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Sample records for metabolizable energy values

  1. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  2. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay.

    PubMed

    Özelçam, H; Kırkpınar, F; Tan, K

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in crude protein content value between fresh caramba (12.83%) and silage (8.91%) and hay (6.35%). According to results of experiment, the crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin contents of the three forms of caramba varied between 30.22% to 35.06%, 57.41% to 63.70%, 35.32% to 43.29%, and 5.55% to 8.86% respectively. There were no significant differences between the three forms of caramba in digestibility of nutrients and in vivo metabolizable energy (ME) values (p>0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  3. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    PubMed Central

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; Tan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in crude protein content value between fresh caramba (12.83%) and silage (8.91%) and hay (6.35%). According to results of experiment, the crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin contents of the three forms of caramba varied between 30.22% to 35.06%, 57.41% to 63.70%, 35.32% to 43.29%, and 5.55% to 8.86% respectively. There were no significant differences between the three forms of caramba in digestibility of nutrients and in vivo metabolizable energy (ME) values (p>0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  4. Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...

  5. Proper expression of metabolizable energy in avian energetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    We review metabolizable energy (ME) concepts and present evidence suggesting that the form of ME used for analyses of avian energetics can affect interpretation of results. Apparent ME (AME) is the most widely used measure of food energy available to birds. True ME(TME) differs from AME in recognizing fecal and urinary energy of nonfood origin as metabolized energy. Only AME values obtained from test birds fed at maintenance levels should be used for energy analyses. A practical assay for TME has shown that TME estimates are less sensitive than AME to variation in food intake. The TME assay may be particularly useful in studies of natural foods that are difficult to obtain in quantities large enough to supply test birds with maintenance requirements. Energy budgets calculated from existence metabolism should be expressed as kJ of AME and converted to food requirements with estimates of metabolizability given in kJ AME/g.

  6. Proper expression of metabolizable energy in avian energetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    We review metabolizable energy (ME) concepts and present evidence suggesting that the form of ME used for analyses of avian energetics can affect interpretation of results. Apparent ME (AME) is the most widely used measure of food energy available to birds. True ME (TME) differs from AME in recognizing fecal and urinary energy of nonfood origin as metabolized energy. Only AME values obtained from test birds fed at maintenance levels should be used for energy analyses. A practical assay for TME has shown that TME estimates are less sensitive than AME to variation in food intake. The TME assay may be particularly useful in studies of natural foods that are difficult to obtain in quantities large enough to supply test birds with maintenance requirements. Energy budgets calculated from existence metabolism should be expressed as kJ of AME and converted to food requirements with estimates of metabolizability given in kJ AME/g. Energy budgets calculated from multiples of basal metabolic rate (a component of maintenance energy), however, should be expressed as kJ of either TME or net energy depending on ambient temperature. Energy units should be stated explicitly to improve comparability and in some cases accuracy of energy analyses.

  7. True metabolizable energy of moist-soil seeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Checkett, J.M.; Drobney, R.D.; Petrie, M.J.; Graber, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl are often established by converting population energy demands into an equivalent measure of foraging habitat. In some areas, seeds produced from moist-soil plants provide a significant proportion of the energy available to waterfowl. To accurately establish habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl, managers must estimate seed production from moist-soil plants and have information on metabolizable energy (ME) of moist-soil seeds. Although methods for estimating seed production have been developed, ME has been determined for few natural seeds. We determined true metabolizable energy (TME) of 10 moist-soil seeds commonly consumed by wintering and migrating ducks. TME estimates were similar (P>0.05) for hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis; 3.09 kcal/g), little hairy crabgrass (D. ischaemum; 3.10 kcal/g), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.; 2.97 kcal/g), yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens; 2.88 kcal/g), fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum; 2.75 kcal/g), curly dock (Rumex crispus; 2.68 kcal/g), and wild millet (Echinochloa crusgalli; 2.61 kcal/g), but less (P<0.05) for beakrush (Rynchospora corniculata; 1.86 kcal/g), paspalum (Paspalum laeve; 1.57 kcal/g), and nodding or curltop ladysthumb smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium; 1.52 kcal/g). TME values determined for moist-soil seeds in this study will allow managers to accurately estimate carrying capacity of waterfowl habitats.

  8. Evaluation of the metabolizable energy value for growing lambs of the Mucuna pruriens seed and the whole pod.

    PubMed

    García-Galván, Adan; Belmar-Casso, Roberto; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Whole pod and seeds of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were included in diets for growing sheep used to validate previously estimated ME values of 9.7 MJ and 12.6 MJ for whole pod and seed respectively. Twenty-four lambs, 15 females and nine males of 18.7 ± 2.4 kg average weight, were allocated in three treatments using a completely randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Each group was given a diet with a ratio of 60% of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 40% of a supplement with the addition of 0%, 50% whole pod or 66% of M. pruriens seeds, for TI, TII and TIII respectively. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for 100-g daily live weight gain (LWG). The total dry matter intake (836 g a(-1) d(-1), forage + supplement), LWG (90 g a(-1) d(-1)) and feed conversion (9.66 kg DM/kg LWG) of lambs from TIII were lower (P < 0.05) compared to 941 g, 121 g, and 7.78 kg DM/kg LWG from TII and 976 g, 132 g and 7.50 kg DM/kg LWG from TI respectively. No difference was found (P > 0.05) between TI and TII in the three evaluated variables. The ME values of whole pod and seeds of M. pruriens used in this work were validated. It was concluded that M. pruriens can be included as a component in diets for growing sheep, as a partial replacement of conventional feedstuffs. PMID:21909932

  9. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measured metabolizable energy (ME) of whole almonds has been shown to be less than predicted by Atwater factors. However, data are lacking on the effects of processing (roasting, chopping or grinding) on the ME of almonds. A 5-period randomized, crossover study in healthy individuals (n=18) was ...

  10. Digestibility of energy and detergent fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2015-02-01

    There are limited data on the DE and ME values and the digestibility of fiber in canola meal, rapeseed meal, and rapeseed expellers fed to pigs. This experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, ADF, and NDF and to calculate DE and ME values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 27.7 ± 2.92 kg) were allotted to an 8 × 23 Youden square design with 8 periods and 23 animals. Twenty-three diets were prepared: a corn basal diet and 22 diets based on corn and 1 of 22 test ingredients. The test ingredients were 6 canola meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in North America, eleven 00-rapeseed meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in Europe, and five 00-rapeseed expellers from mechanical-press crushing plants in Europe. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages that allowed for the total, but separate, collection of feces and urine. The DE and ME values were calculated for each source of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers using the difference procedure. The ATTD of GE and the DE and ME values in canola meal were not different from the values in 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater ( < 0.01) ATTD of GE and DE and ME values than 00-rapeseed meal. Average DE and ME values were 3,378 and 3,127 kcal/kg DM in canola meal, 3,461 and 3,168 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed, and 4,005 and 3,691 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed expellers. The ATTD of ADF was 12.3% greater ( < 0.01) in 00-rapeseed meal than in canola meal, but no differences were observed in ATTD of NDF between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal. No differences were observed in ATTD of ADF and NDF between 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers. The models for predicting the DE and ME values of canola and rapeseed products were DE = -1,583 + 6.64 × ash + 7.01 × ADF - 33.17 × NDF + 98.66 × ADL + 1.07 × GE ( = 0.94) and ME = -630.8 + 14.13 × ash + 5

  11. Digestibility of energy and detergent fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2015-02-01

    There are limited data on the DE and ME values and the digestibility of fiber in canola meal, rapeseed meal, and rapeseed expellers fed to pigs. This experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, ADF, and NDF and to calculate DE and ME values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 27.7 ± 2.92 kg) were allotted to an 8 × 23 Youden square design with 8 periods and 23 animals. Twenty-three diets were prepared: a corn basal diet and 22 diets based on corn and 1 of 22 test ingredients. The test ingredients were 6 canola meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in North America, eleven 00-rapeseed meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in Europe, and five 00-rapeseed expellers from mechanical-press crushing plants in Europe. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages that allowed for the total, but separate, collection of feces and urine. The DE and ME values were calculated for each source of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers using the difference procedure. The ATTD of GE and the DE and ME values in canola meal were not different from the values in 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater ( < 0.01) ATTD of GE and DE and ME values than 00-rapeseed meal. Average DE and ME values were 3,378 and 3,127 kcal/kg DM in canola meal, 3,461 and 3,168 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed, and 4,005 and 3,691 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed expellers. The ATTD of ADF was 12.3% greater ( < 0.01) in 00-rapeseed meal than in canola meal, but no differences were observed in ATTD of NDF between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal. No differences were observed in ATTD of ADF and NDF between 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers. The models for predicting the DE and ME values of canola and rapeseed products were DE = -1,583 + 6.64 × ash + 7.01 × ADF - 33.17 × NDF + 98.66 × ADL + 1.07 × GE ( = 0.94) and ME = -630.8 + 14.13 × ash + 5

  12. The metabolizable energy of dietary resistant maltodextrin is variable and alters fecal microbiota composition in adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistant maltodextrin (RM) is a novel soluble, nonviscous dietary fiber. Its metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy (NE) values derived from nutrient balance studies are unknown, as is the effect of RM on fecal microbiota. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study was conduct...

  13. Regression and direct methods do not give different estimates of digestible and metabolizable energy values of barley, sorghum, and wheat for pigs.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, O A; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    Direct or indirect methods can be used to determine the DE and ME of feed ingredients for pigs. In situations when only the indirect approach is suitable, the regression method presents a robust indirect approach. Three experiments were conducted to compare the direct and regression methods for determining the DE and ME values of barley, sorghum, and wheat for pigs. In each experiment, 24 barrows with an average initial BW of 31, 32, and 33 kg were assigned to 4 diets in a randomized complete block design. The 4 diets consisted of 969 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg plus minerals and vitamins for the direct method; a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD); the RD + 300 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg; and the RD + 600 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg. The 3 corn-soybean meal diets were used for the regression method. Each diet was fed to 6 barrows in individual metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation followed by a 5-d period of total but separate collection of feces and urine in each experiment. Graded substitution of barley or wheat, but not sorghum, into the RD linearly reduced ( < 0.05) dietary DE and ME. The direct method-derived DE and ME for barley were 3,669 and 3,593 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The regressions of barley contribution to DE and ME in kilocalories against the quantity of barley DMI in kilograms generated 3,746 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,647 kcal ME/kg DM. The DE and ME for sorghum by the direct method were 4,097 and 4,042 kcal/kg DM, respectively; the corresponding regression-derived estimates were 4,145 and 4,066 kcal/kg DM. Using the direct method, energy values for wheat were 3,953 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,889 kcal ME/kg DM. The regressions of wheat contribution to DE and ME in kilocalories against the quantity of wheat DMI in kilograms generated 3,960 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,874 kcal ME/kg DM. The DE and ME of barley using the direct method were not different (0.3 < < 0.4) from those obtained using the regression method (3,669 vs. 3,746 and 3,593 vs. 3,647 kcal

  14. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P < 0.05) than in the pigs fed white or yellow maize. Energy digestibility (P < 0.001) and metabolizability (P < 0.01) were higher in the pigs fed the white and yellow maize diets than in those fed the QPM diets. The AID of lysine was higher (P < 0.01) in the QPM diets than in the white and yellow maize. The AIDs of leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, and methionine were lower in the QPM diets than those of maize (white and yellow) (all P < 0.05). Maize (white and yellow) had greater SIDs of leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, tyrosine, and proline (P < 0.05). Conclusions Based on these results, it was concluded that QPM had a lower metabolizable energy content and a higher amount of digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520

  15. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p<0.002) effect was observed for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (aNDF), nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) intakes with higher intakes in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p<0.05). A linear reduction in N digestibility and N retention was observed with increasing mucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on fecal-N and N-balance which were higher in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants. PMID:25049876

  16. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs.

    PubMed

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-07-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p<0.002) effect was observed for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (aNDF), nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) intakes with higher intakes in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p<0.05). A linear reduction in N digestibility and N retention was observed with increasing mucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on fecal-N and N-balance which were higher in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants. PMID:25049876

  17. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats.

  18. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    . The DE, ME, and NE of wheat bran determined using the difference procedure were 2,168, 2,117, and 896 kcal/kg, respectively, and these values were within the 95% confidence interval of the DE (2,285 kcal/kg), ME (2,217 kcal/kg), and NE (961 kcal/kg) estimated by linear regression. In conclusion, increasing the inclusion of wheat bran in a corn-soybean meal based diet reduced energy and nutrient digestibility and heat production as well as DE, ME, and NE of diets, but values for DE, ME, and NE for wheat bran determined using the difference procedure were not different from values determined using linear regression. PMID:27482688

  19. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, < 0.001 for intercept, slope ≠ 0). Analysis of residuals from this simple linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME

  20. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, < 0.001 for intercept, slope ≠ 0). Analysis of residuals from this simple linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME

  1. Metabolizable energy intake effects on carcass quality of steers finished in southern Chile during summer time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan, USA) to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on beef carcass quality during the summer ti...

  2. Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds I. Determination of digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

    PubMed

    Hullar, I; Meleg, I; Fekete, S; Romvari, R

    1999-12-01

    The digestibility coefficient and metabolizable energy (ME) content of the most important pigeon feeds (corn, wheat, barley, red and white millet, sorghum, canary seed, peas, lentils, sunflower, and hemp) were determined. The experiment was carried out using 10 adult male homing pigeons. All feeds were fed alone, in a whole-grain form, ad libitum. Drinking water and grit were offered to the birds on a continuous basis. Each feedstuff was fed to five pigeons in 1-wk cycles. There was no significant difference between the values determined in pigeons and those reported in the literature for chickens among the digestibilities of the CP of the various feeds. For pigeons, the digestibility of carbohydrates (N-free extracts, NFE) was lower (e.g., 62.37 vs 83.00% for barley and 63.45 vs 77.00% for peas), whereas the ether extract (EE) was higher (e.g., 75.58 vs 61.00% for barley and 82.59 vs 80.00% for peas) in pigeons compared with chickens. As a result, the AMEn values determined in pigeons did not differ significantly from those reported for chickens but tended to be slightly higher. For feeds of high-oil content, that difference may be somewhat larger. The correlation between the CP, EE, crude fiber (CF), and NFE contents of the feeds and the ME values determined in this experiment were calculated by multivariate linear regression. It was concluded that it was more accurate to determine and tabulate the ME contents of other potential pigeon feeds directly by experimental methods rather than using an equation. PMID:10626652

  3. Digestible and metabolizable energy in corn grains from different origins for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan S; Son, Ah R; Kil, Dong Y; Kim, Beob G

    2015-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) concentrations in nine sources of corn grains fed to growing pigs and to compare the energy values among their countries of origin. A total of nine sources of corn grains including five sources of yellow corn from the United States (USY), two sources of yellow corn from South Africa (SAY), and two sources of white corn from South Africa (SAW) were used. Nine barrows with an initial body weight of 37.1 ± 8.6 kg were allotted to a 9 × 9 Latin square design with nine diets and nine periods. The DE concentration in SAY (3347 kcal/kg) was greater (P < 0.001) than in USY (3269 kcal/kg), but was less (P < 0.001) than in SAW (3436 kcal/kg) on an as-fed basis. Similarly, the ME concentration in SAY (3291 kcal/kg) was greater (P < 0.001) than in USY (3209 kcal/kg), but was less (P < 0.001) than in SAW (3386 kcal/kg). In conclusion, the DE and ME concentrations in nine sources of corn grains are different among their countries of origin.

  4. Does choice of estimators influence conclusions from true metabolizable energy feeding trials?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Kirkpatrick, R.L.; Webb, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    True metabolizable energy (TME) is a measure of avian dietary quality that accounts for metabolic fecal and endogenous urinary energy losses (EL) of non-dietary origin. The TME is calculated using a bird fed the test diet and an estimate of EL derived from another bird (Paired Bird Correction), the same bird (Self Correction), or several other birds (Group Mean Correction). We evaluated precision of these estimators by using each to calculate TME of three seed diets in blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The TME varied by <2% among estimators for all three diets, and Self Correction produced the least variable TMEs for each. The TME did not differ between estimators in nine paired comparisons within diets, but variation between estimators within individual birds was sufficient to be of practical consequence. Although differences in precision among methods were slight, Self Correction required the lowest sample size to achieve a given precision. Feeding trial methods that minimize variation among individuals have several desirable properties, including higher precision of TME estimates and more rigorous experimental control. Consequently, we believe that Self Correction is most likely to accurately represent nutritional value of food items and should be considered the standard method for TME feeding trials. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005.

  5. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical composition and color score. Methods Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P < 0.01) and between ME and yellowness score (0.39, P < 0.05) of the DDGS samples. Furthermore, the best-fit regression equation for AME content of DDGS based on chemical composition and color score was AME = 6.57111 + 0.51475 GE - 0.10003 NDF + 0.13380 ADF + 0.07057 fat - 0.57029 ash - 0.02437 L (R2 = 0.70). The best-fit regression equation for TME content of DDGS was TME = 7.92283 + 0.51475 GE - 0.10003 NDF + 0.13380 ADF + 0.07057 fat - 0.57029 ash - 0.02437 L (R2 = 0.70). Conclusions This experiment suggested that measuring the chemical composition and color score of a corn DDGS sample may provide a quality parameter for identifying corn DDGS sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content. PMID

  6. Improved prediction of meat and bone meal metabolizable energy content for ducks through in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Garcia, R A; Phillips, J G; Adeola, O

    2012-08-01

    Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of meat and bone meal (MBM) for poultry is highly variable, but impractical to measure routinely. Previous efforts at developing an in vitro method for predicting AME have had limited success. The present study uses data from a previous publication on the AME of 12 MBM samples, determined using 288 White Pekin ducks, as well as composition data on these samples. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that 2 noncompositional attributes of MBM, particle size and protease resistance, will have utility in improving predictions of AME based on in vitro measurements. Using the same MBM samples as the previous study, 2 measurements of particle size were recorded and protease resistance was determined using a modified pepsin digestibility assay. Analysis of the results using a stepwise construction of multiple linear regression models revealed that the measurements of particle size were useful in building models for AME, but the measure of protease resistance was not. Relatively simple (4-term) and complex (7-term) models for both AME and nitrogen-corrected AME were constructed, with R-squared values ranging from 0.959 to 0.996. The rather minor analytical effort required to conduct the measurements involved is discussed. Although the generality of the results are limited by the number of samples involved and the species used, they suggest that AME for poultry can be accurately predicted through simple and inexpensive in vitro methods.

  7. Metabolizable energy in Chinese tallow fruit for Yellow-rumped Warblers, Northern Cardinals, and American Robins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, M.J.; Barrow, W.C.; Jeske, C.; Rohwer, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    The invasive exotic Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) produces an abundant fruit crop, which is primarily bird-dispersed. The fruit pulp of tallow is lipid-rich, high in saturated fatty acids, and consumed by many bird species. Long-chained fatty acids can be difficult for many birds to digest and we investigated the ability of tallow consumers to assimilate energy in the pulp. We used the total collection method and compared apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of tallow fruit for three species of birds with differing fruit composition in their natural diets. All birds exhibited nitrogen deficits and lost body mass during the trials. Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) lost more mass (8.73%/day) than Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) (5.29%/day) and American Robins (Turdus migratorius) (5.48%/day), and had larger nitrogen deficits (-120.1 mg N/g diet) than both species as well (-36.4 mg N/g diet and -68.9 mg N/g diet, respectively). Food intake relative to metabolic body mass was highest in Yellow-rumped Warblers (0.70 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Northern Cardinal and American Robin food intake was lower and did not differ from each other (both species: 0.13 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Nitrogen corrected values of AME were used to make species comparisons. Yellow-rumped-Warblers exhibited the highest values of AME (30.00 kJ/g), followed by American Robins (23.90 kJ/g), and Northern Cardinals (14.34 kJ/g). We suggest tallow may be an important winter food source for Yellow-rumped Warblers where their ranges overlap.

  8. Digestable and Metabolizable Energy of Crude Glycerol in Growing Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent DE and ME value of crude glycerol for growing pigs was determined in a series of 5 experiments using crude glycerol (86.95% glycerol) from a biodiesel production facility with soybean oil used as the initial feedstock (AG Processing Inc., Sergeant Bluff, IA). Dietary treatments were 0, ...

  9. Apparent Metabolizable Energy of Glycerin for Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three energy balance experiments were conducted to determine AMEn of glycerin using broiler chickens (1,104 total birds) of diverse ages. In experiment (Exp.) 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 11 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added glycerin) and a diet con...

  10. Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment consisting of 3 nearly identical trials was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to validate 4 previously published prediction equations for AMEn of corn DDGS in broilers. In addition, prior res...

  11. Metabolizable energy intake effects on tympanic temperature and ADG of steers finished in southern Chile during summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were used to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on ADG and tympanic temperature (TT) during the summer time in southern Chile. Steers were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a C...

  12. Effect of the addition of β-mannanase on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility coefficients, and immune functions of broilers fed different nutritional levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, H. C.; Hannas, M. I.; Albino, L. F. T.; Rostagno, H. S.; Neme, R.; Faria, B. D.; Xavier, M. L.; Rennó, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of β-mannanase (BM) supplementation on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility, and immune function of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were randomly distributed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 nutritional levels × 0 or 500 g/ton BM), with 10 replicates and 20 broilers per pen. The same design was used in the energy and digestibility experiments with 8 and 6 replicates, respectively, and 6 broilers per pen. The nutritional levels (NL) were formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers (NL1); reductions of 100 kcal metabolizable energy (NL2); 3% of the total amino acids (NL3); and 100 kcal metabolizable energy and 3% total amino acids (NL4) from NL1. The serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration was determined in two broilers per pen, and these broilers were slaughtered to determine the relative weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. Throughout the experiment, the lower nutritional levels reduced (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion (FCR) for the NL4 treatment. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the BWG values and improved (P < 0.05) the FCR of the broilers. The apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) values were reduced (P < 0.05) for NL2 and NL3. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn values and reduced (P < 0.05) the excreted nitrogen. NL3 and NL4 reduced (P < 0.05) the true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDc) of the amino acids cystine and glycine, and BM increased (P < 0.05) the TIDc for all amino acids. The addition of BM reduced (P < 0.05) the relative weights of the spleen and bursa. NL2 increased (P < 0.05) the Ig values, whereas BM reduced (P < 0.05) the serum IgA, IgG, and IgM values of the broilers. This study indicates that using suboptimal nutrient levels leads to losses in production parameters, whereas BM-supplemented diets were effective in improving performance, energy

  13. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  14. Metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance and body composition of growing farm-raised male pastel mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Harper, R B; Travis, H F; Glinsky, M S

    1978-12-01

    The requirement of metabolizable energy (ME) for maintenance was studied in 31 male pastel farm-raised mink. The procedure used was a body balance regression technique that included an initial baseline group, a group allowed feed ad libitum, and a group allowed feed at the level of 65% of average intake of the ad libitum animals. The requirement for ME was 147.8 +/- 6.06 kcal/wtkg 0.734/day. This value falls within the range of estimates of maintenance requirements noted for younger animals of other species, such as the rat, chicken, and calf. The relationships of the chemical composition of the body to functions of body weight were also examined. The composition of the mink body was closely related to the weight of the animal rather than to age or conformation, as has been noted in other species. However, the fat-free dry body of the mink contained more protein and less ash than any other species studied up to this point. On a percentage basis, protein was 87.29 and ash was 12.72. Protein in the fat-free body of other species range from 80 to 82%.

  15. True metabolizable energy for wood ducks from acorns compared to other waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaminski, R.M.; Davis, J.B.; Essig, H.W.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Acorns of bottomland red oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important food of North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Barras et al. (1996) demonstrated that female wood ducks selected willow oak ( Q. phetlos) acorns over other species. We measured true metabolizable energy (TME) derived by captive, wild-strain, adult female wood ducks from acorns of willow oak, water oak (Q. nigra), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), and pin oak (Q. patustris) to determine whether female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns was related to TME. Estimates of TME within acorn species were relatively precise, yet we did not detect variation in TME among acorn species (P= 0.31 ); hence, we estimated TME across species (2.76 + 0.033 [SE] kcal/g dry mass; n = 34). We concluded that TME apparently did not explain female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns and hypothesized that morphological characteristics of willow oak acorns may be proximate cues related to selection by wood ducks. We also summarized known TME estimates for acorns fed to wood ducks and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and natural and agricultural foods fed to mallards, northern pintails (A. acura), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). We found that acorns and moist-soil plant seeds and tubers provided, on average, about 76% of the TME in agricultural seeds. Thus, bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats have potential to provide significant amounts of dietary energy, as well as greater diversity of foods and nutrients than croplands. Researchers should continue to determine TME of common foods (plant and animal) of waterfowl, and use TME in estimating waterfowl habitat carrying capacity (e.g., Reinecke et al. 1989). Additionally, large-scale, reliable estimates of plant and animal food availability in bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats are needed to evaluate carrying capacity of landscapes important to waterfowl, such as the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV).

  16. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    PubMed Central

    Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Kohn, Richard A.; Paynter, Kennedy T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6–12 mm for M. lateralis and 18–24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum’s higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey. PMID:25978636

  17. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata).

    PubMed

    Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Perry, Matthew C; Kohn, Richard A; Paynter, Kennedy T; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey. PMID:25978636

  18. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  19. Additivity and associative effects of metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in barley and canola meal for White Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Hong, D; Ragland, D; Adeola, O

    2001-11-01

    An experiment was conducted using the TMEn bioassay method to investigate the additivity and associative effects of metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in barley and canola meal for White Pekin ducks. Additivity was tested by comparing the difference between observed values determined in a complete diet and predicted values from measurements determined with individual ingredients (barley and canola meal). Six ducks each were assigned to diets of barley, canola meal, the complete diet, and dextrose. Dextrose-fed ducks were used for estimation of endogenous losses for calculation of true amino acid digestibility. The observed AME, TME, AMEn, and TMEn values in the complete diet were 0.065, 0.083, 0.016, and 0.023 (kcal/g), respectively, numerically higher than predicted values. Differences between observed and predicted values were not significant (P > 0.05), indicating that the AME, AMEn, TME, and TMEn in barley and canola meal were all additive. In general, observed values for apparent amino acid digestibility (AAAD) and true amino acid digestibility (TAAD) in the complete diet were higher than those predicted from individual ingredients. Observed AAAD for lysine, histidine, tryptophan, alanine, and aspartate were higher (P < 0.05) than predicted values, indicating that digestibilities of these amino acids were not additive. The mean of AAAD in canola meal (77.29%) was higher (P < 0.05) than the observed values of barley (52.2%) and complete diet (64.55%). For TAAD values, differences between observed and predicted values were significant for lysine, histidine, and tryptophan (P < 0.05). The mean of TAAD in canola meal, barley, and complete diet were 85.88, 80.87, and 81.33%, respectively. The average difference between observed and predicted values for TAAD (1.18 %) was smaller than that of AAAD (5.41%). These results indicated that ME values for barley and canola meal were additive in the complete diet but that digestibilities of some amino acids

  20. Metabolizable energy for maintenance of beef-type Bos taurus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus cows in a dry, temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Reid, C R; Bailey, C M; Judkins, M B

    1991-07-01

    Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was estimated using 123 mature cows of eight diverse breed groups. Cows in each breed group were allotted at random 1) to limit-feeding to approximate maintenance or 2) to ad libitum access to feed. The MEm values were calculated by regression of change in body energy on ME intake. The MEm values for mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford x Red Poll, Red Poll x Hereford, Angus x Hereford, Angus x Charolais, Brahman x Hereford, and Brahman x Angus breed types were as follows: 145, 169, 148, 149, 144, 152, 139, and 143 kcal.kg-.75.d-1, respectively. Bos indicus-cross cows ranked lowest for MEm/kg.75. Angus x Hereford cows averaged highest in terms of grams of calf weaned per mature female exposed divided by yearly MEm requirement. Hereford x Red Poll reciprocal crosses on average required 640 kcal less total daily MEm per animal than Hereford and Red Poll straightbreds.

  1. The metabolizable energy of dietary resistant maltodextrin is variable and alters fecal microbiota composition in adult men.

    PubMed

    Baer, David J; Stote, Kim S; Henderson, Theresa; Paul, David R; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko; Gordon, Dennis T; Rumpler, William V; Ukhanova, Maria; Culpepper, Tyler; Wang, Xiaoyu; Mai, Volker

    2014-07-01

    Resistant maltodextrin (RM) is a novel soluble, nonviscous dietary fiber. Its metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy (NE) values derived from nutrient balance studies are unknown, as is the effect of RM on fecal microbiota. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study was conducted (n = 14 men) to determine the ME and NE of RM and its influence on fecal excretion of macronutrients and microbiota. Participants were assigned to a sequence consisting of 3 treatment periods [24 d each: 0 g/d RM + 50 g/d maltodextrin and 2 amounts of dietary RM (25 g/d RM + 25 g of maltodextrin/d and 50 g/d RM + 0 g/d maltodextrin)] and were provided all the foods they were to consume to maintain their body weight. After an adaptation period, excreta were collected during a 7-d period. After the collection period, 24-h energy expenditure was measured. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and 454 titanium technology-based 16S rRNA sequencing were used to analyze fecal microbiota composition. Fecal amounts of energy (544, 662, 737 kJ/d), nitrogen (1.5, 1.8, 2.1 g/d), RM (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 g/d), and total carbohydrate (11.1, 14.2, 16.2 g/d) increased with increasing dose (0, 25, 50 g) of RM (P < 0.0001). Fat excretion did not differ among treatments. The ME value of RM was 8.2 and 10.4 kJ/g, and the NE value of RM was -8.2 and 2.0 kJ/g for the 25 and 50 g/d RM doses, respectively. Both doses of RM increased fecal wet weight (118, 148, 161 g/d; P < 0.0001) and fecal dry weight (26.5, 32.0, 35.8 g/d; P < 0.0001) compared with the maltodextrin placebo. Total counts of fecal bacteria increased by 12% for the 25 g/d RM dose (P = 0.17) and 18% for the 50 g/d RM dose (P = 0.019). RM intake was associated with statistically significant increases (P < 0.001) in various operational taxonomic units matching closest to ruminococcus, eubacterium, lachnospiraceae, bacteroides, holdemania, and faecalibacterium, implicating RM in their growth in the

  2. Evaluation of prediction equations to estimate gross, digestible, and metabolizable energy content of maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for swine based on chemical composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to cross-validate prediction equations to estimate the concentration of gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME) among sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with variable chemical composition in growing pigs. Publ...

  3. Earlier Metabolizable Energy Intake Level Influences Heat Production during a Following 3-Day Fast in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Ning, D; Guo, Y M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate energy requirements for maintenance in laying hens by using indirect calorimetry and energy balance. A total of 576 28-wk-old Nongda-3 laying hens with dwarf gene were randomly allocated into four ME intake levels (86.57, 124.45, 166.63 and 197.20 kcal/kg body weight (BW)(0.75) per d) with four replicates each. After a 4 d adaptation period, 36 hens from one replicate were maintained in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 3 d during the feeding period and subsequent 3 d fast. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was partitioned between heat increment (HI), HP associated with activity, fasting HP (FHP) and retained energy (RE). The equilibrium FHP may provide an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). Results showed that HP, HI and RE in the fed state increased with ME intake level (p<0.05). Based on the regression of HP on ME intake, the estimated ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) was 113.09 kcal/kg BW(0.75) per d when ME intake equals HP. The FHP was decreased day by day with the lowest value on the third day of starvation. Except for lowest ME intake level, the FHP increased with ME intake level on the first day of starvation (p<0.05). The FHP at the two higher ME intake levels were greater than that at the two lower ME intake levels (p<0.05) but no difference was found between the two lower ME intake levels. Linear regression of HP from the fed state to zero ME intake yielded a value of 71.02 kcal/kg BW(0·75) per d, which is higher than the extrapolated FHP at zero ME intake (60.78, 65.23 and 62.14 kcal/kg BW(0.75) per d for the first, second and third day of fasting, respectively). Fasting time, lighting schedules, calculation methods and duration of adaptation of hens to changes in ME intake level should be properly established when using indirect calorimetry technique to estimate dietary NE content, MEm and NEm for laying hens.

  4. A simple estimation of ideal profile of essential amino acids and metabolizable energy for growing Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Mehri, M; Ghazaghi, M; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Rokouei, M

    2016-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and amino acid requirements of growing Japanese quail based on ideal protein concept using artificial neural network and desirability function (D-ANN). Seven-day-old quail chicks were assigned to nine experimental diets based on central composite design (CCD) containing five levels of AME (2809-3091 kcal/kg) and CP (19-24.8% of diet). The ratio of lysine (Lys) to CP was set at 0.053 among all treatments, and remaining essential amino acids (EAA) were adjusted to Lys. The experimental data of CCD were fitted to D-ANN model to compute the optimal values for independent variables. The optimal values of inputs including AME, CP, digestible Lys (dLys), methionine (dMet), total sulphur amino acids (dTSAA), threonine (dThr), tryptophan (dTrp), isoleucine (dIle), valine (dVal) and arginine (dArg) for maximizing gain and minimizing feed conversion ratio were estimated at 2865 kcal/kg, 25, 1.32, 0.55, 0.88, 0.84, 0.20, 0.75, 1.04 and 1.45% of diet, respectively, with D (desirability function) = 0.94. The corresponding optimal amounts of amino acids based on total amino acids were 1.42, 0.59, 0.95, 0.90, 0.22, 0.81, 1.12 and 1.56% of diet respectively. The ideal pattern of essential amino acids to Lys was as follows: dMet: dLys = 0.42, dTSAA: dLys = 0.67, dThr: dLys = 0.64, dTrp: dLys = 0.15, dIle: dLys = 0.57, dVal: dLys = 0.79 and dArg: dLys = 1.09. The results of this study showed that amino acid requirements of modern quails might be higher than those reported by NRC.

  5. A simple estimation of ideal profile of essential amino acids and metabolizable energy for growing Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Mehri, M; Ghazaghi, M; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Rokouei, M

    2016-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and amino acid requirements of growing Japanese quail based on ideal protein concept using artificial neural network and desirability function (D-ANN). Seven-day-old quail chicks were assigned to nine experimental diets based on central composite design (CCD) containing five levels of AME (2809-3091 kcal/kg) and CP (19-24.8% of diet). The ratio of lysine (Lys) to CP was set at 0.053 among all treatments, and remaining essential amino acids (EAA) were adjusted to Lys. The experimental data of CCD were fitted to D-ANN model to compute the optimal values for independent variables. The optimal values of inputs including AME, CP, digestible Lys (dLys), methionine (dMet), total sulphur amino acids (dTSAA), threonine (dThr), tryptophan (dTrp), isoleucine (dIle), valine (dVal) and arginine (dArg) for maximizing gain and minimizing feed conversion ratio were estimated at 2865 kcal/kg, 25, 1.32, 0.55, 0.88, 0.84, 0.20, 0.75, 1.04 and 1.45% of diet, respectively, with D (desirability function) = 0.94. The corresponding optimal amounts of amino acids based on total amino acids were 1.42, 0.59, 0.95, 0.90, 0.22, 0.81, 1.12 and 1.56% of diet respectively. The ideal pattern of essential amino acids to Lys was as follows: dMet: dLys = 0.42, dTSAA: dLys = 0.67, dThr: dLys = 0.64, dTrp: dLys = 0.15, dIle: dLys = 0.57, dVal: dLys = 0.79 and dArg: dLys = 1.09. The results of this study showed that amino acid requirements of modern quails might be higher than those reported by NRC. PMID:26671312

  6. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  7. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and uterine length of developing gilts fed two lysine and three metabolizable energy concentrations from 100 to 260 d of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements, and to determine relationships between these traits and growth trajectories. Crossbred Large White × L...

  8. The metabolizable energy of dietary resistant maltodextrin is variable and alters fecal microbiota composition in adult men.

    PubMed

    Baer, David J; Stote, Kim S; Henderson, Theresa; Paul, David R; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko; Gordon, Dennis T; Rumpler, William V; Ukhanova, Maria; Culpepper, Tyler; Wang, Xiaoyu; Mai, Volker

    2014-07-01

    Resistant maltodextrin (RM) is a novel soluble, nonviscous dietary fiber. Its metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy (NE) values derived from nutrient balance studies are unknown, as is the effect of RM on fecal microbiota. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study was conducted (n = 14 men) to determine the ME and NE of RM and its influence on fecal excretion of macronutrients and microbiota. Participants were assigned to a sequence consisting of 3 treatment periods [24 d each: 0 g/d RM + 50 g/d maltodextrin and 2 amounts of dietary RM (25 g/d RM + 25 g of maltodextrin/d and 50 g/d RM + 0 g/d maltodextrin)] and were provided all the foods they were to consume to maintain their body weight. After an adaptation period, excreta were collected during a 7-d period. After the collection period, 24-h energy expenditure was measured. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and 454 titanium technology-based 16S rRNA sequencing were used to analyze fecal microbiota composition. Fecal amounts of energy (544, 662, 737 kJ/d), nitrogen (1.5, 1.8, 2.1 g/d), RM (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 g/d), and total carbohydrate (11.1, 14.2, 16.2 g/d) increased with increasing dose (0, 25, 50 g) of RM (P < 0.0001). Fat excretion did not differ among treatments. The ME value of RM was 8.2 and 10.4 kJ/g, and the NE value of RM was -8.2 and 2.0 kJ/g for the 25 and 50 g/d RM doses, respectively. Both doses of RM increased fecal wet weight (118, 148, 161 g/d; P < 0.0001) and fecal dry weight (26.5, 32.0, 35.8 g/d; P < 0.0001) compared with the maltodextrin placebo. Total counts of fecal bacteria increased by 12% for the 25 g/d RM dose (P = 0.17) and 18% for the 50 g/d RM dose (P = 0.019). RM intake was associated with statistically significant increases (P < 0.001) in various operational taxonomic units matching closest to ruminococcus, eubacterium, lachnospiraceae, bacteroides, holdemania, and faecalibacterium, implicating RM in their growth in the

  9. Evaluation of Energy Digestibility and Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy from Chemical Composition of Different Cottonseed Meal Sources Fed to Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, J. T.; Li, D. F.; Zang, J. J.; Yang, W. J.; Zhang, W. J.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in growing pigs fed diets containing one of ten cottonseed meals (CSM) collected from different provinces of China and to develop in vitro prediction equations for DE and ME content from chemical composition of the CSM samples. Twelve growing barrows with an initial body weight of 35.2±1.7 kg were allotted to two 6×6 Latin square designs, with six barrows and six periods and six diets for each. A corn-dehulled soybean meal diet was used as the basal diet, and the other ten diets were formulated with corn, dehulled soybean meal and 19.20% CSM. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy among different CSM sources varied largely and ranged from 1,856 to 2,730 kcal/kg dry matter (DM), 1,778 to 2,534 kcal/kg DM, and 42.08 to 60.47%, respectively. Several chemical parameters were identified to predict the DE and ME values of CSM, and the accuracy of prediction models were also tested. The best fit equations were: DE, kcal/kg DM = 670.14+31.12 CP+659.15 EE with R2 = 0.82, RSD = 172.02, p<0.05; and ME, kcal/kg DM = 843.98+25.03 CP+673.97 EE with R2 = 0.84, RSD = 144.79, p<0.05. These results indicate that DE, ME values and ATTD of gross energy varied substantially among different CSM sources, and that some prediction equations can be applied to predict DE and ME in CSM with an acceptable accuracy. PMID:25049499

  10. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP <30%, FP=30 to 59%, FP=60 to 99%, and FP=100%. The MEm for individual cows was calculated from heat production minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention and pregnancy, and kl was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. Increasing FP significantly reduced ME intake and milk energy output, although the differences between the 2 low FP groups were not significant. However, increasing FP significantly increased the ratio of heat production over ME intake and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), with the exception that the increases did not reach significance in heat production/ME intake between FP <30% and FP=30 to 59%, or in MEm between FP=60 to 99% and FP=100%. However, the FP had no significant effect on the kl values, which were similar among the 4 groups of cows. The effect of FP was also evaluated using the linear mixed regression technique relating El(0) to ME intake. The results demonstrated that with a common regression coefficient (slope), the regression constants (intercepts) taken as net energy requirement for maintenance significantly increased with increasing FP. However, the increase between the 2 high FP groups did not research

  11. Predicting corn digestible and metabolizable energy content from its chemical composition in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nutrient composition of corn is variable. To prevent unforeseen reductions in growth performance, grading and analytical methods are used to minimize nutrient variability between calculated and analyzed values. This experiment was carried out to define the sources of variation in the energy content of corn and to develop a practical method to accurately estimate the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) content of individual corn samples for growing pigs. Twenty samples were taken from each of five provinces in China (Jilin, Hebei, Shandong, Liaoning, and Henan) to obtain a range of quality. Results The DE and ME contents of the 100 corn samples were measured in 35.3 ± 1.92 kg growing pigs (six pigs per corn sample). Sixty corn samples were used to build the prediction model; the remaining forty samples were used to test the suitability of these models. The chemical composition of each corn sample was determined, and the results were used to establish prediction equations for DE or ME content from chemical characteristics. The mean DE and ME content of the 100 samples were 4,053 and 3,923 kcal/kg (dry matter basis), respectively. The physical characteristics were determined, as well, and the results indicated that the bulk weight and 1,000-kernel weight were not associated with energy content. The DE and ME values could be accurately predicted from chemical characteristics. The best fit equations were as follows: DE, kcal/kg of DM = 1062.68 + (49.72 × EE) + (0.54 × GE) + (9.11 × starch), with R2 = 0.62, residual standard deviation (RSD) = 48 kcal/kg, and P < 0.01; ME, kcal/kg of dry matter basis (DM) = 671.54 + (0.89 × DE) – (5.57 × NDF) – (191.39 × ash), with R2 = 0.87, RSD = 18 kcal/kg, and P < 0.01. Conclusion This experiment confirms the large variation in the energy content of corn, describes the factors that influence this variation, and

  12. A dynamic model of metabolizable energy utilization in growing and mature cattle. III. Model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Jenkins, T G

    2003-06-01

    Component models of heat production identified in a proposed system of partitioning ME intake and a dynamic systems model that predicts gain in empty BW in cattle resulting from a known intake of ME were evaluated. Evaluations were done in four main areas: 1) net efficiency of ME utilization for gain, 2) relationship between recovered energy and ME intake, 3) predicting gain in empty BW from recovered energy, and 4) predicting gain in empty BW from ME intake. An analysis of published data showed that the net partial efficiencies of ME utilization for protein and fat gain were approximately 0.2 and 0.75, respectively, and that the net efficiency of ME utilization for gain could be estimated using these net partial efficiencies and the fraction of recovered energy that is contained in protein. Analyses of published sheep and cattle experimental data showed a significant linear relationship between recovered energy and ME intake, with no evidence for a nonlinear relationship. Growth and body composition of Hereford x Angus steers simulated from weaning to slaughter showed that over the finishing period, 20.8% of ME intake was recovered in gain. These results were similar to observed data and comparable to feedlot data of 26.5% for a shorter finishing period with a higher-quality diet. The component model to predict gain in empty BW from recovered energy was evaluated with growth and body composition data of five steer genotypes on two levels of nutrition. Linear regression of observed on predicted values for empty BW resulted in an intercept and slope that were not different (P < 0.05) from 0 and 1, respectively. Evaluations of the dynamic systems model to predict gain in empty BW using ME intake as the input showed close agreement between predicted and observed final empty BW for steers that were finished on high-energy diets, and the model accurately predicted growth patterns for Angus, Charolais, and Simmental reproducing females from 10 mo to 7 yr of age. PMID

  13. A dynamic model of metabolizable energy utilization in growing and mature cattle. III. Model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Jenkins, T G

    2003-06-01

    Component models of heat production identified in a proposed system of partitioning ME intake and a dynamic systems model that predicts gain in empty BW in cattle resulting from a known intake of ME were evaluated. Evaluations were done in four main areas: 1) net efficiency of ME utilization for gain, 2) relationship between recovered energy and ME intake, 3) predicting gain in empty BW from recovered energy, and 4) predicting gain in empty BW from ME intake. An analysis of published data showed that the net partial efficiencies of ME utilization for protein and fat gain were approximately 0.2 and 0.75, respectively, and that the net efficiency of ME utilization for gain could be estimated using these net partial efficiencies and the fraction of recovered energy that is contained in protein. Analyses of published sheep and cattle experimental data showed a significant linear relationship between recovered energy and ME intake, with no evidence for a nonlinear relationship. Growth and body composition of Hereford x Angus steers simulated from weaning to slaughter showed that over the finishing period, 20.8% of ME intake was recovered in gain. These results were similar to observed data and comparable to feedlot data of 26.5% for a shorter finishing period with a higher-quality diet. The component model to predict gain in empty BW from recovered energy was evaluated with growth and body composition data of five steer genotypes on two levels of nutrition. Linear regression of observed on predicted values for empty BW resulted in an intercept and slope that were not different (P < 0.05) from 0 and 1, respectively. Evaluations of the dynamic systems model to predict gain in empty BW using ME intake as the input showed close agreement between predicted and observed final empty BW for steers that were finished on high-energy diets, and the model accurately predicted growth patterns for Angus, Charolais, and Simmental reproducing females from 10 mo to 7 yr of age.

  14. Nitrogen-corrected True Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibility of Chinese Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Adult Cecectomized Roosters

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Liu, Y.; Yin, R. Q.; Yang, X. J.; Yao, J. H.; Sun, F. F.; Li, G. J.; Liu, Y. R.; Sun, Y. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) and true amino acids digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced in China. Twenty five sources of corn DDGS was collected from 8 provinces of China. A precision-fed rooster assay was used to determine TMEn and amino acids digestibility with 35 adult cecectomized roosters, in which each DDGS sample was tube fed (30 g). The average content of ash, crude protein, total amino acid, ether extract, crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber were 4.81, 27.91, 22.51, 15.22, 6.35 and 37.58%, respectively. TMEn of DDGS ranged from 1,779 to 3,071 kcal/kg and averaged 2,517 kcal/kg. Coefficient of variation for non-amino acid crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and TMEn were 55.0, 15.7, 15.9 and 17.1%, respectively. The average true amino acid digestibility was 77.32%. Stepwise regression analysis obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = −2,995.6+0.88×gross energy+49.63×a* (BIC = 248.8; RMSE = 190.8; p<0.01). Removing gross energy from the model obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = 57.88×ether extracts+87.62×a* (BIC = 254.3, RMSE = 223.5; p<0.01). No correlation was found between color scores and lysine true digestibility (p>0.05). These results suggest that corn DDGS produced in China has a large variation in chemical composition, and gross energy and a* value can be used to generate TMEn predict equation. PMID:25049858

  15. Nitrogen-corrected True Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibility of Chinese Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Adult Cecectomized Roosters.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Liu, Y; Yin, R Q; Yang, X J; Yao, J H; Sun, F F; Li, G J; Liu, Y R; Sun, Y J

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) and true amino acids digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced in China. Twenty five sources of corn DDGS was collected from 8 provinces of China. A precision-fed rooster assay was used to determine TMEn and amino acids digestibility with 35 adult cecectomized roosters, in which each DDGS sample was tube fed (30 g). The average content of ash, crude protein, total amino acid, ether extract, crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber were 4.81, 27.91, 22.51, 15.22, 6.35 and 37.58%, respectively. TMEn of DDGS ranged from 1,779 to 3,071 kcal/kg and averaged 2,517 kcal/kg. Coefficient of variation for non-amino acid crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and TMEn were 55.0, 15.7, 15.9 and 17.1%, respectively. The average true amino acid digestibility was 77.32%. Stepwise regression analysis obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = -2,995.6+0.88×gross energy+49.63×a* (BIC = 248.8; RMSE = 190.8; p<0.01). Removing gross energy from the model obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = 57.88×ether extracts+87.62×a* (BIC = 254.3, RMSE = 223.5; p<0.01). No correlation was found between color scores and lysine true digestibility (p>0.05). These results suggest that corn DDGS produced in China has a large variation in chemical composition, and gross energy and a* value can be used to generate TMEn predict equation.

  16. Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content and Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility in Wheat Shorts and Red Dog for Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Q.; Piao, X. S.; Ren, P.; Li, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two 6×6 Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large

  17. Prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy content and standardized ileal amino Acid digestibility in wheat shorts and red dog for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Q; Piao, X S; Ren, P; Li, D F

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two 6×6 Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large

  18. Prediction of the metabolizable energy requirements of free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Brainer, M M A; Rabello, C B V; Santos, M J B; Lopes, C C; Ludke, J V; Silva, J H V; Lima, R A

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with the aim of estimating the ME requirements of free-range laying hens for maintenance, weight gain, and egg production. These experiments were performed to develop an energy requirement prediction equation by using the comparative slaughter technique and the total excreta collection method. Regression equations were used to relate the energy intake, the energy retained in the body and eggs, and the heat production of the hens. These relationships were used to determine the daily ME requirement for maintenance, the efficiency energy utilization above the requirements for maintenance, and the NE requirement for maintenance. The requirement for weight gain was estimated from the energy content of the carcass, and the diet's efficiency energy utilization was determined from the weight gain, which was measured during weekly slaughter. The requirement for egg production was estimated by considering the energy content of the eggs and the efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. The requirement and efficiency energy utilization for maintenance were 121.8 kcal ME/(kg∙d)and 0.68, respectively. Similarly, the NE requirement for maintenance was 82.4 kcal ME/(kg∙d), and the efficiency energy utilization above maintenance was 0.61. Because the carcass body weight and energy did not increase during the trial, the weight gain could not be estimated. The requirements for egg production requirement and efficiency energy utilization for egg production were 2.48 kcal/g and 0.61, respectively. The following energy prediction equation for free-range laying hens (without weight gain) was developed: ME /(hen ∙ d) = 121.8 × W + 2.48 × EM, in which W = body weight (kg) and EM = egg mass (g/[hen ∙ d]).

  19. Nutrient analysis, metabolizable energy, and digestible amino acids of soybean meals of different origins for broilers.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, V; Abdollahi, M R; Bootwalla, S M

    2014-10-01

    differences (P > 0.05) between samples from other 3 origins. However, the digestible CP content of US SBM was higher (P < 0.05) than those of ARG and IND, but similar (P > 0.05) to that from BRA. The digestible CP contents of SBM from the US, ARG, BRA, and IND were 40.0, 38.6, 39.8, and 36.7%, respectively. Digestible contents of indispensable AA, in general, followed the same trend as that of digestible CP. In conclusion, the present evaluation showed that major differences in nutritive value do exist between SBM from different origins in terms of nutrient contents, AME, and digestible AA. Overall, SBM originating from the US had better nutritive value compared with those from ARG and IND, on the basis of AME and contents of digestible CP and digestible AA.

  20. Effects of Supplemental Beta-mannanase on Digestible Energy and Metabolizable Energy Contents of Copra Expellers and Palm Kernel Expellers Fed to Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, W. B.; Kim, B. G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of β-mannanase supplementation on digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of copra expellers (CE) and palm kernel expellers (PKE) fed to pigs. Six barrows with an initial body weight of 38.0 kg (standard deviation = 1.5) were randomly allotted to a 6×6 Latin square design with 6 dietary treatments and 6 periods. Six experimental diets were prepared in a 3×2 factorial treatment arrangement with 3 diets of a corn-soybean meal-based diet, a CE 30% diet, and a PKE 30% diet and with 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase at 0 or 2,400 U/kg. All diets had the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 2.88:1. The marker-to-marker procedure was used for fecal and urine collection with 4-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. No interactive effects were observed between diet and β-mannanase on energy digestibility and DE and ME contents of experimental diets. However, diets containing CE or PKE had less (p<0.05) DE and ME contents compared with the corn-soybean meal-based diet. The DE and ME contents in CE and PKE were not affected by supplemental β-mannanase. Taken together, we failed to find the effect of β-mannanase supplementation on energy utilization in CE and PKE fed to pigs. PMID:26104407

  1. Efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for body weight gain in pasture-based, nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mandok, K M; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; McNamara, J P; Crookenden, M; White, R; Shields, S; Edwards, G R; Roche, J R

    2014-07-01

    Four cohorts of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows (n=50, 47, 45, and 42) were individually fed indoors to determine the amount of feed required for body weight (BW) gain from autumn pasture and commonly used supplementary feeds. These results were used to estimate the apparent efficiency with which metabolizable energy (ME) is used for BW gain (app_kg). Control cows were offered autumn pasture to estimated maintenance requirements (~0.55 MJ of ME/kg of BW(0.75)), with an additional 20 MJ of ME/d allocated for pregnancy and activity. All other cows received the same allowance of autumn pasture and an additional allowance (2.5 or 5.0 kg of dry matter/d) of autumn pasture (Past), spring pasture silage (Psil), maize silage (Msil), cracked maize grain (Mgr), or palm kernel expeller (PKE), resulting in a total of 11 treatments. Individual cow dry matter intake was determined daily; BW was recorded once per week for cohorts 1 and 2, and 3 times per week for cohorts 3 and 4. The ME contents of feeds were estimated from feed quality assays. Regression analyses were used on each feed to determine the ME requirement for 1 kg of BW gain. The app_kg of Past and Msil was 0.34 and 0.47, respectively; these estimates are in line with published literature. The app_kg of Psil (0.50) was consistent with the published kg for spring pasture, from which the silage was made. Palm kernel expeller had the greatest app_kg (0.61). The reasons for this cannot be deduced from the current study but may reflect the relatively high fat content of the feed and the high kg of fat. The app_kg for Mgr was low (0.38) in comparison with the other supplementary feeds and, in particular, relative to its feed ME and published kg estimates. Although the reason for the low app_kg cannot be deduced from the current data, the most plausible reason is the preferential use of propionate-derived glucose for conceptus metabolism rather than BW gain, a factor not accounted for in previous experimental models that

  2. Energy value evaluation of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kishimoto, Yuka; Miyazato, Shoko; Kitagawa, Machiko; Hayashi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Oga, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takako; Nishibata, Toyohide

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin (H-RMD) is a dietary fiber whose energy value has not previously been reported. We evaluated the energy value of H-RMD. We conducted an in vitro digestion test, in vivo blood glucose measurement after ingestion, in vitro fermentability test, excretion test by rats and indirect calorimetry combined with breath hydrogen measurement for humans. H-RMD was hydrolyzed in vitro in a very small amount by human salivary amylase and by the rat small intestinal mucosal enzyme. Ingestion of H-RMD did not increase the blood glucose level of human subjects. An examination of in vitro fermentability suggested that H-RMD was fermented by several enterobacteria. Oral administration of H-RMD showed a saccharide excretion ratio of 42% by rats. A combination of indirect calorimetry and breath hydrogen measurement evaluated the metabolizable energy of H-RMD as 1.1 kcal/g in humans. We concluded from these results that H-RMD was not digested or absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract and was fermented in the colon to produce short-chain fatty acids which provided a lower amount of energy than that of resistant maltodextrin.

  3. Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-11-01

    Lemna protein concentrate (LPC; 68.0% CP) is produced by extracting protein from de-oiled and dehydrated biomaterials from plants of the Lemnaceae family and may be used as a protein source for animals. There are, however, no published data on the nutritional value of LPC fed to pigs. Three experiments were, therefore, conducted to determine the concentration of ME, the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in LPC and to compare these values to values for fish meal and soybean meal (SBM). Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the ME of LPC, fish meal, SBM, and corn. Thirty-two barrows (initial BW: 16.8 ± 2.8 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to a randomized complete block design with 4 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and 3 diets that contained corn and LPC, fish meal, or SBM were formulated. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples were analyzed for GE. Results indicated that the concentration of ME was not different among corn, fish meal, and SBM (3,855, 3,904, and 4,184 kcal/kg DM, respectively), but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for a reduced ME in LPC (3,804 kcal/kg DM) compared with SBM. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (initial BW: 12.5 ± 2.5 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 3 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet and used to determine the STTD of P in LPC, fish meal, and SBM. Three diets that each contained 1 of the 3 test ingredients as the sole source of P were formulated. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages, and feces were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in LPC (72.8%) was not different from the STTD of P in fish meal (65.6%), but tended (P = 0.07) to be greater than in SBM (62.8%). The SID of AA in LPC, SBM, and fish meal was determined in Exp. 3. Eight barrows (initial BW: 21.4 ± 4.0 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly

  4. THE NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF THE DIET OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) IS BETTER ASSESSED RELATIVE TO METABOLIZABLE ENERGY THAN DRY MATTER.

    PubMed

    Ardente, Amanda J; Hill, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    Nutrient concentrations in a diet can be expressed either "as fed," relative to dry matter (DM), or relative to metabolizable energy (ME). Most published literature evaluates the diet of dolphins by comparing nutrient content relative to DM. Nevertheless, ME requirements, not DM, determine how much food dolphins need to maintain their body condition. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate why it is important to calculate the ME content of fish fed to dolphins and compare nutrient concentrations in dolphin diets relative to ME, not DM. Two studies that compared the nutrient composition of fish species on a DM basis were reevaluated. The ME content of each fish species was calculated and found to vary widely among species, from 0.94 to 1.58 Mcal/kg as fed. Water, mineral, and fat concentrations relative to ME also varied markedly among fish species. To demonstrate the magnitude of nutrient content differences between fish, the percent change in nutrient concentration for each species was calculated relative to herring. The percent changes for DM and ME analyses were then compared. Percent change in nutrient concentration was either over- or underestimated on a DM basis when compared with the percent change on an ME basis. Notable discrepancies were evident among important nutrients, such as crude protein, water, and sodium. Caretakers of managed dolphins must account for differences in energy density when deciding how much to feed and assessing the nutrient composition of the diet.

  5. Predicting efficiency of use of metabolizable energy to net energy for gain and maintenance of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Gionbelli, M P

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-six comparative slaughter studies were used (n = 752 animals) and coded within each experiment by gender (431 bulls, 204 steers, and 117 heifers) and breed (447 Nellore and 305 Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbreds) to develop equations to predict the efficiency of use of ME to NE for growth (kg) and ME to NE for maintenance (km). The retained energy (RE) was regressed on ME intake (MEI) available for gain using orthogonal regression to obtain the kg within each experiment. The estimated kg was regressed on RE as protein (REp) according to the following equation: kg = a/(b + REp). Gender and breed effects were not tested because of limited number of experiments. The km was estimated as the intercept of the following equation: HP = β0 × e((β1 × MEI)), in which HP is heat production, β0 and β1 are coefficients, and e is the natural logarithm. The ME for maintenance (MEm) was computed assuming MEI equals to HP at maintenance. The km was obtained using the stepwise procedure of a multiple regression including ADG, empty body gain (EBG), empty BW (EBW), EBW(0.75), kg, and energy content in the EBW. A random coefficient model, assuming a random variation for study effects, was used to test breed and gender effects to identify the best model to estimate km. The overall equation to predict kg was 0.327 (±0.142)/[0.539 (±0.317) + REp], with an R(2) of 0.963. The equation to predict km was 0.513 (±0.024) + 0.173 (±0.061) × kg + a × EBG, R(2) = 0.92, in which a = 0.100 (±0.021) for B. indicus or a = 0.073 (±0.021) for crossbreds. Our results indicated that B. indicus were more efficient to use ME for maintenance. We concluded that km can be predicted from kg and EBG and that B. indicus × B. taurus crossbreds can affect km. Furthermore, kg can be predicted from REp and neither gender nor crossbreeding (B. indicus × B. taurus) affected kg. Because our database consisted of Nellore and B. indicus and B. taurus crossbreds, it is necessary to further

  6. Predicted metabolizable energy density and amino acid profile of the crop contents of free-living scarlet macaw chicks (Ara macao).

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J; Dierenfeld, E S; Bailey, C A; Brightsmith, D J

    2012-12-01

    Hand rearing of neonates is a common practice for the propagation of psittacines. However, nutritional requirements for their growth and development are not well understood, and malnutrition is common. We analysed the amino acid (AA) profile of the crop contents of 19 free-living scarlet macaw (Ara macao) chicks, 19-59 days old. Predicted metabolizable energy (PME) density was 16.9 MJ/kg DM and true protein (total AA protein) 8.3 g/MJ PME. Crude protein (CP) was 10.0 g/MJ PME, lower than the requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn chicks but not different than the requirements of growing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and lovebirds (Agapornis spp.). The mean concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine (Lys) and methionine on a PME basis were below the minimum requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn-type chicks. The calculated PME density of the samples did not vary with age. However, there was a significant negative correlation between the average age of the chicks and the Lys concentration. We conclude that the lower CP and AA densities compared with poultry could result from a combination of (i) differences in the essential AA composition of the body tissues, (ii) adaptations that allow the birds to grow on low-protein food sources and (iii) suboptimal nutrition of these free-ranging chicks.

  7. Predicted metabolizable energy density and amino acid profile of the crop contents of free-living scarlet macaw chicks (Ara macao).

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J; Dierenfeld, E S; Bailey, C A; Brightsmith, D J

    2012-12-01

    Hand rearing of neonates is a common practice for the propagation of psittacines. However, nutritional requirements for their growth and development are not well understood, and malnutrition is common. We analysed the amino acid (AA) profile of the crop contents of 19 free-living scarlet macaw (Ara macao) chicks, 19-59 days old. Predicted metabolizable energy (PME) density was 16.9 MJ/kg DM and true protein (total AA protein) 8.3 g/MJ PME. Crude protein (CP) was 10.0 g/MJ PME, lower than the requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn chicks but not different than the requirements of growing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and lovebirds (Agapornis spp.). The mean concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine (Lys) and methionine on a PME basis were below the minimum requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn-type chicks. The calculated PME density of the samples did not vary with age. However, there was a significant negative correlation between the average age of the chicks and the Lys concentration. We conclude that the lower CP and AA densities compared with poultry could result from a combination of (i) differences in the essential AA composition of the body tissues, (ii) adaptations that allow the birds to grow on low-protein food sources and (iii) suboptimal nutrition of these free-ranging chicks. PMID:21883501

  8. Digestible and metabolizable energy concentrations in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Son, A R; Ji, S Y; Kim, B G

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure DE and ME in copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR) in growing pigs. Eight boars with an initial BW of 67.3 ± 5.8 kg were individually housed in metabolism crates that were equipped with a feeder and a nipple drinker. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design was used with 4 dietary treatments, 4 periods, and 8 animals. A basal diet mainly contained corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal. Three additional diets were formulated to contain 30% of CM, PKM, and CR. All diets contained the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 4.14:1. The apparent total tract digestibility of energy was 89.5, 84.1, 82.4, and 87.9% (P < 0.001) in the basal, CM, PKM, and CR diets, respectively. The DE in CM and PKM were greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3440 and 3238 vs. 2966 kcal/kg as-fed). The ME in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3340 vs. 2935 kcal/kg as-fed) but not different from the ME in PKM (3168 kcal/kg as-fed). In conclusion, CM and PKM have a higher DE value than CR, and CM has a higher ME value than CR. PMID:23365309

  9. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Production of crystalline l-Thr results in the generation of a Thr biomass that contains more than 80% CP, 5.20% Lys, 5.10% Val, 4.52% Thr, 4.15% Ile, and 1.06% Trp. This Thr biomass product can possibly be used as a feed ingredient in diets fed to weanling pigs, but there is little information about the nutritional value of this product. The objective of this work was to determine the AA digestibility and energy concentration in Thr biomass and to compare these values to values obtained for fish meal in diets fed to pigs. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were determined in Exp. 1. Nine pigs (initial BW: 13.4 ± 2.5 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods in each square. One diet contained 20.0% Thr biomass as the sole source of AA, and a second diet contained 25.0% fish meal as the sole source of AA. The last diet was a N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and CP. Results indicated that the AID and SID of all AA except Trp, Gly, and Pro were greater (P < 0.05) in Thr biomass than in fish meal. In Exp. 2, 24 pigs (initial BW: 18.1 ± 3.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 3 diets. The first diet contained 96.4% corn, the second diet contained 79.3% corn and 17.0% Thr biomass, and the third diet contained 75.3% corn and 24.0% fish meal. Total collection of feces and urine was performed for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples of ingredients, diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for GE. Digestible energy and ME were then calculated. The DE in the Thr biomass was greater (P < 0.05) than in fish meal and corn (4,935 vs. 3,938 and 3,939 kcal DE/kg DM, respectively), and the ME in the Thr biomass was also greater (P < 0.05) than in fish meal and corn (4,335 vs. 3,508 and 3,839 kcal ME/kg DM, respectively). Results from these experiments

  10. Metabolizable energy and standardized ileal digestible amino acid contents of expeller-extracted canola meal fed to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible amino acid (AA) and AMEn contents of expeller-extracted canola meal (EECM) fed to broiler chicks. One hundred forty-four broiler chicks were divided into 24 groups of 6 birds balanced for BW and fed 4 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups per diet) from d 14 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet formulated to meet NRC nutrient requirements, the basal diet with energy- and AA-yielding ingredients replaced by 30% of either solvent-extracted canola meal (SECM) or EECM, and a low-protein casein-cornstarch-based diet. The SECM, which is commonly used in formulating poultry diets, was fed for comparison with EECM, whereas the casein-cornstarch-based diet was fed to estimate basal endogenous AA losses for determining standardized ileal digestibility of AA. All 4 diets contained titanium oxide (0.3%) as an indigestible marker, and nutrient digestibility and retention were determined by the substitution method. From d 19 to 21, excreta samples were collected for AMEn determination. On d 21, the birds were killed by cervical dislocation, and contents of the whole ileum were obtained for determination of AA digestibility. Expeller-extracted canola meal had greater (P<0.05) standardized ileal digestible contents of Gly, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, and Glu and tended to have greater (P<0.10) standardized ileal digestible contents of Ile, Lys, Phe, Ala, and Tyr than SECM. Compared with SECM, EECM had greater (P<0.001) AMEn (2,694 vs. 1,801 kcal/kg). The results show that the EECM evaluated in the current study had greater standardized ileal digestible AA and AMEn contents than SECM, and hence, it may be a better source of protein and energy for broiler chicks than SECM. The standardized ileal digestible AA and AMEn values of EECM used in the current study could be used when formulating broiler chicken diets using the same to minimize the N excretion and feeding cost.

  11. Determination of ileal digestible and apparent metabolizable energy contents of expeller-extracted and solvent-extracted canola meals for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    PubMed

    Kong, Changsu; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected ME (MEn) contents of expeller- (EECM) and solvent-extracted canola meal (SECM) for broiler chickens using the regression method. Dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal reference diet and four assay diets prepared by supplementing the reference diet with each of canola meals (EECM or SECM) at 100 or 200 g/kg, respectively, to partly replace the energy yielding sources in the reference diet. Birds received a standard starter diet from day 0 to 14 and the assay diets from day 14 to 21. On day 14, a total of 240 birds were grouped into eight blocks by body weight and randomly allocated to five dietary treatments in each block with six birds per cage in a randomized complete block design. Excreta samples were collected from day 18 to 20 and ileal digesta were collected on day 21. The IDE, ME, and MEn (kcal/kg DM) of EECM or SECM were derived from the regression of EECM- or SECM-associated IDE, ME and MEn intake (Y, kcal) against the intake of EECM or SECM (X, kg DM), respectively. Regression equations of IDE, ME and MEn for the EECM-substituted diet were Y = -21.2 + 3035X (r(2) = 0.946), Y = -1.0 + 2807X (r(2) = 0.884) and Y = -2.0 + 2679X (r(2) = 0.902), respectively. The respective equations for the SECM diet were Y = 20.7 + 2881X (r(2) = 0.962), Y = 27.2 + 2077X (r(2) = 0.875) and Y = 24.7 + 2013X (r(2) = 0.901). The slope for IDE did not differ between the EECM and SECM whereas the slopes for ME and MEn were greater (P < 0.05) for the EECM than for the SECM. These results indicate that the EECM might be a superior energy source for broiler chickens compared with the SECM when both canola meals are used to reduce the cost of feeding. PMID:27350926

  12. Energy and American values

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, I.; Brooks, H.; Lakoff, S.; Opie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary team consisting of an engineer, a political scientist, an historian, and a professor of religion and physics view the question of energy and values from each other's perspective. The result is a synthesis of the team's views on all aspects of energy technology and how it affects human life in general as well as the lives of different classes and specific groups in our society. It begins with an historic overview of the way an abundance of energy has shaped America's use of it. It continues by considering the energy debate as a conflict between Jeffersonians who believe in decentralized, appropriate technology and the centralized, efficient technology of Hamiltonians. The authors wrestle with regional and geographical differences in energy resources, environmental impacts, and ethical problems. 384 references.

  13. Determination and Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy from the Chemical Composition of Chinese Corn Gluten Feed Fed to Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T. T.; Liu, D. W.; Huang, C. F.; Liu, L.; Piao, X. S.; Wang, F. L.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of corn gluten feed (CGF) for finishing pigs and to develop equations predicting the DE and ME content from the chemical composition of the CGF samples, as well as validate the accuracy of the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, ten CGF samples from seven provinces of China were collected and fed to 66 finishing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial body weight (BW) of 51.9±5.5 kg. The pigs were assigned to 11 diets comprising one basal diet and 10 CGF test diets with six pigs fed each diet. The basal diet contained corn (76%), dehulled soybean meal (21%) and premix (3%). The ten test diets were formulated by substituting 25% of the corn and dehulled soybean meal with CGF and contained corn (57%), dehulled soybean meal (15.75%), CGF (24.25%) and premix (3%). In Exp. 2, two additional CGF sources were collected as validation samples to test the accuracy of the prediction equations. In this experiment, 18 barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial BW of 61.1±4.0 kg were randomly allotted to be fed either the basal diet or two CGF containing diets which had a similar composition as used in Exp. 1. The DE and ME of CGF ranged from 10.37 to 12.85 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM) and 9.53 to 12.49 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Through stepwise regression analysis, several prediction equations of DE and ME were generated. The best fit equations were: DE, MJ/kg of DM = 18.30–0.13 neutral detergent fiber–0.22 ether extract, with R2 = 0.95, residual standard deviation (RSD) = 0.21 and p<0.01; and ME, MJ/kg of DM = 12.82+0.11 Starch–0.26 acid detergent fiber, with R2 = 0.94, RSD = 0.20 and p<0.01. These results indicate that the DE and ME content of CGF varied substantially but the DE and ME for finishing pigs can be accurately predicted from equations based on nutritional analysis. PMID:25050026

  14. Determination and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from the chemical composition of chinese corn gluten feed fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, T T; Liu, D W; Huang, C F; Liu, L; Piao, X S; Wang, F L

    2014-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of corn gluten feed (CGF) for finishing pigs and to develop equations predicting the DE and ME content from the chemical composition of the CGF samples, as well as validate the accuracy of the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, ten CGF samples from seven provinces of China were collected and fed to 66 finishing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial body weight (BW) of 51.9±5.5 kg. The pigs were assigned to 11 diets comprising one basal diet and 10 CGF test diets with six pigs fed each diet. The basal diet contained corn (76%), dehulled soybean meal (21%) and premix (3%). The ten test diets were formulated by substituting 25% of the corn and dehulled soybean meal with CGF and contained corn (57%), dehulled soybean meal (15.75%), CGF (24.25%) and premix (3%). In Exp. 2, two additional CGF sources were collected as validation samples to test the accuracy of the prediction equations. In this experiment, 18 barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial BW of 61.1±4.0 kg were randomly allotted to be fed either the basal diet or two CGF containing diets which had a similar composition as used in Exp. 1. The DE and ME of CGF ranged from 10.37 to 12.85 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM) and 9.53 to 12.49 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Through stepwise regression analysis, several prediction equations of DE and ME were generated. The best fit equations were: DE, MJ/kg of DM = 18.30-0.13 neutral detergent fiber-0.22 ether extract, with R(2) = 0.95, residual standard deviation (RSD) = 0.21 and p<0.01; and ME, MJ/kg of DM = 12.82+0.11 Starch-0.26 acid detergent fiber, with R(2) = 0.94, RSD = 0.20 and p<0.01. These results indicate that the DE and ME content of CGF varied substantially but the DE and ME for finishing pigs can be accurately predicted from equations based on nutritional analysis. PMID:25050026

  15. Determination and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from the chemical composition of chinese corn gluten feed fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, T T; Liu, D W; Huang, C F; Liu, L; Piao, X S; Wang, F L

    2014-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of corn gluten feed (CGF) for finishing pigs and to develop equations predicting the DE and ME content from the chemical composition of the CGF samples, as well as validate the accuracy of the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, ten CGF samples from seven provinces of China were collected and fed to 66 finishing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial body weight (BW) of 51.9±5.5 kg. The pigs were assigned to 11 diets comprising one basal diet and 10 CGF test diets with six pigs fed each diet. The basal diet contained corn (76%), dehulled soybean meal (21%) and premix (3%). The ten test diets were formulated by substituting 25% of the corn and dehulled soybean meal with CGF and contained corn (57%), dehulled soybean meal (15.75%), CGF (24.25%) and premix (3%). In Exp. 2, two additional CGF sources were collected as validation samples to test the accuracy of the prediction equations. In this experiment, 18 barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial BW of 61.1±4.0 kg were randomly allotted to be fed either the basal diet or two CGF containing diets which had a similar composition as used in Exp. 1. The DE and ME of CGF ranged from 10.37 to 12.85 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM) and 9.53 to 12.49 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Through stepwise regression analysis, several prediction equations of DE and ME were generated. The best fit equations were: DE, MJ/kg of DM = 18.30-0.13 neutral detergent fiber-0.22 ether extract, with R(2) = 0.95, residual standard deviation (RSD) = 0.21 and p<0.01; and ME, MJ/kg of DM = 12.82+0.11 Starch-0.26 acid detergent fiber, with R(2) = 0.94, RSD = 0.20 and p<0.01. These results indicate that the DE and ME content of CGF varied substantially but the DE and ME for finishing pigs can be accurately predicted from equations based on nutritional analysis.

  16. Source of metabolizable energy affects gene transcription in metabolic pathways in adipose and liver tissue of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crookenden, M A; Mandok, K S; Grala, T M; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; Roche, J R

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if transcript abundance of genes involved in metabolic pathways in adipose and liver tissue could provide some explanation for the low efficiency with which ME in autumn pasture is used for BW gain. Nonlactating, pregnant (208 ± 19 d of gestation or approximately 75 d precalving) dairy cows (n = 90) were randomly allocated to either a control diet (i.e., offered fresh autumn pasture to maintenance requirements: 0.55 MJ ME/kg of measured metabolic BW [BW0.75] per day) or, in addition to the control diet, 1 of 2 supplement amounts (2.5 and 5.0 kg DM/d) of autumn pasture or 1 of 4 supplementary feeds (i.e., a control and 2 levels of feeding for each of 5 feeds: 11 groups of cows). Along with autumn pasture, evaluated feeds included spring pasture silage, maize silage, maize grain, and palm kernel expeller. Adipose and liver tissues were biopsied in wk 4 of the experiment and transcript abundance of genes involved in metabolic pathways associated with energy metabolism, lipolysis, and lipogenesis was determined. Additional feed, irrespective of type, increased BW gain (P < 0.01) and this effect was reflected in the expression of genes in adipose and liver tissue. However, autumn pasture had lower energy-use efficiency than the other feeds. Genes involved in both lipogenesis (ACACA, THRSP, GPAM, GPD1, and LPL) and lipolysis (PNPLA2) were upregulated (P < 0.05) in adipose tissue in response to increased ME intake/kilogram BW0.75. Hepatic expression of APOA1 decreased and that of APOB increased (P < 0.05) in cows offered maize grain and maize silage (i.e., starch-containing feeds). In comparison, pasture-fed cows demonstrated a degree of uncoupling of the somatotropic axis, with lower hepatic transcript abundance of both GHR1A and IGF-1 compared with cows offered any of the other 4 feeds. Changes to gene transcription indicate a possible molecular mechanism for the poor BW gain evident in ruminants consuming autumn

  17. In vitro hydrolytic digestion, glycemic response in dogs, and true metabolizable energy content of soluble corn fibers.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Knapp, B K; Parsons, C M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, George C

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this research was to measure in vitro hydrolytic digestion, glycemic and insulinemic responses in dogs, and true ME (TMEn) content of select soluble corn fibers (SCF) in roosters. The first generation (G1) SCF included hydrochloric acid-treated corn syrup (G1-CS-HCl), an SCF with an increased total dietary fiber (TDF) content (G1-SCF-HCl), an SCF that was spray-dried (G1-SCF-SD), and a hydrogenated SCF (G1-SCF-hydrog). The second generation (G2) SCF included those prepared using phosphoric acid catalyzation in both a liquid [G2-SCF-phos (Lq)] and powder [G2-SCF-phos (Pw)] form, and SCF that were prepared using hydrochloric acid catalyzation in both a liquid [G2-SCF-HCl (Lq)] and powder [G2-SCF-HCl (Pw)] form. Also, in the G2 set of samples were SCF prepared using the same method, but in 3 separate batches, all of which contained 70% TDF and 15% sugars. Two were in liquid form [G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Lq1)] and [G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Lq2)], and one in powder form ([G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Pw)]. A lower sugar form (80% TDF and 5% sugar) of SCF was also evaluated (G2-SCF-low sugar). Glucose was the major free sugar and bound monosaccharide in all SCF except for G1-SCF-hydrog that had greater concentrations of sorbitol. All SCF had intermediate to low amounts of monosaccharides released as a result of in vitro hydrolytic digestion, with glucose being the primary sugar component released. The G1-SCF were more digestible in vitro (approximately 50%) compared to G2-SCF (approximately 32%). All SCF had attenuated glycemic responses in adult dogs compared to a maltodextrin control (P < 0.05). The G2-SCF, on average, had lower glycemic responses and TMEn values in roosters than G1-SCF. All SCF had low free sugar concentrations with varying degrees of resistance to digestion, reduced caloric content, and attenuated glycemic and insulinemic responses in adult dogs. These ingredients are potential candidates for inclusion in reduced calorie and low glycemic canine diets.

  18. Comparison of growth and efficiency of dietary energy utilization by growing pigs offered feeding programs based on the metabolizable energy or the net energy system.

    PubMed

    Acosta, J; Patience, J F; Boyd, R D

    2016-04-01

    The NE system describes the useful energy available for growth better than the ME system. The use of NE in diet formulation should maintain growth performance and carcass parameters when diets contain a diversity of ingredients. This study compared the growth performance of pigs on diets formulated using either the ME or the NE system. A total of 944 gilts and 1,110 castrates (40.8 ± 2.0 kg initial BW) were allotted to group pens and assigned to 1 of 5 different feeding programs according to a randomized complete block design. The 5 treatments included: a corn-soybean meal control diet (CTL), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), formulated to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-DC) and a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-DC). When required, fat was added as an energy source. Pigs were harvested at an average BW of 130.3 ± 4.0 kg. Growth performance was not affected by treatment ( = 0.581, = 0. 177, and = 0.187 for ADG, ADFI, and G:F, respectively). However, carcass growth decreased with the addition of coproducts except for the NE-D treatment ( = 0.016, = 0.001, = 0.018, = 0.010, and = 0.010 for dressing percentage, HCW, carcass ADG, back fat, and loin depth, respectively). Carcass G:F and lean percentage did not differ among treatments ( = 0.109 and = 0.433, respectively). On the other hand, NE intake decreased ( = 0.035) similarly to that of carcass gain, suggesting a relationship between NE intake and energy retention. Calculations of NE per kilogram of BW gain differed among treatments ( = 0.010), but NE per kilogram of carcass was similar among treatments ( = 0.640). This suggests that NE may be better than ME at explaining the carcass results

  19. Comparison of growth and efficiency of dietary energy utilization by growing pigs offered feeding programs based on the metabolizable energy or the net energy system.

    PubMed

    Acosta, J; Patience, J F; Boyd, R D

    2016-04-01

    The NE system describes the useful energy available for growth better than the ME system. The use of NE in diet formulation should maintain growth performance and carcass parameters when diets contain a diversity of ingredients. This study compared the growth performance of pigs on diets formulated using either the ME or the NE system. A total of 944 gilts and 1,110 castrates (40.8 ± 2.0 kg initial BW) were allotted to group pens and assigned to 1 of 5 different feeding programs according to a randomized complete block design. The 5 treatments included: a corn-soybean meal control diet (CTL), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), formulated to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-DC) and a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-DC). When required, fat was added as an energy source. Pigs were harvested at an average BW of 130.3 ± 4.0 kg. Growth performance was not affected by treatment ( = 0.581, = 0. 177, and = 0.187 for ADG, ADFI, and G:F, respectively). However, carcass growth decreased with the addition of coproducts except for the NE-D treatment ( = 0.016, = 0.001, = 0.018, = 0.010, and = 0.010 for dressing percentage, HCW, carcass ADG, back fat, and loin depth, respectively). Carcass G:F and lean percentage did not differ among treatments ( = 0.109 and = 0.433, respectively). On the other hand, NE intake decreased ( = 0.035) similarly to that of carcass gain, suggesting a relationship between NE intake and energy retention. Calculations of NE per kilogram of BW gain differed among treatments ( = 0.010), but NE per kilogram of carcass was similar among treatments ( = 0.640). This suggests that NE may be better than ME at explaining the carcass results

  20. Dietary fiber for dogs: I. Effects of graded levels of dietary beet pulp on nutrient intake, digestibility, metabolizable energy and digesta mean retention time.

    PubMed

    Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Corbin, J E; Hamilton, A K; Serbe, K A; Lewis, S M; Hirakawa, D A

    1990-12-01

    The optimal level of beet pulp (BP) inclusion in a meat-based dog diet and the effects of graded levels of dietary BP on fecal excretion responses and mean retention time of marked fiber in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog were evaluated using 30 female English Pointers assigned to isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 or 12.5% BP (DM basis). Beet pulp replaced portions of dietary cornstarch. Digestibilities of DM and OM decreased by an average of 6% when comparing diets containing BP to the control diet, and quadratic and cubic responses were noted in digestibilities of fiber constituents (lower values at the 7.5 and 10.0% levels, higher values at the 2.5, 5.0 and 12.5% levels). Digestible energy (DE) and ME intakes (kcal/d) were not affected by treatment, but when expressed as a percentage of GE, values decreased (4.8% for DE; 6.2% for ME) linearly with increasing BP levels. Wet weight of feces increased (from 117 to 374 g/d) linearly as percentage of dietary BP increased. Frequency of defecation was higher (P less than .05) for dogs fed the diet containing 12.5% BP than for dogs fed the other diets (5.2 vs mean value of 2.8/24 h). Mean retention time of marked fiber decreased linearly (high value of 23.4 h for the 2.5% BP treatment, low value of 13.0 h for the 10.0% BP treatment) with increased level of BP. Beet pulp levels up to 7.5% of diet DM appear acceptable as a dietary fiber source in a meat-based canine diet.

  1. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets. PMID:9603354

  2. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets.

  3. Dietary fiber for dogs: III. Effects of beet pulp and oat fiber additions to dog diets on nutrient intake, digestibility, metabolizable energy, and digesta mean retention time.

    PubMed

    Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Corbin, J E; Hamilton, A K; Bauer, L L; Titgemeyer, E C; Hirakawa, D A

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine whether alkaline hydrogen peroxide-treated oat hulls (termed oat fiber; OF) are nutritionally efficacious as a source of dietary fiber in meat-based dog foods. Thirty female English Pointers were assigned in a completely randomized design to isonitrogenous diets. Treatments were 1) control diet, 2) 7.5% added beet pulp (BP), and 3) 2.5, 4) 5.0, and 5) 7.5% added OF. Inclusion of 7.5% BP increased (P less than .05) DM intake and decreased (P less than .05) digestibility of DM and OM compared with the control. Dry matter intake increased (P less than .05) with increasing level of OF and digestibility of DM, OM, and total dietary fiber (TDF) decreased (P less than .05). Digestibility of DM, OM, and TDF were higher for dogs fed the 7.5% BP than for those fed the 7.5% OF treatment. Digestible energy, expressed as a percentage of GE, was greater for the control treatment than for the 7.5% BP treatment. A linear decrease in DE (percentage of GE) was noted as the concentration of OF increased, and the DE value (percentage of GE) for the 7.5% BP treatment was greater (P less than .05) than that for the 7.5% OF treatment. A linear decrease (P less than .05) was noted in ME, expressed as a percentage of GE, as the level of OF increased. Frequency of defecation and mean retention time were unaffected (P greater than .05) by treatment. Oat fiber was an effective substitute for BP in dog diets.

  4. Concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in soybean meal produced in different areas of the United States and fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Sotak-Peper, K M; Gonzalez-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2015-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine concentrations of DE, ME, and NE in soybean meal (SBM) produced in different areas of the United States if fed to growing pigs. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from crushing facilities located throughout the soybean growing area of the United States. For analysis, crushing plant locations were separated into 4 zones: 1) MI, MN, and SD ( = 4); 2) GA, IN, and OH ( = 6); 3) IA, MO, and NE ( = 7), and 4) IL ( = 5). Dietary treatments included a corn-based diet and 22 diets based on a mixture of corn and each source of SBM. Twenty-three growing barrows (initial BW: 26.4 ± 1.8 kg) were allotted to a 23 × 8 Youden square design with 23 diets and 8 periods. Pigs were placed in individual metabolism crates that were equipped with a feeder, a cup waterer, slatted floors, and a urine tray. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 7-d adaptation period. The GE was 4,165, 4,209, 4,162, and 4,198 kcal/kg (as-fed) for SBM from Zones 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the GE in SBM from Zone 2 tended ( = 0.08) to be greater than the GE in SBM from Zones 1 and 3. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE for SBM was not different among zones. The DE and ME were 4,343 and 4,098; 4,319 and 4,117; 4,135 and 3,926; and 4,248 and 4,039 kcal/kg DM for SBM from Zones 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The DE and ME of SBM from Zones 1 and 2 were greater ( < 0.05) than the DE and ME of SBM from Zone 3, but the DE and ME of SBM from Zone 4 were not different from that of the other zones. Net energy was calculated for each source of SBM using a published prediction equation based on DE, ether extract, starch, CP, and ADF. The NE of SBM from Zones 1 and 2 (2,534 and 2,497 kcal/kg DM) was greater ( < 0.05) than the NE of SBM from Zone 3 (2391 kcal/kg DM), but the NE of SBM from Zone 4 (2448 kcal/kg DM) was not different from the NE of SBM from the other zones. Regardless of growing area, values for DE, ME, and NE of SBM determined in

  5. Effects of Autoclaving Soy-Free and Soy-Containing Diets for Laboratory Rats on Protein and Energy Values Determined In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Taciak, Marcin; Tuśnio, Anna; Święch, Ewa; Barszcz, Marcin; Staśkiewicz, Łukasz; Skomiał, Jacek; Paradziej-Łukowicz, Jolanta; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Autoclaving diminishes the nutritional value of rat diets, depending on the duration and temperature of the process and the type of dietary protein. We evaluated in vivo and in vitro the effects of autoclaving on the protein and energy values of soy-free and soy-containing rat diets. The true digestibility and biological value of the dietary protein were determined in a 10-d experiment involving 28-d-old Wistar Crl:WI(Han) male rats fed casein- or soy-containing diet that was autoclaved for 20 min at 121 °C (T1), 10 min at 134 °C (T2), or not autoclaved (T0). The apparent protein digestibility and metabolizable energy concentration of experimental diets were assayed during an 18-d trial involving 6-wk-old Wistar-Crl:WI(Han) male rats and compared with a commercial diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content, amount of protein bound to NDF, protein solubility, and in vitro ileal protein digestibility were determined. Autoclaving decreased protein solubility, with the T2 condition having a greater effect than that of T1, and decreased the protein parameters determined in vivo, except for the apparent digestibility of the standard rat diet. Autoclaving decreased metabolizable energy slightly. The Atwater formula yielded higher values than those determined in rats, in vitro, and calculated according to the pig equation. We conclude that autoclaving diets according to the T1 program was less detrimental to dietary protein than was T2 and that the NDF content and protein solubility may be helpful in assessing the effect of autoclaving. The pig formula and in vitro method appear to be valid for estimating the metabolizable energy of rat diets. PMID:26424248

  6. Effect of ascorbic acid or increasing metabolizable energy level with or without supplementation of some essential amino acids on productive and physiological traits of slow-growing chicks exposed to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; Hassan, R A; Tag El-Din, A E; Abou-Shehema, B M

    2011-12-01

    Four hundred and twenty, 21-day-old slow-growing chicks were divided randomly into seven treatments, each containing five replicates. Each replicate was kept in a 1 × 1-m floor pen. One treatment was kept under thermo-neutral conditions in a semi-open house and fed a corn-soybean meal diet (positive control). The other six groups were kept under chronic heat stress (CHS) at 38 °C and 60% RH for 4 h from 12:00 to 16:00 pm for three successive days per week. Chicks in CHS treatments were fed a corn-soybean meal diet without (negative control) or with increasing metabolizable energy (ME) level by oil supplementation alone, or also with increasing some essential amino acids (EAA) such as methionine (Met), methionine and lysine (Met+Lys) or methionine, lysine and arginine (Met+Lys+Arg) or supplemented with 250 mg of ascorbic acid (AA)/kg. CHS impaired (p < 0.05) growth performance, increased plasma triglycerides and total serum Ca while decreasing (p < 0.05) plasma glucose and total serum protein. Meanwhile 250 mg AA/kg diet or an increasing ME without or with some EAA partially alleviated (p < 0.0001) the negative effect of CHS on growth while increasing (p < 0.05) feed intake and improving (p < 0.05) feed:gain ratio (F:G) and crude protein (CP) digestibility (p < 0.05). AA or increasing ME with or without EAA increased (p < 0.05) percentage dressing, liver and giblets to those of the positive control. AA or increasing ME with or without EAA partially alleviated the negative effect of CHS on blood pH, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hgb), total serum protein and total Ca, plasma glucose and triglyceride, rectal temperature and respiration rate. Increasing ME level improved chickens' tolerance to CHS without a significant difference from those supplemented with AA. However, increasing Met, Lys and Arg concentration did not improve performance over that recorded with increasing ME level alone. Under CHS, 250 mg AA/kg diet or increasing ME level by addition of 3

  7. Evaluation of soluble corn fiber on chemical composition and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy and its effects on in vitro fermentation and in vivo responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, M R; Kerr, K R; Serao, M C Rossoni; de Godoy, M R C; Guérin-Deremaux, L; Lynch, G L; Wils, D; Dowd, S E; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S; Dilger, R N

    2015-05-01

    Dietary fermentable fiber is known to benefit intestinal health of companion animals. Soluble corn fiber (SCF) was evaluated for its chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) content, in vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics, and in vivo effects on nutrient digestibility, fecal fermentation end products, and modulation of the fecal microbiome of dogs. Soluble corn fiber contained 78% total dietary fiber, all present as soluble dietary fiber; 56% was low molecular weight soluble fiber (did not precipitate in 95% ethanol). The SCF also contained 26% starch and 8% resistant starch and had a TMEn value of 2.6 kcal/g. Soluble corn fiber was first subjected to in vitro hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion to determine extent of digestibility and then fermented using dog fecal inoculum, with fermentative outcomes measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. Hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion of SCF was only 7%. In vitro fermentation showed increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of short-chain fatty acids through 12 h, with acetate, propionate, and butyrate reaching peak concentrations of 1,803, 926, and 112 μmol/g DM, respectively. Fermentability of SCF was higher (P < 0.05) than for cellulose but lower (P < 0.05) than for pectin. In the in vivo experiment, 10 female dogs (6.4 ± 0.2 yr and 22 ± 2.1 kg) received 5 diets with graded concentrations of SCF (0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.25% [as-is basis]) replacing cellulose in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Dogs were first acclimated to the experimental diets for 10 d followed by 4 d of total fecal collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected to measure fecal pH and fermentation end products and permit a microbiome analysis. For microbiome analysis, extraction of DNA was followed by amplification of the V4 to V6 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using barcoded primers. Sequences were classified into taxonomic levels using a nucleotide basic local alignment search tool (BLASTn) against a curated Green

  8. Evaluation of soluble corn fiber on chemical composition and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy and its effects on in vitro fermentation and in vivo responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, M R; Kerr, K R; Serao, M C Rossoni; de Godoy, M R C; Guérin-Deremaux, L; Lynch, G L; Wils, D; Dowd, S E; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S; Dilger, R N

    2015-05-01

    Dietary fermentable fiber is known to benefit intestinal health of companion animals. Soluble corn fiber (SCF) was evaluated for its chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) content, in vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics, and in vivo effects on nutrient digestibility, fecal fermentation end products, and modulation of the fecal microbiome of dogs. Soluble corn fiber contained 78% total dietary fiber, all present as soluble dietary fiber; 56% was low molecular weight soluble fiber (did not precipitate in 95% ethanol). The SCF also contained 26% starch and 8% resistant starch and had a TMEn value of 2.6 kcal/g. Soluble corn fiber was first subjected to in vitro hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion to determine extent of digestibility and then fermented using dog fecal inoculum, with fermentative outcomes measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. Hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion of SCF was only 7%. In vitro fermentation showed increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of short-chain fatty acids through 12 h, with acetate, propionate, and butyrate reaching peak concentrations of 1,803, 926, and 112 μmol/g DM, respectively. Fermentability of SCF was higher (P < 0.05) than for cellulose but lower (P < 0.05) than for pectin. In the in vivo experiment, 10 female dogs (6.4 ± 0.2 yr and 22 ± 2.1 kg) received 5 diets with graded concentrations of SCF (0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.25% [as-is basis]) replacing cellulose in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Dogs were first acclimated to the experimental diets for 10 d followed by 4 d of total fecal collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected to measure fecal pH and fermentation end products and permit a microbiome analysis. For microbiome analysis, extraction of DNA was followed by amplification of the V4 to V6 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using barcoded primers. Sequences were classified into taxonomic levels using a nucleotide basic local alignment search tool (BLASTn) against a curated Green

  9. Net energy value of two low-digestible carbohydrates, Lycasin HBC and the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC in healthy human subjects and their impact on nutrient digestive utilization.

    PubMed

    Sinau, S; Montaunier, C; Wils, D; Verne, J; Brandolini, M; Bouteloup-Demange, C; Vermorel, M

    2002-02-01

    The metabolizable energy content of low-digestible carbohydrates does not correspond with their true energy value. The aim of the present study was to determine the tolerance and effects of two polyols on digestion and energy expenditure in healthy men, as well as their digestible, metabolizable and net energy values. Nine healthy men were fed for 32 d periods a maintenance diet supplemented either with dextrose, Lycasin HBC (Roquette Frères, Lestrem, France), or the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC, at a level of 100 g DM/d in six equal doses per d according to a 3 x 3 Latin square design with three repetitions. After a 20 d progressive adaptation period, food intake was determined for 12d using the duplicate meal method and faeces and urine were collected for 10 d for further analyses. Subjects spent 36 h in one of two open-circuit whole-body calorimeters with measurements during the last 24h. Ingestion of the polyols did not cause severe digestive disorders, except excessive gas emission, and flatulence and gurgling in some subjects. The polyols induced significant increases in wet (+45 and +66% respectively, P<0.01) and dry (+53 and +75 % respectively, P<0.002) stool weight, resulting in a 2% decrease in dietary energy digestibility (P<0.001). They resulted also in significant increases in sleeping (+4.1%, P<0.03) and daily energy expenditure (+2.7 and +2.9% respectively, P<0.02) compared with dextrose ingestion. The apparent energy digestibility of the two polyols was 0.82 and 0.79 respectively, their metabolizable energy value averaged 14.1 kJ/g DM, and their net energy value averaged 10.8 kJ/g DM, that is, 35 % less than those of sucrose and starch.

  10. Net energy value of two low-digestible carbohydrates, Lycasin HBC and the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC in healthy human subjects and their impact on nutrient digestive utilization.

    PubMed

    Sinau, S; Montaunier, C; Wils, D; Verne, J; Brandolini, M; Bouteloup-Demange, C; Vermorel, M

    2002-02-01

    The metabolizable energy content of low-digestible carbohydrates does not correspond with their true energy value. The aim of the present study was to determine the tolerance and effects of two polyols on digestion and energy expenditure in healthy men, as well as their digestible, metabolizable and net energy values. Nine healthy men were fed for 32 d periods a maintenance diet supplemented either with dextrose, Lycasin HBC (Roquette Frères, Lestrem, France), or the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC, at a level of 100 g DM/d in six equal doses per d according to a 3 x 3 Latin square design with three repetitions. After a 20 d progressive adaptation period, food intake was determined for 12d using the duplicate meal method and faeces and urine were collected for 10 d for further analyses. Subjects spent 36 h in one of two open-circuit whole-body calorimeters with measurements during the last 24h. Ingestion of the polyols did not cause severe digestive disorders, except excessive gas emission, and flatulence and gurgling in some subjects. The polyols induced significant increases in wet (+45 and +66% respectively, P<0.01) and dry (+53 and +75 % respectively, P<0.002) stool weight, resulting in a 2% decrease in dietary energy digestibility (P<0.001). They resulted also in significant increases in sleeping (+4.1%, P<0.03) and daily energy expenditure (+2.7 and +2.9% respectively, P<0.02) compared with dextrose ingestion. The apparent energy digestibility of the two polyols was 0.82 and 0.79 respectively, their metabolizable energy value averaged 14.1 kJ/g DM, and their net energy value averaged 10.8 kJ/g DM, that is, 35 % less than those of sucrose and starch. PMID:11895165

  11. Free energy, value, and attractors.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Ao, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested recently that action and perception can be understood as minimising the free energy of sensory samples. This ensures that agents sample the environment to maximise the evidence for their model of the world, such that exchanges with the environment are predictable and adaptive. However, the free energy account does not invoke reward or cost-functions from reinforcement-learning and optimal control theory. We therefore ask whether reward is necessary to explain adaptive behaviour. The free energy formulation uses ideas from statistical physics to explain action in terms of minimising sensory surprise. Conversely, reinforcement-learning has its roots in behaviourism and engineering and assumes that agents optimise a policy to maximise future reward. This paper tries to connect the two formulations and concludes that optimal policies correspond to empirical priors on the trajectories of hidden environmental states, which compel agents to seek out the (valuable) states they expect to encounter.

  12. Free Energy, Value, and Attractors

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl; Ao, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested recently that action and perception can be understood as minimising the free energy of sensory samples. This ensures that agents sample the environment to maximise the evidence for their model of the world, such that exchanges with the environment are predictable and adaptive. However, the free energy account does not invoke reward or cost-functions from reinforcement-learning and optimal control theory. We therefore ask whether reward is necessary to explain adaptive behaviour. The free energy formulation uses ideas from statistical physics to explain action in terms of minimising sensory surprise. Conversely, reinforcement-learning has its roots in behaviourism and engineering and assumes that agents optimise a policy to maximise future reward. This paper tries to connect the two formulations and concludes that optimal policies correspond to empirical priors on the trajectories of hidden environmental states, which compel agents to seek out the (valuable) states they expect to encounter. PMID:22229042

  13. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  14. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase. PMID:26194227

  15. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, M. M.; Iji, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase. PMID:26194227

  16. The Value of the Energy Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald W.; And Others

    A study was conducted to assess the value of the Energy Data Base (EDB), which is produced by the Technical Information Center (TIC) of the Department of Energy (DOE) in order to provide a means of identifying primary energy information sources, particularly journal articles and technical reports. The volume of energy information distributed to…

  17. Validation of Prediction Equations of Energy Values of a Single Ingredient or Their Combinations in Male Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, R. R.; Rodrigues, P. B.; Zangeronimo, M. G.; Oliveira, E. C.; Mariano, F. C. M. Q.; Lima, E. M. C.; Garcia, A. A. P.; Naves, L. P.; Nardelli, N. B. S.

    2015-01-01

    A set of prediction equations to estimate the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) of individual ingredients and diets used in the poultry feed industry was evaluated. The AMEn values of three energy ingredients (maize, sorghum and defatted maize germ meal), four protein ingredients (soybean meal, maize gluten meal 60% crude protein, integral micronized soy and roasted whole soybean) and four diets (three containing four feedstuffs, complex diets, and one containing only corn-soybean meal, basal diet) were determined using a metabolism assay with male broilers from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35, and 36 to 42 days old. These values were compared to the AMEn values presented in the tables of energy composition or estimated by equation predictions based on chemical composition data of feedstuffs. In general, the equation predictions more precisely estimated the AMEn of feedstuffs when compared to the tables of energy composition. The equation AMEn (dry matter [DM] basis) = 4,164.187+51.006 ether extract (% in DM basis)–197.663 ash–35.689 crude fiber (% in DM basis)–20.593 neutral detergent fiber (% in DM basis) (R2 = 0.75) was the most applicable for the prediction of the energy values of feedstuffs and diets used in the poultry feed industry. PMID:26194230

  18. Energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal and rice bran for broiler chickens using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L F P; Adeola, O

    2016-09-01

    The energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal (SFM) and rice bran (RB) were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from 15 to 22 d of age. In Exp.1, the diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD) and 4 test diets (TD). The TD consisted of SFM and RB that partly replaced the energy sources in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 75 or 150 g/kg, respectively, such that the equal ratios were maintained for all energy containing ingredients across all experimental diets. In Exp.2, a cornstarch-soybean meal diet was the RD and TD consisting of SFM and RB that partly replaced cornstarch in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 60 or 120 g/kg, respectively. Addition of SFM and RB to the RD in Exp.1 linearly decreased (P < 0.01) the digestibility coefficients of DM, energy, ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizability coefficients of DM, nitrogen (N), energy, N correct energy, metabolize energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected ME. Except for RB, the increased levels of the test ingredients in RD did affect the metabolizability coefficients of N. The IDE values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,953 for SFM and 2,498 for RB; ME values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,893 for SFM and 2,683 for RB; and MEn values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,614 for SFM and 2,476 for RB. In Exp.2, there was a linear relationship between phosphorus (P) intake and ileal P output for diets with increased levels of SFM and RB. In addition, there was a linear relationship between P intake and P digestibility and retention for diets with increased levels of SFM. There were a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) and a tendency of quadratic effect (P = 0.07) for P digestible and total tract P retained, respectively, in the RB diets. The P digestibility and total tract P retention from regression analyses for SFM were 46% and 38%, respectively.

  19. Energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal and rice bran for broiler chickens using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L F P; Adeola, O

    2016-09-01

    The energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal (SFM) and rice bran (RB) were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from 15 to 22 d of age. In Exp.1, the diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD) and 4 test diets (TD). The TD consisted of SFM and RB that partly replaced the energy sources in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 75 or 150 g/kg, respectively, such that the equal ratios were maintained for all energy containing ingredients across all experimental diets. In Exp.2, a cornstarch-soybean meal diet was the RD and TD consisting of SFM and RB that partly replaced cornstarch in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 60 or 120 g/kg, respectively. Addition of SFM and RB to the RD in Exp.1 linearly decreased (P < 0.01) the digestibility coefficients of DM, energy, ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizability coefficients of DM, nitrogen (N), energy, N correct energy, metabolize energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected ME. Except for RB, the increased levels of the test ingredients in RD did affect the metabolizability coefficients of N. The IDE values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,953 for SFM and 2,498 for RB; ME values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,893 for SFM and 2,683 for RB; and MEn values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,614 for SFM and 2,476 for RB. In Exp.2, there was a linear relationship between phosphorus (P) intake and ileal P output for diets with increased levels of SFM and RB. In addition, there was a linear relationship between P intake and P digestibility and retention for diets with increased levels of SFM. There were a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) and a tendency of quadratic effect (P = 0.07) for P digestible and total tract P retained, respectively, in the RB diets. The P digestibility and total tract P retention from regression analyses for SFM were 46% and 38%, respectively. PMID:26976902

  20. Energy technology and American democratic values

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Today, the benefits of liberal democracy have increasingly been cast into doubt. The debate over alternative energy policies illustrates the problems associated with liberal democracy. For many, it is the realization that energy choices and the selection of social and political values amount to much the same thing. Simply put, energy policy decisions, and the concomitant energy technologies, carry implications of an ethical, social and political nature. The argument of the social and political effects of energy technology flows from the more general thesis that all forms of technological practice condition social and political relations. That is, technological systems, beyond performing the specific functions for which they were designed, act upon and influence social and political arrangements. Seen in this light, energy technologies are as important to the promotion and preservation of this country's political values as are its institutions and laws. Further, there is evidence to suggest that this country's cherished democratic value of freedom is slowly being eclipsed by the values attendant to corporate capitalism and its singular pursuit of growth. It is this dominance of economic values over political values which provides the environment within which the technological debate is waged. Ultimately, tracing the historic linkage between property and liberty, it is concluded that the preservation of our freedom require new thinking regarding the present configuration of ownership patterns. The questions surrounding energy policy serve to illuminate these concerns.

  1. Effects of reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles composition on digestible and metabolizable energy value and prediction in growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) containing variable ether extract (EE) concentrations and to develop DE and ME prediction equations based on nutritional measurements. Ether extract content of corn-DDGS ranged...

  2. Compositional effects of corn distillers dried grains with variable oil content on digestible, metabolizable, and net energy values in growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted in growing-finishing pigs to determine the DE and ME (Exp. 1, 96.3 kg BW) and NE (Exp. 2, 45.4 kg BW) content of corn-distillers dried grains with solubles (C-DDGS) in an effort to develop DE, ME, and NE prediction equations based on chemical composition of C-DDGS. Com...

  3. Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets1234

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Janet A; Gebauer, Sarah K; Baer, David J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The energy content of foods is primarily determined by the Atwater factors, which may not be accurate for certain food groups. Nuts are a food group for which substantial evidence suggests that the Atwater factors may be poorly predictive. Objective: A study was conducted to determine the energy value of almonds in the human diet and to compare the measured energy value with the value calculated from the Atwater factors. Design: Eighteen healthy adults consumed a controlled diet or an almond-containing diet for 18 d. Three treatments were administered to subjects in a crossover design, and diets contained 1 of 3 almond doses: 0, 42, or 84 g/d. During the final 9 d of the treatment period, volunteers collected all urine and feces, and samples of diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for macronutrient and energy contents. The metabolizable energy content of the almonds was determined. Results: The energy content of almonds in the human diet was found to be 4.6 ± 0.8 kcal/g, which is equivalent to 129 kcal/28-g serving. This is significantly less than the energy density of 6.0–6.1 kcal/g as determined by the Atwater factors, which is equivalent to an energy content of 168–170 kcal/serving. The Atwater factors, when applied to almonds, resulted in a 32% overestimation of their measured energy content. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the inaccuracies of the Atwater factors for certain applications and provides a rigorous method for determining empirically the energy value of individual foods within the context of a mixed diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01007188. PMID:22760558

  4. Value of the energy data base

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Roderer, N.K.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.

    1982-03-31

    An assessment was made of the Energy Data Base (EDB) of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center (TIC). As the major resource containing access information to the world's energy literature, EDB products and services are used extensively by energy researchers to identify journal articles, technical reports and other items of potential utility in their work. The approach taken to assessing value begins with the measurement of extent of use of the EDB. Apparent value is measured in terms of willingness to pay. Consequential value is measured in terms of effect - for searching, the cost of reading which results; and for reading, the savings which result from the application of the information obtained in reading. Resulting estimates of value reflect value to the searchers, the reader, and the reader's organization or funding source. A survey of the 60,000 scientists and eingineers funded by the DOE shows that annually they read about 7.1 million journal articles and 6.6 million technical reports. A wide range of savings values were reported for one-fourth of all article readings and three-fourths of all report readings. There was an average savings of $590 per reading of all articles; there was an average savings of $1280 for technical reports. The total annual savings attributable to reading by DOE-funded scientists and engineers is estimated to be about $13 billion. An investment of $5.3 billion in the generation of information and about $500 million in processing and using information yields a partial return of about $13 billion. Overall, this partial return on investment is about 2.2 to 1. In determining the value of EDB only those searches and readings directly attributable to it are included in the analysis. The values are $20 million to the searchers, $117 million to the readers and $3.6 billion to DOE.

  5. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  6. Effects of microbial xylanase on digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy and the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in rice coproducts fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, fiber, and GE by weanling pigs and the concentration of DE and ME in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, and broken rice is improved if microbial xylanase is added to the diet. Eighty pigs (13.6 ± 0.8 kg initial BW) were allotted to 10 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 40 pigs. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal and 4 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each of the 4 rice coproducts were formulated. The rice coproducts and corn and soybean meal were the only sources of energy in the diets. Five additional diets that were similar to the initial 5 diets with the exception that they also contained 16,000 units of xylanase (Econase XT-25; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK) were also formulated. All diets also contained 1,500 units of microbial phytase (Quantum Blue 5G; AB Vista). The DE and ME and the ATTD of DM, OM, fiber, and GE in diets and ingredients were calculated using the direct method and the difference method, respectively. Results indicated that the concentrations of DE and ME (DM basis) in FFRB and DFRB increased ( < 0.05) if xylanase was used. Broken rice had a greater ( < 0.05) concentration of DE and ME than FFRB and DFRB if no xylanase was added to the diets, but if xylanase was used, no differences in ME among FFRB, brown rice, and broken rice were observed. The ATTD of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in ingredients with xylanase than in ingredients without xylanase and there was a tendency ( = 0.067) for the ATTD of OM to be greater if xylanase was used. The ATTD of NDF in FFRB was greater ( < 0.05) when xylanase was added than if no xylanase was used, whereas the ATTD of NDF in DFRB was not affected by the addition of xylanase. In conclusion, if no xylanase was used, broken rice and brown rice have greater concentrations of DE and ME than FFRB

  7. [Utilizable value of wild economic plant resource--acron kernel].

    PubMed

    He, R; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Xiong, T

    2000-04-01

    Peking whites breeding hens were selected. Using true metabolizable energy method (TME) to evaluate the available nutritive value of acorn kernel, while maize and rice were used as control. The results showed that the contents of gross energy (GE), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), true metabolizable energy (TME) and crude protein (CP) in the acorn kernel were 16.53 mg/kg-1, 11.13 mg.kg-1, 11.66 mg.kg-1 and 10.63%, respectively. The apparent availability and true availability of crude protein were 45.55% and 49.83%. The gross content of 17 amino acids, essential amino acids and semiessential amino acids were 9.23% and 4.84%. The true availability of amino acid and the content of true available amino acid were 60.85% and 6.09%. The contents of tannin and hydrocyanic acid were 4.55% and 0.98% in acorn kernel. The available nutritive value of acorn kernel is similar to maize or slightly lower, but slightly higher than that of rice. Acorn kernel is a wild economic plant resource to exploit and utilize but it contains higher tannin and hydrocyanic acid. PMID:11767593

  8. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  9. Dietary fiber for dogs: II. Iso-total dietary fiber (TDF) additions of divergent fiber sources to dog diets and their effects on nutrient intake, digestibility, metabolizable energy and digesta mean retention time.

    PubMed

    Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Corbin, J E; Hamilton, A K; Serbe, K A; Hirakawa, D A

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine widely divergent fiber sources for their efficacy as ingredients in a meat-based dog diet and to determine the effects of these fibers on fecal excretion responses and mean retention time of marked fiber in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog. Fiber sources tested included beet pulp (BP), tomato pomace (TP), peanut hulls (PH), wheat bran (WB) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide-treated wheat straw (AHPWS). Diets were isonitrogenous (5.3% N) and iso-total dietary fiber (TDF; 12.5%). Thirty female English Pointers (five/treatment) were used in the experiment. Intakes of DM and OM were similar among treatments. The highest intakes of ether extract (EE) occurred on the TP, PH and WB treatments. Dogs fed PH ingested the most crude fiber (23.6 g/d), NDF (53.5 g/d), ADF (34.3 g/d) and TDF (59.7 g/d). Digestibilities of DM and OM for all fiber treatments were lower than the control (87.6 vs 81.8% for DM; 90.2 vs 85.4% for OM), but values were similar among fiber sources. The highest EE and N digestibilities occurred on the control and AHPWS treatments. No differences were noted among exogenous fiber-containing treatments in fiber component digestibility. Digestible energy and ME values generally were similar among treatments. Among fiber sources, BP resulted in the greatest amount of wet feces excreted (270 g/d) and the lowest fecal DM (30.3%). No differences among fiber sources were noted in frequency of defecation or mean retention time. Iso-TDF diets (containing, on average, 12.5% TDF) appear to be utilized similarly, regardless of the diversity in sources of fiber tested.

  10. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    become heavily involved in oil and gas extraction projects in the region, in particular in Kazakhstan. Yet, efforts to transport that energy to western markets without Russian involvement have met with strong resistance. This thesis demonstrates that part of the reason western firms have been less successful than they hoped to be is because western firms, in particular American firms, are so bound by western ethical norms and the statues that codify them, that they have lost their competitive advantage. The thesis concludes with a discussion of the current day balance of energy resources in Europe, noting that Europe is rapidly growing heavily dependent on Russian oil and gas resources. Given the precedents shown in Georgia and Ukraine, it is only a matter of time before Europe grows so dependent on Russian energy that the individual countries will lose their political and economic independence and in turn, their ability to project western values and values-based ideas throughout the world with impunity.

  11. The Effect of Inclusion Level of Soybean Oil and Palm Oil on Their Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content Determined with the Difference and Regression Method When Fed to Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongbo; She, Yue; Huang, Qiang; Shi, Chuanxin; Li, Zhongchao; Huang, Chengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Li, Defa

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of soybean oil (SO) and palm oil (PO) on their digestible and metabolism energy (DE and ME) contents when fed to growing pigs by difference and regression method. Sixty-six crossbred growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire and weighing 38.1±2.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 2×5 factorial arrangement involving 2 lipid sources (SO and PO), and 5 levels of lipid (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) as well as a basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal. The barrows were housed in individual metabolism crates to facilitate separate collection of feces and urine, and were fed the assigned test diets at 4% of initial body weight per day. A 5-d total collection of feces and urine followed a 7-d diet adaptation period. The results showed that the DE and ME contents of SO and PO determined by the difference method were not affected by inclusion level. The DE and ME determined by the regression method for SO were greater compared with the corresponding respective values for PO (DE: 37.07, ME: 36.79 MJ/kg for SO; DE: 34.11, ME: 33.84 MJ/kg for PO, respectively). These values were close to the DE and ME values determined by the difference method at the 10% inclusion level (DE: 37.31, ME: 36.83 MJ/kg for SO; DE: 34.62, ME: 33.47 MJ/kg for PO, respectively). A similar response for the apparent total tract digestibility of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in lipids was observed. The true total tract digestibility of AEE in SO was significantly (p<0.05) greater than that for PO (97.5% and 91.1%, respectively). In conclusion, the DE and ME contents of lipid was not affected by its inclusion level. The difference method can substitute the regression method to determine the DE and ME contents in lipids when the inclusion level is 10%. PMID:26580443

  12. The Effect of Inclusion Level of Soybean Oil and Palm Oil on Their Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content Determined with the Difference and Regression Method When Fed to Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Su, Yongbo; She, Yue; Huang, Qiang; Shi, Chuanxin; Li, Zhongchao; Huang, Chengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Li, Defa

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of soybean oil (SO) and palm oil (PO) on their digestible and metabolism energy (DE and ME) contents when fed to growing pigs by difference and regression method. Sixty-six crossbred growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire and weighing 38.1±2.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 2×5 factorial arrangement involving 2 lipid sources (SO and PO), and 5 levels of lipid (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) as well as a basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal. The barrows were housed in individual metabolism crates to facilitate separate collection of feces and urine, and were fed the assigned test diets at 4% of initial body weight per day. A 5-d total collection of feces and urine followed a 7-d diet adaptation period. The results showed that the DE and ME contents of SO and PO determined by the difference method were not affected by inclusion level. The DE and ME determined by the regression method for SO were greater compared with the corresponding respective values for PO (DE: 37.07, ME: 36.79 MJ/kg for SO; DE: 34.11, ME: 33.84 MJ/kg for PO, respectively). These values were close to the DE and ME values determined by the difference method at the 10% inclusion level (DE: 37.31, ME: 36.83 MJ/kg for SO; DE: 34.62, ME: 33.47 MJ/kg for PO, respectively). A similar response for the apparent total tract digestibility of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in lipids was observed. The true total tract digestibility of AEE in SO was significantly (p<0.05) greater than that for PO (97.5% and 91.1%, respectively). In conclusion, the DE and ME contents of lipid was not affected by its inclusion level. The difference method can substitute the regression method to determine the DE and ME contents in lipids when the inclusion level is 10%.

  13. Energy values of nine Populus clones

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper compares calorific values for components of nine Populus clones. The components include stem wood, stem bark, and branches. Also compared are calorific values for clones of balsam poplar and black cottonwood parentages.

  14. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  15. 2011 EnergyValue Housing Award Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sagan, D.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the simulation tool(s) and energy modeling methodology followed in making the energy efficiency estimates and documents the estimated performance of the EVHA award winning houses in comparison with the Building America Benchmark and the associated House Simulation Protocols. A summary of each building and its features is included with a brief description of the project and the judges' comments. The purpose of this report is to assess the energy performance of the 2011 EVHA winners as well as align the EVHA Program with the Building America Program.

  16. 2011 EnergyValue Housing Award Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sagan, D.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the simulation tool(s) and energy modeling methodology followed in making the energy efficiency estimates, and documents the estimated performance of the EVHA award-winning houses in comparison with the Building America Benchmark and the associated House Simulation Protocols. A summary of each building and its features is included with a brief description of the project and the judges’ comments.

  17. Commercially available avian and mammalian whole prey diet items targeted for consumption by managed exotic and domestic pet felines: true metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay.

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Kappen, K L; Garner, L M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Swanson, K S

    2014-10-01

    Whole prey diets are commonly used in the zoo and home setting for captive exotic and domestic cats, respectively. Despite their increase in popularity, nutrient digestibility of such diets has been poorly studied. In this study, the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay was used to determine the protein quality and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) of 17 whole prey samples (mice [1 to 2 , 10 to 13 , 21 to 25 , 30 to 40 , and 150 to 180 d old], rats [1 to 4, 10 to 13, 21 to 25, 32 to 42, and >60 d old], rabbits [stillborn, 30 to 45 d old, and >65 d old], chicken [1 to 3 d old], and quail [1 to 3, 21 to 40, and >60 d old]) and 2 ground poultry-based products (chicken and duck). Amino acid score (AAS) and protein digestibility corrected AAS (PDCAAS) were calculated using the nutrient profile recommendations for domestic cat food as a reference value (AAFCO, 2012). Average individual indispensable AA (IAA) and total IAA (TIAA) digestibility coefficients were variable anddepended on AA (84 to 94% TIAA, 85 to 95% Arg, 87 to 96% His, 82 to 92% Ile, 84 to 94% Leu, 85 to 93% Lys, 89 to 97% Met, 83 to 94% Phe, 80 to 95% Thr, 84 to 94% Trp, and 80 to 93% Val) and sample. For a majority of the whole prey items, AA concentrations were greater than the Association of American Feed Control Officials ( AAFCO: , 2012) domestic cat nutrient profile recommendations for growth and reproduction and adult maintenance; however, some whole prey had AA concentrations below the AAFCO (2012) recommendations: Met + Cys (1.10% DM) in ground duck (1.06% DM) and taurine (Tau; 0.20% DM) in 30-to-45- and >65-d-old rabbits (0.01 and 0.10% DM, respectively), 150-to-180-d-old mice (0.18% DM), and ground duck (0.15% DM). The TMEn (3.76 to 6.44 kcal/g DM) expressed as the percent of GE (i.e., TMEn/GE) ranged from 66 to 85%, demonstrating how variable the digestibility of these items may be and justifying more research in this area. Both Met and Tau are commonly added to commercial pet foods, so

  18. Implementation of Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, B; Brown, D A; Daffin, F; Hedstrom, J; Vogt, R

    2007-08-08

    We discuss how the fission Q values for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu depend on the energy of the incident neutron. We then describe how these values have been implemented in mcfgen etc. This paper describes the calculation of energy-dependent fission Q values by Madland [1] and explains how it has been implemented in the ENDL database for use in the LLNL codes.

  19. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  20. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  1. Nutrient digestibility and energy value of sheep rations differing in protein level, main protein source and non-forage fibre source.

    PubMed

    Milis, Ch; Liamadis, D

    2008-02-01

    Two in vivo digestion trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of diet's crude protein (CP) level, N degradability, and non-forage fibre source (NFFS) on nutrient digestibility and energy value of sheep rations. In each trial, rams were fed four isocaloric and isofibrous rations, differing in main protein and/or NFFS source. At the first trial, mean CP/metabolizable energy (ME) ratio of the diets was 17 g/MJ ME and at the second trial, 13 g/MJ ME. At both trials, the first ration contained cotton seed cake (CSC) and wheat bran (WB), the second CSC and corn gluten feed (CGF), the third corn gluten meal (CGM) and WB and the fourth CGM and CGF. Data of both trials were analysed in common as 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. Low N degradability (CGM) had positive effect on CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility of the ration. Those results suggest that an increase in rumen undegradable protein (RUP) content does not negatively affect nutrient digestibility of sheep rations. Corn gluten feed significantly elevated crude fibre (CF) digestibility, in comparison with WB. Rations having high CP/ME ratio had higher digestibility of CP in comparison with those having low CP/ME ratio; the opposite was true for ether extract, CF, NDF and ADF digestibilities. CP level x N degradability interaction negatively affected energy value of the rations that had high CP level and high N degradability. Former suggest that when CP content is high then N degradability should be low otherwise ration's ME is negatively affected. CP digestibility and coefficient q of the rations containing WB and having high N degradability (N degradability x NFFS interaction) were the lowest suggesting that the combination of CSC and WB negatively affected CP digestibility and energy value of the ration. This could be explained by a reduced microbial CP synthesis, or lower RUP digestibility or both. PMID:18184379

  2. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  3. Energy and expectation values of the PsH system

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.

    2006-05-15

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for PsH are computed using a ground state wave function consisting of 1800 explicitly correlated gaussians. The best estimate of the Ps{sup {infinity}}H energy was -0.789 196 740 hartree which is the lowest variational energy to date. The 2{gamma} annihilation rate for Ps{sup {infinity}}H was 2.471 78x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}.

  4. Energy-Dependent Fission Q Values Generalized for All Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-09-25

    We generalize Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q values on incident neutron energy, E{sub n}, for all major and minor actinides. These Q(E{sub n}) parameterizations are included in the ENDL2008 release. This paper describes calculations of energy-dependent fission Q values based on parameterizations of the prompt energy release in fission [1], developed by Madland [1] to describe the prompt energy release in neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu. The energy release is then related to the energy deposited during fission so that experimentally measurable quantities can be used to obtain the Q values. A discussion of these specific parameterizations and their implementation in the processing code for Monte Carlo neutron transport, MCFGEN, [2] is described in Ref. [3]. We extend this model to describe Q(E) for all actinides, major and minor, in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) 2008 release, ENDL2008.

  5. Improved value for the silicon free exciton binding energy

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Martin A.

    2013-11-15

    The free exciton binding energy is a key parameter in silicon material and device physics. In particular, it provides the necessary link between the energy threshold for valence to conduction band optical absorption and the bandgap determining electronic properties. The long accepted low temperature binding energy value of 14.7 ± 0.4 meV is reassessed taking advantage of developments subsequent to its original determination, leading to the conclusion that this value is definitely an underestimate. Using three largely independent experimental data sets, an improved low temperature value of 15.01 ± 0.06 meV is deduced, in good agreement with the most comprehensive theoretical calculations to date.

  6. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 2: System value

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Assumptions and techniques employed by the electric utility industry and other electricity planners to make estimates of the future value of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected with U.S. electric utilities were examined. Existing estimates of PV value and their interpretation and limitations are discussed. PV value is defined as the marginal private savings accruing to potential PV owners. For utility-owned PV systems, these values are shown to be the after-tax savings in conventional fuel and capacity displaced by the PV output. For non-utility-owned (distributed) systems, the utility's savings in fuel and capacity must first be translated through the electric rate structure (prices) to the potential PV system owner. Base-case estimates of the average value of PV systems to U.S. utilities are presented. The relationship of these results to the PV Program price goals and current energy policy is discussed; the usefulness of PV output quantity goals is also reviewed.

  7. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 2: System value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-10-01

    Assumptions and techniques employed by the electric utility industry and other electricity planners to make estimates of the future value of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected with U.S. electric utilities were examined. Existing estimates of PV value and their interpretation and limitations are discussed. PV value is defined as the marginal private savings accruing to potential PV owners. For utility-owned PV systems, these values are shown to be the after-tax savings in conventional fuel and capacity displaced by the PV output. For non-utility-owned (distributed) systems, the utility's savings in fuel and capacity must first be translated through the electric rate structure (prices) to the potential PV system owner. Base-case estimates of the average value of PV systems to U.S. utilities are presented. The relationship of these results to the PV Program price goals and current energy policy is discussed; the usefulness of PV output quantity goals is also reviewed.

  8. Energy analysis of nonmarket values of the Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    Cardoch, L; Day, J W

    2001-11-01

    An energy analysis was used to estimate nonmarket values under various land cover scenarios in the Mississippi Delta. Land loss since 1900 has led to a decline in nonmarket values from $3.1 billion/year in 1900 to $2.5 billion in 1990, resulting in a total loss of $29.4 billion. This loss is concentrated in the Barataria-Terrebonne basins, where nonmarket value has dropped from $1.6 billion/year in 1956 to $1.3 billion/year in 1988. Although values are projected to increase in the Atchafalaya basin (from $723 million/year in 1988 to $756 million/year in 2058), total nonmarket value for the Louisiana coast is projected to decrease to $2.1 billion/year under currently approved levels of restoration.

  9. Energy Management in Higher Education: Value for Money Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, Edinburgh.

    This Value for Money project provides an update of the 1996 "Energy Management Study in the Higher Education Sector: National Report." It reviews the management arrangement for utilities in the higher education (HE) sector, and it identifies key actions and future issues that must be addressed by HE institutions in developing a strategic policy…

  10. The perceived value of using BIM for energy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Anderson M.

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is becoming an increasingly important tool in the Architectural, Engineering & Construction (AEC) industries. Some of the benefits associated with BIM include but are not limited to cost and time savings through greater trade and design coordination, and more accurate estimating take-offs. BIM is a virtual 3D, parametric design software that allows users to store information of a model within and can be used as a communication platform between project stakeholders. Likewise, energy simulation is an integral tool for predicting and optimizing a building's performance during design. Creating energy models and running energy simulations can be a time consuming activity due to the large number of parameters and assumptions that must be addressed to achieve reasonably accurate results. However, leveraging information imbedded within Building Information Models (BIMs) has the potential to increase accuracy and reduce the amount of time required to run energy simulations and can facilitate continuous energy simulations throughout the design process, thus optimizing building performance. Although some literature exists on how design stakeholders perceive the benefits associated with leveraging BIM for energy simulation, little is known about how perceptions associated with leveraging BIM for energy simulation differ between various green design stakeholder user groups. Through an e-survey instrument, this study seeks to determine how perceptions of using BIMs to inform energy simulation differ among distinct design stakeholder groups, which include BIM-only users, energy simulation-only users and BIM and energy simulation users. Additionally, this study seeks to determine what design stakeholders perceive as the main barriers and benefits of implementing BIM-based energy simulation. Results from this study suggest that little to no correlation exists between green design stakeholders' perceptions of the value associated with using

  11. Value of storage technologies for wind and solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braff, William A.; Mueller, Joshua M.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2016-10-01

    Wind and solar industries have grown rapidly in recent years but they still supply only a small fraction of global electricity. The continued growth of these industries to levels that significantly contribute to climate change mitigation will depend on whether they can compete against alternatives that provide high-value energy on demand. Energy storage can transform intermittent renewables for this purpose but cost improvement is needed. Evaluating diverse storage technologies on a common scale has proved a major challenge, however, owing to their widely varying performance along the two dimensions of energy and power costs. Here we devise a method to compare storage technologies, and set cost improvement targets. Some storage technologies today are shown to add value to solar and wind energy, but cost reduction is needed to reach widespread profitability. The optimal cost improvement trajectories, balancing energy and power costs to maximize value, are found to be relatively location invariant, and thus can inform broad industry and government technology development strategies.

  12. Enhanced Extracorporeal CO2 Removal by Regional Blood Acidification: Effect of Infusion of Three Metabolizable Acids.

    PubMed

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Kreyer, Stefan; Linden, Katharina; Belenkiy, Slava; Pesenti, Antonio; Zanella, Alberto; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2015-01-01

    Acidification of blood entering a membrane lung (ML) with lactic acid enhances CO2 removal (VCO2ML). We compared the effects of infusion of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on VCO2ML. Three sheep were connected to a custom-made circuit, consisting of a Hemolung device (Alung Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA), a hemofilter (NxStage, NxStage Medical, Lawrence, MA), and a peristaltic pump recirculating ultrafiltrate before the ML. Blood flow was set at 250 ml/min, gas flow (GF) at 10 L/min, and recirculating ultrafiltrate flow at 100 ml/min. Acetic (4.4 M), citric (0.4 M), or lactic (4.4 M) acids were infused in the ultrafiltrate at 1.5 mEq/min, for 2 hours each, in randomized fashion. VCO2ML was measured by the Hemolung built-in capnometer. Circuit and arterial blood gas samples were collected at baseline and during acid infusion. Hemodynamics and ventilation were monitored. Acetic, citric, or lactic acids similarly enhanced VCO2ML (+35%), from 37.4 ± 3.6 to 50.6 ± 7.4, 49.8 ± 5.6, and 52.0 ± 8.2 ml/min, respectively. Acids similarly decreased pH, increased pCO2, and reduced HCO3 of the post-acid extracorporeal blood sample. No significant effects on arterial gas values, ventilation, or hemodynamics were observed. In conclusion, it is possible to increase VCO2ML by more than one-third using any one of the three metabolizable acids.

  13. Effect of corn silage hybrid and metabolizable protein supply on nitrogen metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J

    2006-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrid and supply of metabolizable protein (MP) on manure excretion and N metabolism by lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein cows in midlactation (replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods) were fed 1 of 4 treatments, arranged factorially. Diets contained 55% corn silage made from a dual-purpose hybrid or a brown midrib (BMR) hybrid, and 45% concentrate that contained either a low or high concentration of rumen undegradable protein (altered by the addition of fish meal and treated soybean meal). Crude protein averaged 14.0 and 17.5% and supply of MP averaged 2,360 and 2,990 g/d for the low and high MP treatments (not affected by hybrid). Increasing supply of MP greatly increased urine output and tended to increase total manure output, whereas diets with BMR silage tended to reduce manure output. Increased MP supply increased daily excretion of manure N by 25% (465 vs. 374 g/d), fecal N by 27 g, and urinary N by 64 g. When the effect of N intake was removed, cows fed BMR silage excreted about 15 g/d less N via manure than cows fed the other silage. Rumen ammonia, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and pH were not affected by treatment. Dry matter intake (overall mean = 24.9 kg/d) tended to be increased with increased MP but was not affected by hybrid. Milk production for cows fed BMR was higher than for cows fed the dual-purpose hybrid (36.9 vs. 35.3 kg/d), but because of changes in fat concentration, yield of energy-corrected milk was not affected by treatment. The only interaction observed was increased yield of milk protein when BMR silage was combined with increased supply of MP.

  14. Low-Energy Monte Carlo and W-Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosswendt, B.

    Electrons in the low-energy range of about 1 keV or less play an important role in many fields of radiation research for two reasons: firstly, they are created in large numbers during the passage of all kinds of ionizing radiation through matter, and secondly, they have a linear energy transfer comparable to that of low-energy protons and a-particles, and accordingly they are responsible for the greater part of radiation damage observable in any material. A detailed understanding of the action of low-energy electrons in matter therefore is required in many contexts. In the fields of dosimetry, for example, the determination of the absorbed dose in water or the air kerma is great practical importance, but in most experiments only the amount of ionization produced by secondary electrons within the sensitive volume of a dosimeter can be measured. The results of ionization measurements therefore must converted to quantities based on energy absorption or energy transfer, either by calibration or numerically using an appropriate conversion factor. The most frequently used conversion factor is the so-called W-value, which is the mean energy required to produce an ion pair upon complete slowing down of a charged particle. Its relation to the primary particle kinetic energy T, and to the mean n umber N i of ionizations produced (ionization yield), is given by

  15. Generalized Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2010-03-31

    We extend Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q value for major and minor actinides on the incident neutron energies in the range 0 {le} E{sub n} {le} 20 MeV. Our parameterization is based on the actinide evaluations recommended for the ENDF/B-VII.1 release. This paper describes the calculation of energydependent fission Q values based on the calculation of the prompt energy release in fission by Madland. This calculation was adopted for use in the LLNL ENDL database and then generalized to obtain the prompt fission energy release for all actinides. Here the calculation is further generalized to the total energy release in fission. There are several stages in a fission event, depending on the time scale. Neutrons and gammas may be emitted at any time during the fission event.While our discussion here is focussed on compound nucleus creation by an incident neutron, similar parameterizations could be obtained for incident gammas or spontaneous fission.

  16. Values, perceived risks and benefits, and acceptability of nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda; Poortinga, Wouter

    2013-02-01

    We examined how personal values and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with the acceptability of nuclear energy (NE). A theoretical model is tested in which beliefs about the risks and benefits of NE mediate the relationship between values and acceptability. The results showed that egoistic values are positively related to the perceived benefits and acceptability of NE. In contrast, altruistic and biospheric values were positively related to the perceived risks of NE. Although it has been argued that NE may help to combat climate change through lower CO(2) emissions, these environmental benefits were not acknowledged by people with strong biospheric values. Furthermore, results confirmed that the more risks respondents perceived, the less they were inclined to accept NE. In contrast, the more a person believed that NE has beneficial consequences, the more acceptable NE was. Finally, as expected, perceived risks and benefits were found to partly mediate the relationship between personal values and acceptability. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  17. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-06-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  18. The Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Hummon, Marissa; Jenkin, Thomas; Palchak, David; Kirby, Brendan; Ma, Ookie; O'Malley, Mark

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  19. Mo uc(v) Energy Levels and f values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lin; Beck, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    Relativistic Configuration Interaction (RCI) calculations have been done for the lowest 12 J=0 even parity levels, and the lowest 30 J=1 odd parity levels of Mo uc(v.) For the J=0 4d^2 and 4d 5d energy differences, the average error is 229 cm-1 ( M. I. Cabeza, F. G. Meijer, and L. Iglesias, Phys. Scr. 34), 223 (1986). For the other J=0 levels, the average difference with experiment (A. Tauheed, M. S. Z. Chaghtai, and K. Rahimullah, Phys. Scr. 31), 369 (1985) is considerably greater. Our average energy errors for the 11 known ^2 J=1 levels is 233 cm-1, excluding the 5s 5p ^1 P level, which is 1580 cm-1 higher than observed ^2. We predict positions of 19 4p^5 4d^3 levels, as well as f values for the 360 transitions between the calculated levels. Gauge agreements are good for transitions with f > .01. Details of the methodology have been published elsewhere (D. R. Beck and L. Pan, Phys. Scr. 69), 91 (2004).

  20. First experimentally determined thermodynamic values of francium: hydration energy, energy of partitioning, and thermodynamic radius.

    PubMed

    Delmau, Lætitia H; Moine, Jérôme; Mirzadeh, Saed; Moyer, Bruce A

    2013-08-01

    The Gibbs energy of partitioning of Fr(+) ion between water and nitrobenzene has been determined to be 14.5 ± 0.6 kJ/mol at 25 °C, the first ever Gibbs energy of partitioning for francium in particular and the first ever solution thermodynamic quantity for francium in general. This value enabled the ionic radius and standard Gibbs energy of hydration for Fr(+) to be estimated as 173 pm and -251 kJ/mol, respectively, the former value being significantly smaller than previously thought. A new experimental method was established using a cesium dicarbollide as a cation-exchange agent, overcoming problems inherent to the trace-level concentrations of francium. The methodology opens the door to the study of the partitioning behavior of francium to other water-immiscible solvents and the determination of complexation constants for francium binding by receptor molecules. PMID:23848436

  1. Energy futures, human values, and lifestyles: a new look at the energy crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Harman, W.W.; Schwartz, P.

    1982-01-01

    A group of SRI International scholars looks beyond the technical difficulties of the energy crisis to determine the basic reasons for the severity of our energy and environmental problems, and finds them in our individual choices of life style. The authors depict two detailed energy-use scenarios for the year 2050, using California as a model. One scenario portrays a future that is a result of our present habits in which we have squandered nearly all of the world's nonrenewable energy resources and neither conserved nor developed renewable resources. The other envisions a slower economic progress that serves long-range human goals and values. As a pacesetter, California illustrates what is possible for the entire country. 82 references, 11 figures, 64 tables.

  2. Amplifying Real Estate Value through Energy&WaterManagement: From ESCO to 'Energy Services Partner'

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2004-06-08

    The energy service company (ESCO) business model could become significantly more effective by integrating the energy-efficiency purveyor and their capital into the underlying building ownership and operation partnership, rather than the current model in which the ESCO remains an outsider with higher transaction costs and limited interest and participation in the value created by the cost savings. Resource conservation advocates rarely use the language of real estate to articulate the cost effectiveness of capital improvements aimed at reducing utility costs in commercial and residential income properties. Conventional methods that rely on rarefied academic notions of simple payback time or a narrow definition of return on investment fail to capture a significant component of the true market value created by virtue of reduced operating expenses. Improvements in energy and water efficiency can increase the fundamental profitability of real estate investments by raising Net Operating Income (NOI), and hence returns during the holding period, and, ultimately, proceeds at time of sale. We introduce the concept of an Energy Services Partner, who takes an equity interest in a real estate partnership in exchange for providing the expertise and capital required to reduce utility operating costs. Profit to all partners increases considerably as a result. This approach would also help to address a crisis facing ESCOs today stemming from their considerable liabilities (through guaranteed savings) and negligible offsetting assets.

  3. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%<3 was observed. In mixed diets, the DF energy may cause slight variations in total energy; on the other hand, there is appreciable energy D% for certain foods, when individually considered.

  4. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  5. Valuing uncertain cash flows from investments that enhance energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Luis M; Chamorro, José M; González-Eguino, Mikel

    2013-02-15

    There is a broad consensus that investments to enhance energy efficiency quickly pay for themselves in lower energy bills and spared emission allowances. However, investments that at first glance seem worthwhile usually are not undertaken. One of the plausible, non-excluding explanations is the numerous uncertainties that these investments face. This paper deals with the optimal time to invest in an energy efficiency enhancement at a facility already in place that consumes huge amounts of a fossil fuel (coal) and operates under carbon constraints. We follow the Real Options approach. Our model comprises three sources of uncertainty following different stochastic processes which allows for application in a broad range of settings. We assess the investment option by means of a three-dimensional binomial lattice. We compute the trigger investment cost, i.e., the threshold level below which immediate investment would be optimal. We analyze the major drivers of this decision thus aiming at the most promising policies in this regard.

  6. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    PubMed

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32% (for Mn) up to 14.8% (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02% (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8% (for Mg and Na). PMID:26286964

  7. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    PubMed

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32% (for Mn) up to 14.8% (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02% (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8% (for Mg and Na).

  8. Saving Energy in Historic Buildings: Balancing Efficiency and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, John H.; Randall, Brad

    2012-01-01

    By now the slogan of the National Trust for Historic Preservation that "the greenest building is the one already built" is widely known. In an era of increased environmental awareness and rising fuel prices, however, the question is how can historic building stock be made more energy efficient in a manner respectful of its historic integrity and…

  9. Apparent digestible energy value of crude glycerol fed to pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent digestible energy of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was determined in two studies conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. In the first study, 24 barrows with an average body weight of 11.0 kg were fed 376 g/d of a basal corn...

  10. The bactericidal activity of β-lactam antibiotics is increased by metabolizable sugar species.

    PubMed

    Thorsing, Mette; Bentin, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Goltermann, Lise

    2015-10-01

    Here, the influence of metabolizable sugars on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to β-lactam antibiotics was investigated. Notably, monitoring growth and survival of mono- and combination-treated planktonic cultures showed a 1000- to 10 000-fold higher antibacterial efficacy of carbenicillin and cefuroxime in the presence of certain sugars, whereas other metabolites had no effect on β-lactam sensitivity. This effect was unrelated to changes in growth rate. Light microscopy and flow cytometry profiling revealed that bacterial filaments, formed due to β-lactam-mediated inhibition of cell division, rapidly appeared upon β-lactam mono-treatment and remained stable for up to 18 h. The presence of metabolizable sugars in the medium did not change the rate of filamentation, but led to lysis of the filaments within a few hours. No lysis occurred in E. coli mutants unable to metabolize the sugars, thus establishing sugar metabolism as an important factor influencing the bactericidal outcome of β-lactam treatment. Interestingly, the effect of sugar on β-lactam susceptibility was suppressed in a strain unable to synthesize the nutrient stress alarmone (p)ppGpp. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time a specific and significant increase in β-lactam sensitivity due to sugar metabolism in planktonic, exponentially growing bacteria, unrelated to general nutrient availability or growth rate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the nutritional influences on antibiotic sensitivity is likely to reveal new proteins or pathways that can be targeted by novel compounds, adding to the list of pharmacodynamic adjuvants that increase the efficiency and lifespan of conventional antibiotics.

  11. Valuing uncertain cash flows from investments that enhance energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Luis M; Chamorro, José M; González-Eguino, Mikel

    2013-02-15

    There is a broad consensus that investments to enhance energy efficiency quickly pay for themselves in lower energy bills and spared emission allowances. However, investments that at first glance seem worthwhile usually are not undertaken. One of the plausible, non-excluding explanations is the numerous uncertainties that these investments face. This paper deals with the optimal time to invest in an energy efficiency enhancement at a facility already in place that consumes huge amounts of a fossil fuel (coal) and operates under carbon constraints. We follow the Real Options approach. Our model comprises three sources of uncertainty following different stochastic processes which allows for application in a broad range of settings. We assess the investment option by means of a three-dimensional binomial lattice. We compute the trigger investment cost, i.e., the threshold level below which immediate investment would be optimal. We analyze the major drivers of this decision thus aiming at the most promising policies in this regard. PMID:23295678

  12. Environment and energy in Iceland: A comparative analysis of values and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhallsdottir, Thora Ellen . E-mail: theth@hi.is

    2007-08-15

    Within an Icelandic framework plan for energy, environmental values and impacts were estimated in multicriteria analyses for 19 hydroelectric and 22 geothermal developments. Four natural environment classes were defined (geology + hydrology, species, ecosystems + soils, landscape + wilderness) with cultural heritage as the fifth class. Values and impacts were assessed through 6 agglomerated attributes: richness/diversity, rarity, size/continuity/pristineness, information/symbolic value, international responsibility and visual value. The project offers a unique opportunity for comparing environmental values and impacts within a large sample of sites and energy alternatives treated within a common methodological framework. Total values were higher in hydroelectric than in geothermal areas. Hydroelectric areas scored high for cultural heritage (particularly in rarity and information value), landscape and wilderness. Geothermal areas had high bedrock and hydrological diversity and information values, and a high landscape visual value but little cultural heritage. High values were correlated among some classes of the natural environment, all of which are likely to reflect functional relationships. In contrast, cultural heritage values were not related to natural environment values. Overall, landscape and wilderness had the highest mean value and were also most affected by energy development. Over 40% of the hydroelectric development had a predicted mean impact value of > 4 (out of a maximum of 10), compared with 10% of the geothermal projects. Excluding two outsized hydropower options, there was a significant correlation between plant capacity and impact on geology and hydrology but not with other environmental variables.

  13. Beyond cost-of-energy, the value-of-energy metric and value-centric approaches to design, operations, and maintenance of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Kevin

    This thesis is oriented toward developers, owners, operators and investors of renewable energy projects. With increasing demand of renewables, our energy dependence comes down to reducing costs associated with this sector so as to compete with the existing sources. One way of valuing investment potential is to determine and then compare the overall value derived by investing in a particular project. Several engineering and financial levers, one of which is operation and maintenance, affect this value. This thesis provides a useful visual aid to owners and operators by which they can operate and maintain their wind farm so as to achieve maximum value throughout its lifetime. All the necessary components that go into developing a business model of a wind farm project will be discussed. Finally, this tool is valid within the assumptions that are explicitly stated. Real world data and trends are used to provide a practical approach to the optimization.

  14. Numerical values of the surface free energies of solid chemical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezey, L. Z.; Giber, J.

    1984-10-01

    The applicability of a 'standard table' of values of surface free energies (or enthalpies) obtained by the CCSS (complex calculation of surface segregation) method is demonstrated by comparing calculated surface-free-energy values with several recently published experimental results. The investigation (encompassing temperatures from 1023 to 2075 K) shows that a simplified variation of the second step of CCSS is applicable in the calculation of the surface free energies of polycrystalline solid elements for any temperature of interest.

  15. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    SciTech Connect

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  16. Identification of a chemoreceptor that specifically mediates chemotaxis toward metabolizable purine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Matilde; Morel, Bertrand; Corral-Lugo, Andrés; Krell, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxis is an essential mechanism that enables bacteria to move toward favorable ecological niches. Escherichia coli, the historical model organism for studying chemotaxis, has five well-studied chemoreceptors. However, many bacteria with different lifestyle have more chemoreceptors, most of unknown function. Using a high throughput screening approach, we identified a chemoreceptor from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, named McpH, which specifically recognizes purine and its derivatives, adenine, guanine, xanthine, hypoxanthine and uric acid. The latter five compounds form part of the purine degradation pathway, permitting their use as sole nitrogen sources. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies show that these six compounds bind McpH-Ligand Binding Domain (LBD) with very similar affinity. In contrast, non-metabolizable purine derivatives (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine), nucleotides, nucleosides or pyrimidines are unable to bind McpH-LBD. Mutation of mcpH abolished chemotaxis toward the McpH ligands identified - a phenotype that is restored by complementation. This is the first report on bacterial chemotaxis to purine derivatives and McpH the first chemoreceptor described that responds exclusively to intermediates of a catabolic pathway, illustrating a clear link between metabolism and chemotaxis. The evolution of McpH may reflect a saprophytic lifestyle, which would have exposed the studied bacterium to high concentrations of purines produced by nucleic acid degradation.

  17. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  18. Triple Value System Dynamics Modeling to Help Stakeholders Engage with Food-Energy-Water Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triple Value (3V) Community scoping projects and Triple Value Simulation (3VS) models help decision makers and stakeholders apply systems-analysis methodology to complex problems related to food production, water quality, and energy use. 3VS models are decision support tools that...

  19. Framework for Evaluating the Total Value Proposition of Clean Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional valuation techniques fail to include many of the financial advantages of clean energy technologies. By omitting benefits associated with risk management, emissions reductions, policy incentives, resource use, corporate social responsibility, and societal economic benefits, investors and firms sacrifice opportunities for new revenue streams and avoided costs. In an effort to identify some of these externalities, this analysis develops a total value proposition for clean energy technologies. It incorporates a series of values under each of the above categories, describing the opportunities for recapturing investments throughout the value chain. The framework may be used to create comparable value propositions for clean energy technologies supporting investment decisions, project siting, and marketing strategies. It can also be useful in policy-making decisions.

  20. Apparent Metabolizable Energy Needs of Broiler Chicks Subjected to Diverse Ambient Temperature Regimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early chick performance is adversely affected by inadequate ambient temperatures. Increasing AME may help alleviate poor performance with chicks subjected to low brooding temperatures. This study examined broiler chicks provided diets formulated to either 3,040 or 3,140 kcal AME/kg when subjected to...

  1. Energy conservation standards for new federal residential buildings: A decision analysis study using relative value discounting

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, C. . Coll. of Business Administration); Merkhofer, M.M.; Hamm, G.L. )

    1990-07-02

    This report presents a reassessment of the proposed standard for energy conservation in new federal residential buildings. The analysis uses the data presented in the report, Economic Analysis: In Support of Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings (June 1988)-to be referred to as the EASIECS report. The reassessment differs from that report in several respects. In modeling factual information, it uses more recent forecasts of future energy prices and it uses data from the Bureau of the Census in order to estimate the distribution of lifetimes of residential buildings rather than assuming a hypothetical 25-year lifetime. In modeling social preferences decision analysis techniques are used in order to examine issues of public values that often are not included in traditional cost-benefit analyses. The present report concludes that the public would benefit from the proposed standard. Several issues of public values regarding energy use are illustrated with methods to include them in a formal analysis of a proposed energy policy. The first issue places a value on costs and benefits that will occur in the future as an irreversible consequence of current policy choices. This report discusses an alternative method, called relative value discounting which permits flexible discounting of future events-and the possibility of placing greater values on future events. The second issue places a value on the indirect benefits of energy savings so that benefits accrue to everyone rather than only to the person who saves the energy. This report includes non-zero estimates of the indirect benefits. The third issue is how the costs and benefits discussed in a public policy evaluation should be compared. In summary, selection of individual projects with larger benefit to cost ratios leads to a portfolio of projects with the maximum benefit to cost difference. 30 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs. (JF)

  2. Energy Value Housing Award Guide: How to Build and Profit with Energy Efficiency in New Home Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, J. L.

    2001-06-01

    As concern over the environment grows, builders have the potential to fulfill a market niche by building homes that use fewer resources and have lower environmental impact than conventional construction. Builders can increase their marketability and customer satisfaction and, at the same time, reduce the environmental impact of their homes. However, it takes dedication to build environmentally sound homes along with a solid marketing approach to ensure that customers recognize the added value of energy and resource efficiency. This guide is intended for builders seeking suggestions on how to improve energy and resource efficiency in their new homes. It is a compilation of ideas and concepts for designing, building, and marketing energy- and resource-efficient homes based on the experience of recipients of the national Energy Value Housing Award (EVHA).

  3. Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2012-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  4. Chemical composition and the nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (in situ degradation and in vitro gas production techniques)

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshizadeh, Somayeh; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Janmohammadi, Hossein; Alijani, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    The nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (PE) was evaluated by in situ and in vitro techniques. Chemical analysis indicated that PE was high in crude protein (11.30%) and low in neutral detergent fiber (26.20%). Total phenols, total tannins, condensed tannins and hydrolysable tannins contents in PE were 8.29%, 4.48%, 0.49% and 3.79%, respectively. Ruminal dry matter and crude protein degradation after 48 hr incubation were 75.21% and 82.52%, respectively. The gas production volume at 48 hr for PE was 122.47 mL g-1DM. As a whole, adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) to PE increased (p < 0.05) gas production volumes, organic matter digestibility and the metabolizable energy that illustrated inhibitory effect of phenolics on rumen microbial fermentation and the positive influence of PEG on digestion PE. The results showed that PE possessed potentials to being used as feed supplements. PMID:25568691

  5. Impact of Wind and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-11-01

    This analysis evaluates how the value of energy storage changes when adding variable generation (VG) renewable energy resources to the grid. A series of VG energy penetration scenarios from 16% to 55% were generated for a utility system in the western United States. This operational value of storage (measured by its ability to reduce system production costs) was estimated in each VG scenario, considering provision of different services and with several sensitivities to fuel price and generation mix. Overall, the results found that the presence of VG increases the value of energy storage by lowering off-peak energy prices more than on-peak prices, leading to a greater opportunity to arbitrage this price difference. However, significant charging from renewables, and consequently a net reduction in carbon emissions, did not occur until VG penetration was in the range of 40%-50%. Increased penetration of VG also increases the potential value of storage when providing reserves, mainly by increasing the amount of reserves required by the system. Despite this increase in value, storage may face challenges in capturing the full benefits it provides. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials, reserve prices, and incomplete capture of certain system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit (reduction in production costs) provided to the system. Furthermore, it is unclear how storage will actually incentivize large-scale deployment of renewables needed to substantially increase VG penetration. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  6. Enrichment and stability: a phenomenological coupling of energy value and carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shovonlal; Chattopadhyay, J

    2007-01-01

    Simple predator-prey models with a prey-dependent functional response predict that enrichment (increased carrying capacity) destabilizes community dynamics: this is the 'paradox of enrichment'. However, the energy value of prey is very important in this context. The intraspecific chemical composition of prey species determines its energy value as a food for the potential predator. Theoretical and experimental studies establish that variable chemical composition of prey affects the predator-prey dynamics. Recently, experimental and theoretical approaches have been made to incorporate explicitly the stoichiometric heterogeneity of simple predator-prey systems. Following the results of the previous experimental and theoretical advances, in this article we propose a simple phenomenological formulation of the variation of energy value at increased level of carrying capacity. Results of our study demonstrate that coupling the parameters representing the phenomenological energy value and carrying capacity in a realistic way, may avoid destabilization of community dynamics following enrichment. Additionally, under such coupling the producer-grazer system persists for only an intermediate zone of production--a result consistent with recent studies. We suggest that, while addressing the issue of enrichment in a general predator-prey model, the phenomenological relationship that we propose here might be applicable to avoid Rosenzweig's paradox.

  7. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    PubMed

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  8. Environmental Value Considerations in Public Attitudes About Alternative Energy Development in Oregon and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, Brent S.; Pierce, John C.; Warner, Rebecca L.; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  9. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    PubMed

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management. PMID:25491114

  10. Linear solvation energy relationships: "rule of thumb" for estimation of variable values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, James P.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1991-01-01

    For the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), values are listed for each of the variables (Vi/100, π*, &betam, αm) for fundamental organic structures and functional groups. We give the guidelines to estimate LSER variable values quickly for a vast array of possible organic compounds such as those found in the environment. The difficulty in generating these variables has greatly discouraged the application of this quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. This paper present the first compilation of molecular functional group values together with a utilitarian set of the LSER variable estimation rules. The availability of these variable values and rules should facilitate widespread application of LSER for hazard evaluation of environmental contaminants.

  11. Linear solvation energy relationships: Rules of thumb' for estimation of variable values

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, J.P.; Passino-Reader, D.R. )

    1991-10-01

    For the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), values are listed for each of the variables (V{sub i}/100, {pi}{sup *}, {beta}{sub m}, {alpha}{sub m}) for fundamental organic structures and functional groups. The authors give the guidelines to estimate LSER variable values quickly for a vast array of possible organic compounds such as those found in the environment. The difficulty in generating these variables has greatly discouraged the application of this quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. This paper presents the first compilation of molecular functional group values together with a utilitarian set of the LSER variable estimation rules. The availability of these variable values and rules should facilitate widespread application of LSER for hazard evaluation of environmental contaminants.

  12. The Adaptive Value of Energy Efficiency Programs in a Warmer World

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J; Dirks, James A; Cort, Katherine A

    2005-08-19

    U.S. residential and commercial buildings currently use about 39 quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy per year and account for 0.6 gigatonnes (GT) of carbon emitted to the atmosphere (38% of U.S. total emissions of 1.6 GT and approximately 9% of the world fossil-fuel related anthropogenic emissions of 6.7 GT). The U.S. government has long funded buildings-related energy efficiency research and implementation programs to reduce energy consumption in buildings and to reduce air pollution and carbon emissions that result in global warming. These programs also have value in adapting the U.S. residential and commercial building stock to a potentially warmer world. Analyses conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) show that the world’s climate could warm relative to1990 by 0.4°C to 1.2°C by the year 2030 and by 1.4°C to 5.8°C by the end of the 21st century. This paper shows that the effect of the regional projected warming on energy consumption in U.S. residential and commercial buildings is a net decrease ranging from about 5% in 2020 to as much as 20% in 2080, but with an increase of as much as 25% in temperature-sensitive electricity demand. Calculations of the potential value of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) buildings-related energy efficiency programs on future U.S. energy consumption show site energy savings in 2020 of more than 2 quads, which would more than offset the growth in temperature-sensitive energy consumption due to climate and growth in building stock combined, and would be worth between $28 and $33 billion.

  13. The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy Savings in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M.

    2013-12-01

    Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the potential for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its electricity demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate potential water savings, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy savings. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy savings, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy savings to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008

  14. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Miller, Mackay; Zhou, Ella; Wang, Caixia

    2015-07-20

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  15. Capacity Value of PV and Wind Generation in the NV Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Diao, Ruisheng; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.

    2014-03-21

    Calculation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power capacity values is important for estimating additional load that can be served by new PV or wind installations in the electrical power system. It also is the basis for assigning capacity credit payments in systems with markets. Because of variability in solar and wind resources, PV and wind generation contribute to power system resource adequacy differently from conventional generation. Many different approaches to calculating PV and wind generation capacity values have been used by utilities and transmission operators. Using the NV Energy system as a study case, this report applies peak-period capacity factor (PPCF) and effective load carrying capability (ELCC) methods to calculate capacity values for renewable energy sources. We show the connection between the PPCF and ELCC methods in the process of deriving a simplified approach that approximates the ELCC method. This simplified approach does not require generation fleet data and provides the theoretical basis for a quick check on capacity value results of PV and wind generation. The diminishing return of capacity benefit as renewable generation increases is conveniently explained using the simplified capacity value approach.

  16. Prediction of metabolisable energy value of broiler diets and water excretion from dietary chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Carré, B; Lessire, M; Juin, H

    2013-08-01

    Thirty various pelleted diets were given to broilers (8/diet) for in vivo measurements of dietary metabolisable energy (ME) value and digestibilities of proteins, lipids, starch and sugars from day 27 to day 31, with ad libitum feeding and total collection of excreta. Water excretion was also measured. Amino acid formulation of diets was done on the basis of ratios to crude proteins. Mean in vivo apparent ME values corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) were always lower than the AMEn values calculated for adult cockerels using predicting equations from literature based on the chemical analyses of diets. The difference between mean in vivo AMEn values and these calculated AMEn values increased linearly with increasing amount of wheat in diets (P = 0.0001). Mean digestibilities of proteins, lipids and starch were negatively related to wheat introduction (P = 0.0001). The correlations between mean in vivo AMEn values and diet analytical parameters were the highest with fibre-related parameters, such as water-insoluble cell-walls (WICW) (r = -0.91) or Real Applied Viscosity (RAV) (r = -0.77). Thirteen multiple regression equations relating mean in vivo AMEn values to dietary analytical data were calculated, with R² values ranging from 0.859 to 0.966 (P = 0.0001). The highest R² values were obtained when the RAV parameter was included in independent variables. The direct regression equations obtained with available components (proteins, lipids, starch, sucrose and oligosaccharides) and the indirect regression equations obtained with WICW and ash parameters showed similar R² values. Direct or indirect theoretical equations predicting AMEn values were established using the overall mean in vivo digestibility values. The principle of indirect equations was based on the assumption that WICW and ashes act as diluters. Addition of RAV or wheat content in variables improved the accuracy of theoretical equations. Efficiencies of theoretical equations for predicting AMEn

  17. Numerical values of the surface free energies of solid chemical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezey, L. Z.; Giber, J.

    1984-10-01

    The knowledge of the surface free energies γ {i/o}of solid chemical elements is necessary in many practically important subjects. The description of the quantities γ {i/o}(more correctly termed as the surface free enthalpies) is a part of a new “complex calculation of surface segregation” (CCSS) method, proposed by the authors. Here the applicability of a “standard table” of the values of γ {/i o }, obtained in that part of CCSS is shown by comparing the calculated values of γ {/i o }with several recently published experimental results.

  18. Methodology to determine the technical performance and value proposition for grid-scale energy storage systems :

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Loose, Verne William; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    As the amount of renewable generation increases, the inherent variability of wind and photovoltaic systems must be addressed in order to ensure the continued safe and reliable operation of the nation's electricity grid. Grid-scale energy storage systems are uniquely suited to address the variability of renewable generation and to provide other valuable grid services. The goal of this report is to quantify the technical performance required to provide di erent grid bene ts and to specify the proper techniques for estimating the value of grid-scale energy storage systems.

  19. Metabolizable protein supply modulated the acute-phase response following vaccination of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Arthington, J D

    2013-12-01

    fed 115 vs. 85% MP, and intermediate for steers fed 100% MP (1.63, 1.28, and 1.50 ± 0.099 mg/dL, respectively). Thus, steers provided increasing metabolizable protein had greater plasma concentrations of haptoglobin, creatinine, total protein and PUN following vaccination against M. haemolytica. PMID:24085408

  20. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg.

    PubMed

    Nie, H T; Wan, Y J; You, J H; Wang, Z Y; Lan, S; Fan, Y X; Wang, F

    2015-08-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg(0.75) of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg(0.75) of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep.

  1. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg.

    PubMed

    Nie, H T; Wan, Y J; You, J H; Wang, Z Y; Lan, S; Fan, Y X; Wang, F

    2015-08-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg(0.75) of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg(0.75) of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  2. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg

    PubMed Central

    Nie, H. T.; Wan, Y. J.; You, J. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Lan, S.; Fan, Y. X.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg0.75 of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg0.75 of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  3. The uncertainty analysis on energy scale due to the variation of W value for liquid xenon dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The average energy expended per electron-ion pair, W value, is critical in understanding a liquid xenon detector energy response to low energy recoils. The reduction of scintillation and ionization yield for electronic recoils and nuclear recoils are explained using the scintillation quenching mechanism due to the variation of the average energy expended per electron hole pair, W value, which includes the energy lost to scintillation and phonon generation. We show the theoretical calculation of scintillation efficiency with W value in comparison with experimental data. The impact of variation of W value on the analysis of energy scale is discussed in detail. We conclude that the W value determined with experimental data depends on recoil energy and particle type. This work is supported by NSF in part by the NSF OIA 1434142, DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709, and the State of South Dakota.

  4. Energy expectation value of the two-pion-exchange three-body force in the triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bömelburg, A.

    1983-07-01

    The energetic shift caused by the two-pion-exchange three-nucleon force in the triton is estimated in first order perturbation theory. The triton wave function ψ is gained through a Faddeev calculation using the Reid potential. Within the restricted presentation of ψ strong cancellations between terms of the order of 1 MeV lead to an unimportant small effect. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Energy expectation value of the two-pion-exchange three-nuclear force, Faddeev calculation.

  5. Glucose as substrate and signal in priming: Results from experiments with non-metabolizable glucose analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason-Jones, Kyle; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Priming of soil organic matter remains the subject of intense research, but a mechanistic explanation of the phenomenon remains to be demonstrated. This is largely due to the multiple effects of easily available carbon on the soil microbial community, and the challenge of separating these influences from one another. Several glucose analogues can be taken up by microbial glucose transporters and have similar regulatory effects on metabolism. These substances are, however, not easily catabolized by the common glycolytic pathway, limiting their energy value. Therefore, they can be used to distinguish between the action of glucose as a metabolic signal, and its influence as an energy source. We incubated an agricultural Haplic Luvisol under controlled conditions for 24 days after addition of: 1) glucose, 2) 3-O-methyl-glucose, 3) α-methylglucoside or 4) 2-deoxyglucose, at three concentration levels, along with a control treatment of water addition. CO2 efflux from soil was monitored by trapping evolved CO2 in NaOH and back-titration with HCl. On the first day after amendment, CO2 efflux from soil increased strongly for glucose and much less for the analogues, relative to the control. Only glucose caused a peak in efflux within the first two days. Peak mineralization of 2-deoxyglucose and α-methylglucoside was delayed until the third day, while CO2 from 3-O-methyl-glucose increased gradually, with a peak delayed by approximately a week. For glucose, the immediate increase in respiration was strongly dependent on the amount of glucose added, but this was not the case for the analogues, indicating that the catabolic potential for these substances was saturated. This is consistent with only a small part of the microbial community being capable of utilizing these carbon sources. In a subsequent experiment, 14C-labelled glucose or 14C-labelled 3-O-methyl-glucose were added to the same soil, enabling quantification of the priming effect. For 3-O-methyl-glucose, priming was

  6. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on thiobarbituric acid values, shear values, odor, and cooked yield

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W. )

    1990-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether electron-beam irradiation would affect shear values, yield, odor, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of chicken tissues. Broiler breasts (pectoralis superficialis) and whole thighs were irradiated with an electron-beam accelerator at levels to produce adsorbed doses of 100, 200, and 300 krads on the surface of the sample. The thigh samples were stored for 2, 4, and 8 days before testing for TBA values. The depth to which the radiation had penetrated the pectoralis superficialis muscle was also determined. Radiation penetrated 22 mm into slices of pectoralis superficialis muscle when 100 krad was absorbed by the surface of the tissue. The dose absorbed beneath the tissue surface to a depth of 10 mm was larger than the dose absorbed at the surface. The absorbed dose decreased as the depth of penetration increased. For cooked breast tissue, the shear values and moisture content were not affected by the absorbed radiation. Cooking losses of aged breast tissue were not affected by irradiation, but cooking losses were reduced in breast tissue that had not been aged. Irradiating uncooked thigh and uncooked breast samples produced a characteristic odor that remained after the thighs were cooked but was not detectable after the breast samples were cooked. With two exceptions, no significantly different TBA values were found that could be attributed to irradiation.

  7. Energy partitioning and GPP values in a rotating crop in the Spanish Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, María Luisa; Pardo, Nuria; Perez, Isidro A.; Garcia, M. Angeles

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess crop ability to act as a CO2 sink and to describe GPP dynamic evolution, in 2008 we installed an eddy correlation station located in an agricultural plot of the Spanish plateau. Continuous measurements of 30-min NEE fluxes and other common variables have been measured over four years. Agricultural practices at the selected plot consisted of annual rotation of non-irrigated rapeseed, wheat, peas, rye. The maximum canopy height of rapeseed, wheat and rye was 1.3, 0.6 and 1.6 m respectively, the values being reached at the end of May. Although no measurements were performed in the pea crop, according to the farmer's information the maximum height was approximately 0.45-0.5 m. The quality of long-term eddy covariance data was evaluated by calculating the energy balance closure. This paper presents and compares the seasonal variation of major components involved in the energy balance as well as GPP for each type of crop. An energy balance closure of 92% was found when using the global dataset. On a four-year basis, the sensible heat flux, H, played the main role in the energy balance with a ratio of 52%. Latent heat flux, LE, accounted for 40% of the energy, with soil heat flux contributing around 8% to the energy balance. These values changed during the period of maximum interest. For this period LE played the main role, using over half of the available energy, 51%, related to evapotranspiration processes. Over the four years of study annual accumulated GPP exhibited a great variability, 1680, 710, 730 and 1410 g C m-2 for rapeseed, wheat, peas and rye, respectively. The influence of crop architecture, phenology and climatic conditions dominated crop-to-crop seasonal evolution. The highest LE contributions to the energy balance were found for rapeseed and rye. Higher GPP were also obtained for denser and higher canopy height crops, rapeseed and rye, yielding annuals almost comparable to C4 plants. Both crops exhibited a marked seasonal variation of

  8. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  9. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P < 0.05) in N retention and ME. There was a linear increase in DM, N, and energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P < 0.05) with age. Regression-derived MEn of bakery meal linearly increased (P < 0.05) as the age of birds increased, with values of 2,710, 2,820, and 2,923 kcal/kg DM for 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Based on these results, utilization of energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens.

  10. Tsallis’ non-extensive free energy as a subjective value of an uncertain reward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies in neuroeconomics and econophysics revealed the importance of reward expectation in decision under uncertainty. Behavioral neuroeconomic studies have proposed that the unpredictability and the probability of an uncertain reward are distinctly encoded as entropy and a distorted probability weight, respectively, in the separate neural systems. However, previous behavioral economic and decision-theoretic models could not quantify reward-seeking and uncertainty aversion in a theoretically consistent manner. In this paper, we have: (i) proposed that generalized Helmholtz free energy in Tsallis’ non-extensive thermostatistics can be utilized to quantify a perceived value of an uncertain reward, and (ii) empirically examined the explanatory powers of the models. Future study directions in neuroeconomics and econophysics by utilizing the Tsallis’ free energy model are discussed.

  11. A Novel Approach of Battery Energy Storage for Improving Value of Wind Power in Deregulated Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Y. Minh; Yoon, Yong Tae

    2013-06-01

    Wind power producers face many regulation costs in deregulated environment, which remarkably lowers the value of wind power in comparison with the conventional sources. One of these costs is associated with the real-time variation of power output and being paid in frequency control market according to the variation band. In this regard, this paper presents a new approach to the scheduling and operation of battery energy storage installed in wind generation system. This approach depends on the statistic data of wind generation and the prediction of frequency control market prices to determine the optimal charging and discharging of batteries in real-time, which ultimately gives the minimum cost of frequency regulation for wind power producers. The optimization problem is formulated as the trade-off between the decrease in regulation payment and the increase in the cost of using battery energy storage. The approach is illustrated in the case study and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  12. Corn cobs versus corn stalks: a comparison of energy values for drying corn

    SciTech Connect

    Riggins, J.K.; Vaughan, D.H.; Lambert, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Corn residue samples were tested as potential fuel sources for drying corn. Samples were taken during August and September, 1979 at Suffolk, Virginia. Each sample included the entire corn plant cut five inches above ground level. For each sample, bomb calorimeter tests were performed both on representative cob sections and representative plant sections (excluding kernels). All tests were made on non-dried samples and thus reflected variations in energy as a function of moisture content. The combustion results of cob versus the entire plant were compared at different harvested kernel moisture contents to determine the practical use of each fuel, from a combustion standpoint, in drying corn. Combustion results indicated: (1) cobs and stalks contained near identical energy values at the same moisture content and for the same weight of dry matter; (2) cobs averaged 5 percent higher in energy due to a lower moisture content when cobs and stalks were harvested simultaneously; and (3) cob energy can be predicted as a function of kernel moisture content.

  13. Production of energy and high-value chemicals from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci-Raeos, J.A.; Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Herncndez, A.

    1996-12-31

    Landfills have been used for decades in Puerto Rico as the only alternative for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). In the present, 7,300 metric tons (8,000 tons) of MSW are generated on a daily basis, of which about 43% are generated in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. Garbage dumps in the Metropolitan Area have an estimated useful life of two years from now. Furthermore, Puerto Rico`s average daily per capita generation exceeds that of US and is almost as twice as that of Europe. A novel alternative for the disposal of MSW needs to be implemented. The University of Puerto Rico (Department of Chemical Engineering), in a collaborative effort with the Sandia National Laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Puerto Rico`s Energy Affairs Administration, and the Institute of Chemical Engineers of Puerto Rico, have conceptualized a research program that would address the utilization of MSW and other agricultural residues for the generation of energy and/or high-value chemical products. The concept, {open_quotes}biorefinery{close_quotes} would consist of the collection of MSW and other agricultural wastes, separation of materials for recycling (glass, ceramics, metals), and use of gasification and/or hydrolysis of the screened material to produce energy and/or chemicals (such as alcohols and oxyaromatics).

  14. Energy value of distillers dried grains with solubles and oilseed meals for pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Kong, C

    2014-01-01

    The energy values of 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from corn, triticale, and sorghum and 3 oil seed meals including canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), and sunflower meal (SFM) were determined in 2 experiments. For both of experiments, 24 crossbred barrows (initial BW: 28.0 ± 1.60 and 28.0 ± 2.0 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were grouped by weight into 6 blocks and placed in a metabolism crate with 1 pig per crate. There were 4 diets in each experiment consisting of a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 3 test diets. The test diet consisted of each of 3 DDGS (Exp. 1) or 3 oil seed meals (Exp. 2) that partly replaced the energy yielding sources in the reference diet at 300 (Exp. 1) or 200 g/kg (Exp. 2) such that same ratios were maintained for all energy ingredients across all experimental diets. The DE, apparent ME (AME), and N-corrected AME (AMEn) of the test ingredients were determined by the difference method in 2 experiments each consisting of a 5-d adjustment and 5 d of total but separate collection of feces and urine. The respective DM or GE of corn DDGS, triticale DDGS, sorghum DDGS, CM, CSM, and SFM were 918, 927, 904, 912, 907, and 898 g/kg or 5,429, 5,298, 5,295, 5,063, 5,327, and 4,589 kcal/kg of DM. Addition of DDGS to reference diet in Exp. 1 decreased (P < 0.01) dietary DE, AME, and AMEn of the test diet. However, in Exp. 2, the respective energy values of the test diet were not affected by the addition of oil seed meals to reference diet except for SFM, which decreased (P < 0.01) the energy values. The respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,751, 3,559, and 3,361 kcal/kg of DM for corn DDGS, 3,720, 3,537, and 3,315 kcal/kg of DM for triticale DDGS, and 3,520, 3,355, and 3,228 kcal/kg of DM for sorghum DDGS. There was no difference in any of energy values among 3 DDGS evaluated in the current study. Furthermore, the respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,577, 3,428, and 3,087 kcal/kg of DM for CM and 3,281, 3,139, and 2

  15. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland.

    PubMed

    Horttanainen, M; Teirasvuo, N; Kapustina, V; Hupponen, M; Luoranen, M

    2013-12-01

    For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50-60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  16. Motivating the Skeptical and Unconcerned: Considering Values, Worldviews, and Norms When Planning Messages Encouraging Energy Conservation and Efficiency Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Opel, Andrew R.; Lu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association of personal values or worldviews with individual motivations for reduced energy use and energy-use-related risk perceptions. We also investigated how perceptions of others' energy use influenced motivation to reduce use among those with high, versus low, risk perceptions. The perception that others…

  17. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-06-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in J Chem Educ 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by considering which atomic models are used in pre-service teachers' explanations and how that relates to the causality ideas expressed. Thirty-one pre-service teachers were interviewed. Each was asked to describe and explain four different atomic representations (Rutherford, Electron cloud micrograph, Bohr and Schrödinger types) in as much detail as they could. They also provided an explanation for the subsequent ionisation energy values for an oxygen atom and identified which representations were helpful in explaining the values. Significantly, when pre-service teachers only used Bohr type representations, they did not use repelling electron ideas in their explanations. However, arguments that were based on electron-electron repulsion used features from Schrödinger type atoms. These findings suggest that many pre-service teachers need to develop their atomic modelling skills so that they select and use models more expertly and that subsequent ionisation explanations offer a context in which to explore different atomic models' limitations and their deployment as explanatory resources.

  18. Risk management with substitution options: Valuing flexibility in small-scale energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Karl Eric

    Several features of small-scale energy systems make them more easily adapted to a changing operating environment than large centralized designs. This flexibility is often manifested as the ability to substitute inputs. This research explores the value of this substitution flexibility and the marginal value of becoming a "little more flexible" in the context of real project investment in developing countries. The elasticity of substitution is proposed as a stylized measure of flexibility and a choice variable. A flexible alternative (elasticity > 0) can be thought of as holding a fixed-proportions "nflexible" asset plus a sequence of exchange options---the option to move to another feasible "recipe" each period. Substitutability derives value from following a contour of anticipated variations and from responding to new information. Substitutability value, a "cost savings option", increases with elasticity and price risk. However, the required premium to incrementally increase flexibility can in some cases decrease with an increase in risk. Variance is not always a measure of risk. Tools from stochastic dominance are newly applied to real options with convex payoffs to correct some misperceptions and clarify many common modeling situations that meet the criteria for increased variance to imply increased risk. The behavior of the cost savings option is explored subject to a stochastic input price process. At the point where costs are identical for all alternatives, the stochastic process for cost savings becomes deterministic, with savings directly proportional to elasticity of substitution and price variance. The option is also formulated as a derivative security via dynamic programming. The partial differential equation is solved for the special case of Cobb-Douglas (elasticity = 1) (also shown are linear (infinite elasticity), Leontief (elasticity = 0)). Risk aversion is insufficient to prefer a more flexible alternative with the same expected value. Intertemporal

  19. The use of ECDIS equipment to achieve an optimum value for energy efficiency operation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.; Stanca, C.

    2015-11-01

    To reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed a set of technical, operational and management measures. The subject of our research addresses the operational measures for minimizing CO2 air emissions and the way how the emission value could be influenced by external factors regardless of ship-owners’ will. This study aims to analyse the air emissions for a loaded voyage leg performed by an oil tanker. The formula that allows us to calculate the predicted Energy Efficiency Operational Index involves the estimation of distance and fuel consumption, while the quantity of cargo is known. The electronic chart display and information system, ECDIS Simulation Software, will be used for adjusting the passage plan in real time, given the predicted severe environmental conditions. The distance will be determined using ECDIS, while the prediction of the fuel consumption will consider the sea trial and the vessel experience records. That way it will be possible to compare the estimated EEOI value in the case of great circle navigation in adverse weather condition with the estimated EEOI value for weather navigation.

  20. Relationship between digesta transit time and apparent metabolisable energy value of wheat in chickens.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R J

    2008-11-01

    1. This study tested the hypotheses that: (a) apparent metabolisable energy (AME) values and whole tract transit time (WTTT) were related, and that (b) the relationship between AME and WTTT differed between male and female Ross broiler chickens. 2. Enzyme products with xylanase activity were added to a basal diet to provide 4 dietary treatments comprising control (no enzyme), Avizyme 1300 (1 kg/tonne), Kemzyme W1 (1 kg/tonne), and Bio-Feed Wheat CT (200 g/tonne). The basal diet comprised (in g/kg), 800 wheat, 155 casein, 20 dicalcium phosphate, 11 limestone, 7 D,L-methionine, 2 vitamin and mineral premix, 3 sodium chloride and 2 choline chloride (60%). 3. AME values for diets were determined in a 7-d energy balance study commencing when chickens were 21 d of age. WTTT was the time elapsed (in min), from time of administration by oral gavage of 200 mg ferric oxide in a gelatine capsule, to time of first observation of the distinctive red colouration in droppings. 4. The mean AME value for the wheat was high (15.7 MJ/kg dry matter) and ranged from 14.4 to 16.3 MJ/kg dry matter for individual birds. Mean WTTT was 206 min and ranged from 105 to 429 min. AME and WTTT were unaffected by enzyme addition to the diet, and the interaction between diet and gender was not significant. 5. There was a significant but weak positive relationship between AME and whole tract transit time, with AME increasing by 2.2 kJ/min. This relationship was unaffected by gender of the chicken. PMID:19093244

  1. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Horttanainen, M. Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  2. Gauge-invariant expectation values of the energy of a molecule in an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Anirban; Hunt, Katharine L. C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the full Hamiltonian for a molecule in an electromagnetic field can be separated into a molecular Hamiltonian and a field Hamiltonian, both with gauge-invariant expectation values. The expectation value of the molecular Hamiltonian gives physically meaningful results for the energy of a molecule in a time-dependent applied field. In contrast, the usual partitioning of the full Hamiltonian into molecular and field terms introduces an arbitrary gauge-dependent potential into the molecular Hamiltonian and leaves a gauge-dependent form of the Hamiltonian for the field. With the usual partitioning of the Hamiltonian, this same problem of gauge dependence arises even in the absence of an applied field, as we show explicitly by considering a gauge transformation from zero applied field and zero external potentials to zero applied field, but non-zero external vector and scalar potentials. We resolve this problem and also remove the gauge dependence from the Hamiltonian for a molecule in a non-zero applied field and from the field Hamiltonian, by repartitioning the full Hamiltonian. It is possible to remove the gauge dependence because the interaction of the molecular charges with the gauge potential cancels identically with a gauge-dependent term in the usual form of the field Hamiltonian. We treat the electromagnetic field classically and treat the molecule quantum mechanically, but nonrelativistically. Our derivation starts from the Lagrangian for a set of charged particles and an electromagnetic field, with the particle coordinates, the vector potential, the scalar potential, and their time derivatives treated as the variables in the Lagrangian. We construct the full Hamiltonian using a Lagrange multiplier method originally suggested by Dirac, partition this Hamiltonian into a molecular term Hm and a field term Hf, and show that both Hm and Hf have gauge-independent expectation values. Any gauge may be chosen for the calculations; but

  3. The Value of End-Use Energy Efficiency in Mitigation of U.S. Carbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2007-11-27

    This report documents a scenario analysis exploring the value of advanced technologies in the U.S. buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors in stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The analysis was conducted by staff members of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), working at the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) in support of the strategic planning process of the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The conceptual framework for the analysis is an integration of detailed buildings, industrial, and transportation modules into MiniCAM, a global integrated assessment model. The analysis is based on three technology scenarios, which differ in their assumed rates of deployment of new or presently available energy-saving technologies in the end-use sectors. These technology scenarios are explored with no carbon policy, and under two CO2 stabilization policies, in which an economic price on carbon is applied such that emissions follow prescribed trajectories leading to long-term stabilization of CO2 at roughly 450 and 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv). The costs of meeting the emissions targets prescribed by these policies are examined, and compared between technology scenarios. Relative to the reference technology scenario, advanced technologies in all three sectors reduce costs by 50% and 85% for the 450 and 550 ppmv policies, respectively. The 450 ppmv policy is more stringent and imposes higher costs than the 550 ppmv policy; as a result, the magnitude of the economic value of energy efficiency is four times greater for the 450 ppmv policy than the 550 ppmv policy. While they substantially reduce the costs of meeting emissions requirements, advanced end-use technologies do not lead to greenhouse gas stabilization without a carbon policy. This is due mostly to the effects of increasing service demands over time, the high consumption of fossil fuels in the

  4. The non-metabolizable sucrose analog sucralose is a potent inhibitor of hormogonium differentiation in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Splitt, Samantha D; Risser, Douglas D

    2016-03-01

    Nostoc punctiforme is a filamentous cyanobacterium which forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with several different plants and fungi. Establishment of these symbioses requires the formation of motile hormogonium filaments. Once infected, the plant partner is thought to supply a hormogonium-repressing factor (HRF) to maintain the cyanobacteria in a vegetative, nitrogen-fixing state. Evidence implies that sucrose may serve as a HRF. Here, we tested the effects of sucralose, a non-metabolizable sucrose analog, on hormogonium differentiation. Sucralose inhibited hormogonium differentiation at a concentration approximately one-tenth that of sucrose. This result implies that: (1) sucrose, not a sucrose catabolite, is perceived by the cell and (2) inhibition is not due to a more general osmolarity-dependent effect. Additionally, both sucrose and sucralose induced the accrual of a polysaccharide sheath which bound specifically to the lectin ConA, indicating the presence of α-D-mannose and/or α-D-glucose. A ConA-specific polysaccharide was also found to be expressed in N. punctiforme colonies from tissue sections of the symbiotically grown hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. These findings imply that plant-derived sucrose or sucrose analogs may have multiple effects on N. punctiforme, including both repression of hormogonia and the induction of a polysaccharide sheath that may be essential to establish and maintain the symbiotic state.

  5. Navigating a sea of values: Understanding public attitudes toward the ocean and ocean energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Jonathan Charles

    In examining ocean values and beliefs, this study investigates the moral and ethical aspects of the relationships that exist between humans and the marine environment. In short, this dissertation explores what the American public thinks of the ocean. The study places a specific focus upon attitudes to ocean energy development. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research: elicits mental models that exist in society regarding the ocean; unearths what philosophies underpin people's attitudes toward the ocean and offshore energy development; assesses whether these views have any bearing on pro-environmental behavior; and gauges support for offshore drilling and offshore wind development. Despite the fact that the ocean is frequently ranked as a second-tier environmental issue, Americans are concerned about the state of the marine environment. Additionally, the data show that lack of knowledge, rather than apathy, prevents people from undertaking pro-environmental action. With regard to philosophical beliefs, Americans hold slightly more nonanthropocentric than anthropocentric views toward the environment. Neither anthropocentrism nor nonanthropocentrism has any real impact on pro-environmental behavior, although nonanthropocentric attitudes reduce support for offshore wind. This research also uncovers two gaps between scientific and public perceptions of offshore wind power with respect to: 1) overall environmental effects; and 2) the size of the resource. Providing better information to the public in the first area may lead to a shift toward offshore wind support among opponents with nonanthropocentric attitudes, and in both areas, is likely to increase offshore wind support.

  6. The performance of brown egg-type layers fed different protein and energy levels in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Olomu, J M; Offiong, S A

    1983-02-01

    The effects of feeding three protein levels (16, 18, and 20%), each at three metabolizable energy levels (2400, 2600, and 2800 kcal/kg diet), were studied with 990 caged Warren Studler Sex-Sal Link pullets over a 336-day laying period. Dietary protein had no significant effects on hen-day egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, feed intake, feed conversion, feed cost per dozen eggs, caloric intake, egg weights, and final body weight. Protein consumption on all levels of dietary protein was over 20 g per bird per day and increased significantly with increases in dietary protein. Mortality was lowest on the highest protein level. The highest energy level (2800 kcal/kg diet) significantly depressed egg production and feed and protein intake. The feed costs per dozen eggs increased significantly with increases in dietary energy level. Caloric intake and final body weights were similar for the medium (2600 kcal/kg diet) and highest energy levels (2800 kcal/kg diet) but significantly higher than that obtained on the lowest energy level (2400 kcal/kg diet). Egg weights, Haugh units, feed per dozen eggs, and mortality were not significantly affected by energy levels. In spite of the average maximum monthly temperatures, ranging from 26.8 to 35.2 C, annual egg production was about 71 to 73% for the best groups, figures comparable with those obtainable in temperate climates. Egg weight and Haugh units were similar to reported temperate zone values. This experiment supports the use of 16% protein and a metabolizable energy level of 2400 kcal/kg diet for brown egg-type layers.

  7. The Analysis on Influence of Main Factors on Theoretical Value of Energy Saving Rate for Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhenling; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Fan; Li, Peng; Cao, Wei

    For typical residential buildings, no-large-scale and large-scale public buildings, according to China's Technical Guide for the Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings, makes up missing data of the calculation benchmark and determines the boundary conditions for calculating the theoretical values of civil building energy efficiency. Based on equivalent full load hours method, develops a modular program and calculates building energy consumption for the demands of dynamic cooling and heating and lighting etc., finds out the corresponding relationship between star level's theoretical value of energy saving rate and specified-term limiting value in the Guide. With orthogonal experimental design and multiple linear regression, establishes the quantitative function of both the theoretical value of energy saving rate and main factors parameters, analyzes the impact of the control parameter on energy saving rate, and reveals the law of theoretical value of energy saving rate variation with the control parameter. For building energy efficiency labeling upgrade, presents technical measure need to be taken and analyses its feasibility. The results from the study can provide theoretical guidance for energy-saving design or retrofitting of civil buildings.

  8. ESTIMATING BASAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: THE VALUE OF THE HARRIS-BENEDICT EQUATION

    PubMed Central

    PINTO, Andressa S.; CHEDID, Marcio F.; GUERRA, Léa T.; ÁLVARES-DA-SILVA, Mario R.; de ARAÚJO, Alexandre; GUIMARÃES, Luciano S.; LEIPNITZ, Ian; CHEDID, Aljamir D.; KRUEL, Cleber R. P.; GREZZANA-FILHO, Tomaz J. M.; KRUEL, Cleber D. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. Aim: To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study including dyslipidemic LT recipients in follow-up at a 735-bed tertiary referral university hospital. Comparisons of BEE measured through IC to BEE estimated through each of the three alternative methods (HBE, BI and MSJ) were performed using Bland-Altman method and Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Results: Forty-five patients were included, aged 58±10 years. BEE measured using IC was 1664±319 kcal for males, and 1409±221 kcal for females. Average difference between BEE measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and BI (1584±377 kcal) was +50 kcal (p=0.0384). Average difference between the BEE measured using IC (1534±300 kcal) and MSJ (1479.6±375 kcal) was -55 kcal (p=0.16). Average difference between BEE values measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and HBE (1521±283 kcal) was -13 kcal (p=0.326). Difference between BEE estimated through IC and HBE was less than 100 kcal for 39 of all 43patients. Conclusions: Among the three alternative methods, HBE was the most reliable for estimating BEE in LT recipients. PMID:27759783

  9. Bioactive proteins and energy value of okara as a byproduct in hydrothermal processing of soy milk.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Jankovic, Vanja S; Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V

    2013-09-25

    The nutritional properties of raw okara obtained as a byproduct from six soybean varieties during hydrothermal cooking (HTC) of soy milk were assessed. The composition and residual activity (rTIA) of trypsin inhibitors (TIs), contents of lectin, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and energy values (EV) were correlated with the respective physicochemical properties of soybean and okara. Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk (BBI) TIs both comprised okara rTIA. TIs content was higher in okara (5.19-14.40%) than in soybean (3.10-12.17%), which additionally enriched okara by cysteine. Contents of KTI (r = 1.00;p < 0.05) and BBI (r = 0.89;p < 0.05) as well as BBI monomeric (r = 0.89;p < 0.05) and polymeric forms (r = 0.95;p < 0.05) in okara and in soybean were strongly correlated. Low urease index activity indicated that okara was heated adequately to inactivate antinutritional factors. The proximate composition of raw okara, advantageous rTIA, and a very low EV (2.74-3.78 kJ/g) qualify this byproduct for potential application in food preparation as a functional ingredient in dietary products. PMID:23978042

  10. A Real Valued Neural Network Based Autoregressive Energy Detector for Cognitive Radio Application.

    PubMed

    Onumanyi, A J; Onwuka, E N; Aibinu, A M; Ugweje, O C; Salami, M J E

    2014-01-01

    A real valued neural network (RVNN) based energy detector (ED) is proposed and analyzed for cognitive radio (CR) application. This was developed using a known two-layered RVNN model to estimate the model coefficients of an autoregressive (AR) system. By using appropriate modules and a well-designed detector, the power spectral density (PSD) of the AR system transfer function was estimated and subsequent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the detector generated and analyzed. A high detection performance with low false alarm rate was observed for varying signal to noise ratio (SNR), sample number, and model order conditions. The proposed RVNN based ED was then compared to the simple periodogram (SP), Welch periodogram (WP), multitaper (MT), Yule-Walker (YW), Burg (BG), and covariance (CV) based ED techniques. The proposed detector showed better performance than the SP, WP, and MT while providing better false alarm performance than the YW, BG, and CV. Data provided here support the effectiveness of the proposed RVNN based ED for CR application.

  11. El Jefe: balancing tribal values with business realities. [Council for Energy Resource Tribes and cooperation with state governments

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, R.

    1981-03-01

    Navajo chairman Peter MacDonald is also chairman of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) board and its natural leader. When Indians began to assert control over their own resources, MacDonald was among the leaders of the movement. He continues to dominate the situation, speaking publicly for CERT in Washington as well as from the Navajo capital, Window Rock, Az. MacDonald speaks articulately and forcefully in favor of traditional Navajo values; values, he says, are more important than the potential income from Navajo energy resources. Although MacDonald strongly supports development of energy resources, his bargains with energy companies always reflect a commitment to concerns beyond dollars and cents. The western states, with their concentration of energy resources, should share his concerns, MacDonald said in this interview with the Business Journal at his Windor Rock office.

  12. Walnuts consumed by healthy adults provide less available energy than predicted by the Atwater factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that the metabolizable energy content (ME; energy available to the body) of certain nuts is less than predicted by the Atwater factors. However, very few nuts have been investigated to date, and no information is available regarding the ME of walnuts. A study was conduct...

  13. Summary of: Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2013-02-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  14. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique

    PubMed Central

    Taher-Maddah, M.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Salamatdoustnobar, R.; Ahmadzadeh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas production of pomegranate seeds at all incubation times. The gas volume at 24 h incubation, were 25.76 and 17.91 ml/200mg DM for ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds, respectively. The gas production rate (c) also was significantly higher for ensiled groups than dried (0.0930 vs. 0.0643 ml/h). The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of ensiled pomegranate seeds were significantly higher than that of dried samples (43.15%, 6.37 MJ/kg DM, 4.43 MJ/kg DM, 0.5553 mmol for ensiled samples vs. 34.62%, 5.10 MJ/kg DM, 3.56 MJ/kg DM, 0.3680 mmol for dried samples, respectively). It can be concluded that ensiling increases the nutritive value of pomegranate seeds. PMID:26623290

  15. Final Report for Clean, Reliable, Affordable Energy that Reflects the Values of the Pinoleville Pomo Nation

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Lenora; Sampsel, Zachary N

    2014-07-21

    This report aims to present and analyze information on the potential of renewable energy power systems and electric vehicle charging near the Pinoleville Pomo Nation in Ukiah, California to provide an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective energy and transportation options for development. For each renewable energy option we examine, solar, wind, microhydro, and biogas in this case, we compiled technology and cost information for construction, estimates of energy capacity, and data on electricity exports rates.

  16. Gompertz-Laird model prediction of optimum utilization of crude protein and metabolizable energy by French guinea fowl broilers.

    PubMed

    Nahashon, S N; Aggrey, S E; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary CP and ME on growth parameters of the French guinea fowl, a meat-type variety. In a 2 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, 297 one-day-old French guinea keets (162 females and 135 males) were randomly assigned to experimental diets comprising 3,050, 3,100, and 3,150 kcal of ME/kg, each containing 21, 23, and 25% CP from hatch to 4 wk of age (WOA), and 3,100, 3150, and 3,200 kcal of ME/kg, each containing 19, 21, and 23% CP at 5 to 8 WOA. Using BW and G:F data from hatch to 8 WOA, the Gompertz-Laird growth model was employed to estimate growth patterns of the French guinea fowl. Mean differences in exponential growth rate, age of maximum growth, and asymptotic BW among dietary CP and ME levels were not significant. However, instantaneous growth rate and weight at inflection point were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in birds on the 25% CP diet than those on the 21% CP diet at hatch to 4 WOA (1.12 kg/wk and 0.79 kg vs. 1.04 kg/wk and 0.74 kg, respectively). The exponential growth rate was also higher (P < 0.05) in birds fed the 3,050 kcal of ME/kg diet with either 23 or 25% CP than those fed diets containing 3,050 kcal of ME/kg and 21% CP. Mean G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in birds fed diets containing 3,050 kcal of ME/kg and either 21 or 23% CP than those in other dietary treatments. Therefore, based on the Gompertz-Laird growth model estimates, feeding 21 and 23% CP and 3,100 kcal of ME/kg at hatch to 4 WOA and 19 and 21% CP with 3,150 kcal of ME/kg at 5 to 8 WOA can be recommended as adequate for growth for the French guinea fowl broilers.

  17. The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V

    2014-02-18

    Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally.

  18. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( < 0.05) in the CSBM-DDGS diet than in the CSBM diet in Exp. 1 but were not different in Exp. 2. All the estimates of BCM-based diets were consistently lower ( < 0.05) than those of CSBM-based diets. In Exp. 1, digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( < 0.05) using the IM than those using the total collection approach (TC; DY and MM). In Exp. 2, interactions ( < 0.05) were observed between diet type and method for dietary digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( < 0.05) using the DY than those using the MM in pigs fed the BCM. There were no interactions between basal diet and method for estimating DDGS digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( < 0.05) than those using the IM, and ATTD of N tended to be greater ( < 0.10) using the MM than that using the IM. All estimates using the DY were not

  19. The potential of value management (VM) to improve the consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Rajemi, Mohamad Farizal

    2016-08-01

    Energy demand and consumption in buildings will rise rapidly in the near future because of several social economics factors and this situation occurs not only in developed countries but also in developing countries such as Malaysia. There is demand towards building with energy efficiency features at this time, however most of the current buildings types are still being constructed with conventional designs, thus contribute to inefficient of energy consumption during the operation stage of the building. This paper presents the concept and the application of Value Management (VM) approach and its potential to improve consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction process. Based on the relevant literatures, VM has provides an efficient and effective delivery system to fulfill the objectives and client's requirements. Generally in this paper, VM is discussed and scrutinized with reference to previous studies to see how these concepts contribute to better optimize the energy consumption in a building by seeking the best value energy efficiency through the design and construction process. This paper will not draw any conclusion but rather a preliminary research to propose the most energy efficiency measures to reliably accomplish a function that will meet the client's needs, desires and expectations. For further research in future, simple quantitative industry survey and VM workshops will be conducted to validate and further improve the research.

  20. Predictors of Turkish Elementary Teacher Candidates' Energy Conservation Behaviors: An Approach on Value-Belief-Norm Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Elvan

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to explain elementary teacher candidates' energy conservation behaviors by using Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) Theory. Participants in this study were 512 students at Faculty of Education from two public universities in Turkey. Of the 512 students, 35.5% were enrolled in the early childhood education program, 30.9% were in the…

  1. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were fed 12.5% CP diets based on cracked corn (70%) on d 0 through 70 and were switched to a common 11.5% CP urea-supplemented cracked corn diet (80%) on d 71. The steers were housed in individual confinement stalls and had ad libitum access to feed. Replacing urea with SBM or SP increased (P < .05) 28- and 70-d ADG and DMI and increased (P < .05) 28-d efficiency (kg of gain/100 kg of feed). Replacing urea with CB did not improve (P > .05) 28- or 70-d ADG or DMI but did increase (P < .05) 28-d efficiency. The growth rate of steers at 28 and 70 d was correlated to a greater degree with ME intake (r2 = .83 and .85, respectively) rather than MAA supply, suggesting that the MAA supply was not first-limiting for growth. The source of supplemental protein fed during d 0 through 70 had no effect (P > .05) on 175-d DMI or efficiency; however, feeding SBM increased (P < .05) 175-d ADG compared with feeding urea, SP, or CB. Increasing supplemental true protein tended to linearly increase ADG and DMI at 28 and 70 d, but overall, ADG, DMI, and efficiency were not affected (P

  2. Nutritional value of winter foods for whooping cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, J.T.; Slack, R.D.; Gee, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    We measured metabolizable energy and digestibility of Whooping Crane (Grus americana) winter foods (blue crab [Callinectes sapidus]), common Rangia clam (Rangia cuneata), wolfberry fruit (Lycium carolinianurn [wolfberry]), and live oak acorn (Ouercus virginiana [acorn])] with feeding trials to captive-reared Whooping Cranes. Apparent metabolizable energy coefficients (expressed as %) were for crab (34.1), Rangia clam (75.0), wolfberry (44.8), and acorn (43.2). Digestion coefficients for protein were lower for plant foods (48.9 and 53.4) than for animal foods (69.4 and 75.2). Digestion coefficients for total lipid differed among foods: highest and lowest lipid digestibility was for acorn (87.2) and wolfberry (60.0), respectively. We also determined total energy and percent protein and lipid of the four foods and stout razor clam (Tagelus plebeius); gross energy was 2-5x higher for acorn and wolfberry on a dry-weight basis than for blue crab and stout razor clam. Crude protein was 2-3x higher for blue crab than for wolfberry and stout razor clam. Wolfberry ranked the highest of five foods for metabolic energy and total lipid nutrient availability per kg of food ingested, and blue crab ranked highest for crude protein availability.

  3. An Assessment of the Value and Applicability of the Water-Energy Nexus Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    There have been major advances in the past decade in thinking about the links between water and energy resources, often called the Water-Energy Nexus. While past resource practices addressed these resource issues separately, both the scientific and the policy communities now acknowledge the close connections between them. Substantial work has been done quantifying and analyzing water requirements of both specific energy systems and integrated scenario projections. Less (albeit some) work has been done evaluating and analyzing the energy and greenhouse gas implications of building and operating water systems. But acknowledging and even quantifying these links is not the same as truly integrating them into decisions about water or energy use, changing policies or infrastructure to account for the connections, or actually advancing sustainable resource management. This talk will review the key scientific findings associated with recent work on the "nexus," including estimates of water requirements for energy systems and energy for water systems, the links with climate change mitigation and adaptation, and examples where work on the nexus has actually produced real change in resource policy.

  4. Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Elia, M; Cummings, J H

    2007-12-01

    The energy values of carbohydrates continue to be debated. This is because of the use of different energy systems, for example, combustible, digestible, metabolizable, and so on. Furthermore, ingested macronutrients may not be fully available to tissues, and the tissues themselves may not be able fully to oxidize substrates made available to them. Therefore, for certain carbohydrates, the discrepancies between combustible energy (cEI), digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and net metabolizable energy (NME) may be considerable. Three food energy systems are in use in food tables and for food labelling in different world regions based on selective interpretation of the digestive physiology and metabolism of food carbohydrates. This is clearly unsatisfactory and confusing to the consumer. While it has been suggested that an enormous amount of work would have to be undertaken to change the current ME system into an NME system, the additional changes may not be as great as anticipated. In experimental work, carbohydrate is high in the macronutrient hierarchy of satiation. However, studies of eating behaviour indicate that it does not unconditionally depend on the oxidation of one nutrient, and argue against the operation of a simple carbohydrate oxidation or storage model of feeding behaviour to the exclusion of other macronutrients. The site, rate and extent of carbohydrate digestion in, and absorption from the gut are key to understanding the many roles of carbohydrate, although the concept of digestibility has different meanings. Within the nutrition community, the characteristic patterns of digestion that occur in the small (upper) vs large (lower) bowel are known to impact in contrasting ways on metabolism, while in the discussion of the energy value of foods, digestibility is defined as the proportion of combustible energy that is absorbed over the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Carbohydrates that reach the large bowel are fermented to

  5. Nutritive value of methane fermentation residue in diets fed to feedlot steers

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Shirley, R.L.; Palmer, A.Z.

    1982-12-01

    Nutritive value of the methane fermentation residue (MFR) from the effluent of a large scale thermophilic methane generator was determined in diets fed to feedlot steers. The MFR contained 22.2% dry matter and 21.9% crude protein (dry basis). Two diets containing 10.6% (dry basis) MFR were formulated using the Urea Fermentation Potential (UFP) system such that in one diet N was in excess (-1.6 UFP) while in the other diet energy was in excess (+2.6 UFP). These two diets were compared in a California Net Energy trial with a feedlot diet (-.3 UFP) containing the same ingredients except the MFR. Six steers were fed in a replicated 3(2) Latin square metabolism trial and 70 steers were fed in a 118-d comparative-slaughter, feedlot trial. Digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, ash, total digestible nutrients (TDN) and metabolizable energy were depressed (all P less than .05) in the MFR-containing diets. Steers fed the MFR-containing diets had lower (P less than .05) rates of gain and increased (P less than .05) feed requirements per unit gain. Net energies for maintenance and gain were slightly lower for the MFR-containing diets than the control diet. Crude protein digestibility for the MFR calculated by difference, for the -UFP and the +UFP diets were 37.8 and 50.7%, while corresponding values for TDN were 28.8 and 12.8%, respectively. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements in kidney, liver and muscle as well as flavor and tenderness of steaks were not affected by feeding MFR.

  6. High-value energy storage for the grid: a multi-dimensional look

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, Walter J.

    2010-12-15

    The conceptual attractiveness of energy storage in the electrical power grid has grown in recent years with Smart Grid initiatives. But cost is a problem, interwoven with the complexity of quantifying the benefits of energy storage. This analysis builds toward a multi-dimensional picture of storage that is offered as a step toward identifying and removing the gaps and ''friction'' that permeate the delivery chain from research laboratory to grid deployment. (author)

  7. Increasing Property Value with Energy Saving Practices: Hines Retrofit Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-13

    Hines partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  8. Exact Energy Computation of the One Component Plasma on a Sphere for Even Values of the Coupling Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, R.; Téllez, G.

    2016-08-01

    The two dimensional one component plasma 2dOCP is a classical system consisting of N identical particles with the same charge q confined in a two dimensional surface with a neutralizing background. The Boltzmann factor at temperature T may be expressed as a Vandermonde determinant to the power Γ =q^2/(k_B T). Several statistical properties of the 2dOCP have been studied by expanding the Boltzmann factor in the monomial basis for even values of Γ . In this work, we use this formalism to compute the energy of the 2dOCP on a sphere. Using the same approach the entropy is computed. The entropy as well as the free energy in the thermodynamic limit have a universal finite-size correction term χ /12log N, where χ =2 is the Euler characteristic of the sphere. A non-recursive formula for coefficients of monomial functions expansion is used for exploring the energy as well as structural properties for sufficiently large values of Γ to appreciate the crystallization features for N=2,3,ldots ,9 particles. Finally, we make a brief comparison between the exact and numerical energies obtained with the Metropolis method for even values of Γ.

  9. Calculation of absolute free energy of binding for theophylline and its analogs to RNA aptamer using nonequilibrium work values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanida, Yoshiaki; Ito, Masakatsu; Fujitani, Hideaki

    2007-08-01

    The massively parallel computation of absolute binding free energy with a well-equilibrated system (MP-CAFEE) has been developed [H. Fujitani, Y. Tanida, M. Ito, G. Jayachandran, C.D. Snow, M.R. Shirts, E.J. Sorin, V.S. Pande, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 084108]. As an application, we perform the binding affinity calculations of six theophylline-related ligands with RNA aptamer. Basically, our method is applicable when using many compute nodes to accelerate simulations, thus a parallel computing system is also developed. To further reduce the computational cost, the adequate non-uniform intervals of coupling constant λ, connecting two equilibrium states, namely bound and unbound, are determined. The absolute binding energies Δ G thus obtained have effective linear relation between the computed and experimental values. If the results of two other different methods are compared, thermodynamic integration (TI) and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) by the paper of Gouda et al. [H. Gouda, I.D. Kuntz, D.A. Case, P.A. Kollman, Biopolymers 68 (2003) 16], the predictive accuracy of the relative values ΔΔ G is almost comparable to that of TI: the correlation coefficients ( R) obtained are 0.99 (this work), 0.97 (TI), and 0.78 (MM-PBSA). On absolute binding energies meanwhile, a constant energy shift of ˜-7 kcal/mol against the experimental values is evident. To solve this problem, several presumable reasons are investigated.

  10. Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance: AligningManagement, Measurement, and Practice to Create Market Value

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Williams, Robert

    2007-07-01

    More than fifteen years after the launch of programs in theU.K. and U.S., industry still offers one of the largest opportunities forenergy savings worldwide. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimatesthe savings potential from cost-optimization of industrial motor-drivensystems alone at 7 percent of global electricity use. The U.S. Departmentof Energy (USDOE) Industrial Technologies Program estimates 7 percentsavings potential in total US industrial energy use through theapplication of proven best practice. Simple paybacks for these types ofprojects are frequently two years or less. The technology required toachieve these savings is widely available; the technical skills requiredto identify energy saving opportunities are known and transferable.Although programs like USDOE's Best Practices have been highlysuccessful, most plants, as supported by 2002 MECS data, remain eitherunaware or unmotivated to improve their energy efficiency--as evidencedby the 98 percent of US industrial facilities reporting to MECS say thatthey lack a full-time energy manager. With the renewed interest in energyefficiency worldwide and the emergence of carbon trading and newfinancial instruments such as white certificates1, there is a need tointroduce greater transparency into the way that industrial facilitiesidentify, develop, and document energy efficiency projects. Historically,industrial energy efficiency projects have been developed by plantengineers, frequently with assistance from consultants and/or supplierswith highly specialized technical skills. Under this scenario,implementation of energy efficiency improvements is dependent onindividuals. These individuals typically include "champions" within anindustrial facility or corporation, working in cooperation withconsultants or suppliers who have substantial knowledge based on years ofexperience. This approach is not easily understood by others without thisspecialized technical knowledge, penetrates the market fairly slowly

  11. Effects of river impoundment on ecosystem services of large tropical rivers: embodied energy and market value of artisanal fisheries.

    PubMed

    Hoeinghaus, David J; Agostinho, Angelo A; Gomes, Luiz C; Pelicice, Fernando M; Okada, Edson K; Latini, João D; Kashiwaqui, Elaine A L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2009-10-01

    Applying the ecosystem services concept to conservation initiatives or in managing ecosystem services requires understanding how environmental impacts affect the ecology of key species or functional groups providing the services. We examined effects of river impoundments, one of the leading threats to freshwater biodiversity, on an important ecosystem service provided by large tropical rivers (i.e., artisanal fisheries). The societal and economic importance of this ecosystem service in developing countries may provide leverage to advance conservation agendas where future impoundments are being considered. We assessed impoundment effects on the energetic costs of fisheries production (embodied energy) and commercial market value of the artisanal fishery of the Paraná River, Brazil, before and after formation of Itaipu Reservoir. High-value migratory species that dominated the fishery before the impoundment was built constituted a minor component of the contemporary fishery that is based heavily on reservoir-adapted introduced species. Cascading effects of river impoundment resulted in a mismatch between embodied energy and market value: energetic costs of fisheries production increased, whereas market value decreased. This was partially attributable to changes in species functional composition but also strongly linked to species identities that affected market value as a result of consumer preferences even when species were functionally similar. Similar trends are expected in other large tropical rivers following impoundment. In addition to identifying consequences of a common anthropogenic impact on an important ecosystem service, our assessment provides insight into the sustainability of fisheries production in tropical rivers and priorities for regional biodiversity conservation. PMID:19459891

  12. Effects of river impoundment on ecosystem services of large tropical rivers: embodied energy and market value of artisanal fisheries.

    PubMed

    Hoeinghaus, David J; Agostinho, Angelo A; Gomes, Luiz C; Pelicice, Fernando M; Okada, Edson K; Latini, João D; Kashiwaqui, Elaine A L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2009-10-01

    Applying the ecosystem services concept to conservation initiatives or in managing ecosystem services requires understanding how environmental impacts affect the ecology of key species or functional groups providing the services. We examined effects of river impoundments, one of the leading threats to freshwater biodiversity, on an important ecosystem service provided by large tropical rivers (i.e., artisanal fisheries). The societal and economic importance of this ecosystem service in developing countries may provide leverage to advance conservation agendas where future impoundments are being considered. We assessed impoundment effects on the energetic costs of fisheries production (embodied energy) and commercial market value of the artisanal fishery of the Paraná River, Brazil, before and after formation of Itaipu Reservoir. High-value migratory species that dominated the fishery before the impoundment was built constituted a minor component of the contemporary fishery that is based heavily on reservoir-adapted introduced species. Cascading effects of river impoundment resulted in a mismatch between embodied energy and market value: energetic costs of fisheries production increased, whereas market value decreased. This was partially attributable to changes in species functional composition but also strongly linked to species identities that affected market value as a result of consumer preferences even when species were functionally similar. Similar trends are expected in other large tropical rivers following impoundment. In addition to identifying consequences of a common anthropogenic impact on an important ecosystem service, our assessment provides insight into the sustainability of fisheries production in tropical rivers and priorities for regional biodiversity conservation.

  13. An assessment of the net value of CSP systems integrated with thermal energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Mehos, M.; Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Turchi, C.

    2015-05-01

    Within this study, we evaluate the operational and capacity value—or total system value—for multiple concentrating solar power (CSP) plant configurations under an assumed 33% renewable penetration scenario in California. We calculate the first-year bid price for two CSP plants, including a 2013 molten-salt tower integrated with a conventional Rankine cycle and a hypothetical 2020 molten-salt tower system integrated with an advanced supercritical carbon-dioxide power block. The overall benefit to the regional grid, defined in this study as the net value, is calculated by subtracting the first-year bid price from the total system value.

  14. On the problem of optimal control of the thrust value of the electric propulsion rocket with solar energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiforenko, Boris N.; Vasil'ev, Igor Yu.; Tkachenko, Yaroslav V.

    2013-08-01

    Under consideration is the optimal control problem on a spacecraft motion in Newtonian central gravity field. With the use of the mathematical model of electrojet propulsion device (EPD) with solar energy source, proposed earlier in paper [1], the dependence of the EPD working substance choice on both the duration of the given dynamic maneuver and the propellant expenditures for its fulfillment is investigated. The efficiency evaluation is carrying out of optimal control of variable valued thrust as well as that for relay mode thrust and relay mode thrust with optimal fixed thrust value.

  15. The energy and protein value of wheat, maize and blend DDGS for cattle and evaluation of prediction methods.

    PubMed

    De Boever, J L; Blok, M C; Millet, S; Vanacker, J; De Campeneere, S

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition inclusive amino acids (AAs) and the energy and protein value of three wheat, three maize and seven blend (mainly wheat) dried distillers grains and solubles (DDGS) were determined. The net energy for lactation (NEL) was derived from digestion coefficients obtained with sheep. The digestible protein in the intestines (DVE) and the degraded protein balance (OEB) were determined by nylon bag incubations in the rumen and the intestines of cannulated cows. Additional chemical parameters like acid-detergent insoluble CP (ADICP), protein solubility in water, in borate-phosphate buffer and in pepsin-HCl, in vitro digestibility (cellulase, protease, rumen fluid) and colour scores (L*, a*, b*) were evaluated as potential predictors of the energy and protein value. Compared to wheat DDGS (WDDGS), maize DDGS (MDDGS) had a higher NEL-value (8.49 v. 7.38 MJ/kg DM), a higher DVE-content (216 v. 198 g/kg DM) and a lower OEB-value (14 v. 66 g/kg DM). The higher energy value of MDDGS was mainly due to the higher crude fat (CFA) content (145 v. 76 g/kg DM) and also to better digestible cell-walls, whereas the higher protein value was mainly due to the higher percentage of rumen bypass protein (RBP: 69.8 v. 55.6%). The NEL-value of blend DDGS (BDDGS) was in between that of the pure DDGS-types, whereas its DVE-value was similar to MDDGS. Although lower in CP and total AAs, MDDGS provided a similar amount of essential AAs as the other DDGS-types. Lysine content was most reduced in the production of WDDGS and cysteine in MDDGS. Fat content explained 68.6% of the variation in NEL, with hemicellulose and crude ash as extra explaining variables. The best predictor for RBP as well as for OEB was the protein solubility in pepsin-HCl (R 2=77.3% and 83.5%). Intestinal digestibility of RBP could best be predicted by ADF (R 3=73.6%) and the combination of CFA and NDF could explain 60.2% of the variation in the content of absorbable microbial protein. The availability of

  16. Impact of the temperature dependency of fiberglass insulation R-value on cooling energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, R.; Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.

    1996-08-01

    Building energy models usually employ a constant, room-temperature-measured value for the thermal resistance of fiberglass roof insulation. In summer, however, the mean temperature of roof insulation can rise significantly above room temperature, lowering the insulation`s thermal resistance by 10% to 20%. Though the temperature dependence of the thermal resistance of porous materials like fiberglass has been extensively studied, it is difficult to theoretically predict the variation with temperature of a particular fiberglass blanket, from first principles. Heat transfer within fiberglass is complicated by the presence of three significant mechanisms - conduction through air, conduction through the glass matrix, and radiative exchange within the matrix - and a complex, unknown internal geometry. Purely theoretical models of fiberglass heat transfer assume highly simplified matrix structures and require typically-unavailable information about the fiberglass, such as its optical properties. There is also a dearth of useful experimental data. While the thermal resistances of many individual fiberglass samples have been measured, there is only one practical published table of thermal resistance vs. both temperature and density. Data from this table was incorporated in the DOE-2 building energy model. DOE-2 was used to simulate the roof surface temperature, roof heat flux, and cooling energy consumption of a school bungalow whose temperature and energy use had been monitored in 1992. The DOE-2 predictions made with and without temperature variation of thermal conductivity were compared to measured values. Simulations were also run for a typical office building. Annual cooling energy loads and annual peak hourly cooling powers were calculated for the office building using both fixed and variable thermal conductivities, and using five different climates. The decrease in the R-value of the office building`s roof led to a 2% to 4% increase in annual cooling energy load.

  17. Capacity Value: Evaluation of WECC Rule of Thumb; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Ibanez, Eduardo

    2015-06-09

    This presentation compares loss of load expectation and wind and solar capacity values to the rules of thumb used in the Western Interconnection planning and provides alternative recommendations to the modeling efforts of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council's Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee.

  18. Reference States and Relative Values of Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two reference states (pure chemical compounds and pure elements at specified condition of temperature and pressure) and the relation between these reference states for internal energy and enthalpy. Problem 5.11 from Modell and Reid's "Thermodynamics and its Applications" (p. 141) is used to apply the ideas discussed. (JN)

  19. Up Close and Personal: The Value of Feedback in Implementing an Individual Energy-Saving Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Carol Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the drivers of computer-related sustainability behavior at a medium-sized US university and the extent to which an inexpensive energy-saving device installed on 146 administrator, faculty and general staff workstations achieved significant savings in kWh, CO[subscript 2] kg and dollars.…

  20. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in "J Chem Educ" 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by…

  1. Energy value of crude glycerol in 11 and 110 kg pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of biofuels is increasing due to rising energy prices, uncertain access to petroleum supplies, and recognition of the environmental impacts of using fossil fuel. Biodiesel is alternative to diesel fuel consisting of the monoalkyl esters formed by a catalyzed reaction of the triacylglyceri...

  2. Teaching Energy Concepts by Working on Themes of Cultural and Environmental Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Energy is a central topic in physics and a key concept for understanding the physical, biological and technological worlds. It is a complex topic with multiple connections with different areas of science and with social, environmental and philosophical issues. In this paper we discuss some aspects of the teaching and learning of the energy…

  3. Improving ruminal degradability and energetic values of bamboo shoot shell using chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liping; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Huo, Yunlong; Wang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated effects of different treatments on nutritive value of bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Five treatments were sun-drying (control), ammoniation (5%/dry matter (DM) urea), Ca(OH)2 (4%/DM calcium hydroxide), NaOH (4%/DM sodium hydroxide), and AHP (4%/DM sodium hydroxide plus 1%/DM hydrogen peroxide). The results showed that chemical composition of BSS was greatly changed by chemicals (P < 0.01) except acid-detergent lignin. All chemical treatments significantly reduced neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content except AHP (P < 0.01), and obviously increased acid detergent fiber (ADF) content (P < 0.01) except ammoniation. The predicted organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and net energy for lactation of BSS were greatly increased by chemical treatments (P < 0.01), the highest for ammoniation, followed by Ca(OH)2 , NaOH and AHP. Ammoniation had higher (P = 0.03) ammonia-N concentration than the other four treatments. There were significant differences among all treatments on total volatile fatty acids (P = 0.03), propionate (P = 0.01), butyrate concentration (P < 0.01) and C2 /C3 ratio (P = 0.02). Chemical treatments greatly improved effective degradability (ED) of DM (P < 0.01) and ED of NDF (P = 0.06) and ADF (P = 0.07) numerically. Ammoniation got a higher ED of crude protein than control. In conclusion, all chemical treatments greatly improved nutritive value of BSS with highest value obtained from ammoniation, followed by strong alkalization, alkaline hydrogen peroxide and modest alkalization. PMID:26953064

  4. Improving ruminal degradability and energetic values of bamboo shoot shell using chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liping; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Huo, Yunlong; Wang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated effects of different treatments on nutritive value of bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Five treatments were sun-drying (control), ammoniation (5%/dry matter (DM) urea), Ca(OH)2 (4%/DM calcium hydroxide), NaOH (4%/DM sodium hydroxide), and AHP (4%/DM sodium hydroxide plus 1%/DM hydrogen peroxide). The results showed that chemical composition of BSS was greatly changed by chemicals (P < 0.01) except acid-detergent lignin. All chemical treatments significantly reduced neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content except AHP (P < 0.01), and obviously increased acid detergent fiber (ADF) content (P < 0.01) except ammoniation. The predicted organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and net energy for lactation of BSS were greatly increased by chemical treatments (P < 0.01), the highest for ammoniation, followed by Ca(OH)2 , NaOH and AHP. Ammoniation had higher (P = 0.03) ammonia-N concentration than the other four treatments. There were significant differences among all treatments on total volatile fatty acids (P = 0.03), propionate (P = 0.01), butyrate concentration (P < 0.01) and C2 /C3 ratio (P = 0.02). Chemical treatments greatly improved effective degradability (ED) of DM (P < 0.01) and ED of NDF (P = 0.06) and ADF (P = 0.07) numerically. Ammoniation got a higher ED of crude protein than control. In conclusion, all chemical treatments greatly improved nutritive value of BSS with highest value obtained from ammoniation, followed by strong alkalization, alkaline hydrogen peroxide and modest alkalization.

  5. Casein infusion rate influences feed intake differently depending on metabolizable protein balance in dairy cows: A multilevel meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Kebreab, E; Lapierre, H

    2016-04-01

    The effects of casein infusion have been investigated extensively in ruminant species. Its effect on responses in dry matter intake (DMI) has been reviewed and indicated no significant effect. The literature reviewed in the current meta-analysis is more extensive and limited to dairy cows fed ad libitum. A total of 51 studies were included in the meta-analysis and data were fitted to a multilevel model adjusting for the correlated nature of some studies. The effect size was the mean difference calculated by subtracting the means for the control from the casein-infused group. Overall, casein infusion [average of 333 g of dry matter (DM)/d; range: 91 to 1,092 g of DM/d] tended to increase responses in DMI by 0.18 kg/d (n=48 studies; 3 outliers). However, an interaction was observed between the casein infusion rate (IR) and the initial metabolizable protein (MP) balance [i.e., supply minus requirements (NRC, 2001)]. When control cows were in negative MP balance (n=27 studies), responses in DMI averaged 0.28 kg/d at mean MP balance (-264 g/d) and casein IR (336 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses by 0.14 kg/d (MP balance being constant), compared with cows not infused with casein. In contrast, when control cows were in positive MP balance (n=22 studies; 2 outliers), responses in DMI averaged -0.20 kg/d at mean casein IR (339 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean further decreased responses by 0.33 kg/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in milk true protein yield at mean casein IR were greater (109 vs. 65 g/d) for cows in negative vs. positive MP balance, respectively, and the influence of the casein IR on responses was significant only for cows in negative MP balance. A 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses in milk true protein yield by 25 g/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in blood urea concentration increased in

  6. Teaching Energy Concepts by Working on Themes of Cultural and Environmental Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Energy is a central topic in physics and a key concept for understanding the physical, biological and technological worlds. It is a complex topic with multiple connections with different areas of science and with social, environmental and philosophical issues. In this paper we discuss some aspects of the teaching and learning of the energy concept, and report results of research on this issue. To immerse science teaching into the context of scientific culture and of the students' cultural world, we propose to select specific driving issues that promote motivation for the construction of science concepts and models. We describe the design and evaluation of a teaching learning path developed around the issue of greenhouse effect and global warming. The experimentation with high school students has shown that the approach based on driving issues promotes students' engagement toward a deeper understanding of the topic and favours further insight. The evolution of students' answers indicates a progressively more correct and appropriate use of the concepts of heat, radiation, temperature, internal energy, a distinction between thermal equilibrium and stationary non equilibrium conditions, and a better understanding of greenhouse effect. Based on the results of the experimentation and in collaboration with the teachers involved, new materials for the students have been prepared and a new cycle of implementation, evaluation and refinement has been activated with a larger group of teachers and students. This type of systematic and long term collaboration with teachers can help to fill the gap between the science education research and the actual school practice.

  7. Evaluating the value of concentrated solar power in electricity systems with fluctuating energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunz, Benedikt; Stöcker, Philipp; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a method for evaluating the value of CSP in electricity systems in comparison to other technologies. The low parametrization effort of the presented model allows for conducting studies for different electricity systems and scenarios within a manageable time frame. CSP systems in possible German electricity systems in the year 2050 can be used at its best, when the share of fluctuating renewables (FRES) is low. Under these conditions CSP is a cost-effective solution to meet CO2-reduction goals of 90 % in comparison to 1990. With FRES shares above 70 % the utilization of CSP systems would be too low to be competitive.

  8. A strategic value management approach for energy and maintenance management in a building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Dahlan, Nofri Yenita; Nadarajan, Santhirasegaran

    2015-05-01

    Fragmentation process is always been highlighted by the stakeholders in the construction industry as one of the `critical' issue that diminishing the opportunity for stakeholders that involved during the operation and maintenance stage to influence design decisions. Failure of design professionals to consider how a maintenance contractor or facility manager will construct the design thus results in higher operating cost, wastage, defects during the maintenance and operation process. Moving towards team integration is considered a significant strategy for overcoming the issue. Value Management is a style of management dedicated to guiding people and promoting innovation with the aim to improve overall building performance through structured, team-oriented exercises which make explicit, and appraise subsequent decisions, by reference to the value requirements of the clients. Accordingly, this paper discusses the fragmentation issue in more detail including the definition, causes and effects to the maintenance and operation of building and at the same time will highlighted the potential of VM integrated team approach as a strategic management approach for overcoming that issue. It also explores that the team integration strategy alleviates scheduling problems, delays and disputes during the construction process, and, hence, prevent harming the overall building performance.

  9. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to manipulate the lean to fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) content to replacement gilts from 100 d to 260 d of age. A secondary objective was to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments fed to develo...

  10. Model free isoconversional procedure for evaluating the effective activation energy values of thermally stimulated processes in dinitroimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Ravi, P

    2014-05-28

    The decomposition kinetics of 1,4-dinitroimidazole, 2,4-dinitroimidazole, and N-methyl-2,4-dinitroimidazole have been investigated using thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis technique under N2 atmosphere at the flow rate 100 cm(3)/min. The Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method and the Friedman method were used for the estimation of the effective activation energy values. These model free isoconversional kinetic methods showed variation in the calculated values due to the approximation of temperature integral used in the derivations of the kinetic equations. The model compounds were decomposed by multi-step kinetics evident from the nonlinear relationship of the effective activation energy values with the conversion rate. Three different reaction pathways namely NO2 elimination, NO elimination, and HONO elimination are expected to play crucial role in the decomposition of nitroimidazoles. The model dinitroimidazoles represent different decomposition kinetics, and the reaction pathways the NO2 elimination, and NO elimination compete with each other for the decomposition mechanism. The present study is certainly helpful in understanding the decomposition kinetics, and dynamics of substituted nitroimidazoles to be used for fuel, and explosive applications.

  11. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value; Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-15

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. This research has been highlighted in the Green Chemistry journal article mentioned above and a milestone report, and is based on the work the researchers are doing for the AOP projects Algal Biomass Conversion and Algal Biofuels Techno-economic Analysis. That work has demonstrated an advanced process for algal biofuel production that captures the value of both the algal lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels.  With this process, as much as 150 GGE/ton of biomass can be produced, 2-3X more than can be produced by terrestrial feedstocks.  This can also reduce the cost of biofuel production by as much as 40%. This also represents the first ever design case for the algal lipid upgrading pathway.

  12. The value of different fat supplements as sources of digestible energy for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Pinos-Rodríguez, J M; Wyatt, D J

    2011-02-01

    The effects of fat supplements that differed in fatty acid composition (chain length and degree of saturation) and chemical form (free fatty acids, Ca salts of fatty acids, and triacylglyceride) on digestible energy (DE) concentration of the diet and DE intake by lactating cows were measured. Holstein cows were fed a control diet [2.9% of dry matter (DM) as long-chain fatty acids] or 1 of 3 diets with 3% added fatty acids (that mainly replaced starch). The 3 fat supplements were (1) mostly saturated (C18:0) free fatty acids (SFA), (2) Ca-salts of fatty acids (CaFA), and (3) triacylglyceride high in C16:0 fatty acids (TAG). Cows fed CaFA (22.8 kg/d) consumed less DM than cows fed the control (23.6 kg/d) and TAG (23.8 kg/d) diets but similar to cows fed SFA (23.2 kg/d). Cows fed fat produced more fat-corrected milk than cows fed the control diet (38.2 vs. 41.1 kg/d), mostly because of increased milk fat percentage. No differences in yields of milk or milk components were observed among the fat-supplemented diets. Digestibility of DM, energy, carbohydrate fractions, and protein did not differ between diets. Digestibility of long-chain fatty acids was greatest for the CaFA diet (76.3%), intermediate for the control and SFA diets (70.3%), and least for the TAG diet (63.3%). Fat-supplemented diets had more DE (2.93 Mcal/kg) than the control diet (2.83 Mcal/kg), and DE intake by cows fed supplemented diets was 1.6 Mcal/d greater than by cows fed the control, but no differences were observed among the supplements. Because the inclusion rate of supplemental fats is typically low, large differences in fatty acid digestibility may not translate into altered DE intake because of small differences in DM intake or digestibility of other nutrients.

  13. Energy value of poultry byproduct meal and animal-vegetable oil blend for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    PubMed

    Cao, M H; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    The energy values of poultry byproduct meal (PBM) and animal-vegetable oil blend (A-V blend) were determined in 2 experiments with 288 broiler chickens from d 19 to 25 post hatching. The birds were fed a starter diet from d 0 to 19 post hatching. In each experiment, 144 birds were grouped by weight into 8 replicates of cages with 6 birds per cage. There were 3 diets in each experiment consisting of one reference diet (RD) and 2 test diets (TD). The TD contained 2 levels of PBM (Exp. 1) or A-V blend (Exp. 2) that replaced the energy sources in the RD at 50 or 100 g/kg (Exp. 1) or 40 or 80 g/kg (Exp. 2) in such a way that the same ratio were maintained for energy ingredients across experimental diets. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn of PBM and A-V blend were determined by the regression method. Dry matter of PBM and A-V blend were 984 and 999 g/kg; the gross energies were 5,284 and 9,604 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. Addition of PBM to the RD in Exp. 1 linearly decreased (P < 0.05) DM, ileal and total tract of DM, energy and nitrogen digestibilities and utilization. In Exp. 2, addition of A-V blend to the RD linearly increased (P < 0.001) ileal digestibilities and total tract utilization of DM, energy and nitrogen as well as IDE, ME, and MEn. Regressions of PBM-associated IDE, ME, or MEn intake in kcal against PBM intake were: IDE = 3,537x + 4.953, r(2) = 0.97; ME = 3,805x + 1.279, r(2) = 0.97; MEn = 3,278x + 0.164, r(2) = 0.90; and A-V blend as follows: IDE = 10,616x + 7.350, r(2) = 0.96; ME = 10,121x + 0.447, r(2) = 0.99; MEn = 10,124x + 2.425, r(2) = 0.99. These data indicate the respective IDE, ME, MEn values (kcal/kg of DM) of PBM evaluated to be 3,537, 3,805, and 3,278, and A-V blend evaluated to be 10,616, 10,121, and 10,124. PMID:26628339

  14. Energy value of poultry byproduct meal and animal-vegetable oil blend for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    PubMed

    Cao, M H; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    The energy values of poultry byproduct meal (PBM) and animal-vegetable oil blend (A-V blend) were determined in 2 experiments with 288 broiler chickens from d 19 to 25 post hatching. The birds were fed a starter diet from d 0 to 19 post hatching. In each experiment, 144 birds were grouped by weight into 8 replicates of cages with 6 birds per cage. There were 3 diets in each experiment consisting of one reference diet (RD) and 2 test diets (TD). The TD contained 2 levels of PBM (Exp. 1) or A-V blend (Exp. 2) that replaced the energy sources in the RD at 50 or 100 g/kg (Exp. 1) or 40 or 80 g/kg (Exp. 2) in such a way that the same ratio were maintained for energy ingredients across experimental diets. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn of PBM and A-V blend were determined by the regression method. Dry matter of PBM and A-V blend were 984 and 999 g/kg; the gross energies were 5,284 and 9,604 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. Addition of PBM to the RD in Exp. 1 linearly decreased (P < 0.05) DM, ileal and total tract of DM, energy and nitrogen digestibilities and utilization. In Exp. 2, addition of A-V blend to the RD linearly increased (P < 0.001) ileal digestibilities and total tract utilization of DM, energy and nitrogen as well as IDE, ME, and MEn. Regressions of PBM-associated IDE, ME, or MEn intake in kcal against PBM intake were: IDE = 3,537x + 4.953, r(2) = 0.97; ME = 3,805x + 1.279, r(2) = 0.97; MEn = 3,278x + 0.164, r(2) = 0.90; and A-V blend as follows: IDE = 10,616x + 7.350, r(2) = 0.96; ME = 10,121x + 0.447, r(2) = 0.99; MEn = 10,124x + 2.425, r(2) = 0.99. These data indicate the respective IDE, ME, MEn values (kcal/kg of DM) of PBM evaluated to be 3,537, 3,805, and 3,278, and A-V blend evaluated to be 10,616, 10,121, and 10,124.

  15. An Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Implications of Different Approaches to Capturing the Value of Renewable Energy Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-04-09

    This report compares the relative costs, benefits, and implications of capturing the value of renewable energy tax benefits in these three different ways – applying them against outside income , carrying them forward in time until they can be fully absorbed internally, or monetizing them through third-party tax equity investors – to see which method is most competitive under various scenarios. It finds that under current law and late-2013 market conditions, monetization makes sense for all but the most tax-efficient project sponsors. In other words, for most project sponsors, bringing in third-party tax equity currently provides net benefits to a project.

  16. Euphorbia characias as bioenergy crop: a study of variations in energy value components according to phenology and water status.

    PubMed

    Escrig, P V; Iglesias, D J; Corma, A; Primo, J; Primo-Millo, E; Cabedo, N

    2013-10-23

    Euphorbia characias has drawn much attention as a potential bioenergy crop given its considerable amount of latex, rich in hydrocarbon-like compounds, and its ability to grow in large areas of semiarid lands. Compositions of major constituents with an energy value have been determined for the three phenological stages of this plant (preflowering, flowering, and postflowering) and different irrigation treatments. Metabolites from both nonpolar and polar extracts have been identified and quantified by GC-MS, GC-FID, HPLC-ELSD, and UPLC-PDA-MS. The results highlight that the end of the flowering period is the optimal harvesting time to maximize the yields of E. characias as a potential energy crop. The total water requirements to obtain the maximum yields of hexane- and methanol-extractables were determined for its annual development cycle. PMID:24079468

  17. The Value of Energy Efficiency Programs for U.S. Residential and Commercial Buildings in a Warmer World

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J; Dirks, James A; Cort, Katherine A

    2007-06-15

    U.S. residential and commercial buildings currently use about 39 quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy per year and account for 0.6 gigatonnes (GT) of carbon emitted to the atmosphere (38% of U.S. total emissions of 1.6 GT and approximately 9% of the world fossil-fuel related anthropogenic emissions of 6.7 GT). U.S. government buildings-related energy efficiency research and implementation programs are expected to reduce energy consumption in buildings. This has value both in reducing carbon emissions that result in global warming and adapting the U.S. residential and commercial building stock to a potentially warmer world. Analyses conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) show that the world’s climate could warm relative to 1990 by 0.4ºC to 1.2°C by the year 2030 and by 1.4°C to 5.8°C by the end of the 21st century. This paper shows that the effect of the regional projected warming on energy consumption in U.S. residential and commercial buildings is a net decrease ranging from about 5% in 2020 to as much as 20% in 2080, but with an increase of as much as 25% in space cooling. Buildings-related energy efficiency programs should reduce energy consumption in buildings by more than 2 quads in 2020, which would more than offset the growth in space cooling due to climate and growth in building stock combined, and would be worth between $28 and $33 billion.

  18. Limiting factors in photosynthesis. V. Photochemical energy supply colimits photosynthesis at low values of intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.E.; Terry, N.

    1984-05-01

    Although there is now some agreement with the view that the supply of photochemical energy may influence photosynthetic rate (P) at high CO/sub 2/ pressures, it is less clear whether this limitation extends to P at low CO/sub 2/. This was investigated by measuring P per area as a function of the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (C/sub i/) at different levels of photochemical energy supply. Changes in the latter were obtained experimentally by varying the level of irradiance to normal (Fe-sufficient) leaves of Beta vulgaris L. cv F58-554H1, and by varying photosynthetic electron transport capacity using leaves from Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient plants. P and C/sub i/ were determined for attached sugar beet leaves using open flow gas exchange. The results suggest the P/area was colimited by the supply of photochemical energy at very low as well as high values of C/sub i/. Using the procedure developed by Perchorowicz et al., we investigated the effect or irradiance on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activation. The ratio of initial extractable activity to total inducible RuBPCase activity increased from 0.25 to 0.90 as leaf irradiance increased from 100 to 1500 microeinsteins photosynthetically active radiation per square meter per second. These data suggest that colimitation by photochemical energy supply at low C/sub i/ may be mediated via effects on RuBPCase activation.

  19. Energy value and digestibility of dietary oil containing mainly 1,3-diacylglycerol are similar to those of triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, H; Nagao, T; Watanabe, H; Onizawa, K; Matsuo, N; Tokimitsu, I; Itakura, H

    2001-04-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a component of various vegetable oils. Approximately 70% of the DAG in edible oils are in the configuration of 1,3-DAG. We recently showed that long-term ingestion of dietary oil containing mainly 1,3-DAG reduces body fat accumulation in humans as compared to triacylglycerol (TAG) oil with a similar fatty acid composition. As the first step to elucidate the mechanism for this result, we examined the difference in the bioavailabilities of both oils by measuring food energy values and digestibilities in rats. Energy values of the DAG oil and the TAG oil, measured by bomb calorimeter, were 38.9 and 39.6 kJ/g, respectively. Apparent digestibility expressed according to the formula: (absorbed) x (ingested)(-1) x 100 = (ingested - excreted in feces) x (ingested)(-1) x 100 for the DAG oil and the TAG oil were 96.3+/-0.4 and 96.3+/-0.3% (mean +/- SEM), respectively. The similarity in the bioavailabilities of both oils supports the hypothesis that the reduced fat accumulation by dietary DAG is caused by the different metabolic fates after the absorption into the gastrointestinal epithelial cells. PMID:11383689

  20. Determination of nutritional and energy value of Viburnum mullaha Buch.-Ham. Ex D. Don (Indian cranberry).

    PubMed

    Maikhuri, Rakesh K; Dhyani, Deepak; Tyagi, Yasha; Singh, Dalbeer; Negi, Vikram S; Rawat, Lakhpat S

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional and energy value of an underutilized wild edible Viburnum mullaha was determined. Vitamin analysis confirmed that the fruit contains high amounts of vitamin C (122.27 mg/100 g), vitamin B2 (0.14 mg/g), and vitamin E (13.47 mg/g). Macronutrient profile revealed that Viburnum mullaha is a rich source of carbohydrates (18.4 g/100 g), proteins (11.3 g/100 g), and lipids (18.4 g/100 g). It was calculated that 100 g of fruit berries can provide an average of 284.4 kcal (1185.7 kJ) energy. Analysis of magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, and manganese estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer confirmed that fruit berries of Viburnum mullaha can be utilized for developing various edible products. This is the first study ever on the biochemical analysis and nutritional value of this species; hence, it will provide nutritional statistics that scientific societies and the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries can use for their expanding investigations of the ultrasonically assisted technique described here in food and medicine.

  1. Short communication: Effects of feeding level on energy concentration in grass silage-based diets offered to dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yan, T; Ferris, C P; Agnew, R E; Gordon, F J

    2004-05-01

    Twelve grass silages were offered to sheep as a sole diet at maintenance and to lactating dairy cows ad libitum as mixed silage and concentrates diets (n = 13 diets). Fecal and urinary energy outputs were measured for silages and mixed diets. Digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) concentrations for mixed diets with sheep at maintenance were estimated based on the silage dry matter (DM) proportion obtained in the cattle trials, the silage energy utilization values (methane energy-predicted) determined using sheep, and tabulated concentrate values. A comparison of dietary mean data (n = 13) indicated that concentrations of ME (P < 0.01) and DE (P < 0.001) in mixed diets were significantly lower for cows at production feeding level than for sheep at maintenance. The reductions were proportionately 0.015 and 0.020 with each unit increase in feeding level above maintenance, respectively. These ME and DE data were also used to evaluate the feeding level correction factors previously proposed by Van Es (1975) (ME, 0.018) and Yan et al. (2002) (ME, 0.016; DE, 0.025) using the mean square prediction error technique. The ME correction factor proposed by Yan et al. (2002) had a greater prediction accuracy than that proposed by Van Es (1975) for the prediction of ME concentration in mixed diets offered to dairy cattle at production feeding level.

  2. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  3. Essays in energy policy and planning modeling under uncertainty: Value of information, optimistic biases, and simulation of capacity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Che

    Optimization and simulation are popular operations research and systems analysis tools for energy policy modeling. This dissertation addresses three important questions concerning the use of these tools for energy market (and electricity market) modeling and planning under uncertainty. (1) What is the value of information and cost of disregarding different sources of uncertainty for the U.S. energy economy? (2) Could model-based calculations of the performance (social welfare) of competitive and oligopolistic market equilibria be optimistically biased due to uncertainties in objective function coefficients? (3) How do alternative sloped demand curves perform in the PJM capacity market under economic and weather uncertainty? How does curve adjustment and cost dynamics affect the capacity market outcomes? To address the first question, two-stage stochastic optimization is utilized in the U.S. national MARKAL energy model; then the value of information and cost of ignoring uncertainty are estimated for three uncertainties: carbon cap policy, load growth and natural gas prices. When an uncertainty is important, then explicitly considering those risks when making investments will result in better performance in expectation (positive expected cost of ignoring uncertainty). Furthermore, eliminating the uncertainty would improve strategies even further, meaning that improved forecasts of future conditions are valuable ( i.e., a positive expected value of information). Also, the value of policy coordination shows the difference between a strategy developed under the incorrect assumption of no carbon cap and a strategy correctly anticipating imposition of such a cap. For the second question, game theory models are formulated and the existence of optimistic (positive) biases in market equilibria (both competitive and oligopoly markets) are proved, in that calculated social welfare and producer profits will, in expectation, exceed the values that will actually be received

  4. Nutritional value of 15 corn gluten meals for growing pigs: chemical composition, energy content and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Zuo, Lei; Wang, Fengli; Li, Defa; Lai, Changhua

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition, energy content and amino acid digestibility for corn gluten meals (CGM) and to develop prediction equations for estimating energy content and amino acid digestibility for growing pigs based on the chemical characteristics of these meals. The 15 CGM tested were obtained from seven Chinese companies. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the digestible (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) of the 15 CGM. The 18 growing barrows (38 +/- 4 kg) were assigned to three 6 x 6 Latin square designs. The 15 CGM test diets were formulated to contain 19.20% CGM, which replaced 20% of the energy supplied by corn and crystalline amino acid in the basal diet. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the apparent (AID) and standardised (SID) ileal digestibility of the crude protein (CP) and amino acids in the 15 CGM using chromic oxide as an inert marker. The 18 growing barrows (25 +/- 2 kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula were assigned to three 6 x 6 Latin square designs. The 15 test diets contained 35% of one of the 15 CGM as the sole source of amino acids in the diet. The results showed a considerable variation in the chemical composition of CGM within and among plants. On dry matter basis, the DE and ME content of the CGM ranged from 18.8 to 21.0 MJ/kg and from 18.0 to 19.9 MJ/kg, respectively. There were no significant differences in the AID and SID for CP, arginine, lysine, glycine and proline among the 15 CGM, however, for all the other amino acids, significant differences were found for their AID and SID. With R2 values exceeding 0.50, the DE of CGM can be predicted accurately from CP and fibre content and ME from starch and fibre content. Suitable prediction equations for SID of methionine were also developed.

  5. Predictive value of low tube voltage and dual-energy CT for successful shock wave lithotripsy: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Largo, Remo; Stolzmann, Paul; Fankhauser, Christian D; Poyet, Cédric; Wolfsgruber, Pirmin; Sulser, Tullio; Alkadhi, Hatem; Winklhofer, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the capabilities of low tube voltage computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy CT (DECT) for predicting successful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) of urinary stones in vitro. A total of 33 urinary calculi (six different chemical compositions; mean size 6 ± 3 mm) were scanned using a dual-source CT machine with single- (120 kVp) and dual-energy settings (80/150, 100/150 Sn kVp) resulting in six different datasets. The attenuation (Hounsfield Units) of calculi was measured on single-energy CT images and the dual-energy indices (DEIs) were calculated from DECT acquisitions. Calculi underwent SWL and the number of shock waves for successful disintegration was recorded. The prediction of required shock waves regarding stone attenuation/DEI was calculated using regression analysis (adjusted for stone size and composition) and the correlation between CT attenuation/DEI and the number of shock waves was assessed for all datasets. The median number of shock waves for successful stone disintegration was 72 (interquartile range 30-361). CT attenuation/DEI of stones was a significant, independent predictor (P < 0.01) for the number of required shock waves with the best prediction at 80 kVp (β estimate 0.576) (P < 0.05). Correlation coefficients between attenuation/DEI and the number of required shock waves ranged between ρ = 0.31 and 0.68 showing the best correlation at 80 kVp (P < 0.001). The attenuation of urinary stones at low tube voltage CT is the best predictor for successful stone disintegration, being independent of stone composition and size. DECT shows no added value for predicting the success of SWL.

  6. Geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations in Cartesian coordinates: accurate reduction in zero-point energy.

    PubMed

    Issack, Bilkiss B; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2005-08-22

    An approach for the inclusion of geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations is introduced. An important aspect of the approach is that Cartesian coordinates are used throughout. We devised an algorithm for the constrained sampling of initial conditions through the use of multivariate Gaussian distribution based on a projected Hessian. We also propose an approach for the constrained evaluation of the so-called Herman-Kluk prefactor in its exact log-derivative form. Sample calculations are performed for free and constrained rare-gas trimers. The results show that the proposed approach provides an accurate evaluation of the reduction in zero-point energy. Exact basis set calculations are used to assess the accuracy of the semiclassical results. Since Cartesian coordinates are used, the approach is general and applicable to a variety of molecular and atomic systems.

  7. The economic value of transportation energy contingency planning: An objective model for analyzing the economics of domestic renewable energy for supply augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaten, Richard Jay

    1998-12-01

    Petroleum provides 90% of transportation energy needs. Domestic production is decreasing and global demand is increasing. Risk of escalating prices and supply interruptions are compounded by environmental and military externalities and lost opportunities from the failure to develop alternative domestic resources. Within the context of "energy contingency planning" municipalities should evaluate crisis mitigation strategies. Supply augmentation using domestic renewable fuels is proposed to avert future financial liabilities. A method for calculating the economic value of this strategy is demonstrated. An objective function and associated constraints represent the cost of preparing for each of three possible scenarios: status quo, inflationary and crisis. Constraints ensure that municipal fuel needs are met. Environmental costs may be included. Optimal solutions determine the fuel supply mix for each scenario. A 3 x 3 matrix presents the range of actual costs resulting from preparing for each scenario and subsequent three possible outcomes. The distribution of probabilities of the outcomes is applied to the cost matrix and an "expected value" of preparing for each scenario is calculated. An unanticipated crisis outcome results in. The expected value of the cost of preparing for a crisis is cast as an insurance premium against potential economic liability. Policy makers accept the crisis preparation fuel mix if: (a) they agree with the calculated penalty cost, or (b) they accept the burden of the insurance premium. Green Bay Wisconsin was chosen as a sample municipality. Results show that a perceived 10% chance of crisis requires an annual tax of 4.00 per household to avert economic impacts of 50 million. At a perceived 50% chance of crisis preparing for the crisis would begin to save the municipality money.

  8. Conservation of vector-valued forms and the question of the existence of gravitational energy-momentum in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1991-06-01

    Recently, Dalton has shown that conserved vector-valued currents have nullcovariant (rather than partial) derivatives and has discussed the corollary that there is no gravitational energy-momentum in general relativity (GR). An equivalent statement on conservation of vector-valued currents was given by E. Cartan in 1922. Given the potential implications of the Dalton corollary, Cartan's contribution to this problem is reproduced here in more modern but very powerful and relatively simple language. For completeness, his accompanying work on the current of GR is also included. The question then arises of whether or not the absence of a gravitational source in GR is a problem. For the purpose of comparison, we consider the gravitational sector of teleparallelism-withtorsion theories. These exhibit field equations of the formG μν =T μν, whereG μνis the Einstein tensor for the Levi-Civita (part of the total) connection, which is conserved. The source now has two distinct parts, one depending on both the metric and the torsion and the other metric independent. They can be viewed as being respectively gravitational and non-gravitational. In addition, the conservation law of these theories is global. It thus follows that several unesthetic (and certainly controversial) features of GR should be viewed as real problems, and not as necessary concomitants of the geometrization of the physics.

  9. Time dependence of energy spectra of brachytherapy sources and its impact on the half and the tenth value layers

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ning J.; Chen Zhe; Hearn, Robert A.; Rodgers, Joseph J.; Nath, Ravinder

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Several factors including radionuclide purity influence the photon energy spectra from sealed brachytherapy sources. The existence of impurities and trace elements in radioactive materials as well as the substrate and encapsulation may not only alter the spectrum at a given time but also cause change in the spectra as a function of time. The purpose of this study is to utilize a semiempirical formalism, which quantitatively incorporates this time dependence, to calculate and evaluate the shielding requirement impacts introduced by this time dependence for a {sup 103}Pd source. Methods: The formalism was used to calculate the NthVL thicknesses in lead for a {sup 103}Pd model 200 seed. Prior to 2005, the {sup 103}Pd in this source was purified to a level better than 0.006% of the total {sup 103}Pd activity, the key trace impurity consisting of {sup 65}Zn. Because {sup 65}Zn emits higher energy photons and has a much longer half-life of 244 days compared to {sup 103}Pd, its presence in {sup 103}Pd seeds led to a time dependence of the photon spectrum and other related physical quantities. This study focuses on the time dependence of the NthVL and the analysis of the corresponding shielding requirements. Results: The results indicate that the first HVL and the first TVL in lead steadily increased with time for about 200 days and then reached a plateau. The increases at plateau were more than 1000 times compared to the corresponding values on the zeroth day. The second and third TVLs in lead reached their plateaus in about 100 and 60 days, respectively, and the increases were about 19 and 2.33 times the corresponding values on the zeroth day, respectively. All the TVLs demonstrated a similar time dependence pattern, with substantial increases and eventual approach to a plateau. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the time dependence of the emitted photon spectra from brachytherapy sources can introduce substantial variations in the values of the NthVL with

  10. Evaluation of Dynamical Downscaling Resolution Effect on Wind Energy Forecast Value for a Wind Farm in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosgaard, Martin; Hahmann, Andrea; Skov Nielsen, Torben; Giebel, Gregor; Ejnar Sørensen, Poul; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    For any energy system relying on wind power, accurate forecasts of wind fluctuations are essential for efficient integration into the power grid. Increased forecast precision allows end-users to plan day-ahead operation with reduced risk of penalties which in turn supports the feasibility of wind energy. This study aims to quantify value added to wind energy forecasts in the 12-48 hour leadtime by downscaling global numerical weather prediction (NWP) data using a limited-area NWP model. The accuracy of statistical wind power forecasting tools depends strongly on this NWP input. Typical performance metrics are mean absolute error or root mean square error for predicted- against observed wind power production, and these metrics are closely related to wind speed forecast bias and correlation with observations. Wind speed bias can be handled in the statistical wind power forecasting model, though it is entirely up to it's NWP input to describe the wind speed correlation correctly. The basis of comparison for forecasts is data from the Stor-Rotliden wind farm in central Sweden. The surrounding forest adds to the forecasting challenge, thus motivating the downscaling experiment as the potential for wind power forecast improvement is higher in complex terrain. The 40 Vestas V90 turbines were erected in 2009 and correspond to 78MWe installed electrical capacity. Forecasts from global and limited-area NWP models, together covering five different horizontal computational grid spacings of ~50km down to ~1km, are studied for a yearlong, continuous time period. The preliminary results shown quantify forecast strengths and weaknesses for each NWP model resolution.

  11. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  12. Corresponding relation between the result of real-time fluid analysis and estimated energy value of aftershock during drilling in WFSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, L.; Luo, L.; Lao, C.; Zeng, Y.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The real-time fluid analysis has been applied in some important drilling engineering. Recently the fluid analysis has just been completed in WFSD-1, WFSD- 2 and WFSD-4 holes, the accumulated analytical period of which is about 1200 days and the completed drilling depth is probable 8000 meters. We could see from the real-time analysis results in May 19, 2009, that the multi components of drilling mud gas change significantly, especially the abnormal changes of methane, oxygen and helium. And the high abnormal value of methane reaches 8.37% (v/v), which has exceeded the explosion concentration value of methane. Due to a few actual reasons, such as no mud circulation, the period of real-time fluid analysis would shorter than that of drilling process. The actual period of fluid analysis in WFSD-2 hole is from October 14, 2009 to April 5, 2012, so the statistical analysis of the aftershock information and the magnitude effort were both considered during this period. According to the relationship between magnitude and seismic energy of earthquake, the monthly earthquake energy values were estimated. Estimation approach is based on the formula proposed by the seismologist Richter in 1953, in which the energy value of aftershock between Ms. 3.0 and Ms. 4.0 is defined as 1, that of aftershocks between Ms. 4.0 and Ms. 5.0 is multiplied by 31.6, and that of between Ms. 5.0 and Ms. 6.0 is multiplied by 1000. Then the monthly curve of estimated energy values is showed in Fig. (Monthly curve of estimated energy value of aftershock more than 3.0 during drilling WFSD-2. X-axis represents the month, Y-axis represents the estimated energy value). We could find that some special corresponding periods through the comparison of fluid change and the energy estimated values of aftershocks from the Fig. and the poster (Fall Meeting AGU 2013, San Francisco, T23E-2645), which had showed the ratio curves of the minimum and mean value, the maximum and mean value over time. We can see that the

  13. Impact of Complex-Valued Energy Function Singularities on the Behaviour of RAYLEIGH-SCHRöDINGER Perturbation Series. H_2CO Molecule Vibrational Energy Spectrum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchko, Andrey; Bykov, Alexandr

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays the task of spectra processing is as relevant as ever in molecular spectroscopy. Nevertheless, existing techniques of vibrational energy levels and wave functions computation often come to a dead-lock. Application of standard quantum-mechanical approaches often faces inextricable difficulties. Variational method requires unimaginable computational performance. On the other hand perturbational approaches beat against divergent series. That's why this problem faces an urgent need in application of specific resummation techniques. In this research Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory is applied to vibrational energy levels calculation of excited vibrational states of H_2CO. It is known that perturbation series diverge in the case of anharmonic resonance coupling between vibrational states [1]. Nevertheless, application of advanced divergent series summation techniques makes it possible to calculate the value of energy with high precision (more than 10 true digits) even for highly excited states of the molecule [2]. For this purposes we have applied several summation techniques based on high-order Pade-Hermite approximations. Our research shows that series behaviour completely depends on the singularities of complex energy function inside unit circle. That's why choosing an approximation function modelling this singularities allows to calculate the sum of divergent series. Our calculations for formaldehyde molecule show that the efficiency of each summation technique depends on the resonant type. REFERENCES 1. J. Cizek, V. Spirko, and O. Bludsky, ON THE USE OF DIVERGENT SERIES IN VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY. TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL OSCILLATORS, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7331 (1993). 2. A. V. Sergeev and D. Z. Goodson, SINGULARITY ANALYSIS OF FOURTH-ORDER MöLLER-PLESSET PERTURBATION THEORY, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 4111 (2006).

  14. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  15. Electric utility value determination for wind energy. Volume II. A user's guide. [WTP code; WEIBUL code; ROSEN code; ULMOD code; FINAM code

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, David; Harper, James

    1981-02-01

    This report describes a method for determining the value of wind energy systems to electric utilities. It is performed by a package of computer models available from SERI that can be used with most utility planning models. The final output of these models gives a financial value ($/kW) of the wind energy system under consideration in the specific utility system. This volume, the second of two volumes, is a user's guide for the computer programs available from SERI. The first volume describes the value determination methodology and gives detailed discussion on each step of the computer modeling.

  16. Electric utility value determination for wind energy. Volume I. A methodology. [WTP code; WEIBUL code; ROSEN code; ULMOD code; FINAM code

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, David; Harper, James

    1981-02-01

    This report describes a method electric utilities can use to determine the value of wind energy systems. It is performed by a package of computer models available from SERI that can be used with most utility planning models. The final output of these models gives a financial value ($/kW) of the wind energy system under consideration in the specific utility system. This report, first of two volumes, describes the value determination method and gives detailed discussion on each computer program available from SERI. The second volume is a user's guide for these computer programs.

  17. Model verification of thermal programmed desorption-mass spectrometry for estimation of release energy values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on mineral sorbents.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Sara I; Talley, Jeffrey W; Silliman, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The physical availability of organic compounds in soil and sediment strongly influences their bioavailability and toxicity. Previous work has indicated that physical availability changes throughout the processes of aging and treatment and that it can be linked to the energy required to release the compound from its sorbent matrix, with a higher energy indicating a more tightly bound compound. This study focused on determining release energy values for various mineral geosorbents (glass beads, sand, and kaolin) contaminated with a 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixture. The sorbents were analyzed using thermal program desorption/mass spectrometry (TPD/MS) and the release energy values were calculated from the resulting thermograms utilizing a nonlinear fit of the analytical solution to a simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation. This solution method resulted in a series of combinations of values for the pre-exponential factor (v) and release energy (E) that produced desorption rate curves with similar errors when fit to actual data sets. These combinations can be viewed as an error surface, which clearly shows a valley of minimum error values spanning the range of both E and v. This indicates that this method may not provide a unique set of E- and v-values and suggests that the simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation cannot be used to determine release energy based on TPD data alone.

  18. Model verification of thermal programmed desorption-mass spectrometry for estimation of release energy values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on mineral sorbents.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Sara I; Talley, Jeffrey W; Silliman, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The physical availability of organic compounds in soil and sediment strongly influences their bioavailability and toxicity. Previous work has indicated that physical availability changes throughout the processes of aging and treatment and that it can be linked to the energy required to release the compound from its sorbent matrix, with a higher energy indicating a more tightly bound compound. This study focused on determining release energy values for various mineral geosorbents (glass beads, sand, and kaolin) contaminated with a 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixture. The sorbents were analyzed using thermal program desorption/mass spectrometry (TPD/MS) and the release energy values were calculated from the resulting thermograms utilizing a nonlinear fit of the analytical solution to a simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation. This solution method resulted in a series of combinations of values for the pre-exponential factor (v) and release energy (E) that produced desorption rate curves with similar errors when fit to actual data sets. These combinations can be viewed as an error surface, which clearly shows a valley of minimum error values spanning the range of both E and v. This indicates that this method may not provide a unique set of E- and v-values and suggests that the simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation cannot be used to determine release energy based on TPD data alone. PMID:15559267

  19. Analysis of potential RDF resources from solid waste and their energy values in the largest industrial city of Korea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2009-05-01

    The production potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in the largest industrial city of Korea is discussed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy potential of the RDF obtained from utilizing combustible solid waste as a fuel resource. The total amount of generated solid waste in the industrial city was more than 3.3 million tonnes, which is equivalent to 3.0tonnes per capita in a single year. The highest amount of solid waste was generated in the city district with the largest population and the biggest petrochemical industrial complex (IC) in Korea. Industrial waste accounted for 89% of the total amount of the solid waste in the city. Potential RDF resources based on combustible solid wastes including wastepaper, wood, rubber, plastic, synthetic resins and industrial sludge were identified. The amount of combustible solid waste that can be used to produce RDF was 635,552tonnes/yr, consisting of three types of RDF: 116,083tonnes/yr of RDF-MS (RDF from municipal solid waste); 146,621tonnes/yr of RDF-IMC (RDF from industrial, municipal and construction wastes); and 372,848tonnes/yr of RDF-IS (RDF from industrial sludge). The total obtainable energy value from the RDF resources in the industrial city was more than 2,240,000x10(6)kcal/yr, with the following proportions: RDF-MS of 25.6%, RDF-IMC of 43.5%, and RDF-IS of 30.9%. If 50% or 100% of the RDF resources are utilized as fuel resources, the industrial city can save approximately 17.6% and 35.2%, respectively, of the current total disposal costs.

  20. Computer-Aided Energy Analysis for Buildings: An Assessment of Its Value for Students of Technology and Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that computer aided energy analysis improves students' (N=29) comprehension and prediction accuracy of energy consumption in buildings and confirms that a reasonably accurate building energy analysis computer program can be designed for student users. (Author/SK)

  1. Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (?? SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ?? 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ???66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ?? 0.002 day-1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ?? 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ?? 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  2. A Study of the Value of Information and the Effect on Value of Intermediary Organizations, Timeliness of Services & Products, and Comprehensiveness of the EDB. Volume 1: The Value of Libraries as an Intermediary Information Service; Volume 2: The Value of the Network Energy Software Center and the Radiation Shielding Information Center; Volume 3: The Effects of Timeliness and Comprehensiveness on Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King Research, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This document reports in three volumes the results of a series of surveys designed to: (1) determine what contribution intermediary information transfer organizations such as libraries and information analysis centers make to the value of information; (2) assess the value of two somewhat different software information analysis centers and the…

  3. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  4. Determination of Nutrient Contents and In vitro Gas Production Values of Some Legume Forages Grown in the Harran Plain Saline Soils.

    PubMed

    Boga, M; Yurtseven, S; Kilic, U; Aydemir, S; Polat, T

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of some legume species in salt-affected soils of South-East Anatolian region using chemical composition and in vitro gas production kinetics. In this study, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium alexandrinum, Medicago sativa were sown and tested in four different locations. A 3 by 4 factorial design with 3 legume species and 4 salt levels (non salty electrical conductivity (EC)<4 dS/m; low salt: 4 dS/m>EC<8 dS/m, medium saline: 8 dS/m>EC<16 dS/m and high salt: 16 dS/m>EC) was used in the study. Results indicated that salinity and plants had no significant effect on ash and ether extract. Dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber, digestible dry matter, dry matter intake (DMI) were affected by plant, salinity and plant×salinity interaction. On the other hand neutral detergent fiber, relative feed value (RFV), and DMI were affected by salinity and plant×salinity interaction. Mineral contents were affected by plant species, salinity and salinity×plants interactions. In vitro gas production, their kinetics and estimated parameters such as were not affected by salinity whereas the gas production up to 48 h, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME), and net energy lactation (NEL) were affected by plant and plant×salt interaction. Generally RFVs of all species ranged from 120 to 210 and were quite satisfactory in salty conditions. Current results show that the feed value of Medicago sativa is higher compared to Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium alexandrinum. PMID:25050020

  5. Energy requirements in early life are similar for male and female goat kids.

    PubMed

    Bompadre, T F V; Neto, O Boaventura; Mendonca, A N; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Fernandes, M H M R; Harter, C J; Almeida, A K; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg(0.75) empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg(0.75) BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg(0.75) EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets

  6. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, T. F. V.; Neto, O. Boaventura; Mendonca, A. N.; Souza, S. F.; Oliveira, D.; Fernandes, M. H. M. R.; Harter, C. J.; Almeida, A. K.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets with

  7. A revised set of values of single-bond radii derived from the observed interatomic distances in metals by correction for bond number and resonance energy

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus; Kamb, Barclay

    1986-01-01

    An earlier discussion [Pauling, L. (1947) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69, 542] of observed bond lengths in elemental metals with correction for bond number and resonance energy led to a set of single-bond metallic radii with values usually somewhat less than the corresponding values obtained from molecules and complex ions. A theory of resonating covalent bonds has now been developed that permits calculation of the number of resonance structures per atom and of the effective resonance energy per bond. With this refined method of correcting the observed bond lengths for the effect of resonance energy, a new set of single-bond covalent radii, in better agreement with values from molecules and complex ions, has been constructed. PMID:16593698

  8. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    PubMed

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens.

  9. ModObs: Atmospheric modelling for wind energy, climate and environment applications : exploring added value from new observation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempreviva, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    The EC FP6 Marie Curie Training Network "ModObs" http://www.modobs.windeng.net addresses the improvement of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) models to investigate the interplay of processes at different temporal and spatial scales, and to explore the added value from new observation techniques. The overall goal is to bring young scientists to work together with experienced researchers in developing a better interaction amongst scientific communities of modelers and experimentalists, using a comprehensive approach to "Climate Change", "Clean Energy assessment" and "Environmental Policies", issues. This poster describes the work in progress of ten students, funded by the network, under the supervision of a team of scientists within atmospheric physics, engineering and satellite remote sensing and end-users such as companies in the private sector, all with the appropriate expertise to integrate the most advanced research methods and techniques in the following topics. MODELING: GLOBAL-TO-MESO SCALE: Analytical and process oriented numerical models will be used to study the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean on a regional scale. Initial results indicate an interaction between the intensity of polar lows and the subsurface warm core often present in the Nordic Seas (11). The presence of waves, mainly swell, influence the MABL fluxes and turbulence structure. The regional and global wave effect on the atmosphere will be also studied and quantified (7) MESO-SCALE: Applicability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parametrizations in the meso-scale WRF model to marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the North Sea is investigated. The most suitable existing PBL parametrization will be additionally improved and used for downscaling North Sea past and future climates (2). Application of the meso-scale model (MM5 and WRF) for the wind energy in off-shore and coastal area. Set-up of the meso-scale model, post-processing and verification of the data from

  10. Determining the amount of rumen-protected methionine supplement that corresponds to the optimal levels of methionine in metabolizable protein for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Cho, J; Overton, T R; Schwab, C G; Tauer, L W

    2007-10-01

    The profitability of feeding rumen-protected Met (RPMet) sources to produce milk protein was estimated using a 2-step procedure: First, the effect of Met in metabolizable protein (MP) on milk protein production was estimated by using a quadratic Box-Cox functional form. Then, using these estimation results, the amounts of RPMet supplement that corresponded to the optimal levels of Met in MP for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms were determined. The data used in this study were modified from data used to determine the optimal level of Met in MP for lactating cows in the Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (NRC, 2001). The data used in this study differ from that in the NRC (2001) data in 2 ways. First, because dairy feed generally contains 1.80 to 1.90% Met in MP, this study adjusts the reference production value (RPV) from 2.06 to 1.80 or 1.90%. Consequently, the milk protein production response is also modified to an RPV of 1.80 or 1.90% Met in MP. Second, because this study is especially interested in how much additional Met, beyond the 1.80 or 1.90% already contained in the basal diet, is required to maximize farm profits, the data used are limited to concentrations of Met in MP above 1.80 or 1.90%. This allowed us to calculate any additional cost to farmers based solely on the price of an RPMet supplement and eliminated the need to estimate the dollar value of each gram of Met already contained in the basal diet. Results indicated that the optimal level of Met in MP for maximizing milk protein production was 2.40 and 2.42%, where the RPV was 1.80 and 1.90%, respectively. These optimal levels were almost identical to the recommended level of Met in MP of 2.40% in the NRC (2001). The amounts of RPMet required to increase the percentage of Met in MP from each RPV to 2.40 and 2.42% were 21.6 and 18.5 g/d, respectively. On the other hand, the optimal levels of Met in MP for maximizing profit were 2.32 and 2.34%, respectively. The amounts

  11. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  12. Rethinking Diffusion Theory in an Applied Context: Role of Environmental Values in Adoption of Home Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Susanna Hornig; Greenhalgh, Ted; Neill, Helen R.; Young, Gabriel Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion theory, developed and popularized within communication research by Everett Rogers, is a venerable approach with much to recommend it as a theoretical foundation for applied communication research. In developing an applied project for a home energy conservation (energy efficiency retrofit) program in the state of Nevada, we utilized key…

  13. pH-dependent pKa values in proteins--a theoretical analysis of protonation energies with practical consequences for enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Bombarda, Elisa; Ullmann, G Matthias

    2010-02-11

    Because of their central importance for understanding enzymatic mechanisms, pK(a) values are of great interest in biochemical research. It is common practice to determine pK(a) values of amino acid residues in proteins from NMR or FTIR titration curves by determining the pH at which the protonation probability is 50%. The pH dependence of the free energy required to protonate this residue is then determined from the linear relationship DeltaG(prot) = RT ln 10 (pH-pK(a)), where R is the gas constant and T the absolute temperature. However, this approach neglects that there can be important electrostatic interactions in the proteins that can shift the protonation energy. Even if the titration curves seem to have a standard sigmoidal shape, the protonation energy of an individual site in a protein may depend nonlinearly on pH. To account for this nonlinear dependence, we show that it is required to introduce pK(a) values for individual sites in proteins that depend on pH. Two different definitions are discussed. One definition is based on a rearranged Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, and the other definition is based on an equation that was used by Tanford and Roxby to approximate titration curves of proteins. In the limiting case of weak interactions, the two definitions lead to nearly the same pK(a) value. We discuss how these two differently defined pK(a) values are related to the free energy change required to protonate a site. Using individual site pK(a) values, we demonstrate on simple model systems that the interactions between protonatable residues in proteins can help to maintain the energy required to protonate a site in the protein nearly constant over a wide pH range. We show with the example of RNase T1 that such a mechanism to keep the protonation energy constant is used in enzymes. The pH dependence of pK(a) values may be an important concept in enzyme catalysis. Neglecting this concept, important features of enzymes may be missed, and the enzymatic

  14. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. 1. Voluntary intake.

    PubMed

    Barry, T N; Duncan, S J

    1984-05-01

    Voluntary intake was determined with vegetative Lotus pedunculatus cut and fed fresh to growing sheep of 42-46 kg live weight. Effects attributable to condensed tannins were assessed by growing the plant under high and low levels of soil fertility, inducing low and high concentrations of tannin (Expt 1), or by binding the tannins through spraying the herbage with polyethylene glycol (molecular weight 3350, PEG; Expt 2). Primary-growth lotus was used in Expt 1 and secondary-growth lotus in Expt 2. Concentrations of total and free condensed tannin were determined in fresh lotus, free tanning being defined as that not bound by mascerates of the plant. In Expt 1 the herbages fed contained respectively 46 and 106 g total condensed tannin/kg dry matter (DM) and 3 and 14 g free condensed tannin/kg DM. Mean metabolizable energy (ME) intakes were 0.89 and 0.77 MJ/kg live weight0 .75 per d (P less than 0.05) respectively. The lotus used in Expt 2 contained 63 and 5 g total reactive condensed tannin and free condensed tannin/kg DM respectively. After spraying with PEG at 2.4 g/g total condensed tannin, these values were reduced to 7 and 0.5 g/kg DM respectively. PEG addition increased apparent digestibility (proportion of each nutrient ingested) of cellulose, hemicellulose and nitrogen by 0.05, 0.08 and 0.26, and increased ME intake from 0.48 to 0.69 MJ/kg live weight0 .75 per d. It was concluded that high concentrations of condensed tannins depressed ME intake, due to depressions in both the voluntary intake and digestion of organic matter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  16. Resting energy expenditure in children in a pediatric intensive care unit: comparison of Harris-Benedict and Talbot predictions with indirect calorimetry values.

    PubMed

    Coss-Bu, J A; Jefferson, L S; Walding, D; David, Y; Smith, E O; Klish, W J

    1998-01-01

    The use of prediction equations has been recommended for calculating energy expenditure. We evaluated two equations that predict energy expenditure, each of which were corrected for two different stress factors, and compared the values obtained with those calculated by indirect calorimetry. The subjects were 55 critically ill children on mechanical ventilation. Basal metabolic rates were calculated with the Harris-Benedict and Talbot methods. Measured resting energy expenditure was 4.72 +/- 2.53 MJ/d. The average difference between measured resting energy expenditure and the Harris-Benedict prediction with a stress factor of 1.5 was -0.98 MJ/d, with an SD delta of 1.56 MJ/d and limits of agreement from -4.12 to 2.15; for a stress factor of 1.3 the average difference was -0.22 MJ/d, with an SD delta of 1.57 MJ/d and limits of agreement from -3.37 to 2.93. The average difference between measured resting energy expenditure and the Talbot prediction with a stress factor of 1.5 was -0.23 MJ/d, with an SD delta of 1.36 MJ/d and limits of agreement from -2.95 to 2.48; for a stress factor of 1.3, it was 0.42 MJ/d, with an SD delta of 1.24 MJ/d and limits of agreement from -2.04 to 2.92. These limits of agreement indicate large differences in energy expenditure between the measured value and the prediction estimated for some patients. Therefore, neither the Harris-Benedict nor the Talbot method will predict resting energy expenditure with acceptable precision for clinical use. Indirect calorimetry appears to be the only useful way of determining resting energy expenditure in these patients. PMID:9440378

  17. Chemical denaturation: potential impact of undetected intermediates in the free energy of unfolding and m-values obtained from a two-state assumption.

    PubMed Central

    Soulages, J L

    1998-01-01

    The chemical unfolding transition of a protein was simulated, including the presence of an intermediate (I) in equilibrium with the native (N) and unfolded (U) states. The calculations included free energies of unfolding, DeltaGuw, in the range of 1.4 kcal/mol to 10 kcal/mol and three different global m-values. The simulations included a broad range of equilibrium constants for the N left arrow over right arrow I process. The dependence of the N <--> I equilibrium on the concentration of denaturant was also included in the simulations. Apparent DeltaGuw and m-values were obtained from the simulated unfolding transitions by fitting the data to a two-state unfolding process. The potential errors were calculated for two typical experimental situations: 1) the unfolding is monitored by a physical property that does not distinguish between native and intermediate states (case I), and 2) the physical property does not distinguish between intermediate and unfolded states (case II). The results obtained indicated that in the presence of an intermediate, and in both experimental situations, the free energy of unfolding and the m-values could be largely underestimated. The errors in DeltaGuw and m-values do not depend on the m-values that characterize the global N <--> U transition. They are dependent on the equilibrium constant for the N <--> I transition and its characteristic m1-value. The extent of the underestimation increases for higher energies of unfolding. Including no random error in the simulations, it was estimated that the underestimation in DeltaGuw could range between 25% and 35% for unfolding transitions of 3-10 kcal/mol (case I). In case II, the underestimation in DeltaGuw could be even larger than in case I. In the same energy range, a 50% error in the m-value could also take place. The fact that most of the mutant proteins are characterized by both a lower m-value and a lower stability than the wild-type protein suggests that in some cases the results

  18. The Value of Energy Performance and Green Attributes in Buildings: A Review of Existing Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, Elizabeth

    2011-09-07

    Labels, certifications, and rating systems for energy efficiency performance and “green” attributes of buildings have been available in the U.S. for over 10 years, and used extensively in the European Union and Australia for longer. Such certifications and ratings can make energy efficiency more visible, and could help spur demand for energy efficiency if these designations are shown to have a positive impact on sales or rental prices. This policy brief discusses the findings and methodologies from recent studies on this topic, and suggests recommendations for future research. Although there have been just a handful of studies within the last 10 years that have investigated these effects, a few key findings emerge: To maximize sales price impact, label or rating information must be disclosed early and visibly in the sales process; The approach to evaluating energy efficiency labels (e.g., ENERGY STAR) and general “green” certifications (e.g., LEED or GreenPoint Rated) may need to be different, depending on the type, vintage and market penetration of the label; Collaborative efforts to promote label adoption and build a large dataset of labeled buildings will be required to produce reliable study results.

  19. The Value of Adding Ambient Energy Feedback to Conservation Tips and Goal-Setting in a Dormitory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Abigail; McCauley, Michelle; Byrne, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The majority of research on energy feedback has been conducted in residential households; in this study, the authors aim to examine the effectiveness of similar initiatives in a college environment. The our goal was to see how much additional electricity savings could be induced using feedback beyond average savings achieved by…

  20. Apparent metabolizable energy and prediction equations for reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks from 10 to 18 days old

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment consisting of two identically designed trials was conducted to determine the nutrient composition and AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to develop prediction equations for AMEn in broilers. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 3...

  1. Lipidemic responses of male broiler chickens to enzyme-supplemented wheat-soybean meal-based diets with various levels of metabolizable energy.

    PubMed

    Karimi, K; Shokrollahi, B

    2013-11-01

    Effects of 2 various levels of AME (according to the manual recommendation and 100 kcal kg(-1) less than it), 2 levels of endo-beta-D-mannanase enzyme (0, 1 g kg(-1)) and 2 levels of xylanase enzyme (0 and 1 g kg(-1)) on serum lipid parameters as a 2(3) factorial arrangement were tested in 120 male broiler chicks fed wheat-soybean meal-based diet. These birds were randomly assigned to 8 experimental groups with 3 pen per group and 5 birds per pen. The serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL), LDL-cholesterol (LDL), Total-cholesterol (TC) and Triglycerides (TG) concentrations were measured at 31 and 41 day of age. The concentrations of serum TG, TC and LDL of 41-day-old birds demonstrated to be lower than those of 31-d-old (p < 0.001). Some hypolipidemic responses were observed in the broiler chicks fed on (1) Diet supplemented with only beta-mannanase, (2) Normal-AME diets supplemented with p-mannanase, (3) Normal-AME diets supplemented with Xylanse and (4) Normal-AME diets supplemented with both beta-mannanase and Xylanase (p < 0.01). In the other hand, some hyperlipidemic responses were detected in the broiler chicks fed on low-AME diets supplemented with xylanse or beta-mannanase enzymes, alone or in combination (p < 0.01). Regardless of AME, adding both xylanse and beta-mannanase to the wheat-soybean meal-based diets have both hyperlipidemic and hypolipidemic effects together (p < 0.01).

  2. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Ju, W S; Stein, H H

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of AA (Exp. 1) and the concentration of DE and ME (Exp. 2) in copra meal (CM), palm kernel expellers from Indonesia (PKE-IN), palm kernel expellers from Costa Rica (PKE-CR), palm kernel meal from Costa Rica (PKM), and soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 6 barrows (BW = 34.0 ± 1.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. One diet contained 30% SBM and 4 diets were formulated with 20% SBM and 30% (as-fed basis) CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, or PKM. The last diet was an N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The SID of CP and all indispensable AA except Met, Thr, and Trp was less (P < 0.05) in CM than in SBM, and the SID of CP and all indispensable AA except Trp was less (P < 0.05) in PKE-IN than in SBM. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID of CP and all indispensable AA between PKE-CR and SBM, but the SID of CP and all indispensable AA were less (P < 0.05) in PKM than in SBM. The SID of CP was less (P < 0.05) in PKM compared with CM and PKE-CR, but there were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID of all indispensable AA among CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM. In Exp. 2, 48 barrows (BW = 35.2 ± 3.0 kg) were housed individually in metabolism cages and allotted to 6 diets in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets containing 70% of the corn diet and 30% of CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, or SBM were formulated, and the DE and ME in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM were calculated using the substitution procedure. The DE (3692, 3304, 2994, and 2905 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3496, 3184, 2883, and 2766 kcal/kg DM) in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM, respectively, were less (P < 0.05) than the DE and ME in SBM (4275 and 4062 kcal/kg DM, respectively). Copra meal had greater (P < 0.05) DE than PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM and greater (P < 0.05) ME than PKE-CR and PKM. The DE in PKE-IN was greater (P < 0.05) than in PKM. In conclusion, the SID of most indispensable AA is less in CM, PKE-IN, and PKM than in SBM, but no differences among CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM were observed. The concentrations of DE and ME are less in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM than in SBM. The DE and ME of CM are greater than in PKE-CR and PKM. PMID:23307844

  3. Apparent metabolizable energy needs of male and female broilers ranging from thirty-six to forty-seven days of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed ingredient prices have fluctuated in recent yrs. In commercial practice, one strategy implemented to reduce live production cost has been to reduce AMEn minimums in diet formulation, which can result in poor feed conversion. Four experiments were conducted to examine AMEn responses of male and ...

  4. Growth and body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits of developing gilts fed different dietary lysine and metabolizable energy levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to manipulate the lean:fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and ME content to replacement gilts housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (approximately 260 d of age) to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments. Crossbred ...

  5. A Spatial Hedonic Analysis of the Effects of Wind Energy Facilities on Surrounding Property Values in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Brown, Jason P.; Jackson, Thomas; Thayer, Mark A.

    2013-08-21

    This report summarizes a new analysis, building on previously published research, about wind energy’s effects on residential property values. This study helps fill research gaps by collecting and analyzing data from 27 counties across nine U.S. states, related to 67 different wind facilities, and constructs a pooled model that investigates average effects near the turbines across the sample while controlling for local variables, such as sale prices of nearby homes.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Plutonium Content in Particles Collected from a Certified Reference Material by Total Nuclear Reaction Energy (Q Value) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, M. P.; Hoover, A. S.; Rabin, M. W.; Bond, E. M.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2016-08-01

    Microcalorimeters with embedded radioisotopes are an emerging category of sensor with advantages over existing methods for isotopic analysis of trace-level nuclear materials. For each nuclear decay, the energy of all decay products captured by the absorber (alpha particles, gamma rays, X-rays, electrons, daughter nuclei, etc.) is measured in one pulse. For alpha-decaying isotopes, this gives a measurement of the total nuclear reaction energy (Q value) and the spectra consist of well-separated, narrow peaks. We have demonstrated a simple mechanical alloying process to create an absorber structure consisting of a gold matrix with small inclusions of a radioactive sample. This absorber structure provides an optimized energy thermalization environment, resulting in high-resolution spectra with minimal tailing. We have applied this process to the analysis of particles collected from the surface of a plutonium metal certified reference material (CRM-126A from New Brunswick Laboratory) and demonstrated isotopic analysis by microcalorimeter Q value spectroscopy. Energy resolution from the Gaussian component of a Bortels function fit was 1.3 keV FWHM at 5244 keV. The collected particles were integrated directly into the detector absorber without any chemical processing. The ^{238}Pu/^{239}Pu and ^{240}Pu/^{239}Pu mass ratios were measured and the results confirmed against the certificate of analysis for the reference material. We also demonstrated inter-element analysis capability by measuring the ^{241}Am/^{239}Pu mass ratio.

  7. Binding energies from diffusion Monte Carlo for the MB-pol H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O dimer: A comparison to experimental values

    SciTech Connect

    Mallory, Joel D.; Mandelshtam, Vladimir A.

    2015-10-14

    The diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method is applied to compute the ground state energies of the water monomer and dimer and their D{sub 2}O isotopomers using MB-pol; the most recent and most accurate ab inito-based potential energy surface (PES). MB-pol has already demonstrated excellent agreement with high level electronic structure data, as well as agreement with some experimental, spectroscopic, and thermodynamic data. Here, the DMC binding energies of (H{sub 2}O){sub 2} and (D{sub 2}O){sub 2} agree with the corresponding values obtained from velocity map imaging within, respectively, 0.01 and 0.02 kcal/mol. This work adds two more valuable data points that highlight the accuracy of the MB-pol PES.

  8. Vacuum expectation values of the current density and energy-momentum tensor for a charged scalar field in curved spacetime with toroidally compactified spatial dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharian, Aram; Kotanjyan, Anna; Sargsyan, Hayk; Simonyan, David

    2016-07-01

    The models with compact spatial dimensions appear in a number of fundamental physical theories. In particular, the idea of compactified dimensions has been extensively used in supergravity and superstring theories. In quantum field theory, the modification of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum by the periodicity conditions imposed on the field operator along compact dimensions leads to a number of interesting physical effects. A well known example of this kind, demonstrating the close relation between quantum phenomena and global geometry, is the topological Casimir effect. In models with extra compact dimensions, the Casimir energy creates a nontrivial potential for the compactification radius. This can serve as a stabilization mechanism for moduli fields and for the effective gauge couplings. The Casimir effect has also been considered as a possible origin for the dark energy in Kaluza-Klein-type and braneworld models. In the resent presentation we investigate the effects of the gravity and topology on the local properties of the quantum vacuum for a charged scalar field in the presence of a classical gauge field. Vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor and current density are investigated for a charged scalar field in dS spacetime with toroidally compact spatial dimensions in the presence of a classical constant gauge field. Due to the nontrivial topology, the latter gives rise to Aharonov-Bohm-like effect on the vacuum characteristics. The vacuum current density, energy density and stresses are even periodic functions of the magnetic flux enclosed by compact dimensions. For small values of the comoving lengths of compact dimensions, compared with the dS curvature radius, the effects of gravity on the topological contributions are small and the expectation values are expressed in terms of the corresponding quantities in the Minkowski bulk by the standard conformal relation. For large values of the comoving lengths, depending on the field mass, two

  9. Energy requirements for maintenance and growth of male saanen goat kids.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, A N; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A; Araújo, M J; Yáñez, E A; Ferreira, A C D

    2014-09-01

    The aim of study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of forty-one Saanen, intact male kids with initial body weight (BW) of 5.12±0.19 kg. The baseline (BL) group consisted of eight kids averaging 5.46±0.18 kg BW. An intermediate group consisted of six kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 12.9±0.29 kg. The remaining kids (n = 27) were randomly allocated into nine slaughter groups (blocks) of three animals distributed among three amounts of dry matter intake (DMI; ad libitum and restricted to 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the group reached 20 kg BW. In a digestibility trial, 21 kids (same animals of the comparative slaughter) were housed in metabolic cages and used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the energetic value of the diet at different feed intake levels. The net energy for maintenance (NEm) was 417 kJ/kg(0.75) of empty BW (EBW)/d, while the metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was 657 kJ/kg(0.75) of EBW/d. The efficiency of ME use for NE maintenance (km) was 0.64. Body fat content varied from 59.91 to 92.02 g/kg of EBW while body energy content varied from 6.37 to 7.76 MJ/kg of EBW, respectively, for 5 and 20 kg of EBW. The net energy for growth (NEg) ranged from 7.4 to 9.0 MJ/kg of empty weight gain by day at 5 and 20 kg BW, respectively. This study indicated that the energy requirements in goats were lower than previously published requirements for growing dairy goats.

  10. Energy Requirements for Maintenance and Growth of Male Saanen Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, A. N.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.; Araújo, M. J.; Yáñez, E. A.; Ferreira, A. C. D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of forty-one Saanen, intact male kids with initial body weight (BW) of 5.12±0.19 kg. The baseline (BL) group consisted of eight kids averaging 5.46±0.18 kg BW. An intermediate group consisted of six kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 12.9±0.29 kg. The remaining kids (n = 27) were randomly allocated into nine slaughter groups (blocks) of three animals distributed among three amounts of dry matter intake (DMI; ad libitum and restricted to 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the group reached 20 kg BW. In a digestibility trial, 21 kids (same animals of the comparative slaughter) were housed in metabolic cages and used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the energetic value of the diet at different feed intake levels. The net energy for maintenance (NEm) was 417 kJ/kg0.75 of empty BW (EBW)/d, while the metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was 657 kJ/kg0.75 of EBW/d. The efficiency of ME use for NE maintenance (km) was 0.64. Body fat content varied from 59.91 to 92.02 g/kg of EBW while body energy content varied from 6.37 to 7.76 MJ/kg of EBW, respectively, for 5 and 20 kg of EBW. The net energy for growth (NEg) ranged from 7.4 to 9.0 MJ/kg of empty weight gain by day at 5 and 20 kg BW, respectively. This study indicated that the energy requirements in goats were lower than previously published requirements for growing dairy goats. PMID:25178373

  11. Membrane-based energy efficient dewatering of microalgae in biofuels production and recovery of value added co-products.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Ramesh; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence; Adcock, Dale

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. The dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. was evaluated with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ∼99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  12. Membrane-Based Energy Efficient Dewatering of Microalgae in Biofuels Production and Recovery of Value Added Co-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence E; Adcock, Kenneth Dale

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. We have evaluated the dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ~99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, it can be shown that an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  13. Membrane-based energy efficient dewatering of microalgae in biofuels production and recovery of value added co-products.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Ramesh; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence; Adcock, Dale

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. The dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. was evaluated with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ∼99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes. PMID:22510094

  14. On the influence of statistics on the determination of the mean value of the depth of shower maximum for ultra high energy cosmic ray showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.

    2012-09-01

    The chemical composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays is still uncertain. The latest results obtained by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the HiRes collaboration, concerning the measurement of the mean value and the fluctuations of the atmospheric depth at which the showers reach the maximum development, Xmax, are inconsistent. From comparison with air shower simulations it can be seen that, while the Auger data may be interpreted as a gradual transition to heavy nuclei for energies larger than ˜2-3 × 1018 eV, the HiRes data are consistent with a composition dominated by protons. In Wilk and Wlodarczyk (2011 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 38 085201), it is suggested that a possible explanation for the observed deviation of the mean value of Xmax from the proton expectation, observed by Auger, could originate in a statistical bias arising from the approximated exponential shape of the Xmax distribution, combined with the decrease of the number of events as a function of primary energy. In this paper, we consider a better description of the Xmax distribution and show that the possible bias in the Auger data is at least one order of magnitude smaller than the one obtained when assuming an exponential distribution. Therefore, we conclude that the deviation of the Auger data from the proton expectation is unlikely to be explained by such statistical effect.

  15. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P < 0.01) of the interaction between protein and energy (P < 0.05) on metabolizable energy (ME) intake. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was higher (P < 0.0001) in high-energy groups compared to low-energy groups. The CP digestibility increased with the increased CP and ME of the rations. The absorbed N was improved linearly with an increased level of dietary CP, whereas the N retention was similar among all the groups distributed as per different energy or protein levels. The nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations. PMID:26970972

  16. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    of the dairy cows, notably, the concentration of the cis-unsaturated FAs, C18:3n-3 and n-3/n-6 ratio decreased in milk fat. Despite variation in nutritive value, maize silage is rich in metabolizable energy and supports higher DMI and milk yield. Harvesting maize silages at a DM content between 300 and 350 g kg(-1) and feeding in combination with grass silage results in a higher milk yield of dairy cows.

  17. Use of dry citrus pulp or soybean hulls as a replacement for corn grain in energy and nitrogen partitioning, methane emissions, and milk performance in lactating Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    López, M C; Estellés, F; Moya, V J; Fernández, C

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of substitution of dietary corn grain by dry citrus pulp or soybean hulls on energy and nitrogen partitioning, substrate oxidation, methane emission, and milk performance in dairy goats during midlactation. Twelve multiparous Murciano-Granadina goats of similar body weight (41.7 ± 2.8 kg) were split in 3 groups in an incomplete crossover design. One group of 4 goats was fed a mixed ration with 605 g/kg of dry matter of corn grain (CRG), another group replaced corn grain with dry citrus pulp (CTP), and the last with soybean hulls (SYH). The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 d of adaptation, feed intake, total fecal and urine output, and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5-d period. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all 3 groups (1.53 kg/d, on average). Total replacement of the concentrate with fibrous by-products increased fiber apparent digestibility. The metabolizable energy intake was significantly greater for diet CRG than SYH (1,193 vs. 1,079 kJ/kg of BW⁰·⁷⁵, respectively), CTP showed an intermediate value. The heat production was higher for the fiber diet than starchy diet (908 vs. 843 kJ/kg of BW⁰·⁷⁵ for SYH and CRG, respectively). The efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production obtained by regression was 0.59. Goats fed CTP and SYH diets produced similar CH₄ emissions (34.8 g/d, on average), significantly higher compared with goats fed the CRG diet (24.7 g/d). Goats of the 3 treatments were in negative energy balance, so the oxidation of fat was greater than for carbohydrates. No significant differences were observed for milk production (1.72 kg/d), and milk fat was significantly greater for a more fibrous diet compared with a starchy diet (6.57 vs. 4.95% in SYH and CRG, respectively). PMID:25459909

  18. Use of dry citrus pulp or soybean hulls as a replacement for corn grain in energy and nitrogen partitioning, methane emissions, and milk performance in lactating Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    López, M C; Estellés, F; Moya, V J; Fernández, C

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of substitution of dietary corn grain by dry citrus pulp or soybean hulls on energy and nitrogen partitioning, substrate oxidation, methane emission, and milk performance in dairy goats during midlactation. Twelve multiparous Murciano-Granadina goats of similar body weight (41.7 ± 2.8 kg) were split in 3 groups in an incomplete crossover design. One group of 4 goats was fed a mixed ration with 605 g/kg of dry matter of corn grain (CRG), another group replaced corn grain with dry citrus pulp (CTP), and the last with soybean hulls (SYH). The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 d of adaptation, feed intake, total fecal and urine output, and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5-d period. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all 3 groups (1.53 kg/d, on average). Total replacement of the concentrate with fibrous by-products increased fiber apparent digestibility. The metabolizable energy intake was significantly greater for diet CRG than SYH (1,193 vs. 1,079 kJ/kg of BW⁰·⁷⁵, respectively), CTP showed an intermediate value. The heat production was higher for the fiber diet than starchy diet (908 vs. 843 kJ/kg of BW⁰·⁷⁵ for SYH and CRG, respectively). The efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production obtained by regression was 0.59. Goats fed CTP and SYH diets produced similar CH₄ emissions (34.8 g/d, on average), significantly higher compared with goats fed the CRG diet (24.7 g/d). Goats of the 3 treatments were in negative energy balance, so the oxidation of fat was greater than for carbohydrates. No significant differences were observed for milk production (1.72 kg/d), and milk fat was significantly greater for a more fibrous diet compared with a starchy diet (6.57 vs. 4.95% in SYH and CRG, respectively).

  19. Effect of dehulling of rapeseed on feed value and nutrient digestibility of rape products in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kracht, W; Dänicke, S; Kluge, H; Keller, Kathrin; Matzke, W; Hennig, U; Schumann, W

    2004-10-01

    In the presented study the influence of dehulling rapeseed on the composition of rapeseed meal (RM) and rapeseed cake (RC) and on its feed value for piglets and growing-finishing pigs was investigated. Before withdrawal of oil, rapeseed (variety Express) was dehulled applying a procedure developed by SKET GmbH Magdeburg and the Section Food-Technology of the University Essen. The steps of the dehulling procedure were described. For RM the oil was removed by the prepress-solvent procedure till a crude fat content of 2.1% in DM. RC was produced by pressing only resulting approximately 13% crude fat in DM. The RM and RC from not dehulled (ND) and dehulled (D) rapeseed were examined analytically. Crude nutrients, sugar and fibre substances, amino acids, some minerals and trace elements, fatty acids, glucosinolates and sinapine, and phytate were determined. By dehulling the seed the crude fibre content was decreased in RM and RC by approximately 40%. The ADF content declined by 35 and 39%, and the NDF content by 28% and 40% in RM and RC, respectively. The decrease in ADL content amounted to 50% and 65% for RM and RC, respectively. On the other hand, the CP content of RM and RC was increased by 7% and 13%, respectively, by dehulling the seed while the amino acid content of rape protein increased only slightly. The contents of glucosinolates and sinapine were also increased by dehulling, while the contents of phytate and phytate P were decreased. In digestibility and balance experiments with piglets and intact hybrid breeds of growing-finishing pigs, the digestibility of organic matter and of crude nutrients and the contents of digestible energy and metabolizable energy were estimated. Furthermore, the precaecal digestibility of crude nutrients and amino acids was determined with fistulated mini-pigs. By dehulling the seeds the digestibility of organic matter from RM and RC was improved in piglets and adult pigs by approximately 10%, and the ME contents increased by 13

  20. Effect of dehulling of rapeseed on feed value and nutrient digestibility of rape products in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kracht, W; Dänicke, S; Kluge, H; Keller, Kathrin; Matzke, W; Hennig, U; Schumann, W

    2004-10-01

    In the presented study the influence of dehulling rapeseed on the composition of rapeseed meal (RM) and rapeseed cake (RC) and on its feed value for piglets and growing-finishing pigs was investigated. Before withdrawal of oil, rapeseed (variety Express) was dehulled applying a procedure developed by SKET GmbH Magdeburg and the Section Food-Technology of the University Essen. The steps of the dehulling procedure were described. For RM the oil was removed by the prepress-solvent procedure till a crude fat content of 2.1% in DM. RC was produced by pressing only resulting approximately 13% crude fat in DM. The RM and RC from not dehulled (ND) and dehulled (D) rapeseed were examined analytically. Crude nutrients, sugar and fibre substances, amino acids, some minerals and trace elements, fatty acids, glucosinolates and sinapine, and phytate were determined. By dehulling the seed the crude fibre content was decreased in RM and RC by approximately 40%. The ADF content declined by 35 and 39%, and the NDF content by 28% and 40% in RM and RC, respectively. The decrease in ADL content amounted to 50% and 65% for RM and RC, respectively. On the other hand, the CP content of RM and RC was increased by 7% and 13%, respectively, by dehulling the seed while the amino acid content of rape protein increased only slightly. The contents of glucosinolates and sinapine were also increased by dehulling, while the contents of phytate and phytate P were decreased. In digestibility and balance experiments with piglets and intact hybrid breeds of growing-finishing pigs, the digestibility of organic matter and of crude nutrients and the contents of digestible energy and metabolizable energy were estimated. Furthermore, the precaecal digestibility of crude nutrients and amino acids was determined with fistulated mini-pigs. By dehulling the seeds the digestibility of organic matter from RM and RC was improved in piglets and adult pigs by approximately 10%, and the ME contents increased by 13

  1. Linear free-energy relationships between a single gas-phase ab initio equilibrium bond length and experimental pKa values in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Ibon; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-02-01

    Remarkably simple yet effective linear free energy relationships were discovered between a single ab initio computed bond length in the gas phase and experimental pKa values in aqueous solution. The formation of these relationships is driven by chemical features such as functional groups, meta/para substitution and tautomerism. The high structural content of the ab initio bond length makes a given data set essentially divide itself into high correlation subsets (HCSs). Surprisingly, all molecules in a given high correlation subset share the same conformation in the gas phase. Here we show that accurate pKa values can be predicted from such HCSs. This is achieved within an accuracy of 0.2 pKa units for 5 drug molecules.

  2. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-09-15

    For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas-fired units account for nearly 90% of the total generating capacity added in the U.S. between 1999 and 2005 (EIA 2006b), bringing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation to 19%. Looking ahead over the next decade, the EIA expects this trend to continue, increasing the market share of gas-fired generation to 22% by 2015 (EIA 2007a). Though these numbers are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in many other countries as well. A large percentage of the total cost of gas-fired generation is attributable to fuel costs--i.e., natural gas prices. For example, at current spot prices of around $7/MMBtu, fuel costs account for more than 75% of the levelized cost of energy from a new combined cycle gas turbine, and more than 90% of its operating costs (EIA 2007a). Furthermore, given that gas-fired plants are often the marginal supply units that set the market-clearing price for all generators in a competitive wholesale market, there is a direct link between natural gas prices and wholesale electricity prices. In this light, the dramatic increase in natural gas prices since the 1990s should be a cause for ratepayer concern. Figure 1 shows the daily price history of the 'first-nearby' (i.e., closest to expiration) NYMEX natural gas futures contract (black line) at Henry Hub, along with the futures strip (i.e., the full series of futures contracts) from August 22, 2007 (red line). First, nearby prices, which closely track spot prices, have recently been trading within a $7-9/MMBtu range in the United States and, as shown by the futures strip, are expected to remain there through 2012. These price levels are $6/MMBtu higher than the $1-3/MMBtu range seen throughout most of the 1990s, demonstrating significant price escalation for natural

  3. Energy and nutritional value of diets used in patients alimentation and their assessment by patients of selected clinical department in the Military Medical Institute in Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Kłos, Krzysztof; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Jałocha, Lukasz; Matuszewski, Tomasz; Abramowicz, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the work was laboratory assessment of energy and nutritional value of general and light diets used in patients of selected clinical department in the Military Medical Institute in Warsaw alimentation. Using questionnaire method the assessment of diets was done by patients too. Meals given to patients in hospital not always fulfilled nutritional requirements. Additional consumption of supplementary products did not always meet the requirements of proper nutrition. Half of examined patients appraised nutrition variety as good but at the same time claimed the there was not enough fruits and vegetables.

  4. Comparison of high energy gamma rays from absolute value of b greater than 30 deg with the galactic neutral hydrogen distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozel, M. E.; Ogelman, H.; Tumer, T.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    High-energy gamma-ray (energy above 35 MeV) data from the SAS 2 satellite have been used to compare the intensity distribution of gamma rays with that of neutral hydrogen (H I) density along the line of sight, at high galactic latitudes (absolute values greater than 30 deg). A model has been constructed for the case where the observed gamma-ray intensity has been assumed to be the sum of a galactic component proportional to the H I distribution plus an isotropic extragalactic emission. A chi-squared test of the model parameters indicates that about 30% of the total high-latitude emission may originate within the Galaxy.

  5. Comparison of 3 phytases on energy utilization of a nutritionally marginal wheat-soybean meal broiler diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Wu, S B; Choct, M; Swick, R A

    2015-11-01

    The net energy (NE) value may be a better measure than apparent metabolizable energy (ME) of the effect of supplemental phytase on energy utilization in broilers. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of 3 microbial phytases supplemented at an unconventionally high level (1,000 FTU/kg feed) on performance and NE of broilers using the indirect calorimetric method (IC). Four treatments included: 1) Control, formulated to be deficient in ME (12.35 MJ/kg in the starter diet; 12.56 MJ/kg in the grower diet), calcium (0.72% in the starter diet; 0.60% in the grower diet), and available phosphorus (0.25% in the starter diet; 0.20% in the grower diet); 2) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase A; 3) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase B; and 4) control + coated phytase C. A completely randomized design was employed. A total of 384 male broiler chicks were used, and each treatment had 6 replicates with 16 birds per replicate. The birds were reared until d 21 in floor pens with hardwood shavings. Thirty-two birds (8 birds per treatment) were randomly selected to determine heat production and NE (from 25-28 d) following a 3-d acclimatization in the respiratory chambers. Performance results at d 21 showed that supplementation with either of the 3 phytases improved body weight (P < 0.001) and feed intake (P < 0.05), and increased the relative weights of tibia ash (P < 0.05) and toe ash (P < 0.01). Phytases A and B increased the NE value of the diet (P < 0.05). It may be concluded that the negative effects imposed by calcium and available phosphorus down-specification can be compensated by phytase supplementation in general, and intrinsically thermostable phytases improve the ME and NE value. However, phytase did not reduce heat production, heat increment, or increase NE:ME in birds.

  6. Exploring green catalysts for production of biofuels and value added chemicals for renewable and sustainable energy future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhi, Sridhar

    Porous silica have attracted significant attention in the past few decades due to their unique textural properties. They were extensively investigated for applications in catalysis, separation, environmental remediation and drug delivery. We have investigated the porous metal incorporated silica in the synthetic as well as catalytic perspectives. The synthesis of metal incorporated mesoporous silica via co-condensation such as SBA-15, KIT-5 are still challenging as it involves acidic synthetic route. Synthesis in high acidity conditions affects the incorporation of metal in silica due to high dissolution of metal precursors and breaking of metal oxygen and silica bond. The research presented here demonstrates an efficient way to incorporate metals by addition of diammonium hydrogen phosphate along with metal precursor during the synthesis. The incorporation efficiency has increased 2-3 times with this approach. Catalytic studies were performed to support our hypothesis. Such synthesized molybdenum incorporated mesoporous silica were investigated as catalyst for fast pyrolysis. When molydenum incorporated in silica was used as catalyst for fast pyrolysis of pine, it selectively produced furans (furan, methylfuran and dimethylfuran). Furans are considered value-added chemicals and can be used as a blendstock for diesel/jet grade fuel. The catalyst was very stable to harsh pyrolysis conditions and had a longer life before deactivation when compared with traditional zeolites. Further, this catalyst did not produce aromatic hydrocarbons in significant yields unlike zeolites. The origin of the furans was determined to be biopolymer cellulose and the selectivity for furans are attributed to low catalyst acidity. The effect of silica to alumina ratio (SAR) of beta-zeolite was investigated ranging to elucidate the relationship between the of number of acid sites on product speciation and catalyst deactivation on catalysts supplied by Johnson Matthey. The catalyst with low

  7. The net energy values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles and wheat bran for laying hens using indirect calorimetry method.

    PubMed

    Ning, D; Yuan, J M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z; Guo, Y M

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran (WB) for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD) or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP) provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05) when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p<0.05) with the lowest value determined on the third day of starvation. No significant difference between treatments was found on FHP of d 3 (p>0.05). The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096). In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis.

  8. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut.

  9. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut. PMID:26696120

  10. Mitigation of enteric methane emissions through improving efficiency of energy utilization and productivity in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yan, T; Mayne, C S; Gordon, F G; Porter, M G; Agnew, R E; Patterson, D C; Ferris, C P; Kilpatrick, D J

    2010-06-01

    The data set used in the present study was obtained from 20 energy metabolism studies involving 579 lactating dairy cows (511 Holstein-Friesian, 36 Norwegian Red, and 32 Jersey-Holstein crossbreds) varying in genetic merit, lactation number, stage of lactation, and live weight. These cows were offered diets based on grass silage (n=550) or fresh grass (n=29), and their energy intake and outputs, including methane energy (CH(4)-E), were measured in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeter chambers. The objective was to use these data to evaluate relationships between CH(4)-E output and a range of factors in animal production and energetic efficiency in lactating dairy cows under normal feeding regimens. The CH(4)-E as a proportion of milk energy output (E(l)), E(l) adjusted to zero energy balance (E(l(0))), or intakes of gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), or metabolizable energy (ME) was significantly related to a wide range of variables associated with milk production (E(l) and E(l(0))) and energy parameters (energy intake, metabolizability, partitioning, and utilization efficiencies). Three sets of linear relationships were developed with experimental effects removed. The CH(4)-E/GE intake (r(2)=0.50-0.62) and CH(4)-E/E(l) (r(2)=0.41-0.68) were reduced with increasing feeding level, E(l)/metabolic body weight (MBW; kg(0.75)), E(l(0))/MBW, GE intake/MBW, DE intake/MBW, and ME intake/MBW. Increasing dietary ME/DE decreased CH(4)-E/E(l) (r(2)=0.46) and CH(4)-E/GE intake (r(2)=0.72). Dietary ME concentration and ME/GE were also negatively related to CH(4)-E/GE intake (r(2)=0.47). However, increasing heat production/ME intake increased CH(4)-E as a proportion of E(l) (r(2)=0.41), E(l(0)) (r(2)=0.67) and energy intake (GE, DE, and ME; r(2)=0.62 and 0.70). These proportional CH(4)-E variables were reduced with increasing ratios of E(l)/ME intake and E(l(0))/ME intake and efficiency of ME use for lactation (r(2)=0.49-0.70). Fitting CH(4)-E/E(l) or CH(4)-E

  11. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears

    PubMed Central

    Gormezano, Linda J.; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28–48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet. PMID:26061693

  12. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    PubMed

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  13. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    PubMed

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet. PMID:26061693

  14. Energy budget in free-living animals: a novel approach based on the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Kam, M; Degen, A A

    1997-04-01

    We provide a theoretical and practical model for the calculation of energy balance of free-living animals using the doubly labeled water method. Energy expenditure, metabolizable energy intake, and body energy balance (energy retention, negative or positive) of animals are estimated using CO2 production, water influx, and dietary habits. This model accounts for CO2 produced from the 1) oxidation of dietary substrates, 2) catabolism of body tissue, and 3) deposition of body energy. We examined the model using data from studies on five homeotherms reported in the literature. The ratios between daily energy expenditure using our model and that presented in the reports ranged between 0.76 and 1.18. Metabolizable energy intakes were as low as 43% of energy expenditure in negative energy-balanced hummingbirds and as high as 245% of energy expenditure in positive energy-balanced koala bears. This model is the first that allows theoretical calculation of all energy budget components, including energy retention, in free-living animals using the doubly labeled water method. PMID:9140038

  15. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  16. The enhancement of the nutritive value of mango seed kernels for poultry by thermal treatment and radiation processing.

    PubMed

    Farag, M D

    2001-01-01

    Raw seed kernels of local mango varieties (Magnifera indica L.) were analyzed for composition, levels of trypsin inhibitors, tannins, cyanogenetic glucosides, in vitro protein digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy (AMEN) as being effected by boiling, autoclaving as well as irradiation at 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The air-dry mango seed kernels (MSK) contained CP 70 g kg-1, EE 128 g kg-1, and tannins 67 g kg-1. Compared with raw kernels the contents of trypsin inhibitory activity (30 TIU g-1) and cyanogenetic glucosides, measured as hydrocyanic acid (71 mg kg-1), were lowered by boiling, autoclaving and radiation treatments. Tannin content (67.2 g kg-1 in raw kernels) was decreased only by boiling or autoclaving, but irradiation did not introduce any effect. The low in vitro protein digestibility and AMEN values of raw MSK were enhanced by processing. The improvements were paralleled to reductions in trypsin inhibitory activity, cyanogenetic glucosides and tannin contents. Greater improvements were noticed with boiling and autoclaving than with irradiation alone. Autoclaving for 30 min plus irradiation treatment up to 20 kGy increased the in vitro protein digestibility and AMEN by 139% and 72%, respectively. These results indicate that tannins, trypsin inhibitors and cyanogenetic glucosides are responsible for the poor nutritive value of MSK. The effects of feeding 200 g kg-1 raw or processed MSK on the performance of broiler chicks were examined. The inclusion of raw kernel affected body weight gain and feed consumption, while weight gain of birds fed the autoclaved (30 min) plus irradiated (20 kGy) kernels was significantly more improved than by the other treatments. However, feed conversion ratio was not significantly different between groups fed the processed MSK. The results showed that the combination of autoclaving for 30 min plus irradiation up to 20 kGy upgraded the nutritive value more than the other tested treatments and that this method is most

  17. Instantaneous and daily values of the surface energy balance over agricultural fields using remote sensing and a reference field in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Jackson, R. D.; Gay, L.W.; Duell, L.F.W.; Kunkel, K.E.; Matthias, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperature and reflectance in the visible and near infrared wavebands along with ancilliary meteorological data provide the capability of computing three of the four surface energy balance components (i.e., net radiation, soil heat flux, and sensible heat flux) at different spatial and temporal scales. As a result, under nonadvective conditions, this enables the estimation of the remaining term (i.e., the latent heat flux). One of the practical applications with this approach is to produce evapotranspiration (ET) maps for agricultural regions which consist of an array of fields containing different crops at varying stages of growth and soil moisture conditions. Such a situation exists in the semiarid southwest at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center, south of Phoenix. For one day (14 June 1987), surface temperature and reflectance measurements from an aircraft 150 m above ground level (agl) were acquired over fields from zero to nearly full cover at four times between 1000 MST and 1130 MST. The diurnal pattern of the surface energy balance was measured over four fields, which included alfalfa at 60% cover, furrowed cotton at 20% and 30% cover, and partially plowed what stubble. Instantaneous and daily values of ET were estimated for a representative area around each flux site with an energy balance model that relies on a reference ET. This reference value was determined with remotely sensed data and several meteorological inputs. The reference ET was adjusted to account for the different surface conditions in the other fields using only remotely sensed variables. A comparison with the flux measurements suggests the model has difficulties with partial canopy conditions, especially related to the estimation of the sensible heat flux. The resulting errors for instantaneous ET were on the order of 100 W m-2 and for daily values of order 2 mm day-1. These findings suggest future research should involve development of methods to

  18. Wind energy prospecting: socio-economic value of a new wind resource assessment technique based on a NASA Earth science dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanvyve, E.; Magontier, P.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Delle Monache, L.; Dickinson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is amongst the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the U.S. and could supply up to 20 % of the U.S power production by 2030. An accurate and reliable wind resource assessment for prospective wind farm sites is a challenging task, yet is crucial for evaluating the long-term profitability and feasibility of a potential development. We have developed an accurate and computationally efficient wind resource assessment technique for prospective wind farm sites, which incorporates innovative statistical techniques and the new NASA Earth science dataset MERRA. This technique produces a wind resource estimate that is more accurate than that obtained by the wind energy industry's standard technique, while providing a reliable quantification of its uncertainty. The focus now is on evaluating the socio-economic value of this new technique upon using the industry's standard technique. Would it yield lower financing costs? Could it result in lower electricity prices? Are there further down-the-line positive consequences, e.g. job creation, time saved, greenhouse gas decrease? Ultimately, we expect our results will inform efforts to refine and disseminate the new technique to support the development of the U.S. renewable energy infrastructure. In order to address the above questions, we are carrying out a cost-benefit analysis based on the net present worth of the technique. We will describe this approach, including the cash-flow process of wind farm financing, how the wind resource assessment factors in, and will present current results for various hypothetical candidate wind farm sites.

  19. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program TPP Final Report - A Value Chain Partnership to Accelerate U.S. PV Industry Growth, GE Global Research

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Tolliver; Danielle Merfeld; Charles Korman; James Rand; Tom McNulty; Neil Johnson; Dennis Coyle

    2009-07-31

    General Electric’s (GE) DOE Solar Energy Technologies TPP program encompassesd development in critical areas of the photovoltaic value chain that affected the LCOE for systems in the U.S. This was a complete view across the value chain, from materials to rooftops, to identify opportunities for cost reductions in order to realize the Department of Energy’s cost targets for 2010 and 2015. GE identified a number of strategic partners with proven leadership in their respective technology areas to accelerate along the path to commercialization. GE targeted both residential and commercial rooftop scale systems. To achieve these goals, General Electric and its partners investigated three photovoltaic pathways that included bifacial high-efficiency silicon cells and modules, low-cost multicrystalline silicon cells and modules and flexible thin film modules. In addition to these technologies, the balance of system for residential and commercial installations were also investigated. Innovative system installation strategies were pursed as an additional avenue for cost reduction.

  20. Human biomonitoring of metals in adults living near a waste-to-energy incinerator in ante-operam phase: Focus on reference values and health-based assessments.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Beatrice; Bena, Antonella; Pino, Anna; D'Aversa, Jenny; Orengia, Manuela; Farina, Elena; Salamina, Giuseppe; Procopio, Enrico; Chiusolo, Monica; Gandini, Martina; Cadum, Ennio; Musmeci, Loredana; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The human biomonitoring (HBM) of metals is a part of the ongoing project SPoTT for the longitudinal health surveillance of the population living near a waste-to-energy (WTE) incinerator (Turin, Italy). The HBM of metals in the SPoTT population aimed to evaluate: i) reference values (RVs) before the WTE incinerator started operation; ii) differences in exposure by variables; iii) variations respect to other HBM studies; iv) exposure that exceeds the available health-based benchmarks as the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) for urine Cd and Human Biomonitoring (HBM-I and HBM-II) values for urine Hg, Tl, and blood Pb; v) risk assessment by generating hazard quotients (HQs) for the single metal and hazard index (HI) for the co-occurrence of metals. Eighteen metals in urine and Pb in blood were determined by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Metal concentrations were comparable with RVs reported in other countries, except for slightly higher As, Be, Ir, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Tl levels. Smoking was associated with Cd; age with Pb; drinking bottled water with As and Cd; consumption of fish with As and Hg; amalgams with Hg and Sn; dental restorations with Pd and Pt; use of jewelry with Co and Rh, and piercing with Ni. While HQs for urine Cd, Hg, Tl and blood Pb suggested that adverse effects were unlikely, the HQ value raised the question of whether additive interactions of these metals could produce health concern. The obtained HBM data can be an early warning for accumulations of metals and identification of subgroups at risk.

  1. Human biomonitoring of metals in adults living near a waste-to-energy incinerator in ante-operam phase: Focus on reference values and health-based assessments.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Beatrice; Bena, Antonella; Pino, Anna; D'Aversa, Jenny; Orengia, Manuela; Farina, Elena; Salamina, Giuseppe; Procopio, Enrico; Chiusolo, Monica; Gandini, Martina; Cadum, Ennio; Musmeci, Loredana; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The human biomonitoring (HBM) of metals is a part of the ongoing project SPoTT for the longitudinal health surveillance of the population living near a waste-to-energy (WTE) incinerator (Turin, Italy). The HBM of metals in the SPoTT population aimed to evaluate: i) reference values (RVs) before the WTE incinerator started operation; ii) differences in exposure by variables; iii) variations respect to other HBM studies; iv) exposure that exceeds the available health-based benchmarks as the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) for urine Cd and Human Biomonitoring (HBM-I and HBM-II) values for urine Hg, Tl, and blood Pb; v) risk assessment by generating hazard quotients (HQs) for the single metal and hazard index (HI) for the co-occurrence of metals. Eighteen metals in urine and Pb in blood were determined by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Metal concentrations were comparable with RVs reported in other countries, except for slightly higher As, Be, Ir, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Tl levels. Smoking was associated with Cd; age with Pb; drinking bottled water with As and Cd; consumption of fish with As and Hg; amalgams with Hg and Sn; dental restorations with Pd and Pt; use of jewelry with Co and Rh, and piercing with Ni. While HQs for urine Cd, Hg, Tl and blood Pb suggested that adverse effects were unlikely, the HQ value raised the question of whether additive interactions of these metals could produce health concern. The obtained HBM data can be an early warning for accumulations of metals and identification of subgroups at risk. PMID:27107710

  2. Energy partitioning and substrate oxidation by Murciano-Granadina goats during mid lactation fed soy hulls and corn gluten feed blend as a replacement for corn grain.

    PubMed

    López, M C; Fernández, C

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of substituting corn grain by soy hulls and corn gluten feed blend on energy partitioning, substrate oxidation, and milk performance in dairy goats during mid lactation. Ten multiparous Murciano-Granadina goats in mid lactation were fed 2 isoenergetic and isoproteic diets [19.08MJ/kg of dry matter (DM) and 18.7% of CP, DM basis] in a crossover design. One group of 5 goats was fed a mixed ration with 373g of corn grain/kg of DM (CRN diet) and the other diet replaced corn grain with 373g/kg DM of fibrous by-products [soy hulls and gluten feed (SHGF) diet]: 227g of soy hulls/kg of DM and 146g of gluten feed blend/kg DM. Fat was added to the SHGF diet to make it isoenergetic. After 10d of adaptation, the feed intake, refusal, total fecal and urine output, and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5-d period. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit respirometry system using a head box for 10d. Dry matter intake was similar for both diets (2.07kg/d, on average). Greater and significant values were found in the SHGF diet for ammonia N, energy in urine, and oxidation of protein. Values were significantly lower for heat production of fermentation, indicating a decrease in rumen fermentation with this diet, probably due to an excess of crude protein in the diet and lack of synchronization of the nonfiber carbohydrates with rumen-degraded protein. The metabolizable energy intake was no different between CRN and SHGF treatments, with an average value of 1,444kJ/kg of BW(0.75). Due to the positive energy balance during mid lactation in this trial, most of the heat production from oxidation of nutrients derived from carbohydrate oxidation (55%, on average), followed by oxidation of fat (29%, on average). No significant differences were observed for milk production, although milk fat was significantly greater for the SHGF diet than the CRN diet (7.0 vs. 5.4%, respectively). Despite the different

  3. Chemical profile, energy values, and protein molecular structure characteristics of biofuel/bio-oil co-products (carinata meal) in comparison with canola meal.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-04-24

    To our knowledge, little information exists on nutritive values and molecular structural characteristics associated with protein biopolymers of carinata meal from biofuel and bio-oil processing. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) chemical compositions; (2) protein and carbohydrate subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS); (3) truly digestible nutrients and energy values; (4) protein conformation spectral characteristics using the ATR-FT/IR technique; and (5) the correlation between protein intrinsic structural features and nutrient profiles of carinata meal in comparison with conventional canola meal as references. The results showed that carinata meal was higher (p < 0.05) in soluble crude protein (SCP, 55.6% CP) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN, 38.5% CP) and lower in acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP, 1.3% CP) compared to canola meal. Although no differences were found in CP and carbohydrate (CHO) contents, CNCPS protein and carbohydrate subfractions were different (p < 0.05) between carinata meal and canola meal. Carinata meal has similar contents of total digestible nutrient (TDN) and predicted energy values to canoal meal (p > 0.05). As for protein spectral features, much greater IR absorbance in amide I height and area as well as α-helix and β-sheet height for carinata meal by 20-31% (p < 0.05) was found compared with canola meal; however, results from agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated these two meals could not be distinguished completely within the protein spectrum (ca. 1728-1478 cm(-1)). Additionally, close correlations were observed between protein structural parameters and protein nutrient profiles and subfractions. All the comparisons between carinata meal and canola meal in our study indicated that carinata meal could be used as a potential high-protein supplement source for ruminants. Further study is needed on more

  4. [Fattening and slaughter values of pigs in relation to their genotype and to the protein source in their feed rations].

    PubMed

    Jacyno, E; Czarnecki, R; Owsianny, J; Lachowicz, K; Gajowiecki, L

    1996-01-01

    The studies were carried out on F1 progeny of multiparous Polish Large White sows and boars of Belgian Landrace, Hampshire x Pietrain hybrid, and Pietrain breed. The control group consisted of purebred Polish Large White pigs. The experimental part of the studies was performed on 120 fatteners divided up to 4 race groups, with 30 heads in each (namely 15 barrows and 15 gilts). Moreover, each group was divided into two following subgroups: the SoS one, which was given feed mixture with extracted soybean meal and the RpS one, which was given feed mixture with extracted rapeseed meal. The fattening started with 23 kg of body weight and was realized up to 100 kg. Twenty fatteners from each group (including 5 barrows and 5 gilts from a subgroup) were subjected to the control slaughter. The fatteners average daily body weight gains, and energy and digestible crude protein conversion per 1 kg of gain were as follows: after Belgain Landrace boars 788 g, 32.3 MJ and 358 g; after Hampshire x Pietrain boars 766 g, 33.6 MJ and 373 g; after Pietrain boars 720 g, 34.4 MJ and 382 g; after control group boars 705 g, 36.3 MJ and 403 g, respectively. It was found that hybrids after boars of evaluated breeds have positively (P < or = 0,01) better carcass meatness, and in a better way use digestible protein and metabolizable energy for production of 1 kg of meat. On that reason the best are hybrids after Belgian Landrace boars, carcasses of which yielded 52.4% of meat and converted 27% less of digestible crude protein and metabolizable energy for 1 kg meat production, than the White Large Polish fatteners. For no examined feature interaction between genotype and protein source in feeding diet was found. The growth rate and utilization of fodder were better for pigs fed on mixture with extracted soybean meal than for the ones fed on mixture with extracted rapeseed meal (P < or = 0.05). The fodders with high protein content did not differentiate meatness traits, whereas digestible crude

  5. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  6. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  7. Prediction of nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations in fresh grass using nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Allen, M; Chen, X J; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-05-01

    Improved nutrient utilization efficiency is strongly related to enhanced economic performance and reduced environmental footprint of dairy farms. Pasture-based systems are widely used for dairy production in certain areas of the world, but prediction equations of fresh grass nutritive value (nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations) are limited. Equations to predict digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) used for grazing cattle have been either developed with cattle fed conserved forage and concentrate diets or sheep fed previously frozen grass, and the majority of them require measurements less commonly available to producers, such as nutrient digestibility. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop prediction equations more suitable to grazing cattle for nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations, which are routinely available at farm level by using grass nutrient contents as predictors. A study with 33 nonpregnant, nonlactating cows fed solely fresh-cut grass at maintenance energy level for 50 wk was carried out over 3 consecutive grazing seasons. Freshly harvested grass of 3 cuts (primary growth and first and second regrowth), 9 fertilizer input levels, and contrasting stage of maturity (3 to 9 wk after harvest) was used, thus ensuring a wide representation of nutritional quality. As a result, a large variation existed in digestibility of dry matter (0.642-0.900) and digestible organic matter in dry matter (0.636-0.851) and in concentrations of DE (11.8-16.7 MJ/kg of dry matter) and ME (9.0-14.1 MJ/kg of dry matter). Nutrient digestibilities and DE and ME concentrations were negatively related to grass neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents but positively related to nitrogen (N), gross energy, and ether extract (EE) contents. For each predicted variable (nutrient digestibilities or energy concentrations), different combinations of predictors (grass chemical composition) were found to be

  8. Prediction of nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations in fresh grass using nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Allen, M; Chen, X J; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-05-01

    Improved nutrient utilization efficiency is strongly related to enhanced economic performance and reduced environmental footprint of dairy farms. Pasture-based systems are widely used for dairy production in certain areas of the world, but prediction equations of fresh grass nutritive value (nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations) are limited. Equations to predict digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) used for grazing cattle have been either developed with cattle fed conserved forage and concentrate diets or sheep fed previously frozen grass, and the majority of them require measurements less commonly available to producers, such as nutrient digestibility. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop prediction equations more suitable to grazing cattle for nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations, which are routinely available at farm level by using grass nutrient contents as predictors. A study with 33 nonpregnant, nonlactating cows fed solely fresh-cut grass at maintenance energy level for 50 wk was carried out over 3 consecutive grazing seasons. Freshly harvested grass of 3 cuts (primary growth and first and second regrowth), 9 fertilizer input levels, and contrasting stage of maturity (3 to 9 wk after harvest) was used, thus ensuring a wide representation of nutritional quality. As a result, a large variation existed in digestibility of dry matter (0.642-0.900) and digestible organic matter in dry matter (0.636-0.851) and in concentrations of DE (11.8-16.7 MJ/kg of dry matter) and ME (9.0-14.1 MJ/kg of dry matter). Nutrient digestibilities and DE and ME concentrations were negatively related to grass neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents but positively related to nitrogen (N), gross energy, and ether extract (EE) contents. For each predicted variable (nutrient digestibilities or energy concentrations), different combinations of predictors (grass chemical composition) were found to be

  9. Tri-Axial Dynamic Acceleration as a Proxy for Animal Energy Expenditure; Should We Be Summing Values or Calculating the Vector?

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Lama; Cardew, Antonia; Wilson, Alexis; Griffiths, Iwan; Halsey, Lewis G.; Shepard, Emily L. C.; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Wilson, Rory

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic body acceleration (DBA) has been used as a proxy for energy expenditure in logger-equipped animals, with researchers summing the acceleration (overall dynamic body acceleration - ODBA) from the three orthogonal axes of devices. The vector of the dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA) may be a better proxy so this study compared ODBA and VeDBA as proxies for rate of oxygen consumption using humans and 6 other species. Twenty-one humans on a treadmill ran at different speeds while equipped with two loggers, one in a straight orientation and the other skewed, while rate of oxygen consumption () was recorded. Similar data were obtained from animals but using only one (straight) logger. In humans, both ODBA and VeDBA were good proxies for with all r2 values exceeding 0.88, although ODBA accounted for slightly but significantly more of the variation in than did VeDBA (P<0.03). There were no significant differences between ODBA and VeDBA in terms of the change in estimated by the acceleration data in a simulated situation of the logger being mounted straight but then becoming skewed (P = 0.744). In the animal study, ODBA and VeDBA were again good proxies for with all r2 values exceeding 0.70 although, again, ODBA accounted for slightly, but significantly, more of the variation in than did VeDBA (P<0.03). The simultaneous contraction of muscles, inserted variously for limb stability, may produce muscle oxygen use that at least partially equates with summing components to derive DBA. Thus, a vectorial summation to derive DBA cannot be assumed to be the more ‘correct’ calculation. However, although within the limitations of our simple study, ODBA appears a marginally better proxy for . In the unusual situation where researchers are unable to guarantee at least reasonably consistent device orientation, they should use VeDBA as a proxy for . PMID:22363576

  10. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Q. F.; Cherry, P.; Doster, A.; Murdoch, R.; Adeola, O.; Applegate, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (P < 0.05) between dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (P < 0.01). Conversely, increasing metabolizable energy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (P < 0.01). In Experiment 2, the determined AMEn for diets formulated to contain 11.8, 12.8, or 13.8 MJ ME/kg were 11.66, 12.68, and 13.75 MJ/kg, respectively; determined standardized ileal digestible Lys was 0.95, 1.00, and 1.21% for diets formulated to contain 15, 17, or 19% crude protein, respectively. The best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio was obtained when ducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth

  11. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (P<0.05) between dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (P<0.01). Conversely, increasing metabolizable energy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (P<0.01). In Experiment 2, the determined AMEn for diets formulated to contain 11.8, 12.8, or 13.8 MJ ME/kg were 11.66, 12.68, and 13.75 MJ/kg, respectively; determined standardized ileal digestible Lys was 0.95, 1.00, and 1.21% for diets formulated to contain 15, 17, or 19% crude protein, respectively. The best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio was obtained when ducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and

  12. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Foth, A J; Brown-Brandl, T; Hanford, K J; Miller, P S; Garcia Gomez, G; Kononoff, P J

    2015-10-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% corn silage, 18.4% alfalfa hay, 6.94% brome hay with either 22.9% rolled corn or 14.8% soybean meal (control), or 8.95% rolled corn, 28.8% RFDDGS, and 0% soybean meal [Co-P; dry-matter (DM) basis]. The inclusion of RFDDGS did not affect DM intake, averaging 21.4 ± 0.53 kg of DM for all cows, but milk production tended to increase from 29.8 to 30.9 ± 1.46 kg/d for control and Co-P treatments, respectively. Milk fat percentage and energy-corrected milk did not differ between treatments, averaging 4.33 ± 0.14% and 34.1 kg/d, respectively. Milk protein was significantly decreased by the Co-P treatment (3.56 and 3.41 ± 0.08% for control and Co-P treatments), but protein yield was not affected. Milk energies were 1.40 Mcal/d greater with Co-P. Energy lost as methane was reduced by 0.31 Mcal/d with the addition of RFDDGS to the diet. Heat loss averaged 29.9 ± 0.55 Mcal/d and was not different between diets. Average energy retained as tissue energy was -2.99 ± 0.93 Mcal/d and did not differ between treatments. Intake of digestible and metabolizable energy were not different between the control and Co-P treatments, averaging 2.68 and 2.31 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. The net energy of lactation values of control and Co-P diets were calculated to be 1.43 and 1.47 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. These energy estimates suggest greater energy content of diets containing RFDDGS than diets containing a mixture of corn and soybean meal in lactating dairy cows.

  13. A new model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H

    1989-05-01

    Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery [W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile] from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is [(98 x FFM + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)], kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children. PMID:2497436

  14. A new model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H

    1989-05-01

    Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery [W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile] from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is [(98 x FFM + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)], kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children.

  15. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  16. Comparison of maintenance energy requirement and energetic efficiency between lactating Holstein-Friesian and other groups of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Yan, T; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of cow group on energy expenditure and utilization efficiency. Data used were collated from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken from 1992 to 2010, with 823 observations from lactating Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and 112 observations from other groups of lactating cows including Norwegian (n=50), Jersey × HF (n=46), and Norwegian × HF (n=16) cows. The metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) for individual cows was calculated from heat production (HP) minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention, and pregnancy. The efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. The effects of cow groups were first evaluated using Norwegian cows against HF crossbred cows (F1 hybrid, Jersey × HF and Norwegian × HF). The results indicated no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ per kg of metabolic body weight, MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl. Consequently, their data were combined (categorized as non-HF cows) and used to compare with those of HF cows. Again, we detected no significant difference in energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl between non-HF and HF cows. The effects were further evaluated using linear regression to examine whether any significant differences existed between HF and non-HF cows in terms of relationships between ME intake and energetic parameters. With a common constant, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups of cows in coefficients in each set of relationships between ME intake (MJ/kg(0.75)) and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), El(0) (MJ/kg(0.75)), HP (MJ/kg(0.75)), MEm:ME intake, El(0):ME intake, or HP:ME intake. However, MEm values (MJ/kg(0.75)) were positively related to ME

  17. Heat Production and Energy Efficiency of Broilers Infected With Necrotic Enteritis.

    PubMed

    M'Sadeq, Shawkat A; Wu, Shu-Biao; Choct, Mingan; Swick, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry is the most important bacterial disease in terms of economic losses. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of an experimental challenge with necrotic enteritis on respiration and heat production in birds pretreated with dietary acylated starch or antibiotics (AB) zinc bacitracin (50 mg/kg) plus salinomycin (60 mg/kg). In total, 48 1-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were assigned to floor pens until day 10. On day 11, birds were randomly placed into 16 calorimetric chambers with four replicates of three birds per treatment. Treatments were: control, AB, acetylated high-amylose maize starch (SA), or butyrylated high-amylose maize starch (SB). Birds were NE challenged by inoculation with 5000 sporulated oocysts each of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina and 2500 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria brunetti on day 9 and Clostridium perfringens (3.8 × 10(8) colony-forming units) on day 14. The results showed that heat production (HP), respiratory quotient (RQ), heat increment, weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and livability (LV) of birds fed control, SA, and SB diets were lower than birds fed AB at 19 and 42 hr postinoculation (P < 0.05). At 65 hr postchallenge, increased FI and WG of birds were observed, indicating recovery from NE. During the entire period, from day 14 to day 17, birds fed control, SA, and SB had lower WG, FI, HP, RQ, metabolizable energy intake (MEI), and metabolizable energy (P < 0.01) than those fed AB. The data demonstrate that Eimeria sp. and C. perfringens challenge reduces growth performance, HP, RQ, metabolizable energy, and MEI of birds fed control, SA, and SB but not AB diets.

  18. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending.

  19. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  20. Tri-axial dynamic acceleration as a proxy for animal energy expenditure; should we be summing values or calculating the vector?

    PubMed

    Qasem, Lama; Cardew, Antonia; Wilson, Alexis; Griffiths, Iwan; Halsey, Lewis G; Shepard, Emily L C; Gleiss, Adrian C; Wilson, Rory

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic body acceleration (DBA) has been used as a proxy for energy expenditure in logger-equipped animals, with researchers summing the acceleration (overall dynamic body acceleration--ODBA) from the three orthogonal axes of devices. The vector of the dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA) may be a better proxy so this study compared ODBA and VeDBA as proxies for rate of oxygen consumption using humans and 6 other species. Twenty-one humans on a treadmill ran at different speeds while equipped with two loggers, one in a straight orientation and the other skewed, while rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) was recorded. Similar data were obtained from animals but using only one (straight) logger. In humans, both ODBA and VeDBA were good proxies for VO2 with all r(2) values exceeding 0.88, although ODBA accounted for slightly but significantly more of the variation in VO2 than did VeDBA (P<0.03). There were no significant differences between ODBA and VeDBA in terms of the change in VO2 estimated by the acceleration data in a simulated situation of the logger being mounted straight but then becoming skewed (P = 0.744). In the animal study, ODBA and VeDBA were again good proxies for VO2 with all r(2) values exceeding 0.70 although, again, ODBA accounted for slightly, but significantly, more of the variation in VO2 than did VeDBA (P<0.03). The simultaneous contraction of muscles, inserted variously for limb stability, may produce muscle oxygen use that at least partially equates with summing components to derive DBA. Thus, a vectorial summation to derive DBA cannot be assumed to be the more 'correct' calculation. However, although within the limitations of our simple study, ODBA appears a marginally better proxy for VO2. In the unusual situation where researchers are unable to guarantee at least reasonably consistent device orientation, they should use VeDBA as a proxy for VO2.

  1. Dietary linoleic acid requirements in the presence of α-linolenic acid are lower than the historical 2 % of energy intake value, study in rats.

    PubMed

    Choque, Benjamin; Catheline, Daniel; Delplanque, Bernadette; Guesnet, Philippe; Legrand, Philippe

    2015-04-14

    Previous studies on rats and human subjects have established that the linoleic acid (LA) requirement is 2 % of the total energy intake (en%), but is obtained in the absence of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and consequently appear to be overestimated. This raises questions since a recent study including ALA has suggested to divide the historical value by four. However, this recent study has remained inconclusive because the animals used were not totally LA-deficient animals. For the first time, the present study was especially designed using physiological and biochemical markers and performed in two steps: (1) to achieve a specific n-6 fatty acid deficiency model using growing male rats fed either a 0 en% from LA/0 en% from ALA (0LA/0ALA), 0LA/0·5ALA or 2LA/0·5ALA diet, born from female rats fed a 0LA/0·5ALA diet; and (2) to refine the required level of LA in the presence of ALA using rats fed either a 0LA/0ALA, 0·5LA/0·5ALA, 1LA/0·5ALA, 1·5LA/0·5ALA diet, born from female rats fed a 0LA/0·5ALA diet. The first step shows that the best LA deficiency model was obtained using rats fed the 0LA/0ALA diet, born from female rats fed the 0LA/0·5ALA diet. The second step demonstrates that in growing rats, LA deficiency was corrected with an intake of 1-1·5 en% from LA and 0·5 en% from ALA. These data suggest that the requirements in humans should be revisited, considering the presence of ALA to set up the recommendation for LA.

  2. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  3. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

  4. Growth Performance of Early Finishing Gilts as Affected by Different Net Energy Concentrations in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Kil, Dong Yong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to study the response of the growth performance of early finishing gilts to different net energy (NE) concentrations in diets, and to compare the NE values of diets between calculated NE values and measured NE values using French and Dutch CVB (Centraal Veevoederbureau; Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding) NE systems. In a metabolism trail, the NE concentrations in five diets used for the growth trial were determined based on digestible nutrient concentrations, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy using a replicated 5×5 Latin square design with 10 barrows (initial body weight [BW], 39.2±2.2 kg). In a growth trial, a total of 60 early finishing gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire; initial BW, 47.7±3.5 kg) were allotted to five dietary treatments of 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, and 12.0 MJ NE/kg (calculated, as-is basis) with 12 replicate pens and one pig per pen in a 42-d feeding experiment. The NE and amino acid (AA) concentrations in all diets were calculated based on the values from NRC (2012). Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE concentrations in all diets were closely maintained. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. Results indicated that calculated NE concentrations in diets (i.e., five dietary treatments) were close to measured NE concentrations using French NE system in diets. The final BW was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. Furthermore, average daily gain (ADG) was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. There was a quadratic relationship (p<0.01) between average daily feed intake and NE concentrations in diets. Feed efficiency (G:F) was also increased (linear, p<0.01) as NE concentrations in diets were increased. The NE intake per BW gain (kcal NE/kg of BWG) was increased (linear, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets that were predicted from both French and Dutch CVB NE

  5. Socio-economic impact of energy-related policy on Hispanic New Mexico: attitudes, values, and policy perceptions. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    A one-year study of the impact of energy-related policies on 584 Hispanic families in the New Mexico communities of Taos, Albuquerque and Las Cruces was conducted. Sixteen hypotheses focusing on nine energy impact issues were tested: energy use and expenditures, conservation efforts, market basket effects, employment and energy, recreation and leisure activities, transportation effects, attitudes towards energy cost, attitudes towards rate structure, and evaluation of the federal energy assistance program. Recommendatons call for an energy message program geared to regional and socio-cultural factors, a companion program to solarize homes and farm structures utilizing technologies suitable to the region, incentives to private sector minority entrepreneurs equipping them with solar venture capabilities that will serve local markets and create jobs, and energy safety net and an intensive greenhouse program that will protect the market basket resources of the poor, a government policy on transportation and energy that will insure access to essential formal and informal points in the health and welfare system, and lastly, a federal-state-local partnership of financial and technical assistance options at the community level to expand energy assistance and weatherization programs.

  6. Dose dependency of fermentation and the extent of renal excretion of palatinit (isomalt) in rats with respect to its energy value.

    PubMed

    Herfarth, H; Klingebiel, L; Juhr, N C; Grossklaus, R

    1994-09-01

    dose dependency of fermentation and therefore the dose dependency of the energetic (i.e., caloric) availability of this disaccharide sugar alcohol. In the calculation of the energy value of Palatinit the renal excretion of Palatinit and its monomers can be neglected.

  7. Milk production and energy efficiency of Holstein and Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows offered diets containing grass silage.

    PubMed

    Xue, B; Yan, T; Ferris, C F; Mayne, C S

    2011-03-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows (all primiparous) were used in a repeated 2 (genotype) × 2 (concentrate level) factorial design study involving a total of 4 periods (each of 6-wk duration), designed to examine the effect of cross-breeding on the efficiency of milk production and energy use. The 4 periods began at 5, 11, 27, and 33 wk of lactation, respectively. Animals were offered a completely mixed diet containing grass silage and concentrates, with the level of concentrate in the diet either 30 or 70% of dry matter (DM). During the final 10 d of each period, ration digestibility and energy use was measured, the latter in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeters. No significant interaction existed between cow genotype and dietary concentrate level for feed intake, milk production, or any of the energy use parameters measured. Across the 2 genotypes, total DM intake, milk yield, and milk protein and lactose concentrations increased with increasing dietary concentrate level. Thus, cows offered the high-concentrate diet had a higher gross energy (GE) intake, and a higher energy output in feces, urine, milk as heat, and a higher metabolizable energy (ME) intake as a proportion of GE intake and as a proportion of digestible energy intake. Across the 2 levels of concentrates, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher total DM intake and body condition score, and produced milk with higher fat, protein, and energy concentrations, compared with those of the Holstein cows. In addition, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher GE intake and energy output in urine, methane, and milk. However, crossbreeding had no significant effect on energy digestibility or metabolizability, energy partitioning between milk and body tissue, or the efficiency of ME use for lactation. Relating ME intake to milk energy output and heat production indicated that crossbreeding did not influence ME requirement for maintenance or energy

  8. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  9. Tracing the History of the Energy Sector Related Applications Using Specially Adapted NASA Long-Term Climate Data Sets and Measures of Their Socio-Economic Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Hoell, J. M.; Chandler, W.; Westberg, D. J.; Zhang, T.

    2012-12-01

    In the mid-1990's the National Renewable Energy Laboratory approached NASA Langley Research Center to gain information about the solar resource in Africa as estimated via early satellite based methods. From this began an effort that eventually involved collaboration with DOE NREL, Natural Resources Canada RETScreen International, and numerous other partners in industry and universities to make progressively improved data products available for the renewable energy and other energy related applications. In 2002, NASA Applied Science projects were initiated providing a more focused effort to accomplish the goal of empowering energy related decision support tools using NASA meteorological and climate related data sets. At this time, NASA Langley Research Center reorganized a project aimed to make long-term solar energy and meteorological data sets available to Energy sector related industries, including sustainable buildings and agroclimatology. This task involved the design and adaption of NASA derived data sets that these industries use, key partnerships, a commitment to validation, a commitment to expansion of parameters and data products over time, and a web based interface that allows energy industry specialists to obtained the needed data parameters in easy to use formats. This presentation shows the history of the NASA Langley Research Center effort to provide data sets for energy sector applications. This includes the development and usage of the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/) web interface that has been improved under the Prediction of Worldwide renewable Energy Resource Project (POWER, http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Through the years the data sets provided now span more than 30 years and since 2009 include global parameters released within about 4-6 days of real time. The history of usage of this web site is discussed in terms of key partnerships and new data releases. We will present ways of categorizing the

  10. Sensitivity of methods for calculating energy expenditure by use of doubly labeled water

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, J.; Miles, C.; Bodwell, C.E.

    1989-02-01

    Attempts to estimate human energy expenditure by use of doubly labeled water have produced three methods currently used for calculating carbon dioxide production from isotope disappearance data: (1) the two-point method, (2) the regression method, and (3) the integration method. An ideal data set was used to determine the error produced in the calculated energy expenditure for each method when specific variables were perturbed. The analysis indicates that some of the calculation methods are more susceptible to perturbations in certain variables than others. Results from an experiment on one adult human subject are used to illustrate the potential for error in actual data. Samples of second void urine, 24-h urine, and breath collected every other day for 21 days are used to calculate the average daily energy expenditure by three calculation methods. The difference between calculated energy expenditure and metabolizable energy on a weight-maintenance diet is used to estimate the error associated with the doubly labeled water method.

  11. Liquor ammonia mediated V(V) insertion in thin Co3O4 sheets for improved pseudocapacitors with high energy density and high specific capacitance value.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Roy, Anindita; Dutta, Soumen; Ray, Chaiti; Aditya, Teresa; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2015-11-14

    Ultrathin 2D Co3O4 and Co3V2O8 nanosheets have been produced from our modified hydrothermal technique (MHT). Both the materials have been proved to be extraordinary electrode materials for pseudocapacitors. The neat nanosheets of Co3O4 and Co3V2O8 exhibit a record specific capacitance value of 1256 F g(-1) and 4194 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) current density, respectively. PMID:26382213

  12. Enhanced diagnostic value for coronary CT angiography of calcified coronary arteries using dual energy and a novel high-Z contrast material: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Jack W.; Ordovas, Karen G.; Sun, Yuxin; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2016-03-01

    Dual-energy CT is emerging as a dose-saving tool for coronary CT angiography that allows calcium-scoring without the need for a separate unenhanced scan acquisition. Unfortunately the similar attenuation coefficient profiles of iodine and calcium limits the accuracy of their decomposition in the material basis images. We evaluate a tungsten-based contrast material with a more distinct attenuation profile from calcium, and compare its performance to a conventional iodinated agent. We constructed a custom thorax phantom containing simulated sets of vessels 3, 6 and 9 mm in diameter. The vessel sets were walled with concentric and eccentric calcifications ("plaque") with concentrations of 0, 20, 30 and 40% weight calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP). The phantom was filled sequentially with iodine and tungsten contrast material, and scanned helically using a fast-kV-switching DECT scanner. At material decomposition, both iodine and tungsten vessel lumens were separable from the HAP vessel walls, but separation was superior with tungsten which showed minimal false positive signal in the HAP image. Assessing their relative performance using line profiles, the HAP signal was greater in the tungsten separation in 6/9 of the vessel sets, and within 15% of the iodine separation for the remaining 3/9 sets. The robust phantom design enabled systematic evaluation of dual-energy material separation for calcium and a candidate non-iodinated vascular contrast element. This approach can be used to screen further agents and also refine dual energy CT material decomposition approaches.

  13. Nutritional ecology of a fossorial herbivore: protein N and energy value of winter caches made by the northern pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuebe, Miki M.; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1985-01-01

    Northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) are fossorial herbivores that excavate belowground plant parts for food. In subalpine areas during autumn and winter, pocket gophers hoard plant parts in caches placed in or under snow. We examined the size and composition of 17 nival caches and tested the hypotheses that (i) cached food can provide complete energy and protein N sustenance during typical periods when burrowing is precluded by soil conditions, and (ii) cached food is a random sample of items encountered by burrowing gophers during tunnel excavation. Our data indicate that caches provide substantially more energy than protein in terms of a pocket gopher's daily maintenance requirements. Nevertheless, quantities stored are sufficient to allow individuals to endure commonly encountered adverse environmental conditions without entering negative energy or protein balance. Analysis of stomach contents and a comparison of cache composition to availability of plant species suggests that gophers consume high-protein items as they are encountered, and store low-protein items in caches.

  14. The Sub 0.1 fm Experimental Value of the Electron Radius, the Inability to Create or Annihilate an Electron even by TeV Energies, the Impossibility of Kinetic Energy Transfer to an Electron from a Particle of a 10^5 Times Smaller Mass, the Belief in Mass-Energy Equivalence (MEE) and the Electron Positron Lattice (EPOLA) Model of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhony, Menahem

    2003-04-01

    Scientists would not believe that the appearance and disappearance of rabbits in a magic box means their creation and annihilation by energy signals. However the belief in MEE made the results of the Anderson Experiment (1932) be accepted as creation and annihilation of particles out of and into energy, though never since was there a single electron created or annihilated in empy space, even now with muli TeV energies, and though phenomena obtain simple physical explanations as due to the epola structure of space,1, while the MEE fails. E.g., MEE yields the 2.82 fm value for the "classical electron radius" while scattering of fast electron beams proves (since the 1980's) that the electron radius must be below 0.1fm, and the value obtained then in the epola model is 0.094fm. Thus the density of matter in the electron is 3 10^17 kg/m^3, as in all stable nuclear particles known on earth. Another crush of MEE is the physically impossible direct transfer of kinetic energy from a several eV photon to a free electron of 511,000 eV MEE, as in Einstein's 1905 interpretation of the photo-electric effect. The solution is that the acting particle is an epola electron or positron that momentarily carries the photon energy and is thus able to transfer it to a nuclear particle of comparable mass. See:1.M.Simhony, Invitation to the Natural Physics of Matter, Space, and Radiation, World Scientific, 1994, ISBN 981-02-1649-1. Website: www.word1.co.il/physics

  15. Calculating IP Tuning Knobs for the PEP II High Energy Ring using Singular Value Decomposition, Response Matrices and an Adapted Moore Penrose Method

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmer, W.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    The PEP II lattices are unique in their detector solenoid field compensation scheme by utilizing a set of skew quadrupoles in the IR region and the adjacent arcs left and right of the IP. Additionally, the design orbit through this region is nonzero. This combined with the strong local coupling wave makes it very difficult to calculate IP tuning knobs which are orthogonal and closed. The usual approach results either in non-closure, not being orthogonal or the change in magnet strength being too big. To find a solution, the set of tuning quads had to be extended which resulted having more degrees of freedom than constraints. To find the optimal set of quadrupoles which creates a linear, orthogonal and closed knob and simultaneously minimizing the changes in magnet strength, the method using Singular Value Decomposition, Response Matrices and an Adapted Moore Penrose method had to be extended. The results of these simulations are discussed below and the results of first implementation in the machine are shown.

  16. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  17. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  18. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  19. Inhibition of tumor energy pathways for targeted esophagus cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Shafaee, Abbas; Dastyar, Davood Zarei; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Hatamian, Milad

    2015-10-01

    Interest in targeting cancer metabolism has been renewed in recent years with the discovery that many cancer related pathways have a profound effect on metabolism and that many tumors become dependent on specific metabolic processes. Accelerated glucose uptake during anaerobic glycolysis and loss of regulation between glycolytic metabolism and respiration, are the major metabolic changes found in malignant cells. The non-metabolizable glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose inhibits glucose synthesis and adenosine triphosphate production. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor of cellular energy and AMPK is a potential target for cancer prevention and/or treatment. Metformin is an activator of AMPK which inhibits protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis during cellular stress. This article reviews the status of clinical and laboratory researches exploring targeted therapies via metabolic pathways for treatment of esophageal cancer.

  20. An external peer review of the U.S. Department of Energy`s assessment of ``damages and benefits of the fuel cycles: Estimation methods, impacts, and values``. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-09

    The need for better assessments of the ``external`` benefits and costs of environmental effects of various fuel cycles was identified during the development of the National Energy Strategy. The growing importance of this issue was emphasized by US Department of Energy (DOE) management because over half of the states were already pursuing some form of social costing in electricity regulation and a well-established technical basis for such decisions was lacking. This issue was identified as a major area of controversy--both scientifically and politically--in developing energy policies at the state and national level. In 1989, the DOE`s Office of Domestic and International Energy Policy commissioned a study of the external environmental damages and benefits of the major fuel cycles involved in electric power generation. Over the next 3-year period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Resources for the Future conducted the study and produced a series of documents (fuel cycle documents) evaluating the costs of environmental damages of the coal, oil, natural gas, biomass, hydroelectric, and nuclear fuel cycles, as well as the Background Document on methodological issues. These documents described work that took almost 3 years and $2.5 million to complete and whose implications could be far reaching. In 1992, the Secretary of Energy sought advice on the overall concepts underlying the studies and the means employed to estimate environmental externalities. He asked the Secretary of Energy`s Advisory Board to undertake a peer review of the fuel cycle studies and encouraged the Board to turn to outside expertise, as needed.

  1. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of canola meal (high-protein [CM-HP], high-temperature-processed [CM-HT], low-temperature-processed [CM-LT], and conventional [CM-CV] canola meal) and in conventional soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 growing barrows (initial BW: 39.7 ± 1.58 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 24 pigs and 8 replicate pigs per treatment. The 6 diets included a corn-based basal diet and 5 diets that were formulated by mixing corn and 1 of the sources of canola meal (39.0% inclusion) or SBM (28.5% inclusion). Feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME in each source of canola meal and in SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. The DE and ME in the 4 sources of canola meal were less (P < 0.05) than in corn and SBM (DE: 2,854, 2,680, 2,892, and 2,883 vs. 3,324 and 3,784 kcal/kg, respectively; ME: 2,540, 2,251, 2,681, and 2,637 vs. 3,213 and 3,523 kcal/kg, respectively). No differences in the concentrations of DE and ME were observed among the 4 sources of canola meal. In Exp. 2, 12 growing barrows (initial BW: 34.0 ± 1.41 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a repeated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods in each square. Five diets that contained 35% SBM or 45% of 1 of the 4 sources of canola meal as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated, and a N-free diet was also used. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The AID and SID of CP and all AA in SBM were greater (P < 0.05) than in the 4 sources of canola meal. Compared with CM-CV, CM-HP had greater (P < 0.05) AID of Ile, Lys, Asp, Cys, and Pro and greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys and Cys. However, no differences between CM-HT and CM-LT were observed. In conclusion, regardless of the concentration of CP and the processing used, canola meal provides less DE and ME to pigs than corn and SBM, and the SID of AA in canola meal is less than in SBM. The processing temperature used in this experiment did not affect DE and ME or SID of AA in canola meal. The SID of Lys and Cys was greater in CM-HP than in CM-CV.

  2. Effect of a novel phytase on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and the availability of minerals and amino acids in a low-phosphorus corn-soybean meal diet for broilers.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, S M; Chung, T K; Thomas, D V; Zou, M L; Moughan, P J

    2012-05-01

    The addition of microbial phytase to diets for broiler chickens has been shown to improve the availability of phytate P, total P, some other minerals, and amino acids. In this study, the effect of a novel microbial phytase expressed by synthetic genes in Aspergillus oryzae on amino acid and mineral availability was assessed. Phytase was incorporated (1,000 and 2,000 U/kg) into low-P corn-soybean meal-based diets for broilers. Broilers received the experimental diets for 3 wk, and excreta were collected from d 18 to 21 for the determination of AME and mineral retention. On the 22nd day, the broilers were killed and the left leg removed and ileal digesta collected. Ileal phytate P and total P absorption, ileal amino acid digestibility, as well as the bone mineral content and bone mineral density were determined. Ileal phytate P absorption and absorbed phytate P content of the low-P corn-soybean meal diet were significantly (P < 0.05) higher after dietary inclusion of the novel phytase (49-60% and 65-77% higher, respectively). Apparent ileal total P absorption and apparent total P retention was 12 to 16% and 14 to 19% higher (P < 0.05), respectively, after dietary inclusion of phytase. The bone mineral content and bone mineral density in the tibia were 32 to 35% and 19 to 21% higher (P < 0.05), respectively, after dietary phytase inclusion. The apparent ileal digestibility of threonine, tyrosine, and histidine increased significantly (P < 0.05) by 14, 9, and 7%, respectively, after dietary inclusion of microbial phytase. Overall, the inclusion of a novel microbial phytase into a low-P corn-soybean meal diet for broiler chickens greatly increased phytate P and total P absorption, bone mineral content and density, as well as the digestibility of some amino acids.

  3. Determination and prediction of energy values in corn distillers dried grains with solubles sources with varying oil content for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, D F; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z C; Zhao, P F; Zeng, Z K; Xu, X; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    residuals to compare the accuracy of the 3 groups of prediction equations revealed that separate equations for full-oil DDGS and reduced-oil DDGS each provided a better fit than a single equation for the entire set of DDGS sources. These results indicated that the DE and ME values in corn DDGS are related to the chemical composition, primarily the EE and fiber concentrations. Specific prediction equations derived from full-oil and reduced-oil DDGS are better than equations derived from the entire set of DDGS.

  4. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  5. Active inference and epistemic value.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Rigoli, Francesco; Ognibene, Dimitri; Mathys, Christoph; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We offer a formal treatment of choice behavior based on the premise that agents minimize the expected free energy of future outcomes. Crucially, the negative free energy or quality of a policy can be decomposed into extrinsic and epistemic (or intrinsic) value. Minimizing expected free energy is therefore equivalent to maximizing extrinsic value or expected utility (defined in terms of prior preferences or goals), while maximizing information gain or intrinsic value (or reducing uncertainty about the causes of valuable outcomes). The resulting scheme resolves the exploration-exploitation dilemma: Epistemic value is maximized until there is no further information gain, after which exploitation is assured through maximization of extrinsic value. This is formally consistent with the Infomax principle, generalizing formulations of active vision based upon salience (Bayesian surprise) and optimal decisions based on expected utility and risk-sensitive (Kullback-Leibler) control. Furthermore, as with previous active inference formulations of discrete (Markovian) problems, ad hoc softmax parameters become the expected (Bayes-optimal) precision of beliefs about, or confidence in, policies. This article focuses on the basic theory, illustrating the ideas with simulations. A key aspect of these simulations is the similarity between precision updates and dopaminergic discharges observed in conditioning paradigms. PMID:25689102

  6. Fast and efficient: postnatal growth and energy expenditure in an Arctic-breeding waterbird, the Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, Daniel; Schmutz, Joel A.; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions can exert a strong influence on the growth and energy demands of chicks. We hypothesized that postnatal growth in a cold, aquatic environment would require a high level of energy metabolism in semiprecocial Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata) chicks. We measured body-mass growth and daily energy expenditure (DEE) of free-ranging chicks in the Arctic. We used daily gains in body mass and DEE to estimate daily metabolizable energy (DME, kJ day-1) and total metabolizable energy (TME, kJ chick-1). Chicks gained body mass quickly, with a logistic growth rate constant 57% greater than the allometric prediction, yet were at only 60% of adult body mass at fledging. Males grew at a rate similar to that of females but for a slightly longer duration and so reached an asymptotic body mass 23% greater, and tarsus length 8% longer, than that of females. Chick growth performance was similar between first- and second-hatched chicks within broods of 2, which suggests that food availability was not limited. DEE increased in proportion to body mass, and DME peaked at 1,214 kJ day-1 on day 25 posthatching. Over the average 49-day postnatal period, TME was 49.0 MJ, which is within the range of error of the allometric prediction. Parents provided 58.6 MJ as food to meet this energy requirement. Given this chick energy requirement and the range of energy content of prey observed in the chick diet, selecting prey with higher energy content would greatly reduce adult provisioning effort. Red-throated Loon chicks did not have a high postnatal energy requirement, but rather grew quickly and fledged at a small size-with the effect of reducing the length of the postnatal period and, consequently, parental energy investment in chicks.

  7. Energy and protein requirements of young Holstein calves in tropical condition.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Lima, Jessika Carolina Moutinho; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Filho, Sebastião de Campos Valadares; Campos, Mariana Magalhães; Chizzotti, Mário Luiz; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to estimate the energy and protein requirements of Holstein young calves up to 87 days old. Forty-two Holstein calves aged 4 days were used. From these, ten were randomly selected and slaughtered to compose the baseline slaughter (BS) group. The remaining calves were randomly assigned to eight treatments in a 4 × 2 factorial using a completely randomized design. The treatments were 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg/day of milk (297 g/kg CP; 319 g/kg of fat) fed twice daily, and then harvested at 59 or 87 days of age. Calves were fed a starter (193 g/kg CP; 133 g/kg NDF) ad libitum in all treatments. The calves slaughtered at 87 days of age had milk replaced by Coast-cross (Cynodoon sp.) hay (125 g/kg CP; 728 g/kg NDF). The net requirement of energy for maintenance (NEm) was 0.36 MJ/kg EBWG, with efficiency of utilization of energy for maintenance (k m) of 59.4 %. The equation obtained to estimate the net requirement of energy for gain (NEg; MJ/d) was 4.40 × EBW(0.099), with the efficiency of utilization of energy for gain (k g) equal to 46.5 %. The observed requirements of net and metabolizable protein for maintenance (NPm and MPm) were 3.67 and 3.88 g/kg BW(0.75), respectively. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for maintenance (k pm ) was 94.6 %. The predicted requirements were higher than those observed in the literature, and this study demonstrated that the requirements of newborn calves are higher than the recommended.

  8. Effects of a nonforage diet on milk production, energy, and nitrogen metabolism in dairy goats throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    Bava, L; Rapetti, L; Crovetto, G M; Tamburini, A; Sandrucci, A; Galassi, G; Succi, G

    2001-11-01

    The objective of the experiment was to compare a silage-based control diet (C) with a nonforage diet (NF) in dairy goats throughout lactation in terms of animal performance and energy utilization. Eight Saanen goats were divided into two groups and fed C or NF, a commercial blend that included sunflower meal, cassava, coconut meal, and whole cottonseeds as the main ingredients that was characterized by a small particle size and a high crude protein content. In early, mid, and late lactation (44, 100, and 219 days in milk) the goats were individually tested for dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility, milk yield and composition, milk renneting properties, rumen and plasma parameters, and nitrogen and energy utilization (open circuit respiration chambers). During early and mid lactation, the NF fed goats had a very high DMI: 2946 and 2915 g/d, respectively. Nevertheless, milk yield was similar for the two treatments: 4369 vs. 4342 and 3882 vs. 3841 g/d for goats fed diets C and NF during the first and second periods, respectively. Milk fat content was not statistically different between the two diets. The protein content and rheological parameters of milk were similar for the two diets. Nonprotein nitrogen and urea levels in milk of goats fed NF were significantly higher than goats fed C. Ruminal ammonia and plasma urea nitrogen were also significantly increased by diet NF, due to its high protein content. Plasma glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids and ruminal volatile fatty acids were not influenced by dietary treatment. Dietary NF significantly decreased energy digestibility (74.5 vs. 65.8%, on average for the lactation, for C and NF, respectively) and had a significantly lower metabolizability (metabolizable energy/intake energy; 66.6 vs 58.0%, on average); however, the efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy was unaffected by the diet. In conclusion, goats were fed a nonforage diet during the entire lactation without detrimental

  9. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  10. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  11. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  12. On Literature and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard

    In reviewing the ancient, well-worn debate on the relationship between literature and values, it may be seen that the current pedagogical theory of developing response to literature is parallel to the argument for helping students articulate their own values. Two approaches to clarifying values are the values clarification approach (Louis Raths,…

  13. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  14. The influence of dietary fibre on body composition, visceral organ weight, digestibility and energy balance in rats housed in different thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Jørgensen, H; Eggum, B O

    1995-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide detailed information on the effect of dietary fibre (DF) level on body composition, visceral organ weight, nutrient digestibility and on energy and protein metabolism of rats housed in cold (16 degrees), warm (24 degrees) or hot (32 degrees) thermal environments. High- or low-fibre diets (257 v. 56 g DF/kg dry matter (DM)) were studied in a 6-week balance experiment (initial body weight about 100 g). Heat production was measured using open-air circuit respiration chambers. Pea fibre and pectin were used to adjust the DF level in the high-fibre diet. The ranking order of daily gain of rats kept in different environments was: 24 degrees > 16 degrees > 32 degrees, while the ranking order for carcass protein was: 16 degrees > 24 degrees > 32 degrees. Rats on the high-DF diet had a lower daily gain than those on the low DF diet, and more protein in DM of empty body weight (EBW) and less fat. The relative weights (g/kg EBW) of liver, heart and kidney decreased when increasing the environmental temperature. The relative weight of the heart was highest in rats on the high DF level, while liver and kidney weights were unaffected by DF. Per kg EBW, the stomach, small intestine, caecum and colon and the length of colon were significantly greater in rats consuming the high-fibre diet compared with those on the low-fibre diet. Rats kept at low temperature had a significantly heavier gastrointestinal (GI) tract than those kept at the highest temperature. Digestibility of protein, DM and energy was lowest for rats fed on the high-fibre diet. Heat production (HP) of fed rats as well as fasting HP decreased significantly as environmental temperature increased. HP as a proportion of metabolizable energy (ME) was significantly lower for rats at 24 degrees compared with the other environmental temperatures. The proportion of energy retained as protein was slightly higher in rats fed on the high-fibre than on the low-fibre diet. Based on the

  15. Changes in the structure of nuclei between the magic neutron numbers 50 and 82 as indicated by a rotating-cluster analysis of the energy values of the first 2j excited states of isotopes of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pauling, L.

    1981-09-01

    Values of R, the radius of rotation of the rotating cluster, are calculated from the observed values of the energy of the lowest 2/sup +/ states of the even isotopes of Cd, Sn, and Te with the assumption that the cluster is ..cap alpha.., pb, and ..cap alpha.., respectively. R shows a maximum at approx. N = 58, a minimum at approx. N = 62, and a second maximum at approx. N = 70. The increase to the first maximum is interpreted as resulting from the overcrowding of spherons (alphas and tritons) in the mantle (outer layer) of the nuclei, causing the cluster to change from rotating in the mantle to skimming over its surface; the decrease to the minimum results from the addition of three dineutrons to the core, expanding the mantle and permitting the rotating cluster to begin to drop back into it; and the increase to the second maximum results from the overcrowding of the larger mantle surrounding the core containing the semimagic number 14 of neutrons rather than the magic numbers 8 for N = 50. The decrease after the second maximum results from the further increase in the number of core neutrons to 20, corresponding to the magic number 82. Some additional evidence for the change to an intermediate structure between N = 50 and N = 82 is also discussed.

  16. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  17. Share Your Values

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  18. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  19. The values of life.

    PubMed

    Den Hartogh, Govert

    1997-01-01

    In Life's Dominion Dworkin aims at defusing the controversy about abortion and euthanasia by redefining its terms. Basically it is not a dispute about the right to life, but about its value. Liberals should grant that human life has not only a personal, but also an intrinsic value; conservatives should accept the principle of toleration which requires to let people decide for themselves about matters of intrinsic value. Dworkin fails, however, to distinguish between two kinds of personal value: (1) the value of something to a person, when he actually or dispositionally desires it, or finds it pleasant; and (2) the value of something to a person, when it's objectively contributes to his well-being, as defined by reference to his personal point of view, whether or not he ever perceives it as so contributing. He also fails to distinguish between two meanings of the concept of 'intrinsic value': (3) ultimate, i.e. non-instrumental personal value of kind (2); (4) the impersonal value of something which is not good-for-anybody, but simply good, i.e. not a constituent of someone's well-being. Dworkin argues that the human fetus from conception onwards has a value, that it is not a personal value of kind (1), and therefore must be an intrinsic value. But the value of the life of the fetus is not a personal value of kind (2) either and therefore not an intrinsic value of kind (3): it is normally a constituent of the well-being of the pregnant woman, but that doesn't constitute its value, and it is not good 'for' the fetus itself in the relevant sense, because it doesn't have a personal point of view. If, however, the fetus' life is allowed to have an intrinsic value of kind (4), the conservative cannot be refuted by appeal to the principle of toleration, for this only concerns intrinsic value of kind (3). The liberal, indeed, should recognize that the fetus' life has a value, but it is neither a personal value (1) or (2), nor an impersonal value (4), but rather a relational

  20. Effect of rice bran as a replacement for oat grain in energy and nitrogen balance, methane emissions, and milk performance of Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    Criscioni, P; Fernández, C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting oat grain with rice bran on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emissions, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in late lactation (46.1 ± 3.07 kg) were assigned to 2 treatments in a crossover design, where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group of 5 goats was fed a mixed ration with 379 g of oat grain/kg of dry matter (O diet) and the other group of 5 goats was fed a diet that replaced oat grain with 379 g/kg dry matter of rice bran (RB diet). Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isoproteic, so bypass fat was added to reach the same amount of energy in both diets. The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 d of adaptation, feed intake, total fecal and urine outputs, and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5-d period. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded individually by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was different for both diets [1.83 ± 0.11 vs. 1.61 ± 0.08 (means ± SD), for O and RB, respectively]. Metabolizable energy intake and heat production were not significantly different between diets, with average values of 1,254 [standard error of the mean (SEM) = 110.0] and 640 (SEM = 21.0) kJ/kg of BW(0.75), respectively. Significant differences were found in milk fat content (5.3 and 6.9%, SEM = 0.36; for O and RB, respectively) and milk fatty acids: medium-chain fatty acids (17.17 vs. 12.90 g/100g, SEM = 0.969; for O and RB, respectively) and monounsaturated fatty acids (20.63 vs. 28.29 g/100g, SEM = 1.973; for O and RB, respectively). Enteric CH4 emission was lower for the RB diet (23.2 vs. 30.1g/d, SEM = 2.14; for O and RB, respectively), probably because of the higher lipid content in RB diets than O diets (11.7 vs. 4.1%, respectively). Lactating goats utilized RB without detrimental effects on energy metabolism. Higher milk fat

  1. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value.

  2. Values Drive the Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  3. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  4. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value. PMID:17077707

  5. Values: Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Richard B.

    The Quinmester course "Values" includes nine areas of study designed to develop student awareness and development of a personal value system: (1) consideration of a positive self-image as part of a system of values; (2) differentiation between acts of tolerance and intolerance; (3) investigation of the role mental preparedness based on positive…

  6. Information Economics: Valuing Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, Herbert R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the question of why previous articles and studies on the value of information have failed to provide meaningful techniques for measuring that value. The discussion covers four principle causes for confusion surrounding the valuation of information and draws conclusions about the value added model of information. (seven references) (CLB)

  7. Values in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John, Ed.

    This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

  8. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  9. Measuring Teacher Value Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Russell; Lied, Terry

    The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of a measure of teacher value systems. Three value systems were defined as values associated with (1) the pursuit of truth, (2) social and interpersonal relations, and (3) authority and its exercise. The scale was taken through three stages of development and field…

  10. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  11. Energy utilization and growth performance of chickens fed novel wheat inbred lines selected for different pentosan levels with and without xylanase supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Pirgozliev, V.; Rose, S. P.; Pellny, T.; Amerah, A. M.; Wickramasinghe, M.; Ulker, M.; Rakszegi, M.; Bedo, Z.; Shewry, P. R.; Lovegrove, A.

    2015-01-01

    Different F5 recombinant inbred lines from the cross Yumai 34 × Ukrainka were grown in replicated trials on a single site in one harvest year at Rothamsted Research. A total of 10 samples from those lines were harvested and used in a broiler experiment. Twenty nutritionally complete meal-form diets that had 630 g/kg of wheat with different amounts of pentosan, with and without exogenous xylanase supplementation, were used to compare broiler growth performance and determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for N retention (AMEn). We examined the relationship between the nutritive value of the wheat samples and their chemical compositions and results of quality tests. The amounts of total and water soluble pentosans in wheat samples ranged from 36.7 to 48.0 g/kg DM, and 6.7 to 11.6 g/kg DM, respectively. The mean crude oil and protein contents of the wheat samples were 10.5 and 143.9 g/kg DM, respectively. The average determined value for the kinematic viscosity was 0.0018 mPa.s, and 2.1 mPa.s for the dynamic viscosity. The AMEn of the wheat-based diets had a maximum range of 0.47 MJ/kg DM within the ten wheat samples that were tested. Xylanase supplementation improved (P < 0.05) dietary AMEn, dry matter, and fat digestibility coefficients. There was a positive (P < 0.05) relationship between in vitro kinematic viscosity of the wheat samples and the total pentosan content. There was a negative relationship between the total pentosan content in the wheat and broiler growth performance. An increase by 10 g of pentosan per kg of wheat reduced (P < 0.001) daily feed intake and weight gain by 2.9 g and 3.5 g, respectively. The study shows that the feeding quality of wheat samples can be predicted by their total pentosan content. Supplementary xylanase improved energy and nutrient availability of all wheat samples that was independent of differences in pentosan content. PMID:25595480

  12. Energy utilization and growth performance of chickens fed novel wheat inbred lines selected for different pentosan levels with and without xylanase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Pellny, T; Amerah, A M; Wickramasinghe, M; Ulker, M; Rakszegi, M; Bedo, Z; Shewry, P R; Lovegrove, A

    2015-02-01

    Different F5 recombinant inbred lines from the cross Yumai 34×Ukrainka were grown in replicated trials on a single site in one harvest year at Rothamsted Research. A total of 10 samples from those lines were harvested and used in a broiler experiment. Twenty nutritionally complete meal-form diets that had 630 g/kg of wheat with different amounts of pentosan, with and without exogenous xylanase supplementation, were used to compare broiler growth performance and determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for N retention (AMEn). We examined the relationship between the nutritive value of the wheat samples and their chemical compositions and results of quality tests. The amounts of total and water soluble pentosans in wheat samples ranged from 36.7 to 48.0 g/kg DM, and 6.7 to 11.6 g/kg DM, respectively. The mean crude oil and protein contents of the wheat samples were 10.5 and 143.9 g/kg DM, respectively. The average determined value for the kinematic viscosity was 0.0018 mPa.s, and 2.1 mPa.s for the dynamic viscosity. The AMEn of the wheat-based diets had a maximum range of 0.47 MJ/kg DM within the ten wheat samples that were tested. Xylanase supplementation improved (P<0.05) dietary AMEn, dry matter, and fat digestibility coefficients. There was a positive (P<0.05) relationship between in vitro kinematic viscosity of the wheat samples and the total pentosan content. There was a negative relationship between the total pentosan content in the wheat and broiler growth performance. An increase by 10 g of pentosan per kg of wheat reduced (P<0.001) daily feed intake and weight gain by 2.9 g and 3.5 g, respectively. The study shows that the feeding quality of wheat samples can be predicted by their total pentosan content. Supplementary xylanase improved energy and nutrient availability of all wheat samples that was independent of differences in pentosan content.

  13. Capacity Value of Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O'Malley, Mark J.

    2011-05-04

    Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

  14. The problem with value

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  15. Demands, values, and burnout

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Michael P.; Frank, Erica; Matheson, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE T o explore the interaction between workload and values congruence (personal values with health care system values) in the context of burnout and physician engagement and to explore the relative importance of these factors by sex, given the distinct work patterns of male and female physicians. DESIGN National mailed survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians (response rate 40%, N = 3213); 2536 responses (from physicians working more than 35 hours per week) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Levels of burnout, values congruence, and workload, by sex, measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Scale and the Areas of Worklife Scale. RESULTS Results showed a moderate level of burnout among Canadian physicians, with relatively positive scores on exhaustion, average scores on cynicism, and mildly negative scores on professional efficacy. A series of multiple regression analyses confirmed parallel main effect contributions from manageable workload and values congruence. Both workload and values congruence predicted exhaustion and cynicism for men and women (P = .001). Only values congruence provided a significant prediction of professional efficacy for both men and women (P = .001) These predictors interacted for women on all 3 aspects of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and diminished efficacy). Howevever, overall levels of the burnout indicators departed only modestly from normative levels. CONCLUSION W orkload and values congruence make distinct contributions to physician burnout. Work overload contributes to predicting exhaustion and cynicism; professional values crises contribute to predicting exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. The interaction of values and workload for women in particular has implications for the distinct work-life patterns of male and female physicians. Specifically, the congruence of individual values with values inherent in the health care system appeared to be of greater

  16. Business Value Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, Artem; Duarte, Vasco

    Agile teams want to deliver maximum business value. That’s easy if the on-site Ccstomer assigns business value to each story. But how does the customer do that? How can you estimate business value? This workshop is run as a game, where teams have to make tough business decisions for their ”organizations”. Teams have to decide which orders to take and what to deliver first in order to earn more. The session gives the participants basic business value estimation techniques, but the main point is to make people live through the business situation and to help them feel the consequences of various choices.

  17. The influence of body condition on the fasting energy metabolism of nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Birnie, J W; Agnew, R E; Gordon, F J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of cow body condition score on fasting heat production. Twelve nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows were selected from within the dairy herd at the Agricultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland. Six of these animals (group A) had condition scores > or = 4.5, and the remainder (group B) had condition scores <2. All cows were offered dried grass pellets at estimated maintenance energy level (0.58 MJ of metabolizable energy/kg(0.75)) for a minimum of 21 d. The diet also supplied 2.5 times the metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance. Following this, each cow underwent a 5-d fast in open circuit respiration calorimeters during which fasting heat production (FHP) was measured. On completion of measurement, group A was fed to reduce condition score (CS) below 2, while group B was fed to raise each individual condition score above 4.5. When the appropriate condition scores were achieved, dried grass pellets were again offered at maintenance for a minimum of 21 d, and fasting heat production was measured. It was observed that fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was significantly higher for cows with low body condition (<2; ultrasonic fat depth < or = 2.9 mm) compared with cows displaying high body condition (> or = 4.5; ultrasonic fat depth > or = 8.2 mm). A linear relationship between condition score and fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was defined by regression analysis as; FHP (MJ/kg(0.75)) = 0.501(SE 0.0121) - 0.030CS (SE 0.0035). PMID:10877386

  18. Valuing Youth. Leader's Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glashagel, Jerry; And Others

    This leader's notebook is an attempt to present value education tools for persons working with elementary age children in various YMCA settings. These tools are value education strategies designed to stimulate discussion by the children and to help create a learning environment. The strategies are presented in two ways. First, a series of basic…

  19. How I Taught Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Annis

    2005-01-01

    Values are principles or standards that people have decided are desirable to live by. The question of whether values can or should be taught to college students has been debated for decades, with the pros incorporating moral concepts into curricula and the antes scorning such efforts as not only inappropriate but also intellectually dull. In this…

  20. Do We Value Caring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross

    2016-01-01

    When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…

  1. Looking for Core Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  2. Teaching Values through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghammer, Gretta

    One dramatic technique to aid students in their discovery of values and value systems is "theatre-in-education" (TIE), a theatre event that takes place in schools, with actors working through roles for and with children. TIE aims to fuse education and theatre by having team members function as both teachers and actors, and the audiences of young…

  3. Work Values across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  4. Art's Educational Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores critically the nature of art's value in education and argues in favor of both intrinsic and instrumental value. Form and expression, while being out of favor in some contemporary circles, are re-claimed as appropriate features of art. Concepts and forms in art as elsewhere serve to structure impressions and experience and…

  5. Sustaining NCTE Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's core values, posted on the website (http://www.ncte.org), are writing, literature, diversity, integrated language arts, knowledgeable and caring teachers, advocacy, and public education ("NCTE Core Values"). In this article, the author focuses only on writing, diversity, and advocacy, considering just a few ways in which the organization…

  6. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  7. Cognitive and Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machamer, Peter; Douglas, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes Hugh Lacey's separation of cognitive values and social values in discussions of the nature of science. Claims that attempting to distinguish between cognitive and social ignores crucial complexities in the development and use of knowledge. Proposes that the proper distinction be between legitimate and illegitimate reasons in science as…

  8. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  9. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  10. Management Values Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara; Payne, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Describes results of a survey conducted to compare values of members of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) with managers in business and industry. Issues discussed include job satisfaction, opportunities for advancement, attitudes toward management, and salary; a summary of each value system is provided. (LRW)

  11. Understanding Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda L.; Tomayko, Ming C.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an understanding of place value and the base-ten number system is considered a fundamental goal of the early primary grades. For years, teachers have anecdotally reported that students struggle with place-value concepts. Among the common errors cited are misreading such numbers as 26 and 62 by seeing them as identical in meaning,…

  12. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  13. Ecology and Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    "Ecology and Human Values" is an interdisciplinary course designed for senior year high school students in social studies and/or science. Its main thrust is the investigation of human values as they relate to the environment, although rooted in the natural sciences as a means of understanding the complexities inherent in the environment. Use is…

  14. The Value of the P Value

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research. PMID:27430018

  15. Professional values and nursing.

    PubMed

    Sellman, Derek

    2011-05-01

    The values of nursing arise from a concern with human flourishing. If the desire to become a nurse is a reflection of an aspiration to care for others in need then we should anticipate that those who choose to nurse have a tendency towards the values we would normally associate with a caring profession (care, compassion, perhaps altruism, and so on). However, these values require a secure base if they are not to succumb to the corrupting pressures of the increasingly instrumental nature of the values of the institutions in which healthcare in general and nursing in particular takes place. One way of securing a base for withstanding the corrupting influences of the institution is to understand nursing as a practice in the sense in which Alasdair MacIntyre uses that term. In this brief paper I will outline ways in which the managerial imperative of meeting targets is both distorting practice and undermining nursing's values. I conclude that understanding nursing as a MacIntyrean practice provides a refuge from what might otherwise be overwhelming pressures for nurses to adopt instrumental values to the detriment of professional caring values. PMID:21061069

  16. Professional values and nursing.

    PubMed

    Sellman, Derek

    2011-05-01

    The values of nursing arise from a concern with human flourishing. If the desire to become a nurse is a reflection of an aspiration to care for others in need then we should anticipate that those who choose to nurse have a tendency towards the values we would normally associate with a caring profession (care, compassion, perhaps altruism, and so on). However, these values require a secure base if they are not to succumb to the corrupting pressures of the increasingly instrumental nature of the values of the institutions in which healthcare in general and nursing in particular takes place. One way of securing a base for withstanding the corrupting influences of the institution is to understand nursing as a practice in the sense in which Alasdair MacIntyre uses that term. In this brief paper I will outline ways in which the managerial imperative of meeting targets is both distorting practice and undermining nursing's values. I conclude that understanding nursing as a MacIntyrean practice provides a refuge from what might otherwise be overwhelming pressures for nurses to adopt instrumental values to the detriment of professional caring values.

  17. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  18. Can Schools Teach Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold

    1987-01-01

    While the family is the main agency for helping young people develop the ideas, attitudes, and behavior of successful citizenship and work, schools can enrich the teacher-student relationship to the point that values rub off. (MT)

  19. Navigating Value Based Care.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-12-01

    TMA is collaborating with TMF Health Quality Institute to connect Texas physicians to free TMF resources that will better position doctors for the rapid transition to value-based payment. PMID:26630238

  20. Values in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  1. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  2. Working with Missing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.

    2005-01-01

    Less than optimum strategies for missing values can produce biased estimates, distorted statistical power, and invalid conclusions. After reviewing traditional approaches (listwise, pairwise, and mean substitution), selected alternatives are covered including single imputation, multiple imputation, and full information maximum likelihood…

  3. Education and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inlow, Gail M.

    1972-01-01

    A selection from Values in Transition: A Handbook", its thesis is that formal education...has an obligation to educate broadly along lines of the intellectual, emotional, and social components, notjust the intellectual one per se." (Author)

  4. Economics: Mangroves' hidden value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Brian C.

    2012-11-01

    Mangroves are being lost at an alarming rate as their conversion for aquaculture and other uses is profitable. Research, however, suggests that valuing the deep reserves of carbon in mangrove sediments may be the key to their survival.

  5. Values in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice. PMID:8886227

  6. Values in action.

    PubMed

    Hearn, S A

    1997-01-01

    St. John Health System, Detroit, is committed to the values of wisdom, compassion, service to the neighbor, stewardship and servant leadership. When a patient walks through any one of the six St. John Hospitals, they see these words displayed many times. But what do they mean to the employees? Patients? The community? According to Anthony R. Tersigni, EdD, St. John president and CEO, "The values remind us of who we are and what our responsibilities are to the communities we serve."

  7. Value of R and D to gas customers and the industry. Summary of the 1996 Gas Research Institute joint panel on energy issues for the GRI board of directors and advisory council. Held in Colorado Springs, Colorado on August 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.M.; Tedeski, L.A.

    1996-08-20

    The publication documents the annual panel discussion conducted with members of Gas Research Institute (GRI) Board of Directors and Advisory Council. At this 1996 Energy Panel, the panelists presented a wide spectrum of industry views on the role of research and development (R&D) and the value and opportunities R&D affords their specific companies. A broad range of viewpoints and experiences were exchanged, focusing on the use of R&D as a successful strategic tool, the decline of R&D in the energy industry, the role of cooperative R&D, the value GRI`s R&D program has provided the industry, and the value of R&D in the future. The results of these discussions will help GRI develop a new framework for defining the value and direction of future gas-related R&D.

  8. Chemical and Physical Predictors of the Nutritive Value of Wheat in Broiler Diets

    PubMed Central

    Ball, M. E. E.; Owens, B.; McCracken, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish relationships between chemical and physical parameters of wheat with performance and digestibilities of feed components in broiler chickens fed on wheat-based diets. Ninety-four wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolism cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), liveweight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were measured weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, dry matter retention, oil and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility. At 28 d the birds were humanely killed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal dry matter, starch and protein digestibility. When wheat parameters were correlated with bird performance data, it was found that specific weight was not significantly (p>0.05) related to bird performance. Bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed were best correlated (p<0.05) with the rate of starch digestion, although the coefficients of correlation (r) were still low (0.246 to 0.523). A negative relationship (p<0.01) between AME and total (r = −0.432) and soluble (r = −0.304) non starch polysaccharide (NSP) was observed in this study. Thousand grain weight (TG) was positively correlated with DMI (r = 0.299), LWG (r = 0.343) and gain:feed (r = 0.371). When establishing multiple regression relationships, correlation coefficients greater than 0.8 were achieved for DMI, LWG, gain:feed and ileal crude protein digestibility. However, the economics involved in determining the parameters involved in the regressions make the process impractical. PMID:25049711

  9. Blood values of adult captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented beef or whole rabbit carcasses.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Stagegaard, J; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated nutrient intake and relevant blood parameters of 14 captive cheetahs, randomly assigned to a meat-only diet (supplemented beef, SB) or a whole prey diet (whole rabbit, WR) for 4 weeks each. Despite a higher food intake, daily metabolizable energy intake was lower when fed WR (308 kJ BW(-1) ) compared with SB (347 kJ BW(-1) ) (P = 0.002). The ratio of protein to fat was markedly lower for WR (2.3:1) compared with SB (8.8:1), which was reflected in higher serum urea levels when fed SB (P = 0.033), and a tendency for elevated cholesterol levels when fed WR (P = 0.055). Taurine intake of cheetahs fed WR was low (0.06% on DM basis); however, analytical error during taurine analysis cannot be ruled out. Feeding WR resulted in a well-balanced mineral intake, in contrast to SB. The latter provided a low calcium:phosphorus ratio (1:2.3), thereby increasing the risk of metabolic bone disease. The high zinc content of SB (200 mg/kg DM), compared with WR (94 mg/kg DM), was reflected in higher serum zinc concentrations (P = 0.011). Feeding WR resulted in an increase in serum vitamin A (P = 0.011). Therefore, the risk of hypervitaminosis A in captive cheetahs when fed WR exclusively on a long-term basis should be evaluated. Our findings suggest that neither diet is likely to provide appropriate nutrition to captive cheetahs when fed exclusively.

  10. ModObs: Atmospheric modelling for wind energy, climate and environment applications: exploring added value from new observation technique. Work in progress within a FP6 Marie Curie Research Training Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempreviva, A. M.

    2009-09-01

    The EC FP6 Marie Curie Training Network "ModObs” http://www.modobs.windeng.net addresses the improvement of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) models to investigate the interplay of processes at different temporal and spatial scales, and to explore the added value from new observation techniques. The overall goal is to bring young scientists to work ogether with experienced researchers in developing a better interaction amongst scientific communities of modelers and experimentalists, using a comprehensive approach to "Climate Change”, "Clean Energy assessment” and "Environmental Policies”, issues. This poster describes the work in progress of ten students, funded by the network, under the supervision of a team of scientists within atmospheric physics, engineering and satellite remote sensing and end-users such as companies in the private sector, all with the appropriate expertise to integrate the most advanced research methods and techniques in the following topics. MODELING: GLOBAL-TO-MESO SCALE: Analytical and process oriented numerical models will be used to study the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean on a regional scale. Initial results indicate an interaction between the intensity of polar lows and the subsurface warm core often present in the Nordic Seas (11). The presence of waves, mainly swell, influence the MABL fluxes and turbulence structure. The regional and global wave effect on the atmosphere will be also studied and quantified (7) MESO-SCALE: Applicability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parametrizations in the meso-scale WRF model to marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the North Sea is investigated. The most suitable existing PBL parametrization will be additionally improved and used for downscaling North Sea past and future climates (2). Application of the meso-scale model (MM5 and WRF) for the wind energy in off-shore and coastal area. Set-up of the meso-scale model, post-processing and verification of the data

  11. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  12. Getting Value from Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2004-03-01

    During the past decade the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly, as recently documented in Robert Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000). The vertically integrated single-firm research-through-product value chains of the twentieth century are gone, replaced by value chains the various elements of which can come from different firms in different parts of the world as described, e.g., by Henry W. Cheesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003). The consequences of this change are profound for national R policy, the R strategies of specific firms, and individual researchers. (See e.g., C. B. Duke, How to get value from R, Physics World, 17 (August 1997), 17.) In this presentation I sketch the strategies that firms employ to generate value from their research. Then I discuss the ingredients that are required to implement these strategies by creating value chains to deliver the fruits of research to customers. I indicate how the role of physical sciences is changing as unique hardware, based on advanced research in the physical sciences, becomes an increasingly minor (and often outsourced) component of integrated systems offerings. I close by noting implications of these developments on the nature of the careers that physicists can expect in industry and on the skills and cultural attributes that are required to be successful in the new industrial research environment.

  13. Confidentiality: a modified value.

    PubMed Central

    Emson, H E

    1988-01-01

    In its original expression as a medical value confidentiality may have been absolute; this concept has become eroded by patient consent, legal actions and change in the climate of public opinion. In particular requirements arising out of legal statutes and common law judgements have greatly modified the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship in societies deriving their law from English origins. Despite this, confidentiality remains a value which the physician must strive to preserve. He cannot however do this without considering its effect upon possible innocent third parties. PMID:3392723

  14. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  15. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  16. Value of Information spreadsheet

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  17. Use of nonlinear programming to optimize performance response to energy density in broiler feed formulation.

    PubMed

    Guevara, V R

    2004-02-01

    A nonlinear programming optimization model was developed to maximize margin over feed cost in broiler feed formulation and is described in this paper. The model identifies the optimal feed mix that maximizes profit margin. Optimum metabolizable energy level and performance were found by using Excel Solver nonlinear programming. Data from an energy density study with broilers were fitted to quadratic equations to express weight gain, feed consumption, and the objective function income over feed cost in terms of energy density. Nutrient:energy ratio constraints were transformed into equivalent linear constraints. National Research Council nutrient requirements and feeding program were used for examining changes in variables. The nonlinear programming feed formulation method was used to illustrate the effects of changes in different variables on the optimum energy density, performance, and profitability and was compared with conventional linear programming. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model, I determined the impact of variation in prices. Prices for broiler, corn, fish meal, and soybean meal were increased and decreased by 25%. Formulations were identical in all other respects. Energy density, margin, and diet cost changed compared with conventional linear programming formulation. This study suggests that nonlinear programming can be more useful than conventional linear programming to optimize performance response to energy density in broiler feed formulation because an energy level does not need to be set.

  18. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  19. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  20. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  1. Not Without Value. Editorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, George H.

    2002-01-01

    To reverse the decline in volunteerism in education, administrators must understand the difference between true volunteering and participation coerced under the guise of volunteering. Appreciation is essential for promoting volunteerism, for no one wishes to be considered without value. But if coercion and exploitation are part of the growing…

  2. Communication and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.

    Communication experts and researchers have done little to help prepare themselves or others to cope with values in the communication revolution that is taking place. The problem goes beyond the influence the media has in the United States; it has implications of international issues of survival. What is needed is an emphasis on research and…

  3. Classifying Values by Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gündüz, Mevlüt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to make a new classification regarding the fact that the current classifications may change constantly because of values? gaining a different dimension and importance every single day. In this research descriptive research, which was used frequently in qualitative research methods, was preferred. This research was…

  4. Technostress and Library Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  5. The Value of Pretending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Marilyn; Adcock, Don

    By participating in their children's imaginative play or pretending, parents may be able to understand better their children's feelings, resolve parent-child conflicts, communicate parental values, and build parent-child relationships based on mutual respect. Many people seem to believe that pretending appears automatically in young children, that…

  6. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  7. Making People Feel Valued.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergueson, Susan; Aimone, Logan

    2002-01-01

    Suggests many quick, easy and inexpensive ways to help make staff members of student publications feel valued and keep staff motivation levels high. Includes additional articles that describe how an editor can support efforts to motivate, suggest that staff retreats lead to success, note how banquets serve as reward, and suggest some favorite…

  8. Developing Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Brian P.; And Others

    The process by which human beings, as they grow toward maturity, develop values is not an automatic one. The process can be fostered by a number of teaching strategies. The strategies include the techniques of self-discovery, the provision of learning environments that encourage growth, and the practice of specific skills. This volume provides a…

  9. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  10. Whose Religious Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Public schools, since their founding in America in 1647, have reflected the demographic characteristics of the communities in which they are located. Because the United States has, until recently, been mostly Protestant Christian, many schooling practices have built upon the values of this faith. Pupils have sung Christmas songs at Christmas…

  11. Researching Values in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers methodological issues that arise when values form the main focus of empirical educational research. Includes discussion of the idea that social science, in general, and educational research, in particular, are forms of moral inquiry. Outlines a methodology of educational research, drawing from work by Imre Lakatos, Alasdair MacIntyre,…

  12. Values in Literature: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    Offering students some thinking and coping tools they can use to make sound decisions based on strong values, this resource book presents numerous selections from children's literature and suggested activities and projects. The book begins with a brief introduction, advice to teachers on using the book, ways to make the classroom more conducive to…

  13. Value of solar thermal industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Fassbender, L.L.; Chockie, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    This study estimated the value of solar thermal-generated industrial process heat (IPH) as a function of process heat temperature. The value of solar thermal energy is equal to the cost of producing energy from conventional fuels and equipment if the energy produced from either source provides an equal level of service. This requirement put the focus of this study on defining and characterizing conventional process heat equipment and fuels. Costs (values) were estimated for 17 different design points representing different combinations of conventional technologies, temperatures, and fuels. Costs were first estimated for median or representative conditions at each design point. The cost impact of capacity factor, efficiency, fuel escalation rate, and regional fuel price differences were then evaluated by varying each of these factors within credible ranges.

  14. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  15. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  16. Education: A Core Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William F., Jr.

    2001-09-01

    1. Teaching our Children. ACS should develop an intensive course in modern teaching methods, challenges and responsibilities, and press for streamlined teacher certification procedures for advanced degree or life experience chemists.
    2. Teaching our Future Colleagues. As President I will encourage companies to make scientists with special skills available to universities, and will encourage universities to utilize these scientists to round out areas of study not covered by their existing faculty.
    3. Teaching our Members. ACS should develop functional and management-related courses for scientists to facilitate career advancement from the bench to research management or from science to business.
    4. Teaching the Public. The President is the most visible representative of the Society, and should devote significant time to communication with lay audiences.
    Value Matters. My first priority as President will be to increase value creation, communication and quantification so members can easily identify programs that fill their needs and exceed their expectations.

  17. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  18. Complex-valued autoencoders.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-09-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L(2) norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory.

  19. The value of certification.

    PubMed

    Kaplow, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Certification is defined in the nursing literature in several ways; no one consistent definition of certification exists. Nursing specialty certification programs are intended for consumer protection. Certification protects the public by enabling consumers to identify competent people more readily. However, benefits for stakeholders other than patients and families are also described in the literature. This article describes the value of specialty certification from the perspective of the patient and family, nurse, and employer.

  20. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  1. Carnivorous mammals: nutrient digestibility and energy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Kleffner, Helen; Kienzle, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the energy content is the first step in diet formulation, as it determines the amount of food eaten and hence the concentration of nutrients required to meet the animal's requirements. Additionally, being able to estimate the energy content of a diet empirically known to maintain body condition in an animal will facilitate an estimation of maintenance energy requirements. We collated data on nutrient composition of diets fed to captive wild canids, felids, hyenids, mustelids, pinnipeds, and ursids and the digestibility coefficients from the literature (45 species, 74 publications) to test whether differences in protein and fat digestibility could be detected between species groups, and whether approaches suggested for the estimation of dietary metabolizable energy (ME) content in domestic carnivores (NRC [2006] Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.) can be applied to wild carnivores as well. Regressions of digestible protein or fat content vs. the crude protein (CP) or fat content indicated no relevant differences in the digestive physiology between the carnivore groups. For diets based on raw meat, fish, or whole prey, applying the calculation of ME using "Atwater factors" (16.7  kJ/g CP; 16.7  kJ/g nitrogen-free extracts; 37.7  kJ/g crude fat) provided estimates that compared well to experimental results. This study suggests that ME estimation in such diets is feasible without additional digestion trials. For comparative nutrition research, the study implicates that highly digestible diets typically fed in zoos offer little potential to elucidate differences between species or carnivore groups, but research on diets with higher proportions of difficult-to-digest components (fiber, connective tissues) is lacking. PMID:20073050

  2. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  3. Recovery of uranium values

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K. B.; Crouse, Jr., D. J.; Moore, J. G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine fn the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected anine dissolved in a nonpolar waterimmiscible organfc solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely extracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by water, and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  4. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  5. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K.B.; Crouse, D.J. Jr.; Moore, J.G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine in the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected amine dissolved in a nonpolar water-immiscible organic solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely exiracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by waters and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  6. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  7. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  8. Influence of partial replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat and exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and energy utilization in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Amerah, A M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of pre-pelleting inclusion of whole wheat (WW) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, coefficient of apparent ileal nutrient digestibility (CAID) and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) in broilers fed wheat-based pelleted diets. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with two methods of wheat inclusion [622 g/kg ground wheat (GW) and 250 g/kg WW replaced GW (wt/wt) pre-pelleting (PWW)] and three enzymes (xylanase, phytase and xylanase plus phytase). A total of 288, one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were individually weighed and allocated to 36 cages (8 broilers/cage), and the cages were randomly assigned to the six dietary treatments. Birds fed PWW diets gained more (p < 0.05) weight than those fed GW diets. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of WW inclusion on feed intake (FI). Phytase alone increased (p < 0.05) FI compared to xylanase or the combination. Whole wheat inclusion increased (p < 0.05) the gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). Feeding xylanase plus phytase and phytase-added diets resulted in the greatest and lowest G:F, respectively, with xylanase supplemented diets being intermediate. Birds fed PWW diets had greater (p < 0.05) relative gizzard weights than those fed GW diets. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of WW inclusion on the CAID of nitrogen (N), starch and fat. Combination of xylanase and phytase resulted in greater (p < 0.05) digestibility of N, starch and fat than that of individual additions. Feeding PWW diets resulted in greater (p < 0.05) AME values than GW diets. Combination of xylanase and phytase increased (p < 0.05) the AME compared to the diets with individual additions of xylanase or phytase. The current results suggest that the influence of pre-pelleting WW inclusion and exogenous enzymes on nutrient digestibility and broiler performance is not additive.

  9. Influence of partial replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat and exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and energy utilization in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Amerah, A M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of pre-pelleting inclusion of whole wheat (WW) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, coefficient of apparent ileal nutrient digestibility (CAID) and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) in broilers fed wheat-based pelleted diets. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with two methods of wheat inclusion [622 g/kg ground wheat (GW) and 250 g/kg WW replaced GW (wt/wt) pre-pelleting (PWW)] and three enzymes (xylanase, phytase and xylanase plus phytase). A total of 288, one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were individually weighed and allocated to 36 cages (8 broilers/cage), and the cages were randomly assigned to the six dietary treatments. Birds fed PWW diets gained more (p < 0.05) weight than those fed GW diets. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of WW inclusion on feed intake (FI). Phytase alone increased (p < 0.05) FI compared to xylanase or the combination. Whole wheat inclusion increased (p < 0.05) the gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). Feeding xylanase plus phytase and phytase-added diets resulted in the greatest and lowest G:F, respectively, with xylanase supplemented diets being intermediate. Birds fed PWW diets had greater (p < 0.05) relative gizzard weights than those fed GW diets. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of WW inclusion on the CAID of nitrogen (N), starch and fat. Combination of xylanase and phytase resulted in greater (p < 0.05) digestibility of N, starch and fat than that of individual additions. Feeding PWW diets resulted in greater (p < 0.05) AME values than GW diets. Combination of xylanase and phytase increased (p < 0.05) the AME compared to the diets with individual additions of xylanase or phytase. The current results suggest that the influence of pre-pelleting WW inclusion and exogenous enzymes on nutrient digestibility and broiler performance is not additive. PMID:27080922

  10. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

  11. Volume to value.

    PubMed

    Leaver, William B

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fee-for-service medicine has put physicians on an unsustainable treadmill of volume that escalates healthcare costs regardless of the quality of care they provide. This article shares the experience of UnityPoint Health (formerly Iowa Health System) in designing and implementing patient-centered, physician-led, coordinated care as a building block for transforming the delivery system. Keys to the effort's success include aligning physicians, hospitals, and home care delivery in terms of organizational goals and having the ability to gather, analyze, and share data to manage population health. On April 16, 2013, Iowa Health System became UnityPoint Health, dedicated to transforming the delivery of care through a coordinated system that offers regional, organized systems of care in most of our markets in Iowa and Illinois. These capabilities allowed the system to enter into value-based accountable care organization contracts that cover more than 220,000 lives. The transition ultimately will lead to population health-driven approaches in which compensation will be based on the management of specific populations or chronic diseases over a specified period. As increased value from care coordination becomes clear, the external environment will demand this better system, and patients will expect it. PMID:23858985

  12. Value Creation Through Integrated Networks and Convergence

    SciTech Connect

    De Martini, Paul; Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2015-04-01

    Customer adoption of distributed energy resources and public policies are driving changes in the uses of the distribution system. A system originally designed and built for one-way energy flows from central generating facilities to end-use customers is now experiencing injections of energy from customers anywhere on the grid and frequent reversals in the direction of energy flow. In response, regulators and utilities are re-thinking the design and operations of the grid to create more open and transactive electric networks. This evolution has the opportunity to unlock significant value for customers and utilities. Alternatively, failure to seize this potential may instead lead to an erosion of value if customers seek to defect and disconnect from the system. This paper will discuss how current grid modernization investments may be leveraged to create open networks that increase value through the interaction of intelligent devices on the grid and prosumerization of customers. Moreover, even greater value can be realized through the synergistic effects of convergence of multiple networks. This paper will highlight examples of the emerging nexus of non-electric networks with electricity.

  13. Value Differences among Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, Nicholas; Parker, Marolyn

    1981-01-01

    Gifted high school students (N=58) responded to a values survey consisting of two sets of 18 values: instrumental values and terminal values. Results showed no differences by sex in value patterns, academic performance, and self-concept. Suggests that sex-role stereotyped expectations still persist for the gifted in school and society. (RC)

  14. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice.

  15. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice. PMID:22718993

  16. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain. PMID:17580654

  17. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  18. Production of High Value Cellulose from Tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Berson, R Eric; Dvaid, Keith; McGinley, W Mark; Meduri, Praveen; Clark, Ezra; Dayalan, Ethirajulu; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sunkara, Mahendra; Colliver, Donald

    2011-06-15

    The Kentucky Rural Energy Supply Program was established in 2005 by a federal direct appropriation to benefit the citizens of the Commonwealth by creating a unified statewide consortium to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency in Kentucky. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biomass Programs initially funded the consortium in 2005 with a $2 million operational grant. The Kentucky Rural Energy Consortium (KREC) was formed at the outset of the program to advance energy efficiency and comprehensive research on biomass and bioenergy of importance to Kentucky agriculture, rural communities, and related industries. In recognition of the successful efforts of the program, KREC received an additional $1.96 million federal appropriation in 2008 for renewal of the DOE grant. From the beginning, KREC understood the value of providing a statewide forum for the discussion of Kentucky's long term energy needs and economic development potential. The new funding allowed KREC to continue to serve as a clearinghouse and support new research and development and outreach programs for energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  19. Bioenergy production for CO2-mitigation and rural development via valorisation of low value crop residues and their upgrade into energy carriers: a challenge for sunflower and soya residues.

    PubMed

    Zabaniotou, A; Kantarelis, E; Skoulou, V; Chatziavgoustis, Th

    2010-01-01

    The present study concerns the energetic valorization of sunflower and soya residues by air fixed-bed gasification. The main process parameters that have been investigated were the temperature and air equivalence ratio. Experimental results indicated that the high temperature and air had a positive effect in gas yield for both residues by ensuring mild oxidative conditions. Gasification gas composition showed different trends of H(2)/CO ratio for the two residues at low equivalence ratios. The LHV of the produced gas from both residues varied from 6.84 to 12 MJ/Nm(3). The energy recovery achieved via gasification could reach 0.07 and 0.02 per acre of cultivated area for the sunflower and soya residues, respectively, in terms of tons of oil equivalent. Sunflower shown higher oil production and energy recovery than soya did. The results of the present study indicate the viability of alternative energy production from agricultural biomass by gasification. Such residues could comprise an attractive renewable source of energy for covering additional energy demands in agricultural regions through exploitation in small gasification systems.

  20. Effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on methane emission, digestion, and energy and nitrogen balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kindermann, M; Duval, S; Steinberg, W

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to measure effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3 NP) on methane production of lactating dairy cows and any associated changes in digestion and energy and N metabolism. Six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were fed twice daily a total mixed ration with maize silage as the primary forage source. Cows received 1 of 3 treatments using an experimental design based on two 3 × 3 Latin squares with 5-wk periods. Treatments were a control placebo or 500 or 2,500 mg/d of 3 NP delivered directly into the rumen, via the rumen fistula, in equal doses before each feeding. Measurements of methane production and energy and N balance were obtained during wk 5 of each period using respiration calorimeters and digestion trials. Measurements of rumen pH (48 h) and postprandial volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations were made at the end of wk 4. Daily methane production was reduced by 3 NP, but the effects were not dose dependent (reductions of 6.6 and 9.8% for 500 and 2,500 mg/d, respectively). Dosing 3 NP had a transitory inhibitory effect on methane production, which may have been due to the product leaving the rumen in liquid outflow or through absorption or metabolism. Changes in rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids indicated that the pattern of rumen fermentation was affected by both doses of the product, with a decrease in acetate:propionate ratio observed, but that acetate production was inhibited by the higher dose. Dry matter, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, N, and energy digestibility were reduced at the higher dose of the product. The decrease in digestible energy supply was not completely countered by the decrease in methane excretion such that metabolizable energy supply, metabolizable energy concentration of the diet, and net energy balance (milk plus tissue energy) were reduced by the highest dose of 3 NP. Similarly, the decrease in N digestibility at the higher dose of the product was associated with a decrease in body N