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Sample records for metachronous primitive cancers

  1. Risk factors for metachronous colorectal cancer following a primary colorectal cancer: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Harindra; Reece, Jeanette C; Buchanan, Daniel D; Rosty, Christophe; Dashti, S Ghazaleh; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Winship, Ingrid M; Macrae, Finlay A; Boussioutas, Alex; Giles, Graham G; Ahnen, Dennis J; Lowery, Jan; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W; Gallinger, Steven; Le Marchand, Loic; Newcomb, Polly A; Lindor, Noralane M; Hopper, John L; Parry, Susan; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko

    2016-09-01

    Individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) are at risk of developing a metachronous CRC. We examined the associations between personal, tumour-related and lifestyle risk factors, and risk of metachronous CRC. A total of 7,863 participants with incident colon or rectal cancer who were recruited in the USA, Canada and Australia to the Colon Cancer Family Registry during 1997-2012, except those identified as high-risk, for example, Lynch syndrome, were followed up approximately every 5 years. We estimated the risk of metachronous CRC, defined as the first new primary CRC following an interval of at least one year after the initial CRC diagnosis. Observation time started at the age at diagnosis of the initial CRC and ended at the age at diagnosis of the metachronous CRC, last contact or death whichever occurred earliest, or were censored at the age at diagnosis of any metachronous colorectal adenoma. Cox regression was used to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a mean follow-up of 6.6 years, 142 (1.81%) metachronous CRCs were diagnosed (mean age at diagnosis 59.8; incidence 2.7/1,000 person-years). An increased risk of metachronous CRC was associated with the presence of a synchronous CRC (HR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.30-5.72) and the location of cancer in the proximal colon at initial diagnosis (compared with distal colon or rectum, HR = 4.16; 95% CI: 2.80-6.18). The presence of a synchronous CRC and the location of the initial CRC might be useful for deciding the intensity of surveillance colonoscopy for individuals diagnosed with CRC.

  2. Metachronous stomal adenocarcinoma following abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Townley, W A; Kothari, M S; Meyrick-Thomas, J

    2005-11-01

    Although metachronous colorectal tumours are relatively common, they seldom occur at stomasites. We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who developed a colostomy site malignancy. Possible associations and risk factors are discussed.

  3. Patient with eight metachronous gastrointestinal cancers thought to be hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yasushi; Matsushima, Masashi; Tanaka, Hisae; Tajiri, Sakurako; Fukuda, Ryuki; Ozawa, Hideki; Takagi, Atsushi; Hirabayashi, Ken-ichi; Sadahiro, Sohtaro

    2010-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman presented with a chief complaint of swelling of both lower legs. She had a history of surgery for cancers of the stomach, rectum and colon. Among her immediate family members, her son had colon and rectal cancers, and her sister had ovarian cancer. After close examination the patient was diagnosed with small intestine cancer and ascending colon cancer. Gene mutation analyses did not reveal any mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, but MSH-2 protein expression was lost only in the cancer lesions. Here, we report this rare case of eight metachronous gastrointestinal cancers thought to be HNPCC.

  4. Risk Factors for Metachronous Recurrence after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection of Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely accepted as a curative treatment method for early gastric cancer (EGC) worldwide, metachronous recurrence often occurs after ESD for EGC. However, there are insufficient data about the role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and other risk factors for recurrence. We aimed to compare the metachronous lesion in the H. pylori persistent group and the eradicated group, and to identify risk factors for metachronous lesion. We retrospectively analyzed 782 patients who underwent ESD between January 2008 and December 2013. We excluded patients with dysplasia or patients who were not tested for H. pylori infection. One hundred eighty-five patients were enrolled. We studied risk factors for recurrence, and used survival analysis to test. There were 24 patients with metachronous recurrence after ESD for EGC among the group. The incidence of metachronous gastric lesions after ESD for EGC developed more in the over 70-year-old group (P = 0.025) and more in the H. pylori persistent group (P = 0.008). In conclusion, H. pylori infection and old age are independent risk factors for metachronous gastric lesions after ESD in EGC. PMID:28145644

  5. Metachronous malignancies in men with previous prostate cancer in Umbria, Italy, 1994-2003.

    PubMed

    Cassetti, Tiziana; Stracci, Fabrizio; Minelli, Liliana; Scheibel, Massimo; Sapia, Ida Elena; La Rosa, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Data about second primary tumors after prostate carcinoma are controversial. Some authors emphasize an increased incidence of some cancer sites, others an overall diminution. With the aim to provide further information to define the issue, we have analyzed the frequency of second metachronous primary malignancies in patients with diagnosed prostate cancer in the Umbria region of Italy. A total of 410 metachronous cancers among 4528 prostate cancer patients were abstracted from incident cases of the RTUP, over the period 1994-2003. This cohort was compared with all cases (except prostate cancers) recorded in the RTUP archive. The expected number of cases was obtained from indirect standardization with regional incidence rates of several sites. The significance of the observed/expected ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were based on the Poisson distribution. A significant standardized incidence ratio was found for all sites but prostate, with 410/351 observed/expected cases. The significance disappears considering all sites except prostate and skin non-melanomas. Among several sites, significant standardized incidence ratios were found for skin non-melanomas, for bladder, for rectum, but not for colon cancers. Kidney, ureter and urethra showed a nonsignificant standardized incidence ratio. Nasopharynx showed a significant standardized incidence ratio, but the result was based on a very small number of cases. In our data, the increase in urinary bladder and rectal cancers, after prostate cancer diagnosis, seems to be real: it is plausible that the number of second cancers may be due to increased urologist surveillance, which, in our Region, does not seem to be reduced in elderly men.

  6. Metachronous penile metastasis from rectal cancer after total pelvic exenteration.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuta; Shida, Dai; Nasu, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Hiroki; Warabi, Masahiro; Inoue, Satoru

    2012-10-14

    Despite its abundant vascularization and extensive circulatory communication with neighboring organs, metastases to the penis are a rare event. A 57-year-old male, who had undergone total pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer sixteen months earlier, demonstrated an abnormal uptake within his penis by positron emission tomography/computed tomography. A single elastic nodule of the middle penis shaft was noted deep within Bucks fascia. No other obvious recurrent site was noted except the penile lesion. Total penectomy was performed as a curative resection based on a diagnosis of isolated penile metastasis from rectal cancer. A histopathological examination revealed an increase of well differentiated adenocarcinoma in the corpus spongiosum consistent with his primary rectal tumor. The immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for cytokeratin 20 and negative staining for cytokeratin 7, which strongly supported a diagnosis of penile metastasis from the rectum. The patient is alive more than two years without any recurrence.

  7. Surgical resection of synchronous and metachronous lung and liver metastases of colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Shinseok; Park, Jin Young; Choi, Dong Wook; Choi, Seong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Surgical resection of isolated hepatic or pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer is an established procedure, with a 5-year survival rate of about 50%. However, the role of surgical resections in patients with both hepatic and pulmonary metastases is not well established. We aimed to analyze overall survival of these patients and associated factors. Methods Data retrospectively collected from 66 patients who underwent both hepatic and pulmonary metastasectomy after colorectal cancer surgery from August 2002 through August 2013 were analyzed. In univariate analysis, the log-rank test compared patient survival between groups. P < 0.1 was considered indicative of significance. Multivariate analysis of the significance data using a Cox proportional hazard model identified factors associated with overall survival. The synchronous group (n = 57) was defined as patients who had metastasectomy within 3 months from primary colorectal cancer surgery. The remaining nine patients constituted the metachronous group. Results Median follow-up was 126 months from the primary colorectal cancer surgery. The 5-year survival was 73.4%. There was no difference in overall survival between the synchronous and metachronous groups, consistent with previous studies. Distribution (involving one hemiliver or both, P = 0.010 in multivariate analysis) of liver metastases and multiplicity of the pulmonary metastasis (P = 0.039) were predictors of poor prognosis. Conclusion Sequential or simultaneous resection of both hepatic and pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer resulted in good long-term survival in selected patients. Thus, an aggressive surgical approach and multidisciplinary decision making with surgeons seems to be justified. PMID:28203555

  8. The development of metachronous prostate cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia in a patient with metastatic rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Oztop, I; Yaren, A; Demirpence, M; Alacacioglu, I; Tuna, B; Piskin, O; Yilmaz, U

    2008-01-01

    We report herein an unusual case of metachronous triple cancers (rectum, prostate and Philadelphia(+) [Ph(+)] chronic myeloid leukemia [CML]). A metastatic rectal cancer was diagnosed in a 76-year-old male patient, who was treated with transanal tumor resection and chemotherapy. Thirty months from the initial rectal cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer was diagnosed and the patient was administered maximal androgen blockade and received palliative radiotherapy to the lumbar spine because of painful bone metastases. Thirty months after the diagnosis of rectal cancer and 12 months after the diagnosis of prostate cancer the patient developed Ph(+) CML and imatinib treatment was started. After one-year period in remission, CML evolved into accelerated phase and the patient died of intracranial hemorrhage.

  9. [A Case of Pseudo-Meigs Syndrome Associated with Metachronous Ovarian Metastasis from Ascending Colon Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yachi, Takafumi; Nishikawa, Shinsuke; Tokura, Tomohisa; Iwama, Masahiro; Akaishi, Takanobu; Umehara, Minoru; Umehara, Yutaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    We experienced a case of pseudo-Meigs syndrome associated with metachronous metastasis to the ovary from ascending colon cancer. A 65-year-old woman underwent curative surgery for ascending colon cancer at another hospital. A follow-up CT carried out 3 months after the surgery revealed a right ovarian tumor and a large amount of ascites. The patient was diagnosed with ovarian metastasis from ascending colon cancer with carcinomatous peritonitis. Palliative care was recommended, and she presented at our department for a second opinion. In spite of a large amount of ascites and pleural effusion, no disseminating tumor was detected on contrast-enhanced CT at our hospital, and we recommended that she undergo a diagnostic laparotomy. The laparotomy was negative for carcinomatous peritonitis and a right oophorectomy was performed. The histopathological findings indicated that the ovarian tumor was consistent with metastasis from ascending colon cancer. After the surgery, we initiated chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab and the symptoms were well controlled. A follow-up CT carried out 11 months after the surgery revealed a left ovarian tumor and increased ascites, and the patient underwent a left oophorectomy. Then, chemotherapy with the same regimen was administered for 12 months, and she did not develop any signs of recurrence for 27 months after the surgery. Ovarian metastasis from colon cancer may occasionally cause pseudo-Meigs syndrome, and it is important to be aware of the usefulness of oophorectomy for the control of ascites and pleural effusion.

  10. Assessment of microsatellite instability status for the prediction of metachronous recurrence after initial endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, T; Semba, S; Li, D; Omori, Y; Shirasaka, D; Aoyama, N; Yokozaki, H

    2006-01-01

    The technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been developed for en bloc resection of early gastric cancer (EGC); however, little is known about the risk of metachronous cancer in the remnant stomach after initial ESD. In this study, we investigated the correlation between microsatellite instability (MSI) status and the incidence of metachronous recurrence of gastric cancer. According to the genetic/molecular background determined with MSI status and expression levels of hMLH1 and p53 tumour suppressor, 110 EGCs removed with ESD were subclassified into three groups: the mutator/MSI-type (8%), suppressor/p53-type (45%) and unclassified type (47%). Interestingly, patients with the mutator/MSI-type tumour had a high incidence (67%) of metachronous recurrence of gastric cancer within a 3-year observation after initial ESD, which was significantly higher than those with the suppressor/p53-type and unclassified type tumours (P<0.01). Although we investigated mucin phenotypes, there was no correlation between mucin phenotype and the recurrence of EGC. These findings suggest that subclassification of molecular pathological pathways in EGCs is required for the assessment of patients with a high risk of recurrent gastric cancer. The information delivered from our investigation is expected to be of value for decisions about therapy and surveillance after ESD. PMID:17179982

  11. The Experience of Extended Bowel Resection in Individuals With a High Metachronous Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Emma J.; Trainer, Alison H.; Heriot, Alexander G.; Lynch, Craig; Parry, Susan; Win, Aung K.; Keogh, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To ascertain individual experiences of extended bowel resection as treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC) in those with a high metachronous CRC risk, including the self-reported adequacy of information received at different time points of treatment and recovery. Research Approach Qualitative. Setting Participants were recruited through the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry and two hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 18 individuals with a high metachronous CRC risk who had an extended bowel resection from 6–12 months ago. Methodologic Approach Semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed thematically. Findings In most cases, the treating surgeon decided on the best option regarding surgical treatment. Participants felt well informed about the surgical procedure. Information related to surgical outcomes, recovery, and lifestyle adjustment from surgery was not always adequate. Many participants described ongoing worry about developing another cancer. Conclusions Patients undergoing an extended resection to reduce metachronous CRC risk require detailed information delivered at more than one time point and relating to several different aspects of the surgical procedure and its outcomes. Interpretation An increased emphasis should be given to the provision of patient information on surgical outcomes, recovery, and lifestyle adjustment. Colorectal nurses could provide support for some of the reported unmet needs. PMID:27314187

  12. The role of radiofrequency ablation for treatment of metachronous isolated hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung Chul; Lee, Hyun Gu; Park, In Ja; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Ki-Hun; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yoon, Yong Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-09-01

    We investigated recurrence pattern and oncologic outcomes after treatment of metachronous isolated liver metastases from colorectal cancer according to treatment modality.We retrospectively analyzed 123 patients treated with hepatic resection and 82 patients treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for metachronous isolated hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer (HMCRC). We compared clinicopathological data, recurrence pattern, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates after the treatment of hepatic metastasis between patients treated with RFA and resection.The patients in the 2 groups were similar in gender, location of primary tumor, disease-free interval to hepatic metastasis, pathologic stage of primary tumor, and number of hepatic metastasis. The age was older in RFA group but it was not statistically different. The mean diameter of the largest hepatic mass was greater in the resection group than in the RFA group (3.1 vs 1.9 cm, P < 0.001). Chemotherapy after the treatment of hepatic metastasis was more commonly given in hepatic resection group (76.4% vs 62.2%, P = 0.04). Recurrence after the treatment of hepatic metastasis was not significantly different between the 2 groups (54.5% vs 65.9% in the resection and RFA groups). However, intrahepatic recurrence without extra-hepatic metastases was more common in the RFA group than in the resection group (47.5% vs 12.1%, P < 0.001). The RFS rate after the treatment of hepatic metastasis was significantly higher in resection group (48.6% vs 33.7%, P = 0.015). The size and number of hepatic metastasis, primary tumor stage, disease-free interval to hepatic metastasis, and the modality of treatment (RFA vs resection) for hepatic metastasis were confirmed as associated factors with re-recurrence after the treatment of hepatic metastasis. Among patients with solitary hepatic metastases of ≤3 cm, marginal recurrence was higher in the RFA group (3% vs 17.2%) and re-RFA was performed to achieve comparable

  13. The role of radiofrequency ablation for treatment of metachronous isolated hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Chul; Lee, Hyun Gu; Park, In Ja; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Ki-Hun; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yoon, Yong Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated recurrence pattern and oncologic outcomes after treatment of metachronous isolated liver metastases from colorectal cancer according to treatment modality. We retrospectively analyzed 123 patients treated with hepatic resection and 82 patients treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for metachronous isolated hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer (HMCRC). We compared clinicopathological data, recurrence pattern, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates after the treatment of hepatic metastasis between patients treated with RFA and resection. The patients in the 2 groups were similar in gender, location of primary tumor, disease-free interval to hepatic metastasis, pathologic stage of primary tumor, and number of hepatic metastasis. The age was older in RFA group but it was not statistically different. The mean diameter of the largest hepatic mass was greater in the resection group than in the RFA group (3.1 vs 1.9 cm, P < 0.001). Chemotherapy after the treatment of hepatic metastasis was more commonly given in hepatic resection group (76.4% vs 62.2%, P = 0.04). Recurrence after the treatment of hepatic metastasis was not significantly different between the 2 groups (54.5% vs 65.9% in the resection and RFA groups). However, intrahepatic recurrence without extra-hepatic metastases was more common in the RFA group than in the resection group (47.5% vs 12.1%, P < 0.001). The RFS rate after the treatment of hepatic metastasis was significantly higher in resection group (48.6% vs 33.7%, P = 0.015). The size and number of hepatic metastasis, primary tumor stage, disease-free interval to hepatic metastasis, and the modality of treatment (RFA vs resection) for hepatic metastasis were confirmed as associated factors with re-recurrence after the treatment of hepatic metastasis. Among patients with solitary hepatic metastases of ≤3 cm, marginal recurrence was higher in the RFA group (3% vs 17.2%) and re-RFA was performed to achieve

  14. Association between Helicobacter pylori status and metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Bum; Lee, Si Hyung; Bae, Seung Il; Jeong, Yo Han; Sohn, Se Hoon; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Tae Nyeun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status test and H. pylori eradication on the occurrence of metachronous gastric cancer (MGC) after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of early gastric cancer (EGC) and risk factors of MGC. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 433 patients (441 lesions) who underwent ESD for EGC from January 2005 to January 2015 in Yeungnam University Hospital. Patients were categorized into two groups; the H. pylori tested group (n = 257) and the H. pylori non-tested group (n = 176) based on performance of H. pylori status test after ESD of EGC. The H. pylori tested group was further categorized into three subgroups based on H. pylori status; the H. pylori-eradicated subgroup (n = 120), the H. pylori-persistent subgroup (n = 42), and the H. pylori-negative subgroup (n = 95). Incidences of MGC and risk factors of MGC were identified. RESULTS Median follow-up duration after ESD was 30.00 mo (range, 6-107 mo). Total 15 patients developed MGC during follow-up. MGC developed in 11 patients of the H. pylori tested group (7 in the H. pylori-negative subgroup, 3 in the H. pylori-eradicated subgroup, and 1 in the H. pylori-persistent subgroup) and 4 patients of the H. pylori non-tested group (P > 0.05). The risk factors of MGC were endoscopic mucosal atrophy in the H. pylori tested group and intestinal metaplasia in all patients. CONCLUSION H. pylori eradication and H. pylori status test seems to have no preventive effect on the development of MGC after ESD for EGC. The risk factors of MGC development were endoscopic mucosal atrophy in the H. pylori tested group alone and intestinal metaplasia in all patients. PMID:27956803

  15. Metachronous adenoma on ileorectal anastomosis suture line and submucosal deep invasive cancer suspected of rapid growth in rectal remnant following long-term interval after curative surgery for advanced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Uraoka, Toshio; Horii, Joichiro; Goto, Osamu; Shimoda, Masayuki; Yahagi, Naohisa

    2013-05-01

    There is general agreement as to the value of postoperative surveillance and the effectiveness of colonoscopy in the early detection of metachronous colorectal lesions. In the present case, a 56-year-old woman with no family history of colon cancer underwent surveillance colonoscopy in which a metachronous flat adenoma was detected following an interval of 23 years after a colectomy and 20 years subsequent to treatment for uterine cancer. A second metachronous flat lesion histopathologically determined to be a submucosal (sm) deep invasive cancer with lymphovascular involvement was detected 12 months later. This second metachronous lesion was suspected of having developed rapidly in the rectal remnant accounting for its sm deep invasion. The findings of this case suggest colonoscopy surveillance guidelines proposed for individuals at high risk should be evaluated based on cancer history and an analysis of possible mismatch repair gene mutations. In addition, the first metachronous lesion was located directly on the suture line of the anastomosis. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was indicated despite severe fibrosis into the sm layer. This case also demonstrates the successful use of improved ESD instruments, sm injection agents and technique refinements in the treatment of a technically difficult lesion with a high risk of complications.

  16. Usefulness of immunohistochemical studies in diagnosing metachronous gallbladder and small intestinal metastases from lung cancer with gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Kitago, Minoru; Akiyama, Nobuyoshi; Iwamaru, Arifumi; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Fumio; Hibi, Taizo; Abe, Yuta; Yagi, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Masahiro; Itano, Osamu; Ogata, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-02-18

    Isolated metachronous gastrointestinal metastases from advanced-stage lung cancer are rarely diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and resected. In this report, we present a case of resectable metachronous gallbladder and small intestinal metastases of lung cancer. An 86-year-old woman was treated for lung cancer with resection of the right inferior lobe. Five months after the surgery, she was re-admitted because of melena and anemia. Ultrasonography showed a gallbladder tumor with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and laparoscopic-assisted cholecystectomy was subsequently performed. However, 2 months after this event, the patient presented again with melena and anemia and was diagnosed with a small intestinal tumor. Therefore, laparoscopic-assisted partial resection of the small intestine was performed. Immunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcription factor-1 and cytokeratin 7 confirmed that the two resected tumors were metachronous metastases of the primary lung cancer. The patient died of liver metastases 5 months after the last surgery. Our experience with this case suggests that surgical resection might not be curative but palliative for patients with isolated gallbladder and small intestinal metastases diagnosed on the basis of melena that is resistant to conservative treatment.

  17. [A case of metachronous gastrointestinal perforation of a patient with metastatic rectal cancer during treatment with bevacizumab-based chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Sadatomo, Ai; Koinuma, Koji; Miki, Atsushi; Horie, Hisanaga; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    A 64-year-old man received mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab chemotherapy for metastatic lung cancer after rectal cancer resection( Stage IV). After 28 courses, he had an abdominal pain with fever, and computed tomography showed pelvic abscess with stercolith of appendix. He was diagnosed as acute appendicitis with intra-abdominal abscess, and emergency appendectomy with drainage was performed. Two days after the operation, he was suspected to have a sutural leakage as was suggested from the properties of his drainage, therefore re-operation was performed. A small hole of the ileum, about 2mm in diameter, was observed. The margin of the hole showed neither inflammatory nor neoplastic change, and a suturing closure of the hole was performed. The post-operative course was uneventful. Histopathological findings of the resected appendix suggested that the perforation was caused by necrosis of metastatic cancer cells penetrating the appendiceal wall. This is a case of a bevacizumab-related metachronous perforation that occurred in different gastrointestinal origins within a very short term.

  18. Radiofrequency Ablation in Combination with Embolization in Metachronous Recurrent Renal Cancer in Solitary Kidney after Contralateral Tumor Nephrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Gebauer, Bernhard Werk, Michael; Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique; Felix, Roland; Althaus, Peter

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive, percutaneous techniques in metachronous recurrent renal cell cancers (RCCs) in solitary kidneys. Methods. In 4 patients, recurrent RCC was treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) (RITA, StarBurst) alone, and in 2 patients by RFA in combination with superselective transarterial particle-lipiodol embolization using 3 Fr microcatheters. RFA was guided by computed tomography in 5 patients, and by magnetic resonance imaging in 1 patient. Mean tumor diameter was 26.7 mm (range 10-45 mm). All interventions were technically successful; during follow-up 1 patient developed recurrent RCC, which was retreated by RFA after embolization. Results. No major peri- or postprocedural complications occurred. Changes in creatinine (pre- vs. post-intervention, 122 vs. 127 {mu}mol/l) and calculated creatinine clearance (pre- vs. post-intervention, 78 vs. 73 ml/min) after ablation were minimal. Conclusion. In single kidneys, percutaneous, minimally invasive techniques are safe and feasible. In large tumors, or where there are adjacent critical structures, we prefer a combination of embolization and thermal ablation (RFA)

  19. Genetic characterization drives personalized therapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and survivors with metachronous second primary tumor (MST)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xingchen; Wang, Linlin; Liu, Xijun; Sun, Xindong; Yu, Jinming; Meng, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: The pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer is a complicated process in which many genes take part. But molecular gene testing is typically only performed in advanced-stage non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The value of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) administration is not widely recognized with respect to early-stage NSCLC. Patient concerns: Here, we present a case of a man, heavy smoker who initially presented with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Three years after a lung lobectomy, he was diagnosed with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), according to laboratory, imaging, and pathological examinations. Diagnoses The case initially had an early-stage LADC with an L858R epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. A subsequent advanced SCC bearing EGFR L858R/T790M mutations occurred 3 years after surgery. Interventions: The comprehensive therapy we utilized, including surgical resection for the early-stage lesion and GP chemotherapy and local radiotherapy as the first line therapy along with gefitinib maintenance treatment for the advanced metachronous second primary tumors (MST). Outcomes: The synthetical therapy, have resulted in our patient with remaining alive and progression free for 4.5 years. Lessons: This case suggests that changes in molecular pathology should be monitored closely throughout cancer progression to guide personalized therapy and improve prognosis. We further review administration of TKI to early-stage NSCLC and to the metachronous second primary tumors (MST) in survivors. PMID:28272214

  20. [A Case of Rectal Cancer Successfully Treated with Surgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Metachronous Lung Metastases].

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yu; Hosoda, Yohei; Tachi, Hidekazu; Sugimoto, Takashi; Okabe, Asami; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Ogura, Nobuko; Komoto, Izumi; Kiyochi, Hidenori; Tsunekawa, Shoji; Tanaka, Toru; Taki, Yoshiro; Imamura, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    A 64-year-old woman underwent polypectomy for a rectal polyp(Isp). Pathological findings were invasion of the submucosa( 3,500 mm diameter), and she underwent anterior resection for rectal cancer(RS, pT1b, pN0, cM0, Stage I )without adjuvant chemotherapy. Lung masses were found in her right(8mm)and left lung(7mm). The tumors enlarged during the 4 month follow-up period. We decided to perform left partial pneumonectomy. The tumor was diagnosed as a lung metastasis from colon cancer by pathology. Because the right tumor was located towards the center, performing right pneumonectomy would have been quite invasive and we feared occult metastases. We decided to apply SRT(50 Gy)to the right tumor. The tumor shrunk and became a scar after treatment. There were no complications such as radiation pneumonitis. The patient was in good health without any recurrence for 12 months after SRT. Surgical resection is an optimal method to control lung metastasis from colon cancer if the lesion is operable. However, in the case of a tumor centrally located, surgical resection may cause deterioration of lung function. There are also cases with contraindications for surgery due to co-morbidities. In addition, there is no consensus on observation periods to exclude occult metastases. SRT can be an effective treatment for lung metastases from colon cancer when there are bilateral lung metastases and no metastases outside the lungs.

  1. Long-term survival of a patient with metachronous rectal metastasis from primary cecal cancer who underwent repetitive resection and chemotherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Jiro; Nakachi, Takeshi; Tabuchi, Takanobu; Ubukata, Hideyuki; Tabuchi, Takafumi

    2014-04-23

    There are few reported cases of colorectal metastasis from cancers of other organs, particularly other segments of the colon. Here we describe the long-term survival of a 68-year-old male patient with metachronous rectal metastasis from cecal cancer who underwent repetitive resection and chemotherapy. The patient underwent ileocecal resection and hepatectomy for cecal cancer with liver metastasis (T3, N1a, M1a, Stage IVA) in 2006. The patient subsequently underwent splenectomy for splenic metastasis in 2007. In August 2008, barium enema revealed compression of the rectal wall, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) detected a mass along the rectum extending into the pelvis. Rectal metastasis from cecal cancer was suspected and Hartmann's operation with bilateral seminal vesicle dissection was performed. Histological examination of the excised tumor revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma formed in the muscularis propria of the rectum and infiltrating the connective tissue between the seminal vesicle and rectum. However, no tumor was detected in the rectal mucosa or submucosa. These histological findings supported the diagnosis of rectal metastasis from cecal cancer. The patient has been monitored at our clinic for 60 months after surgical removal of the rectal metastasis. The findings from this case should alert oncologists to the potential danger of rectal metastasis from primary colon cancer and the benefits of timely complete resection in terms of improved patient outcomes.

  2. [Metachronous four primary malignancies in gastro-intestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung Min; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Sang Woon; Song, Sun Kyo

    2009-06-01

    Multiple primary malignancy was reported firstly by Billroth in 1889. Recently, multiple primary malignancies are considered to increase due to improved survival rate of cancer patients, advanced diagnostic tools, and increased use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In Korea, several cases of triple primary malignancies were reported. However, four primary malignancies in gastro-intestinal tract was rarely reported. Recently, we experienced a 70 year-old male who was diagnosed with metachronous four primary malignancies in rectum, ascending colon, stomach, and ampulla of Vater. We report this rare case of metachronous four primary malignancies with a review of literature.

  3. [Multiple Salvage Radiotherapies for Metachronous Lymph Node Metastasis from Gastric Cancer Contributed to Long-Term Management of Disease].

    PubMed

    Hori, Naoto; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Kikuchi, Satoru; Kuroda, Shinji; Watanabe, Megumi; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Kagawa, Tetsuya; Kuwada, Kazuya; Kubota, Tetsushi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Katayama, Norihisa; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-02-01

    A 70-year-old man who underwent gastrectomy for Stage III C gastric cancer developed lymph node(LN)metastasis posterior to the pancreatic head 3 years after the radical surgery.He was first treated with radiotherapy(RT)followed by chemotherapy.The irradiated tumor regressed completely.However, the cancer relapsed in a single para-aortic LN and he was treated with RT to the lesion followed by chemotherapy.Although it completely regressed, later, lung metastasis was observed.The lung lesions were well suppressed by switching to docetaxel; however, the cancer relapsed again in a mediastinal LN, and it was not responsive to docetaxel.The growing mediastinal lesion was irradiated again, which resulted in stable disease.The patient has been treated for 4 years and 7 months with all lesions being well-managed, and chemotherapy is being continued.Recurrent gastric cancer after surgery tends to present as multiple lesions; therefore, the principle therapy is systemic chemotherapy and RT is unlikely to be suitable.However, especially in cases of a solitary lesion that is chemo-resistant, RT could be an optimal option and contribute to long-term survival even in patients with recurrent gastric cancer.

  4. [A case of metachronous multiple lung metastases and intraabdominal lymph node metastases of rectal cancer responding to S-1].

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Tatsuhiko; Aiki, Fusayoshi; Matsuhisa, Tadashi; Hattori, Atsuo; Kazui, Keizou

    2010-04-01

    A 70-year-old man was referred to our hospital with bowel obstruction because of rectal cancer. High anterior resection of rectum and lymph node dissection was performed. The rectal cancer was in stage III, and the patient selected no adjuvant chemotherapy. At 1-year follow-up, the CEA level was 17. 6 ng/mL, and CT revealed multiple lung metastases and paraaortic and parailiac lymph node metastases. S-1, 100 mg/body, was administered for 4 weeks followed by 2 drug-free weeks. After 3 courses, the CEA level was 4. 5 ng/mL, and metastatic lesions were remarkably reduced in the CT findings. After 10 courses, the CEA level was hovering around 6 ng/mL, and CT showed no recurrent foci. The effect of S-1 treatment was PR, and no severe side effect was observed throughout the treatment.

  5. [A case of pathological complete response of metachronous multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer after mFOLFOX+bevacizumab chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shinya; Inagaki, Masaru; Nishie, Manabu; Hamano, Ryousuke; Tokunaga, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Kenji; Tsunemitsu, Yousuke; Miyoshi, Kazuya; Iwakawa, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Masahiko; Iwagak, Hiromi

    2009-11-01

    A 25-year-old man with RS rectal cancer received a radical resection of the original tumor and lymph node dissection. Oral tegafur/uracil (UFT)/Leucovorin (LV) therapy has been used for adjuvant chemotherapy, as the pathological Stage was T3N1M0, Stage IIIa. After 10 months from operation, multiple liver metastases were recognized and not resectable. So a systemic chemotherapy by mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab was begun via CV port. After 5 courses of mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab, abdominal CT revealed liver metastases showed remarkable reduction in size. Hepatic resection of S6 segment was enforced, and the patient uneventfully discharged. Pathological findings of S6 segment revealed no residual cancer cells, indicating the histological effect of mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab was Grade 3. And no liver damage was recognized.

  6. Successful resection of metachronous para-aortic, Virchow lymph node and liver metastatic recurrence of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Fukunaga, Toru; Kimura, Masayuki; Sugamoto, Yuji; Tasaki, Kentaro; Hoshino, Isamu; Ota, Takumi; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Tamachi, Tomohide; Hosokawa, Takashi; Asai, Yo; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-11-28

    A 66-year-old female presented with the main complaint of defecation trouble and abdominal distention. With diagnosis of rectal cancer, cSS, cN0, cH0, cP0, cM0 cStage II, Hartmann's operation with D3 lymph node dissection was performed and a para-aortic lymph node and a disseminated node near the primary tumor were resected. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pSS, pN3, pH0, pP1, pM1 (para-aortic lymph node, dissemination) fStage IV. After the operation, the patient received chemotherapy with FOLFIRI regimen. After 12 cycles of FOLFIRI regimen, computed tomography (CT) detected an 11 mm of liver metastasis in the postero-inferior segment of right hepatic lobe. With diagnosis of liver metastatic recurrence, we performed partial hepatectomy. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer with cut end microscopically positive. After the second operation, the patient received chemotherapy with TS1 alone for 2 years. Ten months after the break, CT detected a 20 mm of para-aortic lymph node metastasis and a 10 mm of lymph node metastasis at the hepato-duodenal ligament. With diagnosis of lymph node metastatic recurrences, we performed lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as metastatic rectal cancer in para-aortic and hepato-duodenal ligament areas. After the third operation, we started chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 regimen. After 2 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 regimen, due to the onset of neutropenia and liver dysfunction, we switched to capecitabine alone and continued it for 6 mo and then stopped. Eleven months after the break, CT detected two swelling 12 mm of lymph nodes at the left supraclavicular region. With diagnosis of Virchow lymph node metastatic recurrence, we started chemotherapy with capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen. Due to the onset of neutropenia and hand foot syndrome (Grade 3), we managed to

  7. Interactions in the aetiology, presentation and management of synchronous and metachronous adenocarcinoma of the prostate and rectum.

    PubMed

    Nash, G F; Turner, K J; Hickish, T; Smith, J; Chand, M; Moran, B J

    2012-10-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the prostate and rectum are common male pelvic cancers and may present synchronously or metachronously due to their anatomic proximity. The treatment of rectal or prostate cancer (in particular surgery and/or radiotherapy) may alter the presentation, incidence and management should a metachronous tumour develop. This review focuses on the interaction between prostatic and rectal cancer diagnosis and management. We have restricted the scope of this large topic to general considerations, management of rectal cancer after prostate cancer treatment and vice versa, management of synchronous disease and cancer follow-up issues.

  8. Synchronous and metachronous gastric gist with pancreatic adenocarcinoma: report of 2 cases and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Marco; de Stefano, Giorgio; Coppola, Nicola; Giorgio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) synchronous and metachronous, respectively, with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a GIST involved 3 years after a ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Data from the literature and our cases seem to suggest that incidental GIST may occur synchronously and metachronously with other cancers more frequently than expected. Thus, the patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma may have undergone a strict follow up for GIST.

  9. Optimality of Metachronal Paddling in Crustacean Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Robert; Zhang, Calvin; Lewis, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    Crayfish and other long-tailed crustaceans swim by rhythmically moving four or five pairs of limbs. Despite variations in limb size and stroke frequency, movements of ipsilateral limbs always maintain a tail-to-head metachronal rhythm with an approximate quarter-period inter-limb phase difference. Relatively few studies have examined the fluid dynamics of metachronal limb stroke for the range of Reynolds numbers at which crustaceans operate. Here, we use a computational fluid dynamics model to explore the performance of different paddling rhythms. We show that the natural tail-to-head metachronal rhythm with an approximate quarter-period phase difference is the most effective and efficient rhythm across a wide range of Reynolds numbers.

  10. Case of metachronous bilateral isolated adrenal metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Yi; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Zhai, Er-Tao; Yang, Jie; Xu, Jian-Bo; Cai, Shi-Rong; Song, Wu

    2016-04-14

    Rarely has a solitary, metachronous bilateral adrenal metastasis of colorectal cancer been reported. We depict a 41-year-old man who underwent sigmoid colon cancer radical surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for a locally ulcerative sigmoid adenocarcinoma with metachronous bilateral adrenal metastasis revealed by a computed tomography scan. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen had indicative significance for the presence of adrenal metastasis in the reported series. We performed a literature analysis related to this pathological characteristic and attach importance to consistent, vigilant radiological surveillance of the adrenal glands in the patients' follow up for colorectal cancer with or without subsequent adrenal metastasis.

  11. [Long-term survival following resection of primary rectal cancer metachronous metastases and salvage surgeries for relapsed lesions after stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung metastases - a case report].

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Toshiko; Takeda, Atsuya; Yasuno, Masamichi

    2014-11-01

    A 66-year-old man underwent abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer in 2003, followed by liver resection for a solitary liver metastasis in 2005. In 2006, the patient underwent abdominal para-aortic lymph node dissection, which was performed concurrently with partial resections of 3 metastases in the right lung. New metastatic lesions were subsequently diagnosed in S8 of the right lung and S1+2 of the left lung. The patient underwent stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for both lesions. However, the lesions relapsed and salvage surgeries were subsequently performed. These included a partial resection in 2009 for the lesion in the right lung and an upper division segmentectomy in 2010 for the lesion in the left lung. Currently, 11 years after resection of the primary rectal cancer, the patient is asymptomatic, without any signs of recurrence. In this report, we describe the use of SBRT for the treatment of colorectal cancer pulmonary metastases, and the use of salvage surgery for relapsed lesions.

  12. Metastatic or metachronous adamantinoma: An Enigma.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, As; Chatura, Kr; Chandrasekhar, Hr

    2012-07-01

    Adamantinoma is an uncommon tumour of low grade malignancy in terms of biologic aggressiveness; metastasis occurring many years after amputation. A young male underwent an above knee amputation of left leg for adamantinoma of tibia. He returned with pain and swelling in his right thigh five years later. Investigations revealed an adamantinoma in the diaphysis of the right femur. The unusual presentation of this adamantinoma at an uncommon site threw up interesting insights into the nature of this lesion. In particular, the metachronous origin of the adamantinoma in the femur is discussed in this report.

  13. Metachronous Primary Adenocarcinoma of Lung During Adjuvant Imatinib Mesylate Therapy for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Meng-jie; Weng, Shan-Shan; Cao, Ying; Li, Xiao-Fen; Wang, Liu-Hong; Xu, Jing-Hong; Yuan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor in gastrointestinal tracts; however, the synchronous or metachronous coexistence of GIST with additional primary malignancy is not common. Here, we present an unusual case of gastric GIST with metachronous primary lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed during his adjuvant treatment with oral receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (400 mg daily). After 6-month use of imatinib, the patient suffered from dry cough and dyspnea. Subsequent lung biopsy demonstrated adenocarcinoma with diffuse interstitial changes. Our research emphasizes the possibility of an additional primary tumor with GIST, and reminds the clinicians to strengthen the surveillance of the additional cancer during the follow-up of GIST patients. PMID:26356712

  14. Primitive Clay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorches, Joan

    A five-week unit providing first hand experience with primitive ceramic techniques is described in this curriculum guide, which includes course goals and objectives, a daily schedule of class activities, and handouts for students. The unit features construction of a sawdust kiln as a group problem-solving activity; students work in groups…

  15. A nomogram for predicting survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with metachronous metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zixun; Shen, Lujun; Wang, Yue; Shi, Feng; Chen, Chen; Wu, Ming; Bai, Yutong; Pan, Changchuan; Xia, Yunfei; Wu, Peihong; Li, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) differ significantly in survival outcomes. The aim of this study is to build a clinically practical nomogram incorporating known tumor prognostic factors to predict survival for metastatic NPC patients in epidemic areas. A total of 860 patients with metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively. Variables assessed were age, gender, body mass index, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) T and N stages, World Health Organization (WHO) histology type, serum lactate dehydrogenase (sLDH) level, serum Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) level, treatment modality, specific metastatic location (lung/liver/bone), number of metastatic location(s) (isolated vs multiple), and number of metastatic lesion(s) in metastatic location(s) (single vs multiple). The independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) by Cox-regression model were utilized to build the nomogram. Independent prognostic factors for OS of metastatic NPC patients included age, UICC N stage, KPS, sLDH, number of metastatic locations, number of metastatic lesions, involvement of liver metastasis, and involvement of bone metastasis. Calibration of the final model suggested a c-index of 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.69). Based on the total point (TP) by nomogram, we further subdivided the study cohort into 4 groups. Group 1 (TP < 320, 208 patients) had the lowest risk of dying. Discrimination was visualized by the differences in survival between these 4 groups (group 2/group 1: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.61, 95%CI: 1.24–2.09; group 3/group 1: HR = 2.20, 95%CI: 1.69–2.86; and group 4/group 1: HR = 3.66, 95%CI: 2.82–4.75). The developed nomogram can help guide the prognostication of patients with metachronous metastatic NPC in epidemic areas. PMID:27399084

  16. An unusual coincidence of multiple synchronous kidney tumors with a metachronous rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Böor, Andrej; Jurkovic, Ivan; Dudríková, Katarína

    2003-01-01

    In synchronous surgery specimens (right-sided nephrectomy and left-sided partial nephrectomy), a unique combination of a papillary (chromophil) renal cell carcinoma (4 x 3.7 x 3.5 cm) and a renal oncocytoma (11 x 10 x 9 mm) in the right kidney and a renal carcinoid (2.5 x 2.3 x 1.1 cm) in the resected part of the left kidney has been found. This multiplicity and bilaterality, based on the findings of three distinct histogenetic types of kidney tumors, was accompanied by a metachronous rectal adenocarcinoma discovered 14 months later. After surgery, no radiation or other oncologic therapy was given. At present, our patient is well without any evidence of neoplastic disease three years after primary diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a combination of three distinct histogenetic types of synchronous renal tumors associated with a metachronous rectal adenocarcinoma treated with simple surgery. In the absence of cytogenetic studies, the possibility of a the presence of a hereditary renal cancer syndrome must be considered.

  17. Direct Measurement of Directional Disorder for Ciliary Metachronal Wave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    subjects [6]-[8]. Ciliary disorientation alone can lead to the clinical syndrome of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) [9]. The directions based on...Orientation of respiratory tract cilia in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia , bronchiectasis, and in normal subjects,” J. Clin. Pathol., vol. 42, pp...ciliary dyskinesia syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., vol. 153, pp. 1123-1129, 1996. [10] L. Gheber and Z. Priel, “Metachronal activity of

  18. Unusual metachronous isolated inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Pisanu, Adolfo; Deplano, Daniela; Reccia, Isabella; Parodo, Giuseppina; Uccheddu, Alessandro

    2011-10-14

    This study aimed to describe an unusual case of metachronous isolated inguinal lymph nodes metastasis from sigmoid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man was referred to our department because of an obstructing sigmoid carcinoma. Colonoscopy showed the obstructing lesion at 30 cm from the anal verge and abdominal CT revealed a sigmoid lesion infiltrating the left lateral abdominal wall. The patient underwent a colonic resection extended to the abdominal wall. Histology showed an adenocarcinoma of the colon infiltrating the abdominal wall with iuxtacolic nodal involvement. Thirty three months after surgery abdominal CT and PET scan revealed a metastatic left inguinal lymph node involvement. The metastatic lymph node was found strictly adherent to the left iliac-femoral artery and encompassing the origin of the left inferior epigastric artery. Histology showed a metachronous nodal metastasis from colonic adenocarcinoma. Despite metastastic involvement of inguinal lymph node from rectal cancer is a rare but well known clinical entity, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of inguinal metastasis from a carcinoma of the left colon. Literature review shows only three other similar reported cases: two cases of inguinal metastasis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the cecum and one case of axillary metastasis from left colonic carcinoma. A metastatic pathway through superficial abdominal wall lymphatic vessels could be possible through the route along the left inferior epigastric artery. The solitary inguinal nodal involvement from rectal carcinoma could have a more favorable prognosis. In the case of nodal metastasis to the body surface lymph nodes from colonic carcinoma, following the small number of such cases reported in the literature, no definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  19. [Second cancer after starting treatment for prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Mikata, Noriharu; Imao, Sadao; Fukasawa, Ritu

    2002-08-01

    The subjects for the present study were 270 patients with prostate cancer who underwent initial treatment at our hospital over the 14 years from 1986 to 1999. They were investigated to assess the relationship between their treatment and metachronous tumors. Sixteen patients (5.9%) developed cancer of other organs after starting treatment for prostate cancer. These metachronous tumors included gastric cancer in six patients as well as lung cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer, bladder cancer, skin cancer, leukemia, and mediastinal adenocarcinoma. Treatment for prostate cancer other than surgery included radiotherapy in eight patients, administration of estramustine phosphate sodium in nine patients, and LH-RH analogues in six patients. The chi-square test showed no significant difference in the incidence of metachronous cancer in relation to the presence/absence of these three therapies. The present study therefore ruled out the possible induction of other tumors by treatment for prostate cancer.

  20. Rectal carcinoma with metachronous metastasis to the extrahepatic bile duct without liver tumor.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Kato, Shingo; Watanabe, Seitaro; Uchiyama, Takashi; Shimamura, Takeshi; Kubota, Kensuke; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Oshiro, Hisashi; Endo, Itaru

    2011-08-01

    In July 2003, a 63-year-old man received a low anterior resection for rectal cancer. In February 2006, he underwent a right hepatectomy for a solitary metastatic liver tumor; the liver tumor had not invaded the bile duct, and a curative resection was performed. In August 2008, an enhanced computed tomography examination revealed a massive focal lesion at the point of the common bile duct. Endoscopic ultrasonography clearly revealed a hyperechoic polypoid lesion that had spread laterally on the surface of the slightly dilated bile duct and had a smooth outer hyperechoic layer. No lymph nodes were present in this region. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed an irregular stricture, and a biopsy was performed through the scope. Microscopic examination revealed a tumor characterized as a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma resembling the liver tumor. We diagnosed the intrabiliary tumor as a metachronous metastatic bile duct tumor from rectal cancer without involvement of the liver parenchyma. This is a very rare case, with recurrence only in an extrahepatic bile duct after the complete resection of a metastatic liver tumor. This is the first clinical, pathological, and radiological description of this rare condition.

  1. Metachronous bilateral pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sindeval José da; Costa Junior, Gabriel Tadeu; Brant Filho, Adalberto Caldeira; Faria, Paulo Rogério; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2006-03-01

    Bilateral salivary gland tumors are very rare, accounting for 3% of all parotid gland tumors. Although the most common tumor with bilateral development is the Warthin tumor, pleomorphic adenomas (PA) have been diagnosed simultaneously as well, but in a smaller incidence. Because of this, the prevalence, etiology, pathogenesis, and behavior of the PA in this context are poorly understood. We present a case of bilateral metachronous PA affecting the parotid gland in a 63-year-old woman. Clinically, the lesions presented with similar aspects as seen in cases of solitary PA with slow-growing asymptomatic nodule. Both lesions were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy at an interval of 2 years between them. A total and superficial parotidectomy for left and right tumors, respectively, was performed. Only on the left side some facial nerve branches were removed that induced partial paralysis in the patient. A review of the pertinent literature is included.

  2. An Animal Model to Investigate the Potential for Breast Cancer Metastatic Dissemination Following Surgery Intervention on the Primitive Tumor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    of the central nervous system
29. Finally, Nevo and colleagues have recently reported that FKN and CX3CR1 are involved in adhesion of neuroblastoma...the neural tropism and malignant behavior of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, Cancer Res, 68, 9060, 2008. 30. Nevo , I., Sagi-Assif, O., Meshel, T

  3. Generalized compliant motion primitive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1994-08-01

    This invention relates to a general primitive for controlling a telerobot with a set of input parameters. The primitive includes a trajectory generator; a teleoperation sensor; a joint limit generator; a force setpoint generator; a dither function generator, which produces telerobot motion inputs in a common coordinate frame for simultaneous combination in sensor summers. Virtual return spring motion input is provided by a restoration spring subsystem. The novel features of this invention include use of a single general motion primitive at a remote site to permit the shared and supervisory control of the robot manipulator to perform tasks via a remotely transferred input parameter set.

  4. Workshop: Teaching Primitive Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordison, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the concrete and spiritual aspects of teaching workshops on survival skills or primitive arts. Gives details on lostproofing, or ways to teach a child not to get lost in the outdoors; building a survival shelter; and wilderness cooking. (CDS)

  5. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  6. Uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Seifirad, Soroush; Abbasi Dezfouli, Golbahar; Abbasi, Neda; Zare Mehrjardi, Ali; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Mahmoudzadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are fairly rare in uterus. A case of uterine body primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 32-year-old Iranian woman is presented. The patient was admitted with abdominal pain and fever and underwent emergency exploratory surgery with total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymph node dissection. Posterior wall of the uterus was necrotic and ruptured and a huge tumor disrupted the uterine body. The tumor was strongly positive for CD99, NSE, and chromogranin; No reaction was seen for CD10, CD45 and myogenin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an uterine body primitive neuroectodermal tumor and the second report of uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumor from Iran.

  7. A Case of Rectal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Metachronous Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma in an HIV-Infected Patient.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heun; Lee, Hye Won; Ann, Hea Won; Kim, Jae Kyung; Kang, Hua Pyong; Kim, Sun Wook; Ku, Nam Su; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, June Myung; Choi, Jun Yong

    2014-12-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the most common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, and rectal cancer has recently emerged as a prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy. We report a case of rectal squamous cell carcinoma that was metachronous with DLBCL in an HIV-infected patient who was receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. The patient was diagnosed with DLBCL and showed complete remission after chemotherapy. Follow-up imaging showed increased uptake at the rectum, previously treated as lymphoma. Repeated biopsy was performed and squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum was reported. After concurrent chemoradiation therapy, curative resection was performed.

  8. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a 51-year-old female following breast cancer: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jinjing; Chen, Ni; Chen, Xueqin; Gong, Jing; Nie, Ling; Xu, Miao; Zhou, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma (pPNET/EWS) is an aggressive type of sarcoma that is rarely observed in the kidney. pPNET of the kidney principally occurs in young patients (<50 years old) and is very rare in older patients (≥50 years old). Additionally, only six cases of pPNET of the kidney have been reported in the literature in older patients (≥50 years old), and pPNET as a secondary primary tumor has rarely been reported. The current study presents a case of renal pPNET in a 51-year-old female who had been surgically treated for breast carcinoma and administered with adjuvant chemotherapy five years prior to hospitalization for pPNET. A computed tomography scan identified a tumor in the lower pole of the right kidney, which was treated by nephrectomy. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated diffuse, strong membranous positivity for cluster of differentiation (CD)99, positive nuclear staining for friend leukemia integration 1, and negative staining for Wilms' tumor 1 and other markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the EWS breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) demonstrated the characteristic EWSR1 translocation. The patient declined chemotherapy or radiotherapy but accepted traditional Chinese medicine. No evidence of recurrence was observed eight months after diagnosis. Only two cases of renal pPNET with a history of an earlier or synchronous primary cancer were reported in the literature from the USA and Germany, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first FISH-confirmed renal pPNET in an older patient following breast adenocarcinoma.

  9. Metachronal waves in the flagellar beating of Volvox and their hydrodynamic origin.

    PubMed

    Brumley, Douglas R; Polin, Marco; Pedley, Timothy J; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-07-06

    Groups of eukaryotic cilia and flagella are capable of coordinating their beating over large scales, routinely exhibiting collective dynamics in the form of metachronal waves. The origin of this behavior--possibly influenced by both mechanical interactions and direct biological regulation--is poorly understood, in large part due to a lack of quantitative experimental studies. Here we characterize in detail flagellar coordination on the surface of the multicellular alga Volvox carteri, an emerging model organism for flagellar dynamics. Our studies reveal for the first time that the average metachronal coordination observed is punctuated by periodic phase defects during which synchrony is partial and limited to specific groups of cells. A minimal model of hydrodynamically coupled oscillators can reproduce semi-quantitatively the characteristics of the average metachronal dynamics, and the emergence of defects. We systematically study the model's behaviour by assessing the effect of changing intrinsic rotor characteristics, including oscillator stiffness and the nature of their internal driving force, as well as their geometric properties and spatial arrangement. Our results suggest that metachronal coordination follows from deformations in the oscillators' limit cycles induced by hydrodynamic stresses, and that defects result from sufficiently steep local biases in the oscillators' intrinsic frequencies. Additionally, we find that random variations in the intrinsic rotor frequencies increase the robustness of the average properties of the emergent metachronal waves.

  10. Pathogenesis and risk factors for gastric cancer after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Reina; Iijima, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was thought to be the main cause of gastric cancer, and its eradication showed improvement in gastric inflammation and decreased the risk of gastric cancer. Recently, a number of studies reported the occurrence of gastric cancer after successful eradication. Patients infected with H. pylori, even after eradication, have a higher risk for the occurrence of gastric cancer when compared with uninfected patients. Metachronous gastric cancer occurs frequently following the endoscopic removal of early gastric cancer. These data indicate that metachronous cancer leads to the occurrence of gastric cancer even after successful eradication of H. pylori. The pathogenesis of this metachronous cancer remains unclear. Further research is needed to identify biomarkers to predict the development of metachronous gastric cancer and methods for gastric cancer screening. In this article, we review the role of the H. pylori in carcinogenesis and the histological and endoscopic characteristics and risk factors for metachronous gastric cancer after eradication. Additionally, we discuss recent risk predictions and possible approaches for reducing the risk of metachronous gastric cancer after eradication. PMID:27672424

  11. Hydrodynamic synchronization and metachronal waves on the surface of the colonial alga Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Brumley, Douglas R; Polin, Marco; Pedley, Timothy J; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2012-12-28

    From unicellular ciliates to the respiratory epithelium, carpets of cilia display metachronal waves, long-wavelength phase modulations of the beating cycles, which theory suggests may arise from hydrodynamic coupling. Experiments have been limited by a lack of organisms suitable for systematic study of flagella and the flows they create. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry, we report the discovery of metachronal waves on the surface of the colonial alga Volvox carteri, whose large size and ease of visualization make it an ideal model organism for these studies. An elastohydrodynamic model of weakly coupled compliant oscillators, recast as interacting phase oscillators, reveals that orbit compliance can produce fast, robust synchronization in a manner essentially independent of boundary conditions, and offers an intuitive understanding of a possible mechanism leading to the emergence of metachronal waves.

  12. Hydrodynamic Synchronization and Metachronal Waves on the Surface of the Colonial Alga Volvox carteri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumley, Douglas R.; Polin, Marco; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-12-01

    From unicellular ciliates to the respiratory epithelium, carpets of cilia display metachronal waves, long-wavelength phase modulations of the beating cycles, which theory suggests may arise from hydrodynamic coupling. Experiments have been limited by a lack of organisms suitable for systematic study of flagella and the flows they create. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry, we report the discovery of metachronal waves on the surface of the colonial alga Volvox carteri, whose large size and ease of visualization make it an ideal model organism for these studies. An elastohydrodynamic model of weakly coupled compliant oscillators, recast as interacting phase oscillators, reveals that orbit compliance can produce fast, robust synchronization in a manner essentially independent of boundary conditions, and offers an intuitive understanding of a possible mechanism leading to the emergence of metachronal waves.

  13. Resection of Large Metachronous Liver Metastasis with Gastric Origin: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Runcanu, Alexandru; Paun, Sorin; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Beuran, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that surgical resection may be offered to a subgroup of patients with liver metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the surgical resection of a single liver metachronous recurrence twelve months after a radical total gastrectomy for cancer. Case report: A 63-year-old male patient with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 was referred to our hospital for a single, large liver metastasis, twelve months after a radical total gastrectomy and DII lymphadenectomy for upper third gastric adenocarcinoma. As the adjuvant treatment, the patient received 12 cycles of FOLFOX chemotherapy. During the present admission, the abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a single liver metastasis located in the segments 5 and 6, of 105/85 mm in diameter. Surgical resection by an open approach of liver metastasis was decided. We performed a non-anatomical liver resection, without inflow control due to significant peritoneal adhesions in the liver hilum secondary to the previous lymphadenectomy. The patient was discharged after seven days, with an uneventful recovery. Six months after the second surgical procedure, the patient developed a local liver recurrence. The surgical resection of the liver recurrence was performed, with no postoperative morbidities, and the patient was discharged after eight days. Three months after the latest surgery, the patient is under adjuvant chemotherapy, with no imagistic signs of further recurrences. Conclusions:  Hepatic resection for liver metastasis of gastric origin may offer satisfactory oncological outcomes in a very selected subgroup of patients. PMID:27843732

  14. [Jaws of primitive mammals].

    PubMed

    Tsubamoto, Takehisa

    2005-06-01

    Some of main osteological differences between mammals and reptiles are seen in the number of bones that constitute lower jaw and in jaw articulation. A lower jaw of mammals consists of only one bone, while in reptiles it consists of several bones (e.g., four to six in lizards and five in crocodiles). The jaw articulation in mammals is performed by squamosal of the skull and the mandible ( = dentary), while in reptiles it is done by quadrate of the skull and articular of the lower jaw. When mammals first appeared about 200 million years ago in the Mesozoic Era, the jaws of primitive mammals were morphologically intermediate between those of reptiles and typical mammals. Here, I briefly introduce the evolution of lower jaw morphology from the reptilian one to the mammalian one, showing lower jaw features of some mammal-like reptiles and primitive mammals.

  15. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher; Arslan, Bulent; Harthun, Nancy L.

    2011-04-15

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  16. An Outer Arm Dynein Conformational Switch Is Required for Metachronal Synchrony of Motile Cilia in Planaria

    PubMed Central

    Rompolas, Panteleimon; Patel-King, Ramila S.

    2010-01-01

    Motile cilia mediate the flow of mucus and other fluids across the surface of specialized epithelia in metazoans. Efficient clearance of peri-ciliary fluids depends on the precise coordination of ciliary beating to produce metachronal waves. The role of individual dynein motors and the mechanical feedback mechanisms required for this process are not well understood. Here we used the ciliated epithelium of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea to dissect the role of outer arm dynein motors in the metachronal synchrony of motile cilia. We demonstrate that animals that completely lack outer dynein arms display a significant decline in beat frequency and an inability of cilia to coordinate their oscillations and form metachronal waves. Furthermore, lack of a key mechanosensitive regulatory component (LC1) yields a similar phenotype even though outer arms still assemble in the axoneme. The lack of metachrony was not due simply to a decrease in ciliary beat frequency, as reducing this parameter by altering medium viscosity did not affect ciliary coordination. In addition, we did not observe a significant temporal variability in the beat cycle of impaired cilia. We propose that this conformational switch provides a mechanical feedback system within outer arm dynein that is necessary to entrain metachronal synchrony. PMID:20844081

  17. Effects of varying inter-limb spacing to limb length ratio in metachronal swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong Kuan; Merkel, Rachael; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp, krill and crayfish swim by rhythmic paddling of four to five pairs of closely spaced limbs. Each pair is phase-shifted in time relative to the neighboring pair, resulting in a metachronal wave that travels in the direction of animal motion. The broad goal of this study is to investigate how the mechanical design of the swimming limbs affect scalability of metachronal swimming in terms of limb-based Reynolds number (Re). A scaled robotic model of metachronal paddling was developed, consisting of four pairs of hinged acrylic plates actuated using stepper motors that were immersed in a rectangular tank containing water-glycerin fluid medium. 2D PIV measurements show that the propulsive jets transition from being primarily horizontal (thrust-producing direction) at Re of order 10 to angled vertically at Re of order 100. The ratio of inter-limb spacing to limb length among metachronal swimming organisms ranges between 0.2 to 0.65. 2D PIV will be used to examine the jets generated between adjacent limbs for varying inter-limb spacing to limb length ratios. The effect of increasing this ratio to beyond the biologically observed range will be discussed.

  18. An outer arm Dynein conformational switch is required for metachronal synchrony of motile cilia in planaria.

    PubMed

    Rompolas, Panteleimon; Patel-King, Ramila S; King, Stephen M

    2010-11-01

    Motile cilia mediate the flow of mucus and other fluids across the surface of specialized epithelia in metazoans. Efficient clearance of peri-ciliary fluids depends on the precise coordination of ciliary beating to produce metachronal waves. The role of individual dynein motors and the mechanical feedback mechanisms required for this process are not well understood. Here we used the ciliated epithelium of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea to dissect the role of outer arm dynein motors in the metachronal synchrony of motile cilia. We demonstrate that animals that completely lack outer dynein arms display a significant decline in beat frequency and an inability of cilia to coordinate their oscillations and form metachronal waves. Furthermore, lack of a key mechanosensitive regulatory component (LC1) yields a similar phenotype even though outer arms still assemble in the axoneme. The lack of metachrony was not due simply to a decrease in ciliary beat frequency, as reducing this parameter by altering medium viscosity did not affect ciliary coordination. In addition, we did not observe a significant temporal variability in the beat cycle of impaired cilia. We propose that this conformational switch provides a mechanical feedback system within outer arm dynein that is necessary to entrain metachronal synchrony.

  19. Carbon in primitive meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, John F.

    1990-01-01

    No meteorites are truly primitive, in the sense of being pristine collections of interstellar grains or solar-nebular condensates. Nonetheless, some chrondritic meteorites have been so little altered by secondary processing that they are commonly termed primitive and it is almost a definition of such chondrites that they contain significant quantities of carbon. Most of that carbon is of apparently local, i.e., solar-system, origin but a proportion that ranges from trace, in some cases, to minor, in others, is believed to be exotic, i.e., of circumstellar or interstellar origin, and it is upon such material that researchers focus here. The nature of the meteoritic samples and the techniques used to analyse them are briefly discussed and the observational record is surveyed. Clearly, the study of exotic carbon preserved in meteorites has been informative about sites of nucleosynthesis, processes of nucleation and growth of grains in stellar outflows, grain survival in the interstellar medium, and many other topics of astrophysical significance. Much more work, particularly of an interdisciplinary nature remains to be done, however.

  20. Glacier Primitive Area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Granger, H.C.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Glacier Primitive Area and an adjoining area to the northwest was made in 1968 and 1969. The study area was mapped geologically, an aeromagnetic survey was made, a geochemical study was done, and known mineralized occurrences and claims were examined. Two localities were found to contain small concentrations of uranium and several samples displayed minor anomalies in base and precious metals. A probable resource potential for lead, molybdenum, arsenic, barium, fluorite, and uranium exists in the area near the Ross Lakes shear zone and a small area of probable uranium resource potential exists around the Dubois claims. The study area, in general, is believed to have little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources.

  1. GLACIER PRIMITIVE AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, Harry C.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Glacier Primitive Area, Wyoming and an adjoining area to the northeast was made. The study area was mapped geologically, an aeromagnetic survey was made, a geochemical study was done, and known mineralized occurrences and claims were examined. Two localities were found to contain small concentrations of uranium and several samples displayed minor anomalies in base and precious metals. A probable resource potential for lead, molybdenum, arsenic, barium, fluorite, and uranium exists in the area near the Ross Lakes shear zone and a small area of probable uranium resource potential exists around the Dubois claims. The study area, in general, is believed to have little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources.

  2. Density of Primitive Pythagorean Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Duncan A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the properties of a Primitive Pythagorean Triple (PPT), a computer program was written to generate, print, and count all PPTs greater than or equal to I[subscript x], where I[subscript x] is an arbitrarily chosen integer. The Density of Primitive Pythagorean Triples may be defined as the ratio of the number of PPTs whose hypotenuse is…

  3. Characterisation of metachronal waves on the surface of the spherical colonial alga Volvox carteri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumley, Douglas; Polin, Marco; Morez, Constant; Goldstein, Raymond; Pedley, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    Volvox carteri is a spherical colonial alga, consisting of thousands of biflagellate cells. The somatic cells embedded on the surface of the colony beat their flagella in a coordinated fashion, producing a net fluid motion. Using high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV) we have been able to accurately analyse the time-dependent flow fields around such colonies. The somatic cells on the colony surface may beat their flagella in a perfectly synchronised fashion, or may exhibit metachronal waves travelling on the surface. We analyse the dependence of this synchronisation on fundamental parameters in the system such as colony radius, characterise the speed and wavelength of the observed metachronal waves, and investigate possible models to account for the exhibited behaviour.

  4. Metachronous Primary Adenocarcinoma of Distal and Proximal Ureter within Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Abt, Dominik; Müllhaupt, Gautier; Mordasini, Livio; Diener, Pierre André; Schmid, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the upper urinary tract, particularly of the ureter, is an extremely rare entity. We are reporting on the first case of metachronous appearance in one patient. The 71-year-old man underwent partial ureterectomy (R0 resection) for primary adenocarcinoma of the left distal ureter. 3 years later, nephroureterectomy had to be performed because of metachronous primary adenocarcinoma of the left proximal ureter. Extensive examinations revealed no evidence for further malignancies at both times. Primary adenocarcinoma of the upper urinary tract is rare but should be kept in mind, especially in patients with chronic inflammation and urinary tract obstruction. Due to the low incidence, there is a lack of data regarding its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and optimal treatment. PMID:24982812

  5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and other primary metachronous or synchronous neoplasms as a suspicion criterion for syndromic setting.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Giovanni; Luppi, Gabriele; Martorana, Davide; Rossi, Giulio; Losi, Lorena; Bertolini, Federica; Sartori, Giuliana; Pellacani, Giovanni; Seidenari, Stefania; Boni, Elisa; Neri, Tauro Maria; Silini, Enrico; Tamburini, Elisa; Maiorana, Antonio; Conte, Pier Franco

    2010-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) may be sporadic or inherited. Although KIT and PDGFRA activating mutations are the oncogenic mechanisms in most sporadic and inherited GISTs, a small subset of GISTs are negative for both. Besides the classical Familial GIST Syndrome, GIST can occur as part of multi-neoplastic disease. The present study was designed to analyze the synchronous and metachronous tumors developed among GIST patients assessed by our institution for GIST Syndrome setting recognition. Patients (n=141) with primary GIST (77 men and 64 women) were recruited between 1988 and 2007 and their clinical and pathological records were reviewed. Mutation analysis of KIT, PDGFRA, NF1 and MMR genes was performed on somatic and peripheral blood DNA. GISTs occurred associated with other primary malignancies in 46 of 141 (32.6%) patients. The most common neoplasms were gastrointestinal and genitourinary. A novel exon 6 germline large deletion of NF1 was identified in the NF1/GIST kindred. The development of GIST associated with other neoplasms is common and diagnosis of peculiar benign associated-neoplasms warrants the search for familial cancer susceptibility. In particular, syndromic or familial settings have to be suspected in the presence of neurofibroma or lung chordoma in C-KIT and PDGFRA negative GIST patients.

  6. Kyste hydatique mammaire primitive

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naïma

    2015-01-01

    La localisation mammaire du kyste hydatique est exceptionnelle. De ce fait, le diagnostic est difficile avant l'examen anatomopathologique. Nous rapportons une observation d'un cas de kyste hydatique du sein chez une femme de 32 ans, qui consultait pour un nodule du sein, dont l'imagerie montrait une lésion en rétro-aréolaire du sein gauche, homogène, ovalaire et de contours réguliers. L'examen anatomopathologique objectivait un kyste hydatique à localisation mammaire. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. L'hydatidose est une maladie ubiquitaire, pouvant atteindre tous les organes. Le diagnostic peut être évoqué devant une masse kystique du sein avec des aspects très évocateurs à l'imagerie. La confirmation du diagnostic n'est confirmée qu'après une cytoponction ou une chirurgie d'exérèse qui réalise le traitement de cette pathologique. La négativité du bilan d'extension hydatique permet de retenir une localisation primitive de l’échinococcose. PMID:26185575

  7. Endobronchial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor With Pneumothorax Ex Vacuo.

    PubMed

    Han, Wongyeong; Huh, Dongmyung; Kim, Byoungho; Kwak, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sunah

    2015-10-01

    We experienced a rare case of an endobronchial primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the left main bronchus. Initially we suspected pneumothorax caused by a collapsed left upper lobe and an air-entrapped lower lobe. After tube thoracostomy, the pneumothorax persisted without air leakage. A tumor was detected at the left main bronchus on computed tomography and bronchoscopy, and diagnosed pathologically as small cell lung cancer. Under the presumed diagnosis of limited-stage small cell lung cancer, we performed a left pneumonectomy. The tumor was eventually identified pathologically as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Although adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was not performed, no recurrence was observed.

  8. HIGH UINTAS PRIMITIVE AREA, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crittenden, Max D.; Sheridan, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys in the High Uintas Primitive Area, Utah and the additions subsequently proposed concluded that the area has little promise for mineral resources. Of the areas around the fringes, a strip along the north flank fault can be classed as having probable energy-resource potential for oil and gas. The oil and gas potential could be tested by additional seismic studies followed by drilling. Much of the necessary information probably could be obtained without drilling within the primitive area itself.

  9. Metachronous Colon Metastases from Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Ugo; Contino, Gianmarco; Chiappa, Antonio; Bertani, Emilio; Bianchi, Paolo P.; Fazio, Nicola; Renne, Giuseppe; Di Meglio, Giovanni; Andreoni, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The colon is a very rare metastatic localization. Here we report a case of colonic metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma whose clinical presentation was suggestive of a de novo adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon. The authors discuss that in the presence of a previous history of gastric cancer, immunohistochemical analysis on endoscopic biopsies may help in the definition of a differential diagnosis. Furthermore, this rare metastatic localization might suggest a poor prognosis and a more accurate diagnostic work-up. PMID:20740169

  10. Metachronous metastasis to the penis from a rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ketata, Sabeur; Boulaire, Jean Loup; Soulimane, Benamar; Bargain, Alain

    2007-09-01

    Penile metastases arise most frequently from genitourinary cancers, but can also arise from tumors of the large bowel; other primary sites are extremely uncommon. We report the case of a 59-year-old patient with 2 penile metastases from a rectal adenocarcinoma, which was discovered 26 years after abdominoperineal resection. Penile biopsy was carried out and established the metastatic nature. The patient underwent palliative chemotherapy treatment with cetuximab/irinotecan. All previously reported cases of penile metastasis from the rectum are reviewed. Regardless of the treatment options, the prognosis of such metastasis remains poor.

  11. Expression of Annexin A10 in Serrated Polyps Predicts the Development of Metachronous Serrated Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Macaron, Carole; Lopez, Rocio; Pai, Rish K; Burke, Carol A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to differentiate histological characteristics between serrated polyps (SPs) and make a pathological diagnosis of a sessile serrated polyp (SSP) is highly variable. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of Annexin A10 (ANXA10) is a marker of a SSP. However, the clinical utility of ANXA10 expression in patients with SPs is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of ANXA10 expression in SPs in predicting the development of subsequent polyps at follow-up colonoscopy. Methods: Specimens from patients with SPs assessed in the Department of Pathology between 2006 and 2010 were identified. Patients whose colon harbored only SPs including either an SSP and/or hyperplastic polyp (HP) and who had complete polyp resection, no remaining polyps, and a follow-up colonoscopy were analyzed. ANXA10 IHC expression was performed in all baseline SPs. The rate of metachronous polyps on follow-up colonoscopy based on baseline maximal ANXA10 expression (low vs. high) was determined. Results: One hundred and seventy-nine patients were included. Sixty-seven patients had SPs with low ANXA10 expression (30 SSP and 37 HP) and 112 had polyps with high ANXA10 expression (105 SSP and 7 with HP). Individuals with SPs with high ANXA10 expression had a threefold higher risk of SSP on follow-up colonoscopy (hazard ratio (HR)=2.7; P=0.048) particularly, in the proximal colon (HR=4.0; P=0.02). ANXA10 expression did not predict patients at an increased risk of subsequent adenomas (18.8% vs. 19.4%, P=0.52). Conclusions: Individuals who harbor SPs with high ANXA10 expression are at an increased risk of metachronous serrated neoplasms. ANXA10 may be a reproducible tool to stratify patients with SPs into higher- and lower-risk groups of metachronous serrated neoplasia, allowing a more aggressive colonoscopic surveillance in patients at high risk. PMID:27906163

  12. Multiple nephron-sparing procedures in solitary kidney with recurrent, metachronous, nonfamilial renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nosnik, Israel P; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Nelson, Rendon; Polascik, Thomas J

    2006-12-01

    Patients with metachronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma pose a significant challenge given the high mortality of renal cell carcinoma and the poor quality of life should dialysis become necessary. In addition, patients may be subject to morbidity due to potential multiple treatments of the multifocal renal tumors. We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with multifocal, bilateral clear cell carcinoma who maintained a minimal change in serum creatinine after undergoing unilateral radical nephrectomy, subsequent percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, percutaneous cryoablation, laparoscopic cryoablation, and open partial nephrectomy for recurrent renal cell carcinoma in a solitary kidney.

  13. [Four resections of metachronous liver metastases and lateral lymph node metastases of a rectal carcinoid tumor - a case report].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Takayuki; Koyama, Fumikazu; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ueda, Takeshi; Nishigori, Naoto; Inoue, Takashi; Kawasaki, Keijirou; Obara, Shinsaku; Fujii, Hisao; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2014-11-01

    The authors present a case of rectal carcinoid tumor with lateral lymph node metastases and liver metastases that was successfully treated by 4 resections. A 70-year-old man was diagnosed with a rectal carcinoid tumor (20 mm in diameter) with submucosal (SM) invasion. Radical resection was performed at 25 months, 38 months, and 57 months, when abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed metachronous liver metastases of the rectal carcinoid tumor. At 50 months, metachronous lateral lymph node metastases were also revealed. Three hepatectomies and a laparoscopic lateral lymph node dissection were performed. The patient is currently free of disease at 25 months after the last intervention.

  14. Dual malignancy in adolescence: A rare case report of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid following dysgerminoma of ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Suvadip; Desai, Sanjay M.; Mehta, Dharmendra Y.; Somanath, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Dual malignancy is rare in adolescents. Dual malignancy with the second malignancy of thyroid is rare. No association has been reported between dysgerminoma of ovary and carcinoma thyroid in medical literature. Despite a thorough PubMed search (key words — Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, metachronous, dysgerminoma ovary), we were unable to find a previous reported case of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC) following dysgerminoma of the ovary. After surgery, the patient is being regularly followed up for recurrence/development of new primary. We report this unusual and rare case in a 17-year-old female patient. PMID:27904567

  15. Childhood pheochromocytoma in a survivor of central primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoshiko; Fujimaru, Rika; Ishii, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Sako, Masahiro; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Pheochromocytoma and central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor are both neural crest-derived tumors. The former is usually benign and develops mainly in adulthood and the latter brain tumor mainly occurs in childhood and has a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who developed pheochromocytoma after more than 10 years of complete remission of central primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Thus far, there have been no reports of childhood cancer survivors who developed pheochromocytoma. This quite rare occurrence of two tumors in a single patient may imply some unidentified linkage or common genetic background.

  16. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  17. Cilia Internal Mechanism and Metachronal Coordination as the Result of Hydrodynamical Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueron, Shay; Levit-Gurevich, Konstantin; Liron, Nadav; Blum, Jacob J.

    1997-06-01

    We present a simple but realistic model for the internal bend-generating mechanism of cilia, using parameters obtained from the analysis of data of the beat of a single cilium, and incorporate it into a recently developed dynamical model. Comparing the results to experimental data for two-dimensional beats, we demonstrate that the model captures the essential features of the motion, including many properties that are not built in explicitly. The beat pattern and frequency change in response to increased viscosity and the presence of neighboring cilia in a realistic fashion. Using the model, we are able to investigate multicilia configurations such as rows of cilia and two-dimensional arrays of cilia. When two adjacent model cilia start beating at different phase, they synchronize within two cycles, as observed in experiments in which two flagella beating out of phase are brought close together. Examination of various multicilia configurations shows that metachronal patterns (i.e., beats with a constant phase difference between neighboring cilia) evolve autonomously. This provides modeling evidence in support of the conjecture that metachronism may occur as a self-organized phenomenon due to hydrodynamical interactions between the cilia.

  18. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Stefano; Jager, Edwin W H; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion.

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal adrenal gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y P; Lang, Brian H H; Tam, S C; Wong, K P

    2014-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, also called primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland, is extremely rare. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report on a woman with adult-onset primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland presenting with progressive flank pain. Computed tomography confirmed an adrenal tumour with invasion of the left diaphragm and kidney. Radical surgery was performed and the pain completely resolved; histology confirmed the presence of primitive neuroectodermal tumour, for which she was given chemotherapy. The clinical presentation of this condition is non-specific, and a definitive diagnosis is based on a combination of histology, as well as immunohistochemical and cytogenic analysis. According to the literature, these tumours demonstrate rapid growth and aggressive behaviour but there are no well-established guidelines or treatment strategies. Nevertheless, surgery remains the mainstay of local disease control; curative surgery can be performed in most patients. Adjuvant chemoirradiation has been advocated yet no consensus is available. The prognosis of patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumours remains poor.

  20. POPO AGIE PRIMITIVE AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Robert C.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource appraisal was made of the Popo Agie Primitive Area and some adjoining lands. This scenic mountainous region of the Wind River Range in west-central Wyoming is composed largely of ancient granitic rocks in which virtually no evidence of mineral deposits was found. Deep crustal seismic-reflection profiles obtained across the southern Wind River Range suggest the possibility that young sedimentary rocks, similar to those at the surface along the northeast flank of the range, are present at depth beneath the granite in the Popo Agie primitive Area. If present, such buried sedimentary rocks could be petroleum bearing. Additional seismic and gravity studies would probably add valuable information, but ultimately very expensive, very deep drilling will be necessary to test this possibility.

  1. Image recovery from edge primitives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Huck, Friedrich O.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar

    1990-01-01

    A method for extracting edge primitives from Mach-band patterns is presented together with a method for recovering image representations of features outlined by the edge boundaries. The accuracy, stability, and resolution of these representations are assessed. Since these representations are most commonly used in characterizing targets, this method of low-level processing offers new opportunities for computer vision and high data-compressing coding. Two bandpass filters are considered, the spatially invariant Laplacian of Gaussian filter and spatially variant intensity-dependent spatial (IDS) summation. It is shown that the recovery from the IDS bandpass data is particularly advantageous in applications for which robustness to local and temporal variations in illumination is important. It is concluded that the edge primitives extracted from bandpassed images can be an efficient way to store, transmit, and represent images.

  2. Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Goel, V; Talwar, V; Dodagoudar, C; Singh, S; Sharma, A; Patnaik, N

    2015-01-01

    Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the kidney is a rare entity. Very few cases of primary renal PNET have been reported to date. Most literature about rPNET is isolated case reports. We report a case of rPNET in a 39-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with renal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy with thrombolectomy, and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor composed of monotonous sheets of round cells. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 and FLI-1, hence confirming the diagnosis of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor. Post-surgery, patient was given VAC/IE-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In view of highly aggressive nature of this tumor, prompt diagnosis and imparting effective chemotherapy regimen to the patient is required, and it is important to differentiate PNET from other small round-cell tumors because of different therapeutic approach.

  3. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  4. Primitive control of cellular metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitz, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that control substances must have existed from the earliest times in the evolution of life and that the same control mechanisms must exist today. The investigation reported is concerned with the concept that carbon dioxide is a primitive regulator of cell function. The effects of carbon dioxide on cellular materials are examined, taking into account questions of solubilization, dissociation, changes of charge, stabilization, structural changes, wettability, the exclusion of other gases, the activation of compounds, changes in plasticity, and changes in membrane permeability.

  5. Compositional studies of primitive asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, F.

    1988-01-01

    The composition of primitive asteroids and their relationship to satellites in the solar system will be studied by analyzing existing narrowband charge coupled device (CCD) reflectance spectra, acquiring additional spectra of asteroids and small satellites in the 0.5 to 1.0 micrometer spectral range, and exploring possibilities for obtaining compositional information in the blue-UV spectral region. Comparison with laboratory spectra of terrestrial chlorites and serpentines (phyllosilicates) and the clay minerals found in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites will continue. During 1987, narrowband CCD reflectance spectra of 17 additional asteroids were acquired. These spectra and spectra of 34 other asteroids have been used primarily for two studies: weak absorption features similar to those due to Fe2(+) and Fe2(+) - Fe3(+) transitions in iron oxides f ound in terrestrial chlorites and serpentines and carbonaceous chondrites have been identified in some primitive asteroid spectra. There is a first indication that asteroids grouped by heliocentric distance show similar weak absorption features. Nonparametric statistics are being applied to test the hypothesis of discrete remnants of a gradation in composition of outer-belt asteroids.

  6. Primitive reflexes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vreeling, F W; Verhey, F R; Houx, P J; Jolles, J

    1993-01-01

    A standardised protocol for the examination of 15 primitive reflexes in which the amplitude and the persistence were scored separately, was applied to 25 patients with Parkinson's disease and an equal number of healthy matched control subjects. Most reflexes were found considerably more often in the patients than in the control subjects, especially the snout, the glabellar tap, and its variant, the nasopalpebral reflex. Only the mouth open finger spread reflex was present more often in the control subjects. For all reflexes except this last, the scores for amplitude and persistence of the reflexes for the control group never exceeded the scores for the patient group. Reflexes persisted more often in the patients than in the control subjects. Parkinsonism alone can explain a large number of primitive reflexes, irrespective of the severity or duration of the disease. In contrast, the number of reflexes was related more closely to cognitive scales. It is concluded that such reflexes may be helpful in diagnosing Parkinson's disease. In addition, a standardised protocol for eliciting and scoring is essential for the study of these reflexes in parkinsonism and other neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:8270937

  7. Metachronous Bilateral Testicular Leydig-Like Tumors Leading to the Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Adrenogenital Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Vukina, Josip; Chism, David D.; Sharpless, Julie L.; Raynor, Mathew C.; Milowsky, Matthew I.; Funkhouser, William K.

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old male with a history of left testis Leydig cell tumor (LCT), 3-month status after left radical orchiectomy, presented with a rapidly enlarging (0.6 cm to 3.7 cm) right testicular mass. He underwent a right radical orchiectomy, sections interpreted as showing a similar Leydig cell-like oncocytic proliferation, with a differential diagnosis including metachronous bilateral LCT and metachronous bilateral testicular tumors associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (a.k.a. “testicular adrenal rest tumors” (TARTs) and “testicular tumors of the adrenogenital syndrome” (TTAGS)). Additional workup demonstrated a markedly elevated serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and elevated adrenal precursor steroid levels. He was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3BHSD) type, and started on treatment. Metachronous bilateral testicular masses in adults should prompt consideration of adult presentation of CAH. Since all untreated CAH patients are expected to have elevated serum ACTH, formal exclusion of CAH prior to surgical resection of a testicular Leydig-like proliferation could be accomplished by screening for elevated serum ACTH. PMID:26351608

  8. Viscous shock profiles and primitive formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karni, S.

    1990-01-01

    Weak solutions of hyperbolic systems in primitive (non-conservation) form for which a consistent conservation form exists are considered. It is shown that primitive formulations, shock relations are not uniquely defined by the states to either side of the shock but also depend on the viscous path connecting the two. Scheme-dependent high order correction terms are derived that enforce consistent viscous shock profiles. The resulting primitive algorithm is conservative to the order of approximation. One dimensional Euler calculations of flows containing strong shocks clearly show that conservation errors in primitive flow calculations are of comparable quality.

  9. Filamentation as primitive growth mode?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigan, Erwan; Steyaert, Jean-Marc; Douady, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Osmotic pressure influences cellular shape. In a growing cell, chemical reactions and dilution induce changes in osmolarity, which in turn influence the cellular shape. Using a protocell model relying upon random conservative chemical reaction networks with arbitrary stoichiometry, we find that when the membrane is so flexible that its shape adjusts itself quasi-instantaneously to balance the osmotic pressure, the protocell either grows filamentous or fails to grow. This behavior is consistent with a mathematical proof. This suggests that filamentation may be a primitive growth mode resulting from the simple physical property of balanced osmotic pressure. We also find that growth is favored if some chemical species are only present inside the protocell, but not in the outside growth medium. Such an insulation requires specific chemical schemes. Modern evolved cells such as E. coli meet these requirements through active transport mechanisms such as the phosphotransferase system.

  10. Reflectance spectra of primitive chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Llorca, J.

    2013-05-01

    We are studying a wide sample of pristine carbonaceous chondrites from the NASA Antarctic collection in order to get clues on the physico-chemical processes occurred in the parent bodies of these meteorites. We are obtaining laboratory reflectance spectra of different groups of carbonaceous chondrites, but here we focus in CM and CI chondrites. We discuss the main spectral features that can be used to identify primitive carbonaceous asteroids by remote sensing techniques. Two different spectrometers were used covering the entire 0.3 to 30 μm electromagnetic window. Only a handful of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) exhibit bands or features clearly associated with aqueous alteration. Among them are the target asteroids of Osiris Rex and Marco Polo-R missions.

  11. Advanced missions to primitive bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    Six interplanetary spacecraft, three earth orbital experiments, and one spacecraft orbiting Venus will observe comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner in 1985-86. At comet Halley, attempts will be made to image the nucleus, remote sensing will be made by spectrometers in wavelength ranges from the IR to the UV, and in-situ observations will be made with neutral, ion and dust mass spectrometers. Plasma measurements will be made at both comets and at comet Halley the upstream solar wind flux will be simultaneously monitored by nearby spacecraft. In the post-Halley era, there are several missions being planned for the continued exploration of the solar system's most primitive bodies - comets and asteroids.

  12. Apes, Primitives, Children and...Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozulin, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Reviews two books by L. S. Vygotsky and A. R. Luria: (1) "Studies on the History of Behavior: Ape, Primitive, and Child"; and (2) "Ape, Primitive Man and Child: Essays in the History of Behavior." Both books are based on a book published in 1930 that examined the phylogenetic, historical, and ontogenetic development of human…

  13. A manual for PARTI runtime primitives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berryman, Harry; Saltz, Joel

    1990-01-01

    Primitives are presented that are designed to help users efficiently program irregular problems (e.g., unstructured mesh sweeps, sparse matrix codes, adaptive mesh partial differential equations solvers) on distributed memory machines. These primitives are also designed for use in compilers for distributed memory multiprocessors. Communications patterns are captured at runtime, and the appropriate send and receive messages are automatically generated.

  14. [Secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis in a 39-year-old man after rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Jarosch, A; Tiller, M; Rohrbach, H; Leimbach, T; Schepp, W

    2016-05-01

    A 39-year-old man had been treated for rectal cancer 6 years ago by lower anterior resection of the rectum and perioperative radiochemotherapy. Since then follow-up had been unremarkable but now the patient presented with unspecific lower abdominal pain. The cause of the pain was identified as paraneoplastic retroperitoneal fibrosis secondary to metachronous pulmonary metastases of the rectal cancer.

  15. Development of Assays for Detecting Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated with Cancer in Non-Neoplastic Prostate Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    prostate cancer ." Am J Pathol 181(1): 34-42. Li, M. and L. A. Cannizzaro (1999). "Identical clonal origin of synchronous and metachronous low-grade...significant prostate cancer based on molecular alterations associated with cancer in non-neoplastic prostate tissue PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...significant prostate cancer based on molecular alterations associated with cancer in non-neoplastic prostate tissue 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  16. Dynamic primitives in the control of locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Neville; Sternad, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Humans achieve locomotor dexterity that far exceeds the capability of modern robots, yet this is achieved despite slower actuators, imprecise sensors, and vastly slower communication. We propose that this spectacular performance arises from encoding motor commands in terms of dynamic primitives. We propose three primitives as a foundation for a comprehensive theoretical framework that can embrace a wide range of upper- and lower-limb behaviors. Building on previous work that suggested discrete and rhythmic movements as elementary dynamic behaviors, we define submovements and oscillations: as discrete movements cannot be combined with sufficient flexibility, we argue that suitably-defined submovements are primitives. As the term “rhythmic” may be ambiguous, we define oscillations as the corresponding class of primitives. We further propose mechanical impedances as a third class of dynamic primitives, necessary for interaction with the physical environment. Combination of these three classes of primitive requires care. One approach is through a generalized equivalent network: a virtual trajectory composed of simultaneous and/or sequential submovements and/or oscillations that interacts with mechanical impedances to produce observable forces and motions. Reliable experimental identification of these dynamic primitives presents challenges: identification of mechanical impedances is exquisitely sensitive to assumptions about their dynamic structure; identification of submovements and oscillations is sensitive to their assumed form and to details of the algorithm used to extract them. Some methods to address these challenges are presented. Some implications of this theoretical framework for locomotor rehabilitation are considered. PMID:23801959

  17. Comprehensive BRL-CAD Primitive Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    corrected by taking into account the sampling rate. 15. SUBJECT TERMS BRL-CAD, Primitives, CSG, rtweight, rtarea, hypersampling, raytracer 16...approaches, such as polygonal mesh modeling. CSG not only decreases the file size but also increases the speed of the raytracer , the tool BRL–CAD uses...to render images. CSG also increases the speed of the raytracer to calculate information about the primitives, such as their weight and thermal

  18. A method of plane geometry primitive presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Anbo; Luo, Haibo; Chang, Zheng; Hui, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Point feature and line feature are basic elements in object feature sets, and they play an important role in object matching and recognition. On one hand, point feature is sensitive to noise; on the other hand, there are usually a huge number of point features in an image, which makes it complex for matching. Line feature includes straight line segment and curve. One difficulty in straight line segment matching is the uncertainty of endpoint location, the other is straight line segment fracture problem or short straight line segments joined to form long straight line segment. While for the curve, in addition to the above problems, there is another difficulty in how to quantitatively describe the shape difference between curves. Due to the problems of point feature and line feature, the robustness and accuracy of target description will be affected; in this case, a method of plane geometry primitive presentation is proposed to describe the significant structure of an object. Firstly, two types of primitives are constructed, they are intersecting line primitive and blob primitive. Secondly, a line segment detector (LSD) is applied to detect line segment, and then intersecting line primitive is extracted. Finally, robustness and accuracy of the plane geometry primitive presentation method is studied. This method has a good ability to obtain structural information of the object, even if there is rotation or scale change of the object in the image. Experimental results verify the robustness and accuracy of this method.

  19. MACOP modular architecture with control primitives

    PubMed Central

    Waegeman, Tim; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP) which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion [such as MOSAIC (modular selection and identification for control) on which MACOP is inspired], MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot. PMID:23888140

  20. Early stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-12-14

    Evidence has now accumulated that colonoscopy and removal of polyps, especially during screening and surveillance programs, is effective in overall risk reduction for colon cancer. After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced adenomas and new early stage metachronous cancers. Early stage colon cancer can be defined as disease that appears to have been completely resected with no subsequent evidence of involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes or distant sites. This differs from the clinical setting of an apparent "curative" resection later pathologically upstaged following detection of malignant cells extending into adjacent organs, peritoneum, lymph nodes or other distant sites, including liver. This highly selected early stage colon cancer group remains at high risk for subsequent colon polyps and metachronous colon cancer. Precise staging is important, not only for assessing the need for adjuvant chemotherapy, but also for patient selection for continued surveillance. With advanced stages of colon cancer and a more guarded outlook, repeated surveillance should be limited. In future, novel imaging technologies (e.g., confocal endomicroscopy), coupled with increased pathological recognition of high risk markers for lymph node involvement (e.g., "tumor budding") should lead to improved staging and clinical care.

  1. PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Julia; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Campins, Humberto; Lorenzi, Vania; Licandro, Javier; Morate, David; Tanga, Paolo; Cellino, Alberto; Delbo, Marco

    2015-11-01

    NASA OSIRIS-REx and JAXA Hayabusa 2 sample-return missions have targeted two near-Earth asteroids: (101955) Bennu and (162173) 1999 JU3, respectively. These are primitive asteroids that are believed to originate in the inner belt, where five distinct sources have been identified: four primitive collisional families (Polana, Erigone, Sulamitis, and Clarissa), and a population of low-albedo and low-inclination background asteroids. Identifying and characterizing the populations from which these two NEAs might originate will enchance the science return of the two missions.With this main objective in mind, we initiated in 2010 a spectroscopic survey in the visible and the near-infrared to characterize the primitive collisional families in the inner belt and the low-albedo background population. This is the PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS. So far we have obtained more than 200 spectra using telescopes located at different observatories. PRIMASS uses a variety of ground based facilities. Most of the spectra have been obtained using the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), and the 3.6m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), both located at the El Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain), and the 3.0m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea (Hawai, USA).We present the first results from our on-going survey (de Leon et al. 2015; Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2015; Morate et al. 2015), focused on the Polana and the Erigone primitive families, with visible and near-infrared spectra of more than 200 objects, most of them with no previous spectroscopic data. Our survey is already the largest database of primitive asteroids spectra, and we keep obtaining data on the Sulamitis and the Clarissa families, as well as on the background low-albedo population.

  2. ABSAROKA PRIMITIVE AREA AND VICINITY, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, Helmuth; Bannister, D'Arcy P.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource appraisal of the Absaroka Primitive Area, Montana indicates a probable resource potential for copper-molybdenum and gold in parts of the area. An area favorable for the occurrence of early Tertiary porphyry-type copper-molybdenum and associated gold deposits lies northwest of Cooke City, along the Cooke City structural sag in the Beartooth uplift. An area favorable for stratabound gold deposits of the Homestake type is in the western part of the area, in and around the Jardine-Crevice Mountain mining district and in lower Hellroaring Creek valley. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the primitive area.

  3. Chemical evolution of primitive solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Mills, T.

    1989-01-01

    Observations on organic molecules and compounds containing biogenic elements in the interstellar medium and in the primitive bodies of the solar system are reviewed. The discovery of phosphorus molecular species in dense interstellar clouds, the existence of organic ions in the dust and gas phase of the comas of Comet Halley, and the presence of presolar, deuterium-hydrogen ratios in the amino acids of carbonaceous chondrites are discussed. The relationships between comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are examined. Also, consideration is given to the chemical evolution of Titan, the primitive earth, and early Mars.

  4. Primitive ideals of C q [ SL(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Timothy J.; Levasseur, Thierry

    1993-10-01

    The primitive ideals of the Hopf algebra C q [ SL(3)] are classified. In particular it is shown that the orbits in Prim C q [ SL(3)] under the action of the representation group H ≅ C *× C * are parameterized naturally by W×W, where W is the associated Weyl group. It is shown that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between primitive ideals of C q [ SL(3)] and symplectic leaves of the associated Poisson algebraic group SL(3, C).

  5. [Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the vagus nerve].

    PubMed

    Pegbessou, E; Diom, E S; Ndiaye, M; Dieng, P A; Nao, E E M; Thiam, A; Diouf, M S; Boube, D; Ndiaye, C; Kossinda, F; Tall, A; Diallo, B K; Ndiaye, I C; Diouf, R; Diop, E M

    2013-12-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are a rare type of malignant neuroectodermal tumor that is very aggressive. Cervicofacial location is rare, even exceptional. We report a case of a 4-month-old male infant, referred from the pediatric clinic for severe supralaryngeal dyspnea, a firm mass under the left mandibular angle, mobile and extended to the parotid area, painful, with a curve of the left side wall of the oropharynx. Cervical computed tomodensitometry showed a well-limited mass in the carotid area, enhanced by the contrast product. A vascularized mass, which had developed at the expense of the vagus nerve, was removed surgically. Histology found a primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

  6. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the heart.

    PubMed

    Nwaejike, Nnamdi; Rassl, Doris; Ford, Hugo; Large, Stephen R

    2012-02-01

    We present a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the left atrium with involvement of the coronary sinus. The initial presentation was of cardiac tamponade resulting from the size of the tumor. There was no evidence of tumor elsewhere, and after complete resection and without adjuvant chemotherapy the patient is well at 2-year follow-up. There has been no evidence of tumor recurrence. This is a rare reported case of resection of a cardiac primitive neuroectodermal tumor without adjuvant chemotherapy. Other cases in the literature have been treated by orthoptic transplantation and resection with chemotherapy.

  7. Epithelial neoplasia in Drosophila entails switch to primitive cell states.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sumbul J; Bajpai, Anjali; Alam, Mohammad Atif; Gupta, Ram P; Harsh, Sneh; Pandey, Ravi K; Goel-Bhattacharya, Surbhi; Nigam, Aditi; Mishra, Arati; Sinha, Pradip

    2013-06-11

    Only select cell types in an organ display neoplasia when targeted oncogenically. How developmental lineage hierarchies of these cells prefigure their neoplastic propensities is not yet well-understood. Here we show that neoplastic Drosophila epithelial cells reverse their developmental commitments and switch to primitive cell states. In a context of alleviated tissue surveillance, for example, loss of Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) tumor suppressor in the wing primordium induced epithelial neoplasia in its Homothorax (Hth)-expressing proximal domain. Transcriptional profile of proximally transformed mosaic wing epithelium and functional tests revealed tumor cooperation by multiple signaling pathways. In contrast, lgl(-) clones in the Vestigial (Vg)-expressing distal wing epithelium were eliminated by cell death. Distal lgl(-) clones, however, could transform when both tissue surveillance and cell death were compromised genetically and, alternatively, when the transcription cofactor of Hippo signaling pathway, Yorkie (Yki), was activated, or when Ras/EGFR signaling was up-regulated. Furthermore, transforming distal lgl(-) clones displayed loss of Vg, suggesting reversal of their terminal cell fate commitment. In contrast, reinforcing a distal (wing) cell fate commitment in lgl(-) clones by gaining Vg arrested their neoplasia and induced cell death. We also show that neoplasia in both distal and proximal lgl(-) clones could progress in the absence of Hth, revealing Hth-independent wing epithelial neoplasia. Likewise, neoplasia in the eye primordium resulted in loss of Elav, a retinal cell marker; these, however, switched to an Hth-dependent primitive cell state. These results suggest a general characteristic of "cells-of-origin" in epithelial cancers, namely their propensity for switch to primitive cell states.

  8. The Growth of a Primitive Penumbra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, P.; Tritschler, A.; Sankarasubramanian, K.

    We report on the penumbral formation in active region NOAA 10837. The penumbra observed on continuum intensity images grew from a quiet-Sun area to a primitive penumbra and then to a fully developed penumbra over about 5 h. The growth indicates nonlinear development with time.

  9. Melville and the Tradition of Primitive Utopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Gorman

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the relationships among the myth of the Golden Age, the concept of the Noble Savage, and the dream of Utopia. Uses Lewis Mumford's division of utopias into two basic types, i.e., reconstruction and escape utopias, to examine Herman Melville's "Typee" as an example of the primitive escapist utopia. (Editor/DMM)

  10. The grasp and other primitive reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Schott, J; Rossor, M

    2003-01-01

    Primitive reflexes are typically present in childhood, suppressed during normal development, and may reappear with diseases of the brain, particularly those affecting the frontal lobes. In this review we discuss some historical aspects surrounding these reflexes, how they might be elicited and interpreted, and their potential clinical utility in modern neurological practice. PMID:12700289

  11. Cutaneous metastasis of primitive neuroectodermal lung tumor.

    PubMed

    Garcia Romero, Diana; Hilara Sanchez, Yolanda; Perez Alvarez, Javier; Ramirez Garcia, Jose Ramon; De Pable Martin, Maria Pilar

    2013-06-15

    Primary sarcomas of the chest are rare. Although primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) usually develops in the chest wall, it has been described as a primary pulmonary tumor. We present an unusual case of PNET arising in the lung of an 89-year-old man.

  12. Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery That Mimics Persistent Primitive Otic Artery on Cerebral Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwangho; Park, Insung; Han, Jongwoo

    2016-01-01

    Persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) is the most common carotid-basilar anastomosis; on the other hand, persistent primitive otic artery (PPOA) is extremely rare. PPTA is often misdiagnosed as PPOA on cerebral angiography. We present a case of PPTA that mimicked PPOA on cerebral angiography. We further describe the utility of brain computed tomography angiography for differential diagnosis of PPTA from PPOA, together with a review of previous literature. PMID:27790403

  13. Metachronous bilateral isolated adrenal metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jabir, H; Tawfiq, N; Moukhlissi, M; Akssim, M; Guensi, A; Kadiri, B; Bouchbika, Z; Taleb, A; Benchekroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Zamiati, S; Benider, A

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients' follow-up for colorectal cancer.

  14. Starting with Complex Primitives Pays Off: Complicate Locally, Simplify Globally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Aravind K.

    2004-01-01

    In setting up a formal system to specify a grammar formalism, the conventional (mathematical) wisdom is to start with primitives (basic primitive structures) as simple as possible, and then introduce various operations for constructing more complex structures. An alternate approach is to start with complex (more complicated) primitives, which…

  15. Characterizing and Implementing Efficient Primitives for Privacy-Preserving Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    CHARACTERIZING AND IMPLEMENTING EFFICIENT PRIMITIVES FOR PRIVACY-PRESERVING COMPUTATION GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JULY 2015...FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) MAY 2011 – MAR 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHARACTERIZING AND IMPLEMENTING EFFICIENT PRIMITIVES ...computation to be executed upon it. However, the primitives making such computation possible are extremely expensive, and have long been viewed as

  16. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest Primitive Areas. 293.17 Section 293.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.17 National Forest Primitive Areas. (a) Within those areas...

  17. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Forest Primitive Areas. 293.17 Section 293.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.17 National Forest Primitive Areas. (a) Within those areas...

  18. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest Primitive Areas. 293.17 Section 293.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.17 National Forest Primitive Areas. (a) Within those areas...

  19. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forest Primitive Areas. 293.17 Section 293.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.17 National Forest Primitive Areas. (a) Within those areas...

  20. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forest Primitive Areas. 293.17 Section 293.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.17 National Forest Primitive Areas. (a) Within those areas...

  1. Deictic primitives for general purpose navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crismann, Jill D.

    1994-01-01

    A visually-based deictic primative used as an elementary command set for general purpose navigation was investigated. It was shown that a simple 'follow your eyes' scenario is sufficient for tracking a moving target. Limitations of velocity, acceleration, and modeling of the response of the mechanical systems were enforced. Realistic paths of the robots were produced during the simulation. Scientists could remotely command a planetary rover to go to a particular rock formation that may be interesting. Similarly an expert at plant maintenance could obtain diagnostic information remotely by using deictic primitives on a mobile are used in the deictic primitives, we could imagine that the exact same control software could be used for all of these applications.

  2. Chemical evolution of primitive solar system bodies.

    PubMed

    Oró, J; Mills, T

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we summarize some of the most salient observations made recently on the organic molecules and other compounds of the biogenic elements present in the interstellar medium and in the primitive bodies of the solar system. They include the discovery of the first phosphorus molecular species in dense interstellar clouds, the presence of complex organic ions in the dust and gas phase of Halley's coma, the finding of unusual, probably presolar, deuterium-hydrogen ratios in the amino acids of carbonaceous chondrites, and new developments on the chemical evolution of Titan, the primitive Earth, and early Mars. Some of the outstanding problems concerning the synthesis of organic molecules on different cosmic bodies are also discussed from an exobiological perspective.

  3. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour in a dog.

    PubMed

    Junginger, J; Röthlisberger, A; Lehmbecker, A; Stein, V M; Ludwig, D C; Baumgärtner, W; Seehusen, F

    2013-11-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd dog was presented with paraparesis quickly progressing to paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large mass beneath the thoracolumbar vertebral column infiltrating the spinal canal and resulting in severe extradural compression of the spinal cord. Microscopically, this comprised a cell-rich unencapsulated tumour supported by fine bands of a fibrovascular stroma and occasionally forming primitive rosettes. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumour cells to express synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells had low to moderate numbers of intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules. A peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour was diagnosed. This is a rare embryonal tumour of neural origin that may have arisen from adrenal medulla, autonomic ganglia or peripheral nerves.

  4. Survival of the primitive mantle reservoir?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2010-12-01

    The high-3He lavas are thought to originate from a deep primitive mantle source that has not been much modified since the formation of Earth’s core. Comparison of 4He/3He in MORBs and plume lavas indicate that the plume sources must be a lower mantle feature, in agreement with most geophysical inferences. However, the lithophile element isotope systems of plume lavas are not primitive. The idea that the high-3He source is significantly less processed and more primitive than MORB source is clearly supported by mixing trends in plots of 4He/3He versus Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, which have been extrapolated to an inferred 4He/3He of ~17,000 (~43x the atmospheric ratio), a mantle reservoir named PHEM (Primitive HElium Mantle). Slightly lower 4He/3He, ~15,000, were reported for Baffin Island picrites. Recently, Jackson et al. (2010) claimed that some Baffin Island and Greenland picrites with single-stage Pb model ages of ~4.5 Ga have low 4He/3He, and argued that “their source is the most ancient accessible reservoir in the Earth’s mantle, and it may be parental to all mantle reservoirs”. However, the available data are insufficient to make such a claim, and we suggest an alternative interpretation. Specially: 1. Four out of ten Baffin Island and Greenland picrites used by Jackson et al. (2010) have 4He/3He higher than average MORB value and all are far removed from the lowest measured value of 15,000. 2. Five Greenland picrites which cluster around the 4.50 Gyr geochron (Jackson et al., 2010) form a curved 207Pb*/206Pb*-4He/3He trend. This trend is best explained as a mixing line, implying that the single-stage Pb ages of these lavas are meaningless. 3. In a 207Pb*/206Pb*-4He/3He plot, Koolau lavas from Hawaii overlap with Baffin Island and Greenland picrites. If Baffin Island and Greenland picrites represent melts from the primitive mantle based on their Pb and He isotopes (Jackson et al., 2010), a similar argument can be applied to Koolau lavas. However, it

  5. Deriving motor primitives through action segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hemeren, Paul E; Thill, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment is to further understand the effect of levels of processing (top-down vs. bottom-up) on the perception of movement kinematics and primitives for grasping actions in order to gain insight into possible primitives used by the mirror system. In the present study, we investigated the potential of identifying such primitives using an action segmentation task. Specifically, we investigated whether or not segmentation was driven primarily by the kinematics of the action, as opposed to high-level top-down information about the action and the object used in the action. Participants in the experiment were shown 12 point-light movies of object-centered hand/arm actions that were either presented in their canonical orientation together with the object in question (top-down condition) or upside down (inverted) without information about the object (bottom-up condition). The results show that (1) despite impaired high-level action recognition for the inverted actions participants were able to reliably segment the actions according to lower-level kinematic variables, (2) segmentation behavior in both groups was significantly related to the kinematic variables of change in direction, velocity, and acceleration of the wrist (thumb and finger tips) for most of the included actions. This indicates that top-down activation of an action representation leads to similar segmentation behavior for hand/arm actions compared to bottom-up, or local, visual processing when performing a fairly unconstrained segmentation task. Motor primitives as parts of more complex actions may therefore be reliably derived through visual segmentation based on movement kinematics.

  6. Incidence of metachronous visible lesions in patients referred for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy for early Barrett's neoplasia: a single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Fernández-Sordo, J; Sami, S; Mansilla-Vivar, R; De Caestecker, J; Cole, A; Ragunath, K

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the incidence of metachronous visible lesions (VLs) in patients referred for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early Barrett's neoplasia. Design This study was conducted as part of the service evaluation audit. Setting Tertiary referral centre. Patients All patients with dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus referred for RFA were included for analysis. White light high-resolution endoscopy (HRE), autofluorescence imaging and narrow band imaging were sequentially performed. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) was performed for all VL. Three to six months after EMR, all patients underwent initial RFA and then repeat RFA procedures at three monthly intervals. Interventions All endoscopy reports and final staging by EMR/surgery were evaluated and included for analysis. Results Fifty patients were analysed; median age 73 years, 84% men. 38/50 patients (76%) had a previous EMR due to the presence of VL before referred for ablation; twelve patients had no previous treatment. In total, 151 ablation procedures were performed, median per patient 2.68. Twenty metachronous VL were identified in 14 patients before the first ablation or during the RFA protocol; incidence was 28%. All metachronous lesions were successfully resected by EMR. Upstaging after rescue EMR compared with the initial histology was observed in four patients (28%). Conclusions In total, 28% of patients enrolled in the RFA programme were diagnosed to have metachronous lesions. This high-incidence rate highlights the importance of a meticulous examination to identify and resect any VL before every ablation session. RFA treatment for early Barrett's neoplasia should be performed in tertiary referral centres with HRE and EMR facilities and expertise. PMID:26834956

  7. TWO BEYOND-PRIMITIVE EXTRASOLAR PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D. E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-04-01

    Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained high-resolution ultraviolet observations of GD 362 and PG 1225-079, two helium-dominated, externally polluted white dwarfs. We determined or placed useful upper limits on the abundances of two key volatile elements, carbon and sulfur, in both stars; we also constrained the zinc abundance in PG 1225-079. In combination with previous optical data, we find strong evidence that each of these two white dwarfs has accreted a parent body that has evolved beyond primitive nebular condensation. The planetesimal that accreted onto GD 362 had a bulk composition roughly similar to that of a mesosiderite meteorite based on a reduced chi-squared comparison with solar system objects; however, additional material is required to fully reproduce the observed mid-infrared spectrum for GD 362. No single meteorite can reproduce the unique abundance pattern observed in PG 1225-079; the best fit model requires a blend of ureilite and mesosiderite material. From a compiled sample of nine well-studied polluted white dwarfs, we find evidence for both primitive planetesimals, which are a direct product from nebular condensation, as well as beyond-primitive planetesimals, whose final compositions were mainly determined by post-nebular processing.

  8. Trace element distributions in primitive achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.

    1993-01-01

    The primitive achondrites have approximately chondritic bulk chemical composition but achondritic textures. Clayton et al. show that nine of these meteorites, the acapulcoites and the lodranites, have similar oxygen isotopic compositions. The acapulcoites appear to be highly metamorphosed, but undifferentiated meteorites of chondritic composition; whereas, the lodranites appear to have lost a feldspathic partial melt. In order to learn more about metamorphic processes and partial melt removal, we have measured the trace element compositions of constituent phases of a number of primitive achondrites by ion microprobe. We have analyzed two acapulcoites, Acapulco and ALH81261 (paired with ALH77081), and three londranites, Lodran, LEW88280, and MAC88177. In addition, we analyzed LEW88663, which has the bulk composition, mineral chemistry, and oxygen isotopic composition of L-chondrites, but is metal-free and has an achondrite texture; and Divnoe, a plagioclase-poor, olivine-rich primitive achondrite with an oxygen isotopic composition similar to that of the group IAB iron meteorites. These meteorites show a variety of REE patterns in their constituent phases, and there are consistent differences between acapulcoites and lodranites that are consistent with removal of a LREE- and Eu-enriched melt that is apparently responsible for the low plagioclase content of lodranites.

  9. Dimensional Analysis Using Toric Ideals: Primitive Invariants

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Mark A.; Bates, Ronald A.; Wynn, Henry P.

    2014-01-01

    Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer matrix from the initial integer matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups) is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by . One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of , is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found. PMID:25436774

  10. Long-term disease-free survival after surgical resection for multiple bone metastases from rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seok Jin; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Min Ro; Lee, Chang Ho; Kuh, Ja Hong; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2011-08-10

    Bone metastasis of primary colorectal cancer is uncommon. When it occurs, it is usually a late manifestation of disease and is indicative of poor prognosis. We describe a patient with multiple metachronous bone metastases from lower rectal cancer who was successfully treated with multimodal treatment including surgical resections and has shown 32 mo disease-free survival. Surgical resection of metastatic bone lesion(s) from colorectal cancer may be a good treatment option in selected patients.

  11. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after cancer resection: a consensus update by the American Cancer Society and US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rex, Douglas K; Kahi, Charles J; Levin, Bernard; Smith, Robert A; Bond, John H; Brooks, Durado; Burt, Randall W; Byers, Tim; Fletcher, Robert H; Hyman, Neil; Johnson, David; Kirk, Lynne; Lieberman, David A; Levin, Theodore R; O'Brien, Michael J; Simmang, Clifford; Thorson, Alan G; Winawer, Sidney J

    2006-01-01

    Patients with resected colorectal cancer are at risk for recurrent cancer and metachronous neoplasms in the colon. This joint update of guidelines by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer addresses only the use of endoscopy in the surveillance of these patients. Patients with endoscopically resected Stage I colorectal cancer, surgically resected Stage II and III cancers, and Stage IV cancer resected for cure (isolated hepatic or pulmonary metastasis) are candidates for endoscopic surveillance. The colorectum should be carefully cleared of synchronous neoplasia in the perioperative period. In nonobstructed colons, colonoscopy should be performed preoperatively. In obstructed colons, double contrast barium enema or computed tomography colonography should be done preoperatively, and colonoscopy should be performed 3 to 6 months after surgery. These steps complete the process of clearing synchronous disease. After clearing for synchronous disease, another colonoscopy should be performed in 1 year to look for metachronous lesions. This recommendation is based on reports of a high incidence of apparently metachronous second cancers in the first 2 years after resection. If the examination at 1 year is normal, then the interval before the next subsequent examination should be 3 years. If that colonoscopy is normal, then the interval before the next subsequent examination should be 5 years. Shorter intervals may be indicated by associated adenoma findings (see Postpolypectomy Surveillance Guideline). Shorter intervals are also indicated if the patient's age, family history, or tumor testing indicate definite or probable hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Patients undergoing low anterior resection of rectal cancer generally have higher rates of local cancer recurrence, compared with those with colon cancer. Although effectiveness is not proven, performance of endoscopic ultrasound or flexible sigmoidoscopy at 3- to 6

  12. Dimensional analysis using toric ideals: primitive invariants.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Mark A; Bates, Ronald A; Wynn, Henry P

    2014-01-01

    Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units [Formula: see text] etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer [Formula: see text] matrix from the initial integer [Formula: see text] matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The [Formula: see text] matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups) is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by [Formula: see text]. One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of [Formula: see text], is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found.

  13. Self assembly properties of primitive organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    A central event in the origin of life was the self-assembly of amphiphilic, lipid-like compounds into closed microenvironments. If a primitive macromolecular replicating system could be encapsulated within a vesicular membrane, the components of the system would share the same microenvironment, and the result would be a step toward true cellular function. The goal of our research has been to determine what amphiphilic molecules might plausibly have been available on the early Earth to participate in the formation of such boundary structures. To this end, we have investigated primitive organic mixtures present in carbonaceous meteorites such as the Murchison meteorite, which contains 1-2 percent of its mass in the form of organic carbon compounds. It is likely that such compounds contributed to the inventory of organic carbon on the prebiotic earth, and were available to participate in chemical evolution leading to the emergence of the first cellular life forms. We found that Murchison components extracted into non-polar solvent systems are surface active, a clear indication of amphiphilic character. One acidic fraction self-assembles into vesicular membranes that provide permeability barriers to polar solutes. Other evidence indicates that the membranes are bimolecular layers similar to those formed by contemporary membrane lipids. We conclude that bilayer membrane formation by primitive amphiphiles on the early Earth is feasible. However, only a minor fraction of acidic amphiphiles assembles into bilayers, and the resulting membranes require narrowly defined conditions of pH and ionic composition to be stable. It seems unlikely, therefore, that meteoritic infall was a direct source of membrane amphiphiles. Instead, the hydrocarbon components and their derivatives more probably would provide an organic stock available for chemical evolution. Our current research is directed at possible reactions which would generate substantial quantities of membranogenic

  14. Primitive Ontology and the Classical World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allori, Valia

    In this chapter, I present the common structure of quantum theories with a primitive ontology (PO), and discuss in what sense the classical world emerges from quantum theories as understood in this framework. In addition, I argue that the PO approach is better at analyzing the classical limit than the rival wave function ontology approach or any other approach in which the classical world is non-reductively "emergent:" even if the classical limit within this framework needs to be fully developed, the difficulties are technical rather than conceptual, while this is not true for the alternatives.

  15. Metachronous multicentric giant-cell tumor of the bone in the lower limb. Case report and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry study.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Marc-Antoine; Handra-Luca, Adriana; Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Catonné, Yves; Saillant, Gérard

    2004-07-01

    Multicentric giant-cell tumors of the bone (GCTs) are rare. Little is known about the mechanisms by which these tumors spread and how 1% of GCT turn out to be multicentric. We report the case of a 19-year-old woman with metachronous multiple and recurrent GCTs that were unusual in their pattern of progression along the right lower limb over a 23-year period. Histology showed no evidence of malignant transformation. The treatment was repeated curettage and packing with cement. This did not permit a wide surgical margin, but avoided amputation and preserved full limb function. We tested the proliferation index marker Ki-67 in the tumor specimens. Ki-67 expression was limited to the mononuclear cell component of the tumors. The proliferation index was similar in each new tumor and higher in recurrences for each location. In this case, proliferation was initially low in the new tumor location, despite the time difference and independent from the initial clone evolution. Proliferation index increased in recurrent GCTs after marginal margin resection.

  16. Metachronous EBV-associated B-cell and T-cell posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Morovic, Anamarija; Jaffe, Elaine S; Raffeld, Mark; Schrager, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) may occur as a complication of immunosuppression in patients who have received solid organ or bone marrow allografts. Most PTLDs are of B-cell lineage, whereas T-cell proliferations are rare. The majority of B-cell lesions are associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. The occurrence of both B-cell and T-cell PTLDs in the same patient is extremely rare and only 6 cases have been previously published. We report a case of a 63-year-old man who developed 2 metachronous Epstein-Barr virus-related PTLDs beginning 10 years after heart transplantation. A polymorphic B-cell PTLD developed first that completely regressed after immunosuppressive therapy was partially withdrawn. Then, a monomorphic T-cell PTLD developed 31 months later. The patient died 17 months later owing to disease progression. We highlight the diagnostic challenge of this case that required numerous ancillary studies for lineage assessment and classification. Such studies are often needed in patients with a history of immunosuppression.

  17. The mevalonate pathway regulates primitive streak formation via protein farnesylation

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto-Uchida, Yoshimi; Yu, Ruoxing; Miyamura, Norio; Arima, Norie; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Suguru; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Nawa, Makiko; Kasama, Takeshi; Asaoka, Yoichi; Alois, Reiner Wimmer; Elling, Ulrich; Penninger, Josef M.; Nishina, Sachiko; Azuma, Noriyuki; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The primitive streak in peri-implantation embryos forms the mesoderm and endoderm and controls cell differentiation. The metabolic cues regulating primitive streak formation remain largely unknown. Here we utilised a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation system and a library of well-characterised drugs to identify these metabolic factors. We found that statins, which inhibit the mevalonate metabolic pathway, suppressed primitive streak formation in vitro and in vivo. Using metabolomics and pharmacologic approaches we identified the downstream signalling pathway of mevalonate and revealed that primitive streak formation requires protein farnesylation but not cholesterol synthesis. A tagging-via-substrate approach revealed that nuclear lamin B1 and small G proteins were farnesylated in embryoid bodies and important for primitive streak gene expression. In conclusion, protein farnesylation driven by the mevalonate pathway is a metabolic cue essential for primitive streak formation. PMID:27883036

  18. Primitive agriculture in a social amoeba.

    PubMed

    Brock, Debra A; Douglas, Tracy E; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2011-01-20

    Agriculture has been a large part of the ecological success of humans. A handful of animals, notably the fungus-growing ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, have advanced agriculture that involves dispersal and seeding of food propagules, cultivation of the crop and sustainable harvesting. More primitive examples, which could be called husbandry because they involve fewer adaptations, include marine snails farming intertidal fungi and damselfish farming algae. Recent work has shown that microorganisms are surprisingly like animals in having sophisticated behaviours such as cooperation, communication and recognition, as well as many kinds of symbiosis. Here we show that the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a primitive farming symbiosis that includes dispersal and prudent harvesting of the crop. About one-third of wild-collected clones engage in husbandry of bacteria. Instead of consuming all bacteria in their patch, they stop feeding early and incorporate bacteria into their fruiting bodies. They then carry bacteria during spore dispersal and can seed a new food crop, which is a major advantage if edible bacteria are lacking at the new site. However, if they arrive at sites already containing appropriate bacteria, the costs of early feeding cessation are not compensated for, which may account for the dichotomous nature of this farming symbiosis. The striking convergent evolution between bacterial husbandry in social amoebas and fungus farming in social insects makes sense because multigenerational benefits of farming go to already established kin groups.

  19. The organic inventory of primitive meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita

    Carbonaceous meteorites are primitive samples that provide crucial information about the solar system genesis and evolution. This class of meteorites has also a rich organic inventory, which may have contributed the first prebiotic building blocks of life to the early Earth. We have studied the soluble organic inventory of several CR and CM meteorites, using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our target organic molecules include amino acids, nucleobases and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), among others. CR chondrites contain the highest amino acids concentration ever detected in a meteorite. The degree of aqueous alteration amongst this class of meteorites seems to be responsible for the amino acid distribution. Pioneering compound-specific carbon isotope measurements of nucleobases present in carbonaceous chondrites show that these compounds have a non-terrestrial origin. This suggests that components of the ge-netic code may have had a crucial role in life's origin. Investigating the abundances, distribution and isotopic composition of organic molecules in primitive meteorites significantly improves our knowledge of the chemistry of the early solar system, and the resources available for the first living organisms on Earth.

  20. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Yazc, Haşmet; Yiğit, Barş; Doğan, Sedat; Sunter, Ahmet Volkan; Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2013-05-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a member of malignant small round cell tumors. These tumors especially originate from the central and autonomous nervous system. However, these tumors may be originated from peripheral tissues and are called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor. A 14-year-old girl attended to the Ear Nose Throat Clinic with the complaint of progressive painless swelling mass for 2 months on the right side of the face. Neck magnetic resonance imaging showed 3.5 × 2.5 × 2-cm isointense mass on T1 and hyperintense on T2 sequences. There was no pathological lymphadenopathy on computed tomographic scan. As a result of mandibular cortical invasion seen on computed tomographic scan, radical surgical excision was decided as surgical treatment. Total parotidectomy with preserving facial nerve and partial mandibulectomy with a 2-cm margin of safety were done, and reconstruction plaque applied to the mandible. Two lymph nodes were seen at the submandibular region. For this reason, prophylactic supraomohyoid neck dissection had also been performed. Pathological assessment proved the diagnosis of PNET, and chemoradiotherapy was planned for the patient.To our knowledge, this is the second reported case in literature. In this present case, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor in the masseter muscle and its diagnosis and treatment process were reported with literature review.

  1. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ricardo; Castano, Ananda; Abelairas, Jose; Peralta, Jesus; Garcia-Cabezas, Miguel A; Sanchez-Orgaz, Margarita; Arbizu, Alvaro; Vallejo-Garcia, Jose

    2011-07-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours (pPNETs) are a group of soft-tissue tumours of neuroepithelial origin that arise outside the central and sympathetic nervous system. Orbital location is infrequent, and to the best of the authors' knowledge only 16 cases have been reported in the literature. With this article, the authors report the demographics and clinical characteristics, diagnostic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options of primary orbital peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour, based on their patients and on the cases reported in the literature to date. A differential diagnosis should be made with other small round cell tumours; immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques are essential for this purpose. Although bone invasion and extraorbital extension are possible, systemic metastases are uncommon in the cases of orbital pPNETs. Surgery has been the initial treatment in most cases; chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy is considered the best additional treatment. The orbital pPNET could be less aggressive than other forms of pPNETs, since most of the patients reported were alive after the follow-up period (at least 6 months).

  2. Metachronous metastasis to the oral cavity from carcinoma rectum - a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Usman, Nawaz; Kattepur, Abhay; Gopinath, Kodaganur S

    2014-12-01

    The common patterns of dissemination and recurrence of rectal cancer are known and well documented. However extravisceral involvement is a relatively uncommon entity. Therefore, these metastases are not well studied in sufficiently large numbers to formulate evidence based recommendations regarding their optimal treatment. This report describes a case of carcinoma of the rectum metastatic to the oral cavity causing symptoms severe enough to necessitate operative management.

  3. Aggressive surgical resection for concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Jin Hong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Dae Joon; Choi, Gi Hong; Choi, Jin Sub

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Aggressive surgical resection for hepatic metastasis is validated, however, concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer patients is equivocal. Methods Clinicopathologic data from January 2008 through December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed in 234 patients with colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis. Clinicopathologic factors and survival data were analyzed. Results Of the 234 patients, 129 (55.1%) had synchronous concomitant liver and lung metastasis from colorectal cancer and 36 (15.4%) had metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection was performed in 33 patients (25.6%) with synchronous and 6 (16.7%) with metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection showed better overall survival in both groups (synchronous, p=0.001; metachronous, p=0.028). In the synchronous metastatic group, complete resection of both liver and lung metastatic lesions had better survival outcomes than incomplete resection of two metastatic lesions (p=0.037). The primary site of colorectal cancer and complete resection were significant prognostic factors (p=0.06 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions Surgical resection for hepatic and pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer can improve complete remission and survival rate in resectable cases. Colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis is not a poor prognostic factor or a contraindication for surgical treatments, hence, an aggressive surgical approach may be recommended in well-selected resectable cases. PMID:27621747

  4. Surveillance and Survivorship after Treatment for Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Makhoul, Rami; Alva, Suraj; Wilkins, Kirsten B.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in the United States. Majority of patients have localized disease that is amenable to curative resection. Disease recurrence remains a major concern after resection. In addition, patients are at an increased risk for developing a second or metachronous colon cancer. The principal goal of surveillance following treatment of colon cancer is to improve disease-free and overall survival. Survivorship is a distinct phase following surveillance to help improve quality of life and promote longevity. PMID:26648797

  5. Natural history of colorectal cancer in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndromes I and II).

    PubMed

    Lynch, H T; Watson, P; Lanspa, S J; Marcus, J; Smyrk, T; Fitzgibbons, R J; Kriegler, M; Lynch, J F

    1988-06-01

    Approximately 5 to 6 percent of the total colorectal cancer burden is accounted for by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Because clinical premonitory signs such as those seen in familial polyposis coli (FPC) are lacking, the clinician must recognize clinical findings and family history typical of HNPCC. The authors have described colorectal cancer expression from a survey of ten HNPCC kindreds. Kindred members with colorectal cancer differed significantly (P less than .05) from patients with sporadic colorectal cancer: 1) mean age of initial colon cancer diagnosis was 44.6 years; 2) 72.3 percent of first colon cancers were located in the right colon, and only 25 percent were in the sigmoid colon and rectum; 3) 18.1 percent had synchronous colon cancers; and 4) 24.2 percent developed metachronous colon cancer, with a risk for metachronous lesions in ten years of 40 percent. Affecteds and their first-degree relatives should undergo early intensive education and surveillance. In families with an early age of onset, colonoscopy should begin at age 25, and biannually thereafter, with fecal occult blood testing of the stool semiannually. Third-party carriers must become more responsive to the costly surveillance measures required for these otherwise healthy patients.

  6. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process.

  7. Primitive boron isotope composition of the mantle.

    PubMed

    Chaussidon, M; Marty, B

    1995-07-21

    Boron isotope ratios are homogeneous in volcanic glasses of oceanic island basalts [-9.9 +/- 1.3 per mil, relative to standard NBS 951 (defined by the National Bureau of Standards)], whereas mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORBs) and back-arc basin basalts (BABBs) show generally higher and more variable ratios. Melts that have assimilated even small amounts of altered basaltic crust show significant variations in the boron isotope ratios. Assimilation may thus account for the higher boron ratios of MORBs and BABBs. A budget of boron between mantle and crust implies that the primitive mantle had a boron isotope ratio of -10 +/- 2 per mil and that this ratio was not fractionated significantly during the differentiation of the mantle.

  8. Yamato 980459: The Most Primitive Shergottite?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, G.; Le, L.; Schwandt, C.; Mikouchi, T.; Koizumi, E.; Jones, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Antarctic Research Center of the Japanese National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) recently announced the discovery of a new Martian shergottite, Y98(0459). This sample is a member of the subgroup of basaltic shergottites that contain abundant olivine phenocrysts, and are thus olivine- phyric. Y98 may have special significance among the basaltic shergottites because (1) it appears to have been the most magnesian Martian magma yet found, and thus can provide valuable clues to magma petrogenesis on Mars; (2) it contains no late-crystallizing phases, but instead contains approx. 30% interstitial glass, which can provide unambiguous incompatible element patterns of the parent melt; and (3) it carries an LREE-depleted signature similar to QUE 94201, whose isotopic characteristics are the most primitive of all basaltic shergottites.

  9. Giant impacts on a primitive Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slattery, Wayne L.; Benz, Willy; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Simulations of collisions are conducted between a model of the primitive Uranus and 1-3 earth-mass impactors, using smooth-particle hydrodynamics. A series of collisions was simulated for each impactor while varying the total angular momentum of the system. Most of the simulation runs left ices in orbit; a subset of the runs also left rock or iron (from the impactor). It is concluded on the basis of these results that there is a wide range of giant impacts which could have produced the current period and inclination of the spin axis relative to the plane of the ecliptic. A subset of these could have deposited the material in orbit from which the regular satellites of Uranus were assembled.

  10. Primitive material surviving in chondrites - Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Barber, D. J.; Alexander, C. M.; Hutchinson, R.; Peck, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A logical place to search for surviving pristine nebular material is in the fine-grained matrices of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic type 3. Unfortunately, many of these chondrites have experienced brecciation, thermal metamorphism, and aqueous alteration, so that interpreting individual features in terms of specific nebular conditions and/or processes is difficult. It follows that the origin and evolutionary history of such matrix phases are controversial, and a consensus is difficult to define. In this chapter, therefore, after summarizing the salient mineralogical, petrographic, chemical, and isotopic features of matrix in apparently primitive chondrites, an attempt is made to provide an overview both of areas of agreement and of topics that are currently in dispute.

  11. Elemental Composition of Primitive Anhydrous IDPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, G.; Wirick, S.; Sutton, S. R.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2015-10-01

    We measured elemental compositions of five large anhydrous cluster interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) that show no evidence of significant thermal alteration during atmospheric entry and found their mean composition to be very similar to that of primitive CI meteorites. Our results indicate that the enrichment in moderately volatile elements and the depletion in S found in the ~10 μm anhydrous, chondritic porous (CP) IDPs, the matrix of these cluster IDPs, are not representative of the composition of their parent body. The inclusion of larger (>10 μm) volatile-poor silicates as well as sulfides in the large anhydrous cluster IDPs, which sample the CP IDP parent body at a larger size scale, suggests the large cluster IDPs are unbiased samples of the condensable material of the Solar Nebula.

  12. PRICE: primitive centred schemes for hyperbolic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, E. F.; Siviglia, A.

    2003-08-01

    We present first- and higher-order non-oscillatory primitive (PRI) centred (CE) numerical schemes for solving systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations written in primitive (or non-conservative) form. Non-conservative systems arise in a variety of fields of application and they are adopted in that form for numerical convenience, or more importantly, because they do not posses a known conservative form; in the latter case there is no option but to apply non-conservative methods. In addition we have chosen a centred, as distinct from upwind, philosophy. This is because the systems we are ultimately interested in (e.g. mud flows, multiphase flows) are exceedingly complicated and the eigenstructure is difficult, or very costly or simply impossible to obtain. We derive six new basic schemes and then we study two ways of extending the most successful of these to produce second-order non-oscillatory methods. We have used the MUSCL-Hancock and the ADER approaches. In the ADER approach we have used two ways of dealing with linear reconstructions so as to avoid spurious oscillations: the ADER TVD scheme and ADER with ENO reconstruction. Extensive numerical experiments suggest that all the schemes are very satisfactory, with the ADER/ENO scheme being perhaps the most promising, first for dealing with source terms and secondly, because higher-order extensions (greater than two) are possible. Work currently in progress includes the application of some of these ideas to solve the mud flow equations. The schemes presented are generic and can be applied to any hyperbolic system in non-conservative form and for which solutions include smooth parts, contact discontinuities and weak shocks. The advantage of the schemes presented over upwind-based methods is simplicity and efficiency, and will be fully realized for hyperbolic systems in which the provision of upwind information is very costly or is not available.

  13. Motor learning through the combination of primitives.

    PubMed Central

    Mussa-Ivaldi, F A; Bizzi, E

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a new perspective on how the central nervous system (CNS) represents and solves some of the most fundamental computational problems of motor control. In particular, we consider the task of transforming a planned limb movement into an adequate set of motor commands. To carry out this task the CNS must solve a complex inverse dynamic problem. This problem involves the transformation from a desired motion to the forces that are needed to drive the limb. The inverse dynamic problem is a hard computational challenge because of the need to coordinate multiple limb segments and because of the continuous changes in the mechanical properties of the limbs and of the environment with which they come in contact. A number of studies of motor learning have provided support for the idea that the CNS creates, updates and exploits internal representations of limb dynamics in order to deal with the complexity of inverse dynamics. Here we discuss how such internal representations are likely to be built by combining the modular primitives in the spinal cord as well as other building blocks found in higher brain structures. Experimental studies on spinalized frogs and rats have led to the conclusion that the premotor circuits within the spinal cord are organized into a set of discrete modules. Each module, when activated, induces a specific force field and the simultaneous activation of multiple modules leads to the vectorial combination of the corresponding fields. We regard these force fields as computational primitives that are used by the CNS for generating a rich grammar of motor behaviours. PMID:11205339

  14. Deducing behaviors from primitive movement attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Danzhou; Hughes, Charles E.

    2005-03-01

    The research reported here anticipates the future of smart buildings by developing algorithms that categorize the movements of individuals based on such characteristics as motion vectors, velocity vectors, head orientation vectors and predetermined positions. The intended applications include detecting intrusions, helping lost visitors, and changing the artwork on virtual posters to reflect an individual's presumed interests. The vectors we capture represent trajectories in a multi-dimensional space. To make sense out of these, we first segment a trajectory into sub-trajectories, typically based on time. To describe each sub-trajectory, we use primitive patterns of body movement and additional information, e.g., average speed during this interval, head movement and place or object nearby. That is, for each sub-trajectory, we use a tuple of the following form: (interval_ID, body_movement, avg_speed, head_movement, places_passed). Since trajectories may have many outliers introduced by sensor failures or uneven human movement, we have developed a neural network-based pattern extraction subsystem that can handle intervals with noisy data. The choice of these attributes and our current classification of behaviors do not imply that these are the only or best ways to categorize behaviors. However, we do not see that as the focus of the research reported here. Rather, our goal is to show that the use of primitive attributes (low level), neural networks to identify categories of recognizable simple behaviors (middle level) and a regular expression-based means of describing intent (high level) is sufficient to provide a means to convert observable low-level attributes into the recognition of potential intents.

  15. 36 CFR 261.21 - National Forest primitive areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forest primitive areas. 261.21 Section 261.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.21 National Forest primitive areas. The following...

  16. 36 CFR 261.21 - National Forest primitive areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forest primitive areas. 261.21 Section 261.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.21 National Forest primitive areas. The following...

  17. A manual for PARTI runtime primitives, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Raja; Saltz, Joel; Berryman, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Primitives are presented that are designed to help users efficiently program irregular problems (e.g., unstructured mesh sweeps, sparse matrix codes, adaptive mesh partial differential equations solvers) on distributed memory machines. These primitives are also designed for use in compilers for distributed memory multiprocessors. Communications patterns are captured at runtime, and the appropriate send and receive messages are automatically generated.

  18. A rare case of metachronous penile and urethral metastases from a rectal mucinous adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Christodoulidou, Michelle; Sahdev, Varun; Muneer, Asif; Nigam, Raj

    2015-11-05

    Metastatic lesions in the penis are uncommon in patients with prostate or bladder cancer but penile metastatic lesions from rectal tumours are rare with only 65 cases reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 70-year-old man who developed metastatic lesions within his corpus cavernosum 2 years after being diagnosed and treated for a mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum and a year after a wedge resection of an isolated lung metastasis. He proceeded with total penectomy and intraoperatively two skip lesions were also found within the wall of his urethra; histological analysis proved that these were also metastatic lesions. A perineal urethrostomy was formed with the remaining macroscopically healthy urethra. He made a good recovery from his operation and continued his treatment under the oncology team.

  19. [A Case of Rectal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with Metachronous Liver Metastasis Treated with Multimodality Therapy].

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Yohei; Shimizu, Hisashi; Naganuma, Atsushi; Aiba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Tetsushi; Ogawa, Akira; Osamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    A 6 2-year-old woman visited our hospital with a complaint of anal bleeding and was diagnosed with rectal cancer. She underwent low anterior resection and D3 lymphadenectomy. The pathological diagnosis was shown as follows: Ra, Circ, type 2, por1, pSS, ly3, v1, pN2, pStage III b, and KRAS wild type. UFT/UZEL with polysaccharide K(PSK)was initiated as adjuvant chemotherapy after the operation. However, multiple liver metastases were found on CT after 3 courses of UFT/UZEL with PSK, and pathological reexamination revealed that the primary tumor was a neuroendocrine carcinoma. She underwent chemotherapy with CBDCA combined with CPT-11, but bone marrow suppression was observed after 4 courses of the treatment. As second-line chemotherapy, FOLFOX4 plus panitumumab(Pmab)was administered. Although the disease remained stable through 10 courses of FOLFOX4 plus Pmab, Grade 3 peripheral neuropathy was observed. Hence, FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab(Bmab)was administered as third-line chemotherapy. Twenty-eight courses of FOLFIRI plus Bmab were administered, and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE)was performed during chemotherapy. However, her general condition worsened after the therapies, and she died 2 years 3 months after the initial chemotherapy.

  20. [Metachronous metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma to the penis--case report].

    PubMed

    Küronya, Zsófia; Bodrogi, István; Lövey, József; Plótár, Vanda; Manninger, Sándor; Pápai, Zsuzsanna

    2009-09-01

    Despite of its rich vascularization and extensive circulatory communication with neighboring organs, penile metastases are rare. Even more infrequent is a penile metastasis of rectum tumors. Since the first report of rectal carcinoma with metastasis to the penis (Ehbert 1870), approximately 50 cases have been reported, most of them from the USA, the remaining from Western Europe, the Middle East and Japan. The first Hungarian case is reported now of penile metastasis of a rectal carcinoma. The case of a 65-year-old man is presented: isolated penile metastasis discovered 4.5 years after the primary rectal cancer resection. IHC tissue diagnosis and detailed clinical investigations confirmed metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma. As our patient refused penectomy and KRAS mutation was proven, FOLFIRI chemotherapy was initiated without cetuximab. This was followed by chemoradiotherapy that resulted only in transient regression. Currently the patient receives the FOLFOX regimen. At present the patient is in good performance status,without pain. The size and the number of penile metastases have not shown significant changes. According to the literature the average survival of patients with penile metastases treated with radiochemotherapy is 8 months. New chemotherapeutic modalities may improve the survival.

  1. Stem sarcopterygians have primitive polybasal fin articulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    Among osteichthyans, basal actinopterygian fishes (e.g. paddlefish and bowfins) have paired fins with three endoskeletal components (pro-, meso- and metapterygia) articulating with polybasal shoulder girdles, while sarcopterygian fishes (lungfish, coelacanths and relatives) have paired fins with one endoskeletal component (metapterygium) articulating with monobasal shoulder girdles. In the fin–limb transition, the origin of the sarcopterygian paired fins triggered new possibilities of fin articulation and movement, and established the proximal segments (stylopod and zeugopod) of the presumptive tetrapod limb. Several authors have stated that the monobasal paired fins in sarcopterygians evolved from a primitive polybasal condition. However, the fossil record has been silent on whether and when the inferred transition took place. Here we describe three-dimensionally preserved shoulder girdles of two stem sarcopterygians (Psarolepis and Achoania) from the Lower Devonian of Yunnan, which demonstrate that stem sarcopterygians have polybasal pectoral fin articulation as in basal actinopterygians. This finding provides a phylogenetic and temporal constraint for studying the origin of the stylopod, which must have originated within the stem sarcopterygian lineage through the loss of the propterygium and mesopterygium. PMID:19324642

  2. Sperm Cells of a Primitive Strepsipteran

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, James B.; Delgado, Juan A.; Collantes, Francisco; Miller, Lou Ann; Bee, Charles M.; Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney

    2013-01-01

    The unusual life style of Strepsiptera has presented a long-standing puzzle in establishing its affinity to other insects. Although Strepsiptera share few structural similarities with other insect orders, all members of this order share a parasitic life style with members of two distinctive families in the Coleoptera—the order now considered the most closely related to Strepsiptera based on recent genomic evidence. Among the structural features of several strepsipteran families and other insect families that have been surveyed are the organization of testes and ultrastructure of sperm cells. For comparison with existing information on insect sperm structure, this manuscript presents a description of testes and sperm of a representative of the most primitive extant strepsipteran family Mengenillidae, Eoxenos laboulbenei. We compare sperm structure of E. laboulbenei from this family with that of the three other families of Strepsiptera in the other strepsipteran suborder Stylopidia that have been studied as well as with members of the beetle families Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae that share similar life histories with Strepsiptera. Meloids, Rhipiphorids and Strepsipterans all begin larval life as active and viviparous first instar larvae. This study examines global features of these insects’ sperm cells along with specific ultrastructural features of their organelles. PMID:26462430

  3. Sperm Cells of a Primitive Strepsipteran.

    PubMed

    Nardi, James B; Delgado, Juan A; Collantes, Francisco; Miller, Lou Ann; Bee, Charles M; Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney

    2013-09-04

    The unusual life style of Strepsiptera has presented a long-standing puzzle in establishing its affinity to other insects. Although Strepsiptera share few structural similarities with other insect orders, all members of this order share a parasitic life style with members of two distinctive families in the Coleoptera-the order now considered the most closely related to Strepsiptera based on recent genomic evidence. Among the structural features of several strepsipteran families and other insect families that have been surveyed are the organization of testes and ultrastructure of sperm cells. For comparison with existing information on insect sperm structure, this manuscript presents a description of testes and sperm of a representative of the most primitive extant strepsipteran family Mengenillidae, Eoxenos laboulbenei. We compare sperm structure of E. laboulbenei from this family with that of the three other families of Strepsiptera in the other strepsipteran suborder Stylopidia that have been studied as well as with members of the beetle families Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae that share similar life histories with Strepsiptera. Meloids, Rhipiphorids and Strepsipterans all begin larval life as active and viviparous first instar larvae. This study examines global features of these insects' sperm cells along with specific ultrastructural features of their organelles.

  4. Likelihood reinstates Archaeopteryx as a primitive bird.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S Y; Worthy, Trevor H

    2012-04-23

    The widespread view that Archaeopteryx was a primitive (basal) bird has been recently challenged by a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis that placed Archaeopteryx with deinonychosaurian theropods. The new phylogeny suggested that typical bird flight (powered by the front limbs only) either evolved at least twice, or was lost/modified in some deinonychosaurs. However, this parsimony-based result was acknowledged to be weakly supported. Maximum-likelihood and related Bayesian methods applied to the same dataset yield a different and more orthodox result: Archaeopteryx is restored as a basal bird with bootstrap frequency of 73 per cent and posterior probability of 1. These results are consistent with a single origin of typical (forelimb-powered) bird flight. The Archaeopteryx-deinonychosaur clade retrieved by parsimony is supported by more characters (which are on average more homoplasious), whereas the Archaeopteryx-bird clade retrieved by likelihood-based methods is supported by fewer characters (but on average less homoplasious). Both positions for Archaeopteryx remain plausible, highlighting the hazy boundary between birds and advanced theropods. These results also suggest that likelihood-based methods (in addition to parsimony) can be useful in morphological phylogenetics.

  5. Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Z.; Alexander, C. M. O. D.; Orzechowska, G. E.; Fogel, M. L.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    CR chondrites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites. Three CRs, Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577, were analyzed for their amino acid content using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET 92042 and GRA 95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 ppm to 249 ppm. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET 92042 and GRA 95229 meteorites are the α-amino acids glycine, isovaline, α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), and alanine, with δ13C values ranging from +31.6‰ to +50.5‰. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly indicate an extraterrestrial origin for these compounds. Compared to Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042 and GRA 95229, the more aqueously altered GRO 95577 is depleted in amino acids. In both CRs and CMs, the absolute amino acid abundances appear to be related to the degree of aqueous alteration in their parent bodies. In addition, the relative abundances of α-AIB and β-alanine in the Antarctic CRs also appear to depend on the degree of aqueous alteration.

  6. Evidence of Nebula Processes from Primitive Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassen, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Astronomical observations of T Tauri stars provide information about the masses, sizes, temperatures, and lifetimes of the solar-nebula-like disks surrounding these stars. Theoretical interpretations of these observations can be used to construct models of the evolution of the solar nebula, and to derive implications for the properties of meteoritic material. The consequences of nebular thermal history might have been retained in patterns of elemental fractionation, presolar grains abundances, and oxygen isotopes, among other meteorite properties. Thus, such data may be used in conjunction with models to constrain the parameters that describe the overall evolution of the solar nebula. On the other hand, major meteoritic components such as chondrules and CAIs apparently reflect localized processes that are not readily related to global thermal evolution. In several cases, the theoretical tools required for the evaluation of proposals for their mode of formation exist, but have yet to be applied. Proposals that meteoritic material was thermally and radiatively processed very close to the young Sun, based on the emerging picture of the interactions between young stars and their disks, have radical consequences for the distribution of solid material in the solar system and the formation of chondritic meteorites. Tests of these models may be provided by their predictions for irradiated material and the physical characteristics of primitive meteorites.

  7. Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Xu, Hanjiang; Zhou, Jun; Hao, Zongyao; Wang, Jianzhong; Lin, Changmin; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xia; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-12-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a malignant small round cell tumor and typically arises from bone or soft tissue in adolescents and young adults. Renal PNET is extraordinarily rare and exhibits highly aggressive biological behavior with poor prognosis.We present here a new case of renal PNET in a 31-year-old female. The patients were referred to our hospital because of left flank pain with nausea and vomiting for 1 week. A computed tomography scan revealed a 14.7 × 12.7 cm well-defined, unevenly mass lesion with both solid and cystic components and the tumor was not enhanced uniformly.A preoperative diagnosis of cystic renal cell carcinoma and urinary tract infection was made. The patient undergone anti-inflammatory therapy followed by a left radical nephrectomy. Taken with morphological pattern and immunohistochemical markers, a diagnosis of renal PNET was made. Two cycles of combined chemotherapy were executed. At the 14-month follow-up, no evidence of metastasis or recurrence was indicated.This case reminds clinicians that for adolescents and young adults with a suspicious renal mass, a diagnosis of renal PNET should be always considered. An initial surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy is suggested for the therapeutic management.

  8. From Titan to the primitive Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, F.; Gpcos Team

    Our knowledge of the conditions prevailing in the environment of the primitive Earth is still very limited, due to the lack of geological data. Fortunately, there are a few planetary objects in the solar system which present similarities with our planet, including during its early history. Titan is one of these. With a diameter of more than 5100 km, Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is also the only one to have a dense atmosphere. This atmosphere, clearly evidenced by the presence of haze layers, extends to approximately 1500 km. Like the Earth, Titan's atmosphere is mainly composed of dinitrogen, N2 . The other main constituents are methane, CH4 , about 1.6% to 2.0% in the stratosphere, as measured by CIRS on Cassini and GC-MS on Huygens and dihydrogen (H2 , approximate 0.1%). With surface temperatures of approximately 94 K, and an average surface pressure of 1.5 bar, Titan's atmosphere is nearly five times denser than the Earth's. Despite of these differences between Titan and the Earth there are several analogies that can be drawn between the two planetary bodies. The first resemblances concern the vertical atmospheric structure. Although Titan is much colder, with a troposphere (˜94-˜70 K), a tropopause (70.4 K) and a stratosphere (˜70-175 K) its atmosphere presents a similar complex structure to that of the Earth. These analogies are linked to the presence in both atmospheres of greenhouse gases: CH4 and H2 on Titan, equivalent respectively to terrestrial condensable H2 O and non-condensable CO2 . In addition the haze particles and clouds in Titan's atmosphere play an antigreenhouse effect similar to that of the terrestrial atmospheric aerosols and clouds. Indeed, methane on Titan seems to play the role of water on the Earth, with a complex cycle, which still has to be understood. The possibility that Titan is covered with hydrocarbon oceans is now ruled out, but it is still possible that Titan's surface include lakes of methane and ethane. Moreover, the

  9. A primitive enzyme for a primitive cell: the protease required for excystation of Giardia.

    PubMed

    Ward, W; Alvarado, L; Rawlings, N D; Engel, J C; Franklin, C; McKerrow, J H

    1997-05-02

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are one of the earliest lineages of eukaryotic cells. To initiate infection, trophozoites emerge from a cyst in the host. Excystation is blocked by specific cysteine protease inhibitors. Using a biotinylated inhibitor, the target protease was identified and its corresponding gene cloned. The protease was localized to vesicles that release their contents just prior to excystation. The Giardia protease is the earliest known branch of the cathepsin B family. Its phylogeny confirms that the cathepsin B lineage evolved in primitive eukaryotic cells, prior to the divergence of plant and animal kingdoms, and underscores the diversity of cellular functions that this enzyme family facilitates.

  10. The Artist/Craftsman/Teacher: And Primitive Pottery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbalaitis, Victor

    1978-01-01

    In two related articles, the author describes (1) a field trip during which his high school ceramics club collected clay from the outdoors and (2) the process he used to create primitive pottery pieces from such material. (SJL)

  11. A comment on methanogenic bacteria and the primitive ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    As the phenotype of methanogenic bacteria is suggested to have been one of the major factors creating a dynamic balance between CO2 and CH4 in the primitive atmosphere, these organisms are thought to be very ancient. Their antiquity may be further postulated by comparative characterization of their ribosomal RNA. Accepting this antiquity, it is concluded that a carbon-dioxide-methane cycle, driven by photosynthesis, was the major carbon cycle in primitive ecology, and that photosynthesis and methanogens were thus contemporaneous.

  12. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor on MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Thoriya, Prashant J; Watal, Pankaj; Bahri, Nandini U; Rathod, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    Neoplasms in the region of filum terminale are not uncommon. Myxopapillary ependymoma is the commonest tumor at this location. The differentials reported for this entity are nerve sheath tumor, meningioma, paraganglioma, intradural metastases, lymphoma, other varieties of ependymoma, subependymoma, astrocytoma, ganglioglioma, hemangioblastoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). PNET may very rarely present as an intradural thoracolumbar mass. We present pre- and post-therapy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a patient with proven primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PSPNET) of peripheral subtype.

  13. Optimal follow-up to curative colon and rectal cancer surgery: how and for how long?

    PubMed

    Asgeirsson, Theodor; Zhang, Sen; Senagore, Anthony J

    2010-10-01

    In 2009, the projected incidence for colon and rectal cancers in the United States was 106,100 and 40,870, respectively, and approximately 75% of these patients were treated with curative intent. Surveillance or follow-up after colon and rectal cancer resection serves multiple purposes; however, the primary argument supporting the validity of surveillance is the detection of metachronous and recurrent cancers amenable to curative treatment. The surveillance may provide some comfort for cancer survivors who can be informed that they have no evidence of disease.

  14. Disease evolution and heterogeneity in bilateral breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fountzilas, Elena; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Zagouri, Flora; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Kouvatseas, George; Pentheroudakis, George; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Bobos, Mattheos; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Samantas, Epaminontas; Demiri, Efterpi; Miliaras, Spyros; Christodoulou, Christos; Chrisafi, Sofia; Razis, Evangelia; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Zografos, George; Fountzilas, George

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral breast cancers (BBC) are currently treated as independent tumors arising in the same patient. Herein, we investigated whether BBC indeed evolve independently at the genomic level. We examined paired targeted next generation sequencing genotypes from 155 paraffin tumors corresponding to 76 BBC patients (75 women and one man; 52 concurrent and 24 metachronous), for coding mutations (amino acid changing, minor allele frequency <0.1%) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) zygosity. Germline genotypes were available for 29 patients. Mutations were present in 80 tumors (54/76 patients; 71%), were mostly tumor-private (90%), more frequent in TP53 (19%), PIK3CA (14%), CDH1, GATA3, MLL3. TP53 mutations were more frequent in metachronous tumors (P<0.001); hormone receptor negative (P<0.001); with higher Ki-67 (P=0.002); and, in younger patients (P=0.01). Hypermutated tumors, all TP53 mutated, were diagnosed as the first incidence in 5 patients; their metachronous counterparts were mutation poor without TP53 involvement. Paired tumors shared common mutations at intratumoral frequency >20% in 10/54 comparable BBC (18.5%), 8/10 concurrent. SNP zygosity status was less preserved in metachronous, compared to concurrent disease. Pathogenic germline mutations were present in 10/29 patients, 9 in BRCA1 and one in TP53 (p.Phe341Val, first report in the germline). BBC demonstrated extensive inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity in the present thus far largest series of corresponding paired genotypes. The majority evolve independently and unpredictably, supporting current clinical practice. A considerable minority though, retains clonal origin and may be regarded as a distinct group for therapeutic interventions among concurrent BBC.

  15. Metachronous multiple carcinomas arising at a colostomy site 15 years after abdominoperineal resection: a case report and review of Japanese literature.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Norihiro; Maeda, Koutarou; Hanai, Tsunekazu; Sato, Harunobu; Masumori, Kouji; Katsuno, Hidetoshi; Maruta, Morito

    2009-01-01

    Metachronous multiple carcinomas at the site of a stoma is a rare condition after surgery. A 67-year-old man with a second tumor at the stoma site 15 years after abdominoperineal resection for rectal carcinoma is reported herein with a review of the Japanese literature. The patient visited our hospital 20 years after initial surgery, presenting with constipation and increasing tumor size in the stoma. A biopsy specimen of the tumor revealed adenocarcinoma. Block resection of the sigmoid colon and colostomy with the adjacent abdominal wall was performed. Histopathological examination showed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in the stoma invading the adjacent skin. A median of 144 months from the initial operation was documented in 23 cases reported.

  16. Comet Dust: The Diversity of "Primitive" Particles and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Ishii, Hope A.; Bradley, John P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples ( IDP's(Interplanetary Dust Particles) and AMM's (Antarctic Micrometeorites)) and of comet dust samples (Stardust and Rosetta's COSIMA), as well as through remote sensing (spectroscopy and imaging) via Spitzer and via spacecraft encounters with 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Microscale investigations show that comet dust and cosmic dust are particles of unequilibrated materials, including aggregates of materials unequilibrated at submicron scales. We call unequilibrated materials "primitive" and we deduce they were incorporated into ice-rich (H2O-, CO2-, and CO-ice) parent bodies that remained cold, i.e., into comets, because of the lack of aqueous or thermal alteration since particle aggregation; yet some Stardust olivines suggest mild thermal metamorphism. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; size and size distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and organic matter; D-, N-, and O- isotopic enhancements over solar; Mg-, Fe-contents of the silicate minerals; the compositions and concentrations of sulfides, and of less abundant mineral species such as chondrules, CAIs and carbonates. The uniformity within a group of samples points to: aerodynamic sorting of particles and/or particle constituents; the inclusion of a limited range of oxygen fugacities; the inclusion or exclusion of chondrules; a selection of organics. The properties of primitive particles imply there were disk processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disk present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.

  17. Isolated splenic metastasis from colon cancer: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Omor, Youssef; Boutayeb, Saber; Elkhannoussi, Basma; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Isolated splenic metastases from colorectal cancer are very rare clinical entities and when they are present, they usually manifest widely disseminated disease. In this paper we report a case of metachronous solitary isolated splenic metastasis from colon cancer in a 64-year-old woman who was successfully treated by laparoscopic splenectomy. We discuss the pathological and clinical aspects of this condition. We furthermore comment on the diagnostic and therapeutic options of this rare entity through our observation of the case and consideration of the 31 case reports published in the literature. PMID:27182171

  18. Giant vesicles "colonies": a model for primitive cell communities.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Paolo; Stano, Pasquale; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-09

    Current research on the origin of life typically focuses on the self-organisation of molecular components in individual cell-like compartments, thereby bringing about the emergence of self-sustaining minimal cells. This is justified by the fact that single cells are the minimal forms of life. No attempts have been made to investigate the cooperative mechanisms that could derive from the assembly of individual compartments. Here we present a novel experimental approach based on vesicles "colonies" as a model of primitive cell communities. Experiments show that several advantages could have favoured primitive cell colonies when compared with isolated primitive cells. In fact there are two novel unexpected features typical of vesicle colonies, namely solute capture and vesicle fusion, which can be seen as the basic physicochemical mechanisms at the origin of life.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Primitive pigment systems in the prebiotic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical evolution of meteoritic organics in the primitive earth is examined experimentally with attention given to the photochemical effects of hydrocarbon/water mixtures. Also addressed are the generation of amphiphilic products by photochemical reactions and the transduction of light energy into potentially useful forms. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb light and exist in carbonaceous chondrites; PAHs are therefore examined as primitive pigments by means of salt solutions with pyrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene derivatives with hexadecane. The hexadecane undergoes photochemical oxidation and yields long-chain amphiphiles with oxygen supplied by water, and acid pH shifts also occur. PAHs are also tested in lipid bilayer membranes to examine light-energy transduction. Protons are found to accumulate within the membrane-bounded volume to form proton gradients, and this reaction is theorized to be a good model of primitive photochemical reactions that related to the transduction of light energy into useable forms.

  20. Insights to primitive replication derived from structures of small oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. K.; Fox, G. E.

    1995-01-01

    Available information on the structure of small oligonucleotides is surveyed. It is observed that even small oligomers typically exhibit defined structures over a wide range of pH and temperature. These structures rely on a plethora of non-standard base-base interactions in addition to the traditional Watson-Crick pairings. Stable duplexes, though typically antiparallel, can be parallel or staggered and perfect complementarity is not essential. These results imply that primitive template directed reactions do not require high fidelity. Hence, the extensive use of Watson-Crick complementarity in genes rather than being a direct consequence of the primitive condensation process, may instead reflect subsequent selection based on the advantage of accuracy in maintaining the primitive genetic machinery once it arose.

  1. The humerus of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis: a primitive anthropoid.

    PubMed

    Fleagle, J G; Simons, E L

    1982-10-01

    Two complete humeri of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis have been recovered from Oligocene deposits in the Fayum Province of Egypt. These new specimens support previous interpretations of the locomotor adaptations of this species and indicate that A. zeuxis was a robust, slowly moving arboreal quadruped. While the previously described distal articular region of the humerus is virtually identical with the same region in many extant ceboids and the Miocene hominoid Pliopithecus vindobonensis, the more proximal parts of the humerus show many primitive "prosimianlike" features not found the limbs of extant anthropoids. The primitive features include the absence of a distinct deltoid plane, a broad shallow bicipital groove, a large brachialis flange, and an entepicondylar foramen. In most features, the humerus of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis is more primitive than the hypothetical last common ancestor of extant cercopithecoids and hominoids based on neontological comparisons. This supports other lines of evidence indicating that the hominoids from the Egyptian Oligocene are morphologically ancestral to both Old World monkeys and apes.

  2. Intramedullary spinal cord primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, George A; Siozos, George; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Moschovi, Maria; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2013-02-01

    Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors are exceedingly rare. Herewith, we present the first case of an intramedullary spinal cord tumor associated with hydrocephalus in a 2-month-old boy that presented with left hemiparesis. The patient had been diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound with enlarged ventricular system. At his current admission, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hydrocephalus and an intramedullary lesion extending from the second cervical to the first thoracic vertebrae. Dissemination of the tumor was revealed intracranially and in the spinal canal. After a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement a radical resection of the tumor was performed, however some small tumor remnants could not be safely removed. Postoperative there was no neurologic deterioration. The tumor was diagnosed as a central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (World Health Organization grade IV). Spinal intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumors are extremely rare. In such rare tumors, multiinstitutional studies are needed for treatment guidelines to be established.

  3. Clay minerals in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Keller, L. P.

    1991-01-01

    Many meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with primitive compositions contain significant amounts of phyllosilicate minerals, which are generally interpreted as evidence of protoplanetary aqueous alteration at an early period of the solar system. These meteorites are chondrites (near solar composition) of the carbonaceous and ordinary varieties. The former are subdivided (according to bulk composition and petrology) into CI, CM, CV, CO, CR, and ungrouped classes. IDPs are extraterrestrial particulates, collected in stratosphere, which have chemical compositions indicative of a primitive origin; they are typically distinct from the primitive meteorites. Characterization of phyllosilicates in these materials is a high priority because of the important physico-chemical information they hold. The most common phyllosilicates present in chondritic extraterrestrial materials are serpentine-group minerals, smectites, and micas. We discuss these phyllosilicates and describe the interpretation of their occurrence in meteorites and IDPs and what this indicates about history of their parent bodies, which are probably the hydrous asteroids.

  4. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after cancer resection: a consensus update by the American Cancer Society and the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rex, Douglas K; Kahi, Charles J; Levin, Bernard; Smith, Robert A; Bond, John H; Brooks, Durado; Burt, Randall W; Byers, Tim; Fletcher, Robert H; Hyman, Neil; Johnson, David; Kirk, Lynne; Lieberman, David A; Levin, Theodore R; O'Brien, Michael J; Simmang, Clifford; Thorson, Alan G; Winawer, Sidney J

    2006-05-01

    Patients with resected colorectal cancer are at risk for recurrent cancer and metachronous neoplasms in the colon. This joint update of guidelines by the American Cancer Society and the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer addresses only the use of endoscopy in the surveillance of these patients. Patients with endoscopically resected Stage I colorectal cancer, surgically resected Stages II and III cancers, and Stage IV cancer resected for cure (isolated hepatic or pulmonary metastasis) are candidates for endoscopic surveillance. The colorectum should be carefully cleared of synchronous neoplasia in the perioperative period. In nonobstructed colons, colonoscopy should be performed preoperatively. In obstructed colons, double-contrast barium enema or computed tomography colonography should be performed preoperatively, and colonoscopy should be performed 3 to 6 months after surgery. These steps complete the process of clearing synchronous disease. After clearing for synchronous disease, another colonoscopy should be performed in 1 year to look for metachronous lesions. This recommendation is based on reports of a high incidence of apparently metachronous second cancers in the first 2 years after resection. If the examination at 1 year is normal, then the interval before the next subsequent examination should be 3 years. If that examination is normal, then the interval before the next subsequent examination should be 5 years. Shorter intervals may be indicated by associated adenoma findings (see "Guidelines for Colonoscopy Surveillance After Polypectomy: A Consensus Update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer and the American Cancer Society"). Shorter intervals also are indicated if the patient's age, family history, or tumor testing indicate definite or probable hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Patients undergoing low anterior resection of rectal cancer generally have higher rates of local cancer recurrence compared with those

  5. A primitive-based 3D object recognition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Atam P.

    1988-01-01

    An intermediate-level knowledge-based system for decomposing segmented data into three-dimensional primitives was developed to create an approximate three-dimensional description of the real world scene from a single two-dimensional perspective view. A knowledge-based approach was also developed for high-level primitive-based matching of three-dimensional objects. Both the intermediate-level decomposition and the high-level interpretation are based on the structural and relational matching; moreover, they are implemented in a frame-based environment.

  6. Replicating vesicles as models of primitive cell growth and division.

    PubMed

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Szostak, Jack W

    2004-12-01

    Primitive cells, lacking the complex bio-machinery present in modern cells, would have had to rely on the self-organizing properties of their components and on interactions with their environment to achieve basic cellular functions such as growth and division. Many bilayer-membrane vesicles, depending on their composition and environment, can exhibit complex morphological changes such as growth, fusion, fission, budding, internal vesicle assembly and vesicle-surface interactions. The rich dynamic properties of these vesicles provide interesting models of how primitive cellular replication might have occurred in response to purely physical and chemical forces.

  7. Primitive chest wall neuroectodermal tumor in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengcheng; Zou, Wei; Ma, Guodong; Pan, Yanqing

    2011-10-01

    A 13-year-old boy with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the chest wall is presented. After four cycles of chemotherapy, a computed tomography scan of his chest showed a larger mass invading the left upper lobe of the lung. He underwent resection of the left chest wall from the left fourth to sixth ribs, including the tumor, combined with left upper lobectomy and lymph node dissection. A diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor was confirmed histopathologically and immunohistochemically. After surgery, four cycles of chemotherapy with ifosfamide and etoposide were given. One year after treatment, the patient is currently doing well without evidence of recurrence.

  8. Search for primitive matter in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libourel, Guy; Michel, Patrick; Delbo, Marco; Ganino, Clément; Recio-Blanco, Alejandra; de Laverny, Patrick; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.

    2017-01-01

    In this note, we show that neither the age of an object, nor its mineralogy is discriminant enough for revealing its primitiveness, and propose a new parameterization scheme based on the processes the matter underwent since its delivery to the Solar System. By ranking celestial objects and their constituents, two antagonistic sources of primitive materials in the protoplanetary disk emerge, one close to the Sun resulting from evaporation, condensation and melting of the protosolar molecular cloud dust followed by accretion into asteroidal bodies, and the other at large heliocentric distances resulting from agglomeration of the protosolar and solar dust into cometary bodies, the latter reservoir remaining poorly sampled so far.

  9. Oral Aspects in the Primitive Fiction of Newly Literate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willy, Todd G.

    Various aspects of 145 representative oral and written compositions of six- and seven-year-old new literates are discussed in this paper. The determination to label these compositions as "primitive fiction" was made primarily on the assumption that children's first attempts at fictive narrative take on the aspects of their cultural literary…

  10. A Test of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide in Primitive Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1992-01-01

    Classified primitive societies as high, moderate, or low on independent measures of social integration and social regulation to test Durkheim's theory of suicide. Estimated frequency of suicide did not differ between those societies predicted to have high, moderate, and low suicide rates. Durkheim's theory was not confirmed. (Author/NB)

  11. PARTI primitives for unstructured and block structured problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, Alan; Saltz, Joel; Das, Raja; Gupta, S.; Mavriplis, Dimitri; Ponnusamy, Ravi; Crowley, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Described here is a set of primitives (PARTI) developed to efficiently execute unstructured and block structured problems on distributed memory parallel machines. We present experimental data from a 3-D unstructured Euler solver run on the Intel Touchstone Delta to demonstrate the usefulness of our methods.

  12. On Primitive Elements in Finite Fields and on Elliptic Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shparlinskiĭ, I. E.

    1992-02-01

    An asymptotic formula for the number of primitive polynomials of the form f (x) + a, a = 1, ..., h, where f (x)inFp[x], is obtained, "on the average" over all polynomials f of fixed degree, and an estimate for the number of "sparse" factorable polynomials is also obtained.

  13. [Animals and the primitive: the others of our culture].

    PubMed

    Nunes, Benedito; Benchimol, Jaime Larry

    2007-12-01

    The essay offers an analytic overview of the concepts and representations of animals and the primitive within Greek-Latin culture from its beginnings through today. It examines longstanding notions and the disputes that these 'others' have stirred among thinkers in philosophy, anthropology, and other areas of knowledge.

  14. A primitive fish from the Cambrian of North America.

    PubMed

    Morris, Simon Conway; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2014-08-28

    Knowledge of the early evolution of fish largely depends on soft-bodied material from the Lower (Series 2) Cambrian period of South China. Owing to the rarity of some of these forms and a general lack of comparative material from other deposits, interpretations of various features remain controversial, as do their wider relationships amongst post-Cambrian early un-skeletonized jawless vertebrates. Here we redescribe Metaspriggina on the basis of new material from the Burgess Shale and exceptionally preserved material collected near Marble Canyon, British Columbia, and three other Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposits from Laurentia. This primitive fish displays unambiguous vertebrate features: a notochord, a pair of prominent camera-type eyes, paired nasal sacs, possible cranium and arcualia, W-shaped myomeres, and a post-anal tail. A striking feature is the branchial area with an array of bipartite bars. Apart from the anterior-most bar, which appears to be slightly thicker, each is associated with externally located gills, possibly housed in pouches. Phylogenetic analysis places Metaspriggina as a basal vertebrate, apparently close to the Chengjiang taxa Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia, demonstrating also that this primitive group of fish was cosmopolitan during Lower-Middle Cambrian times (Series 2-3). However, the arrangement of the branchial region in Metaspriggina has wider implications for reconstructing the morphology of the primitive vertebrate. Each bipartite bar is identified as being respectively equivalent to an epibranchial and ceratobranchial. This configuration suggests that a bipartite arrangement is primitive and reinforces the view that the branchial basket of lampreys is probably derived. Other features of Metaspriggina, including the external position of the gills and possible absence of a gill opposite the more robust anterior-most bar, are characteristic of gnathostomes and so may be primitive within vertebrates.

  15. A new algorithm for computing primitive elements in GF q square

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Miller, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A new method is developed to find primitive elements in the Galois field of sq q elements GF(sqq), where q is a Mersenne prime. Such primitive elements are needed to implement transforms over GF(sq q).

  16. Primitive Semantic Notions About Hierarchical Structures: Implications for Educational Organisations and Educational Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, David

    1986-01-01

    Critiques in educational organization theory and the "new" sociology overlook humanity's fundamental dispositions that impinge upon world view and knowledge acquisition. Universal semantic "primitives" involve searching for conceptual universalities; acquired semantic primitives impose phenomenal hierarchical orders.…

  17. Factors Associated With the Performance of Extended Colonic Resection vs. Segmental Resection in Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Karlitz, Jordan J; Sherrill, Meredith R; DiGiacomo, Daniel V; Hsieh, Mei-chin; Schmidt, Beth; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Chen, Vivien W

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates are rising. This group is susceptible to heritable conditions (i.e., Lynch syndrome (LS)) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with high metachronous CRC rates after segmental resection. Hence, extended colonic resection (ECR) is often performed and considered generally in young patients. As there are no population-based studies analyzing resection extent in early-onset CRC, we used CDC Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) data to assess state-wide operative practices. METHODS: Using CER and Louisiana Tumor Registry data, all CRC patients aged ≤50 years, diagnosed in Louisiana in 2011, who underwent surgery in 2011–2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Prevalence of, and the factors associated with operation type (ECR including subtotal/total/proctocolectomy vs. segmental resection) were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 2,427 CRC patients, 274 were aged ≤50 years. In all, 234 underwent surgery at 53 unique facilities and 6.8% underwent ECR. Statistically significant ECR-associated factors included age ≤45 years, polyposis, synchronous/metachronous LS-associated cancers, and IBD. Abnormal microsatellite instability (MSI) was not ECR-associated. ECR was not performed in sporadic CRC. CONCLUSIONS: ECR is performed in the setting of clinically obvious associated high-risk features (polyposis, IBD, synchronous/metachronous cancers) but not in isolated/sporadic CRC. However, attention must be paid to patients with seemingly lower risk characteristics (isolated CRC, no polyposis), as LS can still be present. In addition, the presumed sporadic group requires further study as metachronous CRC risk in early-onset sporadic CRC has not been well-defined, and some may harbor undefined/undiagnosed hereditary conditions. Abnormal MSI (LS risk) is not associated with ECR; abnormal MSI results often return postoperatively after segmental resection has already occurred, which is a contributing factor. PMID:27077958

  18. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  19. Search for Primitive Matter in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libourel, G.; Michel, P.; Delbo, M.; Ganino, C.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Zolensky, M. E.; Krot, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Recent astronomical observations and theoretical modeling led to a consensus regarding the global scenario of the formation of young stellar objects (YSO) from a cold molecular cloud of interstellar dust (organics and minerals) and gas that, in some cases, leads to the formation of a planetary system. In the case of our Solar System, which has already evolved for approximately 4567 Ma, the quest is to access, through the investigation of planets, moons, cometary and asteroidal bodies, meteorites, micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles, the primitive material that contains the key information about the early Solar System processes and its evolution. However, laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial samples, astronomical observations and dynamical models of the Solar System evolution have not brought yet any conclusive evidence on the nature and location of primitive matter in the Solar System, preventing a clear understanding of its early stages.

  20. The Primitive Spectrum of a Basic Classical Lie Superalgebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulembier, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    We prove Conjecture 5.7 in Coulembier and Musson (Math. J., arXiv:1409.2532), describing all inclusions between primitive ideals for the general linear superalgebra in terms of the {Ext1}-quiver of simple highest weight modules. For arbitrary basic classical Lie superalgebras, we formulate two types of Kazhdan-Lusztig quasi-orders on the dual of the Cartan subalgebra, where one corresponds to the above conjecture. Both orders can be seen as generalisations of the left Kazhdan-Lusztig order on Hecke algebras and are related to categorical braid group actions. We prove that the primitive spectrum is always described by one of the orders, obtaining for the first time a description of the inclusions. We also prove that the two orders are identical if category O admits `enough' abstract Kazhdan-Lusztig theories. In particular, they are identical for the general linear superalgebra, concluding the proof of the conjecture.

  1. Deuterium enrichment in the primitive ices of the protosolar nebula.

    PubMed

    Lutz, B L; Owen, T; De Bergh, C

    1990-01-01

    We have estimated the D/H ratio that may have been present in the primitive ices in the protosolar nebula. Using observations of the CH3D/CH4 ratio in the outer planets, we developed two simple but limiting models which constrain the amount of dilution that deuterated volatiles which were contributed to the planetary atmospheres by evaporated primordial ices may have undergone by mixing with the original hydrogen envelopes. The models suggest that the D/H ratio in these ices was probably somewhere between a few times 10(-4) and 10(-3). These planetary-atmosphere-derived results are compared with other solar system bodies thought to contain primitive material and with D/H ratios observed in interstellar polyatomic molecules.

  2. Collaboration between primitive cell membranes and soluble catalysts.

    PubMed

    Adamala, Katarzyna P; Engelhart, Aaron E; Szostak, Jack W

    2016-03-21

    One widely held model of early life suggests primitive cells consisted of simple RNA-based catalysts within lipid compartments. One possible selective advantage conferred by an encapsulated catalyst is stabilization of the compartment, resulting from catalyst-promoted synthesis of key membrane components. Here we show model protocell vesicles containing an encapsulated enzyme that promotes the synthesis of simple fatty acid derivatives become stabilized to Mg(2+), which is required for ribozyme activity and RNA synthesis. Thus, protocells capable of such catalytic transformations would have enjoyed a selective advantage over other protocells in high Mg(2+) environments. The synthetic transformation requires both the catalyst and vesicles that solubilize the water-insoluble precursor lipid. We suggest that similar modified lipids could have played a key role in early life, and that primitive lipid membranes and encapsulated catalysts, such as ribozymes, may have acted in conjunction with each other, enabling otherwise-impossible chemical transformations within primordial cells.

  3. Phosphorus, a key to life on the primitive earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, E. J.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Gabel, N. W.

    1977-01-01

    The phosphorus of the primitive earth was present as phosphates. It is strongly probable that a portion of the phosphate was present as condensed phosphates. The primitive earth was highly deficient in the total available phosphorus until a sufficient quantity of phosphorus weathered from the igneous rocks in which it was entrapped. Approximately three billion years were required for the seas to become saturated. Until this time passed the seas acted as a giant sink for phosphorus, diluting it to the extent that all forms of life were deprived of the vital nutrient. When the seas became saturated, the rate of turnover of the phosphorus increased rapidly. As the seas pulsated, they left the excess precipitate phosphorus as sedimentary rock in locally rich deposits on which life could thrive.

  4. Neoplastic meningitis as the presentation of occult primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Jennings, M T; Slatkin, N; D'Angelo, M; Ketonen, L; Johnson, M D; Rosenblum, M; Creasy, J; Tulipan, N; Walker, R

    1993-10-01

    Seven children and young adults initially presented with subacute meningitis and/or increased intracranial pressure. The diagnosis of neoplastic meningitis secondary to a primitive neuroectodermal neoplasm was delayed by the absence of an obvious primary tumor. The neuroradiologic appearance was that of a basimeningeal infiltrative process, complicated by communicating hydrocephalus or "pseudotumor cerebri." Myelography was important in the diagnosis of disseminated meningeal malignancy in four cases. Cerebrospinal fluid cytologic diagnosis was insensitive but ultimately confirmed in five cases. All seven patients experienced progressive disease despite neuraxis radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy; six have died. Systemic dissemination to bone and/or peritoneum occurred in three patients while on therapy. In two, a primary parenchymal brain or spinal cord tumor could not be identified at postmortem examination. The presentation of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor as subacute meningitis without an evident primary tumor heralds an aggressive and refractory neoplasm.

  5. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the retina.

    PubMed

    Grossniklaus, Hans E; Shehata, Bahig; Sorensen, Poul; Bergstrom, Chris; Hubbard, G Baker

    2012-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy underwent enucleation of his left eye for an intraocular tumor. Examination showed a small, round blue cell tumor arising in the peripheral retina near the ciliary body. Immunohistochemical stain results were positive for neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 99 (CD99), Friend leukemia integration 1, and CD56. Ultrastructural findings included occasional intracytoplasmic dense core granules. Polymerase chain reaction of the tumor showed a Ewing sarcoma/Friend leukemia integration gene fusion product. The tumor was classified as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the retina and should be distinguished from retinoblastoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the retina.

  6. Collaboration between primitive cell membranes and soluble catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Engelhart, Aaron E.; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    One widely held model of early life suggests primitive cells consisted of simple RNA-based catalysts within lipid compartments. One possible selective advantage conferred by an encapsulated catalyst is stabilization of the compartment, resulting from catalyst-promoted synthesis of key membrane components. Here we show model protocell vesicles containing an encapsulated enzyme that promotes the synthesis of simple fatty acid derivatives become stabilized to Mg2+, which is required for ribozyme activity and RNA synthesis. Thus, protocells capable of such catalytic transformations would have enjoyed a selective advantage over other protocells in high Mg2+ environments. The synthetic transformation requires both the catalyst and vesicles that solubilize the water-insoluble precursor lipid. We suggest that similar modified lipids could have played a key role in early life, and that primitive lipid membranes and encapsulated catalysts, such as ribozymes, may have acted in conjunction with each other, enabling otherwise-impossible chemical transformations within primordial cells. PMID:26996603

  7. Prone-position thoracoscopic resection of posterior mediastinal lymph node metastasis from rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Noma, Kazuhiro; Koujima, Takeshi; Maeda, Naoaki; Tanabe, Shunsuke; Ohara, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-02-12

    Mediastinal lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, and barely any reports have described resection of this pathology. We report herein a successful thoracoscopic resection of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in a prone position. A 65-year-old man presented with posterior mediastinal lymph node metastasis after resection of the primary rectal cancer and metachronous hepatic metastasis. Metastatic lymph nodes were resected completely using thoracoscopic surgery in the prone position, which provided advantages of minimal invasiveness, good surgical field, and reduced ergonomic burden on the surgeon. Thoracoscopic resection in the prone position was thought to have the potential to become the standard procedure of posterior mediastinal tumors.

  8. Transitions between discrete and rhythmic primitives in a unimanual task

    PubMed Central

    Sternad, Dagmar; Marino, Hamal; Charles, Steven K.; Duarte, Marcos; Dipietro, Laura; Hogan, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Given the vast complexity of human actions and interactions with objects, we proposed that control of sensorimotor behavior may utilize dynamic primitives. However, greater computational simplicity may come at the cost of reduced versatility. Evidence for primitives may be garnered by revealing such limitations. This study tested subjects performing a sequence of progressively faster discrete movements in order to “stress” the system. We hypothesized that the increasing pace would elicit a transition to rhythmic movements, assumed to be computationally and neurally more efficient. Abrupt transitions between the two types of movements would support the hypothesis that rhythmic and discrete movements are distinct primitives. Ten subjects performed planar point-to-point arm movements paced by a metronome: starting at 2 s, the metronome intervals decreased by 36 ms per cycle to 200 ms, stayed at 200 ms for several cycles, then increased by similar increments. Instructions emphasized to insert explicit stops between each movement with a duration that equaled the movement time. The experiment was performed with eyes open and closed, and with short and long metronome sounds, the latter explicitly specifying the dwell duration. Results showed that subjects matched instructed movement times but did not preserve the dwell times. Rather, they progressively reduced dwell time to zero, transitioning to continuous rhythmic movements before movement times reached their minimum. The acceleration profiles showed an abrupt change between discrete and rhythmic profiles. The loss of dwell time occurred earlier with long auditory specification, when subjects also showed evidence of predictive control. While evidence for hysteresis was weak, taken together, the results clearly indicated a transition between discrete and rhythmic movements, supporting the proposal that representation is based on primitives rather than on veridical internal models. PMID:23888139

  9. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-06-21

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  10. Primary intraspinal extradural primitive neuroectodermal tumor: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Shrikant V.; Tadghare, Jitendra; Patil, Harshad; Narayan, Sharadendu

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are aggressive childhood malignancies and are difficult to treat. Primary intraspinal PNETs are rare. These patients have poor prognosis with short survival time even after surgery and chemoradiation. As there are no standard guidelines exist for the management of these tumors, a multidisciplinary approach has been employed with varying success. According to the review of literature, only few cases of primary intraspinal extradural PNETs have been reported. Herein, author has described a case of intraspinal, extradural PNET. PMID:28217164

  11. Primitive Variable Solvers for Conservative General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Scott C.; Gammie, Charles F.; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Del Zanna, Luca

    2006-04-01

    Conservative numerical schemes for general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) require a method for transforming between ``conserved'' variables such as momentum and energy density and ``primitive'' variables such as rest-mass density, internal energy, and components of the four-velocity. The forward transformation (primitive to conserved) has a closed-form solution, but the inverse transformation (conserved to primitive) requires the solution of a set of five nonlinear equations. Here we discuss the mathematical properties of the inverse transformation and present six numerical methods for performing the inversion. The first method solves the full set of five nonlinear equations directly using a Newton-Raphson scheme and a guess from the previous time step. The other methods reduce the five nonlinear equations to either one or two nonlinear equations that are solved numerically. Comparisons between the methods are made using a survey over phase space, a two-dimensional explosion problem, and a general relativistic MHD accretion disk simulation. The run time of the methods is also examined. Code implementing the schemes is available with the electronic edition of the article.

  12. Pills for the Poor: John Wesley's Primitive Physick

    PubMed Central

    Rogal, Samuel J.

    1978-01-01

    While John Wesley's Primitive Physick (1747) cannot be termed a classic of British medical literature, it must certainly be identified as one of the most popular volumes published in England during the eighteenth century. Although the work came under attack from contemporary surgeons, physicians, and apothecaries, who maintained that its remedies were founded upon ignorance, Wesley probably knew as much as most members of the medical profession; in fact, on no less than twenty instances throughout the volume, he paraphrases or cites directly from prominent physicians and theorists—such figures as Sydenham, Boerhaave, Cheyne, Mead, and Huxham. However, despite its obvious emphasis upon practical remedies, the underlying focus of Primitive Physick is upon the soul of man. Wesley had consulted some sources, common sense, and his own experience, tempering those with the general principle of “doing good to all men,” particularly “those who desire to live according to the gospel....” Thus, the Methodist patriarch's own formula for life had as much to do with the spread of Primitive Physick throughout eighteenth-century Britain and America as did all of the remedies and suggestions imprinted upon its pages. PMID:354225

  13. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the liver: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mani, Siddhartha; Dutta, Deep; De, Binay K

    2010-03-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a rare tumor of soft tissues of thoraco-pulmonary regions, pelvis and lower extremities. Involvement of visceral organs by primitive neuroectodermal tumor is even rarer, with the kidney being the most commonly involved organ. Involvement of the liver has been reported in the form of metastasis from other primary sources presenting as liver abscess. We report a 20-year-old lady presenting with massive hepatomegaly, with computed tomography scan evidence of diffuse hepatomegaly and a normal porta and intrahepatic biliary radicles. She subsequently underwent ultrasonography-guided true-cut needle biopsy of the liver. Histopathology of the liver revealed nests of small round blue tumor cells in the background of hepatocytes infiltrating the liver, which expressed Mic-2 and Fli-1, and were negative for cytokeratin, desmin, hepatocyte-specific antigen (OCHIE5), synaptophysin, chromogranin A and CD-20. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD-99-positive. Extensive search regarding any possible different site of involvement by the tumor was negative. The patient responded to a combination therapy of vincristine, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide 3 weekly over 43 weeks and has been doing well even after 1 year of diagnosis. The clinical presentation, the macroscopic aspect, together with the histological pattern, the cytological characteristic and the cellular immunophenotype lead to the diagnosis of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the liver which responded well to combination chemotherapy.

  14. Breast-conserving therapy in patients with bilateral breast cancer: Do today's treatment choices burn bridges for tomorrow?

    SciTech Connect

    Gilroy, Jeffrey S.; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price . E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To determine how often initial treatment choices limit treatment options for subsequent breast cancer management in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy (BCT), in particular with treatment of internal mammary nodes. Methods and Materials: Between January 1985 and June 2001, 464 women with pathologic Stage 0, I, and II (T0-2, N0-1) breast cancer underwent BCT at our institution. All 464 patients had computed tomography-based treatment planning. In patients with bilateral breast cancer, the planning computed tomography scans were used to determine the impact initial radiation therapy fields had on treatment options for subsequent contralateral breast cancer. Results: There were 500 breast cancers diagnosed in 464 patients. Thirty-six patients (8%) had bilateral breast cancer with 9 (2%) synchronous and 27 (6%) metachronous primaries. In 80 patients, the ipsilateral internal mammary nodes were explicitly treated. Initial breast cancer treatment choices impacted subsequent treatment decisions for the contralateral breast in only 2 of 464 patients (0.4%) in the study: 2 of 80 patients (2.5%) whose internal mammary nodes were treated, and 2 of 27 patients (7.4%) who developed metachronous bilateral breast cancer. Conclusions: Initial BCT, including internal mammary node irradiation, rarely compromised future contralateral breast-conserving therapy.

  15. [Two Cases of Colorectal Cancer with Tumor Thrombus in the Inferior Mesenteric Vein].

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Tomoya; Ogino, Shiro; Takemura, Manabu; Mugitani, Tatsuro; Akami, Toshikazu; Okano, Shinji; Ueda, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    In colorectal cancer, progression with an intravenous tumor thrombus is very rare. Here, we report 2 cases of colorectal cancer which showed a tumor thrombus in the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV). Case 1: A 69-year-old woman was admitted for the treatment of advanced rectal cancer, and underwent a low anterior resection. Six months of post-operative therapy was carried out with mFOLFOX6, but a metachronous lung metastasis was detected and a lung partial resection was performed. Case 2: A 67-year-old man was admitted for the treatment of advanced sigmoid colon cancer with simultaneous liver metastasis, and underwent a laparoscopic high anterior resection. Four courses of mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab chemotherapy were carried out after surgery, and subsequently he underwent a partial hepatectomy. In both cases IMV tumor thrombus was suspected from abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Tumor thrombus filling the lumen of the IMV was confirmed on histopathological examination. Colorectal cancer with IMV tumor thrombus is a form of advanced cancer with advanced vascular invasion, and there is a high risk of simultaneous or metachronous hematogenous metastasis. Combined modality therapy should therefore be given to improve the prognosis.

  16. MHD dissipative flow and heat transfer of Casson fluids due to metachronal wave propulsion of beating cilia with thermal and velocity slip effects under an oblique magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Tripathi, D.; Bég, O. Anwar; Khan, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical investigation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer of electrically-conducting viscoplastic fluids through a channel is conducted. The robust Casson model is implemented to simulate viscoplastic behavior of fluids. The external magnetic field is oblique to the fluid flow direction. Viscous dissipation effects are included. The flow is controlled by the metachronal wave propagation generated by cilia beating on the inner walls of the channel. The mathematical formulation is based on deformation in longitudinal and transverse velocity components induced by the ciliary beating phenomenon with cilia assumed to follow elliptic trajectories. The model also features velocity and thermal slip boundary conditions. Closed-form solutions to the non-dimensional boundary value problem are obtained under physiological limitations of low Reynolds number and large wavelength. The influence of key hydrodynamic and thermo-physical parameters i.e. Hartmann (magnetic) number, Casson (viscoplastic) fluid parameter, thermal slip parameter and velocity slip parameter on flow characteristics are investigated. A comparative study is also made with Newtonian fluids (corresponding to massive values of plastic viscosity). Stream lines are plotted to visualize trapping phenomenon. The computations reveal that velocity increases with increasing the magnitude of Hartmann number near the channel walls whereas in the core flow region (center of the channel) significant deceleration is observed. Temperature is elevated with greater Casson parameter, Hartmann number, velocity slip, eccentricity parameter, thermal slip and also Brinkmann (dissipation) number. Furthermore greater Casson parameter is found to elevate the quantity and size of the trapped bolus. In the pumping region, the pressure rise is reduced with greater Hartmann number, velocity slip, and wave number whereas it is enhanced with greater cilia length.

  17. Unprecedented concentrations of indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Martins, Zita; Alexander, Conel; Orzechowska, Grazyna; Fogel, Marylin

    CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. We have performed pioneering work determining the compositional characteristics of amino acids in this type of carbonaceous chondrites. We report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. We have analyzed the amino acid content of the Antarctic CRs EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, compound-specific carbon isotopic measurements for most of the individual amino acids from the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites were achieved by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations of 180 and 249 parts-per-million (ppm), respectively. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids (<1 ppm). The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the α-amino acids glycine, isovaline, α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), and alanine, with δ 13 C values ranging from +31.6% to +50.5%. The highly enriched carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids indicate that primitive organic matter was preserved in these meteorites. In addition, the relative abundances of α-AIB and β-alanine amongst Antarctic CR meteorites appear to correspond to the degree of aqueous alteration on their respective parent body. Investigating the abundances and isotopic composition of amino acids in primitive chondrites helps to understand the role of meteorites as a source of extraterrestrial prebiotic organic compounds to the early Earth.

  18. [Malignant tumors associated with thyroid cancer in an autopsy material].

    PubMed

    Tiszlavicz, L; Varga, Z

    1991-03-17

    In the Department of Pathology of Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University at Szeged in Hungary 37,504 autopsies were performed in the last 30 years and double multiple primary malignant tumours were found in 385 cases (4.2%). In thyroid cancer cases the tumours of other organs were more frequent (22.7%), and these tumour-associations were observed mainly simultaneously, there were no important sex differences. In the most of cases the thyroid cancer was only a side diagnosis beside other malignancies, in the more rare metachronous cases the thyroid cancer was secondary following postoperative irradiation of the first tumour (4 cases of 5). We have seen thyroid cancers most frequently together with lung, breast and digestive system tumours.

  19. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  20. Primitive endoderm differentiation: from specification to epithelium formation.

    PubMed

    Hermitte, Stéphanie; Chazaud, Claire

    2014-12-05

    In amniotes, primitive endoderm (PrE) plays important roles not only for nutrient support but also as an inductive tissue required for embryo patterning. PrE is an epithelial monolayer that is visible shortly before embryo implantation and is one of the first three cell lineages produced by the embryo. We review here the molecular mechanisms that have been uncovered during the past 10 years on PrE and epiblast cell lineage specification within the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and on their subsequent steps of differentiation.

  1. Deducing trapdoor primitives in public key encryption schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Chandra

    2005-03-01

    Semantic security of public key encryption schemes is often interchangeable with the art of building trapdoors. In the frame of reference of Random Oracle methodology, the "Key Privacy" and "Anonymity" has often been discussed. However to a certain degree the security of most public key encryption schemes is required to be analyzed with formal proofs using one-way functions. This paper evaluates the design of El Gamal and RSA based schemes and attempts to parallelize the trapdoor primitives used in the computation of the cipher text, thereby magnifying the decryption error δp in the above schemes.

  2. Synthesis of putrescine under possible primitive earth conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Carlos; Santiago, J. Carlos; Rodriguez-Paez, Lorena; Ibánez, Miguel; Baeza, Isabel; Oró, J.

    1991-05-01

    The synthesis of putrescine was accomplished by decarboxylation of L-orithine when this amino acid was heated in aqueous solution and in the absence of oxygen. Chromatographic, radioisotopic, and enzymatic techniques were used to demonstrate that one mole of non-radioactive putrescine and one mole of14CO2 was formed during the heating of L-(1-14C)-ornithine. This work indicates that the synthesis of putrescine can occur starting with ornithine and in conditions that are presumed could have existed on the primitive Earth. The possible significance of these results in the prebiotic molecular evolution is briefly discussed.

  3. SALMON RIVER BREAKS PRIMITIVE AREA AND VICINITY, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Salmon River Breaks Primitive Area and vicinity in Idaho confirmed a substantiated gold resource potential in placer deposits along the Salmon River but determined that large-scale mining of the deposits probably would not be feasible. Except for demonstrated fluorspar resources at the Big Squaw Creek deposit, no other mineral resources were found in the area. The geologic environment, geochemical findings, and geophysical data all suggest little likelihood for the occurrence of additional mineral resources in the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  4. Photochemical production of formaldehyde in earth's primitive atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, J. P.; Gladstone, G. R.; Yung, Y. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formaldehyde could have been produced by photochemical reactions in the earth's primitive atmosphere, at a time when it consisted mainly of molecular nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Removal of formaldehyde from the atmosphere by precipitation can provide a source of organic carbon to the oceans at the rate of 100 billion moles per year. Subsequent reactions of formaldehyde in primeval aquatic environments would have implications for the abiotic synthesis of complex organic molecules and the origin of life.

  5. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney in adults.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ritu; Singhal, Mitali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2013-03-04

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) is a neural crest tumour derived from neuroectoderm. Renal PNET is a very rare tumour occurring during childhood or adolescence. We report two cases of PNET involving kidney in adults. Presenting signs and symptoms include abdominal/flank pain and/or haematuria. Microscopy reveals the tumour consisted of small round cells with round nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry with diffuse membranous positivity of tumour cells with CD99. As these tumours have an aggressive clinical course with rapid death in many reported cases, it is important to differentiate them from other small round-cell tumours.

  6. Amorphous Silicates in Primitive Meteoritic Materials: Acfer 094 and IDPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Walker, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of presolar grains is one measure of the primitive nature of meteoritic materials. Presolar silicates are abundant in meteorites whose matrices are dominated by amorphous silicates such as the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. Presolar silicates are even more abundant in chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs). Amorphous silicates in the form of GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains are a major component of CP IDPs. We are studying amorphous silicates in Acfer 094 matrix in order to determine whether they are related to the GEMS grains in CPIDPs

  7. Circular-Orbit Maintenance Strategies for Primitive Body Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Mark S.; Broschart, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    For missions to smaller primitive bodies, solar radiation pressure (SRP) is a significant perturbation to Keplerian dynamics. For most orbits, SRP drives large oscillations in orbit eccentricity, which leads to large perturbations from the irregular gravity field at periapsis. Ultimately, chaotic motion results that often escapes or impacts that body. This paper presents an orbit maintenance strategy to keep the orbit eccentricity small, thus avoiding the destabilizing secondary interaction with the gravity field. An estimate of the frequency and magnitude of the required maneuvers as a function of the orbit and body parameters is derived from the analytic perturbation equations.

  8. Congenital primitive neuroectodermal tumor (neuroepithelioma) of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Das, L; Chang, C H; Cushing, B; Jewell, P

    1982-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (neuroepithelioma) is a relatively common central nervous system tumor in children. Those arising from a peripheral nerve are extremely rare in childhood. There is only one reported case in 6-year-old where the tumor arose from the sciatic nerve. A case of neuroectodermal tumor of the chest wall, arising from the intercostal nerve, in a newborn is presented. The tumor metastasized to the brain. Prominent Homer-Wright rosettes, with central eosinophilic fibrillar substance similar to that seen in neuroepithelioma of the central nervous system, were present in the primary tumor and brain metastases. Ultrastructure, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy, is also described.

  9. Fully Implicit Numerical Methods for the Baroclinic Primitive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, S. E.; Isaacson, E.

    1984-01-01

    A fully implicit code was developed to solve the three-dimensional primitive equations of atmospheric flow. The scheme is second order accurate in time and fourth order accurate in the horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, as a result of being fully implicit, the time step is not restricted by the mesh spacing near the poles, nor by the speed of inertia-gravity waves. Rather, the time step, deltat is determined simply by the requirement that it be small enough to adequately resolve the atmospheric flow of interest. The accuracy and efficiency of current models for fine grids should be significantly improved.

  10. Melting line of charged colloids from primitive model simulations.

    PubMed

    Hynninen, Antti-Pekka; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2005-12-22

    We develop an efficient simulation method to study suspensions of charged spherical colloids using the primitive model. In this model, the colloids and the co- and counterions are represented by charged hard spheres, whereas the solvent is treated as a dielectric continuum. In order to speed up the simulations, we restrict the positions of the particles to a cubic lattice, which allows precalculation of the Coulombic interactions at the beginning of the simulation. Moreover, we use multiparticle cluster moves that make the Monte Carlo sampling more efficient. The simulations are performed in the semigrand canonical ensemble, where the chemical potential of the salt is fixed. Employing our method, we study a system consisting of colloids carrying a charge of 80 elementary charges and monovalent co- and counterions. At the colloid densities of our interest, we show that lattice effects are negligible for sufficiently fine lattices. We determine the fluid-solid melting line in a packing fraction eta-inverse screening length kappa plane and compare it with the melting line of charged colloids predicted by the Yukawa potential of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory. We find qualitative agreement with the Yukawa results, and we do not find any effects of many-body interactions. We discuss the difficulties involved in the mapping between the primitive model and the Yukawa model at high colloid packing fractions (eta>0.2).

  11. Model selection for the extraction of movement primitives

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Dominik M.; Chiovetto, Enrico; Giese, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of blind source separation methods have been used in motor control research for the extraction of movement primitives from EMG and kinematic data. Popular examples are principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), anechoic demixing, and the time-varying synergy model (d'Avella and Tresch, 2002). However, choosing the parameters of these models, or indeed choosing the type of model, is often done in a heuristic fashion, driven by result expectations as much as by the data. We propose an objective criterion which allows to select the model type, number of primitives and the temporal smoothness prior. Our approach is based on a Laplace approximation to the posterior distribution of the parameters of a given blind source separation model, re-formulated as a Bayesian generative model. We first validate our criterion on ground truth data, showing that it performs at least as good as traditional model selection criteria [Bayesian information criterion, BIC (Schwarz, 1978) and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) (Akaike, 1974)]. Then, we analyze human gait data, finding that an anechoic mixture model with a temporal smoothness constraint on the sources can best account for the data. PMID:24391580

  12. Medulloblastomas and central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas W

    2003-12-01

    Significant advances in the treatment of medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors have been made in the past three decades. Maximal surgical resection is a mainstay of therapy. However, unlike many other central nervous system neoplasms, medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors are radiation and chemotherapy responsive. Despite this response, the prognosis for patients with these tumors remains variable and is relatively poor in infants and patients with metastatic disease. These tumors most commonly arise in children, thus most clinical trials emphasize the reduction of long-term sequelae, in addition to improving survival. All newly diagnosed patients who are eligible should be offered participation in a clinical trial. If a patient is ineligible or declines consent/assent for a clinical trial, the best current treatment approach is surgical resection, followed by radiation therapy (except for children younger than 3 years) with weekly vincristine. For high-risk patients, 36 Gy of craniospinal irradiation should be delivered plus a boost of 19.8 Gy to the posterior fossa/primary tumor bed and sites of bulk metastatic disease. For average-risk patients, the craniospinal irradiation dose may be lowered to 23.4 Gy plus 32.4 Gy to the posterior fossa/tumor bed. After radiation therapy, intensive multimodal chemotherapy should be used for all patients.

  13. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (<1-3 Ma) is in principle caused by an abnormally high temperature, extended decompression, a certain amount of mafic source rocks (e.g., pyroxenite), or an elevated H2O content in the mantle source. These four factors are not mutually exclusive. There are growing evidences for high temperature, decompression and mafic source rocks, albeit with hot debate. However, there is currently no convincing evidence of high water content in the source of CFB. We retrieved the initial H2O content of the primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  14. Unexpected primitive rodents in the Quaternary of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, María G.; Vieytes, Emma C.; Verzi, Diego H.; Noriega, Jorge I.; Tonni, Eduardo P.

    2005-10-01

    This article describes the first fossils recorded in the Hernandarias Formation (Pleistocene) in Entre Ríos province (eastern Argentina). They are represented by three teeth assigned to the caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) Aenigmys diamantensis gen. et sp. nov. and Eumysops. To establish the phylogenetic affinities of the two most enigmatic teeth, their enamel microstructure was studied. Aenigmys diamantensis is considered the most primitive taxon of a clade formed by Dinomyidae-Neoepiblemidae-Heptaxodontidae. Evidence of the close relationships among these families also is presented herein. The new fossils reinforce previous hypotheses about the survival of primitive Brazilian taxa after their extinction in the Pampas and Patagonia of southern South America. They also show that the diversity of caviomorph rodents during the Quaternary was greater than supposed and that an important Quaternary extinction, not previously detected, affected several lineages. With the available evidence, it is not possible to determine if these rodents indicate a warm pulse or a particular biogeographic situation in Entre Ríos.

  15. Primitive wing feather arrangement in Archaeopteryx lithographica and Anchiornis huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Vinther, Jakob; Meng, Qingjin; Li, Quangguo; Russell, Anthony P

    2012-12-04

    In modern birds (Neornithes), the wing is composed of a layer of long, asymmetrical flight feathers overlain by short covert feathers. It has generally been assumed that wing feathers in the Jurassic bird Archaeopteryx and Cretaceous feathered dinosaurs had the same arrangement. Here, we redescribe the wings of the archaic bird Archaeopteryx lithographica and the dinosaur Anchiornis huxleyi and show that their wings differ from those of Neornithes in being composed of multiple layers of feathers. In Archaeopteryx, primaries are overlapped by long dorsal and ventral coverts. Anchiornis has a similar configuration but is more primitive in having short, slender, symmetrical remiges. Archaeopteryx and Anchiornis therefore appear to represent early experiments in the evolution of the wing. This primitive configuration has important functional implications: although the slender feather shafts of Archaeopteryx and Anchiornis make individual feathers weak, layering of the wing feathers may have produced a strong airfoil. Furthermore, the layered arrangement may have prevented the feathers from forming a slotted tip or separating to reduce drag on the upstroke. The wings of early birds therefore may have lacked the range of functions seen in Neornithes, limiting their flight ability.

  16. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-01-01

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>105 km3) within short time span (<1–3 Ma) is in principle caused by an abnormally high temperature, extended decompression, a certain amount of mafic source rocks (e.g., pyroxenite), or an elevated H2O content in the mantle source. These four factors are not mutually exclusive. There are growing evidences for high temperature, decompression and mafic source rocks, albeit with hot debate. However, there is currently no convincing evidence of high water content in the source of CFB. We retrieved the initial H2O content of the primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB. PMID:27143196

  17. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-01

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>105 km3) within short time span (<1–3 Ma) is in principle caused by an abnormally high temperature, extended decompression, a certain amount of mafic source rocks (e.g., pyroxenite), or an elevated H2O content in the mantle source. These four factors are not mutually exclusive. There are growing evidences for high temperature, decompression and mafic source rocks, albeit with hot debate. However, there is currently no convincing evidence of high water content in the source of CFB. We retrieved the initial H2O content of the primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  18. Primitive soft-bodied cephalopods from the Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin R; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2010-05-27

    The exquisite preservation of soft-bodied animals in Burgess Shale-type deposits provides important clues into the early evolution of body plans that emerged during the Cambrian explosion. Until now, such deposits have remained silent regarding the early evolution of extant molluscan lineages-in particular the cephalopods. Nautiloids, traditionally considered basal within the cephalopods, are generally depicted as evolving from a creeping Cambrian ancestor whose dorsal shell afforded protection and buoyancy. Although nautiloid-like shells occur from the Late Cambrian onwards, the fossil record provides little constraint on this model, or indeed on the early evolution of cephalopods. Here, we reinterpret the problematic Middle Cambrian animal Nectocaris pteryx as a primitive (that is, stem-group), non-mineralized cephalopod, based on new material from the Burgess Shale. Together with Nectocaris, the problematic Lower Cambrian taxa Petalilium and (probably) Vetustovermis form a distinctive clade, Nectocarididae, characterized by an open axial cavity with paired gills, wide lateral fins, a single pair of long, prehensile tentacles, a pair of non-faceted eyes on short stalks, and a large, flexible anterior funnel. This clade extends the cephalopods' fossil record by over 30 million years, and indicates that primitive cephalopods lacked a mineralized shell, were hyperbenthic, and were presumably carnivorous. The presence of a funnel suggests that jet propulsion evolved in cephalopods before the acquisition of a shell. The explosive diversification of mineralized cephalopods in the Ordovician may have an understated Cambrian 'fuse'.

  19. Superposition, Transition Probabilities and Primitive Observables in Infinite Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Detlev; Størmer, Erling

    2015-10-01

    The concepts of superposition and of transition probability, familiar from pure states in quantum physics, are extended to locally normal states on funnels of type I∞ factors. Such funnels are used in the description of infinite systems, appearing for example in quantum field theory or in quantum statistical mechanics; their respective constituents are interpreted as algebras of observables localized in an increasing family of nested spacetime regions. Given a generic reference state (expectation functional) on a funnel, e.g. a ground state or a thermal equilibrium state, it is shown that irrespective of the global type of this state all of its excitations, generated by the adjoint action of elements of the funnel, can coherently be superimposed in a meaningful manner. Moreover, these states are the extreme points of their convex hull and as such are analogues of pure states. As further support of this analogy, transition probabilities are defined, complete families of orthogonal states are exhibited and a one-to-one correspondence between the states and families of minimal projections on a Hilbert space is established. The physical interpretation of these quantities relies on a concept of primitive observables. It extends the familiar framework of observable algebras and avoids some counter intuitive features of that setting. Primitive observables admit a consistent statistical interpretation of corresponding measurements and their impact on states is described by a variant of the von Neumann-Lüders projection postulate.

  20. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine under possible primitive earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M.; Eichberg, J.; Oro, J.

    1982-01-01

    Using a primitive earth evaporating pond model, the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accomplished when a reaction mixture of choline chloride and disodium phosphatidate, in the presence of cyanamide and traces of acid, was evaporated and heated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 100 C for 7 hours. Optimum yields of about 15% were obtained at 80 C. Phosphatidylcholine was identified by chromatographic, chemical and enzymatic degradation methods. On enzymatic hydrolysis with phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C, lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphorylcholine were formed, respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis gave glycerophosphorylcholine. The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine as the major compound was accompanied by the formation of lysophosphatidylcholine in smaller amounts. Cyanamide was found to be essential for the formation of phosphatidylcholine, and only traces of HCl, of the order of that required to convert the disodium phosphatidate to free phosphatidic acid were found necessary for the synthesis. This work suggests that phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential component of most biological membranes, could have been synthesized on the primitive earth.

  1. Agile Science Operations: A New Approach for Primitive Exploration Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Thompson, David R.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Mclaren, David

    2012-01-01

    Primitive body exploration missions such as potential Comet Surface Sample Return or Trojan Tour and Rendezvous would challenge traditional operations practices. Earth-based observations would provide only basic understanding before arrival and many science goals would be defined during the initial rendezvous. It could be necessary to revise trajectories and observation plans to quickly characterize the target for safe, effective observations. Detection of outgassing activity and monitoring of comet surface activity are even more time constrained, with events occurring faster than round-trip light time. "Agile science operations" address these challenges with contingency plans that recognize the intrinsic uncertainty in the operating environment and science objectives. Planning for multiple alternatives can significantly improve the time required to repair and validate spacecraft command sequences. When appropriate, time-critical decisions can be automated and shifted to the spacecraft for immediate access to instrument data. Mirrored planning systems on both sides of the light-time gap permit transfer of authority back and forth as needed. We survey relevant science objectives, identifying time bottlenecks and the techniques that could be used to speed missions' reaction to new science data. Finally, we discuss the results of a trade study simulating agile observations during flyby and comet rendezvous scenarios. These experiments quantify instrument coverage of key surface features as a function of planning turnaround time. Careful application of agile operations techniques can play a significant role in realizing the Decadal Survey plan for primitive body exploration

  2. Cytokeratin immunoreactivity in Ewing sarcoma/ primitive neuroectodermal tumour.

    PubMed

    Elbashier, S H A; Nazarina, A R; Looi, L M

    2013-12-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES)/ primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm affecting mainly children and young adults. The tumour is included with other primitive neoplasms under the category of small round cell tumour. Cytokeratin expression in ES/PNET has been described in sporadic case reports as well as a few systemic series. We studied this feature in Malaysian patients diagnosed in University Malaya Medical Centre on the basis of typical morphology and immunohistochemical assays. Immunohistochemical staining for AE1/AE3 and MNF116 were performed in 43 cases. Cytokeratin was expressed in 17 cases (39.5%) in focal, intermediate or diffuse patterns. There was no significant association between cytokeratin immunoreactivity and the following parameters: patient age, sex, skeletal and extraskeletal primary location as well as primary, metastastic or recurrent tumours or chemotherapy treatment. A significant association between cytokeratin and neuron specific enolase (NSE) expression was demonstrated. Our study supports evidence of epithelial differentiation in ES/PNET and emphasizes that the expression of cytokeratin does not exclude ES/PNET in the differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours.

  3. C/EBPα initiates primitive myelopoiesis in pluripotent embryonic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaoyao; Costa, Ricardo M. B.; Love, Nick R.; Soto, Ximena; Roth, Martin; Paredes, Roberto; Amaya, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of primitive myeloid cells in vertebrate embryos are not well understood. Here we characterize the role of cebpa during primitive myeloid cell development in Xenopus. We show that cebpa is one of the first known hematopoietic genes expressed in the embryo. Loss and gain-of-function studies show that it is both necessary and sufficient for the development of functional myeloid cells. In addition, we show that cebpa misexpression leads to the precocious induction of myeloid cell markers in pluripotent prospective ectodermal cells, without the cells transitioning through a general mesodermal state. Finally we use live imaging to show that cebpa expressing cells exhibit many attributes of terminally differentiated myeloid cells, such as highly active migratory behavior, the ability to quickly and efficiently migrate toward wounds and phagocytose bacteria, and the ability to enter the circulation. Thus C/EPBα is the first known single factor capable of initiating an entire myelopoeisis pathway in pluripotent cells in the embryo. PMID:19420355

  4. “En bloc” caudate lobe and inferior vena cava resection following cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal and liver metastasis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moosmann, Nicolas; Töpel, Ingolf; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-01

    There are diverse protocols to manage patients with recurrent disease after primary cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for peritoneal carcinomatosis. We describe a case of metachronous liver metastasis after CRS and HIPEC for colorectal cancer, successfully treated with a selective metastectomy and partial graft of the inferior vena cava. A 35-year-old female presented with a large tumour in the cecum and consequent colonic stenosis. After an emergency right colectomy, the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. One year later she was diagnosed with peritoneal carcinomatosis, and it was decided to carry out a CRS/HIPEC. After 2 years of total remission, an isolated metachronous liver metastasis was detected by magnetic resonance imaging surveillance. The patient underwent a third procedure including a caudate lobe and partial inferior vena cava resection with a prosthetic graft interposition, achieving an R0 situation. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 17 after the liver resection. At 18-mo follow-up after the liver resection the patient remained free of recurrence. In selected patients, the option of re-operation due to recurrent disease should be discussed. Even liver resection of a metachronous metastasis and an extended vascular resection are acceptable after CRS/HIPEC and can be considered as a potential treatment option to remove all macroscopic lesions. PMID:28028374

  5. Surgical treatment of second primary lung cancer: report of eight cases.

    PubMed

    Luh, S P; Lee, Y C; Sheh, J M; Hsu, K Y; Lee, C J

    1995-03-01

    Of 312 patients undergoing resection for lung cancer at National Taiwan University Hospital during 1980 to 1990, eight presented with second primary lung cancer. One patient had synchronous and seven patients had metachronous primaries. There were five males and three females with ages ranging from 41 to 77 years. In the metachronous group, two patients had a different histology between the first and the second tumor, and the intervals between the two tumors varied from 12 to 60 months. The initial resections included pneumonectomy in one and lobectomy in six patients. At the second operation, the surgical procedures included lobectomy in three, completed pneumonectomy in one, segmentectomy in another, and wedge resection in two patients. There was no operative mortality and all patients were regularly followed up from 6 months to 6 years after the second operation. Two patients died, one from repeated respiratory tract infection and the other from brain metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed 2-year and 3-year survivals of 80% and 60%, respectively. It can be concluded that surgical resection for second primary lung cancer is justified, as it can prolong the patient's survival. Lobectomy can be performed for patients with a second primary lung cancer and sufficient lung reserve, but limited resection should be chosen for patients with poor lung reserve.

  6. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  7. A primitive cyanobacterium as pioneer microorganism for terraforming Mars.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I; Ocampo-Friedmann, R

    1995-03-01

    The primitive characteristics of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis suggest that it represents a very ancient type of the group. Its morphology is simple but shows a wide range of variability, and it resembles certain Proterozoic microfossils. Chroococcidiopsis is probably the most desiccation-resistant cyanobacterium, the sole photosynthetic organism in extreme arid habitats. It is also present in a wide range of other extreme environments, from Antarctic rocks to thermal springs and hypersaline habitats, but it is unable to compete with more specialized organisms. Genetic evidence suggests that all forms belong to a single species. Its remarkable tolerance of environmental extremes makes Chroococcidiopsis a prime candidate for use as a pioneer photosynthetic microorganism for terraforming of Mars. The hypolithic microbial growth form (which lives under stones of a desert pavement) could be used as a model for development of technologies for large-scale Martian farming.

  8. Role of Massive Stars in the Evolution of Primitive Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara

    2012-01-01

    An important factor controlling galaxy evolution is feedback from massive stars. It is believed that the nature and intensity of stellar feedback changes as a function of galaxy mass and metallicity. At low mass and metallicity, feedback from massive stars is mainly in the form of photoionizing radiation. At higher mass and metallicity, it is in stellar winds. IZw 18 is a local blue, compact dwarf galaxy that meets the requirements for a primitive galaxy: low halo mass greater than 10(exp 9)Msun, strong photoionizing radiation, no galactic outflow, and very low metallicity,log(O/H)+12=7.2. We will describe the properties of massive stars and their role in the evolution of IZw 18, based on analysis of ultraviolet images and spectra obtained with HST.

  9. A simple physical mechanism enables homeostasis in primitive cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, Aaron E.; Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of homeostatic mechanisms that enable maintenance of an intracellular steady state during growth was critical to the advent of cellular life. Here, we show that concentration-dependent reversible binding of short oligonucleotides, of both specific and random sequence, can modulate ribozyme activity. In both cases, catalysis is inhibited at high concentrations, and dilution activates the ribozyme via inhibitor dissociation, thus maintaining near-constant ribozyme specific activity throughout protocell growth. To mimic the result of RNA synthesis within non-growing protocells, we co-encapsulated high concentrations of ribozyme and oligonucleotides within fatty acid vesicles, and ribozyme activity was inhibited. Following vesicle growth, the resulting internal dilution produced ribozyme activation. This simple physical system enables a primitive homeostatic behaviour: the maintenance of constant ribozyme activity per unit volume during protocell volume changes. We suggest that such systems, wherein short oligonucleotides reversibly inhibit functional RNAs, could have preceded sophisticated modern RNA regulatory mechanisms, such as those involving miRNAs.

  10. A new kind of primitive chondrite, Allan Hills 85085

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, a chemically and mineralogically unique chondrite whose components have suffered little metamorphism or alteration, is discussed. It is found that ALH 85085 has 4 wt pct chondrules (mean diameter 16 microns), 36 wt pct Fe, Ni, 56 wt pct lithic and mineral silicate fragments, and 2 wt pct trolite. It is suggested that, with the exception of matrix lumps, the components of ALH 85085 formed and accreted in the solar nebula. It is shown that ALH 85085 does not belong to any of the nine chondrite groups and is very different from Kakangari. Similarities between ALH 85085 and Bencubbin and Weatherford suggest that the latter two primitive meteorites may be chondrites with high metal abundances and very large, partly fragmented chondrules.

  11. Evolution vs the number of gene copies per primitive cell.

    PubMed

    Koch, A L

    1984-01-01

    Computer simulations are presented of the rate at which an advantageous mutant would displace the prototype in a replicating system without an accurate segregation mechanism. If the number of gene copies in the system is indefinitely large, Darwinian evolution is essentially stopped because there is no coupling of phenotype with genotype, i.e., there is no growth advantage to the advantageous gene relative to the prototype and therefore no "survival of the fittest." The inhibition of evolution due to a number of gene copies less than 100 would have been not insurmountable. Although the presence of multiple copies would have allowed replacement by an advantageous mutant, it provided a way for the primitive cell to conserve less immediately useful genes that could evolve into different or more effective genes. This possibility was lost as accurate segregation mechanisms evolved and cells with few copies of each gene, such as modern procaryotes, arose.

  12. A primitive cell origin for B-cell precursor ALL?

    PubMed

    Cox, C V; Blair, A

    2005-01-01

    A stem cell origin has been described for both acute and chronic myelogenous leukemias. In contrast, childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is thought to arise in committed B-lineage cells. Recently described in vitro and in vivo model systems that support the proliferation and expansion of ALL cells have provided new tools to investigate the cellular targets for the origin of this malignancy. Evidence suggests that some subtypes of childhood ALL have a primitive cell origin and share many immunophenotypic characteristics with normal progenitor cells. These leukemic stem cells may be resistant to current therapeutic strategies designed to kill the bulk ALL cell population and subsequent relapses may arise from this population. More precise definition of these ALL stem cells through combined analyses of antigen expression, genetic lesions, and functionality is essential for the development of more effective, targeted therapeutic strategies.

  13. [Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of kidney : a case report].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Naofumi; Sumiyoshi, Takayuki; Okamura, Motohiro; Nakashima, Yoshiharu; Iwamura, Hiroshi; Mitsumori, Kenji; Nishimura, Kazuo; Shintaku, Masayuki; Koyama, Takashi; Matsui, Yusuke; Watanabe, Mitsumasa

    2013-06-01

    A 16-year-old man was referred to our hospital for asymptomatic gross hematuria. The findings of abdominal ultrasonography were normal. A month later, gross hematuria disappeared, and he was not followed after that. A month later, the patient was taken to our hospital in an ambulance for severe back pain and recurring gross hematuria. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a large right renal tumor with tumor thrombus penetrating inside the inferior vena cava. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy and embolectomy. The pathological diagnosis of the tumor was diagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of kidney by immunostaining and gene analysis. We started adjuvant chemotherapy soon after the operation. However, at 10 months after, multiple pulmonary metastases were detected. The patient was treated with salvage chemotherapy, surgery and irradiation therapy as combined modality therapy. Nevertheless, he died 18 months after the diagnosis.

  14. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of pancreas; second case from Asia.

    PubMed

    Changal, Khalid Hamid; Mir, Mohmad Hussain; Azaz, Sheikh Aejaz; Qadri, Sumyra Khurshid; Lone, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) are malignant tumours composed of small round cells of neuroectodermal origin that affect soft tissue and bone. PNETs originating in the pancreas are extremely rare; previous to this report, only 14 cases were reported worldwide, making this case the fifteenth in the world and the second in Asia. We present the case of a painful pancreatic lump diagnosed as PNET of the pancreas after a thorough workup. The diagnosis of PNET is made according to the overall clinical picture, imaging, histopathology, cytogenetics, and immunohistochemistry, as in the case we present. It is essential to differentiate primary pancreatic PNET from a secondary involvement. A review of all of the cases diagnosed worldwide thus far is also provided.

  15. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Song, Min Jeong; An, Soyeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Beom Su; Kim, Jihun

    2016-09-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a highly aggressive small round cell tumor that mainly occurs in the bone or soft tissue of children or young adults but is extremely rare in the stomach. A 55-year-old man presented with melena and anemia. On endoscopy, an ulcerofungating mass was observed in the high body and total gastrectomy was performed. Histologically, the mass consisted of small round cells with scanty cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli. They often formed perivascular pseudorosettes and multinucleated giant cells were frequently observed. The tumor cells strongly expressed CD99, FLI1, and chromogranin and weakly expressed synaptophysin and CD56. EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. ES/PNET is frequently misdiagnosed because of its similarity with small cell carcinoma. Although gastric ES/PNET is very rare, it should be included in differential diagnoses of small round cell tumor in the stomach.

  16. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the cervix: a rare diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irfan; Chufal, Kundan Singh; Bhargava, Amit; Bashir, Irfan

    2017-01-04

    A 48-year-old woman presented with symptoms of lower abdominal pain and vaginal discharge for 6 months. Clinical examination and pelvic ultrasound scan suggested a diagnosis of infected Gartner's cyst, for which she underwent vaginal cystectomy. However, histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the cervix. Further investigations revealed the stage to be FIGO IIIB, which was inoperable. She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, cisplatin and etoposide, every 21 days), but the tumour did not respond to treatment and she was started on radiotherapy with definitive intent (55.8 Gray in 31 fractions over 6.2 weeks). A PET-CT performed 2 months after completion of radiotherapy showed complete response, and she is now receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.

  17. Cerebellopontine angle primitive neuroectodermal tumor mimicking trigeminal schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saad Akhtar; Ujjan, Badar Uddin; Salim, Adnan; Shamim, Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) comprise a group of aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring in central nervous system as well as in peripheral locations. Primary cerebellopontine angle (CPA) PNET is an extremely rare entity. It is important to have knowledge of this pathology and to be able to differentiate it from other commonly occurring CPA tumors, such as vestibular and trigeminal schwannomas. This distinction is essential because of the difference in the overall treatment plan and prognosis. Case Description: This report describes a case of a young male presenting with diplopia and numbness of face; magnetic resonance imaging showed a CPA mass. With a provisional diagnosis of trigeminal schwannoma, the patient underwent surgery. Histopathology provided a diagnosis of PNET. Conclusion: We discuss the importance of recognizing this rare condition and how this entity differs from the commonly occurring tumors. PMID:26862446

  18. Polyamines of primitive apterygotan insects: springtails, silverfish and a bristletail.

    PubMed

    Hamana, Koei; Uemiya, Hideyuki; Niitsu, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    Polyamines extracted from whole bodies of four springtails, Tomocerus ishibashii, Hypogastrura communis, Sinella cruviseta and Folsomia candida, a bristletail, Pedetontus nipponicus, and two silverfish, Lepisma saccharina and Thermobia domestica, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. All seven apterous insect species contained putrescine, cadaverine and spermidine as the common major polyamines, detected at the level of micromol/g wet mass. T. ishibashii also contained spermine, S. cruviseta contained norspermidine and norspermine and H. communis, F. candida and P. nipponicus contained diaminopropane, norspermidine and norspermine, as minor polyamines above the detection limit (0.01 micromol/g wet mass). The occurrence of diaminopropane, norspermidine, norspermine, spermine and thermospermine was confirmed in L. saccharina and T. domestica. The novel polyamines norspermidine, norspermine and thermospermine, widespread in higher insects, were also distributed within the primitive apterygotan insects.

  19. Amylose primitive médiastinale d'aspect pseudotumoral

    PubMed Central

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    L'amylose primitive médiastinale isolée est rare et de diagnostic difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient âgé de 41 ans ayant présenté une dyspnée et des crachats hémoptoïques. A l'examen physique il n'avait pas d'hypotension orthostatique. Les aires ganglionnaires périphériques étaient libres. La tomodensitométrie thoracique a objectivé un magma d'adénopathies médiastinales réalisant une masse de 45 mm x 60 mm. L'examen anatomopathologique d'une biopsie ganglionnaire guidée par médiastinoscopie a conclut a une amylose médiastinale de type AL. Il n'avait pas d'autres localisations amyloïdes. Un myélome multiple a été éliminé. Le diagnostic d'amylose primitive médiastinale de type AL a été retenu. Le traitement s'est basé sur des cures de Melphalan-prednisone. La chirurgie était évitée vu le risque hémorragique élevé. L’évolution était marquée par l'amélioration de la dyspnée, la disparition de l'hémoptysie et la diminution de la taille de la masse ganglionnaire devenant 25 mm x 20 mm. PMID:26308913

  20. Ly(alpha) Photolysis in the Primitive Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for the third year of work on this project. Our proposal was to quantitatively investigate the importance of photochemistry in the solar nebula. In the generally accepted theory for the chemical evolution of the primitive solar nebula, Prinn and Fegley argued that photochemistry is unimportant, and that thermochemistry controls the relative abundances of molecular species throughout the planet-forming region. They provided useful estimates of the chemical energy available to the solar nebula from a variety of sources, and established that even the small photolysis rate due to starlight is more important than the photolysis rate from direct sunlight (although small, the UV flux from starlight could have processed a non-negligible fraction of the solar nebula. The reason for this is that the opacity of the disk was so large that direct sunlight could only penetrate to 0.1 AU or so, despite the expectation that the protosun, if comparable to a T-Tauri star, would be emitting up to 10(exp 4) more H I Ly(alpha) photons than the current sun. We developed a Monte Carlo resonance fine radiative transfer code, capable of accurately calculating the radiation field of H I Ly(alpha), He I 584 A, and He II 304 A emissions throughout the nebula and the nearby interstellar medium in which it is embedded. We applied the code to two appropriate models of the primitive solar nebula. Our model provided the photolysis rates of various species over the entire surface layer of the nebula, and from this we evaluated the importance of UV photochemistry due to backscattered solar UV resonance line emissions on different parts of the nebula. The results discussed below were presented.

  1. Primitive layered gabbros from fast-spreading lower oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Kathryn M; Snow, Jonathan E; Klaus, Adam; Abe, Natsue; Adrião, Alden B; Akizawa, Norikatsu; Ceuleneer, Georges; Cheadle, Michael J; Faak, Kathrin; Falloon, Trevor J; Friedman, Sarah A; Godard, Marguerite; Guerin, Gilles; Harigane, Yumiko; Horst, Andrew J; Hoshide, Takashi; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jean, Marlon M; John, Barbara E; Koepke, Juergen; Machi, Sumiaki; Maeda, Jinichiro; Marks, Naomi E; McCaig, Andrew M; Meyer, Romain; Morris, Antony; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Saha, Abhishek; Wintsch, Robert P

    2014-01-09

    Three-quarters of the oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges is composed of plutonic rocks whose mineral assemblages, textures and compositions record the history of melt transport and crystallization between the mantle and the sea floor. Despite the importance of these rocks, sampling them in situ is extremely challenging owing to the overlying dykes and lavas. This means that models for understanding the formation of the lower crust are based largely on geophysical studies and ancient analogues (ophiolites) that did not form at typical mid-ocean ridges. Here we describe cored intervals of primitive, modally layered gabbroic rocks from the lower plutonic crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge, sampled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program at the Hess Deep rift. Centimetre-scale, modally layered rocks, some of which have a strong layering-parallel foliation, confirm a long-held belief that such rocks are a key constituent of the lower oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Geochemical analysis of these primitive lower plutonic rocks--in combination with previous geochemical data for shallow-level plutonic rocks, sheeted dykes and lavas--provides the most completely constrained estimate of the bulk composition of fast-spreading oceanic crust so far. Simple crystallization models using this bulk crustal composition as the parental melt accurately predict the bulk composition of both the lavas and the plutonic rocks. However, the recovered plutonic rocks show early crystallization of orthopyroxene, which is not predicted by current models of melt extraction from the mantle and mid-ocean-ridge basalt differentiation. The simplest explanation of this observation is that compositionally diverse melts are extracted from the mantle and partly crystallize before mixing to produce the more homogeneous magmas that erupt.

  2. Vulnerability of primitive human placental trophoblast to Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Megan A; Yunusov, Dinar; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Alexenko, Andrei P; Yabe, Shinichiro; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Schust, Danny J; Franz, Alexander W; Sadovsky, Yoel; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael

    2017-02-28

    Infection of pregnant women by Asian lineage strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to brain abnormalities in their infants, yet it is uncertain when during pregnancy the human conceptus is most vulnerable to the virus. We have examined two models to study susceptibility of human placental trophoblast to ZIKV: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast derived from placental villi at term and colonies of trophoblast differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC). The latter appear to be analogous to the primitive placenta formed during implantation. The cells from term placentas, which resist infection, do not express genes encoding most attachment factors implicated in ZIKV entry but do express many genes associated with antiviral defense. By contrast, the ESC-derived trophoblasts possess a wide range of attachment factors for ZIKV entry and lack components of a robust antiviral response system. These cells, particularly areas of syncytiotrophoblast within the colonies, quickly become infected, produce infectious virus and undergo lysis within 48 h after exposure to low titers (multiplicity of infection > 0.07) of an African lineage strain (MR766 Uganda: ZIKV(U)) considered to be benign with regards to effects on fetal development. Unexpectedly, lytic effects required significantly higher titers of the presumed more virulent FSS13025 Cambodia (ZIKV(C)). Our data suggest that the developing fetus might be most vulnerable to ZIKV early in the first trimester before a protective zone of mature villous trophoblast has been established. Additionally, MR766 is highly trophic toward primitive trophoblast, which may put the early conceptus of an infected mother at high risk for destruction.

  3. Primitive layered gabbros from fast-spreading lower oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Kathryn M.; Snow, Jonathan E.; Klaus, Adam; Abe, Natsue; Adrião, Álden B.; Akizawa, Norikatsu; Ceuleneer, Georges; Cheadle, Michael J.; Faak, Kathrin; Falloon, Trevor J.; Friedman, Sarah A.; Godard, Marguerite; Guerin, Gilles; Harigane, Yumiko; Horst, Andrew J.; Hoshide, Takashi; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jean, Marlon M.; John, Barbara E.; Koepke, Juergen; Machi, Sumiaki; Maeda, Jinichiro; Marks, Naomi E.; McCaig, Andrew M.; Meyer, Romain; Morris, Antony; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Saha, Abhishek; Wintsch, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Three-quarters of the oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges is composed of plutonic rocks whose mineral assemblages, textures and compositions record the history of melt transport and crystallization between the mantle and the sea floor. Despite the importance of these rocks, sampling them in situ is extremely challenging owing to the overlying dykes and lavas. This means that models for understanding the formation of the lower crust are based largely on geophysical studies and ancient analogues (ophiolites) that did not form at typical mid-ocean ridges. Here we describe cored intervals of primitive, modally layered gabbroic rocks from the lower plutonic crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge, sampled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program at the Hess Deep rift. Centimetre-scale, modally layered rocks, some of which have a strong layering-parallel foliation, confirm a long-held belief that such rocks are a key constituent of the lower oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Geochemical analysis of these primitive lower plutonic rocks--in combination with previous geochemical data for shallow-level plutonic rocks, sheeted dykes and lavas--provides the most completely constrained estimate of the bulk composition of fast-spreading oceanic crust so far. Simple crystallization models using this bulk crustal composition as the parental melt accurately predict the bulk composition of both the lavas and the plutonic rocks. However, the recovered plutonic rocks show early crystallization of orthopyroxene, which is not predicted by current models of melt extraction from the mantle and mid-ocean-ridge basalt differentiation. The simplest explanation of this observation is that compositionally diverse melts are extracted from the mantle and partly crystallize before mixing to produce the more homogeneous magmas that erupt.

  4. Construction of protocellular structures under simulated primitive earth conditions.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, H; Ogawa, Y; Kojima, K; Ito, M

    1988-01-01

    We have developed experimental approaches for the construction of protocellular structures under simulated primitive earth conditions and studied their formation and characteristics. Three types of envelopes; protein envelopes, lipid envelopes, and lipid-protein envelopes are considered as candidates for protocellular structures. Simple protein envelopes and lipid envelopes are presumed to have originated at an early stage of chemical evolution, interaction mutually and then evolved into more complex envelopes composed of both lipids and proteins. Three kinds of protein envelopes were constructed in situ from amino acids under simulated primitive earth conditions such as a fresh water tide pool, a warm sea, and a submarine hydrothermal vent. One protein envelope was formed from a mixture of amino acid amides at 80 degrees C using multiple hydration-dehydration cycles. Marigranules, protein envelope structures, were produced from mixtures of glycine and acidic, basic and aromatic amino acids at 105 degrees C in a modified sea medium enriched with essential transition elements. Thermostable microspheres were also formed from a mixture of glycine, alanine, valine, and aspartic acid at 250 degrees C and above. The microspheres did not form at lower temperatures and consist of silicates and peptide-like polymers containing imide bonds and amino acid residues enriched in valine. Amphiphilic proteins with molecular weights of 2000 were necessary for the formation of the protein envelopes. Stable lipid envelopes were formed from different dialkyl phospholipids and fatty acids. Large, stable, lipid-protein envelopes were formed from egg lecithin and the solubilized marigranules. Polycations such as polylysine and polyhistidine, or basic proteins such as lysozyme and cytochrome c also stabilized lipid-protein envelopes.

  5. Formation of Primitive Bodies in the Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a simple model of global transport of solids in the protoplanetary nebula, including radial drift of large particles and diffusion of small ones. The model has been applied to the formation and redistribution of the Ca-A1 rich refractory mineral inclusions (CAIs) found in primitive chondrites. These objects form at much higher temperatures, and appear to be 1-3 million years older than, the dominant (chondrule) components found in the same parent bodies. A widespread concern has been the retention of CAIs for this long against gas-drag-induced radial drift into the sun. We show that outward radial diffusion in a weakly turbulent nebula can overwhelm inward drift, and prevent significant numbers of CAI-size particles from being lost into the sun for tines on the order of several Myr. An element of this model is rapid inward radial drift of boulder-sized primitive (carbon-rich) silicate material, more like Halley-dust than CI chondrites in the early days of the nebula. Thls process can enrich the abundance of silicate and carbon material in the inner nebula, and may provide possible explanations for both chemical and isotopic properties of CAIs. The predicted enhancement of CO relative to water might be of relevance to recent IR astronomical observations of CO in the inner disks of several actively accreting T Tauri stars. This process has applications to the transport and redistribution of volatiles in general. Depending on the rubble particle size distribution, rapid radial drift of boulder-sized solids can bring more material inwards across a condensation front, to evaporate, than can subsequently be removed by nebula advection or diffusion, until a strong local enhancement is produced which allows diffusive loss to balance the drifting source. Application of this process to enhancement of the abundance of water near the "ice line" will be discussed. Supported by the Origins of Solar Systems program.

  6. Vulnerability of primitive human placental trophoblast to Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Megan A.; Yunusov, Dinar; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Alexenko, Andrei P.; Yabe, Shinichiro; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Schust, Danny J.; Franz, Alexander W.; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Infection of pregnant women by Asian lineage strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to brain abnormalities in their infants, yet it is uncertain when during pregnancy the human conceptus is most vulnerable to the virus. We have examined two models to study susceptibility of human placental trophoblast to ZIKV: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast derived from placental villi at term and colonies of trophoblast differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC). The latter appear to be analogous to the primitive placenta formed during implantation. The cells from term placentas, which resist infection, do not express genes encoding most attachment factors implicated in ZIKV entry but do express many genes associated with antiviral defense. By contrast, the ESC-derived trophoblasts possess a wide range of attachment factors for ZIKV entry and lack components of a robust antiviral response system. These cells, particularly areas of syncytiotrophoblast within the colonies, quickly become infected, produce infectious virus and undergo lysis within 48 h after exposure to low titers (multiplicity of infection > 0.07) of an African lineage strain (MR766 Uganda: ZIKVU) considered to be benign with regards to effects on fetal development. Unexpectedly, lytic effects required significantly higher titers of the presumed more virulent FSS13025 Cambodia (ZIKVC). Our data suggest that the developing fetus might be most vulnerable to ZIKV early in the first trimester before a protective zone of mature villous trophoblast has been established. Additionally, MR766 is highly trophic toward primitive trophoblast, which may put the early conceptus of an infected mother at high risk for destruction. PMID:28193876

  7. The Primitive Material Explorer (PriME) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Anita L.; Weaver, H. A.; Science, PriME; Engineering Teams

    2010-10-01

    The Primitive Material Explorer (PriME) Mission is a proposed Discovery mission that will rendezvous with comet 46P/Wirtanen in 2021 in order to 1) clarify the roles played by comets in the formation and evolution of the Solar System and the origin of life; 2) ascertain the bulk physical properties, the surface geology, and the sources of activity in a fresh comet nucleus; and 3) investigate the compositional diversity of primitive material in the Solar System. PriME teams an experienced group of comet scientists (led by PI Anita Cochran and by DPI Harold Weaver) with university and industrial partners. The PriME payload accomplishes the mission objectives with only three instruments. MASPEX (MAss Spectrometer for Planetary EXploration) has higher mass resolution and is more sensitive than any mass spectrometer ever flown. MASPEX will measure D/H in H2O, noble gases, isotopes of many species, and complex molecular compounds to test solar nebula models and the role comets played in delivering water and other biologically important materials throughout the Solar System. The VIS (Visible Imaging System), consisting of a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) and Wide-Angle Camera (WAC), will constrain the conditions under which the building blocks of the outer Solar System were assembled by measuring key physical properties of the nucleus of 46P/Wirtanen. Using the radio antenna and close flybys of the nucleus, PriME will determine the mass of the nucleus to an accuracy of 1% and the bulk density and average porosity of the nucleus to better than 5%. All spacecraft subsystems have significant planetary flight heritage. The spacecraft is a high-heritage derivative of the Kepler and Deep Impact spacecrafts, compatible with the three launch vehicle families specified in the Discovery Announcement of Opportunity.

  8. [Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancer detected during follow-up after lung cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Masanori

    2013-07-01

    Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancers are one of the most challenging modality for thoracic surgeons. Surgeons should have knowledge of indication of re-operations as well as surgical techniques and perioperative management of patients with 2nd primary lung cancers. When performing repeated pulmonary resection on the same side of the 1st surgery, following points are important for accomplishment of a safe re-operation:1.Wide thoracotomy with muscle dissections is recommended. 2.Throughout adhesion lysis between lung parenchyma and surrounding structures are required before manipulating pulmonary vessels. 3.The main pulmonary artery is encircled before dissection of the pulmonary artery. 4.Surgeons should be familiar with intrapericardial exposure of the main pulmonary artery. The techniques consist of division of the ligament of arteriosum, incision of the pericardium, and encircle of the origin of the mail pulmonary. Re-operations for metachronous lung cancers provided favorable survival in patients with adequate physiologic pulmonary reserve.

  9. Interaction of the Macrophage and Primitive Erythroid Lineages in the Mammalian Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Palis, James

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct forms of erythropoiesis, primitive and definitive, are found in mammals. Definitive erythroid precursors in the bone marrow mature in the physical context of macrophage cells in “erythroblastic islands.” In the murine embryo, overlapping waves of primitive hematopoietic progenitors and definitive erythro-myeloid progenitors, each containing macrophage potential, arise in the yolk sac prior to the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells. Primitive erythroblasts mature in the bloodstream as a semi-synchronous cohort while macrophage cells derived from the yolk sac seed the fetal liver. Late-stage primitive erythroblasts associate with macrophage cells in erythroblastic islands in the fetal liver, indicating that primitive erythroblasts can interact with macrophage cells extravascularly. Like definitive erythroblasts, primitive erythroblasts physically associate with macrophages through α4 integrin–vascular adhesion molecule 1-mediated interactions and α4 integrin is redistributed onto the plasma membrane of primitive pyrenocytes. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that fetal liver macrophage cells engulf primitive pyrenocytes. Taken together, these studies indicate that several aspects of the interplay between macrophage cells and maturing erythroid precursor cells are conserved during the ontogeny of mammalian organisms. PMID:28119687

  10. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour (pPNET) in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Alexander, H S; Koleda, C; Hunn, M K

    2010-02-01

    Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumours are rare. We present a 45-year-old man with a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour arising in the cervical spine. We believe this to be the first report of this type of tumour in the cervical spine.

  11. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer in individuals with previous colorectal neoplasia: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dulai, Parambir S; Marquez, Evelyn; Khera, Rohan; Prokop, Larry J; Limburg, Paul J; Gupta, Samir; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    had an inferior safety profile (SUCRA=0.51). Efficacy of agents for reducing metachronous colorectal cancer could not be estimated. Conclusions Among individuals with previous colorectal neoplasia, non-aspirin NSAIDs are the most effective agents for the prevention of advanced metachronous neoplasia, whereas low dose aspirin has the most favorable risk:benefit profile. Registration PROSPERO (CRD42015029598). PMID:27919915

  12. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a young male: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Nivedita; Mishra, Kiran; Saini, Pradeep; Agarwal, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney is a rare tumor. A total of approximately 79 primary renal cases have been reported to date. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors occur preferentially in the soft-tissues of the paravertebral region and chest wall, less frequently in extremities, with a slight male predominance. We report a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a 17-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma-stage 4. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor of monotonous sheets of round cells with focal areas of rosette formations and high mitotic rate with Ki67 index of 25-30%. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 confirming the diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney needs to be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in young adults presenting with a large kidney mass.

  13. Pediatric Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Central Nervous System Differentially Express Granzyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F.; van Hecke, Wim; Spliet, Wim G. M.; Villacorta Hidalgo, José; Fisch, Paul; Broekhuizen, Roel; Bovenschen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Background Central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are malignant primary brain tumors that occur in young infants. Using current standard therapy, up to 80% of the children still dies from recurrent disease. Cellular immunotherapy might be key to improve overall survival. To achieve efficient killing of tumor cells, however, immunotherapy has to overcome cancer-associated strategies to evade the cytotoxic immune response. Whether CNS-PNETs can evade the immune response remains unknown. Methods We examined by immunohistochemistry the immune response and immune evasion strategies in pediatric CNS-PNETs. Results Here, we show that CD4+, CD8+, γδ-T-cells, and Tregs can infiltrate pediatric CNS-PNETs, although the activation status of cytotoxic cells is variable. Pediatric CNS-PNETs evade immune recognition by downregulating cell surface MHC-I and CD1d expression. Intriguingly, expression of SERPINB9, SERPINB1, and SERPINB4 is acquired during tumorigenesis in 29%, 29%, and 57% of the tumors, respectively. Conclusion We show for the first time that brain tumors express direct granzyme inhibitors (serpins) as a potential mechanism to overcome cellular cytotoxicity, which may have consequences for cellular immunotherapy. PMID:26963506

  14. NEOWISE: The distribution of the large primitive asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Nugent, C.; Stevenson, R.; Sonnett, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA Medium-class Explorer mission that surveyed the entire sky in four infrared wavelengths at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns (denoted W1, W2, W3, and W4, respectively) [1,2]. The solar-system specific portion of the WISE project, known as NEOWISE, collected more than 2 million observations of more than 158,000 asteroids, including near-Earth objects, main-belt asteroids, comets, Hildas, Jovian Trojans, Centaurs, and scattered-disk objects [3]. The methods used for data extraction and thermal modeling have been extensively detailed in [3--6]. The resulting physical properties have been reported in a series of papers [3--13]. In [6] and [9], it was shown that the visible albedo in the V band and the near-infrared albedo in the W1 and W2 bands can be used to taxonomically classify a significant number of the largest members of the Hilda and Jovian Trojan populations (see Figure 1). This allows for the study of the distribution of primitive asteroids in the region between the main asteroid and the giant planets, down to sizes where the populations are completely sampled. Figure 2 shows that for the Hilda population, where the sample is observationally complete to about 40 km, the C/P types dominated over the D types at the larger sizes. However, for the smaller sizes, the D types become significantly more numerous. For the Jovian Trojan population, for which the sample is observationally complete to about 50 km, the D types are slightly more numerous at the largest sizes. As smaller sizes are included, the D types become more dominant, with more than 80 % of the objects larger than 50 km having this taxonomic type. We have now extended the study to include thermal fits and taxonomic classification of the outer main belt, Cybeles, irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, and the Centaur population [13], and will present the results of this work. The distribution of primitive asteroids in the different populations

  15. Tensile strengths and porosities of solar system primitive bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Llorca, J.; Blum, J.

    Recent measurements of asteroid bulk densities suggest that rubble-pile asteroids with typical porosities of 30 to 50% may be common (Britt et al., 2006). However, the presence of such objects doesn't mean necessarily that the initial porosity had been preserved (Kerridge, 1993). In fact, the fluffy aggregates produced in laboratory experiments that we expect to be representative of the oldest protoplanetary disk materials, exhibit even higher porosities (Blum et al., 2006). Recent results confirm that primitive meteorites (like e.g. CM carbonaceous chondrites) are compacted samples of the nebula matter exhibiting different density and porosity that their precursors materials (Trigo-Rodríguez et al., 2006). Consequently, aqueous alteration, brecciation, and impact-induced metamorphism make very unlikely to find pristine bodies between the asteroidal population. However, there is clear evidence for the existence of high-porosity bodies between the C-type asteroids like e.g. Mathilde (Housen et al., 1999) or the Tagish Lake parent body (Brown et al., 2002). Although extensive post-accretionary processing of meteorite parent bodies can produce high degrees of porosity, only the most pristine ones seem to preserve more than 50% of porosity. Consequently, we should look for these low strength bodies among the C-type asteroids, or very especially in some unprocessed comets that continue being representative of the precursor materials. Recent suggestion that CI1 chondrites are originated from comets should be studied in this context (Gounelle et al., 2006). Particularly, we think that studies of the porosity and strength of primitive meteorites would provide valuable clues on the origin and nature of their parent bodies. REFERENCES Blum J., R. Schräpler, B.J.R. Davidson and J.M. Trigo-Rodríguez (2006) Astroph. J., submitted. Britt D.T., G.J. Consolmagno, and W.J. Merline (2006) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. Abstract #2214. Brown, P. G., D. O. Revelle, E. Tagliaferri, and A

  16. Identification of Genes Expressed in the Migrating Primitive Myeloid Lineage of Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Agricola, Zachary N.; Jagpal, Amrita K.; Allbee, Andrew W.; Prewitt, Allison R.; Shifley, Emily T.; Rankin, Scott A.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Kenny, Alan P.

    2017-01-01

    Background During primitive hematopoiesis in Xenopus, cebpa and spib expressing myeloid cells emerge from the anterior ventral blood island. Primitive myeloid cells migrate throughout the embryo and are critical for immunity, healing, and development. Although definitive hematopoiesis has been studied extensively, molecular mechanisms leading to the migration of primitive myelocytes remain poorly understood. We hypothesized these cells have specific extracellular matrix modifying and cell motility gene expression. Results In situ hybridization screens of transcripts expressed in Xenopus foregut mesendoderm at stage 23 identified seven genes with restricted expression in primitive myeloid cells: destrin; coronin actin binding protein, 1a; formin-like 1; ADAM metallopeptidase domain 28; cathepsin S; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1; and protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 6. A detailed in situ hybridization analysis revealed these genes are initially expressed in the aVBI but become dispersed throughout the embryo as the primitive myeloid cells become migratory, similar to known myeloid markers. Morpholino-mediated loss-of-function and mRNA-mediated gain-of-function studies revealed the identified genes are downstream of Spib.a and Cebpa, key transcriptional regulators of the myeloid lineage. Conclusions We have identified genes specifically expressed in migratory primitive myeloid progenitors, providing tools to study how different gene networks operate in these primitive myelocytes during development and immunity. PMID:26264370

  17. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Two kinds of lymphocytes can attack and kill cancer cells: T-cells and B-cells. Immunotherapy aims to boost the ability of the T-cell and B-cell lymphocytes to kill cancer. This kind of therapy can also be used ...

  18. Mutation profiles of synchronous colorectal cancers from a patient with Lynch syndrome suggest distinct oncogenic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chanjuan; Holt, Jonathan A.; Vnencak-Jones, Cindy L.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Lynch syndrome often present with multiple synchronous or metachronous colorectal cancers (CRCs). The presence of multiple CRCs with distinct genetic profiles and driver mutations could complicate treatment as each cancer may respond differently to therapy. Studies of sporadic CRCs suggested that synchronous tumors have distinct etiologies, but could not rule out differences in genetic background. The presence of multiple cancers in a patient with a predisposing mutation provides an opportunity to profile synchronous cancers in the same genetic background. Here, we describe the case of a patient with Lynch syndrome that presented with six synchronous CRCs. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and genomic profiling indicated that each lesion had a unique pattern of instability and a distinct profile of affected genes. These findings support the idea that in Lynch syndrome, synchronous CRCs can develop in parallel with distinct mutation profiles and that these differences may inform treatment decisions. PMID:27284491

  19. Polycomb enables primitive endoderm lineage priming in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, Robert S; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Roske, Fabian V; Bickmore, Wendy A; Brickman, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), like the blastocyst from which they are derived, contain precursors of the epiblast (Epi) and primitive endoderm (PrEn) lineages. While transient in vivo, these precursor populations readily interconvert in vitro. We show that altered transcription is the driver of these coordinated changes, known as lineage priming, in a process that exploits novel polycomb activities. We find that intragenic levels of the polycomb mark H3K27me3 anti-correlate with changes in transcription, irrespective of the gene’s developmental trajectory or identity as a polycomb target. In contrast, promoter proximal H3K27me3 is markedly higher for PrEn priming genes. Consequently, depletion of this modification stimulates the degree to which ESCs are primed towards PrEn when challenged to differentiate, but has little effect on gene expression in self-renewing ESC culture. These observations link polycomb with dynamic changes in transcription and stalled lineage commitment, allowing cells to explore alternative choices prior to a definitive decision. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14926.001 PMID:27723457

  20. A primitive therizinosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkland, J.I.; Zanno, L.E.; Sampson, S.D.; Clark, J.M.; DeBlieux, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Therizinosauroids are an enigmatic group of dinosaurs known mostly from the Cretaceous period of Asia, whose derived members are characterized by elongate necks, laterally expanded pelves, small, leaf-shaped teeth, edentulous rostra and mandibular symphyses that probably bore keratinized beaks. Although more than a dozen therizinosauroid taxa are known, their relationships within Dinosauria have remained controversial because of fragmentary remains and an unusual suite of characters. The recently discovered 'feathered' therizinosauroid Beipiaosaurus from the Early Cretaceous of China helped to clarify the theropod affinities of the group. However, Beipiaosaurus is also poorly represented. Here we describe a new, primitive therizinosauroid from an extensive paucispecific bonebed at the base of the Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous) of east-central Utah. This new taxon represents the most complete and most basal therizinosauroid yet discovered. Phylogenetic analysis of coelurosaurian theropods incorporating this taxon places it at the base of the clade Therizinosauroiden, indicating that this species documents the earliest known stage in the poorly understood transition from carnivory to herbivory within Therizinosauroidea. The taxon provides the first documentation, to our knowledge, of therizinosauroids in North America during the Early Cretaceous.

  1. Segmenting sign language into motor primitives with Bayesian binning

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Dominik; Meirovitch, Yaron; Flash, Tamar; Giese, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    The endpoint trajectories of human movements fulfill characteristic power laws linking velocity and curvature. The parameters of these power laws typically vary between different segments of longer action sequences. These parameters might thus be exploited for the unsupervised segmentation of actions into movement primitives. For the example of sign language we investigate whether such segments can be identified by Bayesian binning (BB), using a Gaussian observation model whose mean has a polynomial time dependence. We show that this method yields good segmentation and correctly models ground truth kinematics composed of consecutive segments derived from wrist trajectories recorded from users of Israeli Sign Language (ISL). Importantly, polynomial orders between 3 and 5 yield an optimal trade-off between complexity and accuracy of the trajectory approximation, in accordance with the minimum acceleration and minimum jerk models. Comparing the orders of the polynomials best approximating natural kinematics against those needed to fit the power law ground truth data suggests that kinematic properties not compatible with power laws are also not adequately represented by low order polynomials and require higher order polynomials for a good approximation. PMID:23750135

  2. Solar Electric Propulsion for Primitive Body Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzberger, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes work that assesses the performance of solar electric propulsion (SEP) for three different primitive body science missions: 1) Comet Rendezvous 2) Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR), and 3) a Trojan asteroid/Centaur object Reconnaissance Flyby. Each of these missions launches from Earth between 2010 and 2016. Beginning-of-life (BOL) solar array power (referenced at 1 A.U.) varies from 10 to 18 kW. Launch vehicle selections range from a Delta II to a Delta IV medium-class. The primary figure of merit (FOM) is net delivered mass (NDM). This analysis considers the effects of imposing various mission constraints on the Comet Rendezvous and CSSR missions. Specifically, the Comet Rendezvous mission analysis examines an arrival date constraint with a launch year variation, whereas the CSSR mission analysis investigates an Earth entry velocity constraint commensurate with past and current missions. Additionally, the CSSR mission analysis establishes NASA's New Frontiers (NF) Design Reference Mission (DRM) in order to evaluate current and future SEP technologies. The results show that transfer times range from 5 to 9 years (depending on the mission). More importantly, the spacecraft's primary propulsion system performs an average 5-degree plane change on the return leg of the CSSR mission to meet the previously mentioned Earth entry velocity constraint. Consequently, these analyses show that SEP technologies that have higher thrust-to-power ratios can: 1) reduce flight time, and 2) change planes more efficiently.

  3. Three boys and their stories: atypical eating and primitive relations.

    PubMed

    Escosteguy Carneiro, Maria Inês Neuenschwander

    2008-12-01

    Eating disorders of whatever category, especially the most severe ones such as anorexia or bulimia, are often considered typical of the female sex. While this is correct concerning these two disorders, I suggest that there are other eating disorders that are more frequent among boys, especially the ones concerning atypical relations to food, notwithstanding the evidence that the already very well-known syndromes of bulimia and anorexia are also gaining ground among males. However, similar, unspecified eating disorders do not seem to occur so often among girls. Clinical data from my private practice should be taken for granted considering these matters, since I do not yet have statistical data to back up my thesis. In examples from three clinical cases involving boys and one female vignette, I shall attempt to establish a relation between eating disorders and primitive relations with men and women. This relation goes well beyond the oft-cited 'contemporary' causes of eating disorders. In addition, I shall situate these differences among symptoms of both sexes and relate them to impasses in different stages of emotional development, as well as to the extent to which girls' identification with their mother's sex can influence their acquisition of eating disorders.

  4. Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour: Case Report of a Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Kumarguru, B.N.; Bhat, Balachandra; Ramaswamy, A.S.; Kumar, M. Udaya

    2017-01-01

    The peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour (PNET) is a member of the family of small round cell tumours. PNET is more aggressive in kidney when compared to the other sites. It usually presents in childhood or adolescence. It has an aggressive clinical course and may process towards metastatic disease culminating in death. A 24-year-old female presented with left sided abdominal swelling. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a heterogeneous left renal mass. Consequently the patient underwent nephrectomy of left kidney and left oophorectomy. Grossly, the tumour involved almost entire kidney, showed multi-lobular, grey, glistening appearance with focal haemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the tumour cells were arranged in diffuse infiltrating sheets, cohesive lobules, Homer-Wright rosettes and perivascular pseudo-rosettes. Individual tumour cells were small round cells with scant cytoplasm and round nuclei having dispersed chromatin. Features were suggestive of PNET. Immunohistochemistry showed tumour cells displaying strong membrane positivity for MIC 2. Renal PNET needs to be differentiated from other primary and metastatic renal round-cell tumours. Most of the cases of renal PNET have poor response to standard treatment of combined surgical resection, post-operative irradiation, and chemotherapy. PNET is a rare primary tumour in the kidney. Histopathological diagnosis has to be confirmed by immunophenotyping of the tumour cells. PMID:28384877

  5. Primitive immune systems: are your ways my ways?

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Baruch

    2004-04-01

    Although vertebrate immune systems have been commonly conceived as exquisitely developed to combat pervasiveness by pathogens, they are not infallible. The enigmatic expression of histocompatibility in vertebrates, the manifestation of natural chimerism, autoimmunity, malignancy, and other puzzling outcomes hint that immunity did not arise in evolution to fight infections and that this capacity is a late evolutionary appendage, owing its appearance to the redeployment of a system developed for other reasons. Allorecognition in the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri serves here as a platform for a contending paradigm, advocating that immunity has developed as a surveillance machinery against and for purging of nascent selfish cells (stemmed from a kin organism or from transformed cells within the organism of origin). Defense against pathogens (always representing xenogeneic aliens) appeared later, revealing the multiplicity of newly developed phenomena. Allorecognition events characteristic of the Botryllus primitive immune system, such as fusion versus rejection, the morphological resorption with its expressed hierarchy, and the somatic/germ-cell parasitic outcomes, provide clues to the evolutionary basis of allorecognition. Recent work on Botryllus immunity that highlights the cost of littering individuality by somatic variants/allogeneic cells is discussed.

  6. Dynamical movement primitives: learning attractor models for motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Nakanishi, Jun; Hoffmann, Heiko; Pastor, Peter; Schaal, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems have been used in many disciplines to model complex behaviors, including biological motor control, robotics, perception, economics, traffic prediction, and neuroscience. While often the unexpected emergent behavior of nonlinear systems is the focus of investigations, it is of equal importance to create goal-directed behavior (e.g., stable locomotion from a system of coupled oscillators under perceptual guidance). Modeling goal-directed behavior with nonlinear systems is, however, rather difficult due to the parameter sensitivity of these systems, their complex phase transitions in response to subtle parameter changes, and the difficulty of analyzing and predicting their long-term behavior; intuition and time-consuming parameter tuning play a major role. This letter presents and reviews dynamical movement primitives, a line of research for modeling attractor behaviors of autonomous nonlinear dynamical systems with the help of statistical learning techniques. The essence of our approach is to start with a simple dynamical system, such as a set of linear differential equations, and transform those into a weakly nonlinear system with prescribed attractor dynamics by means of a learnable autonomous forcing term. Both point attractors and limit cycle attractors of almost arbitrary complexity can be generated. We explain the design principle of our approach and evaluate its properties in several example applications in motor control and robotics.

  7. Interstellar grains in primitive meteorites - Diamond, silicon carbide, and graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Edward; Zinner, Ernst

    1993-01-01

    Primitive meteorites contain a few parts per million (ppm) of pristine interstellar grains that provide information on nuclear and chemical processes in stars. Their interstellar origin is proven by highly anomalous isotopic ratios, varying more than 1000-fold for elements such as C and N. Most grains isolated thus far are stable only under highly reducing conditions (C/O greater than 1), and apparently are 'stardust' formed in stellar atmospheres. Microdiamonds, of median size about 10 A, are most abundant (about 400-1800 ppm) but least understood. They contain anomalous noble gases including Xe-HL, which shows the signature of the r- and p-processes. Silicon carbide, of grain size 0.2-10 microns and abundance about 6 ppm, shows the signature of the s-process and apparently comes mainly from red giant carbon (AGB) stars of 1-3 solar masses. Some grains appear to be not less than 10 exp 9 a older than the solar system. Graphite spherules of grain size 0.8-7 microns and abundance less than 2 ppm contain highly anomalous C and noble gases, as well as large amounts of fossil Mg-26 from the decay of extinct Al-26. They seem to come from at least three sources, probably AGB stars, novae, and Wolf-Rayet stars.

  8. Rapid world modeling: Fitting range data to geometric primitives

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.; Little, C.

    1996-12-31

    For the past seven years, Sandia National Laboratories has been active in the development of robotic systems to help remediate DOE`s waste sites and decommissioned facilities. Some of these facilities have high levels of radioactivity which prevent manual clean-up. Tele-operated and autonomous robotic systems have been envisioned as the only suitable means of removing the radioactive elements. World modeling is defined as the process of creating a numerical geometric model of a real world environment or workspace. This model is often used in robotics to plan robot motions which perform a task while avoiding obstacles. In many applications where the world model does not exist ahead of time, structured lighting, laser range finders, and even acoustical sensors have been used to create three dimensional maps of the environment. These maps consist of thousands of range points which are difficult to handle and interpret. This paper presents a least squares technique for fitting range data to planar and quadric surfaces, including cylinders and ellipsoids. Once fit to these primitive surfaces, the amount of data associated with a surface is greatly reduced up to three orders of magnitude, thus allowing for more rapid handling and analysis of world data.

  9. A primitive therizinosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Utah.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, James I; Zanno, Lindsay E; Sampson, Scott D; Clark, James M; DeBlieux, Donald D

    2005-05-05

    Therizinosauroids are an enigmatic group of dinosaurs known mostly from the Cretaceous period of Asia, whose derived members are characterized by elongate necks, laterally expanded pelves, small, leaf-shaped teeth, edentulous rostra and mandibular symphyses that probably bore keratinized beaks. Although more than a dozen therizinosauroid taxa are known, their relationships within Dinosauria have remained controversial because of fragmentary remains and an unusual suite of characters. The recently discovered 'feathered' therizinosauroid Beipiaosaurus from the Early Cretaceous of China helped to clarify the theropod affinities of the group. However, Beipiaosaurus is also poorly represented. Here we describe a new, primitive therizinosauroid from an extensive paucispecific bonebed at the base of the Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous) of east-central Utah. This new taxon represents the most complete and most basal therizinosauroid yet discovered. Phylogenetic analysis of coelurosaurian theropods incorporating this taxon places it at the base of the clade Therizinosauroiden, indicating that this species documents the earliest known stage in the poorly understood transition from carnivory to herbivory within Therizinosauroidea. The taxon provides the first documentation, to our knowledge, of therizinosauroids in North America during the Early Cretaceous.

  10. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Khuri, Safi; Gilshtein, Hayim; Sayidaa, Sa'd; Bishara, Bishara; Kluger, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation). These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation) was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery. PMID:27920700

  11. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of adrenal: clinical presentation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Deep; Shivaprasad, K S; Das, Ram Narayan; Ghosh, Sujoy; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2013-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of adrenal is an extremely rare tumor of neural crest origin. A nonfunctional left adrenal mass (14.6 × 10.5 × 10.0 cm) on computed tomography (CT) was detected in a 40-year-old lady with abdominal pain, swelling, and left pleural effusion. She underwent left adrenalectomy and left nephrectomy with retroperitoneal resection. Histopathology revealed sheets and nest of oval tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, scanty cytoplasm, brisk mitotic activity, necrosis, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and extension to the surrounding muscles; staining positive for Mic-2 (CD-99 antigen), vimentin, synaptophysin, and Melan-A. Thoracocentesis, pleural fluid study, and pleural biopsy did not show metastasis. She responded well to vincristine, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide followed by ifosfamide and etoposide (IE). This is the first report of adrenal peripheral PNET (pPNET) from India. This report intends to highlight that pPNET should be suspected in a patient presenting with huge nonfunctional adrenal mass which may be confused with adrenocortical carcinoma.

  12. A simple physical mechanism enables homeostasis in primitive cells

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Aaron E.; Adamala, Katarzyna; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of homeostatic mechanisms that enabled maintenance of an intracellular steady-state during growth was critical to the advent of cellular life. Here, we show that concentration-dependent reversible binding of short oligonucleotides, of both specific and random sequence, can modulate ribozyme activity. In both cases, catalysis is inhibited at high concentrations, and dilution activates the ribozyme via inhibitor dissociation, thus maintaining near-constant ribozyme specific activity throughout protocell growth. To mimic the result of RNA synthesis within non-growing protocells, we co-encapsulated high concentrations of ribozyme and oligonucleotides within fatty acid vesicles; ribozyme activity was inhibited. Following vesicle growth, the resulting internal dilution produced ribozyme activation. This simple physical system enables a primitive homeostatic behavior: the maintenance of constant ribozyme activity per unit volume during protocell volume changes. We suggest such systems, wherein short oligonucleotides reversibly inhibit functional RNAs, could have preceded sophisticated modern RNA regulatory mechanisms, such as those involving miRNAs. PMID:27102678

  13. Primitive Power Roots of Unity and Its Application to Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Takato; Wada, Koichiro; Tanaka, Keisuke

    We first consider a variant of the Schmidt-Samoa-Takagi encryption scheme without losing additively homomorphic properties. We show that this variant is secure in the sense of IND-CPA under the decisional composite residuosity assumption, and of OW-CPA under the assumption on the hardness of factoring n = p2q. Second, we introduce new algebraic properties “affine” and “pre-image restriction, ” which are closely related to homomorphicity. Intuitively, “affine” is a tuple of functions which have a special homomorphic property, and “pre-image restriction” is a function which can restrict the receiver to having information on the encrypted message. Then, we propose an encryption scheme with primitive power roots of unity in (Z/ns+1)×. We show that our scheme has, in addition to the additively homomorphic property, the above algebraic properties. In addition to the properties, we also show that the encryption scheme is secure in the sense of OW-CPA and IND-CPA under new number theoretic assumptions.

  14. Biophysical characterization of hematopoietic cells from normal and leukemic sources with distinct primitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Youhua; Fung, Tsz-Kan; Wan, Haixia; Wang, Kaiqun; Leung, Anskar Y. H.; Sun, Dong

    2011-08-01

    This letter reported the biophysical characterization of immunophenotypically distinct hematopoietic cells from normal and leukemic sources, through manipulation with optical tweezers at single cell level. The results show that the percentage of cells that are stretchable and their deformability are significantly higher in the more primitive cell populations. This study provides the evidence that normal and leukemic hematopoietic cell populations with distinct primitiveness exhibit differential biophysical properties. These findings raise a hypothesis that the high deformability may be related to the unique functions and activities of primitive hematopoietic cells.

  15. Colonoscopy Surveillance After Colorectal Cancer Resection: Recommendations of the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kahi, Charles J; Boland, C Richard; Dominitz, Jason A; Giardiello, Francis M; Johnson, David A; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Lieberman, David; Levin, Theodore R; Robertson, Douglas J; Rex, Douglas K

    2016-03-01

    The US Multi-Society Task Force has developed updated recommendations to guide health care providers with the surveillance of patients after colorectal cancer (CRC) resection with curative intent. This document is based on a critical review of the literature regarding the role of colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, fecal testing and CT colonography in this setting. The document addresses the effect of surveillance, with focus on colonoscopy, on patient survival after CRC resection, the appropriate use and timing of colonoscopy for perioperative clearing and for postoperative prevention of metachronous CRC, specific considerations for the detection of local recurrence in the case of rectal cancer, as well as the place of CT colonography and fecal tests in post-CRC surveillance.

  16. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... weaken. Talk with family, friends, or a support group about your feelings. Work with your health care providers throughout your treatment. Helping yourself can make you feel more in control. Support Groups The diagnosis and treatment of cancer often causes ...

  17. Melting the hydrous, subarc mantle: the origin of primitive andesites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Alexandra L.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2015-08-01

    This experimental study is the first comprehensive investigation of the melting behavior of an olivine + orthopyroxene ± spinel—bearing fertile mantle (FM) composition as a function of variable pressure and water content. The fertile composition was enriched with a metasomatic slab component of ≤0.5 % alkalis and investigated from 1135 to 1470 °C at 1.0-2.0 GPa. A depleted lherzolite with 0.4 % alkali addition was also studied from 1225 to 1240 °C at 1.2 GPa. Melts of both compositions were water-undersaturated: fertile lherzolite melts contained 0-6.4 wt% H2O, and depleted lherzolite melts contained ~2.5 wt% H2O. H2O contents of experimental glasses are measured using electron microprobe, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and synchrotron-source reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a novel technique for analyzing H2O in petrologic experiments. Using this new dataset in conjunction with results from previous hydrous experimental studies, a thermobarometer and a hygrometer-thermometer are presented to determine the conditions under which primitive lavas were last in equilibration with the mantle. These predictive models are functions of H2O content and pressure, respectively. A predictive melting model is also presented that calculates melt compositions in equilibrium with an olivine + orthopyroxene ± spinel residual assemblage (harzburgite). This model quantitatively predicts the following influences of H2O on mantle lherzolite melting: (1) As melting pressure increases, melt compositions become more olivine-normative, (2) as melting extent increases, melt compositions become depleted in the normative plagioclase component, and (3) as melt H2O content increases, melts become more quartz-normative. Natural high-Mg# [molar Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)], high-MgO basaltic andesite and andesite lavas—or primitive andesites (PAs)—contain high SiO2 contents at mantle-equilibrated Mg#s. Their compositional characteristics cannot be readily explained by melting

  18. Deep Interior: Probing the Structure of Primitive Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik; Scheeres, Daniel; Safaeinili, Ali

    Deep Interior is a mature Discovery-class mission concept focused on probing the geophysical behavior of primitive bodies, from the mechanics of their exterior materials to the structures of their interiors. Its theme is to discover how small bodies work - to learn the natural origin and evolution of asteroids, comets and other primitive bodies through radar reflection tomography and through detailed observations of the local and global effects of cratering. Learning the structure and mechanical response of asteroids and comets is also a precursor to resource utilization and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Overall the mission is aligned with NASA strategic sub-goal 3C, to advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system ... and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space. Deep Interior deploys no complex landers or sub-spacecraft; the scientific instruments are a radar and a camera. A blast cratering experiments triggered by grenades leads to a low cost seismological investigation which complements the radar investigation. A desired addition is an imaging spectrometer. The science instruments are high heritage, as are the navigation techniques for orbiting and station-keeping. The mission conducts the following investigations at one or more asteroids: Radar Reflection Tomography (RRT). The first science phase is to operate a penetrating radar during each several-month rendezvous, deployed in reflection mode in the manner of ongoing radar investigations underway by Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Kaguya. The RRT technique (Safaeinili et al., MAPS 2002) is analogous to performing a "CAT scan" from orbit: closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior dielectric properties. Deep Interior utilizes a polar orbit (or station keeping) while the asteroid spins underneath; the result is to "peel the apple" with thousands of unique

  19. Primitive chain network simulations for asymmetric star polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masubuchi, Yuichi; Yaoita, Takatoshi; Matsumiya, Yumi; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    For branched polymers, the curvilinear motion of the branch point along the backbone is a significant relaxation source but details of this motion have not been well understood. This study conducts multi-chain sliplink simulations to examine effects of the spatial fluctuation and curvilinear hopping of the branch point on the viscoelastic relaxation. The simulation is based on the primitive chain network model that allows the spatial fluctuations of sliplink and branch point and the chain sliding along the backbone according to the subchain tension, chemical potential gradients, drag force against medium, and random force. The sliplinks are created and/or disrupted through the motion of chain ends. The curvilinear hopping of the branch point along the backbone is allowed to occur when all sliplinks on a branched arm are lost. The simulations considering the fluctuation and the hopping of the branch point described well the viscoelastic data for symmetric and asymmetric star polymers with a parameter set common to the linear polymer. On the other hand, the simulations without the branch point motion predicted unreasonably slow relaxation for asymmetric star polymers. For asymmetric star polymers, further tests with and without the branch point hopping revealed that the hopping is much less important compared to the branch point fluctuation when the lengths of the short and long backbone arms are not very different and the waiting time for the branch point hopping (time for removal of all sliplinks on the short arm) is larger than the backbone relaxation time. Although this waiting time changes with the hopping condition, the above results suggest a significance of the branch point fluctuation in the actual relaxation of branch polymers.

  20. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting as a delayed sequela to cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Barasch, E.S.; Altieri, D.; Decker, R.E.; Ahmed, S.; Lin, J.

    1988-11-01

    A patient developed a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) many years after therapeutic cerebral radiation and methotrexate treatment for leukemia. The differential radiologic and histologic diagnoses, as well as the possible co-oncogenic effects of radiation and methotrexate, are evaluated.

  1. Low-Resolution Spectroscopy of Primitive Asteroids: Progress Report for SARA/VSU Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, M. A.; Nogues, J. P.; Gaines, J. K.; Looper, J. K.; Freitas, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    Progress on a low-resolution survey of primitive C-class asteroids continues using new equipment (and its associated problems) to understand aqueous alteration in the solar system. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Une angiocholite secondaire à un thrombus tumoral d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive du foie

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Hicham; Allaoui, Mohamed; Elfahssi, Mohammed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Oukabli, Mohamed; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas exceptionnel d'une patiente de 54 ans prise en charge pour une angiocholite due à un thrombus tumoral, d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive (TNE Ive) du foie, dans la voie biliaire principale. PMID:26966504

  3. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Glioblastoma Multiforme Components in an Adult: A Collision Tumor.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Victoria; Vredenburgh, James

    2016-01-11

    We report a rare case of a central nervous system collision tumor in a 40-year-old woman. Histopathological examination of her large temporal tumor revealed two different components making up the tumor tissue. The predominant component of the tumor was found to be a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The other component was glioblastoma multiforme. Both of these tumors carry a poor prognosis, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors are extremely uncommon in adults. Central nervous system neoplasms with the combined features of both primitive neuroectodermal tumor and malignant glioma are very rare and represent a diagnostic and treatment predicament. The patient underwent surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy targeting both the primitive neuroectodermal tumor and glioblastoma. Our patient has been fortunate in not showing any sign of recurrence and will celebrate the third anniversary since her diagnosis this January.

  4. Origin of Nanodiamonds in Primitive Chondrites: (1) Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozima, M.; Mochizuki, K.

    1993-07-01

    Microdiamonds in primitive chondrites are characterized by Xe-HL, which supposedly formed in a type II supernova. Several models have been proposed for the origin of the microdiamonds. These include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [e.g., 1], interstellar shock [2], and UV-annealing of small graphite particles [3]. However, it is difficult for any of these models to explain the unique association of Xe-HL with the microdiamonds. We have suggested that a diamond formation process, proposed by Kaminsky [4], for the origin of a particular terrestrial diamond, carbonado, may apply to the microdiamonds in primitive meteorites [5,6]: Kaminsky speculated that carbonado was formed from natural coal that was enriched in uranium and hence subjected to irradiation by high-energy particles produced from the uranium and thorium. The paper in this volume by Mochizuki et al. [7] reports nanometer-sized diamondlike clusters in a uranium-rich natural coal, in accordance with Kaminsky's hypothesis. Mochizuki et al. also report the possibility of the production of nanodiamonds in graphite that was irradiated with a 50-KeV argon beam. These experimental studies strongly suggest that microdiamonds can be produced by irradiation of carbonaceous matters with energetic particles. On the basis of these experimental results, we propose a scenario for the origin of the microdiamonds in primitive chondrites. The scenario gives a reasonable explanation for the unique association of Xe-HL with the microdiamonds as well as for their formation in a supernova envelope. We assume that carbonaceous materials (amorphous carbon, graphite, and hydrocarbon grains) in the outer envelope of a supernova was irradiated by energetic particles (including Xe-HL) emitted during supernova explosion. The energetic particles then interacted with the carbonaceous matter: Most of the energy was dissipated through electronic interaction, and at the end of the journey the particles produced cascade displacement of

  5. Particle-Gas Dynamics and Primitive Meteorite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Champney, J. M.; Hogan, R. M.

    1993-07-01

    A major obstacle to understanding the accretion of primitive meteorite parent bodies has been the lack of a credible theoretical framework for the environment in which the earliest accretion occurs. Chondrules and inclusions in primitive meteorites are in the millimeter-centimeter size range and the earliest aggregates of these objects must have been in the centimeter-meter size range. For these sizes, particle-gas dynamics are difficult to model: the particles are neither micron-sized and firmly anchored to the gas, nor kilometer-sized planetesimals already fully decoupled from the gas. Significant feedback and strong coupling between the gas and particle phases must be dealt with in this intermediate size range [1]. We have previously reported preliminary results concerning the stage of planetary formation during which the particulate material has grown into centimeter-to-meter sized primordial aggregates [2]. During this stage, particles are able to settle toward the midplane into a layer of mass density comparable to or much greater than that of the gas. We now report more mature results [3]. Our numerical models rely on the Reynolds averaged NavierStokes equations for the gas and particles, and are fully viscous, turbulent, and compressible. Our turbulence modeling uses a Prandtl local shear parametrization, validated by laboratory experiments. We have developed a new model for particle diffusivity (in turbulence) involving the particle Schmidt number, which is a function of particle size and density. We have modeled a cool, quiescent nebula at 1 AU (280K) and 10 AU (90K), and a possible FU Orionis or early high temperature stage (1000K) at 1 AU. Our main results include: (a) rapid accretion of planetesimals by gravitationally unstable fragmentation on an orbital timescale (the "Goldreich-Ward instability") is unlikely to occur until objects have already accreted by some other process to the mass of the largest known meteorite samples, if at all [4]; (b) from

  6. Outcomes in Patients With Early-Stage Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Ito, Yoshinori; Asai, Masao; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sumi, Minako; Itami, Jun

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome in patients with early-stage hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between February 1988 and February 2007, 77 patients with Stage I or Stage II HPC underwent definitive RT in the Division of Radiation Oncology at the National Cancer Center Hospital. Eleven of the patients received local irradiation, and the other 66 patients received elective bilateral neck irradiation and booster irradiation to the primary lesion. The median follow-up period for all the patients was 33 months from the start of RT, ranging from 3 to 229 months. Results: The rates of overall survival, HPC-specific survival, HPC recurrence-free survival, and local control with laryngeal voice preservation for the 77 patients at 5 years were 47%, 74%, 57%, and 70%, respectively. The survival rates were not affected by the patient characteristics or treatment factors, but the RT field was significantly correlated with local control in a multivariate analysis. Seven of the patients had Grade 3 or greater complications, but these complications occurred after salvage surgery in 6 of the patients. Of the 77 patients, 83% had synchronous or metachronous malignancies, but these malignancies did not influence the survival of the patients if the malignancies were detected at an early stage. Conclusion: RT is an appropriate treatment method for early-stage HPC. However, because synchronous or metachronous malignancies occur at a relatively high frequency, careful follow-up and the early detection of such malignancies are critical.

  7. A primitive caprine from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Alfambra, Teruel, Aragon, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, Luis; Morales, Jorge

    1997-06-01

    We describe a new caprine form from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Teruel Basin, Aragon). Aragoral mudejar Gen.n., sp.n. is close to the primitive forms of the Hippotraginae-Caprinae group. It differs from Norbertia hellenica by its more primitive dentition, the greater separation between the bases of the horn cores, the decreased thickness of the frontal bone and the relatively smaller size of the horn cores.

  8. Primitive fitting based on the efficient multiBaySAC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus), that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes' Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method) and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives), whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will aim at further

  9. Anti-Cancer Phytometabolites Targeting Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Torquato, Heron F V; Goettert, Márcia I; Justo, Giselle Z; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J

    2017-04-01

    Medicinal plants are a plentiful source of bioactive molecules with much structural diversity. In cancer treatment, molecules obtained from plants represent an attractive alternative to other treatments because several plant-derived compounds have exhibited lower toxicity and higher selectivity against cancer cells. In this review, we focus on the possible application of bioactive molecules obtained from plants against more primitive cell populations in cancers, cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are present in several kinds of tumors and are responsible for recurrences and metastases. Common anti-cancer drugs exhibit lower effectiveness against cancer stem cells because of their biological features. However, recently discovered natural phytometabolites exert cytotoxic effects on this rare population of cells in cancers. Therefore, this review presents the latest research on promising compounds from plants that can act as antitumor drugs and that mainly affect stem cell populations in cancers.

  10. The role of collisional compaction in primitive asteroids and comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Blum, J.

    2008-09-01

    During the early stages of solar system formation the consolidation of asteroids and comets took place. We have just learnt from recent space missions that some of these minor bodies have been preserved in a pristine way in several regions of our Solar System. From our experience on primitive meteorites we know that these bodies should contain valuable clues on the origin of the Solar System. Studies of the physical, chemical, and isotopic properties of the components of these minor bodies will provide important clues on their origin. We expect very different collisional histories undergone by these bodies depending on their particular formation, migration, and storage regions [1]. In Fig. 1 appears a schematic representation of the protoplanetary disk in the region of consolidation of the terrestrial planets about 4565 million years ago. Bodies located in the outer part of the main belt would have incorporated significant amounts of ice in their volume, but their migration to and residence times in other regions would have defined their physico-chemical properties. Recent laboratory studies and observational data compiled from comets, meteorites and meteoroids [2] suggest that the porosity of these bodies should have decreased with time depending on the degree of collisions, aqueous alteration and heating. For typical stony targets, the tensile strength and gravity are the main properties that are defining the formation of impact craters and subsequently the degree of impact metamorphism and mineralogy of the shocked materials. However, little is known about the influence of porosity on the impact process although the crushing of pore space is an efficient mechanism for absorbing shock waves, also increasing the postshock temperatures [2]. In this context, a Near-Earth Object (NEO) sample return mission called Marco Polo is being studied within the Cosmic Vision programme. Such kind of mission would be returning to the Earth unaltered material from a NEO, just

  11. [Endobronchial surgery and photodynamic therapy for the treatment of multiple primary lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V V; Telegina, L V; Trakhtenberg, A Kh; Kolbanov, K I; Pikin, O V; Frank, G A

    2010-01-01

    Endoluminal endoscopic surgery and fotodynamic therapy were used in treatment of 104 patients with multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC), or more exactly, of trachea and lobar and segmental bronchi. Diagnostic division included videobronchoscopy of high resolution in with light and NBI-regimen; autoflourescent and 5-ALA-induced fluorescent videobronchoscopy, endosonography, computed tompgraphy or magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and epithelial mucine (MUC-1) immunohistochemical analysis of scarificates. Result of treatment strongly depended on the size of primary tumor. Complete regression of cancer was observed for all tumors less then 1 sm in diameter. Endoscopic treatment, including fotodynamic therapy and argon coagulation, proved to be a method of choice in treatment early synchronous or metachronous multiple primary lung cancer in incurable patients.

  12. Association between a Primitive Brain Tumor and Cerebral Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Hélage, Siegfried; Duyckaerts, Charles; Seilhean, Danielle; Hauw, Jean-Jacques; Chiras, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare pathology of poor prognosis in spite of the use of adapted antifungal treatments. This infection of the central nervous system is generally the complication of an invasive aspergillosis with hematogenic scattering from pulmonary focal spots. It can arise in immunocompetent patients treated with prolonged corticotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for cancer. A case of lethal cerebral aspergillosis in a patient with an infiltrative glioma treated with corticotherapy and radiotherapy is reported. Clinicopathological aspects and therapeutic approach are described. PMID:22454648

  13. Origin of Nanodiamonds in Primitive Chondrites: (2) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, K.; Ozima, M.; Tuchiyama, A.; Kitamura, M.; Shimobayashi, N.

    1993-07-01

    Ozima and Mochizuki [1] suggested that microdiamonds in primitive meteorites were formed by irradiation of carbonaceous matters such as graphite, amorphous carbon, or hydrocarbons with energetic particles emitted from supernova. To test this hypothesis, we carried out the following experiments. 1. We investigated a uranium-rich coal from Cluff Lake, Canada. Electron microprobe analysis of this sample showed that there are numerous uranium oxide grains of about 10-20 micrometers almost uniformly distributed in hydrocarbon matrix. A small amount of PbS was also identified by the EPMA analysis. If the U,Th-induced radiation were to produce diamonds, they must be found in radiation-damaged regions around the uranium oxide grains. Hence, we very carefully searched for microdiamonds in the radiation-damaged regions by TEM (transmission electron microscope). We observed many crystalline particles of about 20 nm, of which concentration in the radiation damaged region is about 500 ppm. Electron diffraction analysis with a TEM on the crystalline particles gave a powder ring pattern. Because of the limited resolution of the TEM, the electron diffraction was taken over an area (about 0.5 micrometers x 0.5 micrometers) that contained several grains. In Table 1, we show the spacing characteristics deduced from the diffraction analysis, where the observed d-spacings (denoted as D) are normalized to the table values corresponding to diamond, graphite, and PbS (denoted as d) respectively. If diamond is chosen for the normalization, the D/d ratios become almost constant for major diamond spacings, including the three most intense ones (shown by bold letters). One intense spacing at D = 1.887 angstroms, however, cannot be attributed to diamond, but may be due to PbS. We conclude that the observed electron diffraction pattern is primarily due to diamond, but other components such as PbS may also be present. Hence, the experiment seems to confirm Kaminsky's hypothesis [2] that high

  14. Learned graphical models for probabilistic planning provide a new class of movement primitives.

    PubMed

    Rückert, Elmar A; Neumann, Gerhard; Toussaint, Marc; Maass, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    BIOLOGICAL MOVEMENT GENERATION COMBINES THREE INTERESTING ASPECTS: its modular organization in movement primitives (MPs), its characteristics of stochastic optimality under perturbations, and its efficiency in terms of learning. A common approach to motor skill learning is to endow the primitives with dynamical systems. Here, the parameters of the primitive indirectly define the shape of a reference trajectory. We propose an alternative MP representation based on probabilistic inference in learned graphical models with new and interesting properties that complies with salient features of biological movement control. Instead of endowing the primitives with dynamical systems, we propose to endow MPs with an intrinsic probabilistic planning system, integrating the power of stochastic optimal control (SOC) methods within a MP. The parameterization of the primitive is a graphical model that represents the dynamics and intrinsic cost function such that inference in this graphical model yields the control policy. We parameterize the intrinsic cost function using task-relevant features, such as the importance of passing through certain via-points. The system dynamics as well as intrinsic cost function parameters are learned in a reinforcement learning (RL) setting. We evaluate our approach on a complex 4-link balancing task. Our experiments show that our movement representation facilitates learning significantly and leads to better generalization to new task settings without re-learning.

  15. Identifying and modeling motion primitives for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria.

    PubMed

    Sledge, Isaac; Krieg, Michael; Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran

    2015-10-23

    The movements of organisms can be thought of as aggregations of motion primitives: motion segments containing one or more significant actions. Here, we present a means to identify and characterize motion primitives from recorded movement data. We address these problems by assuming that the motion sequences can be characterized as a series of dynamical-system-based pattern generators. By adopting a nonparametric, Bayesian formalism for learning and simplifying these pattern generators, we arrive at a purely data-driven model to automatically identify breakpoints in the movement sequences. We apply this model to swimming sequences from two hydromedusa. The first hydromedusa is the prolate Sarsia tubulosa, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell cavity pressurization, jet formation, jetting, cavity fluid refill, and coasting. The second hydromedusa is the oblate Aequorea victoria, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell compression, vortex separation, cavity fluid refill, vortex formation, and coasting. Our experimental results indicate that the breakpoints between primitives are correlated with transitions in the bell geometry, vortex formation and shedding, and changes in derived dynamical quantities. These dynamics quantities include terms like pressure, power, drag, and thrust. Such findings suggest that dynamics information is inherently present in the observed motions.

  16. Distinct Wnt-driven primitive streak-like populations reflect in vivo lineage precursors

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiridis, Anestis; Huang, Yali; Blin, Guillaume; Skylaki, Stavroula; Wymeersch, Filip; Osorno, Rodrigo; Economou, Costas; Karagianni, Eleni; Zhao, Suling; Lowell, Sally; Wilson, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    During gastrulation, epiblast cells are pluripotent and their fate is thought to be constrained principally by their position. Cell fate is progressively restricted by localised signalling cues from areas including the primitive streak. However, it is unknown whether this restriction accompanies, at the individual cell level, a reduction in potency. Investigation of these early transition events in vitro is possible via the use of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), self-renewing pluripotent cell lines equivalent to the postimplantation epiblast. Strikingly, mouse EpiSCs express gastrulation stage regional markers in self-renewing conditions. Here, we examined the differentiation potential of cells expressing such lineage markers. We show that undifferentiated EpiSC cultures contain a major subfraction of cells with reversible early primitive streak characteristics, which is mutually exclusive to a neural-like fraction. Using in vitro differentiation assays and embryo grafting we demonstrate that primitive streak-like EpiSCs are biased towards mesoderm and endoderm fates while retaining pluripotency. The acquisition of primitive streak characteristics by self-renewing EpiSCs is mediated by endogenous Wnt signalling. Elevation of Wnt activity promotes restriction towards primitive streak-associated lineages with mesendodermal and neuromesodermal characteristics. Collectively, our data suggest that EpiSC pluripotency encompasses a range of reversible lineage-biased states reflecting the birth of pioneer lineage precursors from a pool of uncommitted EpiSCs similar to the earliest cell fate restriction events taking place in the gastrula stage epiblast. PMID:24595287

  17. Method for concurrent execution of primitive operations by dynamically assigning operations based upon computational marked graph and availability of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, John W. (Inventor); Mielke, Roland V. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Computationally complex primitive operations of an algorithm are executed concurrently in a plurality of functional units under the control of an assignment manager. The algorithm is preferably defined as a computationally marked graph contianing data status edges (paths) corresponding to each of the data flow edges. The assignment manager assigns primitive operations to the functional units and monitors completion of the primitive operations to determine data availability using the computational marked graph of the algorithm. All data accessing of the primitive operations is performed by the functional units independently of the assignment manager.

  18. [Mouse teratocarcinoma: differentiation in cultures of a multipotential primitive cell line (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J F; Dubois, P; Jakob, H; Gaillard, J; Jacob, F

    1975-01-01

    A line of primitive cells of teratocarcinoma is able of differentiating during in vitro cultures. The differentiated cell types correspond to derivatives of the three germ layers. They appear according to a reproducible schedule. The differentiated cell types exhibit a normal karyotype. They have lost their tumorigenicity and have a limited life span. Agregates containing various numbers of primitive cells have been prepared and plated in culture dishes. Their study shows that the first differentiated cell types appear only when the agregates are greater than a certain critical mass. Primitive cells carry on their surface the F9 but not the H-2 antigen. During differentiation in culture, the H-2 antigen appears rapidly on certain cells. The fraction of H-2-carrying cells increases as a function of time while that of F9-carrying cells decreases.

  19. The enigmatic primitive streak: prevailing notions and challenges concerning the body axis of mammals

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    The primitive streak establishes the antero-posterior body axis in all amniote species. It is thought to be the conduit through which mesoderm and endoderm progenitors ingress and migrate to their ultimate destinations. Despite its importance, the streak remains poorly defined and one of the most enigmatic structures of the animal kingdom. In particular, the posterior end of the primitive streak has not been satisfactorily identified in any species. Unexpectedly, and contrary to prevailing notions, recent evidence suggests that the murine posterior primitive streak extends beyond the embryo proper. In its extraembryonic site, the streak creates a node-like cell reservoir from which the allantois, a universal caudal appendage of all amniotes and the future umbilical cord of placental mammals, emerges. This new insight into the fetal/umbilical relationship may explain the etiology of a large number of umbilical-associated birth defects, many of which are correlated with abnormalities of the embryonic midline. PMID:19609969

  20. Primitive potentials and bounded solutions of the KdV equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachenko, S.; Zakharov, D.; Zakharov, V.

    2016-10-01

    We construct a broad class of bounded potentials of the one-dimensional Schrödinger operator that have the same spectral structure as periodic finite-gap potentials, but that are neither periodic nor quasi-periodic. Such potentials, which we call primitive, are non-uniquely parametrized by a pair of positive Hölder continuous functions defined on the allowed bands. Primitive potentials are constructed as solutions of a system of singular integral equations, which can be efficiently solved numerically. Simulations show that these potentials can have a disordered structure. Primitive potentials generate a broad class of bounded non-vanishing solutions of the KdV hierarchy, and we interpret them as an example of integrable turbulence in the framework of the KdV equation.

  1. Spontaneous cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a juvenile cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Rogerson, Petrina; Blanco, Ana L; Naylor, Stuart W; Bradley, Alys

    2012-08-01

    A neoplastic mass compressing the left cerebellar hemisphere and hindbrain was observed at trimming in a 3½-year-old male cynomolgus monkey from a control dose group. Microscopically, the neoplastic mass was nonencapsulated, invasive, and showed two morphological patterns. The predominant area consisted of densely packed undifferentiated, polygonal to spindle cells arranged in vague sheets supported by a scant fibrovascular stroma. The other area was less cellular and composed of round neoplastic cells separated by eosinophilic fibrillar material. Immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, and S-100 confirmed the presence of primitive undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells and some cells with neuronal or glial differentiation. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor with neuronal and glial differentiation was made. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare in animals including nonhuman primates; this is the first published report in this species.

  2. Endocranial preservation of a Carboniferous actinopterygian from Lancashire, UK, and the interrelationships of primitive actinopterygians

    PubMed Central

    Coates, M. I.

    1999-01-01

    The gross brain structure of an Upper Carboniferous (ca. 310 Myr ago) ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) is described from exceptionally well-preserved fossil material from the Burnley region of Lancashire, UK. Previously identified as 'Rhadinichthys' planti, the species is reassigned to the genus Mesopoma. Morphological characters derived from these data are combined with reviews of cranial skeletal anatomy, enamel composition, oculomoter muscle insertion and paired fin morphology to test and reanalyse hypotheses of primitive actinopterygian interrelationships. Results indicate that ancestral chondrostean (sturgeon and paddlefish) and neopterygian (teleost, amiid and gar) lineages diverged earlier than current theories suggest. Palaeonisciformes, a taxonomic group widely used to include most Palaeozoic actinopterygians, include a significant number of primitive neopterygians, several of which may form a distinct monophyletic clade. Within this revised phylogenetic context, changes in gross brain morphology from primitive conditions, as revealed by fossil data, highlight likely specializations in extant non-teleostean actinopterygians.

  3. The evolution of amniote gastrulation: the blastopore-primitive streak transition.

    PubMed

    Stower, Matthew J; Bertocchini, Federica

    2017-03-01

    In the animal kingdom, gastrulation, the process by which the primary germ layers are formed involves a dramatic transformation in the topology of the cells that give rise to all of the tissues of the adult. Initially formed as a mono-layer, this tissue, the epiblast, becomes subdivided through the internalization of cells, thereby forming a two (bi-laminar) or three (tri-laminar) layered embryo. This morphogenetic process coordinates the development of the fundamental body plan and the three-body axes (antero-posterior, dorso-ventral, and left-right) and begins a fundamental segregation of cells toward divergent developmental fates. In humans and other mammals, as well as in avians, gastrulating cells internalize along a structure, called the primitive streak, which builds from the periphery toward the center of the embryo. How these morphogenetic movements are orchestrated and evolved has been a question for developmental biologists for many years. Is the primitive streak a feature shared by the whole amniote clade? Insights from reptiles suggest that the primitive streak arose independently in mammals and avians, while the reptilian internalization site is a structure half-way between an amphibian blastopore and a primitive streak. The molecular machinery driving primitive streak formation has been partially dissected using mainly the avian embryo, revealing a paramount role of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway in streak formation. How did the employment of this machinery evolve? The reptilian branch of the amniote clade might provide us with useful tools to investigate the evolution of the amniote internalization site up to the formation of the primitive streak. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e262. doi: 10.1002/wdev.262 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  4. Hydrazines and carbohydrazides produced from oxidized carbon in earth's primitive environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folsome, C. E.; Brittain, A.; Smith, A.; Chang, S.

    1981-01-01

    Whether abiological organic compounds can be formed from the interactions of energy sources with nitrogen, oxidized carbon and water is held to be of importance in geochemical models of the primordial earth atmosphere. It is reported that experiments using quenched spark discharges through molecular nitrogen on aqueous suspensions of CaCO3 and other reactants to simulate the hydrosphere/atmosphere interface yield hydrazine and carbohydrazine in significant but low yields. Such reactions in primitive aquatic environments may have supplied a pathway for chemical evolution and the origin of life, on a primitive earth in which fully oxidized states of carbon were available for the primary synthesis of organic matter.

  5. CT and MRI Findings in a Rare Case of Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Akkaya, Zehra; Peker, Elif; Gulpinar, Basak; Karadag, Hale; Erden, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor/extraskeletal Ewing’s sarcoma (PNET/EES) is a very rare renal tumor. Case Report We report a case of primary renal PNET/EES of the kidney in an adult patient and describe its computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, including diffusion weighted images along with a review of the current medical literature. Conclusions Although very rare, a relatively large renal mass which shows very infiltrative growth pattern on CT and MR imaging and striking diffusion restriction should raise the suspicion of a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor, in a young adult. PMID:27635170

  6. On the Primitive Ideal spaces of the C(*) -algebras of graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Teresa

    2005-11-01

    We characterise the topological spaces which arise as the primitive ideal spaces of the Cuntz-Krieger algebras of graphs satisfying condition (K): directed graphs in which every vertex lying on a loop lies on at least two loops. We deduce that the spaces which arise as Prim;C(*(E)) are precisely the spaces which arise as the primitive ideal spaces of AF-algebras. Finally, we construct a graph wt{E} from E such that C(*(wt{E})) is an AF-algebra and Prim;C(*(E)) and Prim;C(*(wt{E})) are homeomorphic.

  7. Rationale for the proposed standard for a generic package of primitive functions for Ada

    SciTech Connect

    Dritz, K.W.

    1990-12-01

    This paper supplements the Proposed Standard for a Generic Package of Primitive Functions for Ada,'' written by the ISO- IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG9 (Ada) Numerics Rapporteur Group. Based on recommendations made jointly by the ACM SIGAda Numerics Working Group and the Ada-Europe Numerics Working Group, the proposed primitive functions standard is the second of several anticipated secondary standards to address the interrelated issues of portability, efficiency, and robustness of numerical software written in Ada. Its purpose, features, and developmental history are outlined in this commentary. 16 refs.

  8. Clinicopathological features and surgical options for synchronous colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Chul; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jihun; Lee, Jong Lyul; Kim, Chan Wook; Yoon, Yong Sik; Park, In Ja; Lim, Seok-Byung; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the clinicopathological features of synchronous cancers and treatment options according to their locations. Records of 8368 patients with colorectal cancer treated at our center between July 2003 and December 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. All synchronous colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment were included. Synchronous cancers were identified in 217 patients (2.6%). Seventy-nine patients underwent either total colectomy, subtotal colectomy, or total proctocolectomy; 116 underwent 1 regional resection, including local excision; and 22 underwent 2 regional resections. The mean age was 62 years, slightly higher than that for the single-cancer patients. Synchronous cancers were more common in male patients, more frequently located in the left colon, had more microsatellite instability-high status, and showed more advanced stage than single cancer. Extensive resection was mainly performed for synchronous cancers located in both the right and left colon. Two regional resections were performed for cancers in the right colon and rectum. There were no differences in complication rates or the occurrence of metachronous cancer between the 2-region resection and extensive resection groups. Eight years postoperatively, the mean number of daily bowel movements for these 2 groups were 1.9 and 4.3, respectively. We found that synchronous cancer was different from single cancer in terms of age, gender, location, and pathologic features. Synchronous colorectal cancer requires different treatment strategy according to the distribution of lesions. Comparison between the 2 regional resections and extensive resection approaches suggests that 2 regional resections are preferable. PMID:28248880

  9. Treatment of Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer: Medico-Surgical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Essadi, Ismail; Sbitti, Yassir; Fetohi, Mohamed; Slimani, Khaoula Alaoui; Essadi, Meryam; Tazi, Elmehdi; Ichou, Mohamed; Errihani, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Background The management of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer can be understood only as part of a multidisciplinary strategy. Progress experienced by medical treatment, surgical techniques and ways of imaging, has improved the prognosis of patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancers. This work displays the experience of Medical Oncology unit at the Military training hospital in Rabat. Methods From January 2007 to December 2009, 60 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer, synchronous or metachronous were supported in the Medical Oncology unit at the Military training hospital in Rabat. Results Liver metastases were synchronous in 41 (68%) patients and metachronous in 19 (32%). Patients were classified into 3 categories according to their resectability: 14 (22%) were resectable at the outset, 28 (47%) were unresectable and 18 (31%) were considered uncertain resectability. Thirty-five patients (58%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgical gesture, 25 (42%) received chemotherapy after resection of primary tumor. This chemotherapy enabled the resection of liver metastases in 5 patients initially deemed uncertain resectability. The average objective responses to chemotherapy were in the range of 59% with 4 complete responses and one confirmed histologically. Twenty-three patients (38%) underwent surgery including 15 liver resections with R0 (25%). The median progression-free survival in this series was 15.5 months. Some minor side effects were noted, which have not entered the prognosis of patients. Conclusions Hepatic resection remains the only potentially curative treatment of liver metastases of colorectal cancers. Perioperative chemotherapy is a promising standard, which has improved the prognosis of patients historically associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:27942326

  10. Registration of RMPAP-C4, a random-mated primitive race accession cotton germplasm population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A random mated population involving four cultivars of Upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and thirty day-neutral primitive accessions, RMPAP-C4, was developed and jointly released by USDA-ARS and the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station in 2014. This population involved five c...

  11. Osmium Isotopic Compositions of Chondrites and Earth's Primitive Upper Mantle: Constraints on the Late Veneer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Horan, M. F.; Morgan, J. W.; Meisel, T.

    2001-01-01

    The 187 Os/188 Os of carbonaceous chondrites averages approximately 2% lower than for enstatite and ordinary chondrites. The primitive upper mantle ratio for the Earth best matches that of ordinary and enstatite chondrites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. XUV complex refractive indices of aerosols in the atmospheres of Titan and the primitive Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Neumann, Maciej; Bulkin, Pavel; Popescu, Horia; Steffan, Martin; Esser, Norbert; Carrasco, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    The complex refractive indices of tholins, simulating aerosols in the atmosphere of Titan and the primitive earth, have been measured over a wide spectral range, including the soft X-ray, vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV), and UV-Visible. The soft X-ray and VUV spectral ranges are in particular relevant to radiative transfer models of solar irradiation of primitive atmospheres (Lammer et al. 2008) and may elucidate the (anti-)greenhouse potential of photochemical aerosols.Thin films were grown using the PAMPRE capacitively coupled plasma setup (Szopa et al. 2006; Carrasco et al. 2009). Gas mixtures consisting of CH4/N2 with 5:95 ratios were used to simulate Titan's atmospheric composition. For the primitive Earth, gas mixtures of N2/CO2/H2 and N2/CO2/CH4 were used as described in Fleury et al. (2014).State-of-the-art laboratory techniques were used to determine the refractive indices of such tholin films. These include VUV ellipsometry (performed in collaboration with the Metrology Light Source in Berlin) and synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy (performed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron). While VUV spectroscopy reveals new electronic transitions due to plasmon resonances in tholins, X-ray spectra reveal the C and O absorption edges of these solids. The refractive indices are compared to results from Khare et al. (1984). Implications on the optical properties of these aerosol analogs on the radiative modeling of primitive atmospheres will be discussed.

  13. Primitive Reflexes and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Developmental Origins of Classroom Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra; Houghton, Stephen; Chapman, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    The present research studied the symptomatologic overlap of AD/HD behaviours and retention of four primitive reflexes (Moro, Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex [TLR], Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex [ATNR], Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex [STNR]) in 109 boys aged 7-10 years. Of these, 54 were diagnosed with AD/HD, 34 manifested sub-syndromal coordination,…

  14. Automatic modelling of building façade objects via primitive shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetti Arachchige, N.; Perera, S.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach to recognize individual façade objects and to reconstruct such objects in 3D using MLS point clouds. Core of the approach is a primitive shape based algorithm, which introduces building primitives, to identify the façade objects separately from other irrelevant objects and then to model the correct topology. The primitive shape is identified against defined different primitive shapes by using the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. The advantage of this process is that it offers an ability not only to model correct geometric shapes but also to remove occlusion effects from the final model. To evaluate the validity of the proposed approach, experiments have been conducted using two types of street scene point clouds captured by Optech Lynx Mobile Mapper System and Z+F laser scanner. Results of the experiments show that the completeness, correctness, and quality of the reconstructed building façade objects are well over 90 %, proving the proposed method is a promising solution for modelling 3D façade objects with different geometric shapes.

  15. Prolegomena to a Primitive Theory of Human Communication in Human Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dance, Frank E. X.

    1979-01-01

    Calls for a reordering of values in the study of human communication in human organizations. Offers a preliminary discourse on a primitive theory of human communication as distinguished from an eclectic theory of organizational communication. Differences between the two types of theoretical approaches are suggested. (JMF)

  16. Primitive Liquid Water of the Solar System in an Aqueous Altered Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Kitayama, A.; Matsuno, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakano, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive 3D observations of the aqueous altered CM chondrite Sutter's Mill using scanning imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM) showed that some of calcite and enstatite grains contain two-phase inclusion, which is most probably composed of liquid water and bubbles. This water should be primitive water responsible for aqueous alteration in an asteroid in the early solar system.

  17. Primitive Basalts Record Small-Scale Mantle Heterogeneities in the Lassen Region of the Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, J. M.; Teasdale, R.; Lenz, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Poison Lake chain (PLC), located the Lassen region of the Southern Cascades, encompasses six geochemical, lithological and geographically distinct groups of primitive basalts, defined as MgO >6%, Ni >100 ppm, and Cr >200 ppm. In total, 22 cinder cones and flows of the PLC erupted in a small area (<30 km2) over a very short time frame (100 ka +/- 10 ka). The diversity of primitive compositions in the small spatial and temporal scales provide an ideal area in which to explore variations in mantle compositions that produce primitive basalts in the Lassen Segment of the Cascade Arc. We present major, trace, and isotope data and spinel-olivine compositions that reveal the diversity of mantle domains present in this small area. Chromium compositions of spinel in primitive basalts of the PLC indicate the presence of three distinct mantle sources: (1) depleted with Cr# = 0.44-0.52; (2) enriched with Cr# = 0.2-0.3 and (3) an intermediate composition, with Cr# = 0.4. Major and trace element compositions of PLC primitive basalts confirm the relative differences in depletion and reveal distinctions in the depth of melt generation. REE patterns and trace element ratios indicate variability in the presence of garnet in the source and define the source regions with varying depth. These mantle domains are geographically distributed with depleted compositions (high Cr# spinel, lower incompatible elements) in the northwest part of the PLC, grading to more enriched compositions (low Cr# spinel and higher incompatible elements) in the southeast. Previous workers recognize variations in the Cascadian sub-arc mantle at large scales across and along the arc, and at the scale of individual volcanic centers. However, the small area (30km2) and short timescale (within 10 ka) represented by the primitive basalts of the PLC allow us to hold time and space relatively constant while examining geochemical variations. Using primitive mantle proxy basalts from the PLC, we suggest that mantle

  18. Clinical significance of radiation-induced CD133 expression in residual rectal cancer cells after chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Aya; Tanaka, Koji; Saigusa, Susumu; Toiyama, Yuji; Morimoto, Yuhki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Takashi; Matsushita, Kohei; Yokoe, Takeshi; Yasuda, Hiromi; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2012-03-01

    CD133 and CD44 have been considered as markers for colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs). The association of CD133 and CD44 expression with radiation has not been fully examined in rectal cancer. Both CD133 (PROM) and CD44 mRNA levels were measured in post-chemoradiotherapy (CRT) specimens of 52 rectal cancer patients using real-time RT-PCR and compared to clinicopathological variables and clinical outcome. Their protein levels were examined in the radiation-treated HT29 human colon cancer cell line. Post-CRT CD133 in residual cancer cells was significantly higher than matched pre-CRT CD133 in biopsy specimens (n=30). By contrast, CD44 was significantly lower in post-CRT specimens (P<0.01). CD133 was associated with distant recurrence after CRT followed by surgery (P<0.05). Patients with elevated CD133 in residual cancer cells showed poor disease-free survival (P<0.05). No significant association between post-CRT CD44 and clinical outcome was found. The in vitro study showed that CD133 protein was increased in a radiation dose-dependent manner, despite of the decreased number of clonogenic radiation-surviving cells. CD44 protein was decreased after irradiation. CD133, but not CD44, was increased in radiation-resistant surviving colon cancer cells. Post-CRT CD133 in residual cancer cells may predict metachronous distant recurrence and poor survival of rectal cancer patients after CRT.

  19. Mechanisms for the induction of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori infection: aberrant DNA methylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Masahiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2017-03-01

    Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer have been established in the last two decades. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation is induced in multiple driver genes, which inactivates them. Methylation profiles in gastric cancer are associated with specific subtypes, such as microsatellite instability. Recent comprehensive and integrated analyses showed that many cancer-related pathways are more frequently altered by aberrant DNA methylation than by mutations. Aberrant DNA methylation can even be present in noncancerous gastric mucosae, producing an "epigenetic field for cancerization." Mechanistically, H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation, but not H. pylori itself, plays a direct role in the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. The expression of three inflammation-related genes, Il1b, Nos2, and Tnf, is highly associated with the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. Importantly, the degree of accumulated aberrant DNA methylation is strongly correlated with gastric cancer risk. A recent multicenter prospective cohort study demonstrated the utility of epigenetic cancer risk diagnosis for metachronous gastric cancer. Suppression of aberrant DNA methylation by a demethylating agent was shown to inhibit gastric cancer development in an animal model. Induction of aberrant DNA methylation is the major pathway by which H. pylori infection induces gastric cancer, and this can be utilized for translational opportunities.

  20. Risk of Esophageal Cancer Following Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Chun-Shu; Lee, Shih-Yu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Chang, Wei-Kuo

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancers account for majority of synchronous or metachronous head and neck cancers. This study examined the risk of esophageal cancer following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in head and neck cancer patients using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. From 1997 to 2010, we identified and analyzed 1851 PEG patients and 3702 sex-, age-, and index date-matched controls. After adjusting for esophagitis, esophagus stricture, esophageal reflux, and primary sites, the PEG cohort had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-4.09) of developing esophageal cancer than the controls. Primary tumors in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx were associated with higher incidence of esophageal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios were 1.49 (95% CI = 1.01-1.88), 3.99 (95% CI = 2.76-4.98), and 1.98 (95% CI = 1.11-2.76), respectively. Head and neck cancer patients treated with PEG were associated with a higher risk of developing esophageal cancer, which could be fixed by surgically placed tubes.

  1. New hybrid voxelized/analytical primitive in Monte Carlo simulations for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bert, Julien; Lemaréchal, Yannick; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) applied in particle physics play a key role in medical imaging and particle therapy. In such simulations, particles are transported through voxelized phantoms derived from predominantly patient CT images. However, such voxelized object representation limits the incorporation of fine elements, such as artificial implants from CAD modeling or anatomical and functional details extracted from other imaging modalities. In this work we propose a new hYbrid Voxelized/ANalytical primitive (YVAN) that combines both voxelized and analytical object descriptions within the same MCS, without the need to simultaneously run two parallel simulations, which is the current gold standard methodology. Given that YVAN is simply a new primitive object, it does not require any modifications on the underlying MC navigation code. The new proposed primitive was assessed through a first simple MCS. Results from the YVAN primitive were compared against an MCS using a pure analytical geometry and the layer mass geometry concept. A perfect agreement was found between these simulations, leading to the conclusion that the new hybrid primitive is able to accurately and efficiently handle phantoms defined by a mixture of voxelized and analytical objects. In addition, two application-based evaluation studies in coronary angiography and intra-operative radiotherapy showed that the use of YVAN was 6.5% and 12.2% faster than the layered mass geometry method, respectively, without any associated loss of accuracy. However, the simplification advantages and differences in computational time improvements obtained with YVAN depend on the relative proportion of the analytical and voxelized structures used in the simulation as well as the size and number of triangles used in the description of the analytical object meshes.

  2. Benefit of Sunitinib in the treatment of pulmonary primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunhui; Zhang, Jingchun; Wang, Guangyu; Xu, Jiajia; Li, Yanlin; Guo, Qing; Zheng, Tongsen; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a highly aggressive small round celltumor but is extremely rare in the lung. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has led to breakthroughs for genetic analyses and personalizedmedicine approaches for cancer treatment.We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with an advanced pulmonary PNET treated with multiple chemotherapeutic regimens, and achieved a partial response (PR) as a best response. However, there was a disease progression after these treatment regimens.The NGS revealed the presence of a copy number loss (CNL) of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), CDKN2A/B and TP53 genes. The specific VHL CNL has not previously been associated with PNET, but has been reported in other tumors and has been associated with response to Sunitinib. Sunitinibwas then instituted for this patient and resulted in PR after the failure of multiple chemotherapeutic regimens. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pulmonary PNET with CNL of VHL gene that benefits from Sunitinib treatment. This case illustrates the potential of clinicalNGS to open unexpected avenues for treatment and thereby improve patient outcomes. PMID:27974690

  3. [Alcohol and oropharyngolaryngeal and digestive tract cancer].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Omori, T

    2001-12-01

    Epidemiology has demonstrated that alcoholic beverages are causally related to oropharyngolaryngeal, esophageal, liver, colorectal, and female breast cancer. Among Japanese male alcoholics screened by endoscopy combined with esophageal iodine staining and immunofecal occult blood tests, 4.2% had esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); 1.2%, oropharyngolaryngeal SCC; 1.4%, stomach adenocarcinoma; 1.9%, colorectal adenocarcinoma. The inactive form of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by the gene ALDH2*1/2*2, which is prevalent in Asians, exposes them to higher levels of acetaldehyde after drinking and was a strong risk factor for these cancers among Japanese heavy drinkers. Inactive ALDH2 was also associated with synchronous and metachronous multiple esophageal cancers. These results suggest a general role of acetaldehyde, an established animal carcinogen, in carcinogenesis of the human alimentary tract. The oropharyngolarynx and esophagus lack ALDH2 activity, suggesting that after exposure to acetaldehyde derived from systemic, mucosal, salivary, or bacterial production or alcoholic beverages, these organs' inefficient degradation of acetaldehyde enhances the chances for local acetaldehyde-associated carcinogenesis. The normal alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), encoded by ADH2*1/2*1, is another risk factor for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics. For patients with both normal ADH2 and inactive ALDH2, the risks for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer are enhanced in a multiplicative fashion. The responses to a simple questionnaire about both current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass of beer can indicate an individual's ALDH2 phenotype fairly well. Use of this questionnaire to obtain information on ALDH2-associated cancer susceptibility could contribute to the prevention of alcohol-related cancer in Asians.

  4. Local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kinami, Shinichi; Funaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideto; Nakano, Yasuharu; Ueda, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Takeo

    2016-06-24

    The local resection of the stomach is an ideal method for preventing postoperative symptoms. There are various procedures for performing local resection, such as the laparoscopic lesion lifting method, non-touch lesion lifting method, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery. After the invention and widespread use of endoscopic submucosal dissection, local resection has become outdated as a curative surgical technique for gastric cancer. Nevertheless, local resection of the stomach in the treatment of gastric cancer in now expected to make a comeback with the clinical use of sentinel node navigation surgery. However, there are many issues associated with local resection for gastric cancer, other than the normal indications. These include gastric deformation, functional impairment, ensuring a safe surgical margin, the possibility of inducing peritoneal dissemination, and the associated increase in the risk of metachronous gastric cancer. In view of these issues, there is a tendency to regard local resection as an investigative treatment, to be applied only in carefully selected cases. The ideal model for local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer would be a combination of endoscopic full-thickness resection of the stomach using an ESD device and hand sutured closure using a laparoscope or a surgical robot, for achieving both oncological safety and preserved functions.

  5. Exposure to dust-bound PAHs and associated carcinogenic risk in primitive and traditional cooking practices in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the abundance and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dust samples collected from the selected professional cooking workplaces (WCs) and residential household cooking areas (WRs), where traditional and primitive cooking practices are still prevelent. Another aim of this study was to investigate the carcinogenic risk for Pakistani human exposure to dust-bound PAHs via the routes of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. Generally, the concentration of individual congeners of PAHs in surface dust samples of WC sites was higher than those measured in WR sites (p < 0.05). The benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a very high carcinogenic compound, was present in the dust samples from WC sites in the highest mean concentration (630 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.)). The BaP mean concentration in WC workplaces was almost eight times higher than the mean value found in WR exposure sites. Moreover, the average concentration of ∑PAHs, combustion origin PAHs (∑COMB) and sum total of 7-carcinogenic PAHs (∑7-carcinogens) were also significantly higher in WC dusts samples than that in WR workplaces. Principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratios suggested coal/wood combustion as major PAH emission sources in both exposure sites. The average incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) suggested a moderate to potential high cancer risk for adults and children exposed to dust-bound PAHs in both exposure sites, in particular via both dermal and ingestion contact pathways.

  6. Relationship between smoking and multiple colorectal cancers in patients with Japanese Lynch syndrome: a cross-sectional study conducted by the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum.

    PubMed

    Tanakaya, Kohji; Furukawa, Yoichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hirata, Keiji; Tomita, Naohiro; Tamura, Kazuo; Sugano, Kokichi; Ishioka, Chikashi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Ishida, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Ishikawa, Hideki; Matsubara, Nagahide; Arai, Masami; Moriya, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    The positive correlation between smoking and cancer risk is well estimated in sporadic colorectal cancer, whereas little is known with regard to Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal cancer. A total of 118 familial colorectal cancer patients from the Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Registry and Genetic Testing Project of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum, were assessed to determine whether smoking alters the incidence of multiple colorectal cancers. In male patients with Lynch syndrome (n = 29), the incidence of multiple colorectal cancers in patients who had ever smoked (smoking duration: median of 19 years) was higher than that in those who never smoked (58.8% vs. 10.0%, P = 0.02). The cumulative risk for metachronous colorectal cancer was significantly higher in male Lynch syndrome patients who had previously smoked than in those who had never smoked (P = 0.03). Our data suggest that long-term cigarette smoking might be a strong risk factor for the development of multiple colorectal cancers in male Lynch syndrome patients.

  7. A case of age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder metachronously showing two distinct morphologic appearances, one of a polymorphic disease resembling classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and the other of a large-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Murase, Tadashi; Fujita, Ayumi; Ueno, Hironori; Park, Jae-Won; Yano, Takahiro; Hoshikawa, Masahiro; Takagi, Masayuki; Kuramochi, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (age-related EBV+ B-cell LPD) metachronously showing two distinct morphologic appearances: one of a polymorphic disease resembling classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), and the other of a large-cell lymphoma. A 71-year-old man was admitted to the St. Marianna University Hospital because of fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. Right axillary lymph node biopsy revealed mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin lymphoma (MCHL). The patient was referred to the Tokyo Medical Center, where he was treated with chemotherapy and obtained CR. One year later, the patient again developed fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the right cervical mass revealed a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with salvage chemotherapies and obtained the second CR. Two years later, the patient developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although CR was achieved with chemotherapy, AML relapsed 5 months later and proved to be refractory. Two and a half years later, the patient developed right cervical lymph node enlargement. The biopsy again revealed diagnosis of MCHL. The patient died 2 months later. On reviewing all of the biopsy specimens, including the findings of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, possibility of CHL was ruled out, because neoplastic giant cells resembling Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells were positive for both Oct2 and BOB.1, which has not been reported in CHL. Both HRS-like cells at the time of diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma and lymphoma cells at the time of diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were positive for CD20 and EBV-encoded small RNAs. This case was finally diagnosed as having age-related EBV+ B-cell LPD. We report the case here as it underscores the difficulty in diagnosing age-related EBV+ B-cell LPDs and also suggests an important role of EBV in the pathogenesis of lymphoid neoplasms.

  8. A case of colorectal cancer with double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Rai, Kammei; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Tsushima, Mizuho; Kudo, Kenichiro; Mizuta, Makoto; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yonei, Toshiro; Yamadori, Ichiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    We describe the case of a 72-year-old woman with locally advanced lung tumor mimicking primary lung cancer. She was diagnosed with rectal cancer at the age of 65 years and was initially treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation as a treatment for primary lung cancer. One year later, a thyroid tumor was detected in her right thyroid lobe and was confirmed to have metastasized from rectal cancer based on pathological findings. Therefore, we suspected that she had metachronous double cancers and treated her with conventional chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. However, new life-threatening multiple lung metastases appeared. We treated her with the drug erlotinib because additional genetic analysis against primary lung tumor revealed typical double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. Histological review by immunostaining concluded that the primary lung tumor was composed of metastatic tumors from rectal cancer. In addition, genetic analysis revealed that the primary rectal cancer contained nearly the same types of double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations as were present in the lung tumor. This is the first report of a case of rectal adenocarcinoma with double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

  9. Comets and the formation of biochemical compounds on the primitive earth - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Mills, T.; Lazcano, A.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty years ago it was suggested that comets impacting on the primitive earth may have represented a significant source of terrestrial volatiles, including some important precursors for prebiotic synthesis (Oro, 1961). This possibility is strongly supported not only by models of the collisional history of the early earth, but also by astronomical evidence that suggests that frequent collisions of cometlike bodies from the circumstellar disk around the star Beta Pictoris are taking place. Although a significant fraction of the complex organic compounds that appear to be present in cometary nuclei were probably destroyed during impact, it is argued that cometary collisions with the primitive earth represented an important source of both free-energy and volatiles, and may have created transient, gaseous environments in which prebiotic synthesis may have taken place.

  10. Nucleic acid-like structures. II - Polynucleotide analogues as possible primitive precursors of nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Alan W.; Visscher, J.; Bakker, C. G.; Niessen, J.

    1987-01-01

    Activated derivatives of purine-containing deoxynucleoside- diphosphates spontaneously oligomerize to produce pyrophosphate- linked oligodeoxynucleotide analogs. These analogs are of potential interest as models of primitive, polynucleotide precursors. The efficiency of oligomerization (ImpdGpIm and ImpdApIm much greater than ImpdIpIm) appears to reflect a combination of stacking forces and the specific geometric orientations of the stacked units. Under favorable conditions, chain lengths greater than 20 have been obtained for oligomers containing pdGp in the absence of a template. In the presence of a complementary template, the activated derivatives of pdGp and pdAp oligomerize much more extensively. An acyclo-analog of G has also been shown to undergo template-directed oligomerization on poly(C). These observations suggest the possibility that primitive information transfer might have evolved in much simpler systems and that this function was taken over by polynucleotides at a later stage in evolution.

  11. Primitive and contaminated basalts from the Southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doe, B.R.; Lipman, P.W.; Hedge, C.E.; Kurasawa, H.

    1969-01-01

    Basalts in the Southern Rocky Mountains province have been analyzed to determine if any of them are primitive. Alkali plagioclase xenocrysts armored with calcic plagioclase seem to be the best petrographic indicator of contamination. The next best indicator of contamination is quartz xenocrysts armored with clinopyroxene. On the rocks and the region studied, K2O apparently is the only major element with promise of separating primitive basalt from contaminated basalt inasmuch as it constitutes more than 1 % in all the obviously contaminated basalts. K2O: lead (> 4 ppm) and thorium (> 2 ppm) contents and Rb/Sr (> 0.035) are the most indicative of the trace elements studied. Using these criteria, three basalt samples are primitive (although one contains 1.7% K2O) and are similar in traceelement contents to Hawaiian and Eastern Honshu, Japan, primitive basalts. Contamination causes lead isotope ratios, 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb, to become less radiogenic, but it has little or no effect on 87Sr/86Sr. We interpret the effect on lead isotopes to be due to assimilation either of lower crustal granitic rocks, which contain 5-10 times as much lead as basalt and which have been low in U/Pb and Th/Pb since Precambrian times, or of upper crustal Precambrian or Paleozoic rocks, which have lost much of their radiogenic lead because of heating prior to assimilation. The lack of definite effects on strontium isotopes may be due to the lesser strontium contents of granitic crustal rocks relative to basaltic rocks coupled with lack of a large radiogenic enrichment in the crustal rocks. Lead isotope ratios were found to be less radiogenic in plagioclase separates from an obviously contaminated basalt than in the primitive basalts. The feldspar separate that is rich in sodic plagioclase xenocrysts was found to be similar to the whole-rock composition for 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb whereas a more dense fraction probably enriched in more calcic plagioclase phenocrysts is more similar

  12. Viscoelasticity and primitive path analysis of entangled polymer liquids: From F-actin to polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Nariya; Grest, Gary S.; Everaers, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    We combine computer simulations and scaling arguments to develop a unified view of polymer entanglement based on the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state. Our results agree with experimentally measured plateau moduli for three different polymer classes over a wide range of reduced polymer densities: (i) semidilute theta solutions of synthetic polymers, (ii) the corresponding dense melts above the glass transition or crystallization temperature, and (iii) solutions of semiflexible (bio)polymers such as F-actin or suspensions of rodlike viruses. Together, these systems cover the entire range from loosely to tightly entangled polymers. In particular, we argue that the primitive path analysis renormalizes a loosely to a tightly entangled system and provide a new explanation of the successful Lin-Noolandi packing conjecture for polymer melts.

  13. A model for the enantiomeric enrichment of polypeptides on the primitive earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N. E.; Bonner, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    A potential model is presented for the origin of optical activity in polypeptides on the primitive earth due to enantiomeric enrichment in succeeding polymerization-hydrolysis cycles. The model was developed in experiments with the polymerization of a DL-leucine N-carboxyanhydride mixture with a 31.2% enantiomeric excess of the L isomer with sodium methoxide initiator to yield a polyleucine product which was in turn partially hydrolyzed by acid. The polymerization-hydrolysis was found to produce a net 23.8% increase in the enantiomeric excess of the remaining unhydrolyzed polypeptide (14.2% from the polymerization and 9.6% from the partial hydrolysis). On the basis of these results, it is suggested that a slight excess produced by an appropriate chiral physical process may be enhanced by cycles of stereoselective polymerization and hydrolysis driven by fluctuating wet and dry environmental cycles on the primitive earth.

  14. Listening to Quackery: Reading John Wesley's Primitive Physic in an Age of Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Daniel; Schneider, Adam

    2016-11-25

    This article uses a reading of John Wesley's Primitive Physic, or An Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases (1747) to resist the common rejection-often as "quackery"-of Wesley's treatments for common maladies. We engage Wesley not because he was right but because his approach offers useful moments of pause in light of contemporary medical epistemology. Wesley's recommendations were primarily oriented towards the categories of personal responsibility and capability, but he also sought to empower individuals-especially the poor-with the knowledge to safely and affordably treat maladies of their own. We leverage Primitive Physic to rethink contemporary medical knowledge production, especially as sanctioned by randomized clinical trials and legitimate views of experience and contemporary institutions such as the AMA. Ultimately, we suggest that the medical humanities has a key role to play in mining the discarded and dismissed for what they can tell scholars about medical knowledge.

  15. The composition of the primitive atmosphere and the synthesis of organic compounds on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.

    The generally accepted theory for the origin of life on the Earth requires that a large variety of organic compounds be present to form the first living organisms and to provide the energy sources for primitive life either directly or through various fermentation reactions. This can provide a strong constraint on discussions of the formation of the Earth and on the composition of the primitive atmosphere. In order for substantial amounts of organic compounds to have been present on the prebiological Earth, certain conditions must have existed. There is a large body of literature on the prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds in various postulated atmospheres. In this mixture of abiotically synthesized organic compounds, the amino acids are of special interest since they are utilized by modern organisms to synthesize structural materials and a large array of catalytic peptides.

  16. The transcription factor MEF/ELF4 regulates the quiescence of primitive hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Lacorazza, H Daniel; Yamada, Takeshi; Liu, Yan; Miyata, Yasuhiko; Sivina, Mariela; Nunes, Juliana; Nimer, Stephen D

    2006-03-01

    The transcriptional circuitry that regulates the quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. We report that the transcription factor known as MEF (or ELF4), which is targeted by the t(X;21)(q26;q22) in acute myelogenous leukemia, regulates the proliferation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells at steady state, controlling their quiescence. Mef null HSCs display increased residence in G0 with reduced 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in vivo and impaired cytokine-driven proliferation in vitro. Due to their increased HSC quiescence, Mef null mice are relatively resistant to the myelosuppressive effects of chemotherapy and radiation. Thus, MEF plays an important role in the decision of stem/primitive progenitor cells to divide or remain quiescent by regulating their entry to the cell cycle.

  17. Origin of lead from green glass of Apollo 15426: a search for primitive lunar lead.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Premo, W.R.; Unruh, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major obstacle in lunar U-Pb chronology is the elusiveness of the primary Pb isotopic composition and U/Pb ratio and therefore the Pb evolution for the early history of the moon. In an attempt to seek the primitive lunar Pb isotopoc composition, green glass from lunar clod 15426,49 was studied for U-Th-Pb systematics because it is extremely Mg-rich and known to be the most primitive among sampled lunar volcanic rocks. Because of the low Pb concentration and high U/Pb ratio observed for the interior, the initial Pb was poorly defined. Nevertheless, the data indicate that lunar Pb evolved in an environment with 238U/204Pb = 19-55, which is considerably lower than those for mare basalts (around 300) but higher than values for the Earth (6-8).-from Authors

  18. Gonadotropic effects of dopamine in isolated workers of the primitively eusocial wasp, Polistes chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken; Yamasaki, Kazuhisa; Tsuchida, Koji; Nagao, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    In social insects, biogenic amines are thought to play regulatory roles in the transition between reproductive states in females. To determine the effect of dopamine on the reproductive development of workers in primitively eusocial societies, isolated workers of the paper wasp Polistes chinensis were supplied with oral dopamine. Ovarian development was accelerated in dopamine-fed workers as compared to control workers of the same age fed only sucrose solution. Oral dopamine increased brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite ( N-acetyldopamine). Brain levels of tyramine or octopamine were also increased by dopamine application in one of two colonies; levels of the tyramine metabolite N-acetyltyramine were unchanged. These results indicate that dopamine plays a gonadotropic role in isolated workers in the primitively eusocial wasp, similar to the gonadotropic role previously reported for juvenile hormone. This is the first study to report effects of dopamine on ovarian development in workers of the paper wasp.

  19. Immature embryoid teratoma of the gall bladder: case of a primary primitive neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Naim, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    This study presents diagnostic histopathological features of a primary embryoid teratomatous neoplasm in the gall bladder of a 60-year-old woman, and also discusses its pathogenesis. Sections revealed immature and typical embryoid bodies and dispersed syncytial trophoblasts along with mature and immature neuroectodermal and mesodermal elements. The residual endothelial lining of the gall bladder showed in situ and proliferative changes characteristic of an endodermal tumour. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of the rest of the abdominal and pelvic organs appeared normal. Results show that the mature adult gall bladder is susceptible to primary neoplasms of a primitive nature ranging from immature embryoma and teratoma to neuroectodermal tumour. Such primitive neoplasms in adult organs where benign neuroectodermal elements are present may evolve from a constituent cell of an adult organ acquired during embryogenesis from a morula that differentiated into trophoblastic (outer) and embryoblastic (inner) cells, and existing dormant cells at rest until reactivation during oncogenesis.

  20. Chromosomal evolution of the Canidae. II. Divergence from the primitive carnivore karyotype.

    PubMed

    Wayne, R K; Nash, W G; O'Brien, S J

    1987-01-01

    The Giemsa-banding patterns of chromosomes from the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis), and the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are compared. Despite their traditional placement in different genera, the arctic fox and the kit fox have an identical chromosome morphology and G-banding pattern. The red fox has extensive chromosome arm homoeology with these two species, but has only two entire chromosomes in common. All three species share some chromosomes with the raccoon dog, as does the high diploid-numbered grey wolf (Canis lupus, 2n = 78). Moreover, some chromosomes of the raccoon dog show partial or complete homoeology with metacentric feline chromosomes which suggests that these are primitive canid chromosomes. We present the history of chromosomal rearrangements within the Canidae family based on the assumption that a metacentric-dominated karyotype is primitive for the group.

  1. The composition of the primitive atmosphere and the synthesis of organic compounds on the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    The generally accepted theory for the origin of life on the Earth requires that a large variety of organic compounds be present to form the first living organisms and to provide the energy sources for primitive life either directly or through various fermentation reactions. This can provide a strong constraint on discussions of the formation of the Earth and on the composition of the primitive atmosphere. In order for substantial amounts of organic compounds to have been present on the prebiological Earth, certain conditions must have existed. There is a large body of literature on the prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds in various postulated atmospheres. In this mixture of abiotically synthesized organic compounds, the amino acids are of special interest since they are utilized by modern organisms to synthesize structural materials and a large array of catalytic peptides.

  2. Successful penile reconstruction after multimodal therapy in patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumor originating from the penis.

    PubMed

    Akino, Tomoshige; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hatanaka, Kanako; Kobayashi, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Nonomura, Katsuya

    2014-06-01

    We herein present an extremely rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor originating in the penis. A 16-year-old male adolescent presented with painful penile swelling. Pathological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetical examinations of the specimens obtained from total penectomy confirmed the diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor. After total penectomy, the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide-based regimen for 48 weeks. As a series of therapies, the patient underwent penile reconstruction surgery after completing adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient has not shown any evidence of recurrence for the 7 years after penile reconstruction surgery, and voiding function is completely normal. A favorable outcome was observed by multimodal therapy including aggressive resection for local control, intensive adjuvant chemotherapy, and penile reconstruction with cosmetic and functional success. Similar therapeutic approaches might be selected for children with primary malignant tumors of the penis.

  3. Ovarian malignant mixed mullerian tumor with primitive neuroectodermal differentiation: case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Haitham; Morris, Robert T; Fathallah, Lamia

    2011-03-15

    Ovarian malignant mixed mullarian tumor (OMMMT) is a rare and aggressive tumor of the female genital tract, occurring mainly in elderly women. Stage of disease is the most important predictor for survival with no prognostic effect, yet, of heterologous elements. Rare case reports described the peculiar presence of primitive neuroectodermal tissue among other heterologous elements in these tumors. Attractive designations, such as teratoid carcinosarcoma, were set by some authors to describe this subset of lesions, where it was considered a primary neuroectodermal tumor capable of multilineage differentiation. We here report a case of OMMMT in an elderly woman with focal primitive neuroectodermal differentiation as the sole heterologous element, and review the controversy on this topic in the literature.

  4. Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Kidney: A Rare and Lethal Entity.

    PubMed

    Celli, Romulo; Cai, Guoping

    2016-03-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor represents a spectrum of undifferentiated tumors with similar biology that together represent the second most common sarcoma in the pediatric-young adult age range. Very rarely, this tumor presents as a primary neoplasm of the kidney. The clinical presentation of this tumor is not specific, and other renal tumors may present with a similar histologic appearance. Establishing the correct diagnosis is critical because renal Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor carries a strikingly dismal prognosis and thus dictates a specific treatment strategy. A low threshold for the use of ancillary molecular tests is recommended, particularly in diagnostically problematic cases. Important considerations with regards to morphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular alterations will be reviewed here and should be taken into account before rendering this rare and lethal diagnosis.

  5. [The cultural history of palliative care in primitive societies: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Siles González, José; Solano Ruiz, Maria Del Carmen

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the evolution of palliative care in order to reflect on the possibility of its origin in primitive cultures and their relationship with the beginnings of the cult of the dead. It describes the change in the symbolic structures and social interactions involved in palliative care during prehistory: functional unit, functional framework and functional element. The theoretical framework is based on cultural history, the dialectical structural model and symbolic interactionism. Categorization techniques, cultural history and dialectic structuralism analyses were performed. Palliative care existed in primitive societies, mostly associated with the rites of passage with a high symbolic content. The social structures - functional unit, functional framework and functional element - are the pillars that supported palliative care in prehistory societies.

  6. Peripheral facial palsy, the only presentation of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the skull base

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Kang, Ben; Joo, Eun Young; Kim, Eun Young; Kwon, Young Se

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral facial palsy is rarely caused by primary neoplasms, which are mostly constituted of tumors of the central nervous system, head and neck, and leukemia. Presentation of case A 2-month-old male infant presented with asymmetric facial expression for 3 weeks. Physical examination revealed suspicious findings of right peripheral facial palsy. Computed tomography of the temporal bone revealed a suspicious bone tumor centered in the right petrous bone involving surrounding bones with extension into the middle ear cavity and inner ear. Subtotal resection of the tumor was performed due to crucial structures adjacent the mass. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the resected tumor was consistent with primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Conclusion We report a rare case of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor located at the skull base presenting with only peripheral facial palsy. PMID:26710328

  7. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, M R; Chen, W; Lenstra, J A; Goderie, C R J; MacHugh, D E; Park, S D E; Magee, D A; Matassino, D; Ciani, F; Megens, H-J; van Arendonk, J A M; Groenen, M A M; Marsan, P A; Balteanu, V; Dunner, S; Garcia, J F; Ginja, C; Kantanen, J

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is still debated, some of the extant primitive cattle populations are believed to possess the aurochs-like primitive features. In this study, we use genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess relationship, admixture patterns and demographic history of an ancient aurochs sample and European cattle populations, several of which have primitive features and are suitable for extensive management. The principal component analysis, the model-based clustering and a distance-based network analysis support previous works suggesting different histories for north-western and southern European cattle. Population admixture analysis indicates a zebu gene flow in the Balkan and Italian Podolic cattle populations. Our analysis supports the previous report of gene flow between British and Irish primitive cattle populations and local aurochs. In addition, we show evidence of aurochs gene flow in the Iberian cattle populations indicating wide geographical distribution of the aurochs. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) reveal that demographic processes like genetic isolation and breed formation have contributed to genomic variations of European cattle populations. The ROH also indicate recent inbreeding in southern European cattle populations. We conclude that in addition to factors such as ancient human migrations, isolation by distance and cross-breeding, gene flow between domestic and wild-cattle populations also has shaped genomic composition of European cattle populations. PMID:27677498

  8. 5 - 14 μm Spitzer spectra of primitive asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, Zoe A.; Licandro, Javier; Campins, Humberto; Ziffer, Julie; de Prá, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Compositional studies of primitive asteroid families provide constraints on the physical and chemical environment of the solar nebula and the evolution of the asteroid belt. Spectroscopic studies in the visible and near-infrared have shown spectral diversity between primitive families. Our goal is to better constrain the composition of two primitive families with very different ages: Themis (~2.5 Gyr) and Veritas (~8 Myr). We analyzed 5 - 14 μm Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of a total of 18 asteroids, nine from each family. We report the presence of a broad 10-μm emission feature, attributed to a layer of fine-grained silicates, in the spectra of all nine Themis asteroids and six of nine Veritas asteroids in our sample. Spectral contrast in statistically significant detections of the 10-μm feature ranges from 1% ± 0.1% to 8.5% ± 0.9%. Comparison with the spectra of primitive meteorites (McAdam et al. 2015, Icarus, 245, 320) suggests asteroids in both families are similar to meteorites with lower abundances of phyllosilicates. We used the Near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model to derive diameters, beaming parameters and albedos for our sample. Asteroids in both families have beaming parameters near unity and geometric albedos in the range 0.06 ± 0.01 to 0.14 ± 0.02. We find that contrast of the silicate emission feature is not correlated with asteroid diameter; however, higher 10-μm contrast may be associated with flatter spectral slopes in the near-infrared. The spectra of both families suggest icy bodies with some amount of fine-grained silicates, but with coarser grains or denser surface structure than Trojan asteroids and comets.

  9. An empirically-derived taxonomy of interaction primitives for interactive cartography and geovisualization.

    PubMed

    Roth, Robert E

    2013-12-01

    Proposals to establish a 'science of interaction' have been forwarded from Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, as well as Cartography, Geovisualization, and GIScience. This paper reports on two studies to contribute to this call for an interaction science, with the goal of developing a functional taxonomy of interaction primitives for map-based visualization. A semi-structured interview study first was conducted with 21 expert interactive map users to understand the way in which map-based visualizations currently are employed. The interviews were transcribed and coded to identify statements representative of either the task the user wished to accomplish (i.e., objective primitives) or the interactive functionality included in the visualization to achieve this task (i.e., operator primitives). A card sorting study then was conducted with 15 expert interactive map designers to organize these example statements into logical structures based on their experience translating client requests into interaction designs. Example statements were supplemented with primitive definitions in the literature and were separated into two sorting exercises: objectives and operators. The objective sort suggested five objectives that increase in cognitive sophistication (identify, compare, rank, associate, & delineate), but exhibited a large amount of variation across participants due to consideration of broader user goals (procure, predict, & prescribe) and interaction operands (space-alone, attributes-in-space, & space-in-time; elementary & general). The operator sort suggested five enabling operators (import, export, save, edit, & annotate) and twelve work operators (reexpress, arrange, sequence, resymbolize, overlay, pan, zoom, reproject, search, filter, retrieve, & calculate). This taxonomy offers an empirically-derived and ecologically-valid structure to inform future research and design on interaction.

  10. Using exact solutions to develop an implicit scheme for the baroclinic primitive equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchesin, D.

    1984-01-01

    The exact solutions presently obtained by means of a novel method for nonlinear initial value problems are used in the development of numerical schemes for the computer solution of these problems. The method is applied to a new, fully implicit scheme on a vertical slice of the isentropic baroclinic equations. It was not possible to find a global scale phenomenon that could be simulated by the baroclinic primitive equations on a vertical slice.

  11. Abundances of presolar silicon carbide grains in primitive meteorites determined by NanoSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Jemma; Busemann, Henner; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis; Franchi, Ian A.; Hoppe, Peter

    2014-08-01

    It has been suggested that the matrices of all chondrites are dominated by a common material with Ivuna-like (CI) abundances of volatiles, presolar grains and insoluble organic matter (IOM) (e.g., Alexander, 2005). However, matrix-normalized abundances of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains estimated from their noble gas components show significant variations in even the most primitive chondrites (Huss and Lewis, 1995; Huss et al., 2003), in contradiction to there being a common chondrite matrix material. Here we report presolar SiC abundances determined by NanoSIMS raster ion imaging of IOM extracted from primitive members of different meteorite groups. We show that presolar SiC abundance determinations are comparable between NanoSIMS instruments located at three different institutes, between residues prepared by different demineralization techniques, and between microtomed and non-microtomed samples. Our derived SiC abundances in CR chondrites are comparable to those found in the CI chondrites (∼30 ppm) and are much higher than previously determined by noble gas analyses. The revised higher CR SiC abundances are consistent with the CRs being amongst the most primitive chondrites in terms of the isotopic compositions and disordered nature of their organic matter. Similar abundances between CR1, CR2, and CR3 chondrites indicate aqueous alteration on the CR chondrite parent body has not progressively destroyed SiC grains in them. A low SiC abundance for the reduced CV3 RBT 04133 can be explained by parent body thermal metamorphism at an estimated temperature of ∼440 °C. Minor differences between primitive members of other meteorite classes, which did not experience such high temperatures, may be explained by prolonged oxidation at lower temperatures under which SiC grains formed outer layers of SiO2 that were not thermodynamically stable, leading to progressive degassing/destruction of SiC.

  12. The Early Evolution of the Solar Nebula with Implications for the Formation of Primitive Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, K. Robbins

    2002-01-01

    I will present a review of our understanding of the early evolution of the solar nebula especially as it bears on the formation of primitive meteorites. Although my emphasis will be on the results of theoretical studies, I will also summarize some of the observational evidence supporting these conclusions. In particular, I will summarize our current best deductions about midplane temperatures and densities of the solar nebula and about both long-term and episodic evolution.

  13. Part Description and Segmentation Using Contour, Surface and Volumetric Primitives (Dissertation Proposal)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    GROP I UB-GOUPImage processing , computer vision 9. ABSTRACT7 (Conn. a revers it necusy aiW .aweuy by bdo* nuataw The problem of part definitiom...reasoning processes , which need not deal with tremendous amount of data, but only with a rich description of data in terms of primitives recovered at...the best of the coarse to fine and fine to coarse segmen- tation strategy. he process involves feedback between the segmentor (the Control Module) and

  14. Toward a self-organizing pre-symbolic neural model representing sensorimotor primitives.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Junpei; Cangelosi, Angelo; Wermter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition of symbolic and linguistic representations of sensorimotor behavior is a cognitive process performed by an agent when it is executing and/or observing own and others' actions. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, these representations develop during the sensorimotor stage and the pre-operational stage. We propose a model that relates the conceptualization of the higher-level information from visual stimuli to the development of ventral/dorsal visual streams. This model employs neural network architecture incorporating a predictive sensory module based on an RNNPB (Recurrent Neural Network with Parametric Biases) and a horizontal product model. We exemplify this model through a robot passively observing an object to learn its features and movements. During the learning process of observing sensorimotor primitives, i.e., observing a set of trajectories of arm movements and its oriented object features, the pre-symbolic representation is self-organized in the parametric units. These representational units act as bifurcation parameters, guiding the robot to recognize and predict various learned sensorimotor primitives. The pre-symbolic representation also accounts for the learning of sensorimotor primitives in a latent learning context.

  15. Looking for the most "primitive" organism(s) on Earth today: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Forterre, P

    1995-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed a tripartite division of the living world into two procaryotic groups, Bacteria and Archaea, and one eucaryotic group, Eucarya. Which group is the most "primitive"? Which groups are sister? The answer to these questions would help to delineate the characters of the last common ancestor to all living beings, as a first step to reconstruct the earliest periods of biological evolution on Earth. The current "Procaryotic dogma" claims that procaryotes are primitive. Since the ancestor of Archaea was most probably a hyperthermophile, and since bacteria too might have originated from hyperthermophiles, the procaryotic dogma has been recently connected to the hot origin of life hypothesis. However, the notion that present-day hyperthermophiles are primitive has been challenged by recent findings, in these unique microorganisms, of very elaborate adaptative devices for life at high temperature. Accordingly, I discuss here alternative hypotheses that challenge the procaryotic dogma, such as the idea of a universal ancestor with molecular features in between those of eucaryotes and procaryotes, or the origin of procaryotes via thermophilic adaptation. Clearly, major evolutionary questions about early cellular evolution on Earth remain to be settled before we can speculate with confidence about which kinds of life might have appeared on other planets.

  16. Looking for the most ``primitive'' organism(s) on Earth today: the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forterre, Patrick

    1995-02-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed a tripartite division of the living world into two procaryotic groups, Bacteria and Archaea, and one eucaryotic group, Eucarya. Which group is the most "primitive"? Which groups are sister? The answer to these questions would help to delineate the characters of the last common ancestor to all living beings, as a first step to reconstruct the earliest periods of biological evolution on Earth. The current "Procaryotic dogma" claims that procaryotes are primitive. Since the ancestor of Archaea was most probably a hyperthermophile, and since bacteria too might have originated from hyperthermophiles, the procaryotic dogma has been recently connected to the hot origin of life hypothesis. However, the notion that present-day hyperthermophiles are primitive has been challenged by recent findings, in these unique microorganisms, of very elaborate adaptative devices for life at high temperature. Accordingly, I discuss here alternative hypotheses that challenge the procaryotic dogma, such as the idea of a universal ancestor with molecular features in between those of eucaryotes and procaryotes, or the origin of procaryotes via thermophilic adaptation. Clearly, major evolutionary questions about early cellular evolution on Earth remain to be settled before we can speculate with confidence about which kinds of life might have appeared on other planets.

  17. The language of geometry: Fast comprehension of geometrical primitives and rules in human adults and preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Amalric, Marie; Wang, Liping; Pica, Pierre; Figueira, Santiago; Sigman, Mariano; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-01-01

    During language processing, humans form complex embedded representations from sequential inputs. Here, we ask whether a "geometrical language" with recursive embedding also underlies the human ability to encode sequences of spatial locations. We introduce a novel paradigm in which subjects are exposed to a sequence of spatial locations on an octagon, and are asked to predict future locations. The sequences vary in complexity according to a well-defined language comprising elementary primitives and recursive rules. A detailed analysis of error patterns indicates that primitives of symmetry and rotation are spontaneously detected and used by adults, preschoolers, and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Munduruku, who have a restricted numerical and geometrical lexicon and limited access to schooling. Furthermore, subjects readily combine these geometrical primitives into hierarchically organized expressions. By evaluating a large set of such combinations, we obtained a first view of the language needed to account for the representation of visuospatial sequences in humans, and conclude that they encode visuospatial sequences by minimizing the complexity of the structured expressions that capture them.

  18. Modulation of TGF-β signaling by endoglin in murine hemangioblast development and primitive hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Magli, Alessandro; Catanese, Jacquelyn; Xu, Zhaohui; Kyba, Michael; Perlingeiro, Rita C R

    2011-07-07

    Endoglin (Eng), an accessory receptor for the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily, is required for proper hemangioblast and primitive hematopoietic development. However the mechanism by which endoglin functions at this early developmental stage is currently unknown. Transcriptional analyses of differentiating eng(-/-) and eng(+/+) ES cells revealed that lack of endoglin leads to profound reductions in the levels of key hematopoietic regulators, including Scl, Lmo2, and Gata2. We also detected lower levels of phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1), a downstream target signaling molecule associated with the TGF-β pathway. Using doxycycline-inducible ES cell lines, we interrogated the TGF-β signaling pathway by expressing activated forms of ALK-1 and ALK-5, type I receptors for TGF-β. Our results indicate that ALK-1 signaling promotes hemangioblast development and hematopoiesis, as evidenced by colony assays, gene expression and FACS analyses, whereas signaling by ALK-5 leads to the opposite effect, inhibition of hemangioblast and hematopoietic development. In Eng(-/-) ES cells, ALK-1 rescued both the defective hemangioblast development, and primitive erythropoiesis, indicating that ALK-1 signaling can compensate for the absence of endoglin. We propose that endoglin regulates primitive hematopoiesis by modulating the activity of the Smad1/5 signaling pathway in early stages of development.

  19. Kinematic primitives for walking and trotting gaits of a quadruped robot with compliant legs

    PubMed Central

    Spröwitz, Alexander T.; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2–3 primitives) than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (νm4 primitives), although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware. PMID:24639645

  20. Delivery of extraterrestrial amino acids to the primitive Earth. Exposure experiments in Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Barbier, B; Bertrand, M; Boillot, F; Chabin, A; Chaput, D; Henin, O; Brack, A

    1998-06-01

    A large collection of micrometeorites has been recently extracted from Antarctic old blue ice. In the 50 to 100 micrometers size range, the carbonaceous micrometeorites represent 80% of the samples and contain 2% of carbon. They might have brought more carbon to the surface of the primitive Earth than that involved in the present surficial biomass. Amino acids such as "-amino isobutyric acid have been identified in these Antarctic micrometeorites. Enantiomeric excesses of L-amino acids have been detected in the Murchison meteorite. A large fraction of homochiral amino acids might have been delivered to the primitive Earth via meteorites and micrometeorites. Space technology in Earth orbit offers a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of amino acids required for the development of primitive life when they are exposed to space conditions, either free or associated with tiny mineral grains mimicking the micrometeorites. Our objectives are to demonstrate that porous mineral material protects amino acids in space from photolysis and racemization (the conversion of L-amino acids into a mixture of L- and D-molecules) and to test whether photosensitive amino acids derivatives can polymerize in mineral grains under space conditions. The results obtained in BIOPAN-1 and BIOPAN-2 exposure experiments on board unmanned satellite FOTON are presented.

  1. A primitive Late Pliocene cheetah, and evolution of the cheetah lineage.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Per; Mazák, Ji H

    2009-01-13

    The cheetah lineage is a group of large, slender, and long-limbed cats with a distinctive skull and dental morphology, of which only the extant cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is present today. The lineage is characterized by having abbreviated, tall, and domed crania, and a trenchant dentition with a much reduced, posteriorly placed protocone on the upper carnassial. In this article, we report on a new discovery of a Late Pliocene specimen from China with an estimated age of approximately 2.2-2.5 million years, making it one of the oldest specimens known to date. A cladistic analysis confirmed that it is the most primitive cheetah known, and it shares a number of unambiguous derived cranial traits with the Acinonyx lineage, but has more primitive dentition than previously known cheetahs, demonstrating that the many unusual skull and dental characters hitherto considered characteristic of cheetahs evolved in a gradual fashion. Isolated teeth of primitive cheetahs may not be recognizable as such, but can be confused with, for instance, those of leopards or other similar-sized pantherine cats or pumas. The age and morphology of the new specimen supports an Old World origin of the cheetah lineage, not a New World one, as has been suggested. We name the new species Acinonyx kurteni in honor of the late Björn Kurtén.

  2. Search for the Most `primitive' Membranes and Their Reinforcers: A Review of the Polyprenyl Phosphates Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Yoichi; Ribeiro, Nigel; Streiff, Stéphane; Gotoh, Mari; Pozzi, Gianluca; Désaubry, Laurent; Milon, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Terpenoids have an essential function in present-day cellular membranes, either as membrane reinforcers in Eucarya and Bacteria or as principal membrane constituents in Archaea. We have shown that some terpenoids, such as cholesterol and α, ω-dipolar carotenoids reinforce lipid membranes by measuring the water permeability of unilamellar vesicles. It was possible to arrange the known membrane terpenoids in a `phylogenetic' sequence, and a retrograde analysis led us to conceive that single-chain polyprenyl phosphates might have been `primitive' membrane constituents. By using an optical microscopy, we have observed that polyprenyl phosphates containing 15 to 30 C-atoms form giant vesicles in water in a wide pH range. The addition of 10 % molar of some polyprenols to polyprenyl phosphate vesicles have been shown to reduce the water permeability of membranes even more efficiently than the equimolecular addition of cholesterol. A `prebiotic' synthesis of C10 and C15 prenols from C5 monoprenols was achieved in the presence of a montmorillonite clay. Hypothetical pathway from C1 or C2 units to `primitive' membranes and that from `primitive' membranes to archaeal lipids are presented.

  3. A primitive Late Pliocene cheetah, and evolution of the cheetah lineage

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Per; Mazák, Ji H.

    2009-01-01

    The cheetah lineage is a group of large, slender, and long-limbed cats with a distinctive skull and dental morphology, of which only the extant cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is present today. The lineage is characterized by having abbreviated, tall, and domed crania, and a trenchant dentition with a much reduced, posteriorly placed protocone on the upper carnassial. In this article, we report on a new discovery of a Late Pliocene specimen from China with an estimated age of ≈2.2–2.5 million years, making it one of the oldest specimens known to date. A cladistic analysis confirmed that it is the most primitive cheetah known, and it shares a number of unambiguous derived cranial traits with the Acinonyx lineage, but has more primitive dentition than previously known cheetahs, demonstrating that the many unusual skull and dental characters hitherto considered characteristic of cheetahs evolved in a gradual fashion. Isolated teeth of primitive cheetahs may not be recognizable as such, but can be confused with, for instance, those of leopards or other similar-sized pantherine cats or pumas. The age and morphology of the new specimen supports an Old World origin of the cheetah lineage, not a New World one, as has been suggested. We name the new species Acinonyx kurteni in honor of the late Björn Kurtén. PMID:19114651

  4. The language of geometry: Fast comprehension of geometrical primitives and rules in human adults and preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Amalric, Marie; Wang, Liping; Figueira, Santiago; Sigman, Mariano; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-01-01

    During language processing, humans form complex embedded representations from sequential inputs. Here, we ask whether a “geometrical language” with recursive embedding also underlies the human ability to encode sequences of spatial locations. We introduce a novel paradigm in which subjects are exposed to a sequence of spatial locations on an octagon, and are asked to predict future locations. The sequences vary in complexity according to a well-defined language comprising elementary primitives and recursive rules. A detailed analysis of error patterns indicates that primitives of symmetry and rotation are spontaneously detected and used by adults, preschoolers, and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Munduruku, who have a restricted numerical and geometrical lexicon and limited access to schooling. Furthermore, subjects readily combine these geometrical primitives into hierarchically organized expressions. By evaluating a large set of such combinations, we obtained a first view of the language needed to account for the representation of visuospatial sequences in humans, and conclude that they encode visuospatial sequences by minimizing the complexity of the structured expressions that capture them. PMID:28125595

  5. A balanced motor primitive framework can simultaneously explain motor learning in unimanual and bimanual movements.

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Ken; Sakai, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    Certain theoretical frameworks have successfully explained motor learning in either unimanual or bimanual movements. However, no single theoretical framework can comprehensively explain motor learning in both types of movement because the relationship between these two types of movement remains unclear. Although our recent model of a balanced motor primitive framework attempted to simultaneously explain motor learning in unimanual and bimanual movements, this model focused only on a limited subset of bimanual movements and therefore did not elucidate the relationships between unimanual movements and various bimanual movements. Here, we extend the balanced motor primitive framework to simultaneously explain motor learning in unimanual and various bimanual movements as well as the transfer of learning effects between unimanual and various bimanual movements; these phenomena can be simultaneously explained if the mean activity of each primitive for various unimanual movements is balanced with the corresponding mean activity for various bimanual movements. Using this balanced condition, we can reproduce the results of prior behavioral and neurophysiological experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the balanced condition can be implemented in a simple neural network model.

  6. [Biology of cancer metastasis].

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Metastatic dissemination represents the true cause of the malignant character of cancers. Its targeting is much more difficult than that of cell proliferation, because metastasis, like angiogenesis, involves a number of complex interactions between tumour and stroma; the contribution of adhesion and motility pathways is added to that of proliferation and survival pathways. Long distance extension, discontinuous in respect to the primitive tumour, is a major feature of cancer and the main cause of patients' death. Cancer cells use two main dissemination pathways: the lymphatic pathway, leading to the invasion of the lymph nodes draining the organs where the tumour evolves; and the blood pathway, leading to the invasion of distant organs such as liver, brain, bone or lung. Metastasis is inscribed within the properties of the primitive tumour, as shown by the comparative molecular analysis of the primitive tumour and its own metastases: their similarity is always more important than what could be expected from the general activation of "metastasis genes" or the inhibition of "metastasis suppressor genes". Among the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, one can mention the integrin pathway, the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway, the chemokine pathway, the dependence receptor pathway and many others. These pathways allow the possibility of therapeutic targeting, thanks to therapeutic antibodies or small molecules inhibiting the kinases involved in these signalling pathways, but not a single properly anti-metastatic drug has yet been proposed: the complexity and the diversity of the processes allowing metastasis emergence, as well as the fact that the activation mechanisms are more often epigenetic than genetic and are generally physiological processes misled by the malignant cell, render especially difficult the therapeutic approach of metastasis.

  7. Diverse Primitive Basalts from an Extensional Back-arc Setting, Fort Rock Volcanic Field, Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popoli, F. M., Jr.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Pleistocene to Pliocene Fort Rock Volcanic Field (FRVF), situated in a back-arc extensional setting ~65 km east of the Central Oregon High Cascades has erupted a diverse array of basaltic magmas, including some primitive compositions with an Mg#>60. Major and trace element concentrations have been determined for 80 mafic bulk lava samples by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and selected minerals by electron microprobe. Petrological and geochemical data suggest three primitive basalt end-members similar to basalts in the nearby Oregon Cascade arc and High Lava Plains: high-alumina olivine tholeiite or low-K tholeiites (LKT), calc-alkaline basalts (CAB), ocean island basalts (OIB). Primitive Mg# (61-68) HAOTs are aphyric to phenocryst-poor (~2-5 %) olivine and plagioclase bearing and diktytaxitic. HAOTs are distinguished by low K2O (0.22-0.44 wt%), high Al2O3 (17.19-18.67 wt%) and CaO contents. CABs are the most dominant basalt type in the area with higher large ion lithophile element (LILE) concentrations (e.g., 170-426 ppm Ba) relative to high field strength elements (HFSE; 4.6-10.4 ppm Nb) and lower Mg#s (60-64) than HAOTs. CABs have more abundant (~5-15 %) and larger phenocrysts (~2-4 mm) of olivine and plagioclase than in HAOTs. OIBs contain higher Nb contents ranging from 11.7-18.6 ppm (vs. 3.0-7.2 ppm in HAOTs). OIBs are similar to both HAOTs and CABs, ranging from aphyric to porphyritic and diktytaxitic and may include amphibole phenocrysts. Tectonic extension associated with the Basin and Range in this area likely facilitated eruptions of primitive magmas. A comparison of the most primitive magmas (HAOTs with Mg#>65) found in eastern and western FRVF indicates that the western HAOTs contain higher incompatible element concentrations relative to eastern HAOT (Ba, Sc, Sr, Zr, Nb), which may reflect lower degrees of melting of a more enriched mantle source to the west.

  8. [A Resected Case of Cecal Cancer with Simultaneous Liver, Spleen, and Ovarian Metastasis and Peritoneal Dissemination].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Takayuki; Ueda, Takeshi; Koyama, Fumikazu; Nishigori, Naoto; Inoue, Takashi; Kawasaki, Keijirou; Obara, Shinsaku; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Hisao; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    We herein report the case of a patient with a cecal cancer with simultaneous liver, spleen, and ovarian metastases as well as peritoneal dissemination who achieved a long-term survival. The patient was a 67-year-old female. Ileocecal resection with partial hepatectomy, splenectomy, simple total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and resection of the peritoneal dissemination were performed. The final diagnosis was Stage IV (T4a, N1, M1b[H1, P3, OTH]). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered, but abdominal computed tomography(CT)revealed a metachronous liver metastasis 41 months later. We performed partial hepatectomy, and the patient continued adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient is currently alive and disease-free 30 months after the last operation, 72 months after the initial surgery.

  9. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour - a rare cause of a popliteal fossa mass: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Davis, Colin M; Choong, Andrew Mtl; Sharp, David; Taheri, Touraj; Senewiratne, Shireen; Hinckley, Vedella

    2014-01-01

    A literature review of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours, illustrated with an index case report describing an 80-year-old woman who presented with a mass in the left popliteal fossa, is reported. An excision biopsy was performed, revealing a possible peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour as the primary pathology. Normally confined to the chest wall and axial soft tissues of children and young adults, reports of this tumour existing in other areas and in the elderly population are scarce.

  10. Gastric cancer - clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Link, Alexander; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) ranks fifth for cancer incidence and second for cancer deaths. Epidemiological data showed that survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and patients with pernicious anemia etiologically linked to autoimmune gastritis are at increased risk of GC. Screening of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease by means of pepsinogen (PG) I and PG I/II detected autoimmune gastritis with oxyntic gastric atrophy in one of four patients and may be recommended for GC prevention purposes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer reported a positive association between consumption of processed meet and increased GC risk. A new GC risk prediction model based on biological markers, age, gender, smoking status, family history of GC, and consumption of highly salted food showed good predictive performance, and might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programs. A novel GC classification based on gene expression of primary resected cancers correlated with clinicopathological features. Noncoding RNA for GC screening remains the focus of multiple studies. Patients with early GC undergoing endoscopic resection are more likely to develop metachronous lesions than patients undergoing surgery and endoscopic surveillance is warranted in this special cohort. The addition of gastrectomy to chemotherapy did not improve survival of patients with advanced GC and a single noncurable factor. Apatinib, a novel oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved the median overall survival of patients with advanced GC and progressive disease after two or more lines of prior chemotherapy of nearly 3 months.

  11. Primary vaginal Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 17-year-old woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Primary Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the genital tract of women is uncommon. Rarer still is its occurrence in the vagina, with only five cases described so far. Out of these, only one case was confirmed using molecular analysis. Case presentation We present an extremely rare case of Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 17-year-old Indian girl. She presented with a vaginal mass that was initially diagnosed as a malignant round cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse positivity for vimentin, membranous positivity for MIC2, and positivity for BCL2 and FLI-1. On the other hand, she was negative for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, Myo D-1, myogenin and smooth muscle actin. A diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor was thus offered. Furthermore, a molecular analysis of our patient using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique showed positivity for t(11; 22) (q24; q12) (EWSR1-FLI1), thus confirming the diagnosis of a Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Our patient was offered chemotherapy on Institutional protocol EFT 2001. Conclusion This is a rare case of primary vaginal Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, which was confirmed with molecular analysis, in the youngest patient known so far. This study reinforces the value of integrating morphological features with membranous MIC2 positivity, along with application of molecular techniques in objective identification of an Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor at uncommon sites. PMID:20233457

  12. Persisting primitive reflexes in medication-naïve girls with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Konicarova, Jana; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Recent and historical findings suggest that later-developed functions during brain ontogenesis related to higher levels of cognitive and motor integration tend to replace the older, more primitive, ones, and the persistence of the older functions may be linked to specific neuropsychiatric disorders. Currently, there is growing evidence to suggest that persisting primitive reflexes may be related to developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Preliminary data also suggest that persisting primitive reflexes may be specifically linked to attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In the study reported here, we tested to what extent the persisting primitive asymmetric tonic neck reflex and symmetric tonic neck reflex are related to ADHD symptoms measured by Conners’ Parent Questionnaire in 35 medication-naïve girls of school age (8–11 years) with ADHD. The results were compared with those of a control group of 30 girls of the same age. Results This study showed that persisting primitive reflexes are closely linked to ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The data suggest that ADHD symptoms may be linked to more primitive neural mechanisms interfering with higher brain functions due to insufficiently developed cognitive and motor integration. PMID:24092983

  13. Endoscopic surveillance of head and neck cancer in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Minoru; Ishihara, Ryu; Hamada, Kenta; Tonai, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Matsuura, Noriko; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Multiple squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) frequently arise in the upper aerodigestive tract, referred to as the field cancerization phenomenon. The aim of this study was to elucidate the detailed clinical features of second primary head and neck (H&N) SCCs arising in patients with esophageal SCC. Patients and methods: A total of 818 patients underwent endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal cancer between January 2006 and December 2013. Of these, 439 patients met our inclusion criteria, and we retrospectively investigated the incidence, primary sites, and stages of second primary H&N SCCs in these patients. Results: A total of 53 metachronous H&N SCCs developed in 40 patients after a median follow-up period of 46 months (range 9 – 109). The cumulative incidence rates of metachronous H&N SCCs at 3, 5, and 7 years were 5.3 %, 9.7 %, and 17.2 %, respectively. These lesions were frequently located at pyriform sinus or in the posterior wall of the pharynx (70 %, 37/53 lesions). Most of the lesions were detected at an early stage, though 4 lesions were associated with lymph node metastasis when their primary sites were detected (1 postcricoid area, 2 posterior wall of hypopharynx, and 1 lateral wall of oropharynx). Conclusions: Patients with esophageal SCC should undergo careful inspection of the pyriform sinus and posterior wall of the pharynx for detection of H&N SCCs. Methods to open the hypopharyngeal space, such as the Valsalva maneuver, should be included in the surveillance program. PMID:27556090

  14. Characteristics and outcomes of endoscopically resected colorectal cancers that arose from sessile serrated adenomas and traditional serrated adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Choi, Seung Ho; Chun, Jaeyoung; Choi, Ji Min; Jin, Eun Hyo; Hwang, Sung Wook; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The efficacy and safety of endoscopic resection of colorectal cancer derived from sessile serrated adenomas or traditional serrated adenomas are still unknown. The aims of this study were to verify the characteristics and outcomes of endoscopically resected early colorectal cancers developed from serrated polyps. Methods Among patients who received endoscopic resection of early colorectal cancers from 2008 to 2011, cancers with documented pre-existing lesions were included. They were classified as adenoma, sessile serrated adenoma, or traditional serrated adenoma according to the baseline lesions. Clinical characteristics, pathologic diagnosis, and outcomes were reviewed. Results Overall, 208 colorectal cancers detected from 198 patients were included: 198 with adenoma, five with sessile serrated adenoma, and five with traditional serrated adenoma. The sessile serrated adenoma group had a higher prevalence of high-grade dysplasia (40.0% vs. 25.8%, P<0.001) than the adenoma group. During follow-up, local recurrence did not occur after endoscopic resection of early colorectal cancers developed from serrated polyps. In contrast, two cases of metachronous recurrence were detected within a short follow-up period. Conclusions Cautious observation and early endoscopic resection are recommended when colorectal cancer from serrated polyp is suspected. Colorectal cancers from serrated polyp can be treated successfully with endoscopy. PMID:27433150

  15. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  16. Origin of primitive andesites by melt-rock reaction in the sub-arc mantle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    The genetic relationship between primitive granitoids, including high-Mg andesites (HMAs) and bajaites, and primary granitoids, or "pristine" adakites, has been vigorously debated since Defant and Drummond (1991; henceforth D&D) first applied the term "adakite" to refer to Cenozoic arc magmas (andesites and dacites) "associated with young subducting lithosphere", with low Y and Yb, low high-field strength elements (HFSEs), high Sr, and high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios "relative to island arc andesite-dacite-rhyolite". These characteristics were attributed to an origin for adakites by partial melting of basaltic crust within the subducting slab (hence "slab melts"). That such a process can produce melts with the characteristics described by D&D has since been largely confirmed by dehydration melting experiments on hydrous metabasalt at ~1-4 GPa. Attention was also drawn to the geochemical similarities between "adakites" and large-ion lithophile element (LILE)-enriched, high-field strength element (HFSE) depleted magnesian andesites (HMAs) from Adak Island in the western Aleutians, first described by Kay (1978), implying a genetic relationship between primary granitoid (adakites) formed by partial melting of basaltic ocean crust in the subducting slab, transformed to garnet-amphibolite or eclogite, and primitive magnesian andesites (HMAs) with high Mg-numbers (Mg# = molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)x100) and high concentrations of Ni and Cr. What then is the true origin of these enigmatic arc magmas, with both crustal and mantle, derivative and primitive, geochemical signatures? Kay (1978) suggested a "hybrid" model, in which "hydrous melting of eclogite (slab melting) results in a small volume of dacitic melt ("pristine adakite"), which rises into the hotter overlying peridotite wedge and equilibrates with olivine and orthopyroxene, reacting with olivine until it becomes andesitic". In this paper, I will discuss the results of melt-rock reaction experiments modelling this peridotite

  17. Primitive magmas at five Cascade volcanic fields: Melts from hot, heterogeneous sub-arc mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Bruggman, P.E.; Christiansen, R.L.; Clynne, M.A.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Hildreth, W.

    1997-01-01

    Major and trace element concentrations, including REE by isotope dilution, and Sr, Nd, Pb, and O isotope ratios have been determined for 38 mafic lavas from the Mount Adams, Crater Lake, Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic fields, in the Cascade arc, northwestern part of the United States. Many of the samples have a high Mg# [100Mg/(Mg + FeT) > 60] and Ni content (>140 ppm) such that we consider them to be primitive. We recognize three end-member primitive magma groups in the Cascades, characterized mainly by their trace-element and alkali-metal abundances: (1) High-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) has trace element abundances similar to N-MORB, except for slightly elevated LILE, and has Eu/Eu* > 1. (2) Arc basalt and basaltic andesite have notably higher LILE contents, generally have higher SiO2 contents, are more oxidized, and have higher Cr for a given Ni abundance than HAOT. These lavas show relative depletion in HFSE, have lower HREE and higher LREE than HAOT, and have smaller Eu/Eu* (0.94-1.06). (3) Alkali basalt from the Simcoe volcanic field east of Mount Adams represents the third end-member, which contributes an intraplate geochemical signature to magma compositions. Notable geochemical features among the volcanic fields are: (1) Mount Adams rocks are richest in Fe and most incompatible elements including HFSE; (2) the most incompatible-element depleted lavas occur at Medicine Lake; (3) all centers have relatively primitive lavas with high LILE/HFSE ratios but only the Mount Adams, Lassen, and Medicine Lake volcanic fields also have relatively primitive rocks with an intraplate geochemical signature; (4) there is a tendency for increasing 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/204Pb, and ??18O and decreasing 206Pb/204Pb and 143Nd/144Nd from north to south. The three end-member Cascade magma types reflect contributions from three mantle components: depleted sub-arc mantle modestly enriched in LILE during ancient subduction; a modern, hydrous subduction component

  18. A compact representation of drawing movements with sequences of parabolic primitives.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, Felix; Drori, Rotem; Ben-Shaul, Yoram; Abeles, Moshe; Flash, Tamar

    2009-07-01

    Some studies suggest that complex arm movements in humans and monkeys may optimize several objective functions, while others claim that arm movements satisfy geometric constraints and are composed of elementary components. However, the ability to unify different constraints has remained an open question. The criterion for a maximally smooth (minimizing jerk) motion is satisfied for parabolic trajectories having constant equi-affine speed, which thus comply with the geometric constraint known as the two-thirds power law. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that parabolic segments provide a compact representation of spontaneous drawing movements. Monkey scribblings performed during a period of practice were recorded. Practiced hand paths could be approximated well by relatively long parabolic segments. Following practice, the orientations and spatial locations of the fitted parabolic segments could be drawn from only 2-4 clusters, and there was less discrepancy between the fitted parabolic segments and the executed paths. This enabled us to show that well-practiced spontaneous scribbling movements can be represented as sequences ("words") of a small number of elementary parabolic primitives ("letters"). A movement primitive can be defined as a movement entity that cannot be intentionally stopped before its completion. We found that in a well-trained monkey a movement was usually decelerated after receiving a reward, but it stopped only after the completion of a sequence composed of several parabolic segments. Piece-wise parabolic segments can be generated by applying affine geometric transformations to a single parabolic template. Thus, complex movements might be constructed by applying sequences of suitable geometric transformations to a few templates. Our findings therefore suggest that the motor system aims at achieving more parsimonious internal representations through practice, that parabolas serve as geometric primitives and that non-Euclidean variables are

  19. The human lung during the embryonic period: vasculogenesis and primitive erythroblasts circulation.

    PubMed

    Pereda, J; Sulz, L; San Martin, S; Godoy-Guzmán, C

    2013-05-01

    Vascularization and blood cell circulation are crucial steps during lung development. However, how blood vessels are generated and when lung circulation is initiated is still a matter of debate. A morpho-functional analysis of pulmonary vasculature was done using human lung samples between 31 and 56 days post-fertilization (pf). The immunolocalization and expression of CD31, CD34, FLT-1, KDR and the vascular growth factor (VEGF) were investigated. The results showed that at day 31 pf, a capillary plexus is already installed, and a few primitive erythroblasts were seen for the first time within the lumen of some blood vessels. Around day 45 pf, an increase in the amount of primitive erythroblasts was detected in the parenchyma surrounding the distal segment of the bronchial tree. The expression of FLT-1, KDR, CD31 and CD34 was observed in endothelial cells of the capillary plexus and the VEGF was detected in the endodermal epithelium. Our results support the hypothesis that the initial formation of the capillary plexus around the tip of the growing airway bud occurs by vasculogenesis, probably regulated by VEGF and KDR. We also showed a very early onset of blood circulation, starting from day 34 pf, concomitant with the generation of new lung buds. In addition, the increasing number of primitive erythroblasts from week 6 onward, associated with a change in the shape of the blood vessels, suggests a remodeling process and that the generation of new distal vessels at the tip of the lung bud occurs mainly by a process of angiogenesis.

  20. The human lung during the embryonic period: vasculogenesis and primitive erythroblasts circulation

    PubMed Central

    Pereda, J; Sulz, L; San Martin, S; Godoy-Guzmán, C

    2013-01-01

    Vascularization and blood cell circulation are crucial steps during lung development. However, how blood vessels are generated and when lung circulation is initiated is still a matter of debate. A morpho-functional analysis of pulmonary vasculature was done using human lung samples between 31 and 56 days post-fertilization (pf). The immunolocalization and expression of CD31, CD34, FLT-1, KDR and the vascular growth factor (VEGF) were investigated. The results showed that at day 31 pf, a capillary plexus is already installed, and a few primitive erythroblasts were seen for the first time within the lumen of some blood vessels. Around day 45 pf, an increase in the amount of primitive erythroblasts was detected in the parenchyma surrounding the distal segment of the bronchial tree. The expression of FLT-1, KDR, CD31 and CD34 was observed in endothelial cells of the capillary plexus and the VEGF was detected in the endodermal epithelium. Our results support the hypothesis that the initial formation of the capillary plexus around the tip of the growing airway bud occurs by vasculogenesis, probably regulated by VEGF and KDR. We also showed a very early onset of blood circulation, starting from day 34 pf, concomitant with the generation of new lung buds. In addition, the increasing number of primitive erythroblasts from week 6 onward, associated with a change in the shape of the blood vessels, suggests a remodeling process and that the generation of new distal vessels at the tip of the lung bud occurs mainly by a process of angiogenesis. PMID:23520979

  1. Moesin signalling induces F9 teratocarcinoma cells to differentiate into primitive extraembryonic endoderm.

    PubMed

    Krawetz, Roman; Kelly, Gregory M

    2008-01-01

    The mouse F9 teratocarcinoma cell line is a model that can be manipulated to imitate one of the earliest epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in mouse development. When cells are treated with Retinoic Acid they differentiate into primitive endoderm and into parietal endoderm with the addition of dibutyryl cAMP. Parietal endoderm also develops when undifferentiated cells express a constitutively active (CA) form of Galpha13(Q226L). Differentiation is accompanied by a translocation of beta-catenin to the nucleus and considerable changes to the cytoskeleton and cell morphology. ERM proteins facilitate rearrangements to the F-actin cytoskeleton, and at least one, moesin, is essential for cell survival. In this study we found that moesin translocated to the nucleus during RA-induced differentiation, and sequence analysis identified putative nuclear localization signals in the protein. In the absence of RA, transient over-expression of rat moesin or the distantly related zebrafish homologue in F9 cells induced primitive endoderm. Furthermore, no apparent beta-catenin was seen in the nucleus of cells over-expressing zebrafish moesin. Our previous results have shown that depleting F9 cells of moesin using an antisense morpholino strategy caused them to detach from the substrate unless they expressed CA-Galpha13(Q226L). This CA-Galpha13 signalling maintained cell survival, but at the expense of differentiation. We now report that over-expressing zebrafish moesin in mouse moesin-depleted F9 cells not only ensured cell survival, but also induced differentiation to primitive endoderm. Together, the results suggest a new role for moesin, acting in a signalling pathway facilitating the differentiation of extraembryonic endoderm.

  2. Early cosmic ray irradiation of chondrules and prolonged accretion of primitive meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf-Kuis, Uta; Ott, Ulrich; Trieloff, Mario

    2015-08-01

    Chondrules, together with Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and matrix, are the major constituents of primitive meteorites. It is clear that chondrules formed as molten objects and the conditions under which this happened seem well constrained. Partially overlapping in age, but mostly ∼2-3 million years younger than the CAIs, they appear to have formed over an extended period of time (e.g., Kita et al., 2013). We have analyzed chondrules in two highly primitive CR3 meteorites, QUE 99177 and MET 00426, and find that they contain highly variable amounts of noble gases produced by irradiation with cosmic rays. The lack of implanted solar wind and the composition of the cosmogenic component in QUE 99177 chondrules argue against irradiation in a parent body regolith, which leaves irradiation in the early solar system as the most likely explanation. The cosmogenic composition also points to irradiation primarily by galactic cosmic rays (GCR), not solar cosmic rays (SCR), i.e. not by an active early sun. To allow effective production of cosmogenic isotopes by GCR, but not SCR, this should have happened rather "late" in a largely, but not completely, dust-free environment. Our results support the suggestion that chondrules formed as free-floating objects in the solar nebula; also consistent with the noble gas data is pre-irradiation in small (∼dm-size) aggregates that broke up before or during accretion to the CR parent body. In both cases, chondrules spent an extended period of time before incorporation into the most primitive meteorite parent bodies, which puts constraints on accretion time scales.

  3. A musculoskeletal model of human locomotion driven by a low dimensional set of impulsive excitation primitives.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Massimo; Gizzi, Leonardo; Lloyd, David G; Farina, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Human locomotion has been described as being generated by an impulsive (burst-like) excitation of groups of musculotendon units, with timing dependent on the biomechanical goal of the task. Despite this view being supported by many experimental observations on specific locomotion tasks, it is still unknown if the same impulsive controller (i.e., a low-dimensional set of time-delayed excitastion primitives) can be used as input drive for large musculoskeletal models across different human locomotion tasks. For this purpose, we extracted, with non-negative matrix factorization, five non-negative factors from a large sample of muscle electromyograms in two healthy subjects during four motor tasks. These included walking, running, sidestepping, and crossover cutting maneuvers. The extracted non-negative factors were then averaged and parameterized to obtain task-generic Gaussian-shaped impulsive excitation curves or primitives. These were used to drive a subject-specific musculoskeletal model of the human lower extremity. Results showed that the same set of five impulsive excitation primitives could be used to predict the dynamics of 34 musculotendon units and the resulting hip, knee and ankle joint moments (i.e., NRMSE = 0.18 ± 0.08, and R (2) = 0.73 ± 0.22 across all tasks and subjects) without substantial loss of accuracy with respect to using experimental electromyograms (i.e., NRMSE = 0.16 ± 0.07, and R (2) = 0.78 ± 0.18 across all tasks and subjects). Results support the hypothesis that biomechanically different motor tasks might share similar neuromuscular control strategies. This might have implications in neurorehabilitation technologies such as human-machine interfaces for the torque-driven, proportional control of powered prostheses and orthoses. In this, device control commands (i.e., predicted joint torque) could be derived without direct experimental data but relying on simple parameterized Gaussian-shaped curves, thus decreasing the input drive

  4. Versatility of `hemorheologic fitness' according to exercise intensity: emphasis on the "healthy primitive lifestyle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Chevance, Guillaume; Pollatz, Marion; Fedou, Christine; de Mauverger, Eric Raynaud

    2014-05-01

    We recently proposed a unifying hypothesis to reconcile unexpected findings in exercise hemorheology and the classical concepts of "hemorheologic fitness" and the "triphasic effects of exercise", based on the "healthy primitive lifestyle" paradigm. This paradigm assumes that evolution has selected genetic polymorphisms leading to insulin resistance as an adaptative strategy to cope with continuous low intensity physical activity and a special alimentation moderately high in protein, rich in low glycemic index carbohydrates, and poor in saturated fat. According to this protocol the true physiological picture would be that of an individual whose exercise and nutritional habits are close from this lifestyle, both sedentary subjects and trained athletes representing situations on the edge of this model. Unfortunately samples of people truly adhering to this ancestral lifestyle are hard to obtain. In order to address this picture we tried to compare databases obtained with our preceding published studies. As a model of the "healthy primitive lifestyle" we selected patients trained at low intensity (LI) and given an advice of protein intake around 1.2 g/kg/day. Results show a continuum for plasma viscosity which seems to be lower in athletes than LI-trained and even more sedentaries. When sedentary subjects become obese the most obvious characteristic is an increase in red blood cell (RBC) aggregation correlated to the size of fat stores. It is clear that 3 months of LI are not a perfect model of "healthy primitive lifestyle", but these data suggest that the most important effect of LI regular exercise is to decrease plasma viscosity and that sedentarity increases RBC aggregation mostly when it results in increased fat storage.

  5. Model-Free Primitive-Based Iterative Learning Control Approach to Trajectory Tracking of MIMO Systems With Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    Radac, Mircea-Bogdan; Precup, Radu-Emil; Petriu, Emil M

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel model-free trajectory tracking of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems by the combination of iterative learning control (ILC) and primitives. The optimal trajectory tracking solution is obtained in terms of previously learned solutions to simple tasks called primitives. The library of primitives that are stored in memory consists of pairs of reference input/controlled output signals. The reference input primitives are optimized in a model-free ILC framework without using knowledge of the controlled process. The guaranteed convergence of the learning scheme is built upon a model-free virtual reference feedback tuning design of the feedback decoupling controller. Each new complex trajectory to be tracked is decomposed into the output primitives regarded as basis functions. The optimal reference input for the control system to track the desired trajectory is next recomposed from the reference input primitives. This is advantageous because the optimal reference input is computed straightforward without the need to learn from repeated executions of the tracking task. In addition, the optimization problem specific to trajectory tracking of square MIMO systems is decomposed in a set of optimization problems assigned to each separate single-input single-output control channel that ensures a convenient model-free decoupling. The new model-free primitive-based ILC approach is capable of planning, reasoning, and learning. A case study dealing with the model-free control tuning for a nonlinear aerodynamic system is included to validate the new approach. The experimental results are given.

  6. A chemical and isotopic study of hibonite-rich refractory inclusions in primitive meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, Richard W.; Davis, Andrew M.; Scatena-Wachel, Debra E.; Grossman, Lawrence; Draus, Ronald J.

    1988-01-01

    Isotopic and chemical analyses of hibonite-rich inclusions from a number of primitive meteorites and, in some cases, of coexisting minerals from carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites, were carried out using ion microprobe (IP). The results of the IP analyses were compared with literature data obtained by INAA and electron microprobe analysis. Results showed that the trace element patterns of the hibonite inclusions analyzed have a number of feautures in common. The results are discussed with reference to the possible chemical processes operating early in the history of the solar system.

  7. A chemical and isotopic study of hibonite-rich refractory inclusions in primitive meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, Richard W.; Davis, Andrew M.; Scatena-Wachel, Debra E.; Grossman, Lawrence; Draus, Ronald J.

    1988-11-01

    Isotopic and chemical analyses of hibonite-rich inclusions from a number of primitive meteorites and, in some cases, of coexisting minerals from carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites, were carried out using ion microprobe (IP). The results of the IP analyses were compared with literature data obtained by INAA and electron microprobe analysis. Results showed that the trace element patterns of the hibonite inclusions analyzed have a number of feautures in common. The results are discussed with reference to the possible chemical processes operating early in the history of the solar system.

  8. Origin of primitive arc basaltic andesites by shallow, hydrous mantle melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A.; Grove, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Primitive, high-magnesium basaltic andesites and andesites (51-58 wt. % SiO2, 9-11 wt. % MgO) provide a unique window into hydrous melting processes in the shallow mantle wedge. While it is thought that melting the hydrous mantle at shallow depths produces these primitive melts in equilibrium with a harzburgitic (olivine + orthopyroxene) residue (Wood and Turner, 2009), the exact conditions under which these melts form remain elusive. We have conducted a suite of experiments on a synthetic mix of primitive upper mantle composition (Hart and Zindler, 1986) at varying temperatures, pressures, and water contents in pursuit of a systematic understanding of the conditions that allow for the generation of these unique magmas. The data obtained thus far show a strong correlation between decreasing temperature and increasing silica content. Using this relationship, as well as constraints from high-magnesium basaltic andesites produced at 1.2 GPa, 1275-1363°C, and 1-2 wt. % H2O, additional isobaric experiments are underway at lower temperatures and higher water contents to determine whether the correlation continues and more silica-rich compositions are produced. For each experiment in our data set, the activity coefficient of SiO2 in the melt (γ_SiO2^melt) shows a positive deviation from ideality. As the water content is increased, ln γ_SiO2^melt moves farther from ideal conditions, suggesting that only a non-ideal solution model can adequately explain water's effect on the silica content of the melt produced in these experiments. Using this new experimental data set, we are able to explore the conditions that produce primitive, high magnesium basaltic andesites and andesites as well as increase our understanding of the thermodynamics behind these conditions and resulting melts. At this point, a primary melting origin seems to require a combination of very shallow depths (P<1.2 GPa) and very high H2O contents (>6 wt. % H2O).

  9. Direct volumetric rendering based on point primitives in OpenGL.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, André Luiz Miranda; de Almeida Souza, Ilana; Yuuji Hira, Adilson; Zuffo, Marcelo Knörich

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this project is to present a renderization by software algorithm of acquired volumetric data. The algorithm was implemented in Java language and the LWJGL graphical library was used, allowing the volume renderization by software and thus preventing the necessity to acquire specific graphical boards for the 3D reconstruction. The considered algorithm creates a model in OpenGL, through point primitives, where each voxel becomes a point with the color values related to this pixel position in the corresponding images.

  10. Memory efficient solution of the primitive equations for numerical weather prediction on the CYBER 205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuccillo, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), for both operational and research purposes, requires only fast computational speed but also large memory. A technique for solving the Primitive Equations for atmospheric motion on the CYBER 205, as implemented in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System, which is fully vectorized and requires substantially less memory than other techniques such as the Leapfrog or Adams-Bashforth Schemes is discussed. The technique presented uses the Euler-Backard time marching scheme. Also discussed are several techniques for reducing computational time of the model by replacing slow intrinsic routines by faster algorithms which use only hardware vector instructions.

  11. Pb isotopes in anorthositic breccias 67075 and 62237 - A search for primitive lunar lead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Tatsumoto, M.; Wang, J.-W.

    1989-01-01

    The lunar Pb isotopic evolution is explored based on an investigation of the U-Th-Pb systematics of the primitive Apollo 16 anorthositic breccias 76075 and 62237. The isotope data for acid-leached residues from 67075 lie within or on a triangle formed by plagioclase, opaques, and a pyroxen-olivine mixture, and the isotope data for 62237 lie within or on a triangle formed by plagioclase, olivine, and pyroxene. The results suggest that the moon had high first-stage values for the Pb evolution equations from the onset.

  12. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in an Atypical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Abdominal Wall.

    PubMed

    Roncati, Luca; Gatti, Antonietta Morena; Capitani, Federico; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Maiorana, Antonio; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are able to interfere with the function of vital cellular components. Besides in trace heavy metals, which are essential at low concentration for humans, there are heavy metals with a well-known toxic and oncogenic potential. In this study, for the first time in literature, we report the unique adulthood case of an atypical primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the abdominal wall, diagnosed by histology and immunohistochemistry, with the molecular hybridization support. The neoplasia occurred in a patient chronically exposed to a transdermal delivery of heavy metal salts (aluminum and bismuth), whose intracellular bioaccumulation has been revealed by elemental microanalysis.

  13. Resveratrol enhances the suppressive effects of arsenic trioxide on primitive leukemic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Edward J; Goussetis, Dennis J; Beauchamp, Elspeth; Kosciuczuk, Ewa M; Altman, Jessica K; Eklund, Elizabeth A; Platanias, Leonidas C

    2014-04-01

    Efforts to enhance the antileukemic properties of arsenic trioxide are clinically relevant and may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches for the management of certain hematological malignancies. We provide evidence that concomitant treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells with resveratrol potentiates arsenic trioxide-dependent induction of apoptosis. Importantly, clonogenic assays in methylcellulose demonstrate potent suppressive effects of the combination of these agents on primitive leukemic progenitors derived from patients with AML or CML. Taken together, these findings suggest that combinations of arsenic trioxide with resveratrol may provide an approach for targeting of early leukemic precursors and, possibly, leukemia initiating stem cells.

  14. Amino acid codes in mitochondria as possible clues to primitive codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    Differences between mitochondrial codes and the universal code indicate that an evolutionary simplification has taken place, rather than a return to a more primitive code. However, these differences make it evident that the universal code is not the only code possible, and therefore earlier codes may have differed markedly from the previous code. The present universal code is probably a 'frozen accident.' The change in CUN codons from leucine to threonine (Neurospora vs. yeast mitochondria) indicates that neutral or near-neutral changes occurred in the corresponding proteins when this code change took place, caused presumably by a mutation in a tRNA gene.

  15. Characteristics of Escherichia coli Serotypes in the Yanomama, a Primitive Indian Tribe of South America

    PubMed Central

    Eveland, W. C.; Oliver, W. J.; Neel, J. V.

    1971-01-01

    From stool samples of isolated subjects from members of the Yanomama tribe of South America, 432 isolates of Escherichia coli were obtained from 72 individuals. Two hundred and four of these strains were typable with a standard panel of 147 O antisera; included in the above were eight enteropathogenic strains. From the untypable strains, antisera were produced, and 13 serologically distinct O serotypes were identified. These data substantiate the ubiquity of known strains of E. coli as microhabitants of man's internal environment. The finding of 13 new O serotypes suggests that, in efforts to understand the ecosystem of primitive man, the internal milieu must also be investigated. PMID:4949511

  16. Liquid-vapor coexistence in a primitive model for a room-temperature ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Martín-Betancourt, Marianela; Romero-Enrique, José M; Rull, Luis F

    2009-07-09

    We present a primitive model for a room-temperature ionic liquid, where the cation is modeled as a charged hard spherocylinder of diameter sigma and length l and the anion as a charged hard sphere of diameter sigma. Liquid-vapor coexistence curves and critical parameters for this model have been studied by grand-canonical Monte Carlo methods. Our results show a decrease of both the critical temperature and density as the cation length l increases. These results are in qualitative agreement with recent experimental estimates of the critical parameters.

  17. HCN - A plausible source of purines, pyrimidines and amino acids on the primitive earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J.-P.; Joshi, P. C.; Edelson, E. H.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Dilute (0.1 M) solutions of HCN condense to oligomers at pH 9.2, and hydrolysis of these oligomers yields 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine, orotic acid, 5-hydroxyuracil, adenine, 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide, and amino acids. It is suggested that the three main classes of nitrogen-containing biomolecules - purines, pyrimidines, and amino acids may have originated from HCN on the primitive earth. It is also suggested that the presence of orotic acid and 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide might indicate that contemporary biosynthetic pathways for nucleotides evolved from the compounds released on hydrolysis of HCN oligomers.

  18. Crystallization of the Focal Adhesion Kinase Targeting (FAT) Domain in a Primitive Orthorhombic Space Group

    SciTech Connect

    Magis,A.; Bailey, K.; Kurenova, E.; Hernandez Prada, J.; Cance, W.; Ostrov, D.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data from the targeting (FAT) domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were collected from a single crystal that diffracted to 1.99 Angstroms resolution and reduced to the primitive orthorhombic lattice. A single molecule was predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the Matthews coefficient. The data were phased using molecular-replacement methods using an existing model of the FAK FAT domain. All structures of human focal adhesion kinase FAT domains solved to date have been solved in a C-centered orthorhombic space group.

  19. A human supervisory approach to rapid world modeling through the use of geometric primitives

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, J.; Roberts, R.

    1997-08-11

    A three-dimensional world model is crucial for many robot-oriented tasks. The most efficient mapping configuration use geometric primitives to model environments, and are easy to store and process. In the past, modeling techniques have been either fully manual or autonomous. Manual methods are extremely time consuming but also highly accurate and flexible. On the other hand autonomous techniques are fast but inflexible and often inaccurate. The method presented in this paper combines the two thereby yielding a highly efficient, flexible, and accurate tool. Our methods enable a human supervisor to quickly construct a fully defined world model from unfiltered and unsegmented real-world range data.

  20. Adult supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour presenting as intracranial haemorrhage: Case report.

    PubMed

    Black-Tiong, Sean P; Sandler, Simon J I; Otto, Sophia; Wells, Adam J

    2017-03-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) are highly malignant tumours with an aggressive clinical behaviour. Commonly seen in children, they are uncommon in the adult population, and rare in the supratentorial location. Adult supratentorial PNETs (ST-PNET) typically present with symptoms relating to raised intracranial pressure, seizures, or focal neurological deficits. Presentation with intracranial haemorrhage has been reported only twice before in the literature, one of which was fatal. We report the case of intracranial haemorrhage secondary to ST-PNET in a young adult and her immediate management.

  1. Bilateral glossopharyngeal neuropathy following chemo and radiation therapy for a primitive neuroectodermal tumour.

    PubMed

    Heir, G M; Masterson, M

    2016-02-01

    This case describes a young adult male patient diagnosed and treated for a primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) at 3 years of age. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy used following surgical treatment of this tumour have known neurotoxic complications, some of which have delayed onset. In this case, the patient exhibited sudden onset, persistent bilateral and deep ear pain that was consistent with a neuropathy of the glossopharyngeal nerve occurring 17 years after the completion of therapy for PNET. Treatment with pregabalin was successful with near-complete resolution of the complaint. The diagnostic certainty in this case is discussed in relation to the current diagnostic criteria for neuropathic pain.

  2. Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney treated with chemotherapy including ifosfamide.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Hiroki; Kamiya, Takahiro; Hosoya, Yosuke; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Ogawa, Chitose; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Hosoya, Ryota; Manabe, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) of the kidney is extremely rare, and is usually diagnosed after nephrectomy without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Although ifosfamide and etoposide improve survival to a great extent in ES/PNET, the use of nephrotoxic agent, particularly ifosfamide, is a concern after nephrectomy. We describe the case of a 14-year-old female patient with abdominal mass who was diagnosed with ES/PNET of the right kidney after nephrectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy including ifosfamide and etoposide were given. The estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased to 75% after the end of therapy. There was no evidence of recurrence 70 months after initial diagnosis.

  3. Management of a large retroperitoneal primitive neuroectodermal tumour: 'a multimodal approach'.

    PubMed

    Sable, Shailesh; Gandhi, Vidhyachandra; Nagral, Aabha; Nagral, Sanjay

    2012-02-25

    Retroperitoneal primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) is a rare disease having poor prognosis. Treatment mainly consists of en block resection of the tumour to achieve RO resection, however multimodal approach has also been used with improved survival. The authors report a 40-year-old male with large retroperitoneal PNET adherent to aorta and compressing the inferior vena cava. He was subjected to P6 protocol chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, ifosfamide and etoposide) in view of borderline operability. Postchemotherapy contrast enhanced CT revealed significant reduction in size of the lesion. He underwent complete resection of the tumour followed by concurrent chemoradiation. He remains asymptomatic on follow-up over a period of 2 years.

  4. The imaging findings of infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nekitsing, Indima; Wu, Xing; Tang, Guangyu

    2015-12-01

    Central primitive neuroectodermal tumour (cPNET), a rare malignant neoplasm of embryonal origin, often occurs in children younger than 15 years. This is the first case report of the imaging findings of an infratentorial cPNET to be reported in a patient. Here, is reported the case of a 6-year-old boy presenting with symptoms of diplopia for 14 days. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid mass in the fourth ventricle. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was cPNET. To conclude, whenever a child is diagnosed to have an infratentorial solid tumour in the fourth ventricle, cPNET should always be considered despite its rarity.

  5. Prognostic impact of second primary tumors in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Patrucco, Marta S; Aramendi, Marina V

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Second Primary Tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract varies from 5 to 30 %. Most of them are located either in the same anatomical region or in the lungs, and are related to a poor overall survival. Our objective is to assess the incidence of Second Primary Tumors, factors related to its outcome, frequent associations, and impact on overall survival. 27 patients with Second Primary Tumors were reviewed out of 307 with head and neck cancer, between 2002 and 2011. Patients had a minimum follow-up period of 3 years, or until their death after the last treatment. Sex: 85.2 % were male; male:female ratio of 23:4. The mean age of appearance for the primary tumor was 66.8 years. Only 1 patient had a synchronous Second Primary Tumor, while 26 had metachronous Second Primary Tumors. Second neoplasms were grouped into synchronous and metachronous for statistical analysis. The following parameters were considered: age at diagnosis of the first tumor, gender, smoking and persistence of the habit, primary tumor's location in the larynx, association between two squamous cell carcinomas (index and second primary tumor), and radiotherapy for the primary tumor. The incidence of Second Primary Tumors was 8.79 %. Overall survival of metachronous tumors was 95 months (7.9 years). The primary tumor's location that prevailed when developing a Second Primary Tumor was the larynx. Regarding the histology, the most common association was head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (9 patients). The Second Primary Tumor was the cause of death in 51.9 % of the patients and its most frequent location was the lungs. 19 patients underwent radiotherapy. Second Primary Tumors are common in the head and neck. The authors would like to enforce the importance of an extended follow-up, since second neoplasms worsen considerably the patient's prognosis. Patients who keep on smoking after treatment decrease even more their overall survival.

  6. First discovery of a primitive coelacanth fin fills a major gap in the evolution of lobed fins and limbs.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Matt; Coates, Michael I; Anderson, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The fossil record provides unique clues about the primitive pattern of lobed fins, the precursors of digit-bearing limbs. Such information is vital for understanding the evolutionary transition from fish fins to tetrapod limbs, and it guides the choice of model systems for investigating the developmental changes underpinning this event. However, the evolutionary preconditions for tetrapod limbs remain unclear. This uncertainty arises from an outstanding gap in our knowledge of early lobed fins: there are no fossil data that record primitive pectoral fin conditions in coelacanths, one of the three major groups of sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes. A new fossil from the Middle-Late Devonian of Wyoming preserves the first and only example of a primitive coelacanth pectoral fin endoskeleton. The strongly asymmetrical skeleton of this fin corroborates the hypothesis that this is the primitive sarcopterygian pattern, and that this pattern persisted in the closest fish-like relatives of land vertebrates. The new material reveals the specializations of paired fins in the modern coelacanth, as well as in living lungfishes. Consequently, the context in which these might be used to investigate evolutionary and developmental relationships between vertebrate fins and limbs is changed. Our data suggest that primitive actinopterygians, rather than living sarcopterygian fishes and their derived appendages, are the most informative comparators for developmental studies seeking to understand the origin of tetrapod limbs.

  7. Marco Polo: Hunting and Capture of Material from a Primitive Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, Javier

    A description of the Spanish contribution to the Marco Polo mission and of the mission itself is presented. Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission of sample return from a Near Earth Object (NEO). Submitted to ESA on July 2007 in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, Marco Polo passed the first evaluation process on October 2007. Seventeen Spanish researchers belonging to six Spanish institutes signed the proposal. The mission is planned to visit a primitive NEO, belonging to a class that cannot be related to known meteorite types, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge on the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of the life on Earth. Three Spanish institutes are involved in the feasibility studies of two instruments: the THERmal MAPper (THERMAP) and the Marco Polo Camera System (MPCS).

  8. First complete mitochondrial genome of primitive crab Homologenus malayensis (Decapoda: Brachyura: Podotremata: Homolidae).

    PubMed

    Hui, Min; Liu, Yuan; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy and phylogeny of brachyuran crabs, and particularly of the Podotremata, have been the subjects of controversy due to their morphological diversity and complexity. The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of primitive crab Homologenus malayensis has been determined. The mitogenome is 15,793 bp in length, with A + T content 71.7%. The gene content and order are consistent with those in typical brachyuran crabs. A putative control region of 883 bp is identified due to its position (between srRNA and tRNA(Ile)) and AT richness (75.5%). Notably, the control region in H. malayensis contains nine identical specific repeat units of 42 bp and 11 identical repeat units of 2 bp with a total length of 400 bp, which is different from other crabs. These results are expected to provide useful information on both genomics and the future phylogenetic study of primitive crabs.

  9. Spectrum of hemoglobinopathies among the primitive tribes: a multicentric study in India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Dipika; Mukherjee, Malay B; Colah, Roshan B; Wadia, Mahrukh; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Chottray, Guru Prasad; Jain, Dipty; Italia, Yazdi; Ashokan, Kumar S; Kaul, Rajni; Shukla, Deepak K; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the spectrum of hemoglobinopathies among the primitive tribal groups from 4 states in India. A total of 15,200 individuals from 14 primitive tribal groups were studied by automated high-performance liquid chromatography. The hemoglobin S (HbS) allele frequency varied from 0.011 to 0.120 and the β-thalassemia allele frequency from 0.005 to 0.024. It is interesting to note that a very high HbS allele frequency was observed among the Dravidian (0.060-0.120) and Indo-European (0.060-0.076) as compared with Austro-Asiatic (0.011-0.022) speaking tribal groups. Although statistical analysis of the data did not show any ethnic differences within the states, regional differences were observed between the states for both HbS and β-thalassemia traits. HbS was found to be the most common hemoglobinopathy followed by β-thalassemia. A health plan for identifying sickle-cell homozygotes in the neonatal period with proper medical intervention is desirable.

  10. Synthetic biology of minimal living cells: primitive cell models and semi-synthetic cells.

    PubMed

    Stano, Pasquale

    2010-09-01

    This article summarizes a contribution presented at the ESF 2009 Synthetic Biology focused on the concept of the minimal requirement for life and on the issue of constructive (synthetic) approaches in biological research. The attempts to define minimal life within the framework of autopoietic theory are firstly described, and a short report on the development of autopoietic chemical systems based on fatty acid vesicles, which are relevant as primitive cell models is given. These studies can be used as a starting point for the construction of more complex systems, firstly being inspired by possible origins of life scenarioes (and therefore by considering primitive functions), then by considering an approach based on modern biomacromolecular-encoded functions. At this aim, semi-synthetic minimal cells are defined as those man-made vesicle-based systems that are composed of the minimal number of genes, proteins, biomolecules and which can be defined as living. Recent achievements on minimal sized semi-synthetic cells are then discussed, and the kind of information obtained is recognized as being distinctively derived by a constructive approach. Synthetic biology is therefore a fundamental tool for gaining basic knowledge about biosystems, and it should not be confined at all to the engineering side.

  11. Synthetic biology of minimal living cells: primitive cell models and semi-synthetic cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes a contribution presented at the ESF 2009 Synthetic Biology focused on the concept of the minimal requirement for life and on the issue of constructive (synthetic) approaches in biological research. The attempts to define minimal life within the framework of autopoietic theory are firstly described, and a short report on the development of autopoietic chemical systems based on fatty acid vesicles, which are relevant as primitive cell models is given. These studies can be used as a starting point for the construction of more complex systems, firstly being inspired by possible origins of life scenarioes (and therefore by considering primitive functions), then by considering an approach based on modern biomacromolecular-encoded functions. At this aim, semi-synthetic minimal cells are defined as those man-made vesicle-based systems that are composed of the minimal number of genes, proteins, biomolecules and which can be defined as living. Recent achievements on minimal sized semi-synthetic cells are then discussed, and the kind of information obtained is recognized as being distinctively derived by a constructive approach. Synthetic biology is therefore a fundamental tool for gaining basic knowledge about biosystems, and it should not be confined at all to the engineering side. PMID:21886680

  12. Cooperation between non-relatives in a primitively eusocial paper wasp, Polistes dominula.

    PubMed

    Field, Jeremy; Leadbeater, Ellouise

    2016-02-05

    In cooperatively breeding vertebrates, the existence of individuals that help to raise the offspring of non-relatives is well established, but unrelated helpers are less well known in the social insects. Eusocial insect groups overwhelmingly consist of close relatives, so populations where unrelated helpers are common are intriguing. Here, we focus on Polistes dominula-the best-studied primitively eusocial wasp, and a species in which nesting with non-relatives is not only present but frequent. We address two major questions: why individuals should choose to nest with non-relatives, and why such individuals participate in the costly rearing of unrelated offspring. Polistes dominula foundresses produce more offspring of their own as subordinates than when they nest independently, providing a potential explanation for co-founding by non-relatives. There is some evidence that unrelated subordinates tailor their behaviour towards direct fitness, while the role of recognition errors in generating unrelated co-foundresses is less clear. Remarkably, the remote but potentially highly rewarding chance of inheriting the dominant position appears to strongly influence behaviour, suggesting that primitively eusocial insects may have much more in common with their social vertebrate counterparts than has commonly been thought.

  13. Cooperation between non-relatives in a primitively eusocial paper wasp, Polistes dominula

    PubMed Central

    Field, Jeremy; Leadbeater, Ellouise

    2016-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding vertebrates, the existence of individuals that help to raise the offspring of non-relatives is well established, but unrelated helpers are less well known in the social insects. Eusocial insect groups overwhelmingly consist of close relatives, so populations where unrelated helpers are common are intriguing. Here, we focus on Polistes dominula—the best-studied primitively eusocial wasp, and a species in which nesting with non-relatives is not only present but frequent. We address two major questions: why individuals should choose to nest with non-relatives, and why such individuals participate in the costly rearing of unrelated offspring. Polistes dominula foundresses produce more offspring of their own as subordinates than when they nest independently, providing a potential explanation for co-founding by non-relatives. There is some evidence that unrelated subordinates tailor their behaviour towards direct fitness, while the role of recognition errors in generating unrelated co-foundresses is less clear. Remarkably, the remote but potentially highly rewarding chance of inheriting the dominant position appears to strongly influence behaviour, suggesting that primitively eusocial insects may have much more in common with their social vertebrate counterparts than has commonly been thought. PMID:26729932

  14. Signaling hunger through aggression—the regulation of foraging in a primitively eusocial wasp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamba, Shakti; Chandrasekhar, K.; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2008-07-01

    Primitively eusocial wasps are generally headed by behaviorally dominant queens who use their aggression to suppress worker reproduction. In contrast, queens in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata are strikingly docile and non-aggressive. However, workers exhibit dominance-subordinate interactions among themselves. These interactions do not appear to reflect reproductive competition because there is no correlation between the relative position of an individual in the dominance hierarchy of the colony and the likelihood that she will succeed a lost/removed queen. Based on the observation that foraging continues unaltered in the absence of the queen and the correlation between dominance behavior and foraging, we have previously suggested that dominance-subordinate interactions among workers in R. marginata have been co-opted to serve the function of decentralized, self-organized regulation of foraging. This idea has been supported by an earlier experimental study where it was found that a reduced demand for food led to a significant decrease in dominance behavior. In this study, we perform the converse experiment, demonstrate that dominance behavior increases under conditions of starvation, and thus provide further evidence in support of the hypothesis that intranidal workers signal hunger through aggression.

  15. Dominant-Interfering C/ebpα Stimulates Primitive Erythropoiesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting Xi; Rhodes, Jennifer; Deng, Min; Hsu, Karl; Radomska, Hanna S.; Kanki, John P.; Tenen, Daniel G.; Look, A. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated the role of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα) during zebrafish embryonic blood development. Methods Whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization was performed to determine the spatio-temporal expression pattern of zebrafish cebpa in developing hematopoietic progenitors. A deletion mutation of cebpa (zD420), which mimics the human dominant-negative mutations of C/EBPα, was transfected into CV1 cell line to evaluate its transcriptional activity in vitro and injected into zebrafish embryos at the one- to two-cell stage to examine its effects on primitive hematopoiesis during early zebrafish development. Results Zebrafish cebpa is expressed in the anterior and posterior lateral plate mesoderm at 12 hours postfertilization, along with scl, pu.1 and gata1 in developing hematopoietic progenitors. In vitro, the deletion mutation of cebpa (zD420) prevents expression of the full-length protein, allowing the expression of truncated isoforms from internal translational initiation sites. As in the human, the truncated zebrafish C/ebpα proteins did not activate the expression of known target granulocytic genes, and in fact, suppressed transactivation that was induced in vitro by the full-length protein. Forced expression of the zD420 mRNA in zebrafish embryos led to an expansion of primitive erythropoiesis, without a discernible effect on granulopoiesis. Conclusion Expression of the truncated isoforms of cebpa alters the developmental pattern of hematopoietic progenitor cells during embryogenesis. PMID:17258072

  16. A single aromatic core mutation converts a designed "primitive" protein from halophile to mesophile folding.

    PubMed

    Longo, Liam M; Tenorio, Connie A; Kumru, Ozan S; Middaugh, C Russell; Blaber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The halophile environment has a number of compelling aspects with regard to the origin of structured polypeptides (i.e., proteogenesis) and, instead of a curious niche that living systems adapted into, the halophile environment is emerging as a candidate "cradle" for proteogenesis. In this viewpoint, a subsequent halophile-to-mesophile transition was a key step in early evolution. Several lines of evidence indicate that aromatic amino acids were a late addition to the codon table and not part of the original "prebiotic" set comprising the earliest polypeptides. We test the hypothesis that the availability of aromatic amino acids could facilitate a halophile-to-mesophile transition by hydrophobic core-packing enhancement. The effects of aromatic amino acid substitutions were evaluated in the core of a "primitive" designed protein enriched for the 10 prebiotic amino acids (A,D,E,G,I,L,P,S,T,V)-having an exclusively prebiotic core and requiring halophilic conditions for folding. The results indicate that a single aromatic amino acid substitution is capable of eliminating the requirement of halophile conditions for folding of a "primitive" polypeptide. Thus, the availability of aromatic amino acids could have facilitated a critical halophile-to-mesophile protein folding adaptation-identifying a selective advantage for the incorporation of aromatic amino acids into the codon table.

  17. Transduction of human primitive repopulating hematopoietic cells with lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with various envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Sang; Wielgosz, Matthew M; Hargrove, Phillip; Kepes, Steven; Gray, John; Persons, Derek A; Nienhuis, Arthur W

    2010-07-01

    Lentiviral vectors are useful for transducing primitive hematopoietic cells. We examined four envelope proteins for their ability to mediate lentiviral transduction of mobilized human CD34(+) peripheral blood cells. Lentiviral particles encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein (VSV-G), the amphotropic (AMPHO) murine leukemia virus envelope protein, the endogenous feline leukemia viral envelope protein or the feline leukemia virus type C envelope protein. Because the relative amount of genome RNA per ml was similar for each pseudotype, we transduced CD34(+) cells with a fixed volume of each vector preparation. Following an overnight transduction, CD34(+) cells were transplanted into immunodeficient mice which were sacrificed 12 weeks later. The average percentages of engrafted human CD45(+) cells in total bone marrow were comparable to that of the control, mock-transduced group (37-45%). Lenti-particles pseudotyped with the VSV-G envelope protein transduced engrafting cells two- to tenfold better than particles pseudotyped with any of the gamma-retroviral envelope proteins. There was no correlation between receptor mRNA levels for the gamma-retroviral vectors and transduction efficiency of primitive hematopoietic cells. These results support the use of the VSV-G envelope protein for the development of lentiviral producer cell lines for manufacture of clinical-grade vector.

  18. Hierarchical HMM based learning of navigation primitives for cooperative robotic endovascular catheterization.

    PubMed

    Rafii-Tari, Hedyeh; Liu, Jindong; Payne, Christopher J; Bicknell, Colin; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased use of remote-controlled steerable catheter navigation systems for endovascular intervention, most current designs are based on master configurations which tend to alter natural operator tool interactions. This introduces problems to both ergonomics and shared human-robot control. This paper proposes a novel cooperative robotic catheterization system based on learning-from-demonstration. By encoding the higher-level structure of a catheterization task as a sequence of primitive motions, we demonstrate how to achieve prospective learning for complex tasks whilst incorporating subject-specific variations. A hierarchical Hidden Markov Model is used to model each movement primitive as well as their sequential relationship. This model is applied to generation of motion sequences, recognition of operator input, and prediction of future movements for the robot. The framework is validated by comparing catheter tip motions against the manual approach, showing significant improvements in the quality of catheterization. The results motivate the design of collaborative robotic systems that are intuitive to use, while reducing the cognitive workload of the operator.

  19. MicroRNAs Associated with Caste Determination and Differentiation in a Primitively Eusocial Insect

    PubMed Central

    Collins, David H.; Mohorianu, Irina; Beckers, Matthew; Moulton, Vincent; Dalmay, Tamas; Bourke, Andrew F. G.

    2017-01-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), queen and worker adult castes typically arise via environmental influences. A fundamental challenge is to understand how a single genome can thereby produce alternative phenotypes. A powerful approach is to compare the molecular basis of caste determination and differentiation along the evolutionary trajectory between primitively and advanced eusocial species, which have, respectively, relatively undifferentiated and strongly differentiated adult castes. In the advanced eusocial honeybee, Apis mellifera, studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the molecular basis of caste determination and differentiation. To investigate how miRNAs affect caste in eusocial evolution, we used deep sequencing and Northern blots to isolate caste-associated miRNAs in the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found that the miRNAs Bte-miR-6001-5p and -3p are more highly expressed in queen- than in worker-destined late-instar larvae. These are the first caste-associated miRNAs from outside advanced eusocial Hymenoptera, so providing evidence for caste-associated miRNAs occurring relatively early in eusocial evolution. Moreover, we found little evidence that miRNAs previously shown to be associated with caste in A. mellifera were differentially expressed across caste pathways in B. terrestris, suggesting that, in eusocial evolution, the caste-associated role of individual miRNAs is not conserved. PMID:28361900

  20. The atmosphere of the primitive earth and the prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1983-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds is investigated using a spark discharge on various simulated prebiotic atmospheres at 25 C. It is found that glycine is almost the only amino acid produced from the model atmospheres containing CO and CO2. These results show that the maximum yield is about the same for the three carbon sources (CO, CO2, and CH4) at high H2/carbon ratios, but that CH4 is superior at low H2/carbon ratios. CH4 is found to yield a much greater variety of amino acids than either CO or CO2. If it is assumed that amino acids more complex than glycine were required for the origin of life, then these findings indicate the need for CH4 in the primitive atmosphere. The yields of cyanide and formaldehyde are shown to parallel the amino acid results, with yields of HCN and H2CO as high as 13 percent based on carbon. Ammonia is also found to be produced from N2 in experiments with no added NH3 in yields as high as 4.9 percent. These results indicate that large amounts of NH3 would have been synthesized on the primitive earth by electric discharges.

  1. BMP4 signalling directs primitive endoderm-derived XEN cells to an extraembryonic visceral endoderm identity

    PubMed Central

    Artus, Jérôme; Douvaras, Panagiotis; Piliszek, Anna; Isern, Joan; Baron, Margaret H.; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2011-01-01

    The visceral endoderm (VE) is an epithelial tissue in the early postimplantation mouse embryo that encapsulates the pluripotent epiblast distally and the extraembryonic ectoderm proximally. In addition to facilitating nutrient exchange before the establishment of a circulation, the VE is critical for patterning the epiblast. Since VE is derived from the primitive endoderm (PrE) of the blastocyst, and PrE-derived eXtraembryonic ENdoderm (XEN) cells can be propagated in vitro, XEN cells should provide an important tool for identifying factors that direct VE differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that BMP4 signalling induces the formation of a polarized epithelium in XEN cells. This morphological transition was reversible, and was associated with the acquisition of a molecular signature comparable to extraembryonic (ex) VE. Resembling exVE which will form the endoderm of the visceral yolk sac, BMP4-treated XEN cells regulated hematopoiesis by stimulating the expansion of primitive erythroid progenitors. We also observed that LIF exerted an antagonistic effect on BMP4-induced XEN cell differentiation, thereby impacting the extrinsic conditions used for the isolation and maintenance of XEN cells in an undifferentiated state. Taken together, our data suggest that XEN cells can be differentiated towards an exVE identity upon BMP4 stimulation, and therefore represent a valuable tool for investigating PrE lineage differentiation. PMID:22051107

  2. MicroRNAs Associated with Caste Determination and Differentiation in a Primitively Eusocial Insect.

    PubMed

    Collins, David H; Mohorianu, Irina; Beckers, Matthew; Moulton, Vincent; Dalmay, Tamas; Bourke, Andrew F G

    2017-03-31

    In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), queen and worker adult castes typically arise via environmental influences. A fundamental challenge is to understand how a single genome can thereby produce alternative phenotypes. A powerful approach is to compare the molecular basis of caste determination and differentiation along the evolutionary trajectory between primitively and advanced eusocial species, which have, respectively, relatively undifferentiated and strongly differentiated adult castes. In the advanced eusocial honeybee, Apis mellifera, studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the molecular basis of caste determination and differentiation. To investigate how miRNAs affect caste in eusocial evolution, we used deep sequencing and Northern blots to isolate caste-associated miRNAs in the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found that the miRNAs Bte-miR-6001-5p and -3p are more highly expressed in queen- than in worker-destined late-instar larvae. These are the first caste-associated miRNAs from outside advanced eusocial Hymenoptera, so providing evidence for caste-associated miRNAs occurring relatively early in eusocial evolution. Moreover, we found little evidence that miRNAs previously shown to be associated with caste in A. mellifera were differentially expressed across caste pathways in B. terrestris, suggesting that, in eusocial evolution, the caste-associated role of individual miRNAs is not conserved.

  3. Aqueous alteration on main belt primitive asteroids: Results from visible spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M. A.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-05-01

    This work focuses on the study of the aqueous alteration process which acted in the main belt and produced hydrated minerals on the altered asteroids. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on main belt primitive asteroids and possibly also on few TNOs. These materials have been produced by hydration of pristine anhydrous silicates during the aqueous alteration process, that, to be active, needed the presence of liquid water under low temperature conditions (below 320 K) to chemically alter the minerals. The aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times of the Solar System history, as it can give information both on the asteroids thermal evolution and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt. To investigate this process, we present reflected light spectral observations in the visible region (0.4-0.94 μm) of 80 asteroids belonging to the primitive classes C (prevalently), G, F, B and P, following the Tholen (Tholen, D.J. [1984]. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson). classification scheme. We find that about 65% of the C-type and all the G-type asteroids investigated reveal features suggesting the presence of hydrous materials, mainly a band centered around 0.7 μm, while we do not find evidence of hydrated materials in the other low albedo asteroids (B, F, and P) investigated. We combine the present observations with the visible spectra of asteroids available in the literature for a total of 600 primitive main belt asteroids. We analyze all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption band parameters (band center, depth and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo and sizes. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and

  4. Stroma-conditioned media improve expansion of human primitive hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Breems, D A; Blokland, E A; Ploemacher, R E

    1997-01-01

    It has been reported that stroma-dependent cultures support proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In order to investigate the effect of soluble stromal factors, we developed short-term serum-low liquid cultures in which the effect of stroma-conditioned media (SCM) from the murine FBMD-1, and human L87/4 and L88/5 cell lines was studied on the maintenance and expansion of various human HSC subsets in CD34-positive selected mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from autologous transplants of lymphoma and multiple myeloma patients. The human cobblestone area forming cell (CAFC) assay was employed to determine the frequencies of both the CAFC weeks 2 to 4 as tentative indicators of progenitor and transiently repopulating HSC, and the more primitive CAFC weeks 6 to 8 as indicators of long-term repopulating HSC. In 7-day liquid cultures containing interleukin-3 (IL-3), stem cell factor (SCF) and IL-6, we recovered 3.0-fold more colony-forming cells (CFC) and 1.7- to 1.9-fold more CAFC weeks 2 and 4. The absolute number of primitive CAFC weeks 6 and 8 were only maintained (1.1- to 1.4-fold) in these liquid cultures. This modest expansion was significantly improved by the addition of SCM from the FBMD-1, L87/4 or L88/5 cell lines. Output CFC numbers were 6.8-, 5.8- and 9.9-fold higher, respectively, than the input values, while absolute CAFC week 2 to 4 numbers were 4.5-, 10.2- and 10.2-fold expanded, respectively. The addition of SCM also improved expansion of the more primitive CAFC week 6 to 8 stem cell subsets by 2.2-, 4.5- and 4.9-fold, respectively. The addition of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF), IL-1beta, IL-11 or macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha to cultures containing IL-3, SCF and IL-6 could not explain the SCM effect and in all these combinations SCM addition further increased the recovery of HSC subsets. Similarly, addition of anti-cytokine antibodies (ie alpha-G-CSF, alpha-GM-CSF, alpha

  5. Composite uterine neoplasm with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor components: rhabdomyosarcoma with divergent differentiation, variant of primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or unique entity?

    PubMed

    Cate, Frances; Bridge, Julia A; Crispens, Marta A; Keedy, Vicki L; Troutman, Ashley; Coffin, Cheryl M; Fadare, Oluwole

    2013-04-01

    Three cases of composite uterine neoplasms comprised of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have previously been described, including only one wherein the rhabdomyosarcomatous component was of the embryonal subtype. Whether such composite neoplasms are a variant of RMS, a variant of PNET, or a unique entity is unknown. We report the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular cytogenetic findings in a case of uterine embryonal RMS with coexisting PNET that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old female. The tumor broadly involved the cervix and corpus uteri and resulted in uterine inversion. The 2 distinct components each showed classic morphologic features, including cartilage in the RMS component. The unique combination of histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular findings in composite neoplasms of this type raises a question of whether they should be classified and treated as RMS, PNET, or a unique high-grade sarcoma. A variety of clinicopathologic arguments are presented that support the notion that the current neoplasm is an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with divergent neuroectodermal and cartilaginous differentiation.

  6. Fine structures of embryonic discs of in vivo post-hatching porcine blastocysts at the pre-primitive streak stage.

    PubMed

    Xia, P; Liu, Z; Qin, P

    2011-04-01

    To date, reports about the ultrastructure of porcine embryonic discs have not shown details of the primitive streak. The main objective of this study was to examine the ultrastructure of interior and exterior embryonic discs in porcine in vivo blastocysts with diameters of 1, 3 and 9 mm using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. For the first time, we revealed the ultrastructure of the unusual group of cells in the pre-primitive streak area of embryonic discs. The cells were 1-2 μm in diameter, had high electron density and contained abundant, free ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum. These primitive streak cells could represent original embryonic stem cells or represent a stem cell niche. The results also showed three types of cells on the exterior surface of the embryonic discs. Moreover, our results provided morphological evidence of condensed nuclei in the smooth cells on the surface of the embryonic disc.

  7. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour in a lumbar vertebra and the liver of a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Weiss, R; Walz, P H

    2009-01-01

    A 9-year-old castrated male dromedary camel developed weakness and ataxia, progressing to sternal recumbency and hindlimb paralysis. Necropsy revealed multiple liver tumours and a mass in the 3rd lumbar vertebra, compressing the spinal cord. The hepatic and vertebral masses consisted of uniform sheets of primitive cells, with perivascular pseudorosettes and small numbers of neuroblastic Homer-Wright rosettes. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were uniformly positive for vimentin and variably positive for neuron-specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The histopathological and immunohistochemical findings indicated a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour (pPNET) exhibiting neuroblastic, glial and ependymomatous differentiation, probably reflecting the tumour's primitive multipotential neuroepithelial nature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in the camel of a pPNET, presumably intraosseous in origin with hepatic metastasis, and morphologically similar to Ewing's sarcoma in man.

  8. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterine cervix diagnosed during pregnancy: a rare case with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Divya; Rai, Bhavana; Patel, Firuza D; Sreedharanunni, Sreejesh; Dey, Pranab; Sharma, Suresh C

    2014-03-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the cervix are very rare. A 28-year-old pregnant woman presented with a cervical mass. The tumor was staged as IB2. The biopsy from tumor was suggestive of malignant small round cell tumor. She then underwent termination of pregnancy followed by radical hysterectomy. Based on morphologic and immunohistochemical profile, a diagnosis of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix was made. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is alive and disease-free 33 months post-surgery. The present case highlights the importance of keeping primitive neuroectodermal tumors in the differential diagnosis of small cell neoplasms of the uterine cervix. Pregnancy should not be a barrier to early detection and treatment of this potentially aggressive tumor. The optimal treatment methods have not yet been established because of the rarity of the tumor.

  9. The Allantoic Core Domain: New Insights Into Development of the Murine Allantois and Its Relation to the Primitive Streak

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Karen M.; Inman, Kimberly E.; Jin, Dexter X.; Enders, Allen C.

    2010-01-01

    The whereabouts and properties of the posterior end of the primitive streak have not been identified in any species. In the mouse, the streak’s posterior terminus is assumed to be confined to the embryonic compartment, and to give rise to the allantois, which links the embryo to its mother during pregnancy. In this study, we have refined our understanding of the biology of the murine posterior primitive streak and its relation to the allantois. Through a combination of immunostaining and morphology, we demonstrate that the primitive streak spans the posterior extraembryonic and embryonic regions at the onset of the neural plate stage (~7.0 days postcoitum, dpc). Several hours later, the allantoic bud emerges from the extraembryonic component of the primitive streak (XPS). Then, possibly in collaboration with overlying allantois-associated extraembryonic visceral endoderm, the XPS establishes a germinal center within the allantois, named here the Allantoic Core Domain (ACD). Microsurgical removal of the ACD beyond headfold (HF) stages resulted in the formation of allantoic regenerates that lacked the ACD and failed to elongate; nevertheless, vasculogenesis and vascular patterning proceeded. In situ and transplantation fate mapping demonstrated that, from HF stages onward, the ACD’s progenitor pool contributed to the allantois exclusive of the proximal flanks. By contrast, the posterior intraembryonic primitive streak (IPS) provided the flanks. Grafting the ACD into TC/TC hosts, whose allantoises are significantly foreshortened, restored allantoic elongation. These results revealed that the ACD is essential for allantoic elongation, but the cues required for vascularization lie outside of it. On the basis of these and previous findings, we conclude that the posterior primitive streak of the mouse conceptus is far more complex than was previously believed. Our results provide new directives for addressing the origin and development of the umbilical cord, and

  10. A Simple Experimentally Based Model Using Proprioceptive Regulation of Motor Primitives Captures Adjusted Trajectory Formation in Spinal Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Kargo, William J.; Ramakrishnan, Arun; Hart, Corey B.; Rome, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal circuits may organize trajectories using pattern generators and synergies. In frogs, prior work supports fixed-duration pulses of fixed composition synergies, forming primitives. In wiping behaviors, spinal frogs adjust their motor activity according to the starting limb position and generate fairly straight and accurate isochronous trajectories across the workspace. To test whether a compact description using primitives modulated by proprioceptive feedback could reproduce such trajectory formation, we built a biomechanical model based on physiological data. We recorded from hindlimb muscle spindles to evaluate possible proprioceptive input. As movement was initiated, early skeletofusimotor activity enhanced many muscle spindles firing rates. Before movement began, a rapid estimate of the limb position from simple combinations of spindle rates was possible. Three primitives were used in the model with muscle compositions based on those observed in frogs. Our simulations showed that simple gain and phase shifts of primitives based on published feedback mechanisms could generate accurate isochronous trajectories and motor patterns that matched those observed. Although on-line feedback effects were omitted from the model after movement onset, our primitive-based model reproduced the wiping behavior across a range of starting positions. Without modifications from proprioceptive feedback, the model behaviors missed the target in a manner similar to that in deafferented frogs. These data show how early proprioception might be used to make a simple estimate initial limb state and to implicitly plan a movement using observed spinal motor primitives. Simulations showed that choice of synergy composition played a role in this simplicity. To generate froglike trajectories, a hip flexor synergy without sartorius required motor patterns with more proprioceptive knee flexor control than did patterns built with a more natural synergy including sartorius. Such synergy

  11. Early dural metastasis from a case of glioblastoma with primitive neuroectodermal differentiation: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Konar, Subhas K; Bir, Shyamal C; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Patra, Devi Prasad; DiPoto Brahmbhatt, Angela C; Jacobsohn, Jamie A; Nanda, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma with a primitive neuroectodermal (PNET) variant is a rare primary parenchymal tumor. Only a few cases of extraparenchymal metastasis are reported in world literature. Although the overall survival duration of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) variety may be prolonged in comparison to classical glioblastoma, the metastatic trend is completely different, and the prognosis is worse. We report an early dural metastasis of pure PNET component appearing in a case of primary glioblastoma with PNET variant. The lesson learned from this case is to look for early craniospinal metastasis in GBM patient with PNET component, even after completion of adjuvant radiochemotherapy.

  12. Photostability of glycine and nitrogen basis in cometary grains : application to the transport of organic matter within the primitive Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiagh, K.; Belilla, J.; Fray, N.; Valorso, R.; Cottin, H.

    2015-10-01

    The study of photochemistry in the solar system is of prime importance to assess complex organic chemistry in any extraterrestrial environment. Among those environments, comets and grains ejected from their nuclei are of particular interest in the context of astrobiology as they could have brought organic matter on the primitive Earth, and hence contribute to the emergence of life. Furthermore, they can provide precious information on the physico-chemical parameters prevailing in the primitive solar nebula during its formation. In this context, we are studying the extent to which organic matter within grains may survive to solar radiation and the fraction of these organic molecules destroyed when it is subjected to sunlight.

  13. Onco-testicular sperm extraction: birth of a healthy baby after fertility preservation in synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Sampaio, M; Salles, P G de Oliveira; Geber, S

    2015-05-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) represent 1%-1.5% of all male neoplasms, and they have the highest prevalence among men between 15 and 35 years old. Synchronous bilateral disease is a rare presentation, and the ratio of metachronous to synchronous bilateral disease is about 4 : 1. Several studies have suggested a correlation between male infertility and testicular cancer, with a 20-fold increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in infertile patients compared with the general population. At the time of diagnosis, 50%-75% of patients with unilateral TGCT present with subfertility; almost 13% of the patients are azoospermic before treatment, and up to two-thirds of patients become azoospermic following adjuvant cancer therapies. Therefore, fertility preservation should be considered in all oncological treatments. The only available option to preserve the reproductive potential in azoospermic patients with testicular cancer is to perform an onco-testicular sperm extraction (onco-TESE) before cancer treatment. In this paper, we describe a rare case of a patient with synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia who was submitted to onco-TESE, sperm cryopreservation, and which was followed by the delivery of a healthy baby after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), emphasising the importance of fertility preservation in oncology patients.

  14. Expression of serum albumin and of alphafetoprotein in murine normal and neoplastic primitive embryonic structures.

    PubMed

    Trojan, J; Naval, X; Johnson, T; Lafarge-Frayssinet, C; Hajeri-Germond, M; Farges, O; Pan, Y; Uriel, J; Abramasky, O; Ilan, J

    1995-12-01

    Alphafetoprotein (AFP), a major serum protein synthesized during the embryo-fetal and postnatal period (in the yolk sac, then in the liver), is also an oncoprotein. The intracellular presence of AFP and of serum albumin (SA) in normal and neoplastic neural crest and neural tube derivatives was previously demonstrated. In this work we have studied the comparative expression of AFP and SA in primitive neuroectoblastic structures of mouse embryos (6 and 7 days "post coitum") and mouse teratocarcinomas (derived from the PCC4 cell line). Using immunofluorescence technique, antibodies to SA gave a positive reaction in embryos of 7 days, while AFP was not detected during this period. By mRNA in situ hybridization, SA mRNA gave a strong signal in both 6 and 7 day embryos, whereas AFP mRNA gave a weak signal only in 7-day embryos. The distribution of SA and AFP and their mRNAs was investigated in primitive neuroectoblastic structures of the teratocarcinomas by in situ hybridization and immunostaining. Only SA protein was detectable by immunostaining. SA mRNA gave a strong signal in differentiating structures as well as in undifferentiated cell clusters. AFP mRNA was observed only in differentiating structure. Dot-blot hybridization indicated that the level of SA transcripts was at least 6-fold higher than that of AFP transcripts in the teratocarcinomas investigated. In teratocarcinoma-bearing mice injected intraperitoneally with 125I-radiolabeled SA and AFP, significant accumulations of both SA and AFP were demonstrated in the tumors, SA being about 3-fold higher than that of AFP after normalization to quantity of uptake in liver. External in vivo photoscanning confirmed this relationship of accumulated radiolabeled proteins. The last observation could be useful in vivo for diagnosis of teratocarcinoma. We conclude that the expression of SA relative to AFP and the external cellular uptake of SA relative to AFP are similar in normal embryonic developing tissues and in the

  15. Disaggregation of primitive cumulates in the Skuggafjöll eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neave, D.; Maclennan, J.; Edmonds, M.; Thordarson, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are significant limitations in using genetic terms, such as phenocryst and xenocryst, when describing macrocrysts carried by magmas. Despite being largely out of equilibrium with their carrier melt, zoned macrocrysts bring with them a record of their past crystallisation. Furthermore, macrocrysts may have resided in crystal mushes or cumulates prior to being entrained into melts and carried to the surface during eruptions. These entrained macrocrysts can therefore provide insights into the development of plutonic rocks within magmatic plumbing systems paused at the moment of disaggregation. Diverse petrologic observations are therefore required to disentangle the volcanic and plutonic processes operating during the assembly of phyric magmas. Here we present the results of an integrated study performed on glassy pillow basalts from the subglacial Skuggafjöll eruption in the Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland. Olivine and plagioclase compositions are strongly bimodal with peaks at Fo86 and Fo80 and An88 and An75 respectively. Both QEMSCAN* and SEM imaging indicate that the most forsteritic and anorthitic compositions are found in the cores of large macrocrysts and are texturally associated with one another, forming a primitive macrocryst population. The lowest forsterite and anorthite contents are present in rims of large macrocrysts and in smaller macrocrysts, which are associated clinopyroxene, forming an evolved macrocryst population. Calculations using published mineral-melt equilibrium models indicate that the evolved population is in equilibrium with the groundmass glass composition. The relationship between the primitive population and the evolved, equilibrium population was investigated using combined whole rock geochemistry and point counting systematics for samples with 5-46 modal % macrocryst contents. Highly incompatible trace element concentrations (e.g. Ce, Zr) correlate negatively with the mass fraction of macrocrysts. Regression lines

  16. Endoscopic therapy in early adenocarcinomas (Barrett's cancer) of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Knabe, Mate; May, Andrea; Ell, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of early esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing significantly in recent decades. Prognosis depends greatly on the choice of treatment. Early cancers can be treated by endoscopic resection, whereas advanced carcinomas have to be sent for surgery. Esophageal resection is associated with high perioperative mortality (1-5%) even in specialized centers. Early diagnosis enables curative endoscopic treatment option. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a familial risk for esophageal cancer should undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. High-definition endoscopes have been developed with technical add-on that helps endoscopists to find fine irregularities in the esophageal mucosa, but interpreting the findings remains challenging. In this review we discussed novel and old diagnostic procedures and their values, as well as our own recommendations and those of the authors discussed for the diagnosis and treatment of early Barrett's carcinoma. Endoscopic resection is the therapy of choice in early esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is mandatory to perform a subsequent ablation of all residual Barrett's mucosa to avoid metachronous lesions.

  17. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  18. IODP Expedition 345: Primitive Layered Gabbros From Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ildefonse, Benoit; Gillis, Kathryn M.; Snow, Jonathan E.; Klaus, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Three-quarters of the ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges is composed of plutonic rocks whose mineral assemblages, textures and compositions record the history of melt transport and crystallization between the mantle and the seafloor. However, owing to the nearly continuous overlying extrusive upper crust, sampling in situ the lower crust is challenging. Hence, models for understanding the formation of the lower crust are based essentially on geophysical studies and ophiolites. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 recovered the first significant sections of primitive, modally layered gabbroic rocks from the lowermost plutonic crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge, and exposed at the Hess Deep Rift (Gillis et al., Nature, 2014, doi:10.1038/nature12778). Drilling Site U1415 is located along the southern slope of the intrarift ridge. The primary science results were obtained from coring of two ~110 m deep reentry holes and one 35-m-deep single-bit hole, all co-located within an ~100-m-wide area. Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant plutonic rock types recovered, with minor gabbro, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing gabbroic rocks, and gabbronorite. All rock types are primitive to moderately evolved, with Mg# 89-76, and exhibit cumulate textures similar to ones found in layered mafic intrusions and some ophiolites. Spectacular modal and grain size layering, prevalent in >50% of the recovered core, confirm a long held paradigm that such rocks are a key constituent of the lowermost ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Magmatic foliation is largely defined by the shape-preferred orientation of plagioclase. It is moderate to strong in intervals with simple modal layering but weak to absent in troctolitic intervals and typically absent in intervals with heterogeneous textures and/or diffuse banding. Geochemical analysis of these primitive lower plutonics, in combination with previous geochemical data for shallow-level plutonics

  19. Association sarcoïdose et cirrhose biliaire primitive: à propos d'un nouveau cas

    PubMed Central

    Aqodad, Nourdin; Loukili, Bouchra; Gallouj, Salim; Harmouch, Taoufik; Amarti, Afaf; Mernissi, FZ; Ibrahimi, Adil

    2014-01-01

    La sarcoïdose est une maladie systémique d’étiologie inconnue. Elle est caractérisée par la présence de lésions granulomateuses, non caséeuses, au niveau des organes atteints. La cirrhose biliaire primitive (CBP) est une hépatopathie cholestatique auto-immune chronique, caractérisée par une destruction des canalicules biliaires et la présence d'anticorps antimitchondries type M2. L'association sarcoïdose et CBP est rare. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de cette association avec revue de la littérature. PMID:25489373

  20. A recursive vesicle-based model protocell with a primitive model cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Okura, Yusaku; Matsuo, Muneyuki; Toyota, Taro; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sugawara, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Self-organized lipid structures (protocells) have been proposed as an intermediate between nonliving material and cellular life. Synthetic production of model protocells can demonstrate the potential processes by which living cells first arose. While we have previously described a giant vesicle (GV)-based model protocell in which amplification of DNA was linked to self-reproduction, the ability of a protocell to recursively self-proliferate for multiple generations has not been demonstrated. Here we show that newborn daughter GVs can be restored to the status of their parental GVs by pH-induced vesicular fusion of daughter GVs with conveyer GVs filled with depleted substrates. We describe a primitive model cell cycle comprising four discrete phases (ingestion, replication, maturity and division), each of which is selectively activated by a specific external stimulus. The production of recursive self-proliferating model protocells represents a step towards eventual production of model protocells that are able to mimic evolution. PMID:26418735

  1. Osterix marks distinct waves of primitive and definitive stromal progenitors during bone marrow development.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Pinho, Sandra; Ahmed, Jalal; Kunisaki, Yuya; Hanoun, Maher; Mendelson, Avital; Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M; Frenette, Paul S

    2014-05-12

    Mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells (MSPCs) contribute to bone marrow (BM) homeostasis by generating multiple types of stromal cells. MSPCs can be labeled in the adult BM by Nestin-GFP, whereas committed osteoblast progenitors are marked by Osterix expression. However, the developmental origin and hierarchical relationship of stromal cells remain largely unknown. Here, by using a lineage-tracing system, we describe three distinct waves of contributions of Osterix(+) cells in the BM. First, Osterix(+) progenitors in the fetal BM contribute to nascent bone tissues and transient stromal cells that are replaced in the adult marrow. Second, Osterix-expressing cells perinatally contribute to osteolineages and long-lived BM stroma, which have characteristics of Nestin-GFP(+) MSPCs. Third, Osterix labeling in the adult marrow is osteolineage-restricted, devoid of stromal contribution. These results uncover a broad expression profile of Osterix and raise the intriguing possibility that distinct waves of stromal cells, primitive and definitive, may organize the developing BM.

  2. Coordinates Analyses of Hydrated Interplanetary Dust Particles: Samples of Primitive Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Snead, C.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere fall into two major groups: an anhydrous group termed the "chondritic-porous (CP) IDPs and a hydrated group, the "chondritic-smooth (CS) IDPs, although rare IDPs with mineralogies intermediate between these two groups are known [1]. The CP-IDPs are widely believed to be derived from cometary sources [e.g. 2]. The hydrated CS-IDPs show mineralogical similarities to heavily aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (e.g. CI chondrites), but only a few have been directly linked to carbonaceous meteorite parent bodies [e.g. 3, 4]. Most CS-IDPs show distinct chemical [5] and oxygen isotopic composition differences [6-8] from primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Here, we report on our coordinated analyses of a suite of carbon-rich CS-IDPs focusing on their bulk compositions, mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and isotopic compositions.

  3. Pax3/Pax7 mark a novel population of primitive myogenic cells during development

    PubMed Central

    Kassar-Duchossoy, Lina; Giacone, Ellen; Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Jory, Aurélie; Gomès, Danielle; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle serves as a paradigm for the acquisition of cell fate, yet the relationship between primitive cell populations and emerging myoblasts has remained elusive. We identify a novel population of resident Pax3+/Pax7+, muscle marker-negative cells throughout development. Using mouse mutants that uncouple myogenic progression, we show that these Pax+ cells give rise to muscle progenitors. In the absence of skeletal muscle, they apoptose after down-regulation of Pax7. Furthermore, they mark the emergence of satellite cells during fetal development, and do not require Pax3 function. These findings identify critical cell populations during lineage restriction, and provide a framework for defining myogenic cell states for therapeutic studies. PMID:15964993

  4. Pax3/Pax7 mark a novel population of primitive myogenic cells during development.

    PubMed

    Kassar-Duchossoy, Lina; Giacone, Ellen; Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Jory, Aurélie; Gomès, Danielle; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2005-06-15

    Skeletal muscle serves as a paradigm for the acquisition of cell fate, yet the relationship between primitive cell populations and emerging myoblasts has remained elusive. We identify a novel population of resident Pax3+/Pax7+, muscle marker-negative cells throughout development. Using mouse mutants that uncouple myogenic progression, we show that these Pax+ cells give rise to muscle progenitors. In the absence of skeletal muscle, they apoptose after down-regulation of Pax7. Furthermore, they mark the emergence of satellite cells during fetal development, and do not require Pax3 function. These findings identify critical cell populations during lineage restriction, and provide a framework for defining myogenic cell states for therapeutic studies.

  5. A very rare case of uterine PEComa HMB45 negative: primitive or relapse?

    PubMed Central

    Pecorino, Basilio; Scibilia, Giuseppe; Galia, Antonio; Scollo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) represent a rare group of tumours with uncertain malignancy potential exhibiting an immunophenotype characterized by actin and Human Melanoma Black 45 (HMB45) immunoreactivity. Our case concerns about a rare malignant uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumour diagnosed in a patient underwent to subtotal hysterectomy with unclear diagnosis, 12 years before. Histological diagnosis after colposcopic exam with biopsy revealed a perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, with immunohistochemical profle negative for HMB45. Negativity for HMB45, already described in literature, could be due to important cellular modifcations of tumoral tissue. In our case, tumour was unresectable, progression of disease occurred during medical treatment and the patient died after 6 months. Lack of information about frst surgery doesn't allow to surely categorized the tumor as primitive or relapse. Further studies are necessary to understand some immunohistochemical anomaly like negativity for HMB45. PMID:26900338

  6. The conventional cell and the primitive cell electronic structure of anatase titanium dioxide crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, A.; Soundararajan, N.

    2017-03-01

    The present discrepancy among the theoretical electronic structures of anatase TiO2 has been investigated by using first-principles calculations. This glaring disagreement among the theoretical electronic structures of anatase has been resolved by choosing proper unit cells and corresponding high-symmetry k-points. It is confirmed that anatase is an indirect band-gap material and any deviations, such as a change from indirect to direct which was reported earlier in the conventional cell, results when the equilibrium lattice parameters are modified and the structure is distorted. In the primitive cell scenario, the valence-band maximum gets modified when the equilibrium lattice parameters are changed, but the band gap stays indirect.

  7. Low-temperature condensates in comets. [using primitive solar nebula model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.; Rud, D.

    1977-01-01

    Recent observational data on the volatile fraction of comets are confronted with a model based on the fractional condensation, in the 80-100 K range, of a higher-temperature equilibrium obtained from a solar mixture, more or less depleted in oxygen and in hydrogen. It is possible to almost duplicate the observational data, only by assuming that the solar ratio of C/O is at least as large as 0.66 and that the hydrogen was drastically depleted by an unknown process in the primitive solar nebula. Although none of these two assumptions is at variance with present knowledge, the latter is sufficiently exotic to propose a simpler explanation, namely that comets could be made of interstellar grains relatively unprocessed by heat.

  8. Identification of genes for sulfolipid synthesis in primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Sato, Norihiro; Kobayashi, Satomi; Aoki, Motohide; Umemura, Tomonari; Kobayashi, Isao; Tsuzuki, Mikio

    2016-01-29

    Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol is one of the lipids that construct thylakoid membranes, and is distributed from cyanobacteria to plastids in plants including a red lineage. One of the most primitive red algae, Cyanidioschyzon melorae, similar to cyanobacteria and green plants, possesses homologs of the SQD1 and SQD2 genes that code for UDP-sulfoquinovose and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol synthases, respectively, for the synthesis of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. We here revealed the structural properties of SQD1 and SQD2 homologs in C. melorae intrinsic to those of the authentic proteins, and verified their enzymatic functions through heterologous expression in cyanobacterial disruptants as to the corresponding genes. The results demonstrated that the system of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol synthesis could have been conserved through evolution of cyanobacteria to plastids in a red lineage, which is compatible with the monophyletic origin of plastids.

  9. Digestive amylase of a primitive animal, the scorpion: purification and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Louati, Hanen; Zouari, Nacim; Fendri, Ahmed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2010-04-01

    Scorpion, one of the most ancient invertebrates was chosen, as a model of a primitive animal, to purify and characterize an amylase located in the hepatopancreas. The scorpion digestive amylase (SDA) was purified. Pure SDA was obtained after heat treatment followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three steps of chromatography. The pure amylase is not glycosylated and has a molecular mass of 59,101 Da determined by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The maximal amylase activity was measured at pH 7.0 and 50 degrees C, in the presence of Ca2+ and using potato starch as substrate. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze also, glycogen and amylose. The 23 NH2-terminal amino acid SDA residues were sequenced. The sequence obtained is similar to those of mammalian and avian pancreatic amylases. Nevertheless, polyclonal antibodies directed against SDA failed to recognize classical digestive amylases like the porcine pancreatic one.

  10. A numerical study of the string function using a primitive equation ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, R. H.; Käse, R.

    We use results from a primitive-equation ocean numerical model (SCRUM) to test a theoretical 'string function' formulation put forward by Tyler and Käse in another article in this issue. The string function acts as a stream function for the large-scale potential energy flow under the combined beta and topographic effects. The model results verify that large-scale anomalies propagate along the string function contours with a speed correctly given by the cross-string gradient. For anomalies having a scale similar to the Rossby radius, material rates of change in the layer mass following the string velocity are balanced by material rates of change in relative vorticity following the flow velocity. It is shown that large-amplitude anomalies can be generated when wind stress is resonant with the string function configuration.

  11. John Wesley's Primitive Physick: An 18th-century Health Psychology.

    PubMed

    Malony, H N

    1996-04-01

    John Wesley was an 18th- century Anglican priest whose evangelistic efforts led to the establishment of Methodist Societies in England, Ireland and America. He became greatly concerned for the spiritual and physical health of the poor. Wesley wrote a book entitled Primitive Physick: Or, an Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases. He was deeply impressed with the few physicians who called for the prevention of disease through healthy living and who recommended time-honored, inexpensive methods of cure. This article reviews Wesley's ideas and prescriptions for healthy living. The discussion reflects on his contribution to the development of a psychology of health and credits Wesley with being ahead of his time in his dietetic and hygienic recommendations. Using Matarazzo's (1982) definition the article shows that over 200 years ago Wesley dealt with each of the major concerns of health psychology and behavioral medicine.

  12. Abundant ammonia in primitive asteroids and the case for a possible exobiology.

    PubMed

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Williams, Lynda B; Lehman, Jennifer; Holland, Gregory P; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2011-03-15

    Carbonaceous chondrites are asteroidal meteorites that contain abundant organic materials. Given that meteorites and comets have reached the Earth since it formed, it has been proposed that the exogenous influx from these bodies provided the organic inventories necessary for the emergence of life. The carbonaceous meteorites of the Renazzo-type family (CR) have recently revealed a composition that is particularly enriched in small soluble organic molecules, such as the amino acids glycine and alanine, which could support this possibility. We have now analyzed the insoluble and the largest organic component of the CR2 Grave Nunataks (GRA) 95229 meteorite and found it to be of more primitive composition than in other meteorites and to release abundant free ammonia upon hydrothermal treatment. The findings appear to trace CR2 meteorites' origin to cosmochemical regimes where ammonia was pervasive, and we speculate that their delivery to the early Earth could have fostered prebiotic molecular evolution.

  13. [Diversity and viability of prokaryotes in primitive soils of the larsemann oasis (East Antarctica)].

    PubMed

    Kudinova, A G; Lysak, L V; Lapygina, E V; Soina, V S; Mergelov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and viability of prokaryotic communities in the primitive organomineral soils of East Antarctica have been studied; it has been shown that the total number of bacteria is smaller than and the viability of bacteria is similar to that in soils of the temperate zone. The prokaryotic communities are characterized by the occurrence of a major part of cells in filterable forms, which is higher than the analogous parameter for the temperate soils. The method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the distribution of the main taxons is similar to that in the temperate soils: the portion of the domain Archaea is smaller than that of the domain Bacteria; the total content of Gram-negative bacteria (the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Planctomycetes) is higher than that of Gram-positive bacteria (Actinobacteria). Within the phylum Proteobacteria, a significant variation of three proteobacterial classes has been noted along the profiles of the soils studied.

  14. Melt production beneath Mt. Shasta from boron data in primitive melt inclusions.

    PubMed

    Rose, E F; Shimizu, N; Layne, G D; Grove, T L

    2001-07-13

    Most arc magmas are thought to be generated by partial melting of the mantle wedge induced by infiltration of slab-derived fluids. However, partial melting of subducting oceanic crust has also been proposed to contribute to the melt generation process, especially when young and hot lithosphere is being subducted. The isotopic composition of boron measured in situ in olivine-hosted primitive melt inclusions in a basaltic andesite from Mt. Shasta, California, is characterized by large negative values that are also highly variable (delta(11)B = -21.3 to -0.9 per mil). The boron concentrations, from 0.7 to 1.6 parts per million, are lower than in most other arc lavas. The relation between concentration and isotopic composition of boron observed here supports a hypothesis that materials left after dehydration of the subducting slab may have contributed to the generation of basaltic andesite lavas at Mt. Shasta.

  15. Simulations of the 2.5D inviscid primitive equations in a limited domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qingshan; Temam, Roger; Tribbia, Joseph J.

    2008-12-01

    The primitive equations (PEs) of the atmosphere and the oceans without viscosity are considered. These equations are not well-posed for any set of local boundary conditions. In space dimension 2.5 a set of nonlocal boundary conditions has been proposed in Chen et al. [Q. Chen, J. Laminie, A. Rousseau, R. Temam, J. Tribbia, A 2.5D Model for the equations of the ocean and the atmosphere, Anal. Appl. 5(3) (2007) 199-229]. The present article is aimed at testing the validity of these boundary conditions with physically relevant data. The issues tested are the well-posedness in the nonlinear case and the computational efficiency of the boundary conditions for limited area models [T.T. Warner, R.A. Peterson, R.E. Treadon, A tutorial on lateral boundary conditions as a basic and potentially serious limitation to regional numerical weather prediction, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78(11) (1997) 2599-2617].

  16. Criticality and phase behavior in the restricted-primitive model electrolyte: Description of ion association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jianwen; Blum, Lesser; Bernard, Oliver; Prausnitz, John M.; Sandler, Stanley I.

    2002-05-01

    Ion association is incorporated into the restricted-primitive model electrolyte to account for the strong attraction between unlike ions. Two methods are investigated within the McMillan-Mayer framework: first is the binding mean-spherical approximation (BIMSA) based on the Wertheim Ornstein-Zernike integral equation formalism; and the second is the combination of the BIMSA with a simple interpolation scheme based on the Wertheim thermodynamic perturbation theory. The latter gives a better description. Four different association constants are used to calculate the degree of dissociation, the critical point, and the vapor-liquid coexistence curve. An increase in the association constant leads to a lower critical temperature and a higher critical density, and better agreement with computer simulations. When unlike ions are fully paired, corresponding to a charged hard dumbbell system, we obtain the best agreement with the most recent computer simulations of the RPM electrolyte.

  17. Delineation of six species of the primitive algal genus Glaucocystis based on in situ ultrastructural characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Nishida, Tomoki; Tuji, Akihiro; Saito, Chieko; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Yasuda, Hidehiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The field of microbiology was established in the 17th century upon the discovery of microorganisms by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek using a single-lens microscope. Now, the detailed ultrastructures of microorganisms can be elucidated in situ using three-dimensional electron microscopy. Since the availability of electron microscopy, the taxonomy of microscopic organisms has entered a new era. Here, we established a new taxonomic system of the primitive algal genus Glaucocystis (Glaucophyta) using a new-generation electron microscopic methodology: ultra-high-voltage electron microscopy (UHVEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Various globally distributed Glaucocystis strains were delineated into six species, based on differences in in situ ultrastructural features of the protoplast periphery under UHVEM tomography and in the mother cell wall by FE-SEM, as well as differences in the light microscopic characteristics and molecular phylogenetic results. The present work on Glaucocystis provides a model case of new-generation taxonomy. PMID:27383831

  18. Can Dufour's gland compounds honestly signal fertility in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Aniruddha; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2011-02-01

    Unlike queens of typical primitively eusocial species, Ropalidia marginata queens are docile and non-interactive, and hence cannot be using dominance to maintain their status. It appears that the queen maintains reproductive monopoly through a pheromone, of which the Dufour's gland is at least one source. Here, we reconfirm earlier results showing that queens and workers can be correctly classified on a discriminant function using the compositions of their respective Dufour's glands, and also demonstrate consistent queen-worker differences based on categories of compounds and on single compounds also in some cases. Since the queen pheromone is expected to be an honest signal of the fecundity of a queen, we investigate the correlation of Dufour's gland compounds with ovarian activation of queens. Our study shows that Dufour's gland compounds in R. marginata correlate with the state of ovarian activation of queens, suggesting that such compounds may portray the fecundity of a queen, and may indeed function as honest signals of fertility.

  19. Criticality and phase behavior in the restricted-primitive model electrolyte: Effect of ionic association

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Jianwen; Blum, Lesser; Bernard, Oliver; Prausnitz, John M.

    2001-11-01

    Ion association is incorporated into the restricted-primitive model (RPM) electrolyte to account for the strong attraction between unlike ions. Two methods are investigated within the McMillan-Mayer framework: first is the binding mean-spherical approximation (BIMSA) based on the Wertheim Ornstein-Zernike integral equation formalism; and the second is the combination of the BIMSA with a simple interpolation scheme (SIS) based on the Wertheim thermodynamic perturbation theory. The latter gives a better description. Four different association constants are used to calculate the degree of dissociation, the critical point and the vapor-liquid coexistence curve. An increase in the association constant leads to a lower critical temperature and a higher critical density, and better agreement with computer simulations. When unlike ions are fully paired, corresponding to a charged hard dumbbell (CHDB) system, we obtain the best agreement with the most recent computer simulations of the RPM electrolyte.

  20. Careful climbing in the Miocene: the forelimbs of Ardipithecus ramidus and humans are primitive.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, C Owen; Simpson, Scott W; White, Tim D; Asfaw, Berhane; Suwa, Gen

    2009-10-02

    The Ardipithecus ramidus hand and wrist exhibit none of the derived mechanisms that restrict motion in extant great apes and are reminiscent of those of Miocene apes, such as Proconsul. The capitate head is more palmar than in all other known hominoids, permitting extreme midcarpal dorsiflexion. Ar. ramidus and all later hominids lack the carpometacarpal articular and ligamentous specializations of extant apes. Manual proportions are unlike those of any extant ape. Metacarpals 2 through 5 are relatively short, lacking any morphological traits associable with knuckle-walking. Humeral and ulnar characters are primitive and like those of later hominids. The Ar. ramidus forelimb complex implies palmigrady during bridging and careful climbing and exhibits none of the adaptations to vertical climbing, forelimb suspension, and knuckle-walking that are seen in extant African apes.

  1. Myosin II-mediated cell shape changes and cell intercalation contribute to primitive streak formation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feifei; Sang, Helen M.; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; MacDonald, Michael P; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves large scale highly coordinated flows of over 100.000 cells in the epiblast. These large scale tissue flows and deformations can be correlated with specific anisotropic cell behaviours in the forming mesendoderm through a combined light-sheet microscopy and computational analysis. Relevant behaviours include apical contraction, elongation along the apical-basal axis followed by ingression as well as asynchronous directional cell intercalation of small groups of mesendoderm cells. Cell intercalation is associated with sequential, directional contraction of apical junctions, the onset, localisation and direction of which correlate strongly with the appearance of active Myosin II cables in aligned apical junctions in neighbouring cells. Use of a class specific Myosin inhibitors and gene specific knockdowns show that apical contraction and intercalation are Myosin II dependent and also reveal critical roles for Myosin I and Myosin V family members in the assembly of junctional Myosin II cables. PMID:25812521

  2. Computer simulations of the restricted primitive model at very low temperature and density.

    PubMed

    Valeriani, Chantal; Camp, Philip J; Zwanikken, Jos W; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2010-03-17

    The problem of successfully simulating ionic fluids at low temperature and low density states is well known in the simulation literature: using conventional methods, the system is not able to equilibrate rapidly due to the presence of strongly associated cation-anion pairs. In this paper we present a numerical method for speeding up computer simulations of the restricted primitive model (RPM) at low temperatures (around the critical temperature) and at very low densities (down to 10(-10)σ(-3), where σ is the ion diameter). Experimentally, this regime corresponds to typical concentrations of electrolytes in nonaqueous solvents. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that the RPM has been equilibrated at such extremely low concentrations. More generally, this method could be used to equilibrate other systems that form aggregates at low concentrations.

  3. Genomic analyses of primitive, wild and cultivated citrus provide insights into asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Zhang, Siqi; Cao, Li; Huang, Yue; Cheng, Junfeng; Wu, Guizhi; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Chunli; Liu, Yan; Yu, Huiwen; Yang, Xiaoming; Lan, Hong; Wang, Nan; Wang, Lun; Xu, Jidi; Jiang, Xiaolin; Xie, Zongzhou; Tan, Meilian; Larkin, Robert M; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ma, Bin-Guang; Ruan, Yijun; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2017-04-10

    The emergence of apomixis-the transition from sexual to asexual reproduction-is a prominent feature of modern citrus. Here we de novo sequenced and comprehensively studied the genomes of four representative citrus species. Additionally, we sequenced 100 accessions of primitive, wild and cultivated citrus. Comparative population analysis suggested that genomic regions harboring energy- and reproduction-associated genes are probably under selection in cultivated citrus. We also narrowed the genetic locus responsible for citrus polyembryony, a form of apomixis, to an 80-kb region containing 11 candidate genes. One of these, CitRWP, is expressed at higher levels in ovules of polyembryonic cultivars. We found a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element insertion in the promoter region of CitRWP that cosegregated with polyembryony. This study provides new insights into citrus apomixis and constitutes a promising resource for the mining of agriculturally important genes.

  4. The interaction between giant gaseous protoplanets and the primitive solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1979-01-01

    The manner in which a giant gaseous protoplanet becomes embedded in the primitive solar nebula determines surface boundary conditions which must be used in studying the evolution of such objects. On the one hand, if the system resembles a contact binary system, then the envelope of the protoplanet should approach the entropy of the surrounding nebula. On the other hand angular momentum transfer by resonance and tidal effects between the nebula and the protoplanet may cause the nebula to exhibit a zone of avoidance near the protoplanet, thus inhibiting exchange of material. This problem has been studied with a computer program developed by D. N. C. Lin which simulates disk hydrodynamics by particle motions with dissipation. These studies suggest that for expected values of the protoplanet/protosun mass ratios, significant inhibition of mass exchange is likely, so that it is a reasonable next step to undertake protoplanet evolution studies with the imposition of minimum protoplanet surface temperatures.

  5. Charge Renormalization and Charge Oscillation in Asymmetric Primitive Model of Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mingnan; Liang, Yihao; Lu, Bing-Sui; Xing, Xiangjun

    2016-12-01

    Debye charging method is generalized to study the linear response properties of the asymmetric primitive model for electrolytes. Analytic results are obtained for the effective charge distributions of constituent ions inside the electrolyte, from which all static linear response properties of the system follow. It is found that, as the ion density increases, both the screening length and the dielectric constant receive substantial renormalization due to ionic correlations. Furthermore, the valence of larger ion is substantially renormalized upward by ionic correlations, while those of smaller ions remain approximately the same. For sufficiently high density, the system exhibits charge oscillations. The threshold ion density for charge oscillation is much lower than the corresponding values for symmetric electrolytes. Our results agree well with large-scale Monte Carlo simulations, and find good agreement in general, except for the case of small ion sizes (d = 4 Å) near the charge oscillation threshold.

  6. Origin of organic compounds on the primitive earth and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Urey, H. C.; Oro, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper examines the role and relative contributions of different forms of energy to the synthesis of amino acids and other organic compounds on the primitive earth and in the solar nebula. Attention is directed mainly to the activation steps and formation of reactive intermediate compounds. Electric discharges appear to be not only the most efficient energy for amino acid synthesis but also yield a mixture of amino acids that is qualitatively and quantitatively the same as that found in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. Ultraviolet light is likely to have played a major role in prebiotic synthesis. The reaction of CO plus H2 plus NH3 on the surface of a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst produces reactive intermediates which lead to amino acids and other organic compounds in a much less efficient way than electric discharges.

  7. Investigation of Nebular Processes Through Oxygen Isotopic Analysis of Primitive Meteorite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leshin, Laurie

    2002-01-01

    As a direct result of support provided by this grant, precise and accurate determination of delta(18)O and delta(17)O in silicates (and other minerals) by ion microprobe (both IMS 6f and IMS 1270) are now being carried out in several laboratories, and these analyses, combined with application of laser fluorination techniques, have led to a proliferation of oxygen isotopic data in the past approx. 3 years. The applications of these techniques in cosmochemical research have been myriad, from understanding the most refractory objects in the nebula (CAIs) to the low temperature alteration processes on meteorite parent bodies. Here, we describe our progress in understanding the oxygen isotopic microdistributions in primitive meteorite materials, as directly supported by this Origins grant.

  8. SUPERNOVA NEUTRINO NUCLEOSYNTHESIS OF THE RADIOACTIVE {sup 92}Nb OBSERVED IN PRIMITIVE METEORITES

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, T.; Chiba, S.; Iwamoto, N.; Nakamura, K.; Kajino, T.; Cheoun, M. K.; Mathews, G. J.

    2013-12-10

    The isotope {sup 92}Nb decays to {sup 92}Zr with a half-life of 3.47 × 10{sup 7} yr. Although this isotope does not exist in the current solar system, initial abundance ratios for {sup 92}Nb/{sup 93}Nb at the time of solar system formation have been measured in primitive meteorites. The astrophysical origin of this material, however, has remained unknown. In this Letter, we present new calculations which demonstrate a novel origin for {sup 92}Nb via neutrino-induced reactions in core-collapse supernovae (ν-process). Our calculated result shows that the observed ratio of {sup 92}Nb/{sup 93}Nb ∼ 10{sup –5} can be explained by the ν-process.

  9. Fossilization causes organisms to appear erroneously primitive by distorting evolutionary trees

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Robert S.; Wills, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Fossils are vital for calibrating rates of molecular and morphological change through geological time, and are the only direct source of data documenting macroevolutionary transitions. Many evolutionary studies therefore require the robust phylogenetic placement of extinct organisms. Here, we demonstrate that the inevitable bias of the fossil record to preserve just hard, skeletal morphology systemically distorts phylogeny. Removal of soft part characters from 78 modern vertebrate and invertebrate morphological datasets resulted in significant changes to phylogenetic signal; it caused individual taxa to drift from their original position, predominately downward toward the root of their respective trees. This last bias could systematically inflate evolutionary rates inferred from molecular data because first fossil occurrences will not be recognised as such. Stem-ward slippage, whereby fundamental taphonomic biases cause fossils to be interpreted as erroneously primitive, is therefore a ubiquitous problem for all biologists attempting to infer macroevolutionary rates or sequences. PMID:23985991

  10. [A case of medial medullary infarction with persistent primitive hypoglossal artery].

    PubMed

    Jin, Kazutaka; Aihara, Naoto; Tsukamoto, Tetsuro

    2002-04-01

    A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of vomiting, dizziness and vertigo. Neurological examination on admission revealed only upbeat nystagmus without cranial nerve symptoms, paresis, cerebellar signs or sensory disturbances. Magnetic resonance(MR) images demonstrated a new T 2 high intensity and T 1 iso-intensity signal lesion in the right upper medial medulla. This medial medullary infarction caused central vestibular dysfunction. MR angiography and digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) originating from the right internal carotid artery to the vertebrobasilar artery associated with the stenosis of the right internal carotid artery at the level of the cervical bifurcation. This is the first report of medullary infarction with persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis. We suspected this medullary infarction was caused by artery to artery embolism in the branch of the right vertebral artery through the PPHA distal originated from the stenosis of the right internal carotid artery.

  11. Persistent primitive olfactory artery connected with middle cerebral artery: case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung Soo

    2013-11-01

    A persistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) is an extremely rare variation of the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA). The PPOA is connected to the distal ACA, ethmoidal artery, or both. I describe one patient with a PPOA connected to the middle cerebral artery (MCA). I analyzed the radiological characteristics of this anomalous vessel in this patient, who presented with headache. Computed tomography-angiography revealed an abnormal vessel in the patient, which originated from the distal ACA and ran anteromedially along the olfactory tract; it then made an abrupt turn and became the MCA. A PPOA connected to the MCA has been described in only two patients, including my own, in the English-language literature.

  12. Motor primitives and synergies in spinal cord and after injury– the current state of play

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F.; Hart, Corey B.

    2013-01-01

    Modular pattern generator elements, also known as burst synergies or motor primitives, have become a useful and important way of describing motor behavior, albeit controversial. It is suggested that these synergy elements may comprise part of the pattern shaping layers of a McCrea/Rybak two layer pattern generator, as well as being used in other ways in spinal cord. The data supporting modular synergies ranges across species including man and encompasses motor pattern analyses and neural recordings. Recently, synergy persistence and changes following clinical trauma have been presented. These new data underscore the importance of understanding the modular structure of motor behaviors and the underlying circuitry in order to best provide principled therapies and to understand phenomena reported in the clinic. We discuss the evidence and different viewpoints on modularity, the neural underpinnings identified thus far, and possible critical issues for the future of this area. PMID:23531009

  13. Adult primary pulmonary primitive neuroectodermal tumor: molecular features and translational opportunities.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Mirela; Cramer, Stewart F; Kramer, Zachary B; Zeidan, Amer; Faltas, Bishoy

    2013-02-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) arising directly from the lung are very rare but particularly aggressive neoplasms. We report a case of a 31-y-old man with primary pulmonary neuroectodermal tumor. We review the clinical as well as pathological features. As typical for these tumors, the diagnosis was initially delayed in our patient and prognosis was poor despite aggressive surgical resection, postoperative chemotherapy and local irradiation. Recent biological insights have revealed unique chromosomal translocations crucial to the pathogenesis of these tumors, most notably the EWS-FLI-1 translocation. We provide an overview of the molecular features of the Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors (ESFT) including PNET and their potential implications for therapeutic targeting.

  14. Central type primitive neuroectodermal tumor/neuroblastoma of the uterus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Chisa; Todo, Yukiharu; Okamoto, Kazuhira; Akashi, Daisuke; Yamashiro, Katsushige; Hasegawa, Tadashi

    2014-10-01

    We encountered a 63-year-old woman who had a uterine tumor with peritoneal dissemination and para-aortic lymph node metastasis. Microscopic specimens of the tumor showed a small blue round-cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed cells to be negative for cytokeratin AE1/3, desmin, myogenin, CD10, CD34, and CD99, focal positive for vimentin, and positive for muscle-specific actin (HHF-35), neurofilament, synaptophysin and CD56. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed no split signal showing Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 gene translocation. Deletion of 1p36 was identified in 30% of the tumor cells. These findings are thought to be equivalent to central type primitive neuroectodermal tumors/neuroblastoma. Cytoreductive debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine and adriamycin, resulted in complete remission. She has no evidence of disease at 24 months after surgery.

  15. [Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of soft tissue of the index finger in an adult. A case report].

    PubMed

    Berrada, N; Bellarbi, S; El Mannouar, M; Errihani, H

    2012-12-01

    The primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) of soft tissues belong to the Ewing's tumors family and affects particularly the child. The localization of the disease at the extremities is very rare within the adult population and raises the problem of differential diagnosis with others tumors of the soft tissues. We report the case of a 48-year-old patient with a localized tumor, at the level of the second right finger, of six months evolution. The biopsy showed the infiltrating nature of the tumour; and the diagnosis of (PNET) was confirmed after the histological and immunohistochemical study. The extension assessment was negative and the patient had an amputation of the second and third rays of the right hand. Four years afterwards, the patient showed no recurrence or metastases.

  16. Congenital peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: a case treated successfully with multimodality treatment.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shikha; Biswas, Ahitagni; Gupta, Ruchika; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan

    2014-12-01

    Neonatal tumors comprise less than two percent of childhood malignancies. Most are solid tumors, most common histologies being teratoma and neuroblastoma. We encountered a child who was detected to have a right arm mass on antenatal sonogram, which was diagnosed to be a primitive neuroectodermal tumor involving the triceps on fine needle aspiration cytology performed in the post-natal period. The child was successfully treated with multimodality treatment consisting of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We also discuss briefly the problems associated with therapy in neonatal period. A review of all cases reported to have congenital Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors is presented. Novel therapies are needed to improve efficacy and decrease the devastating side effects of treatment in this age group.

  17. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour: report of two cases mimicking neurofibroma and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Ashis; Mishra, Sudhansu; Mishra, Sanjib; Deo, Rama

    2012-01-01

    Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) are a rare entity. Most of them occur in children and young adults. To date, 47 cases of primary spinal PNET have been reported in the literature. We present two cases of primary spinal PNET. In both cases, the tumours were thoracic extradural ones with intrathoracic extension through intervertebral foramina resembling neurofibroma. These tumours are highly aggressive with rapid growth as evidenced by the short history in both of our cases. Both cases underwent gross total removal of the intraspinal and thoracic components. Postoperatively, both patients underwent cranio-spinal radiotherapy. A review of the literature shows that the overall prognosis of PNETs of the spinal cord is very poor even with adequate surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. One patient died after 4 months and the other one is still alive 8 months after surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  18. A case report of adrenocortical carcinosarcoma with oncocytic and primitive neuroectodermal-like features.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chia-Sui; Grignon, David J; Ulbright, Thomas M; Idrees, Muhammad T

    2013-09-01

    Adrenocortical carcinosarcomas are rare aggressive neoplasms; only a few have been reported to date, all with dismal prognosis. These were reported as having varying morphology. We have encountered a case of adrenal carcinosarcoma with an undifferentiated component bearing similarities to primitive neuroectodermal tumors and other areas of oncocytic differentiation. The 48-year-old woman patient presented with abdominal pain and unintended, excessive weight loss. Computed tomographic imaging revealed a tumor located adjacent to the liver and kidney necessitating a partial nephrectomy and hepatectomy. Histologically, the tumor exhibited malignant features. Melan-A, inhibin, calretinin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase were positive immunohistochemically. The patient developed metastasis within 2 months of surgery and is currently alive with disease after chemotherapy. Adrenal carcinosarcoma is a rare highly aggressive malignancy with a wide morphologic spectrum. Recognition of variant morphology and applying correct immunohistochemical studies will aid in reaching an accurate diagnosis.

  19. A recursive vesicle-based model protocell with a primitive model cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Okura, Yusaku; Matsuo, Muneyuki; Toyota, Taro; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sugawara, Tadashi

    2015-09-01

    Self-organized lipid structures (protocells) have been proposed as an intermediate between nonliving material and cellular life. Synthetic production of model protocells can demonstrate the potential processes by which living cells first arose. While we have previously described a giant vesicle (GV)-based model protocell in which amplification of DNA was linked to self-reproduction, the ability of a protocell to recursively self-proliferate for multiple generations has not been demonstrated. Here we show that newborn daughter GVs can be restored to the status of their parental GVs by pH-induced vesicular fusion of daughter GVs with conveyer GVs filled with depleted substrates. We describe a primitive model cell cycle comprising four discrete phases (ingestion, replication, maturity and division), each of which is selectively activated by a specific external stimulus. The production of recursive self-proliferating model protocells represents a step towards eventual production of model protocells that are able to mimic evolution.

  20. Assimilation of drifter observations in primitive equation models of midlatitude ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Molcard, Anne; Chin, Toshio M.; Piterbarg, Leonid I.; Griffa, Annalisa

    2003-07-01

    Motivated by increases in the realism of OGCMs and the number of drifting buoys in the ocean observing system, a new Lagrangian assimilation technique is implemented in an idealized, reduced-gravity configuration of the layered primitive equation model MICOM. Using an extensive set of twin experiments, the effectiveness of the Lagrangian observation operator and of a dynamical balancing technique for corrected model variables, which is based on geostrophy and mass conservation, are explored in comparison to a conventional Pseudo-Lagrangian observation operator and an implementation of the Kalman filter method. The results clearly illustrate that the Lagrangian observation operator is superior to the Pseudo-Lagrangian in the parameter range that is relevant for typical oceanic drifter observations, and that the simple dynamical balancing technique works well for midlatitude ocean circulation.