitamin C in leukocytes (P<0.0001) compared with vitamin C alone. These results were similar for both metabolite formulations, and independent of smoking status. Regardless of smoking status, vitamin C metabolites may enhance leukocyte utilization of vitamin C itself, despite no consistent difference in plasma levels among the different preparations. A larger clinical investigation is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings, and to determine the clinical relevance of this impact on overall immune function.

  15. Urinary metabolite levels and symptoms in Filipino workers using organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Cucueco, M T; Espinosa, N C; Villanueva, M B; Castro, F T; Sison, S Y; Ortega, V S; Hisanaga, N

    1993-01-01

    To compare symptoms with urinary metabolite levels, 900 workers from 7 organic solvent-using industries were studied. Urinary metabolites were determined using a high performance liquid chromatograph. Urinary hippuric acid concentrations exceeding the reference value (2.5 g/g creatinine) were found in 78 (8.7%) workers. However, only 3 (0.3%) and 1 (0.1%) of the participants exceeded the reference value for mandelic (0.8 g/g creatinine) and total methylhippuric acid (1.5 g/g creatinine), respectively. The sum of the values of the ratio of measured urinary metabolite concentration to the corresponding ACGIH's biological exposure indices (BEI) [(HA/BEI of HA + MHA/BEI of MHA + MA/BEI of MA)] exceeded 1.0 in 166 (18.4%) workers. Majority of them were from the footwear manufacturing industry (63/129 or 49.2%). Questionnaire interviews were also administered to determine the prevalence of symptoms while at work (acute symptoms) or within the past 6 months (chronic symptoms). Urinary metabolite levels of individual and mixed solvents were compared with the symptoms of all workers. Analysis using Spearman's rank correlation showed in workers whose urinary hippuric acid exceeded 3.75 g/g creatine (1.5 x BEI), significant correlation between their hippuric acid levels and subjective complaints. Workers whose sum of the values of the ratio of measured urinary metabolite concentration to corresponding BEI exceeded 1.5 were selected and comparing this level with their symptoms, significant correlation was also noted in some complaints.

  16. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Topographic Highs on Venus to Produce Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    Coronae on Venus are believed to result from the gravitationally driven relaxation of topography that was originally raised by mantle diapirs. We examine this relaxation using a viscoelastic finite element code, and show that an initially plateau shaped load will evolve to the characteristic corona topography of central raised bowl, annular rim, and surrounding moat. Stresses induced by the relaxation are consistent with the development of concentric extensional fracturing common on the outer margins of corona moats. However, relaxation is not expected to produce the concentric faulting often observed on the annular rim. The relaxation timescale is shorter than the diapir cooling timescale, so loss of thermal support controls the rate at which topography is reduced. The final corona shape is supported by buoyancy and flexural stresses and will persist through geologic time. Development of lower, flatter central bowls and narrower and more pronounced annular rims and moats enhanced by thicker crusts, higher thermal gradients, and crustal thinning over the diapir.

  17. Ultraslow dielectric relaxation process in supercooled polyhydric alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, Yoshiki; Minoguchi, Ayumi; Nozaki, Ryusuke

    2006-04-01

    Complex permittivity was obtained on glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol and sorbitol-xylitol mixtures in the supercooled liquid state in the frequency range between 10μHz and 500MHz at temperatures near and above the glass transition temperature. For all the materials, a dielectric relaxation process was observed in addition to the well-known structural α and Johari-Goldstein β relaxation process [G. P. Johari and M. Goldstein, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 2372 (1970)]. The relaxation time for the new process is always larger than that for the α process. The relaxation time shows non-Arrhenius temperature dependence with correlation to the behavior of the α process and it depends on the molecular size systematically. The dielectric relaxation strength for the new process shows the effect of thermal history and decreases exponentially with time at a constant temperature. It can be considered that a nonequilibrium dynamics causes the new process.

  18. Resistivity scaling and electron relaxation times in metallic nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Moors, Kristof, E-mail: kristof@itf.fys.kuleuven.be; Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven; Sorée, Bart

    2014-08-14

    We study the resistivity scaling in nanometer-sized metallic wires due to surface roughness and grain-boundaries, currently the main cause of electron scattering in nanoscaled interconnects. The resistivity has been obtained with the Boltzmann transport equation, adopting the relaxation time approximation of the distribution function and the effective mass approximation for the conducting electrons. The relaxation times are calculated exactly, using Fermi's golden rule, resulting in a correct relaxation time for every sub-band state contributing to the transport. In general, the relaxation time strongly depends on the sub-band state, something that remained unclear with the methods of previous work. The resistivitymore » scaling is obtained for different roughness and grain-boundary properties, showing large differences in scaling behavior and relaxation times. Our model clearly indicates that the resistivity is dominated by grain-boundary scattering, easily surpassing the surface roughness contribution by a factor of 10.« less

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging relaxation time in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang; Cai, Feng; Ding, Dong-Xue; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Cai, Xiu-Ying; Fang, Qi

    2018-05-05

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation time constants, T1 and T2, are sensitive to changes in brain tissue microstructure integrity. Quantitative T1 and T2 relaxation times have been proposed to serve as non-invasive biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which alterations are believed to not only reflect AD-related neuropathology but also cognitive impairment. In this review, we summarize the applications and key findings of MRI techniques in the context of both AD subjects and AD transgenic mouse models. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms of relaxation time alterations in AD will be discussed. Future studies could focus on relaxation time alterations in the early stage of AD, and longitudinal studies are needed to further explore relaxation time alterations during disease progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiscale Relaxation Dynamics in Ultrathin Metallic Glass-Forming Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Q. L.; Lü, Y. J.; Wang, W. H.

    2018-04-01

    The density layering phenomenon originating from a free surface gives rise to the layerlike dynamics and stress heterogeneity in ultrathin Cu-Zr glassy films, which facilitates the occurrence of multistep relaxations in the timescale of computer simulations. Taking advantage of this condition, we trace the relaxation decoupling and evolution with temperature simply via the intermediate scattering function. We show that the β relaxation hierarchically follows fast and slow modes in films, and there is a β -relaxation transition as the film is cooled close to the glass transition. We provide the direct observation of particle motions responsible for the β relaxation and reveal the dominant mechanism varying from the thermal activated to the cooperative jumps across the transition.

  1. Intuitive approach to the unified theory of spin relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Lénárd; Dóra, Balázs; Kiss, Annamária; Fabian, Jaroslav; Simon, Ferenc

    2017-12-01

    Spin relaxation is conventionally discussed using two different approaches for materials with and without inversion symmetry. The former is known as the Elliott-Yafet (EY) theory and for the latter the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) theory applies. We discuss herein a simple and intuitive approach to demonstrate that the two seemingly disparate mechanisms are closely related. A compelling analogy between the respective Hamiltonians is presented, and that the usual derivation of spin-relaxation times, in the respective frameworks of the two theories, can be performed. The result also allows us to obtain less canonical spin-relaxation regimes, i.e. the generalization of the EY when the material has a large quasiparticle broadening, and the DP mechanism in ultrapure semiconductors. The method also allows a practical and intuitive numerical implementation of the spin-relaxation calculation, which is demonstrated for MgB2, which has anomalous spin-relaxation properties.

  2. Stress Relaxation in Tensile Deformation of 304 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Li, Jiaojiao; Ding, Wei; Zhao, Shuangjun; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Improved ductility by stress relaxation has been reported in different kinds of steels. The influence of stress relaxation and its parameters on the ductility of 304 stainless steel has not been established so far. Stress relaxation behavior during tensile tests at different strain rates is studied in 304 stainless steel. It is observed that stress relaxation can obviously increase the elongation of 304 stainless steel in all cases. The elongation improvement of interrupted tension reaches to 14.9% compared with monotonic tension at 0.05 s-1. Contradicting with the published results, stress drop during stress relaxation increases with strain at all strain rates. It is related with dislocation motion velocity variation and martensitic transformation.

  3. Surface hopping investigation of the relaxation dynamics in radical cations

    DOE PAGES

    Assmann, Mariana; Weinacht, Thomas; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2016-01-19

    Ionization processes can lead to the formation of radical cations with population in several ionic states. In this study, we examine the dynamics of three radical cations starting from an excited ionic state using trajectory surface hopping dynamics in combination with multiconfigurational electronic structure methods. The efficiency of relaxation to the ground state is examined in an effort to understand better whether fragmentation of cations is likely to occur directly on excited states or after relaxation to the ground state. The results on cyclohexadiene, hexatriene, and uracil indicate that relaxation to the ground ionic state is very fast in thesemore » systems, while fragmentation before relaxation is rare. Ultrafast relaxation is facilitated by the close proximity of electronic states and the presence of two- and three-state conical intersections. Furthermore, examining the properties of the systems in the Franck-Condon region can give some insight into the subsequent dynamics.« less

  4. 40 CFR 159.179 - Metabolites, degradates, contaminants, and impurities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical properties of the metabolite or degradate. (B) Data regarding structurally analogous chemicals. (C) Data regarding chemical reactivity of the metabolite or degradate and structurally analogous substances... any person described in § 159.158(a) that the metabolite or degradate, or analogous chemicals, may...

  5. 40 CFR 159.179 - Metabolites, degradates, contaminants, and impurities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chemical properties of the metabolite or degradate. (B) Data regarding structurally analogous chemicals. (C) Data regarding chemical reactivity of the metabolite or degradate and structurally analogous substances... any person described in § 159.158(a) that the metabolite or degradate, or analogous chemicals, may...

  6. Milrinone Relaxes Pulmonary Veins in Guinea Pigs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rieg, Annette D.; Suleiman, Said; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Braunschweig, Till; Spillner, Jan W.; Schröder, Thomas; Verjans, Eva; Schälte, Gereon; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs) is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs) and humans. Material and Methods Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL). Results In the IPL (GP), milrinone (10 µM) lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP), milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120%) and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823), adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536) and protein kinase A (KT 5720), but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME). In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of KATP-, BKCa 2+- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%), however only if pre-constricted. Discussion Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on KATP-, BKCa 2+- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease. PMID:24498166

  7. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    PubMed

    Rieg, Annette D; Suleiman, Said; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Braunschweig, Till; Spillner, Jan W; Schröder, Thomas; Verjans, Eva; Schälte, Gereon; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs) is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs) and humans. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL). In the IPL (GP), milrinone (10 µM) lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP), milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120%) and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823), adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536) and protein kinase A (KT 5720), but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME). In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%), however only if pre-constricted. Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  8. Hydroquinone, a benzene metabolite, and leukemia: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Regev, Lee; Wu, Michael; Zlotolow, Ronald; Brautbar, Nachman

    2012-02-01

    Hydroquinone is a phenolic metabolite of benzene, a known human carcinogen. Hydroquinone is widely used in the industry. We report a case of a 43-year-old male diagnosed with antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following 16 years of occupational exposure to hydroquinone in radiographic developer solution. Cytogenetic studies revealed aberrations in chromosome 5 and chromosome 7. We review the literature on hydroquinone as a potential cause of hematolymphatic cancers and discuss the role of hydroquinone as a genotoxic and leukemogenic agent.

  9. Mixing, ergodicity and slow relaxation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, I. V. L.; Vainstein, M. H.; Lapas, L. C.; Batista, A. A.; Oliveira, F. A.

    2006-11-01

    Investigations on diffusion in systems with memory [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] have established a hierarchical connection between mixing, ergodicity, and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). This hierarchy means that ergodicity is a necessary condition for the validity of the FDT, and mixing is a necessary condition for ergodicity. In this work, we compare those results with recent investigations using the Lee recurrence relations method [M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 2547; M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 250601; M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. Lee shows that ergodicity is violated in the dynamics of the electron gas [M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. This reinforces both works and implies that the results of [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] are more general than the framework in which they were obtained. Some applications to slow relaxation phenomena are discussed.

  10. Foam relaxation in fractures and narrow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ching-Yao; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Perazzo, Antonio; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-11-01

    Various applications, from foam manufacturing to hydraulic fracturing with foams, involve pressure-driven flow of foams in narrow channels. We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of this problem accounting for the compressible nature of the foam. In particular, in our experiments the foam is initially compressed in one channel and then upon flow into a second channel the compressed foam relaxes as it moves. A plug flow is observed in the tube and the pressure at the entrance of the tube is higher than the exit. We measure the volume collected at the exit of the tube, V, as a function of injection flow rate, tube length and diameter. Two scaling behaviors for V as a function of time are observed depending on whether foam compression is important or not. Our work may relate to foam fracturing, which saves water usage in hydraulic fracturing, more efficient enhanced oil recovery via foam injection, and various materials manufacturing processes involving pressure-driven flow foams.

  11. Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrake, Jonathan; Arons, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ-problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ-ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.

  12. Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Zrake, Jonathan; Arons, Jonathan

    We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstratemore » the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ -problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ -ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.« less

  13. Microfabricated spin exchange relaxation free atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, W. Clark; Jimenez-Martinez, Ricardo; Preusser, Jan; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John

    2009-05-01

    Methods first developed at NIST for MEMS-based atomic clocks have been applied to magnetic field sensors. The sensors are built around microfabricated alkali-atom vapor cells integrated with micro-optics and a VCSEL light source. Exceptional magnetic field sensitivities can be achieved in a small volume vapor cell, especially when operated in the spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) regime. In this technique, magnetic resonance broadening due to spin-exchange collisions is suppressed under conditions of high alkali density and low magnetic fields. We have demonstrated sensitivities better than 100 fT/Hz^1/2 with a millimeter scale SERF sensor.ootnotetextV. Shah, S. Knappe, P.D.D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nature Photonics, 1, 649 (2007). Adding flux concentratorsootnotetextW.C. Griffith, R. Jimenez-Martinez, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett., 94, 023502 (2009). around the vapor cell further improves the sensitivity to 10 fT/Hz^1/2, potentially providing a low power, noncryogenic alternative to SQUID sensors.

  14. Formation of magnetic discontinuities through viscous relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2014-05-15

    According to Parker's magnetostatic theorem, tangential discontinuities in magnetic field, or current sheets (CSs), are generally unavoidable in an equilibrium magnetofluid with infinite electrical conductivity and complex magnetic topology. These CSs are due to a failure of a magnetic field in achieving force-balance everywhere and preserving its topology while remaining in a spatially continuous state. A recent work [Kumar, Bhattacharyya, and Smolarkiewicz, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112903 (2013)] demonstrated this CS formation utilizing numerical simulations in terms of the vector magnetic field. The magnetohydrodynamic simulations presented here complement the above work by demonstrating CS formation by employing a novel approach ofmore » describing the magnetofluid evolution in terms of magnetic flux surfaces instead of the vector magnetic field. The magnetic flux surfaces being the possible sites on which CSs develop, this approach provides a direct visualization of the CS formation, helpful in understanding the governing dynamics. The simulations confirm development of tangential discontinuities through a favorable contortion of magnetic flux surfaces, as the magnetofluid undergoes a topology-preserving viscous relaxation from an initial non-equilibrium state with twisted magnetic field. A crucial finding of this work is in its demonstration of CS formation at spatial locations away from the magnetic nulls.« less

  15. Planned delayed relaxing retinotomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Tom H; Gupta, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    A program involving three operations-the first to reattach most of the retina under silicone oil, the second to reattach the remaining retina by planned delayed relaxing retinectomy (PDRR), and the third to remove silicone oil-was tested. Review of electronic records of patients receiving PDRR for proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The primary end point was reattached retina without silicone oil. Eighty-seven patients had PVR and 27 received PDRR (mean age: 66.6 years; mean follow-up: 2.3 years). Ten patients had grade B PVR, 8 had CP1 to CP6, and 7 had CA2 to CA6. Twenty-four (89%) patients achieved a reattached retina without silicone oil. Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuities were 1.41 (standard deviation = 0.67) at presentation and 1.21 (standard deviation = 0.58) at final follow-up. Four patients had glaucoma and 1 had scleromalacia. The overall success rate for all patients with PVR was 85% reattached retina without oil tamponade. PDRR contributes to a high chance of reattached retina and oil removal in PVR. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. "Basic MR Relaxation Mechanisms & Contrast Agent Design"

    PubMed Central

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Martins, André F.; Pinho, Marco; Rofsky, Neil; Sherry, A. Dean

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast agent was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to provide additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities. In this review we will detail the many important considerations when pursuing the design and use of MR contrast media. We will offer a perspective on the importance of chemical stability, particularly kinetic stability, and how this influences one's thinking about the safety of metal-ligand based contrast agents. We will discuss the mechanisms involved in magnetic resonance relaxation in the context of probe design strategies. A brief description of currently available contrast agents will be accompanied by an in-depth discussion that highlights promising MRI contrast agents in development for future clinical and research applications. Our intention is to give a diverse audience an improved understanding of the factors involved in developing new types of safe and highly efficient MR contrast agents and, at the same time, provide an appreciation of the insights into physiology and disease that newer types of responsive agents can provide. PMID:25975847

  17. Rotation relaxation splitting for optimizing parallel RF excitation pulses with T1 - and T2 -relaxations in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Kurt

    2018-03-01

    Exact solutions of the Bloch equations with T1 - and T2 -relaxation terms for piecewise constant magnetic fields are numerically challenging. We therefore investigate an approximation for the achieved magnetization in which rotations and relaxations are split into separate operations. We develop an estimate for its accuracy and explicit first and second order derivatives with respect to the complex excitation radio frequency voltages. In practice, the deviation between an exact solution of the Bloch equations and this rotation relaxation splitting approximation seems negligible. Its computation times are similar to exact solutions without relaxation terms. We apply the developed theory to numerically optimize radio frequency excitation waveforms with T1 - and T2 -relaxations in several examples.

  18. Viscous relaxation of Ganymede's impact craters: Constraints on heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Michael T.; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2017-11-01

    Measurement of crater depths in Ganymede's dark terrain have revealed substantial numbers of unusually shallow craters indicative of viscous relaxation [see companion paper: Singer, K.N., Schenk, P. M., Bland, M.T., McKinnon, W.B., (2017). Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variations and high heat flow. Icarus, submitted]. These viscously relaxed craters provide insight into the thermal history of the dark terrain: the rate of relaxation depends on the size of the crater and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Here we use finite element simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the heat flux within the dark terrain when relaxation occurred. We show that the degree of viscous relaxation observed cannot be achieved through radiogenic heating alone, even if all of the relaxed craters are ancient and experienced the high radiogenic fluxes present early in the satellite's history. For craters with diameter ≥ 10 km, heat fluxes of 40-50 mW m-2 can reproduce the observed crater depths, but only if the fluxes are sustained for ∼1 Gyr. These craters can also be explained by shorter-lived "heat pulses" with magnitudes of ∼100 mW m-2 and timescales of 10-100 Myr. At small crater diameters (4 km) the observed shallow depths are difficult to achieve even when heat fluxes as high as 150 mW m-2 are sustained for 1 Gyr. The extreme thermal conditions required to viscously relax small craters may indicate that mechanisms other than viscous relaxation, such as topographic degradation, are also in play at small crater diameters. The timing of the relaxation event(s) is poorly constrained due to the sparsity of adequate topographic information, though it likely occurred in Ganymede's middle history (neither recently, nor shortly after satellite formation). The consistency between the timing and magnitude of the heat fluxes derived here and those inferred from other tectonic features suggests that a single event caused both Ganymede's tectonic deformation and

  19. Viscous relaxation of Ganymede's impact craters: Constraints on heat flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bland, Michael T.; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of crater depths in Ganymede’s dark terrain have revealed substantial numbers of unusually shallow craters indicative of viscous relaxation [see companion paper: Singer, K.N., Schenk, P. M., Bland, M.T., McKinnon, W.B., (2017). Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variations and high heat flow. Icarus, submitted]. These viscously relaxed craters provide insight into the thermal history of the dark terrain: the rate of relaxation depends on the size of the crater and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Here we use finite element simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the heat flux within the dark terrain when relaxation occurred. We show that the degree of viscous relaxation observed cannot be achieved through radiogenic heating alone, even if all of the relaxed craters are ancient and experienced the high radiogenic fluxes present early in the satellite’s history. For craters with diameter ≥ 10 km, heat fluxes of 40–50 mW m-2−2"> can reproduce the observed crater depths, but only if the fluxes are sustained for ∼1 Gyr. These craters can also be explained by shorter-lived “heat pulses” with magnitudes of ∼100 mW m-2−2"> and timescales of 10–100 Myr. At small crater diameters (4 km) the observed shallow depths are difficult to achieve even when heat fluxes as high as 150 mW m-2−2"> are sustained for 1 Gyr. The extreme thermal conditions required to viscously relax small craters may indicate that mechanisms other than viscous relaxation, such as topographic degradation, are also in play at small crater diameters. The timing of the relaxation event(s) is poorly constrained due to the sparsity of adequate topographic information, though it likely occurred in Ganymede’s middle history (neither recently, nor shortly after satellite formation). The consistency between the timing and magnitude of the heat fluxes derived here and those inferred from other tectonic features suggests that a single event

  20. Acute Blindness.

    PubMed

    Meekins, Jessica M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relaxation mode analysis and Markov state relaxation mode analysis for chignolin in aqueous solution near a transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsutake, Ayori; Takano, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    It is important to extract reaction coordinates or order parameters from protein simulations in order to investigate the local minimum-energy states and the transitions between them. The most popular method to obtain such data is principal component analysis, which extracts modes of large conformational fluctuations around an average structure. We recently applied relaxation mode analysis for protein systems, which approximately estimates the slow relaxation modes and times from a simulation and enables investigations of the dynamic properties underlying the structural fluctuations of proteins. In this study, we apply this relaxation mode analysis to extract reaction coordinates for a system in which there are large conformational changes such as those commonly observed in protein folding/unfolding. We performed a 750-ns simulation of chignolin protein near its folding transition temperature and observed many transitions between the most stable, misfolded, intermediate, and unfolded states. We then applied principal component analysis and relaxation mode analysis to the system. In the relaxation mode analysis, we could automatically extract good reaction coordinates. The free-energy surfaces provide a clearer understanding of the transitions not only between local minimum-energy states but also between the folded and unfolded states, even though the simulation involved large conformational changes. Moreover, we propose a new analysis method called Markov state relaxation mode analysis. We applied the new method to states with slow relaxation, which are defined by the free-energy surface obtained in the relaxation mode analysis. Finally, the relaxation times of the states obtained with a simple Markov state model and the proposed Markov state relaxation mode analysis are compared and discussed.

  2. Microbial metabolites in nutrition, healthcare and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra; Kumar, Manoj; Mittal, Anshumali; Mehta, Praveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Microorganisms are a promising source of an enormous number of natural products, which have made significant contribution to almost each sphere of human, plant and veterinary life. Natural compounds obtained from microorganisms have proved their value in nutrition, agriculture and healthcare. Primary metabolites, such as amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, organic acids and alcohol are used as nutritional supplements as well as in the production of industrial commodities through biotransformation. Whereas, secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are largely obtained by extraction from plants or tissues. They are primarily used in the biopharmaceutical industry due to their capability to reduce infectious diseases in human beings and animals and thus increase the life expectancy. Additionally, microorganisms and their products inevitably play a significant role in sustainable agriculture development.

  3. Heterogeneous distribution of metabolites across plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Arita, Masanori

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the distribution of flavonoids, a major category of plant secondary metabolites, across species. Flavonoids are known to show high species specificity, and were once considered as chemical markers for understanding adaptive evolution and characterization of living organisms. We investigate the distribution among species using bipartite networks, and find that two heterogeneous distributions are conserved among several families: the power-law distributions of the number of flavonoids in a species and the number of shared species of a particular flavonoid. In order to explain the possible origin of the heterogeneity, we propose a simple model with, essentially, a single parameter. As a result, we show that two respective power-law statistics emerge from simple evolutionary mechanisms based on a multiplicative process. These findings provide insights into the evolution of metabolite diversity and characterization of living organisms that defy genome sequence analysis for different reasons.

  4. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences. PMID:26339647

  5. Deep Sea Actinomycetes and Their Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Kamjam, Manita; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Deng, Zinxin; Hong, Kui

    2017-01-01

    Deep sea is a unique and extreme environment. It is a hot spot for hunting marine actinomycetes resources and secondary metabolites. The novel deep sea actinomycete species reported from 2006 to 2016 including 21 species under 13 genera with the maximum number from Microbacterium, followed by Dermacoccus, Streptomyces and Verrucosispora, and one novel species for the other 9 genera. Eight genera of actinomycetes were reported to produce secondary metabolites, among which Streptomyces is the richest producer. Most of the compounds produced by the deep sea actinomycetes presented antimicrobial and anti-cancer cell activities. Gene clusters related to biosynthesis of desotamide, heronamide, and lobophorin have been identified from the deep sea derived Streptomyces. PMID:28507537

  6. New Pioglitazone Metabolites and Absence of Opened-Ring Metabolites in New N-Substituted Thiazolidinedione.

    PubMed

    Campos, Michel Leandro; Cerqueira, Letícia Bonancio; Silva, Bruna Cristina Ulian; Franchin, Taísa Busaranho; Galdino-Pitta, Marina Rocha; Pitta, Ivan Rocha; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, several safety concerns remain regarding the available drugs in this class. Therefore, the search for new TZD candidates is ongoing; metabolism studies play a crucial step in the development of new candidates. Pioglitazone, one of the most commonly used TZDs, and GQ-11, a new N -substituted TZD, were investigated in terms of their metabolic activity in rat and human liver microsomes to assess their metabolic stability and investigate their metabolites. Methods for preparation of samples were based on liquid-liquid extraction and protein precipitation. Quantitation was performed using liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry, and the metabolite investigation was performed using ultraperformance LC coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer. The predicted intrinsic clearance of GQ-11 was 70.3 and 46.1 ml/kg per minute for rats and humans, respectively. The predicted intrinsic clearance of pioglitazone was 24.1 and 15.9 ml/kg per minute for rats and humans, respectively. The pioglitazone metabolite investigation revealed two unpublished metabolites (M-D and M-A). M-A is a hydration product and may be related to the mechanism of ring opening and the toxicity of pioglitazone. The metabolites of GQ-11 are products of oxidation; no ring-opening metabolite was observed for GQ-11. In conclusion, under the same experimental conditions, a ring-opening metabolite was observed only for pioglitazone. The resistance of GQ-11 to the ring opening is probably related to N -substitution in the TZD ring. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Haloperidol response and plasma catecholamines and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Green, A I; Alam, M Y; Boshes, R A; Waternaux, C; Pappalardo, K M; Fitzgibbon, M E; Tsuang, M T; Schildkraut, J J

    1993-06-01

    Eleven acutely psychotic patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder underwent a 5-7 day drug-washout period (with lorazepam allowed) prior to participating in a 6-week controlled dose haloperidol trial. Patients were evaluated longitudinally with clinical ratings and with plasma measures of the catecholamines dopamine (pDA) and norepinephrine (pNE) and their metabolites, homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG). All patients exhibited clinical improvement with haloperidol; the decrease in their Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores ranged from 32 to 89%. Measures of pHVA increased within the first week of treatment and returned to baseline by week 5. The pattern of change of pDA resembled that of pHVA. The pattern of change of pNE and pMHPG revealed a decrease over the course of treatment. The early increase and the subsequent decrease in pHVA were strongly correlated with improvement in positive symptoms on the BPRS. These data are consistent with previous reports on the change in pHVA and pMHPG during clinical response to haloperidol. The data on change of pDA and pNE further describe the nature of the biochemical response to this drug.

  8. Virodhamine relaxes the human pulmonary artery through the endothelial cannabinoid receptor and indirectly through a COX product

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowska, H; Baranowska, M; Schlicker, E; Kozłowski, M; Laudañski, J; Malinowska, B

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The endocannabinoid virodhamine is a partial agonist at the cannabinoid CB1 receptor and a full agonist at the CB2 receptor, and relaxes rat mesenteric arteries through endothelial cannabinoid receptors. Its concentration in the periphery exceeds that of the endocannabinoid anandamide. Here, we examined the influence of virodhamine on the human pulmonary artery. Experimental approach: Isolated human pulmonary arteries were obtained during resections for lung carcinoma. Vasorelaxant effects of virodhamine were examined on endothelium-intact vessels precontracted with 5-HT or KCl. Key results: Virodhamine, unlike WIN 55,212-2, relaxed 5-HT-precontracted vessels concentration dependently. The effect of virodhamine was reduced by endothelium denudation, two antagonists of the endothelial cannabinoid receptor, cannabidiol and O-1918, and a high concentration of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (5 μM), but only slightly attenuated by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME and not affected by a lower concentration of rimonabant (100 nM) or by the CB2 and vanilloid receptor antagonists SR 144528 and capsazepine, respectively. The COX inhibitor indomethacin and the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 and combined administration of selective blockers of small (apamin) and intermediate and large (charybdotoxin) conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels attenuated virodhamine-induced relaxation. The vasorelaxant potency of virodhamine was lower in KCl- than in 5-HT-precontracted preparations. Conclusions and implications: Virodhamine relaxes the human pulmonary artery through the putative endothelial cannabinoid receptor and indirectly through a COX-derived vasorelaxant prostanoid formed from the virodhamine metabolite, arachidonic acid. One or both of these mechanisms may stimulate vasorelaxant Ca2+-activated K+ channels. PMID:18806815

  9. Secondary metabolites from marine-derived microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Feng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2014-01-01

    In the search for novel and bioactive molecules for drug discovery, marine-derived natural resources, especially marine microorganisms are becoming an important and interesting research area. This study covers the literature published after 2008 on secondary metabolites of marine-derived microorganisms. The emphasis was on new compounds with the relevant biological activities, strain information, and country of origin. New compounds without biological activity were not included.

  10. Metabolic regulation and overproduction of primary metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Sergio; Demain, Arnold L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Overproduction of microbial metabolites is related to developmental phases of microorganisms. Inducers, effectors, inhibitors and various signal molecules play a role in different types of overproduction. Biosynthesis of enzymes catalysing metabolic reactions in microbial cells is controlled by well‐known positive and negative mechanisms, e.g. induction, nutritional regulation (carbon or nitrogen source regulation), feedback regulation, etc. The microbial production of primary metabolites contributes significantly to the quality of life. Fermentative production of these compounds is still an important goal of modern biotechnology. Through fermentation, microorganisms growing on inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources produce valuable products such as amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and vitamins which can be added to food to enhance its flavour, or increase its nutritive values. The contribution of microorganisms goes well beyond the food and health industries with the renewed interest in solvent fermentations. Microorganisms have the potential to provide many petroleum‐derived products as well as the ethanol necessary for liquid fuel. Additional applications of primary metabolites lie in their impact as precursors of many pharmaceutical compounds. The roles of primary metabolites and the microbes which produce them will certainly increase in importance as time goes on. In the early years of fermentation processes, development of producing strains initially depended on classical strain breeding involving repeated random mutations, each followed by screening or selection. More recently, methods of molecular genetics have been used for the overproduction of primary metabolic products. The development of modern tools of molecular biology enabled more rational approaches for strain improvement. Techniques of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as metabolic flux analysis. have recently been introduced in order to identify new and

  11. Fungal Anticancer Metabolites: Synthesis Towards Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Margherita; Artuso, Emma; Prandi, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Fungi are a well-known and valuable source of compounds of therapeutic relevance, in particular of novel anticancer compounds. Although seldom obtainable through isolation from the natural source, the total organic synthesis still remains one of the most efficient alternatives to resupply them. Furthermore, natural product total synthesis is a valuable tool not only for discovery of new complex biologically active compounds but also for the development of innovative methodologies in enantioselective organic synthesis. We undertook an in-depth literature searching by using chemical bibliographic databases (SciFinder, Reaxys) in order to have a comprehensive insight into the wide research field. The literature has been then screened, refining the obtained results by subject terms focused on both biological activity and innovative synthetic procedures. The literature on fungal metabolites has been recently reviewed and these publications have been used as a base from which we consider the synthetic feasibility of the most promising compounds, in terms of anticancer properties and drug development. In this paper, compounds are classified according to their chemical structure. This review summarizes the anticancer potential of fungal metabolites, highlighting the role of total synthesis outlining the feasibility of innovative synthetic procedures that facilitate the development of fungal metabolites into drugs that may become a real future perspective. To our knowledge, this review is the first effort to deal with the total synthesis of these active fungi metabolites and demonstrates that total chemical synthesis is a fruitful means of yielding fungal derivatives as aided by recent technological and innovative advancements. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. New antitumour fungal metabolites from Alternaria porri.

    PubMed

    Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Rangsan, Jakaphan; Siripong, Pongpan; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2009-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the onion pathogenic fungus Alternaria porri resulted in the isolation of two new phthalides named zinnimide (2) and deprenylzinnimide (8), along with a new bianthraquinone, alterporriol F (10). The structures of the new metabolites were characterised by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. Of the new compounds isolated, alterporriol F was highly cytotoxic towards HeLa and KB cells, with IC(50) values of 6.5 and 7.0 microg mL(-1).

  13. Three new metabolites from Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Shan; Zhou, Jin-Yan; Tan, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Three new metabolites, gamma-abscisolactone (1), botrytisic acids A (3) and B (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Botrytis cinerea TB-3-H8. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, IR, UV, and NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 2 was isolated from natural resource for the first time. The structure of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (CCDC-265897).

  14. Bariatric surgery modulates circulating and cardiac metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Li, Jia V; Spagou, Konstantina; Harling, Leanne; Masson, Perrine; Darzi, Ara; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Holmes, Elaine; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2014-02-07

    Bariatric procedures such as the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) operation offer profound metabolic enhancement in addition to their well-recognized weight loss effects. They are associated with significant reduction in cardiovascular disease risk and mortality, which suggests a surgical modification on cardiac metabolism. Metabolic phenotyping of the cardiac tissue and plasma postsurgery may give insight into cardioprotective mechanisms. The aim of the study was to compare the metabolic profiles of plasma and heart tissue extracts from RYGB- and sham-operated Wistar rats to identify the systemic and cardiac signature of metabolic surgery. A total of 27 male Wistar rats were housed individually for a week and subsequently underwent RYGB (n = 13) or sham (n = 14) operation. At week 8 postoperation, a total of 27 plasma samples and 16 heart tissue samples (8 RYGB; 8 Sham) were collected from animals and analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS) to characterize the global metabolite perturbation induced by RYGB operation. Plasma bile acids, phosphocholines, amino acids, energy-related metabolites, nucleosides and amine metabolites, and cardiac glycogen and amino acids were found to be altered in the RYGB operated group. Correlation networks were used to identify metabolite association. The metabolic phenotype of this bariatric surgical model inferred systematic change in both myocardial and systemic activity post surgery. The altered metabolic profile following bariatric surgery reflects an enhancement of cardiac energy metabolism through TCA cycle intermediates, cardiorenal protective activity, and biochemical caloric restriction. These surgically induced metabolic shifts identify some of the potential mechanisms that contribute toward bariatric cardioprotection through gut microbiota ecological fluxes and an enterocardiac axis to shield against metabolic syndrome of cardiac dysfunction.

  15. Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes

    DOE PAGES

    Maly, Pavel; Gruber, J. Michael; Cogdell, Richard J.; ...

    2016-02-22

    Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub–100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump–probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changesmore » in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Lastly, our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations.« less

  16. Relaxing music counters heightened consolidation of emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Nikki S; Wong, Wendy Wing; Velik, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    Emotional events tend to be retained more strongly than other everyday occurrences, a phenomenon partially regulated by the neuromodulatory effects of arousal. Two experiments demonstrated the use of relaxing music as a means of reducing arousal levels, thereby challenging heightened long-term recall of an emotional story. In Experiment 1, participants (N=84) viewed a slideshow, during which they listened to either an emotional or neutral narration, and were exposed to relaxing or no music. Retention was tested 1 week later via a forced choice recognition test. Retention for both the emotional content (Phase 2 of the story) and material presented immediately after the emotional content (Phase 3) was enhanced, when compared with retention for the neutral story. Relaxing music prevented the enhancement for material presented after the emotional content (Phase 3). Experiment 2 (N=159) provided further support to the neuromodulatory effect of music by post-event presentation of both relaxing music and non-relaxing auditory stimuli (arousing music/background sound). Free recall of the story was assessed immediately afterwards and 1 week later. Relaxing music significantly reduced recall of the emotional story (Phase 2). The findings provide further insight into the capacity of relaxing music to attenuate the strength of emotional memory, offering support for the therapeutic use of music for such purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J Michael; Cogdell, Richard J; Mančal, Tomáš; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-03-15

    Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub-100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump-probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changes in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations.

  18. A quantum relaxation-time approximation for finite fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a relaxation time approximation for the description of the dynamics of strongly excited fermion systems. Our approach is based on time-dependent density functional theory at the level of the local density approximation. This mean-field picture is augmented by collisional correlations handled in relaxation time approximation which is inspired from the corresponding semi-classical picture. The method involves the estimate of microscopic relaxation rates/times which is presently taken from the well established semi-classical experience. The relaxation time approximation implies evaluation of the instantaneous equilibrium state towards which the dynamical state is progressively driven at the pace of the microscopic relaxation time. As test case, we consider Na clusters of various sizes excited either by a swift ion projectile or by a short and intense laser pulse, driven in various dynamical regimes ranging from linear to strongly non-linear reactions. We observe a strong effect of dissipation on sensitive observables such as net ionization and angular distributions of emitted electrons. The effect is especially large for moderate excitations where typical relaxation/dissipation time scales efficiently compete with ionization for dissipating the available excitation energy. Technical details on the actual procedure to implement a working recipe of such a quantum relaxation approximation are given in appendices for completeness.

  19. State resolved vibrational relaxation modeling for strongly nonequilibrium flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar

    2011-05-01

    Vibrational relaxation is an important physical process in hypersonic flows. Activation of the vibrational mode affects the fundamental thermodynamic properties and finite rate relaxation can reduce the degree of dissociation of a gas. Low fidelity models of vibrational activation employ a relaxation time to capture the process at a macroscopic level. High fidelity, state-resolved models have been developed for use in continuum gas dynamics simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). By comparison, such models are not as common for use with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In this study, a high fidelity, state-resolved vibrational relaxation model is developed for the DSMC technique. The model is based on the forced harmonic oscillator approach in which multi-quantum transitions may become dominant at high temperature. Results obtained for integrated rate coefficients from the DSMC model are consistent with the corresponding CFD model. Comparison of relaxation results obtained with the high-fidelity DSMC model shows significantly less excitation of upper vibrational levels in comparison to the standard, lower fidelity DSMC vibrational relaxation model. Application of the new DSMC model to a Mach 7 normal shock wave in carbon monoxide provides better agreement with experimental measurements than the standard DSMC relaxation model.

  20. Stochastic tools hidden behind the empirical dielectric relaxation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Weron, Karina

    2017-03-01

    The paper is devoted to recent advances in stochastic modeling of anomalous kinetic processes observed in dielectric materials which are prominent examples of disordered (complex) systems. Theoretical studies of dynamical properties of ‘structures with variations’ (Goldenfield and Kadanoff 1999 Science 284 87-9) require application of such mathematical tools—by means of which their random nature can be analyzed and, independently of the details distinguishing various systems (dipolar materials, glasses, semiconductors, liquid crystals, polymers, etc), the empirical universal kinetic patterns can be derived. We begin with a brief survey of the historical background of the dielectric relaxation study. After a short outline of the theoretical ideas providing the random tools applicable to modeling of relaxation phenomena, we present probabilistic implications for the study of the relaxation-rate distribution models. In the framework of the probability distribution of relaxation rates we consider description of complex systems, in which relaxing entities form random clusters interacting with each other and single entities. Then we focus on stochastic mechanisms of the relaxation phenomenon. We discuss the diffusion approach and its usefulness for understanding of anomalous dynamics of relaxing systems. We also discuss extensions of the diffusive approach to systems under tempered random processes. Useful relationships among different stochastic approaches to the anomalous dynamics of complex systems allow us to get a fresh look at this subject. The paper closes with a final discussion on achievements of stochastic tools describing the anomalous time evolution of complex systems.

  1. Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Maly, Pavel; Gruber, J. Michael; Cogdell, Richard J.

    Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub–100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump–probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changesmore » in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Lastly, our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations.« less

  2. Serelaxin Elicits Bronchodilation and Enhances β-Adrenoceptor-Mediated Airway Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Maggie; Royce, Simon G.; Donovan, Chantal; Jelinic, Maria; Parry, Laura J.; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Bourke, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with β-adrenoceptor agonists does not fully overcome the symptoms associated with severe asthma. Serelaxin elicits potent uterine and vascular relaxation via its cognate receptor, RXFP1, and nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and is being clinically evaluated for the treatment of acute heart failure. However, its direct bronchodilator efficacy has yet to be explored. Tracheal rings were prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–350 g) and tricolor guinea pigs, and precision cut lung slices (PCLSs) containing intrapulmonary airways were prepared from rats only. Recombinant human serelaxin (rhRLX) alone and in combination with rosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist; recently described as a novel dilator) or β-adrenoceptor agonists (isoprenaline, salbutamol) were added either to pre-contracted airways, or before contraction with methacholine or endothelin-1. Regulation of rhRLX responses by epithelial removal, indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), SQ22536 (adenylate cyclase inhibitor) and ODQ (guanylate cyclase inhibitor) were also evaluated. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize RXFP1 to airway epithelium and smooth muscle. rhRLX elicited relaxation in rat trachea and PCLS, more slowly than rosiglitazone or isoprenaline, but potentiated relaxation to both these dilators. It markedly increased β-adrenoceptor agonist potency in guinea pig trachea. rhRLX, rosiglitazone, and isoprenaline pretreatment also inhibited the development of rat tracheal contraction. Bronchoprotection by rhRLX increased with longer pre-incubation time, and was partially reduced by epithelial removal, indomethacin and/or L-NAME. SQ22536 and ODQ also partially inhibited rhRLX-mediated relaxation in both intact and epithelial-denuded trachea. RXFP1 expression in the airways was at higher levels in epithelium than smooth muscle. In summary, rhRLX elicits large and small airway relaxation via epithelial-dependent and -independent mechanisms, likely

  3. Optimizing Metabolite Production Using Periodic Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Steven W.; Baldea, Michael; Contreras, Lydia M.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for improving microbial strains for metabolite production remain the subject of constant research. Traditionally, metabolic tuning has been mostly limited to knockouts or overexpression of pathway genes and regulators. In this paper, we establish a new method to control metabolism by inducing optimally tuned time-oscillations in the levels of selected clusters of enzymes, as an alternative strategy to increase the production of a desired metabolite. Using an established kinetic model of the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli, we formulate this concept as a dynamic optimization problem over an extended, but finite time horizon. Total production of a metabolite of interest (in this case, phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP) is established as the objective function and time-varying concentrations of the cellular enzymes are used as decision variables. We observe that by varying, in an optimal fashion, levels of key enzymes in time, PEP production increases significantly compared to the unoptimized system. We demonstrate that oscillations can improve metabolic output in experimentally feasible synthetic circuits. PMID:24901332

  4. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  5. Transfer of metabolites across the peroxisomal membrane.

    PubMed

    Antonenkov, Vasily D; Hiltunen, J Kalervo

    2012-09-01

    Peroxisomes perform a large variety of metabolic functions that require a constant flow of metabolites across the membranes of these organelles. Over the last few years it has become clear that the transport machinery of the peroxisomal membrane is a unique biological entity since it includes nonselective channels conducting small solutes side by side with transporters for 'bulky' solutes such as ATP. Electrophysiological experiments revealed several channel-forming activities in preparations of plant, mammalian, and yeast peroxisomes and in glycosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. The properties of the first discovered peroxisomal membrane channel - mammalian Pxmp2 protein - have also been characterized. The channels are apparently involved in the formation of peroxisomal shuttle systems and in the transmembrane transfer of various water-soluble metabolites including products of peroxisomal β-oxidation. These products are processed by a large set of peroxisomal enzymes including carnitine acyltransferases, enzymes involved in the synthesis of ketone bodies, thioesterases, and others. This review discusses recent data pertaining to solute permeability and metabolite transport systems in peroxisomal membranes and also addresses mechanisms responsible for the transfer of ATP and cofactors such as an ATP transporter and nudix hydrolases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-07-15

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  7. Natural metabolites for parasitic weed management.

    PubMed

    Vurro, Maurizio; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Zermane, Nadjia

    2009-05-01

    Compounds of natural origin, such as phytotoxins produced by fungi or natural amino acids, could be used in parasitic weed management strategies by interfering with the early growth stages of the parasites. These metabolites could inhibit seed germination or germ tube elongation, so preventing attachment to the host plant, or, conversely, stimulate seed germination in the absence of the host, contributing to a reduction in the parasite seed bank. Some of the fungal metabolites assayed were very active even at very low concentrations, such as some macrocyclic trichothecenes, which at 0.1 microM strongly suppressed the germination of Orobanche ramosa L. seeds. Interesting results were also obtained with some novel toxins, such as phyllostictine A, highly active in reducing germ tube elongation and seed germination both of O. ramosa and of Cuscuta campestris Yuncker. Among the amino acids tested, methionine and arginine were particularly interesting, as they were able to suppress seed germination at concentrations lower than 1 mM. Some of the fungal metabolites tested were also able to stimulate the germination of O. ramosa seeds. The major findings in this research field are described and discussed.

  8. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Canton, Marcella; Reggiani, Carlo; Cooke, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy and show that both the divalent cation bound to the regulatory light chain and the N-terminus of the regulatory light chain play a role in the stability of the super-relaxed state. One probe showed a shift to shorter wavelengths in the super-relaxed state such that a ratio of intensities at 440nm to that at 520nm provided a measure of the population of the super-relaxed state amenable for high throughput screens for finding potential pharmaceuticals. The results provide a proof of concept that small molecules that bind to this region can destabilize the super-relaxed state and provide a method to search for small molecules that do so leading to a potentially effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:27479128

  9. Extended MHD Modeling of Tearing-Driven Magnetic Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauppe, Joshua

    2016-10-01

    Driven plasma pinch configurations are characterized by the gradual accumulation and episodic release of free energy in discrete relaxation events. The hallmark of this relaxation in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma is flattening of the parallel current density profile effected by a fluctuation-induced dynamo emf in Ohm's law. Nonlinear two-fluid modeling of macroscopic RFP dynamics has shown appreciable coupling of magnetic relaxation and the evolution of plasma flow. Accurate modeling of RFP dynamics requires the Hall effect in Ohm's law as well as first order ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, represented by the Braginskii ion gyroviscous stress tensor. New results find that the Hall dynamo effect from < J × B > / ne can counter the MHD effect from - < V × B > in some of the relaxation events. The MHD effect dominates these events and relaxes the current profile toward the Taylor state, but the opposition of the two dynamos generates plasma flow in the direction of equilibrium current density, consistent with experimental measurements. Detailed experimental measurements of the MHD and Hall emf terms are compared to these extended MHD predictions. Tracking the evolution of magnetic energy, helicity, and hybrid helicity during relaxation identifies the most important contributions in single-fluid and two-fluid models. Magnetic helicity is well conserved relative to the magnetic energy during relaxation. The hybrid helicity is dominated by magnetic helicity in realistic low-beta pinch conditions and is also well conserved. Differences of less than 1 % between magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity are observed with two-fluid modeling and result from cross helicity evolution through ion FLR effects, which have not been included in contemporary relaxation theories. The kinetic energy driven by relaxation in the computations is dominated by velocity components perpendicular to the magnetic field, an effect that had not been predicted. Work performed at

  10. Analysis of Intracellular Metabolites from Microorganisms: Quenching and Extraction Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Villas-Boas, Silas G.; Aggio, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Sample preparation is one of the most important steps in metabolome analysis. The challenges of determining microbial metabolome have been well discussed within the research community and many improvements have already been achieved in last decade. The analysis of intracellular metabolites is particularly challenging. Environmental perturbations may considerably affect microbial metabolism, which results in intracellular metabolites being rapidly degraded or metabolized by enzymatic reactions. Therefore, quenching or the complete stop of cell metabolism is a pre-requisite for accurate intracellular metabolite analysis. After quenching, metabolites need to be extracted from the intracellular compartment. The choice of the most suitable metabolite extraction method/s is another crucial step. The literature indicates that specific classes of metabolites are better extracted by different extraction protocols. In this review, we discuss the technical aspects and advancements of quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolite analysis from microbial cells. PMID:29065530

  11. [Molecular regulation of microbial secondary metabolites--a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Linqi; Tan, Huarong

    2009-04-01

    Microbial secondary metabolites play an important role in the field of industry, agriculture, medicine and human health. The molecular regulation of secondary metabolites is gradually becoming noticeable and intriguing. In recent years, many researches have demonstrated that secondary metabolite biosynthesis is tightly linked to the physiological and developmental status in its producer. It is suggested that the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites involves in complex process concerning multi-level regulation. Here we reviewed the recent research progress on the molecular regulation of secondary metabolites in microorganisms. In known about ten thousand kinds of natural secondary metabolites, most of them (about 60%) were produced by Streptomycete. Therefore, the regulation of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces is chosen as the mainline in this review. Additionally, several well-studied antibiotics as the representative members were targeted. Finally, some suggestions, in response to the issues at present, have been presented in this paper.

  12. The WEIZMASS spectral library for high-confidence metabolite identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahaf, Nir; Rogachev, Ilana; Heinig, Uwe; Meir, Sagit; Malitsky, Sergey; Battat, Maor; Wyner, Hilary; Zheng, Shuning; Wehrens, Ron; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-08-01

    Annotation of metabolites is an essential, yet problematic, aspect of mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics assays. The current repertoire of definitive annotations of metabolite spectra in public MS databases is limited and suffers from lack of chemical and taxonomic diversity. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of the data prevents the development of universally applicable metabolite annotation tools. Here we present a combined experimental and computational platform to advance this key issue in metabolomics. WEIZMASS is a unique reference metabolite spectral library developed from high-resolution MS data acquired from a structurally diverse set of 3,540 plant metabolites. We also present MatchWeiz, a multi-module strategy using a probabilistic approach to match library and experimental data. This strategy allows efficient and high-confidence identification of dozens of metabolites in model and exotic plants, including metabolites not previously reported in plants or found in few plant species to date.

  13. Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( < 0.01 Hz). The simulations of REA showed significant change in b-factors throughout the diurnal course. The b-factor is part of the REA parameterisation scheme and describes a relation between the concentration difference and the vertical flux of a trace gas. The diurnal course of b-factors for carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour matched well. Relative flux errors induced in REA by varying scalar similarity were generally below ± 10%. Systematic underestimation of the flux of up to - 40% was found for the use of REA applying a hyperbolic deadband (HREA). This underestimation was related to poor scalar similarity between the scalar of interest and the scalar used as proxy for the deadband definition.

  14. Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: Improvements and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adsuara, J. E.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential system of equations from which they result becomes notably stiff. Here we present a new methodology for obtaining the parameters of SRJ schemes that overcomes the limitations of the original algorithm and provide parameters for SRJ schemes with up to 15 levels and resolutions of up to 215 points per dimension, allowing for acceleration factors larger than several hundreds with respect to the Jacobi method for typical resolutions and, in some high resolution cases, close to 1000. Most of the success in finding SRJ optimal schemes with more than 10 levels is based on an analytic reduction of the complexity of the previously mentioned system of equations. Furthermore, we extend the original algorithm to apply it to certain systems of non-linear ePDEs.

  15. Calorimetric and relaxation properties of xylitol-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamin, Khalid; Sjöström, Johan; Jansson, Helén; Swenson, Jan

    2012-03-01

    We present the first broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and differential scanning calorimetry study of supercooled xylitol-water mixtures in the whole concentration range and in wide frequency (10-2-106 Hz) and temperature (120-365 K) ranges. The calorimetric glass transition, Tg, decreases from 247 K for pure xylitol to about 181 K at a water concentration of approximately 37 wt. %. At water concentrations in the range 29-35 wt. % a plentiful calorimetric behaviour is observed. In addition to the glass transition, almost simultaneous crystallization and melting events occurring around 230-240 K. At higher water concentrations ice is formed during cooling and the glass transition temperature increases to a steady value of about 200 K for all higher water concentrations. This Tg corresponds to an unfrozen xylitol-water solution containing 20 wt. % water. In addition to the true glass transition we also observed a glass transition-like feature at 220 K for all the ice containing samples. However, this feature is more likely due to ice dissolution [A. Inaba and O. Andersson, Thermochim. Acta, 461, 44 (2007)]. In the case of the BDS measurements the presence of water clearly has an effect on both the cooperative α-relaxation and the secondary β-relaxation. The α-relaxation shows a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence and becomes faster with increasing concentration of water. The fragility of the solutions, determined by the temperature dependence of the α-relaxation close to the dynamic glass transition, decreases with increasing water content up to about 26 wt. % water, where ice starts to form. This decrease in fragility with increasing water content is most likely caused by the increasing density of hydrogen bonds, forming a network-like structure in the deeply supercooled regime. The intensity of the secondary β-relaxation of xylitol decreases noticeably already at a water content of 2 wt. %, and at a water content above 5 wt. % it has been replaced by a

  16. [Relaxation to defuse acting out for dangerous schizophrenics].

    PubMed

    Bogar, Mireille; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Relaxation is often considered as a contraindication in the management of schizophrenics. An experiment carried out with dangerous schizophrenics at the unit for dangerous patients at Cadillac general hospital revealed that, on the contrary, such an opinion is not necessarily valid in all cases. Indeed, for many of these patients, relaxation can have positive effects on their clinical state. As with its other indications, relaxation must be practised by clinicians who have an in-depth knowledge of techniques to use and of mental disorders treated in that way.

  17. Relaxation peak near 200 K in NiTi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. S.; Schaller, R.; Benoit, W.

    1989-10-01

    Internal friction (IF), frequency ( f), electrical resistance ( R) and zero point movement of the torsion pendulum (ɛ) have been measured in near equi-atomic NiTi alloy in order to clarify the mechanism for the relaxation peak near 200 K. The height of the relaxation peak decreases successively with thermal cycling and settles down to a lower stable value in running 15 cycles. However, the electrical resistance of the sample shows a variation in contrast with the internal friction. Both of them will return to the initial state after a single annealing at 773 K for 1 h. The probable mechanism of this relaxation peak was discussed.

  18. The influence of dielectric relaxation on intramolecular electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitele, H.; Michel-Beyerle, M. E.; Finckh, P.

    1987-07-01

    An unusually strong temperature dependence on the intramolecular electron-transfer rate has been observed for bridged donor-acceptor compounds in propylene glycol solution. In the frame of recent electron-transfer theories this effect reflects the influence of dielectric relaxation dynamics on electron transfer. With increasing dielectric relaxation time a smooth transition from non-adiabatic to solvent-controlled adiabatic behaviour is observed. The electron transfer rate in the solvent-controlled adiabatic limit is dominated by an inhomogeneous distribution of relaxation times.

  19. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics

    PubMed Central

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    Picosecond absorption relaxation—central to many disciplines—is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, were measured at 576 nm. The added advantages in dispersion susceptibility, laser-wavelength availability, reflection sensing, and expense foster the study of natural—including strongly scattering and nonfluorescent—materials. PMID:21079726

  20. Developing a Learning Algorithm-Generated Empirical Relaxer

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Wayne; Kallman, Josh; Toreja, Allen

    2016-03-30

    One of the main difficulties when running Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations is determining how much to relax the mesh during the Eulerian step. This determination is currently made by the user on a simulation-by-simulation basis. We present a Learning Algorithm-Generated Empirical Relaxer (LAGER) which uses a regressive random forest algorithm to automate this decision process. We also demonstrate that LAGER successfully relaxes a variety of test problems, maintains simulation accuracy, and has the potential to significantly decrease both the person-hours and computational hours needed to run a successful ALE simulation.

  1. High and ultra-high resolution metabolite mapping of the human brain using 1H FID MRSI at 9.4T.

    PubMed

    Nassirpour, Sahar; Chang, Paul; Henning, Anke

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a promising technique for mapping the spatial distribution of multiple metabolites in the human brain. These metabolite maps can be used as a diagnostic tool to gain insight into several biochemical processes and diseases in the brain. In comparison to lower field strengths, MRSI at ultra-high field strengths benefits from a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) as well as higher chemical shift dispersion, and hence spectral resolution. This study combines the benefits of an ultra-high field magnet with the advantages of an ultra-short TE and TR single-slice FID-MRSI sequence (such as negligible J-evolution and loss of SNR due to T 2 relaxation effects) and presents the first metabolite maps acquired at 9.4T in the healthy human brain at both high (voxel size of 97.6µL) and ultra-high (voxel size of 24.4µL) spatial resolutions in a scan time of 11 and 46min respectively. In comparison to lower field strengths, more anatomically-detailed maps with higher SNR from a larger number of metabolites are shown. A total of 12 metabolites including glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutathione (GSH) are reliably mapped. Comprehensive description of the methodology behind these maps is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stressful events and coping related to acute and sub-acute whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Susanne; Bring, Annika; Åsenlöf, Pernilla

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To describe daily stressors affecting and coping strategies employed by individuals with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) immediately to one month (acute) and three to four months (sub-acute) after injury events using a daily coping assessment. Levels of pain, anxiety, depressed mood and activity are also compared between phases. Method A descriptive prospective design with a content analysis approach was used. Participants completed daily coping assessments for one week during both acute and sub-acute phases. Main measure was whiplash-associated disorders-daily coping assessment (WAD-DCA). Results Nine participants used words describing recovery in the sub-acute phase; 31 described stressful events during both phases. Most frequently reported stressors were related to "symptoms", "emotions" and "occupations/studies". These were equally reported during both phases. Cognitive coping strategies were employed more often during the sub-acute phase (p = 0.008). The only behavioral strategy that increased in prevalence over time was the "relaxed" strategy (p = 0.001). Anxiety levels declined over time (p = 0.022). Conclusion The reported stressors were largely uniform across both acute and sub-acute phases; however, the use of cognitive coping strategies increased over time. The WAD-DCA captures individual stressors and coping strategies employed during a vulnerable phase of rehabilitation and can thus provide information that is useful to clinical practice. Implications for rehabilitation The WAD-DCA provides valuable information for clinical practice when employed during early phases of whiplash-associated disorder development. Reported stressors during the acute and sub-acute phases are essentially the same, whereas cognitive coping strategies grow in prevalence over time. Tailored treatments in early phases of whip-lash associated disorders may benefit from strategies aimed at matching patient-specific stressors with contextually adapted coping

  3. Diclofenac and metabolite pharmacokinetics in children.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, Caroline D; Anderson, Brian J; Rømsing, Janne; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Tibboel, Dick

    2004-06-01

    Data concerning metabolism of diclofenac in children are limited to intravenous and enteric coated oral formulations. There are no data examining diclofenac or its hydroxyl metabolite pharmacokinetics after rectal administration in children. Infants (n = 26) undergoing tonsillectomy were given diclofenac 2 mg.kg(-1) followed by 1 mg.kg(-1) 8 h as suppository formulation for postoperative analgesia. Serum was assayed for diclofenac, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac and 5'-hydroxydiclofenac concentrations during the procedure and 1, 2 and 4 h postoperatively. The formation clearances of diclofenac to hydroxyl metabolites were estimated using nonlinear mixed effects models. A single compartment, first order absorption and first order elimination model was used to describe diclofenac pharmacokinetics. Published data from 11 children given enteric-coated diclofenac tablets were used to assess relative bioavailability. Mean (sd) age and weight of the patients were 4.5 (1.5) years and 20.5 (4.1) kg. The formation clearance to 4'-hydroxydiclofenac (% CV) and to 5'-hydroxydiclofenac were 8.41 (8.1) and 3.41 (113) l.h(-1) respectively, standardized to a 70 kg person using allometric '1/4 power' models. Clearance by other routes contributed 33.0 (64) l.h(-1) 70 kg(-1). Elimination clearance of hydroxyl metabolites was fixed at 27.5 l.h(-1) 70 kg(-1). The volumes of distribution of parent diclofenac and its hydroxyl metabolite were 22.8 (19.0) and 45.3 (l.70) kg(-1). The suppository formulation had an absorption half-life of 0.613 (33.2) h with a lag time of 0.188 (24.9) h. Interoccasion variability of formation clearance to 4'-hydroxydiclofenac, diclofenac volume of distribution, absorption half-time and lag time for the suppository was 36%, 55%, 14% and 119%, respectively. The relative bioavailability of the suppository compared with an enteric-coated tablet was 1.26. The formation clearance of the active metabolite 4'-hydroxydiclofenac contributed 19% of total clearance (44.82 l.h(-1

  4. The Havriliak-Negami relaxation and its relatives: the response, relaxation and probability density functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górska, K.; Horzela, A.; Bratek, Ł.; Dattoli, G.; Penson, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    We study functions related to the experimentally observed Havriliak-Negami dielectric relaxation pattern proportional in the frequency domain to [1+(iωτ0){\\hspace{0pt}}α]-β with τ0 > 0 being some characteristic time. For α = l/k< 1 (l and k being positive and relatively prime integers) and β > 0 we furnish exact and explicit expressions for response and relaxation functions in the time domain and suitable probability densities in their domain dual in the sense of the inverse Laplace transform. All these functions are expressed as finite sums of generalized hypergeometric functions, convenient to handle analytically and numerically. Introducing a reparameterization β = (2-q)/(q-1) and τ0 = (q-1){\\hspace{0pt}}1/α (1 < q < 2) we show that for 0 < α < 1 the response functions fα, β(t/τ0) go to the one-sided Lévy stable distributions when q tends to one. Moreover, applying the self-similarity property of the probability densities gα, β(u) , we introduce two-variable densities and show that they satisfy the integral form of the evolution equation.

  5. Secondary Metabolites in Allergic Plant Pollen Samples Modulate Afferent Neurons and Murine Tracheal Rings.

    PubMed

    Božičević, Alen; De Mieri, Maria; Nassenstein, Christina; Wiegand, Silke; Hamburger, Matthias

    2017-11-22

    Plant pollens are strong airborne elicitors of asthma. Their proteinaceous allergens have been studied intensively, but little is known about a possible contribution of pollen secondary metabolites to the nonallergic exacerbation of asthma. Pollen samples originating from 30 plant species were analyzed by HPLC coupled to PDA, ESIMS, and ELSD detectors and off-line NMR spectroscopy. Polyamine conjugates, flavonoids, and sesquiterpene lactones were identified. Polyamine conjugates were characteristic of all Asteraceae species. The presence of sesquiterpene lactones in Asteraceae pollen varied between species and pollen lots. All plant pollen, including those from non-Asteraceae species, contained to some extent electrophiles as determined by their reaction with N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Selected pollen extracts and pure compounds were tested in murine afferent neurons and in murine tracheal preparations. Tetrahydrofuran extracts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Ambrosia psilostachya pollen and a mixture of sesquiterpene lactones coronopilin/parthenin increased the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in 15%, 32%, and 37% of cinnamaldehyde-responsive neurons, respectively. In organ bath experiments, only the sesquiterpene lactones tested induced a weak dilatation of naïve tracheas and strongly lowered the maximal methacholine-induced tracheal constriction. A tetrahydrofuran extract of A. psilostachya and coronopilin/parthenin led to a time-dependent relaxation of the methacholine-preconstricted trachea. These results provide the first evidence for a potential role of pollen secondary metabolites in the modulation of the tracheal tone.

  6. Vasodilating effect of norethisterone and its 5 alpha metabolites: a novel nongenomic action.

    PubMed

    Perusquía, Mercedes; Villalón, Carlos M; Navarrete, Erika; García, Gustavo A; Pérez-Palacios, Gregorio; Lemus, Ana E

    2003-08-15

    Estrogens are generally administered in hormone replacement therapy in combination with synthetic progestins. Studies of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women have shown a variety of responses according to the molecular structure of the progestin used in hormone replacement therapy schemes. The present study sets out to determine the vasoactive effects of norethisterone and its 5alpha-dihydro (5alpha-norethisterone) and -tetrahydro (3alpha,5alpha-norethisterone and 3beta,5alpha-norethisterone) metabolites in isolated precontracted rat thoracic aorta. The addition of norethisterone and 3alpha,5alpha-norethisterone in rat aorta exhibited a potent, concentration-response inhibition of noradrenaline-induced contraction, while 5alpha- and 3beta,5alpha-norethisterone had very little, if any, vasorelaxing effect. Relaxation to norethisterone and 3alpha,5alpha-norethisterone had very rapid time-courses and it was neither affected by the absence of endothelium nor by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The addition of specific anti-androgen, anti-progestin and anti-estrogen compounds and protein synthesis inhibitors did not preclude the vasorelaxing effect of norethisterone and its 3alpha,5alpha-reduced metabolite. The results strongly suggest that these effects are not mediated by nuclear sex steroid hormone receptors. The overall data document a novel nongenomic endothelium-independent vasorelaxing action of a 19-nor synthetic progestin and one of its A-ring-reduced derivatives.

  7. New Methodology for Known Metabolite Identification in Metabonomics/Metabolomics: Topological Metabolite Identification Carbon Efficiency (tMICE).

    PubMed

    Sanchon-Lopez, Beatriz; Everett, Jeremy R

    2016-09-02

    A new, simple-to-implement and quantitative approach to assessing the confidence in NMR-based identification of known metabolites is introduced. The approach is based on a topological analysis of metabolite identification information available from NMR spectroscopy studies and is a development of the metabolite identification carbon efficiency (MICE) method. New topological metabolite identification indices are introduced, analyzed, and proposed for general use, including topological metabolite identification carbon efficiency (tMICE). Because known metabolite identification is one of the key bottlenecks in either NMR-spectroscopy- or mass spectrometry-based metabonomics/metabolomics studies, and given the fact that there is no current consensus on how to assess metabolite identification confidence, it is hoped that these new approaches and the topological indices will find utility.

  8. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Ida M. L. Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects. PMID:25089350

  9. Tyrosol and its metabolites as antioxidative and anti-inflammatory molecules in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Muriana, Francisco J G; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Lucas, Ricardo; Bermudez, Beatriz; Jaramillo, Sara; Morales, Juan C; Abia, Rocio; Lopez, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    Tyrosol (Tyr) is a phenolic compound found in virgin olive oil. After ingestion, Tyr undergoes extensive first pass intestinal/hepatic metabolism. However, knowledge about the biological effects of Tyr metabolites is scarce. We chemically synthesized Tyr glucuronate (Tyr-GLU) and sulphate (Tyr-SUL) metabolites and explored their properties against oxidative stress and inflammation in TNF-α-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hECs). Tyr and Tyr-SUL prevented the rise of reactive oxygen species, the depletion of glutathione, and the down-regulation of glutathione peroxidase 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and heme oxygenase-1 genes. Tyr-SUL and to a lower extent Tyr and Tyr-GLU prevented the phosphorylation of NF-κB signaling proteins. Tyr-GLU and Tyr-SUL also prevented the over-expression of adhesion molecules at gene, protein, and secretory levels, and the adhesion (Tyr-SUL > Tyr-GLU) of human monocytes to hECs. In vivo, Tyr, and most notably Tyr-SUL in a dose-dependent manner, ameliorated plantar and ear edemas in mice models of acute and chronic inflammation. This study demonstrates the antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties of Tyr metabolites, with Tyr-SUL being the most effective.

  10. Relaxation-phenomena in LiAl/FeS-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borger, W.; Kappus, W.; Panesar, H. S.

    A theoretical model of the capacity of strongly relaxing electrochemical systems is applied to the LiAl/FeS system. Relaxation phenomena in LiAl and FeS electrodes can be described by this model. Experimental relaxation data indicate that lithium transport through the alpha-LiAl layer to the particle surface is the capacity limiting process at high discharge current density in the LiAl electrode in LiCl-KCl and LiF-LiCl-LiBr mixtures. Strong relaxation is observed in the FeS electrode with LiCl-KCl electrolyte caused by lithium concentration gradients and precipitation of KCl in the pores.

  11. Dynamics in supercooled polyalcohols: Primary and secondary relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döß, A.; Paluch, M.; Sillescu, H.; Hinze, G.

    2002-10-01

    We have studied details of the molecular dynamics in a series of pure polyalcohols by means of dielectric spectroscopy and 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). From glycerol to threitol, xylitol and sorbitol a systematic change in the dynamics of the primary and secondary relaxation is found. With increasing molecular weight and fragility an increase in the width of the α-peak is observed. Details of the molecular reorientation process responsible for the α-relaxation were exploited by two-dimensional NMR experiments. It is found that in the same sequence of polyalcohols the appearance of the secondary relaxation changes gradually from a wing type scenario to a pronounced β-peak. From NMR experiments using selectively deuterated samples the molecular origin of the secondary relaxation could be elucidated in more detail.

  12. Nuclear spin relaxation of methane in solid xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Takeru; Arakawa, Ichiro; Yamakawa, Koichiro

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear spin relaxation of methane in solid xenon has been studied by infrared spectroscopy. From the analysis of the temporal changes of the rovibrational peaks, the rates of the nuclear spin relaxation of I = 2 ← 1 correlated to the rotational relaxation of J = 0 ← 1 were obtained at temperatures of 5.1-11.5 K. On the basis of the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate, the activation energy of the indirect two-phonon process was determined to be 50 ± 6 K, which is in good agreement with the rotational transition energies of J = 2 ← 1 and J = 3 ← 1. Taking into account this result and the spin degeneracy, we argue that the lowest J = 3 level in which the I = 1 and I = 2 states are degenerate acts as the intermediate point of the indirect process.

  13. Cole-Cole broadening in dielectric relaxation and strange kinetics.

    PubMed

    Puzenko, Alexander; Ishai, Paul Ben; Feldman, Yuri

    2010-07-16

    We present a fresh appraisal of the Cole-Cole (CC) description of dielectric relaxation. While the approach is phenomenological, it demonstrates a fundamental connection between the parameters of the CC dispersion. Based on the fractal nature of the time set representing the interaction of the relaxing dipole with its encompassing matrix, and the Kirkwood-Froehlich correlation factor, a new 3D phase space linking together the kinetic and structural properties is proposed. The evolution of the relaxation process is represented in this phase space by a trajectory, which is determined by the variation of external macroscopic parameters. As an example, the validity of the approach is demonstrated on two porous silica glasses exhibiting a CC relaxation process.

  14. 129 Xe NMR Relaxation-Based Macromolecular Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Muller D.; Dao, Phuong; Jeong, Keunhong

    2016-07-29

    A 129Xe NMR relaxation-based sensing approach is reported on that exploits changes in the bulk xenon relaxation rate induced by slowed tumbling of a cryptophane-based sensor upon target binding. The amplification afforded by detection of the bulk dissolved xenon allows sensitive detection of targets. The sensor comprises a xenon-binding cryptophane cage, a target interaction element, and a metal chelating agent. Xenon associated with the target-bound cryptophane cage is rapidly relaxed and then detected after exchange with the bulk. Here we show that large macromolecular targets increase the rotational correlation time of xenon, increasing its relaxation rate. Upon binding of amore » biotin-containing sensor to avidin at 1.5 μM concentration, the free xenon T 2 is reduced by a factor of 4.« less

  15. Internal friction and mode relaxation in a simple chain model.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, S; Sokolov, I M

    2009-12-21

    We consider the equilibrium relaxation properties of the end-to-end distance and of the principal components in a one-dimensional polymer chain model with nonlinear interaction between the beads. While for the single-well potentials these properties are similar to the ones of a Rouse chain, for the double-well interaction potentials, modeling internal friction, they differ vastly from the ones of the harmonic chain at intermediate times and intermediate temperatures. This minimal description within a one-dimensional model mimics the relaxation properties found in much more complex polymer systems. Thus, the relaxation time of the end-to-end distance may grow by orders of magnitude at intermediate temperatures. The principal components (whose directions are shown to coincide with the normal modes of the harmonic chain, whatever interaction potential is assumed) not only display larger relaxation times but also subdiffusive scaling.

  16. Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    DOE PAGES

    Lingam, Manasvi; Abdelhamid, Hamdi M.; Hudson, Stuart R.

    2016-08-03

    The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of “ideal barriers” that prevent global relaxation and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects, and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposedmore » for deriving the partially relaxed states.« less

  17. Local moment relaxation in heavy-fermion compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Simanek, E.; Sasahara, K.

    1987-02-01

    The Korringa relaxation rate for a local moment of an impurity in a heavy fermion compound is calculated using the model of Yoshimori and Kasai. Consistent with the recent ESR data for local moments in UBe/sub 13/, the relaxation rate is found to be unaffected by the heavy fermion renormalizations. This result can be traced to the single-site approximation and the weak k dependence of the conduction electron self-energy.

  18. Multiple-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Models in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    dHumieres, Dominique; Ginzburg, Irina; Krafczyk, Manfred; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of fifteen-velocity and nineteen-velocity models in three dimensions. Simulation of a diagonally lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions at Re=500 and 2000 is performed. The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation.

  19. Exchange and relaxation effects in low-energy radiationless transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1978-01-01

    The effect on low-energy atomic inner-shell Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig transitions that is produced by relaxation and by exchange between the continuum electron and bound electrons was examined and illustrated by specific calculations for transitions that deexcite the 3p vacancy state of Zn. Taking exchange and relaxation into account is found to reduce, but not to eliminate, the discrepancies between theoretical rates and measurements.

  20. Electron and hole relaxation pathways in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, V.I.; McBranch, D.W.; Leatherdale, C.A.

    1999-11-01

    Femtosecond (fs) broad-band transient absorption (TA) is used to study the intraband relaxation and depopulation dynamics of electron and hole quantized states in CdSe nanocrystals (NC{close_quote}s) with a range of surface properties. Instead of the drastic reduction in the energy relaxation rate expected due to a {open_quotes}phonon bottleneck,{close_quotes} we observe a fast subpicosecond 1P-to-1S electron relaxation, with the rate exceeding that due to phonon emission in bulk semiconductors. The energy relaxation is enhanced with reducing the NC{close_quote}s radius, and does not show any dependence on the NC surface properties (quality of the surface passivation). These data indicate that electron energymore » relaxation occurs by neither multiphonon emission nor by coupling to surface defects, but is likely meditated by Auger-type electron-hole energy transfer. We use fs infrared TA to probe electron and hole intraband transitions, which allows us to distinguish between electron and hole relaxation pathways leading to the depopulation of NC quantized states. In contrast to the electron relaxation, which is controlled by NC surface passivation, the depopulation of hole quantized states is extremely fast (sub-ps-to-ps time scales) in all types of samples, independent of NC surface treatment (including NC{close_quote}s overcoated with a ZnS layer). Our results indicate that ultrafast hole dynamics are not due to trapping at localized surface defects such as a vacancy, but rather arise from relaxation into intrinsic NC states or intrinsically unpassivated interface states. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}« less

  1. Relaxation versus adiabatic quantum steady-state preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Albash, Tameem; Marvian, Milad; Lidar, Daniel; Zanardi, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Adiabatic preparation of the ground states of many-body Hamiltonians in the closed-system limit is at the heart of adiabatic quantum computation, but in reality systems are always open. This motivates a natural comparison between, on the one hand, adiabatic preparation of steady states of Lindbladian generators and, on the other hand, relaxation towards the same steady states subject to the final Lindbladian of the adiabatic process. In this work we thus adopt the perspective that the goal is the most efficient possible preparation of such steady states, rather than ground states. Using known rigorous bounds for the open-system adiabatic theorem and for mixing times, we are then led to a disturbing conclusion that at first appears to doom efforts to build physical quantum annealers: relaxation seems to always converge faster than adiabatic preparation. However, by carefully estimating the adiabatic preparation time for Lindbladians describing thermalization in the low-temperature limit, we show that there is, after all, room for an adiabatic speedup over relaxation. To test the analytically derived bounds for the adiabatic preparation time and the relaxation time, we numerically study three models: a dissipative quasifree fermionic chain, a single qubit coupled to a thermal bath, and the "spike" problem of n qubits coupled to a thermal bath. Via these models we find that the answer to the "which wins" question depends for each model on the temperature and the system-bath coupling strength. In the case of the "spike" problem we find that relaxation during the adiabatic evolution plays an important role in ensuring a speedup over the final-time relaxation procedure. Thus, relaxation-assisted adiabatic preparation can be more efficient than both pure adiabatic evolution and pure relaxation.

  2. Synoptic forcing of wind relaxations at Pt. Conception, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewings, Melanie R.; Washburn, Libe; Dorman, Clive E.; Gotschalk, Christopher; Lombardo, Kelly

    2016-08-01

    Over the California Current upwelling system in summer, the prevailing upwelling-favorable winds episodically weaken (relax) or reverse direction for a few days. Near Pt. Conception, California, the wind usually does not reverse, but wind relaxation allows poleward oceanic coastal flow with ecological consequences. To determine the offshore extent and synoptic forcing of these wind relaxations, we formed composite averages of wind stress from the QuikSCAT satellite and atmospheric pressure from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) using 67 wind relaxations during summer 2000-2009. Wind relaxations at Pt. Conception are the third stage of an event sequence that repeatedly affects the west coast of North America in summer. First, 5-7 days before the wind weakens near Pt. Conception, the wind weakens or reverses off Oregon and northern California. Second, the upwelling-favorable wind intensifies along central California. Third, the wind relaxes at Pt. Conception, and the area of weakened winds extends poleward to northern California over 3-5 days. The NARR underestimates the wind stress within ˜200 km of coastal capes by a factor of 2. Wind relaxations at Pt. Conception are caused by offshore extension of the desert heat low. This synoptic forcing is related to event cycles that cause wind reversal as in Halliwell and Allen (1987) and Mass and Bond (1996), but includes weaker events. The wind relaxations extend ˜600 km offshore, similarly to the California-scale hydraulic expansion fan shaping the prevailing winds, and ˜1000 km alongshore, limited by an opposing pressure gradient force at Cape Mendocino.

  3. Ventilatory Responses to Exercise While Eliciting the Relaxation Response,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-16

    Kent B. Pandolf, Bruce Cadarette, Leslie Levine, Ralph F. Goldman, and Herbert Benson. From the Division of Behavioral Medicine, Department of...been observed with the elicitation of the relaxation response at rest differ from those that occur during sleep or hypnosis (14). The relaxation response...alterations which were observed in our experimental group during the intervention period were not similar to those found with combined hypnosis and

  4. Molecular dynamics and vibrational relaxations in liquid nitromethane.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazia Giorgini, Maria; Mariani, Leonardo; Morresi, Assunta; Paliani, Giulio; Cataliotti, Rosario Sergio

    The vibrational relaxation processes of totally symmetric v1 (CH stretching and v5 (NO2 bending) motions of liquid nitromethane have been studied as a function of temperature and concentration in CD3NO2 and CCl4 solutions. The experimental vibrational correlation functions of these two modes have shown that relaxation is collision assisted and suitable for modelling with the stochastic Kubo-Rothschild theory.

  5. Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Pain Perception in Abdominal Surgery Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Twenty-one females were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: dental splint and physiotherapy , a relaxation program, or a minimal...overall treatment effect was average weekly frequency of pain (F = 5.25, p < .05). The relaxation and dental physiotherapy groups reported lower pain...significantly less pain intensity than the control group (TENS), while the dental/ physiotherapy group reported significantly less frequency of pain than

  6. Mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in the human gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Lee, Ming-Che; Tey, Shu-Leei; Liu, Ching-Wen; Huang, Shih-Che

    2017-05-08

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound extracted from plants and is also a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol produces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Although resveratrol has been reported to cause relaxation of the guinea pig gallbladder, limited data are available about the effect of resveratrol on the gallbladder smooth muscle in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relaxation effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. We studied the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder. In addition, we also investigated mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder by tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channels blocker), iberiotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker), charybdotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and slowly inactivating voltage-gated potassium channels), apamine (a selective inhibitor of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), KT 5720 (a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor), KT 5823 (a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor), NG-Nitro-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), tetrodotoxin (a selective neuronal Na + channel blocker), and ω-conotoxin GVIA (a selective neuronal Ca 2+ channel blocker). The present study showed that resveratrol has relaxant effects in human gallbladder muscle strips. In addition, we found that resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder is associated with nitric oxide, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel pathways. This study provides the first evidence concerning the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that resveratrol is a potential new drug or health supplement in the treatment of

  7. Relaxation dispersion in MRI induced by fictitious magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Timo; Mangia, Silvia; Ling, Wen; Ellermann, Jutta; Sorce, Dennis J; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom

    2011-04-01

    A new method entitled Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field (RAFF) was recently introduced for investigating relaxations in rotating frames of rank ≥ 2. RAFF generates a fictitious field (E) by applying frequency-swept pulses with sine and cosine amplitude and frequency modulation operating in a sub-adiabatic regime. In the present work, MRI contrast is created by varying the orientation of E, i.e. the angle ε between E and the z″ axis of the second rotating frame. When ε > 45°, the amplitude of the fictitious field E generated during RAFF is significantly larger than the RF field amplitude used for transmitting the sine/cosine pulses. Relaxation during RAFF was investigated using an invariant-trajectory approach and the Bloch-McConnell formalism. Dipole-dipole interactions between identical (like) spins and anisochronous exchange (e.g., exchange between spins with different chemical shifts) in the fast exchange regime were considered. Experimental verifications were performed in vivo in human and mouse brain. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrated that changes in ε induced a dispersion of the relaxation rate constants. The fastest relaxation was achieved at ε ≈ 56°, where the averaged contributions from transverse components during the pulse are maximal and the contribution from longitudinal components are minimal. RAFF relaxation dispersion was compared with the relaxation dispersion achieved with off-resonance spin lock T(₁ρ) experiments. As compared with the off-resonance spin lock T(₁ρ) method, a slower rotating frame relaxation rate was observed with RAFF, which under certain experimental conditions is desirable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Spin relaxation in geometrically frustrated pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunsiger, Sarah Ruth

    This thesis describes muSR experiments which focus on systems where the magnetic ions occupy the vertices of edge or corner sharing triangular units, in particular the pyrochlores A2B2O7. The scientific interest in pyrochlores is based on the fact that they display novel magnetic behaviour at low temperatures due to geometrical frustration. The ground state of these systems is sensitively dependent on such factors as the range of the spin-spin interactions, disorder, anisotropy, thermal and quantum fluctuations. For example, Y2Mo2O7 shows many features reminiscent of a conventional spin glass, even though this material has nominally zero chemical disorder. It is found that the muon spin polarisation obeys a time-field scaling relation which indicates that the spin-spin autocorrelation function has a power law form in time, in stark contrast with the exponential form often assumed for conventional magnets above their transition temperature. Gd2Ti2O7 shows long range order, but only at a temperature much lower than its Curie-Weiss temperature, a signature of a frustrated system. In the paramagnetic regime, it is well described by an isotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian with nearest neighbour couplings in the presence of a Zeeman interaction, from which the spin-spin autocorrelation function may be calculated as a power series in time. The muon spin relaxation rate decreases with magnetic field as the Zeeman energy becomes comparable with the exchange coupling between Gd spins. Thus, an independent measure of the exchange coupling or equivalently the Gd spin fluctuation rate is extracted. By contrast, Tb2Ti2O7 has been identified as a type of cooperative paramagnet. Short range correlations develop below 50 K. However, there is no long range ordering down to very low temperatures (0.075 K). The Tb3+ ion is subject to strong crystal electric field effects: point charge calculations indicate that this system is Ising like at low temperatures. Thus this system may be

  9. Metabolite damage and repair in metabolic engineering design

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jiayi; Jeffryes, James G.; Henry, Christopher S.

    The necessarily sharp focus of metabolic engineering and metabolic synthetic biology on pathways and their fluxes has tended to divert attention from the damaging enzymatic and chemical side-reactions that pathway metabolites can undergo. Although historically overlooked and underappreciated, such metabolite damage reactions are now known to occur throughout metabolism and to generate (formerly enigmatic) peaks detected in metabolomics datasets. It is also now known that metabolite damage is often countered by dedicated repair enzymes that undo or prevent it. Metabolite damage and repair are highly relevant to engineered pathway design: metabolite damage reactions can reduce flux rates and product yields,more » and repair enzymes can provide robust, host-independent solutions. Herein, after introducing the core principles of metabolite damage and repair, we use case histories to document how damage and repair processes affect efficient operation of engineered pathways - particularly those that are heterologous, non-natural, or cell-free. We then review how metabolite damage reactions can be predicted, how repair reactions can be prospected, and how metabolite damage and repair can be built into genome-scale metabolic models. Lastly, we propose a versatile 'plug and play' set of well-characterized metabolite repair enzymes to solve metabolite damage problems known or likely to occur in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects.« less

  10. Metabolite damage and repair in metabolic engineering design.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiayi; Jeffryes, James G; Henry, Christopher S; Bruner, Steven D; Hanson, Andrew D

    2017-11-01

    The necessarily sharp focus of metabolic engineering and metabolic synthetic biology on pathways and their fluxes has tended to divert attention from the damaging enzymatic and chemical side-reactions that pathway metabolites can undergo. Although historically overlooked and underappreciated, such metabolite damage reactions are now known to occur throughout metabolism and to generate (formerly enigmatic) peaks detected in metabolomics datasets. It is also now known that metabolite damage is often countered by dedicated repair enzymes that undo or prevent it. Metabolite damage and repair are highly relevant to engineered pathway design: metabolite damage reactions can reduce flux rates and product yields, and repair enzymes can provide robust, host-independent solutions. Herein, after introducing the core principles of metabolite damage and repair, we use case histories to document how damage and repair processes affect efficient operation of engineered pathways - particularly those that are heterologous, non-natural, or cell-free. We then review how metabolite damage reactions can be predicted, how repair reactions can be prospected, and how metabolite damage and repair can be built into genome-scale metabolic models. Lastly, we propose a versatile 'plug and play' set of well-characterized metabolite repair enzymes to solve metabolite damage problems known or likely to occur in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Weak nanoscale chaos and anomalous relaxation in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Alexey K.

    2017-06-01

    Anomalous nonexponential relaxation in hydrated biomolecules is commonly attributed to the complexity of the free-energy landscapes, similarly to polymers and glasses. It was found recently that the hydrogen-bond breathing of terminal DNA base pairs exhibits a slow power-law relaxation attributable to weak Hamiltonian chaos, with parameters similar to experimental data. Here, the relationship is studied between this motion and spectroscopic signals measured in DNA with a small molecular photoprobe inserted into the base-pair stack. To this end, the earlier computational approach in combination with an analytical theory is applied to the experimental DNA fragment. It is found that the intensity of breathing dynamics is strongly increased in the internal base pairs that flank the photoprobe, with anomalous relaxation quantitatively close to that in terminal base pairs. A physical mechanism is proposed to explain the coupling between the relaxation of base-pair breathing and the experimental response signal. It is concluded that the algebraic relaxation observed experimentally is very likely a manifestation of weakly chaotic dynamics of hydrogen-bond breathing in the base pairs stacked to the photoprobe and that the weak nanoscale chaos can represent an ubiquitous hidden source of nonexponential relaxation in ultrafast spectroscopy.

  12. NMR spin-rotation relaxation and diffusion of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, P. M.; Asthagiri, D.; Chapman, W. G.; Hirasaki, G. J.

    2018-05-01

    The translational diffusion-coefficient and the spin-rotation contribution to the 1H NMR relaxation rate for methane (CH4) are investigated using MD (molecular dynamics) simulations, over a wide range of densities and temperatures, spanning the liquid, supercritical, and gas phases. The simulated diffusion-coefficients agree well with measurements, without any adjustable parameters in the interpretation of the simulations. A minimization technique is developed to compute the angular velocity for non-rigid spherical molecules, which is used to simulate the autocorrelation function for spin-rotation interactions. With increasing diffusivity, the autocorrelation function shows increasing deviations from the single-exponential decay predicted by the Langevin theory for rigid spheres, and the deviations are quantified using inverse Laplace transforms. The 1H spin-rotation relaxation rate derived from the autocorrelation function using the "kinetic model" agrees well with measurements in the supercritical/gas phase, while the relaxation rate derived using the "diffusion model" agrees well with measurements in the liquid phase. 1H spin-rotation relaxation is shown to dominate over the MD-simulated 1H-1H dipole-dipole relaxation at high diffusivity, while the opposite is found at low diffusivity. At high diffusivity, the simulated spin-rotation correlation time agrees with the kinetic collision time for gases, which is used to derive a new expression for 1H spin-rotation relaxation, without any adjustable parameters.

  13. Difference and similarity of dielectric relaxation processes among polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoguchi, Ayumi; Kitai, Kei; Nozaki, Ryusuke

    2003-09-01

    Complex permittivity measurements were performed on sorbitol, xylitol, and sorbitol-xylitol mixture in the supercooled liquid state in an extremely wide frequency range from 10 μHz to 500 MHz at temperatures near and above the glass transition temperature. We determined detailed behavior of the relaxation parameters such as relaxation frequency and broadening against temperature not only for the α process but also for the β process above the glass transition temperature, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Since supercooled liquids are in the quasi-equilibrium state, the behavior of all the relaxation parameters for the β process can be compared among the polyols as well as those for the α process. The relaxation frequencies of the α processes follow the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann manner and the loci in the Arrhenius diagram are different corresponding to the difference of the glass transition temperatures. On the other hand, the relaxation frequencies of the β processes, which are often called as the Johari-Goldstein processes, follow the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence. The relaxation parameters for the β process are quite similar among the polyols at temperatures below the αβ merging temperature, TM. However, they show anomalous behavior near TM, which depends on the molecular size of materials. These results suggest that the origin of the β process is essentially the same among the polyols.

  14. Interrelation of creep and relaxation: a modeling approach for ligaments.

    PubMed

    Lakes, R S; Vanderby, R

    1999-12-01

    Experimental data (Thornton et al., 1997) show that relaxation proceeds more rapidly (a greater slope on a log-log scale) than creep in ligament, a fact not explained by linear viscoelasticity. An interrelation between creep and relaxation is therefore developed for ligaments based on a single-integral nonlinear superposition model. This interrelation differs from the convolution relation obtained by Laplace transforms for linear materials. We demonstrate via continuum concepts of nonlinear viscoelasticity that such a difference in rate between creep and relaxation phenomenologically occurs when the nonlinearity is of a strain-stiffening type, i.e., the stress-strain curve is concave up as observed in ligament. We also show that it is inconsistent to assume a Fung-type constitutive law (Fung, 1972) for both creep and relaxation. Using the published data of Thornton et al. (1997), the nonlinear interrelation developed herein predicts creep behavior from relaxation data well (R > or = 0.998). Although data are limited and the causal mechanisms associated with viscoelastic tissue behavior are complex, continuum concepts demonstrated here appear capable of interrelating creep and relaxation with fidelity.

  15. Relaxation dynamics of internal segments of DNA chains in nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Aashish; Muralidhar, Abhiram; Dorfman, Kevin; Dorfman Group Team

    We will present relaxation dynamics of internal segments of a DNA chain confined in nanochannel. The results have direct application in genome mapping technology, where long DNA molecules containing sequence-specific fluorescent probes are passed through an array of nanochannels to linearize them, and then the distances between these probes (the so-called ``DNA barcode'') are measured. The relaxation dynamics of internal segments set the experimental error due to dynamic fluctuations. We developed a multi-scale simulation algorithm, combining a Pruned-Enriched Rosenbluth Method (PERM) simulation of a discrete wormlike chain model with hard spheres with Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of a bead-spring chain. Realistic parameters such as the bead friction coefficient and spring force law parameters are obtained from PERM simulations and then mapped onto the bead-spring model. The BD simulations are carried out to obtain the extension autocorrelation functions of various segments, which furnish their relaxation times. Interestingly, we find that (i) corner segments relax faster than the center segments and (ii) relaxation times of corner segments do not depend on the contour length of DNA chain, whereas the relaxation times of center segments increase linearly with DNA chain size.

  16. Topology Synthesis of Structures Using Parameter Relaxation and Geometric Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    Typically, structural topology optimization problems undergo relaxation of certain design parameters to allow the existence of intermediate variable optimum topologies. Relaxation permits the use of a variety of gradient-based search techniques and has been shown to guarantee the existence of optimal solutions and eliminate mesh dependencies. This Technical Publication (TP) will demonstrate the application of relaxation to a control point discretization of the design workspace for the structural topology optimization process. The control point parameterization with subdivision has been offered as an alternative to the traditional method of discretized finite element design domain. The principle of relaxation demonstrates the increased utility of the control point parameterization. One of the significant results of the relaxation process offered in this TP is that direct manufacturability of the optimized design will be maintained without the need for designer intervention or translation. In addition, it will be shown that relaxation of certain parameters may extend the range of problems that can be addressed; e.g., in permitting limited out-of-plane motion to be included in a path generation problem.

  17. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Andrienko, Daniil A., E-mail: daniila@umich.edu; Boyd, Iain D.

    2016-07-07

    Investigation of O{sub 2}–N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound–bound and bound–free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO{sub 2} complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systemsmore » with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N{sub 2}–O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.« less

  18. Weak nanoscale chaos and anomalous relaxation in DNA.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Alexey K

    2017-06-01

    Anomalous nonexponential relaxation in hydrated biomolecules is commonly attributed to the complexity of the free-energy landscapes, similarly to polymers and glasses. It was found recently that the hydrogen-bond breathing of terminal DNA base pairs exhibits a slow power-law relaxation attributable to weak Hamiltonian chaos, with parameters similar to experimental data. Here, the relationship is studied between this motion and spectroscopic signals measured in DNA with a small molecular photoprobe inserted into the base-pair stack. To this end, the earlier computational approach in combination with an analytical theory is applied to the experimental DNA fragment. It is found that the intensity of breathing dynamics is strongly increased in the internal base pairs that flank the photoprobe, with anomalous relaxation quantitatively close to that in terminal base pairs. A physical mechanism is proposed to explain the coupling between the relaxation of base-pair breathing and the experimental response signal. It is concluded that the algebraic relaxation observed experimentally is very likely a manifestation of weakly chaotic dynamics of hydrogen-bond breathing in the base pairs stacked to the photoprobe and that the weak nanoscale chaos can represent an ubiquitous hidden source of nonexponential relaxation in ultrafast spectroscopy.

  19. Dielectric relaxations on erythrocyte membrane as revealed by spectrin denaturation.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I T; Paarvanova, B

    2016-08-01

    We studied the effect of spectrin denaturation at 49.5°C (TA) on the dielectric relaxations and related changes in the complex impedance, Z*, complex capacitance, C*, and dielectric loss curve of suspensions containing human erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost membranes (EMs) and Triton-X-100 residues of EMs. The loss curve prior to, minus the loss curve after TA, resulted in a bell-shaped peak at 1.5MHz. The changes in the real and imaginary components of Z* and C* at TA, i.e., ΔZre, ΔZim, ΔCre and ΔCim, calculated in the same way, strongly varied with frequency. Between 1.0 and 12MHz the -ΔZim vs ΔZre, and ΔCim vs ΔCre plots depicted semicircles with critical frequencies, fcr, at 2.5MHz expressing recently reported relaxation of spectrin dipoles. Between 0.02 and 1.0MHz the -ΔZim vs ΔZre plot exhibited another relaxation whose fcr mirrored that of beta relaxation. This relaxation was absent on Triton-X-shells, while on erythrocytes and EMs it was inhibited by selective dissociation of either attachment sites between spectrin and bilayer. Considering above findings and inaccessibility of cytosole to outside field at such frequencies, the latter relaxation was assumed originating from a piezoelectric effect on the highly deformable spectrin filaments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermogenic effects of sibutramine and its metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Connoley, Ian P; Liu, Yong-Ling; Frost, Ian; Reckless, Ian P; Heal, David J; Stock, Michael J

    1999-01-01

    The thermogenic activity of the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor sibutramine (BTS 54524; Reductil) was investigated by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) in rats treated with sibutramine or its two pharmacologically-active metabolites. Sibutramine caused a dose-dependent rise in VO2, with a dose of 10 mg kg−1 of sibutramine or its metabolites producing increases of up to 30% that were sustained for at least 6 h, and accompanied by significant increases (0.5–1.0°C) in body temperature. Based on the accumulation in vivo of radiolabelled 2-deoxy-[3H]-glucose, sibutramine had little or no effect on glucose utilization in most tissues, but caused an 18 fold increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Combined high, non-selective doses (20 mg kg−1) of the β-adrenoceptor antagonists, atenolol and ICI 118551, inhibited completely the VO2 response to sibutramine, but the response was unaffected by low, β1-adrenoceptor-selective (atenolol) or β2-adrenoceptor-selective (ICI 118551) doses (1 mg kg−1). The ganglionic blocking agent, chlorisondamine (15 mg kg−1), inhibited completely the VO2 response to the metabolites of sibutramine, but had no effect on the thermogenic response to the β3-adrenoceptor-selective agonist BRL 35135. Similar thermogenic responses were produced by simultaneous injection of nisoxetine and fluoxetine at doses (30 mg kg−1) that had no effect on VO2 when injected individually. It is concluded that stimulation of thermogenesis by sibutramine requires central reuptake inhibition of both serotonin and noradrenaline, resulting in increased efferent sympathetic activation of BAT thermogenesis via β3-adrenoceptor, and that this contributes to the compound's activity as an anti-obesity agent. PMID:10217544

  1. MASS SPECTROMETRY IMAGING FOR DRUGS AND METABOLITES

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Tyler; Sturm, Robert; Li, Lingjun

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that provides two- and three-dimensional spatial maps of multiple compounds in a single experiment. This technique has been routinely applied to protein, peptide, and lipid molecules with much less research reporting small molecule distributions, especially pharmaceutical drugs. This review’s main focus is to provide readers with an up-to-date description of the substrates and compounds that have been analyzed for drug and metabolite composition using MSI technology. Additionally, ionization techniques, sample preparation, and instrumentation developments are discussed. PMID:21515430

  2. Cytotoxicity of lapachol metabolites produced by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Silva, E; Cruz de Carvalho, T; Parshikov, I A; Alves dos Santos, R; Silva Emery, F; Jacometti Cardoso Furtado, N A

    2014-07-01

    Probiotics are currently added to a variety of functional foods to provide health benefits to the host and are commonly used by patients with gastrointestinal complaints or diseases. The therapeutic effects of lapachol continue to inspire studies to obtain derivatives with improved bioactivity and lower unwanted effects. Therefore, the general goal of this study was to show that probiotics are able to convert lapachol and are important to assess the effects of bacterial metabolism on drug performance and toxicity. The microbial transformations of lapachol were carried out by Bifidobacterium sp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and different metabolites were produced in mixed and isolated cultures. The cytotoxic activities against breast cancer and normal fibroblast cell lines of the isolated metabolites (4α-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-5-oxo-2,3,4,4α,5,9β-hexahydroindeno[1,2-β]pyran-9β-carboxilic acid, a new metabolite produced by mixed culture and dehydro-α-lapachone produced by isolated cultures) were assessed and compared with those of lapachol. The new metabolite displayed a lower activity against a breast cancer cell line (IC50 = 532.7 μmol l(-1) ) than lapachol (IC50 = 72.3 μmol l(-1) ), while dehydro-α-lapachone (IC50 = 10.4 μmol l(-1) ) displayed a higher activity than lapachol. The present study is the first to demonstrate that probiotics are capable of converting lapachol into the most effective cytotoxic compound against a breast cancer cell line. Probiotics have been used in dairy products to promote human health and have the ability to metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics. Naphthoquinones, such as lapachol, are considered privileged scaffolds due to their high propensity to interact with biological targets. The present study is the first to demonstrate that probiotics are capable of converting lapachol into the most effective cytotoxic compound against a breast cancer cell line. The developed approach highlights the importance of probiotics to assess

  3. Seasonal behavior of Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Yasnay; González, Kethia; Valdés-Iglesias, Olga; Zarabozo, Akaena; Portal, Yéssica; Laguna, Abilio; Martínez-Daranas, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Maria; Gutiérrez, Richard

    2016-12-01

    The marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum, commonly known as turtle grass, is a dominant seagrass that grows in the Caribbean Sea shelf associated to Syringodium filiforme. The hydroalcoholic extract of T. testudinum is rich in polyphenols; the most abundant metabolite in this extract is thalassiolin B, a glycosilated flavonoid with skin damage repairing properties, and antioxidant capacity among others. The present study aimed at generating information about the seasonal behavior of secondary metabolites, as well as to study the antioxidant capacity of the T. testudinum leaves extract, collected monthly during 2012 from the Northeast coastline of Havana, Cuba. For this study, spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, soluble carbohydrates and proteins, chlorophylls a and b, and antioxidant activity of the extracts. In general, results demonstrated seasonal variations of the analyzed parameters. Extracts prepared from the vegetal material collected in October and November showed the highest values of polyphenols (58.81 ± 1.53 and 52.39 ± 0.63 mg/g bs, respectivally) and flavonoids (44.12 ± 1.30 and 51.30 ± 0.67 mg/gdw, respectively). On the contrary, the lowest values of polyphenols were found in extracts of leaves collected in July and August (15.51 ± 0.84 and 13.86 ± 0.48 mg/g,respectively). In accordance with these results, the lower value of Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) was obtained to get a 50 % of maximal effect on free radical scavenging activity with the extracts prepared from leaves collected in October and November, and less significant IC50 was obtained from the extract prepared from leaves collected in August (5.63 mg/mL). A negative correlation (r= -0.694) was observed in this study between the content of polyphenols and the IC50 necessary to get the half of its antioxidant maximal effect. The high correspondence between the maximum values of polyphenols, flavonoids

  4. Analysis of arsenical metabolites in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Zavala, Araceli; Drobna, Zuzana; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J

    2009-11-01

    Quantitation of iAs and its methylated metabolites in biological samples provides dosimetric information needed to understand dose-response relations. Here, methods are described for separation of inorganic and mono-, di-, and trimethylated arsenicals by thin layer chromatography. This method has been extensively used to track the metabolism of the radionuclide [(73)As] in a variety of in vitro assay systems. In addition, a hydride generation-cryotrapping-gas chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometric method is described for the quantitation of arsenicals in biological samples. This method uses pH-selective hydride generation to differentiate among arsenicals containing trivalent or pentavalent arsenic.

  5. Effects of Ketamine and Ketamine Metabolites on Evoked Striatal Dopamine Release, Dopamine Receptors, and Monoamine Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Can, Adem; Zanos, Panos; Moaddel, Ruin; Kang, Hye Jin; Dossou, Katinia S. S.; Wainer, Irving W.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Frost, Douglas O.; Huang, Xi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Following administration at subanesthetic doses, (R,S)-ketamine (ketamine) induces rapid and robust relief from symptoms of depression in treatment-refractory depressed patients. Previous studies suggest that ketamine’s antidepressant properties involve enhancement of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Ketamine is rapidly metabolized to (2S,6S)- and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK), which have antidepressant actions independent of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor inhibition. These antidepressant actions of (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HNK, or other metabolites, as well as ketamine’s side effects, including abuse potential, may be related to direct effects on components of the dopaminergic (DAergic) system. Here, brain and blood distribution/clearance and pharmacodynamic analyses at DA receptors (D1–D5) and the DA, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters were assessed for ketamine and its major metabolites (norketamine, dehydronorketamine, and HNKs). Additionally, we measured electrically evoked mesolimbic DA release and decay using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry following acute administration of subanesthetic doses of ketamine (2, 10, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.). Following ketamine injection, ketamine, norketamine, and multiple hydroxynorketamines were detected in the plasma and brain of mice. Dehydronorketamine was detectable in plasma, but concentrations were below detectable limits in the brain. Ketamine did not alter the magnitude or kinetics of evoked DA release in the nucleus accumbens in anesthetized mice. Neither ketamine’s enantiomers nor its metabolites had affinity for DA receptors or the DA, noradrenaline, and serotonin transporters (up to 10 μM). These results suggest that neither the side effects nor antidepressant actions of ketamine or ketamine metabolites are associated with direct effects on mesolimbic DAergic neurotransmission. Previously observed in vivo changes in DAergic neurotransmission following ketamine administration are likely indirect. PMID

  6. Modelling the acid/base 1H NMR chemical shift limits of metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Tredwell, Gregory D; Bundy, Jacob G; De Iorio, Maria; Ebbels, Timothy M D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the use of buffering agents the 1 H NMR spectra of biofluid samples in metabolic profiling investigations typically suffer from extensive peak frequency shifting between spectra. These chemical shift changes are mainly due to differences in pH and divalent metal ion concentrations between the samples. This frequency shifting results in a correspondence problem: it can be hard to register the same peak as belonging to the same molecule across multiple samples. The problem is especially acute for urine, which can have a wide range of ionic concentrations between different samples. To investigate the acid, base and metal ion dependent 1 H NMR chemical shift variations and limits of the main metabolites in a complex biological mixture. Urine samples from five different individuals were collected and pooled, and pre-treated with Chelex-100 ion exchange resin. Urine samples were either treated with either HCl or NaOH, or were supplemented with various concentrations of CaCl 2 , MgCl 2 , NaCl or KCl, and their 1 H NMR spectra were acquired. Nonlinear fitting was used to derive acid dissociation constants and acid and base chemical shift limits for peaks from 33 identified metabolites. Peak pH titration curves for a further 65 unidentified peaks were also obtained for future reference. Furthermore, the peak variations induced by the main metal ions present in urine, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , were also measured. These data will be a valuable resource for 1 H NMR metabolite profiling experiments and for the development of automated metabolite alignment and identification algorithms for 1 H NMR spectra.

  7. Inter-individual variability in the production of flavan-3-ol colonic metabolites: preliminary elucidation of urinary metabotypes.

    PubMed

    Mena, Pedro; Ludwig, Iziar A; Tomatis, Virginia B; Acharjee, Animesh; Calani, Luca; Rosi, Alice; Brighenti, Furio; Ray, Sumantra; Griffin, Julian L; Bluck, Les J; Del Rio, Daniele

    2018-04-03

    There is much information on the bioavailability of (poly)phenolic compounds following acute intake of various foods. However, there are only limited data on the effects of repeated and combined exposure to specific (poly)phenol food sources and the inter-individual variability in their bioavailability. This study evaluated the combined urinary excretion of (poly)phenols from green tea and coffee following daily consumption by healthy subjects in free-living conditions. The inter-individual variability in the production of phenolic metabolites was also investigated. Eleven participants consumed both tablets of green tea and green coffee bean extracts daily for 8 weeks and 24-h urine was collected on five different occasions. The urinary profile of phenolic metabolites and a set of multivariate statistical tests were used to investigate the putative existence of characteristic metabotypes in the production of flavan-3-ol microbial metabolites. (Poly)phenolic compounds in the green tea and green coffee bean extracts were absorbed and excreted after simultaneous consumption, with green tea resulting in more inter-individual variability in urinary excretion of phenolic metabolites. Three metabotypes in the production of flavan-3-ol microbial metabolites were tentatively defined, characterized by the excretion of different amounts of trihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactones, dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactones, and hydroxyphenylpropionic acids. The selective production of microbiota-derived metabolites from flavan-3-ols and the putative existence of characteristic metabotypes in their production represent an important development in the study of the bioavailability of plant bioactives. These observations will contribute to better understand the health effects and individual differences associated with consumption of flavan-3-ols, arguably the main class of flavonoids in the human diet.

  8. Molecular order and T1-relaxation, cross-relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Derek

    2018-05-01

    Interpretation of saturation-recovery EPR experiments on nitroxide spin labels whose angular rotation is restricted by the orienting potential of the environment (e.g., membranes) currently concentrates on the influence of rotational rates and not of molecular order. Here, I consider the dependence on molecular ordering of contributions to the rates of electron spin-lattice relaxation and cross relaxation from modulation of N-hyperfine and Zeeman anisotropies. These are determined by the averages and , where θ is the angle between the nitroxide z-axis and the static magnetic field, which in turn depends on the angles that these two directions make with the director of uniaxial ordering. For saturation-recovery EPR at 9 GHz, the recovery rate constant is predicted to decrease with increasing order for the magnetic field oriented parallel to the director, and to increase slightly for the perpendicular field orientation. The latter situation corresponds to the usual experimental protocol and is consistent with the dependence on chain-labelling position in lipid bilayer membranes. An altered dependence on order parameter is predicted for saturation-recovery EPR at high field (94 GHz) that is not entirely consistent with observation. Comparisons with experiment are complicated by contributions from slow-motional components, and an unexplained background recovery rate that most probably is independent of order parameter. In general, this analysis supports the interpretation that recovery rates are determined principally by rotational diffusion rates, but experiments at other spectral positions/field orientations could increase the sensitivity to order parameter.

  9. Herbicide Metabolites in Surface Water and Groundwater: Introduction and Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Meyer, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    Several future research topics for herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water are outlined in this chapter. They are herbicide usage, chemical analysis of metabolites, and fate and transport of metabolites in surface and ground water. These three ideas follow the themes in this book, which are the summary of a symposium of the American Chemical Society on herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water. First, geographic information systems allow the spatial distribution of herbicide-use data to be combined with geochemical information on fate and transport of herbicides. Next these two types of information are useful in predicting the kinds of metabolites present and their probable distribution in surface and ground water. Finally, methods development efforts may be focused on these specific target analytes. This chapter discusses these three concepts and provides an introduction to this book on the analysis, chemistry, and fate and transport of herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water.

  10. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  11. Unravelling the mechanisms of vibrational relaxation in solution.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Michael P; Coulter, Philip M; Marroux, Hugo J B; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2017-04-01

    We present a systematic study of the mode-specific vibrational relaxation of NO 2 in six weakly-interacting solvents (perfluorohexane, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, perfluorodecalin, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and d-chloroform), chosen to elucidate the dominant energy transfer mechanisms in the solution phase. Broadband transient vibrational absorption spectroscopy has allowed us to extract quantum state-resolved relaxation dynamics of the two distinct NO 2 fragments produced from the 340 nm photolysis of N 2 O 4 → NO 2 (X) + NO 2 (A) and their separate paths to thermal equilibrium. Distinct relaxation pathways are observed for the NO 2 bending and stretching modes, even at energies as high as 7000 cm -1 above the potential minimum. Vibrational energy transfer is governed by different interaction mechanisms in the various solvent environments, and proceeds with timescales ranging from 20-1100 ps. NO 2 relaxation rates in the perfluorocarbon solvents are identical despite differences in acceptor mode state densities, infrared absorption cross sections, and local solvent structure. Vibrational energy is shown to be transferred to non-vibrational solvent degrees of freedom (V-T) through impulsive collisions with the perfluorocarbon molecules. Conversely, NO 2 relaxation in chlorinated solvents is reliant on vibrational resonances (V-V) while V-T energy transfer is inefficient and thermal excitation of the surrounding solvent molecules inhibits faster vibrational relaxation through direct complexation. Intramolecular vibrational redistribution allows the symmetric stretch of NO 2 to act as a gateway for antisymmetric stretch energy to exit the molecule. This study establishes an unprecedented level of detail for the cooling dynamics of a solvated small molecule, and provides a benchmark system for future theoretical studies of vibrational relaxation processes in solution.

  12. Microbial secondary metabolites and their impacts on insect symbioses.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Jonathan L

    2014-10-01

    All insects host communities of microbes that interact both with the insect and each other. Secondary metabolites are understood to mediate many of these interactions, although examples having robust genetic, chemical and/or ecological evidence are relatively rare. Here, I review secondary metabolites mediating community interactions in the beewolf, entomopathogenic nematode and fungus-growing ant symbioses, using the logic of Koch's postulates to emphasize well-validated symbiotic functions mediated by these metabolites. I especially highlight how these interaction networks are structured by both ecological and evolutionary processes, and how selection acting on secondary metabolite production can be multidimensional. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  14. Reparation and Immunomodulating Properties of Bacillus sp. Metabolites from Permafrost.

    PubMed

    Kalenova, L F; Melnikov, V P; Besedin, I M; Bazhin, A S; Gabdulin, M A; Kolyvanova, S S

    2017-09-01

    An ointment containing metabolites of Bacillus sp. microorganisms isolated from permafrost samples was applied onto the skin wound of BALB/c mice. Metabolites isolated during culturing of Bacillus sp. at 37°C produced a potent therapeutic effect and promoted wound epithelialization by 30% in comparison with the control (ointment base) and by 20% in comparison with Solcoseryl. Treatment with Bacillus sp. metabolites stimulated predominantly humoral immunity, reduced the time of wound contraction and the volume of scar tissue, and promoted complete hair recovery. These metabolites can be considered as modulators of the wound process with predominance of regeneration mechanisms.

  15. Metabolomic analysis of 92 pulmonary embolism patients from a nested case-control study identifies metabolites associated with adverse clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zeleznik, O A; Poole, E M; Lindstrom, S; Kraft, P; Van Hylckama Vlieg, A; Lasky-Su, J A; Harrington, L B; Hagan, K; Kim, J; Parry, B A; Giordano, N; Kabrhel, C

    2018-03-01

    Essentials Risk-stratification often fails to predict clinical deterioration in pulmonary embolism (PE). First-ever high-throughput metabolomics analysis of risk-stratified PE patients. Changes in circulating metabolites reflect a compromised energy metabolism in PE. Metabolites play a key role in the pathophysiology and risk stratification of PE. Background Patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) exhibit wide variation in clinical presentation and outcomes. Our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms differentiating low-risk and high-risk PE is limited, so current risk-stratification efforts often fail to predict clinical deterioration and are insufficient to guide management. Objectives To improve our understanding of the physiology differentiating low-risk from high-risk PE, we conducted the first-ever high-throughput metabolomics analysis (843 named metabolites) comparing PE patients across risk strata within a nested case-control study. Patients/methods We enrolled 92 patients diagnosed with acute PE and collected plasma within 24 h of PE diagnosis. We used linear regression and pathway analysis to identify metabolites and pathways associated with PE risk-strata. Results When we compared 46 low-risk with 46 intermediate/high-risk PEs, 50 metabolites were significantly different after multiple testing correction. These metabolites were enriched in the following pathways: tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid metabolism (acyl carnitine) and purine metabolism, (hypo)xanthine/inosine containing. Additionally, energy, nucleotide and amino acid pathways were downregulated in intermediate/high-risk PE patients. When we compared 28 intermediate-risk with 18 high-risk PE patients, 41 metabolites differed at a nominal P-value level. These metabolites were enriched in fatty acid metabolism (acyl cholines), and hemoglobin and porphyrin metabolism. Conclusion Our results suggest that high-throughput metabolomics can provide insight into the

  16. Acute bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to guaifenesin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cockerill, Patrick A; de Cógáin, Mitra R; Krambeck, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Several medications or their metabolites have been associated with urolithiasis, although overall they remain an infrequent cause of urolithiasis. Guaifenesin stones were originally reported as complexed with ephedrine, and subsequent reports have demonstrated pure guaifenesin stones, occurring after long term abuse. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who ingested a large, one time dose of guaifenesin, resulting in acute bilateral ureteral obstruction, which, to our knowledge, is the first such reported case in the literature.

  17. Reduced myo-inositol and total choline measured with cerebral MRS in acute thyrotoxic Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Elberling, T V; Danielsen, E R; Rasmussen, A K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Waldemar, G; Thomsen, C

    2003-01-14

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms in the acute thyrotoxic phase of Graves' disease suggest involvement of brain processes. Short-echo-time proton MRS was used to measure the cerebral metabolite profile in newly diagnosed and untreated Graves' disease. Sixteen patients with Graves' disease and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were studied. The patients had significantly reduced total choline and myo-inositol in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis compared with the healthy volunteers.

  18. LC-MS/MS-based approach for obtaining exposure estimates of metabolites in early clinical trials using radioactive metabolites as reference standards.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Donglu; Raghavan, Nirmala; Chando, Theodore; Gambardella, Janice; Fu, Yunlin; Zhang, Duxi; Unger, Steve E; Humphreys, W Griffith

    2007-12-01

    An LC-MS/MS-based approach that employs authentic radioactive metabolites as reference standards was developed to estimate metabolite exposures in early drug development studies. This method is useful to estimate metabolite levels in studies done with non-radiolabeled compounds where metabolite standards are not available to allow standard LC-MS/MS assay development. A metabolite mixture obtained from an in vivo source treated with a radiolabeled compound was partially purified, quantified, and spiked into human plasma to provide metabolite standard curves. Metabolites were analyzed by LC-MS/MS using the specific mass transitions and an internal standard. The metabolite concentrations determined by this approach were found to be comparable to those determined by valid LC-MS/MS assays. This approach does not requires synthesis of authentic metabolites or the knowledge of exact structures of metabolites, and therefore should provide a useful method to obtain early estimates of circulating metabolites in early clinical or toxicological studies.

  19. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic / Diarrheal Diseases – Acute and Chronic Diarrheal Diseases – Acute and Chronic Basics Resources Overview Acute diarrhea is ... bulky, greasy or very bad smelling stools. Causes – Acute Diarrhea Most cases of acute, watery diarrhea are ...

  20. Electron-impact vibrational relaxation in high-temperature nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jong-Hun

    1992-01-01

    Vibrational relaxation process of N2 molecules by electron-impact is examined for the future planetary entry environments. Multiple-quantum transitions from excited states to higher/lower states are considered for the electronic ground state of the nitrogen molecule N2 (X 1Sigma-g(+)). Vibrational excitation and deexcitation rate coefficients obtained by computational quantum chemistry are incorporated into the 'diffusion model' to evaluate the time variations of vibrational number densities of each energy state and total vibrational energy. Results show a non-Boltzmann distribution of number densities at the earlier stage of relaxation, which in turn suppresses the equilibrium process but affects little the time variation of total vibrational energy. An approximate rate equation and a corresponding relaxation time from the excited states, compatible with the system of flow conservation equations, are derived. The relaxation time from the excited states indicates the weak dependency of the initial vibrational temperature. The empirical curve-fit formula for the improved e-V relaxation time is obtained.

  1. Universal binding energy relation for cleaved and structurally relaxed surfaces.

    PubMed

    Srirangarajan, Aarti; Datta, Aditi; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, U V

    2014-02-05

    The universal binding energy relation (UBER), derived earlier to describe the cohesion between two rigid atomic planes, does not accurately capture the cohesive properties when the cleaved surfaces are allowed to relax. We suggest a modified functional form of UBER that is analytical and at the same time accurately models the properties of surfaces relaxed during cleavage. We demonstrate the generality as well as the validity of this modified UBER through first-principles density functional theory calculations of cleavage in a number of crystal systems. Our results show that the total energies of all the relaxed surfaces lie on a single (universal) energy surface, that is given by the proposed functional form which contains an additional length-scale associated with structural relaxation. This functional form could be used in modelling the cohesive zones in crack growth simulation studies. We find that the cohesive law (stress-displacement relation) differs significantly in the case where cracked surfaces are allowed to relax, with lower peak stresses occurring at higher displacements.

  2. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.; Östman, E.; Stein, A.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Kapaklis, V.

    2016-11-01

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice - we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.

  3. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M S; Pappas, S D; Stopfel, H; Östman, E; Stein, A; Nordblad, P; Mathieu, R; Hjörvarsson, B; Kapaklis, V

    2016-11-24

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice - we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.

  4. Wideband RELAX and wideband CLEAN for aeroacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanwei; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre; Sheplak, Mark; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2004-02-01

    Microphone arrays can be used for acoustic source localization and characterization in wind tunnel testing. In this paper, the wideband RELAX (WB-RELAX) and the wideband CLEAN (WB-CLEAN) algorithms are presented for aeroacoustic imaging using an acoustic array. WB-RELAX is a parametric approach that can be used efficiently for point source imaging without the sidelobe problems suffered by the delay-and-sum beamforming approaches. WB-CLEAN does not have sidelobe problems either, but it behaves more like a nonparametric approach and can be used for both point source and distributed source imaging. Moreover, neither of the algorithms suffers from the severe performance degradations encountered by the adaptive beamforming methods when the number of snapshots is small and/or the sources are highly correlated or coherent with each other. A two-step optimization procedure is used to implement the WB-RELAX and WB-CLEAN algorithms efficiently. The performance of WB-RELAX and WB-CLEAN is demonstrated by applying them to measured data obtained at the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility using a small aperture directional array (SADA). Somewhat surprisingly, using these approaches, not only were the parameters of the dominant source accurately determined, but a highly correlated multipath of the dominant source was also discovered.

  5. Vibrational Relaxation and Dynamical Transitions in Atactic Polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hanqing; Park, Yung; Painter, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Infrared bands and Raman lines recorded in the frequency domain have a counterpart in the time domain in the form of time-correlation functions, which are sensitive to molecular dynamics on the picosecond time scale. This is explored by calculating time correlation functions and their variation with temperature for the conformationally insensitive modes observed near 1601 cm-1 and 1583 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum of atactic polystyrene. The correlation functions were modeled by assuming that there is a fast relaxation process characterized by a single relaxation time that is inhomogeneously broadened by a slower process, also characterized by a single relaxation time. The fundamental mode, near 1583 cm-1, is inhomogeneously broadened, but the relaxation time calculated for this mode is sensitive to temperature as a result of anharmonic coupling to a combination mode. A change in the modulation of the 1583 cm-1 band becomes apparent about 10--20 degrees below the thermally measured Tg. Relaxation times at first increase then decrease and becomes negligible at temperatures near 180 degrees. These results are consistent with theories of the glass transition.

  6. The Robustness of Cluster Expansion: Assessing the Role of Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Andrew H.; Rosenbrock, Conrad W.; Hart, Gus L. W.

    Cluster expansion (CE) has been used widely in combination with first-principles calculations to predict stable structures of metal alloys. CE treats alloys as a purely configuration problem, i.e., a problem in the distribution of the alloying elements on a fixed lattice. CE models are usually built from data taken from ``relaxed'' first-principles calculations where the individual atoms assume positions that minimize the total energy. A perennial question in the cluster expansion community is how the accuracy of the CE is affected by relaxations--technically, the formalism of CE breaks down when the underlying lattice is not preserved--but practitioners often argue that there is a one-to-one correspondence between relaxed and unrelaxed structures so that the formalism holds. We quantify the effect of relaxation on the robustness of cluster expansions by comparing CE fits for relaxed and unrelaxed data sets. Our results give a heuristic for when CE models can be trusted. Onr (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  7. Aging of Johari-Goldstein Relaxation in Structural Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Leheny, Robert L.

    2006-03-01

    Using frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility measurements we characterize the aging in two supercooled liquids, sorbitol and xylitol, below their calorimetric glass transition temperatures, Tg. In addition to the alpha relaxation that tracks the structural dynamics, the susceptibilities of both liquids possess a secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation at higher frequencies. Following a quench below Tg, the susceptibility slowly approaches equilibrium behavior. For both liquids, features of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation display a dependence on the time since the quench, or aging time, that is very similar to the age dependence of the alpha peak. However, one can not assign a single fictive temperature to both the alpha and Johari-Goldstein relaxations. For example, the peak frequency of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation remains constant during aging for sorbitol while it increases with age for xylitol, inconsistent with a decreasing fictive temperature. This behavior contrasts with that of the high frequency tail of the alpha peak whose shape and position track the aging of the main part of the peak.

  8. Transformation fatigue and stress relaxation of shape memory alloy wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, P.; Bollas, D.; Parthenios, J.; Dracopoulos, V.; Galiotis, C.

    2007-12-01

    The present work deals with the stress generation capability of nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (SMAs) under constrained conditions for two well-defined loading modes: recurrent crystalline transformation (transformation fatigue) and a one-step continuous activation (generated stress relaxation). The data acquired will be very useful during the design process of an SMA Ni-Ti element as a functional part of an assembly. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed in order to investigate the transformation characteristics of the alloy before and after the tests. Transformation fatigue tests revealed that the parameter that affects more the rate of the functional degradation is the number of crystalline transitions the wire undergoes. Thus, the service life limit of this material as a stress generator can be reduced to a few thousand working cycles. For stress relaxation, the main factor that affects the ability for stress generation is the working temperature: the higher the temperature above the austenite finish (TAf) limit the higher the relaxation effect. Thermomechanical treatment of the alloy during the tests reveals the 'hidden' transformation from the cubic structure (B2) of austenite to the rhombohedral structure of the R-phase. It is believed that the gradual loss of the stress generation capability of the material under constrained conditions must be associated to a gradual slipping relaxation mechanism. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations on as-received, re-trained, fatigued and stress-relaxed specimens in the martensitic state provide further support for this hypothesis.

  9. Wideband RELAX and wideband CLEAN for aeroacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwei; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre; Sheplak, Mark; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2004-02-01

    Microphone arrays can be used for acoustic source localization and characterization in wind tunnel testing. In this paper, the wideband RELAX (WB-RELAX) and the wideband CLEAN (WB-CLEAN) algorithms are presented for aeroacoustic imaging using an acoustic array. WB-RELAX is a parametric approach that can be used efficiently for point source imaging without the sidelobe problems suffered by the delay-and-sum beamforming approaches. WB-CLEAN does not have sidelobe problems either, but it behaves more like a nonparametric approach and can be used for both point source and distributed source imaging. Moreover, neither of the algorithms suffers from the severe performance degradations encountered by the adaptive beamforming methods when the number of snapshots is small and/or the sources are highly correlated or coherent with each other. A two-step optimization procedure is used to implement the WB-RELAX and WB-CLEAN algorithms efficiently. The performance of WB-RELAX and WB-CLEAN is demonstrated by applying them to measured data obtained at the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility using a small aperture directional array (SADA). Somewhat surprisingly, using these approaches, not only were the parameters of the dominant source accurately determined, but a highly correlated multipath of the dominant source was also discovered.

  10. Holographic grating relaxation technique for soft matter science

    SciTech Connect

    Lesnichii, Vasilii, E-mail: vasilii.lesnichii@physchem.uni-freiburg.de; ITMO University, Kronverksky prospekt 49, Saint-Petersburg 197101; Kiessling, Andy

    2016-06-17

    The holographic grating relaxation technique also known as forced Rayleigh scattering consists basically in writing a holographic grating in the specimen of interest and monitoring its diffraction efficiency as a function of time, from which valuable information on mass or heat transfer and photoinduced transformations can be extracted. In a more detailed view, the shape of the relaxation curve and the relaxation rate as a function of the grating period were found to be affected by the architecture of diffusing species (molecular probes) that constitute the grating, as well as that of the environment they diffuse in, thus making itmore » possible to access and study spatial heterogeneity of materials and different modes of e.g., polymer motion. Minimum displacements and spatial domains approachable by the technique are in nanometer range, well below spatial periods of holographic gratings. In the present paper, several cases of holographic relaxation in heterogeneous media and complex motions are exemplified. Nano- to micro-structures or inhomogeneities comparable in spatial scale with holographic gratings manifest themselves in relaxation experiments via non-exponential decay (stepwise or stretched), spatial-period-dependent apparent diffusion coefficient, or unusual dependence of diffusion coefficient on molecular volume of diffusing probes.« less

  11. Bolt clampup relaxation in a graphite/epoxy laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A simple bolted joint was analyzed to calculate bolt clampup relaxation for a graphite/epoxy (T300/5208) laminate. A viscoelastic finite element analysis of a double-lap joint with a steel bolt was conducted. Clampup forces were calculated for various steady-state temperature-moisture conditions using a 20-year exposure duration. The finite element analysis predicted that clampup forces relax even for the room-temperature-dry condition. The relaxations were 8, 13, 20, and 30 percent for exposure durations of 1 day, 1 month, 1 year, and 20 years, respectively. As expected, higher temperatures and moisture levels each increased the relaxation rate. The combined viscoelastic effects of steady-state temperature and moisture appeared to be additive. From the finite-element analysis, a simple equation was developed for clampup force relaxation. This generalized equation was used to calculate clampup forces for the same temperature-moisture conditions as used in the finite-element analysis. The two sets of calculated results agreed well.

  12. Characterization of structural relaxation in inorganic glasses using length dilatometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Erick

    The processes that govern how a glass relaxes towards its thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium state are major factors in understanding glass behavior near the glass transition region, as characterized by the glass transition temperature (Tg). Intrinsic glass properties such as specific volume, enthalpy, entropy, density, etc. are used to map the behavior of the glass network below in and near the transition region. The question of whether a true thermodynamic second order phase transition takes place in the glass transition region is another pending question. Linking viscosity behavior to entropy, or viewing the glass configuration as an energy landscape are just a couple of the most prevalent methods used for attempting to understand the glass transition. The structural relaxation behavior of inorganic glasses is important for more than scientific reasons, many commercial glass processing operations including glass melting and certain forms of optical fabrication include significant time spent in the glass transition region. For this reason knowledge of structural relaxation processes can, at a minimum, provide information for annealing duration of melt-quenched glasses. The development of a predictive model for annealing time prescription has the potential to save glass manufacturers significant time and money as well as increasing volume throughput. In optical hot forming processes such as precision glass molding, molded optical components can significantly change in shape upon cooling through the glass transition. This change in shape is not scientifically predictable as of yet though manufacturers typically use empirical rules developed in house. The classification of glass behavior in the glass transition region would allow molds to be accurately designed and save money for the producers. The work discussed in this dissertation is comprised of the development of a dilatometric measurement and characterization method of structural relaxation. The measurement and

  13. Glass transition and relaxation processes of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Money, Benson K; Hariharan, K; Swenson, Jan

    2012-07-05

    This study focus on the effect of δ-Al(2)O(3) nanofillers on the dc-conductivity, glass transition, and dielectric relaxations in the polymer electrolyte (PEO)(4):LiClO(4). The results show that there are three dielectric relaxation processes, α, β, and γ, in the systems, although the structural α-relaxation is hidden in the strong conductivity contribution and could therefore not be directly observed. However, by comparing an enhanced dc-conductivity, by approximately 2 orders of magnitude with 4 wt % δ-Al(2)O(3) added, with a decrease in calorimetric glass transition temperature, we are able to conclude that the dc-conductivity is directly coupled to the hidden α-relaxation, even in the presence of nanofillers (at least in the case of δ-Al(2)O(3) nanofillers at concentrations up to 4 wt %). This filler induced speeding up of the segmental polymer dynamics, i.e., the α-relaxation, can be explained by the nonattractive nature of the polymer-filler interactions, which enhance the "free volume" and mobility of polymer segments in the vicinity of filler surfaces.

  14. Extended MHD modeling of tearing-driven magnetic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2017-05-01

    Discrete relaxation events in reversed-field pinch relevant configurations are investigated numerically with nonlinear extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling, including the Hall term in Ohm's law and first-order ion finite Larmor radius effects. Results show variability among relaxation events, where the Hall dynamo effect may help or impede the MHD dynamo effect in relaxing the parallel current density profile. The competitive behavior arises from multi-helicity conditions where the dominant magnetic fluctuation is relatively small. The resulting changes in parallel current density and parallel flow are aligned in the core, consistent with experimental observations. The analysis of simulation results also confirms that the force density from fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress arises subsequent to the drive from the fluctuation-induced Lorentz force density. Transport of the momentum density is found to be dominated by the fluctuation-induced Maxwell stress over most of the cross section with viscous and gyroviscous contributions being large in the edge region. The findings resolve a discrepancy with respect to the relative orientation of current density and flow relaxation, which had not been realized or investigated in King et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 055905 (2012)], where only the magnitude of flow relaxation is actually consistent with experimental results.

  15. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice

    DOE PAGES

    Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.; ...

    2016-11-24

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here in this paper, we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system $-$ square artificial spin ice $-$ we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Usingmore » time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.« less

  16. Slow relaxation of cascade-induced defects in Fe

    DOE PAGES

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; ...

    2015-02-17

    On-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations are performed to investigate slow relaxation of non-equilibrium systems. Point defects induced by 25 keV cascades in α -Fe are shown to lead to a characteristic time-evolution, described by the replenish and relax mechanism. Then, we produce an atomistically-based assessment of models proposed to explain the slow structural relaxation by focusing on the aggregation of 50 vacancies and 25 self-interstital atoms (SIA) in 10-lattice-parameter α-Fe boxes, two processes that are closely related to cascade annealing and exhibit similar time signature. Four atomistic effects explain the timescales involved in the evolution: defect concentration heterogeneities, concentration-enhancedmore » mobility, cluster-size dependent bond energies and defect-induced pressure. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the two main classes of models to explain slow structural relaxation, the Eyring model and the Gibbs model, both play a role to limit the rate of relaxation of these simple point-defect systems.« less

  17. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here in this paper, we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system $-$ square artificial spin ice $-$ we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Usingmore » time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.« less

  18. [Neurophysiologic and respiratory changes during the practice of relaxation technics].

    PubMed

    Gallois, P

    1984-01-01

    A polygraphic study, of 40 minutes duration, among 10 subjects who practiced autogenic training (TA) and 10 subjects who practiced transcendental meditation (MT), compared to 10 control subjects, gave the following results: rarity of the number of sleeping episodes during relaxation, cardiac rhythm, significantly decreased in the TM group, increased stability of the E.D.G. during and after relaxation, respiratory rate decreased to a value of 33% of the initial rate, respiratory suspensions were frequent in the TM group, reaching a maximal duration of 50 seconds. The absence of compensatory hypercapnia and hyperpnea is an argument in favor of their central origin, lastly, the simple reaction time after relaxation is slightly decreased, whereas it is increased in the controls, this aerobic hypometabolic state, the stability of the autonomic nervous system and the maintenance of the vigilance, induced by deep relaxation, seems to be the opposite of the state which is induced by stress; therefore deep relaxation may play a role in a psycho-somatic approach to treating a variety of disease states.

  19. Effect of Heat Stress on Concentrations of Faecal Cortisol Metabolites in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Rees, A; Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Heuwieser, W

    2016-06-01

    The negative impact of heat stress on health and productivity of dairy cows is well known. Heat stress can be quantified with the temperature-humidity index (THI) and is defined as a THI ≥ 72. Additionally, animal welfare is affected in cows living under heat stress conditions. Finding a way to quantify heat stress in dairy cows has been of increasing interest over the past decades. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites [i.e. 11,17-dioxoandrostanes (11,17-DOA)] as an indirect stress parameter in dairy cows without heat stress (DOA 0), with heat stress on a single day (acute heat stress, DOA 1) or with more than a single day of heat stress (chronic heat stress, DOA 2). Cows were housed in five farms under moderate European climates. Two statistical approaches (approach 1 and approach 2) were assessed. Using approach 1, concentrations of faecal 11,17-DOA were compared among DOA 0, DOA 1 and DOA 2 samples regardless of their origin (i.e. cow, unpaired comparison with a one-way anova). Using approach 2, a cow was considered as its own control; that is 11,17-DOA was treated as a cow-specific factor and only paired samples were included in the analysis for this approach (paired comparison with t-tests). In approach 1 (p = 0.006) and approach 2 (p = 0.038), 11,17-DOA values of cows under acute heat stress were higher compared to those of cows without heat stress. Our results also indicate that acute heat stress has to be considered as a confounder in studies measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in cows to evaluate other stressful situations. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. High-resolution diffusion and relaxation-edited magic angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy of intact liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Rooney, O M; Troke, J; Nicholson, J K; Griffin, J L

    2003-11-01

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) (1)H NMR spectroscopy is ideal for monitoring the metabolic environment within tissues, particularly when spectra are weighted by physical properties such as T(1) and T(2) relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). In this study, spectral-editing using T(1) and T(2) relaxation times and ADCs at variable diffusion times was used in conjunction with HRMAS (1)H NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 T in liver tissue. To enhance the sensitivity of ADC measurements to low molecular weight metabolites a T(2) spin echo was included in a standard stimulated gradient spin-echo sequence. Fatty liver induced in rats by chronic orotic acid feeding was investigated using this modified sequence. An increase in the combined ADC for the co-resonant peaks glucose, betaine, and TMAO during fatty liver disease was detected (ADCs = 0.60 +/- 0.11 and 0.35 +/- 0.1 * 10(-9) m(2)s(-1) (n = 3) for rats fed with and without orotic acid), indicative of a reduction in glucose and betaine and an increase in TMAO. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Identification of drug metabolites in human plasma or serum integrating metabolite prediction, LC-HRMS and untargeted data processing.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Peter L; Ridder, Lars; Ruijken, Marco; Rosing, Hilde; Jager, Nynke Gl; Beijnen, Jos H; Bas, Richard R; van Dongen, William D

    2013-09-01

    Comprehensive identification of human drug metabolites in first-in-man studies is crucial to avoid delays in later stages of drug development. We developed an efficient workflow for systematic identification of human metabolites in plasma or serum that combines metabolite prediction, high-resolution accurate mass LC-MS and MS vendor independent data processing. Retrospective evaluation of predictions for 14 (14)C-ADME studies published in the period 2007-January 2012 indicates that on average 90% of the major metabolites in human plasma can be identified by searching for accurate masses of predicted metabolites. Furthermore, the workflow can identify unexpected metabolites in the same processing run, by differential analysis of samples of drug-dosed subjects and (placebo-dosed, pre-dose or otherwise blank) control samples. To demonstrate the utility of the workflow we applied it to identify tamoxifen metabolites in serum of a breast cancer patient treated with tamoxifen. Previously published metabolites were confirmed in this study and additional metabolites were identified, two of which are discussed to illustrate the advantages of the workflow.

  2. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Simcox, Nancy J.; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L.; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and ‘green’ or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0–126), 2.69 (2.18–3.30), 6.93 (6.00–7.99), 8.79 (7.84–9.86) µg g−1, respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few

  3. Repeatability and reliability of muscle relaxation properties induced by motor cortical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Joery P; Voermans, Nicol C; de Jong, Lysanne A; Stegeman, Dick F; Doorduin, Jonne; van Engelen, Baziel G

    2018-03-15

    Impaired muscle relaxation is a feature of many neuromuscular disorders. However, there are few tests available to quantify muscle relaxation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex can induce muscle relaxation by abruptly inhibiting corticospinal drive. The aim of our study is to investigate if repeatability and reliability of TMS-induced relaxation is greater than voluntary relaxation. Furthermore, effects of sex, cooling and fatigue on muscle relaxation properties were studied. Muscle relaxation of deep finger flexors was assessed in twenty-five healthy subjects (14 M and 11 F, aged 39.1{plus minus}12.7 and 45.3{plus minus}8.7 years old, respectively) using handgrip dynamometry. All outcome measures showed greater repeatability and reliability in TMS-induced relaxation compared to voluntary relaxation. The within-subject coefficient of variability of normalized peak relaxation rate was lower in TMS-induced relaxation than in voluntary relaxation (3.0 vs 19.7% in men, and 6.1 vs 14.3% in women). The repeatability coefficient was lower (1.3 vs 6.1 s -1 in men and 2.3 vs 3.1 s -1 in women), and the intraclass correlation coefficient was higher (0.95 vs 0.53 in men and 0.78 vs 0.69 in women), for TMS-induced relaxation compared to voluntary relaxation. TMS enabled to demonstrate slowing effects of sex, muscle cooling, and muscle fatigue on relaxation properties that voluntary relaxation could not. In conclusion, repeatability and reliability of TMS-induced muscle relaxation was greater compared to voluntary muscle relaxation. TMS-induced muscle relaxation has the potential to be used in clinical practice for diagnostic purposes and therapy effect monitoring in patients with impaired muscle relaxation.

  4. Relaxation of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in macrophages: In vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Winfried; Takenaka, Shinji; Buske, Norbert; Felten, Kathrin; Heyder, Joachim

    2005-05-01

    The relaxation characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (CoFe 2O 4) were investigated in J774A.1 macrophages and after voluntary inhalation. In dry form 25% of the particles showed Néel relaxation. Relaxation in macrophages occurred within minutes and could be inhibited by fixation, showing Brownian relaxation and intracellular transport processes. Relaxation in the lung happened similarly, but was dependent on the time after deposition. The particles were cleared from the lung within 2 weeks.

  5. Thermodynamic scaling of α-relaxation time and viscosity stems from the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the coupling model.

    PubMed

    Ngai, K L; Habasaki, J; Prevosto, D; Capaccioli, S; Paluch, Marian

    2012-07-21

    By now it is well established that the structural α-relaxation time, τ(α), of non-associated small molecular and polymeric glass-formers obey thermodynamic scaling. In other words, τ(α) is a function Φ of the product variable, ρ(γ)/T, where ρ is the density and T the temperature. The constant γ as well as the function, τ(α) = Φ(ρ(γ)/T), is material dependent. Actually this dependence of τ(α) on ρ(γ)/T originates from the dependence on the same product variable of the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation time, τ(β), or the primitive relaxation time, τ(0), of the coupling model. To support this assertion, we give evidences from various sources itemized as follows. (1) The invariance of the relation between τ(α) and τ(β) or τ(0) to widely different combinations of pressure and temperature. (2) Experimental dielectric and viscosity data of glass-forming van der Waals liquids and polymer. (3) Molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) models, the Lewis-Wahnström model of ortho-terphenyl, 1,4 polybutadiene, a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, and a molten salt 2Ca(NO(3))(2)·3KNO(3) (CKN). (4) Both diffusivity and structural relaxation time, as well as the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in CKN obey thermodynamic scaling by ρ(γ)/T with the same γ. (5) In polymers, the chain normal mode relaxation time, τ(N), is another function of ρ(γ)/T with the same γ as segmental relaxation time τ(α). (6) While the data of τ(α) from simulations for the full LJ binary mixture obey very well the thermodynamic scaling, it is strongly violated when the LJ interaction potential is truncated beyond typical inter-particle distance, although in both cases the repulsive pair potentials coincide for some distances.

  6. Characterization of macromolecular baseline of human brain using metabolite cycled semi-LASER at 9.4T.

    PubMed

    Giapitzakis, Ioannis-Angelos; Avdievich, Nikolai; Henning, Anke

    2018-08-01

    Macromolecular resonances (MM) arise mainly from cytosolic proteins and overlap with metabolites, influencing metabolite quantification. Macromolecules can serve as valuable biomarkers for diseases and pathologies. The objectives of this study were to characterize MM at 9.4T in the human brain (occipital and left parietal lobe) and to describe the RF coil setup used for MM acquisition in the two regions. An adiabatic inversion pulse was optimised for metabolite nulling at 9.4T using double inversion recovery and was combined for the first time with metabolite cycled (MC) semi-LASER and appropriate coil configuration. MM spectra (seven volunteers) from two brain locations were averaged and smoothed creating MM templates, which were then parametrized using simulated Voigt-shaped lines within LCModel. Quantification was performed on individual data sets, including corrections for different tissue composition and the T 1 and T 2 relaxation of water. Our coil configuration method resulted in efficient B1+ (>30 T/√kW) for both brain regions. The 15 MM components were detected and quantified in MM baselines of the two brain areas. No significant differences in concentration levels of MM between different regions were found. Two new MM peaks were reported (M7 & M8). Double inversion, which was combined with MC semi-LASER, enabled the acquisition of high spectral resolution MM spectra for both brain regions at 9.4T. The 15 MM components were detected and quantified. Two new MM peaks were reported for the first time (M7 & M8) and preliminarily assigned to β-methylene protons of aspartyl-groups. Magn Reson Med 80:462-473, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Control relaxation via dephasing: A quantum-state-diffusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Lam, Chi-Hang; You, J. Q.; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical decoupling as a quantum control strategy aims at suppressing quantum decoherence adopting the popular philosophy that the disorder in the unitary evolution of the open quantum system caused by environmental noises should be neutralized by a sequence of ordered or well-designed external operations acting on the system. This work studies the solution of quantum-state-diffusion equations by mixing two channels of environmental noises, i.e., relaxation (dissipation) and dephasing. It is interesting to find in two-level and three-level atomic systems that a non-Markovian relaxation or dissipation process can be suppressed by a Markovian dephasing noise. The discovery results in an anomalous control strategy by coordinating relaxation and dephasing processes. Our approach opens an avenue of noise control strategy with no artificial manipulation over the open quantum systems.

  8. Viscous relaxation of the Moho under large lunar basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. David; Grimm, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Viscously relaxed topography on the Moon is evidence of a period in lunar history of higher internal temperatures and greater surface activity. Previous work has demonstrated the viscous relaxation of the Tranquilitatis basin surface. Profiles of the lunar Moho under nine basins were constructed from an inversion of lunar gravity data. These profiles show a pattern of increasingly subdued relief with age, for which two explanations have been proposed. First, ancient basins may have initially had extreme Moho relief like that of younger basins like Orientale, but, due to higher internal temperatures in early lunar history, this relief viscously relaxed to that observed today. Second, ductile flow in the crust immediately after basin formation resulted in an initially shallow basin and subdued mantle uplift. The intent is to test the first hypothesis.

  9. Wall relaxation and the driving forces for cell expansive growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    When water uptake by growing cells is prevented, the turgor pressure and the tensile stress in the cell wall are reduced by continued wall loosening. This process, termed in vivo stress relaxation, provides a new way to study the dynamics of wall loosening and to measure the wall yield threshold and the physiological wall extensibility. Stress relaxation experiments indicate that wall stress supplies the mechanical driving force for wall yielding. Cell expansion also requires water absorption. The driving force for water uptake during growth is created by wall relaxation, which lowers the water potential of the expanding cells. New techniques for measuring this driving force show that it is smaller than believed previously; in elongating stems it is only 0.3 to 0.5 bar. This means that the hydraulic resistance of the water transport pathway is small and that rate of cell expansion is controlled primarily by wall loosening and yielding.

  10. Unexpected power-law stress relaxation of entangled ring polymers

    PubMed Central

    KAPNISTOS, M.; LANG, M.; PYCKHOUT-HINTZEN, W.; RICHTER, D.; CHO, D.; CHANG, T.

    2016-01-01

    After many years of intense research, most aspects of the motion of entangled polymers have been understood. Long linear and branched polymers have a characteristic entanglement plateau and their stress relaxes by chain reptation or branch retraction, respectively. In both mechanisms, the presence of chain ends is essential. But how do entangled polymers without ends relax their stress? Using properly purified high-molar-mass ring polymers, we demonstrate that these materials exhibit self-similar dynamics, yielding a power-law stress relaxation. However, trace amounts of linear chains at a concentration almost two decades below their overlap cause an enhanced mechanical response. An entanglement plateau is recovered at higher concentrations of linear chains. These results constitute an important step towards solving an outstanding problem of polymer science and are useful for manipulating properties of materials ranging from DNA to polycarbonate. They also provide possible directions for tuning the rheology of entangled polymers. PMID:18953345

  11. Electron spin relaxation in carbon nanotubes: Dyakonov-Perel mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Yuriy; Zavada, John; Kim, Ki Wook

    2010-03-01

    The long standing problem of unaccountable short spin relaxation in carbon nanotubes (CNT) meets a disclosure in terms of curvature-mediated spin-orbital interaction that leads to spin fluctuating precession analogous to Dyakonov-Perel mechanism. Strong anisotropy imposed by arbitrary directed magnetic field has been taken into account in terms of extended Bloch equations. Especially, stationary spin current through CNT can be controlled by spin-flip processes with relaxation time as less as 150 ps, the rate of transversal polarization (i.e. decoherence) runs up to 1/(70 ps) at room temperature while spin interference of the electrons related to different valleys can be responsible for shorter spin dephasing. Dependencies of spin-relaxation parameters on magnetic field strength and orientation, CNT curvature and chirality have been analyzed.

  12. Phonon-mediated nuclear spin relaxation in H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Koichiro; Azami, Shinya; Arakawa, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    A theoretical model of the phonon-mediated nuclear spin relaxation in H2O trapped by cryomatrices has been established for the first time. In order to test the validity of this model, we measured infrared spectra of H2O trapped in solid Ar, which showed absorption peaks due to rovibrational transitions of ortho- and para-H2O in the spectral region of the bending vibration. We monitored the time evolution of the spectra and analyzed the rotational relaxation associated with the nuclear spin flip to obtain the relaxation rates of H2O at temperatures of 5-15 K. Temperature dependence of the rate is discussed in terms of the devised model.

  13. Efficient relaxed-Jacobi smoothers for multigrid on parallel computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiang; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-03-01

    In this Technical Note, we present a family of Jacobi-based multigrid smoothers suitable for the solution of discretized elliptic equations. These smoothers are based on the idea of scheduled-relaxation Jacobi proposed recently by Yang & Mittal (2014) [18] and employ two or three successive relaxed Jacobi iterations with relaxation factors derived so as to maximize the smoothing property of these iterations. The performance of these new smoothers measured in terms of convergence acceleration and computational workload, is assessed for multi-domain implementations typical of parallelized solvers, and compared to the lexicographic point Gauss-Seidel smoother. The tests include the geometric multigrid method on structured grids as well as the algebraic grid method on unstructured grids. The tests demonstrate that unlike Gauss-Seidel, the convergence of these Jacobi-based smoothers is unaffected by domain decomposition, and furthermore, they outperform the lexicographic Gauss-Seidel by factors that increase with domain partition count.

  14. Strong size-dependent stress relaxation in electrospun polymer nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingert, Matthew C.; Jiang, Zhang; Chen, Renkun; Cai, Shengqiang

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun polymer nanofibers have garnered significant interest due to their strong size-dependent material properties, such as tensile moduli, strength, toughness, and glass transition temperatures. These properties are closely correlated with polymer chain dynamics. In most applications, polymers usually exhibit viscoelastic behaviors such as stress relaxation and creep, which are also determined by the motion of polymer chains. However, the size-dependent viscoelasticity has not been studied previously in polymer nanofibers. Here, we report the first experimental evidence of significant size-dependent stress relaxation in electrospun Nylon-11 nanofibers as well as size-dependent viscosity of the confined amorphous regions. In conjunction with the dramatically increasing stiffness of nano-scaled fibers, this strong relaxation enables size-tunable properties which break the traditional damping-stiffness tradeoff, qualifying electrospun nanofibers as a promising set of size-tunable materials with an unusual and highly desirable combination of simultaneously high stiffness and large mechanical energy dissipation.

  15. Artificial local magnetic field inhomogeneity enhances T2 relaxivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zijian; Tian, Rui; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Yijing; Liu, Gang; Wang, Ruifang; Song, Jibin; Nie, Liming; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Clustering of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is perhaps the most effective, yet intriguing strategy to enhance T2 relaxivity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood and the attempts to generalize the classic outersphere theory from single particles to clusters have been found to be inadequate. Here we show that clustering of MNPs enhances local field inhomogeneity due to reduced field symmetry, which can be further elevated by artificially involving iron oxide NPs with heterogeneous geometries in terms of size and shape. The r2 values of iron oxide clusters and Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert simulations confirmed our hypothesis, indicating that solving magnetic field inhomogeneity may become a powerful way to build correlation between magnetization and T2 relaxivity of MNPs, especially magnetic clusters. This study provides a simple yet distinct mechanism to interpret T2 relaxivity of MNPs, which is crucial to the design of high-performance MRI contrast agents. PMID:28516947

  16. Mindfulness meditation and relaxation training increases time sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Droit-Volet, S; Fanget, M; Dambrun, M

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of mindfulness meditation and relaxation on time perception using a temporal bisection task. In Experiment 1, the participants performed a temporal task before and after exercises of mindfulness meditation or relaxation. In Experiment 2, the procedure was similar than that used in Experiment 1, except that the participants were trained to mediate or relax every day over a period of several weeks. The results showed that mindfulness meditation exercises increased sensitivity to time and lengthened perceived time. However, this temporal improvement with meditation exercises was primarily observed in the experienced meditators. Our results also showed the experienced meditators were less anxious than the novice participants, and that the sensitivity to time increased when the level of anxiety decreased. Our results were explained by the practice of mindfulness technique that had developed individuals' abilities in devoting more attention resources to temporal information processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiological Modalities for Relaxation Skill Transfer in Biofeedback Games.

    PubMed

    Parnandi, Avinash; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    We present an adaptive biofeedback game for teaching self-regulation of stress. Our approach consists of monitoring the user's physiology during gameplay and adapting the game using a positive feedback loop that rewards relaxing behaviors and penalizes states of high arousal. We evaluate the approach using a casual game under three biofeedback modalities: electrodermal activity, heart rate variability, and breathing rate. The three biosignals can be measured noninvasively with wearable sensors, and represent different degrees of voluntary control and selectivity toward arousal. We conducted an experiment trial with 25 participants to compare the three modalities against a standard treatment (deep breathing) and a control condition (the game without biofeedback). Our results indicate that breathing-based game biofeedback is more effective in inducing relaxation during treatment than the other four groups. Participants in this group also showed greater retention of the relaxation skills (without biofeedback) during a subsequent stressor.

  18. Vibrational relaxation of hot carriers in C60 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2017-04-01

    Electron-phonon coupling in molecular systems is at the heart of several important physical phenomena, including the mobility of carriers in organic electronic devices. Following the optical absorption, the vibrational relaxation of excited (hot) electrons and holes to the fullerene band-edges driven by electron-phonon coupling, known as the hot carrier thermalization process, is of particular fundamental interest. Using the non-adiabatic molecular dynamical methodology (PYXAID + Quantum Espresso) based on density functional approach, we have performed a simulation of vibrionic relaxations of hot carriers in C60. Time-dependent population decays and transfers in the femtosecond scale from various excited states to the states at the band-edge are calculated to study the details of this relaxation process. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  19. Relaxation mechanisms in glassy dynamics: the Arrhenius and fragile regimes.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, H George E; Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques

    2012-06-01

    Generic glass formers exhibit at least two characteristic changes in their relaxation behavior, first to an Arrhenius-type relaxation at some characteristic temperature and then at a lower characteristic temperature to a super-Arrhenius (fragile) behavior. We address these transitions by studying the statistics of free energy barriers for different systems at different temperatures and space dimensions. We present a clear evidence for changes in the dynamical behavior at the transition to Arrhenius and then to a super-Arrhenius behavior. A simple model is presented, based on the idea of competition between single-particle and cooperative dynamics. We argue that Arrhenius behavior can take place as long as there is enough free volume for the completion of a simple T1 relaxation process. Once free volume is absent one needs a cooperative mechanism to "collect" enough free volume. We show that this model captures all the qualitative behavior observed in simulations throughout the considered temperature range.

  20. Relaxation dynamics of dysprosium(III) single molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yun-Nan; Xu, Gong-Feng; Guo, Yang; Tang, Jinkui

    2011-10-21

    Over the past decade, lanthanide compounds have become of increasing interest in the field of Single Molecule Magnets (SMMs) due to the large inherent anisotropy of the metal ions. Heavy lanthanide metal systems, in particular those containing the dysprosium(III) ion, have been extensively employed to direct the formation of a series of SMMs. Although remarkable progress is being made regarding the synthesis and characterization of lanthanide-based SMMs, the understanding and control of the relaxation dynamics of strongly anisotropic systems represents a formidable challenge, since the dynamic behaviour of lanthanide-based SMMs is significantly more complex than that of transition metal systems. This perspective paper describes illustrative examples of pure dysprosium(III)-based SMMs, published during the past three years, showing new and fascinating phenomena in terms of magnetic relaxation, aiming at shedding light on the features relevant to modulating relaxation dynamics of polynuclear lanthanide SMMs. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  1. Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay

    2000-04-01

    Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.

  2. Stability investigations of relaxing molecular gas flows. Results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, Yurii N.; Ershov, Igor V.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents results of systematic investigations of a dissipative effect which manifests itself as the growth of hydrodynamic stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows. The effect can be a new way for control stability and laminar turbulent transition in aerodynamic flows. The consideration of suppression of inviscid acoustic waves in 2D shear flows is presented. Nonlinear evolution of large-scale vortices and Kelvin — Helmholtz waves in relaxing shear flows are studied. Critical Reynolds numbers in supersonic Couette flows are calculated analytically and numerically within the framework of both classical linear and nonlinear energy hydrodynamic stability theories. The calculations clearly show that the relaxation process can appreciably delay the laminar-turbulent transition. The aim of this article is to show the new dissipative effect, which can be used for flow control and laminarization.

  3. Relaxation of Actinide Surfaces: An All Electron Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta-Fynn, Raymond; Dholabhai, Pratik; Ray, Asok

    2006-10-01

    Fully relativistic full potential density functional calculations with a linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals basis (LAPW + lo) have been performed to investigate the relaxations of heavy actinide surfaces, namely the (111) surface of fcc δ-Pu and the (0001) surface of dhcp Am using WIEN2k. This code uses the LAPW + lo method with the unit cell divided into non-overlapping atom-centered spheres and an interstitial region. The APW+lo basis is used to describe all s, p, d, and f states and LAPW basis to describe all higher angular momentum states. Each surface was modeled by a three-layer periodic slab separated by 60 Bohr vacuum with four atoms per surface unit cell. In general, we have found a contraction of the interlayer separations for both Pu and Am. We will report, in detail, the electronic and geometric structures of the relaxed surfaces and comparisons with the respective non-relaxed surfaces.

  4. Correlated and uncorrelated heart rate fluctuations during relaxing visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papasimakis, N.; Pallikari, F.

    2010-05-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) of healthy subjects practicing relaxing visualization is studied by use of three multiscale analysis techniques: the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), the entropy in natural time (ENT) and the average wavelet (AWC) coefficient. The scaling exponent of normal interbeat interval increments exhibits characteristics of the presence of long-range correlations. During relaxing visualization the HRV dynamics change in the sense that two new features emerge independent of each other: a respiration-induced periodicity that often dominates the HRV at short scales (<40 interbeat intervals) and the decrease of the scaling exponent at longer scales (40-512 interbeat intervals). In certain cases, the scaling exponent during relaxing visualization indicates the breakdown of long-range correlations. These characteristics have been previously seen in the HRV dynamics during non-REM sleep.

  5. Relaxation times measurement in single and multiply excited xenon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdobintsev, P. Yu.; Melnikov, A. S.; Pastor, A. A.; Timofeev, N. A.; Khodorkovskiy, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Direct measurement of the rates of nonradiative relaxation processes in electronically excited xenon clusters was carried out. The clusters were created in a pulsed supersonic beam and two-photon excited by femtosecond laser pulses with a wavelength of 263 nm. The measurements were performed using the pump-probe method and electron spectroscopy. It is shown that relaxation of light clusters XeN (N < 15) predominantly occurs by desorption of excited xenon atoms with a characteristic time constant of 3 ps. Heavier electronically excited clusters (N > 10) vibrationally relax to the lowest electronically excited state at a rate of about 0.075 eV/ps. Multiply excited clusters are deactivated via energy exchange between excited centers with the ionization of one of them. The production of electrons in this process occurs with a delay of ˜4 ps from the pump pulse, and the process is completed in 10 ps.

  6. Secondary metabolites: applications on cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Sasso, S; Scrano, L; Bonomo, M G; Salzano, G; Bufo, S A

    2013-01-01

    Biological sciences and related bio-technology play a very important role in research projects concerning protection and preservation of cultural heritage for future generations. In this work secondary metabolites of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (Bga) ICMP 11096 strain and crude extract of glycoalkaloids from Solanaceae plants, were tested against a panel of microorganisms isolated from calcarenite stones of two historical bridges located in Potenza and in Campomaggiore (Southern Italy). The isolated bacteria belong to Bacillus cereus and Arthrobacter agilis species, while fungi belong to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Coprinellus, Fusarium, Rhizoctonio and Stemphylium genera. Bga broth (unfiltered) and glycoalkaloids extracts were able to inhibit the growth of all bacterial isolates. Bga culture was active against fungal colonies, while Solanaceae extract exerted bio-activity against Fusarium and Rhizoctonia genera.

  7. Unique metabolites protect earthworms against plant polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G

    2015-08-04

    All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active metabolites in their gut, which we term 'drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin concentrations in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide.

  8. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  9. Atranorin - An Interesting Lichen Secondary Metabolite.

    PubMed

    Studzinska-Sroka, Elzbieta; Galanty, Agnieszka; Bylka, Wieslawa

    2017-01-01

    Atranorin, a compound with the depside structure, is one of the most common lichen secondary metabolites, characteristic for numerous lichen families but rarely found in some mosses and higher plants. Over the years various biological properties of atranorin were examined. This review summarizes the studies on atranorin, focusing on a number of biological activities in different fields. The literature describes anti-inflammatory, analgesic, as well as wound healing, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities of the depside. Furthermore, lack of toxicity of atranorin was confirmed in the animals' in vivo assays. In conclusion, atranorin seems to be an interesting lichen substance, which needs to be investigated in more detail in order to allow further applications, e.g. in pharmacy, medicine or cosmetology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. [Experience with the Hind Foot Relaxation Boot].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, Hans; Borrmann, Michael; Walter, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to report our experience with hindfoot fractures using our specially developed boot, with a follow-up of 557 cases. This boot works like the well-known Allgöwer-Röck ortheses (ARO), but is a hybrid between a boot and an orthesis. It allows full weightbearing without using crutches and completely protects an acutely operated hind foot fracture, hind foot arthrodesis or a hind foot fracture which is suitable for conservative treatment. In its first generation, this boot was custom made and used in 408 cases, from March 1999 to February 2011. This study was performed exclusively at the Department of Traumatology and Reconstructive Surgery in the University Centre of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, since 2013 at the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital of the Technical University of Dresden (since 2013). The new improved second generation of this boot has been used in 149 patients between March 2011 and February 2016. This model is lighter and safer, due to an aluminium U-profile which is produced in one piece and interposed and fixed with 4 screws into the sole of the boot. The ground reaction forces are transported to the tibial head by this U-profile, to which the dorsal acryl shell for the calf of the Röck system is fixed with 2 screws on both sides, including the free ventral patellar shell. This is closed individually by two quick fastener buckles. This modular system of the second generation boot is now available for all patients in Dresden. These new boots have replaced the use of a wheel-chair for 3 months and are especially useful in bilateral calcaneus fractures - which occur in about 18% of all cases. In these new boots, the whole sole of the boot is in contact with the ground, rather than a surface of 9 × 3 cm as in the Allgöwer-Röck ortheses. As a result, these boots are considered to be superior to the ARO because standing and walking without crutches is much more easier - even for elderly patients. In contrast to

  11. Anomaly diffuse and dielectric relaxation in strontium doped lanthanum molybdate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiao; Fan, Huiqing, E-mail: hqfan3@163.com; Shi, Jing

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anomaly diffuse and dielectric relaxation behaviors are fitted by the Cole-Cole approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peak in the LSMO is corresponding to different oxygen ion diffusion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first give better explanation about the strange conductivity change caused by doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen ion diffusion is due to a combination of the dipolar relaxation and the motion of ions. -- Abstract: The dielectric properties of the La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9-{delta}} (x = 0-0.2) ceramics were investigated in the temperature range of 300-800 K. Dielectric measurement reveals that two dielectric anomalies, associated with the oxygen ion diffusion,more » exist in frequency spectrum with x = 0.5. The broad dielectric peaks in tan {delta}({omega}) can be well fitted by a modified Cole-Cole approach. When x = 0.1, only one dielectric relaxation peak is observed, corresponding to different oxygen ion diffusion processes, as distinct from the only relaxation peak in the pure La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}. The relaxation parameters {tau}{sub 0}, the dielectric relaxation strength {Delta}, and the activation energy E{sub a} were obtained. The result of this work shows that, the conductivity change caused by doping between the two phases is due to the combination of the dipolar effects and motion of ions.« less

  12. Urinary Metabolite Markers of Precocious Puberty*

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ying; Li, Pin; Zhang, Yongyu; Cui, Lulu; Guo, Zi; Xie, Guoxiang; Su, Mingming; Li, Xin; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Qiu, Yunping; Liu, Yumin; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Weiping; Jia, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of precocious puberty (PP, the appearance of signs of pubertal development at an abnormally early age), is rapidly rising, concurrent with changes of diet, lifestyles, and social environment. The current diagnostic methods are based on a hormone (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) stimulation test, which is costly, time-consuming, and uncomfortable for patients. The lack of molecular biomarkers to support simple laboratory tests, such as a blood or urine test, has been a long standing bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis and evaluation of PP. Here we report a metabolomic study using an ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. Urine metabolites from 163 individuals were profiled, and the metabolic alterations were analyzed after treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) with triptorelin depot. A panel of biomarkers selected from >70 differentially expressed urinary metabolites by receiver operating characteristic and logistic regression analysis provided excellent predictive power with high sensitivity and specificity for PP. The altered metabolic profile of the PP patients was characterized by three major perturbed metabolic pathways: catecholamine, serotonin metabolism, and tricarboxylic acid cycle, presumably resulting from activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Treatment with triptorelin depot was able to normalize these three altered pathways. Additionally, significant changes in the urine levels of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, indoleacetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophan, and 5-hydroxykynurenamine in the CPP group suggest that the development of CPP condition may involve an alteration in symbiotic gut microbial composition. PMID:22027199

  13. Mutagenicity of 1-nitropyrene metabolites from lung S9.

    PubMed

    King, L C; Kohan, M J; Ball, L M; Lewtas, J

    1984-04-01

    The mutagenicity of 1-nitropyrene metabolites from rabbit lung S9 incubates was evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium plate incorporation assay with strain TA98, with and without Aroclor-induced rat liver S9. The following metabolites were isolated, identified and quantitated by HPLC: 1-nitropyrene -4,5- or -9,10-dihydrodiol (K-DHD), N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene ( NAAP ), 1-aminopyrene (1-AMP), 10-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene, 4-, 5-, 6-, 8- or 9-monohydroxy-1-nitropyrene (phenols) and 3-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene. The predominant metabolites formed by lung S9 incubates were K-DHD, 3-OH-1-nitropyrene and phenols. All of the metabolites were mutagenic in the absence of the exogenous rat liver S9 metabolic activation system, and several, including two unidentified metabolites were more potent than the parent 1-nitropyrene. The mutagenicity of 3 of the metabolites ( NAAP , 10-OH-1-nitropyrene and phenols) were enhanced by S9 while most of the other metabolites were less mutagenic in the presence of S9. These results indicate that lung tissue is capable of both oxidative and reductive metabolism which produced mutagenic metabolites, several of which were more potent than the parent compound, 1-NP.

  14. Metabolite Depletion Affects Flux Profiling of Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, A; Haanstra, J R; Teusink, B; Nielsen, J

    2018-06-01

    Quantifying the rate of consumption and release of metabolites (i.e., flux profiling) has become integral to the study of cancer. The fluxes as well as the growth of the cells may be affected by metabolite depletion during cultivation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Akula; Ravishankar, Gokare Aswathanarayana

    2011-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are unique sources for pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavors, and industrially important biochemicals. Accumulation of such metabolites often occurs in plants subjected to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. Secondary metabolites play a major role in the adaptation of plants to the environment and in overcoming stress conditions. Environmental factors viz. temperature, humidity, light intensity, the supply of water, minerals, and CO2 influence the growth of a plant and secondary metabolite production. Drought, high salinity, and freezing temperatures are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth of plants and the productivity of crops. Plant cell culture technologies have been effective tools for both studying and producing plant secondary metabolites under in vitro conditions and for plant improvement. This brief review summarizes the influence of different abiotic factors include salt, drought, light, heavy metals, frost etc. on secondary metabolites in plants. The focus of the present review is the influence of abiotic factors on secondary metabolite production and some of important plant pharmaceuticals. Also, we describe the results of in vitro cultures and production of some important secondary metabolites obtained in our laboratory. PMID:22041989

  16. Determination of Tamoxifen and its Major Metabolites in Exposed Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tamoxifen (TAM), (Z)-1-(p-dimethylaminoethoxyphenyl)-1, 2-diphenyl-1-butene, is a nonsteroidal agent that has been used in breast cancer treatment for decades. Its major metabolites are 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), N-desmethyltamoxifen (DMT), and endoxifen. While TAM and metabolit...

  17. Leach and mold resistance of essential oil metabolites

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Purified primary metabolites from essential oils were previously shown to be bioactive inhibitors of mold fungi on unleached Southern pine sapwood, either alone or in synergy with a second metabolite. This study evaluated the leachability of these compounds in Southern pine that was either dip- or vacuum-treated. Following laboratory leach tests, specimens were...

  18. Clock Regulation of Metabolites Reveals Coupling between Transcription and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Saikumari Y; Wu, Gang; Altman, Brian J; Growe, Jacqueline; Rhoades, Seth D; Coldren, Faith; Venkataraman, Anand; Olarerin-George, Anthony O; Francey, Lauren J; Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Girish, Saiveda; Selby, Christopher P; Cal, Sibel; Er, Ubeydullah; Sianati, Bahareh; Sengupta, Arjun; Anafi, Ron C; Kavakli, I Halil; Sancar, Aziz; Baur, Joseph A; Dang, Chi V; Hogenesch, John B; Weljie, Aalim M

    2017-04-04

    The intricate connection between the circadian clock and metabolism remains poorly understood. We used high temporal resolution metabolite profiling to explore clock regulation of mouse liver and cell-autonomous metabolism. In liver, ∼50% of metabolites were circadian, with enrichment of nucleotide, amino acid, and methylation pathways. In U2 OS cells, 28% were circadian, including amino acids and NAD biosynthesis metabolites. Eighteen metabolites oscillated in both systems and a subset of these in primary hepatocytes. These 18 metabolites were enriched in methylation and amino acid pathways. To assess clock dependence of these rhythms, we used genetic perturbation. BMAL1 knockdown diminished metabolite rhythms, while CRY1 or CRY2 perturbation generally shortened or lengthened rhythms, respectively. Surprisingly, CRY1 knockdown induced 8 hr rhythms in amino acid, methylation, and vitamin metabolites, decoupling metabolite from transcriptional rhythms, with potential impact on nutrient sensing in vivo. These results provide the first comprehensive views of circadian liver and cell-autonomous metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis of an Albendazole Metabolite: Characterization and HPLC Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Graciela; Davyt, Danilo; Gordon, Sandra; Incerti, Marcelo; Nunez, Ivana; Pezaroglo, Horacio; Scarone, Laura; Serra, Gloria; Silvera, Mauricio; Manta, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to the synthesis of an albendazole metabolite obtained by a sulfide oxidation reaction. Albendazole as well as its metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, are used as anthelmintic drugs. The oxidation reagent is H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] in acetic acid. The reaction is environmental friendly,…

  20. Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolites: more than just aflatoxins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is best known for producing the family of potent carcinogenic secondary metabolites known as aflatoxins. However, this opportunistic plant and animal pathogen also produces numerous other secondary metabolites, many of which have also been shown to be toxic. While about forty of t...