Science.gov

Sample records for metal buildings

  1. 9. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, Tin Metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, Tin Metal area of building, looking S. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building 105, South Broadway, on Hudson River, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  2. 13. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, tin metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, tin metal shop area, showing construction of window and part of ceiling, E wall of building. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building 105, South Broadway, on Hudson River, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. View southeast from 1968 building showing metal connector between 1930 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast from 1968 building showing metal connector between 1930 and 1968 building and the Southwest Wing (Wing 4) and the Northwest Wing (Wing 5) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. View of American Railway Express Building, facing east. Metal Canopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of American Railway Express Building, facing east. Metal Canopy projects above roll-up doors and elevated dock - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. 8. SANDSORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF LOADING AREA WITH METAL SPOUTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF LOADING AREA WITH METAL SPOUTS AND WOODEN CONTROL LEVERS (THE TRACK OF THE RAILROAD SIDING RAN ALONG THE SIDE OF THE BUILDING) - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  6. SPERTI Control Building (PER601). Preengineered metal frame building is erected, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Control Building (PER-601). Pre-engineered metal frame building is erected, with metal siding on part of one side. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: April 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1002 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES UP IN BACKGROUND AS WORKERS PLACE A SECTION OF WATER LINE THAT WILL CARRY SECONDARY COOLANT BETWEEN HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING AND THE COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2205. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/28/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Metal Building Insulation System Provides Energy Savings and Noise Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Thermal efficiency increased substantially when an underdeck metal building insulation system was used at the North Valley Occupational Center, an aircraft mechanic's school located at the edge of the Van Nuys, California, airport. (Author)

  9. View of building 11050, showing metal clad addition on east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050, showing metal clad addition on east elevation, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  10. 7. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, METAL STAIRCASE TO MEZZANINE ON SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, METAL STAIRCASE TO MEZZANINE ON SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING, FROM APPROXIMATELY ONE-THIRD OF DISTANCE FROM EAST END, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. Characterising metal build-up on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ziyath, Abdul M; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-05-01

    Reliable approaches for predicting pollutant build-up are essential for accurate urban stormwater quality modelling. Based on the in-depth investigation of metal build-up on residential road surfaces, this paper presents empirical models for predicting metal loads on these surfaces. The study investigated metals commonly present in the urban environment. Analysis undertaken found that the build-up process for metals primarily originating from anthropogenic (copper and zinc) and geogenic (aluminium, calcium, iron and manganese) sources were different. Chromium and nickel were below detection limits. Lead was primarily associated with geogenic sources, but also exhibited a significant relationship with anthropogenic sources. The empirical prediction models developed were validated using an independent data set and found to have relative prediction errors of 12-50%, which is generally acceptable for complex systems such as urban road surfaces. Also, the predicted values were very close to the observed values and well within 95% prediction interval. PMID:23416742

  12. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    SciTech Connect

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  13. 29 CFR 1926.758 - Systems-engineered metal buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... systems-engineered metal buildings except §§ 1926.755 (column anchorage) and 1926.757 (open web steel... (whichever is greater) installed and tightened on both sides of the web adjacent to each flange before the.../working surface when installing safety systems, after all permanent bridging has been installed and...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.758 - Systems-engineered metal buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems-engineered metal buildings except §§ 1926.755 (column anchorage) and 1926.757 (open web steel... (whichever is greater) installed and tightened on both sides of the web adjacent to each flange before the.../working surface when installing safety systems, after all permanent bridging has been installed and...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.758 - Systems-engineered metal buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... systems-engineered metal buildings except §§ 1926.755 (column anchorage) and 1926.757 (open web steel... (whichever is greater) installed and tightened on both sides of the web adjacent to each flange before the.../working surface when installing safety systems, after all permanent bridging has been installed and...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.758 - Systems-engineered metal buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems-engineered metal buildings except §§ 1926.755 (column anchorage) and 1926.757 (open web steel... (whichever is greater) installed and tightened on both sides of the web adjacent to each flange before the.../working surface when installing safety systems, after all permanent bridging has been installed and...

  17. View of building 11050 looking northwest, with metal sided and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050 looking northwest, with metal sided and roofed addition on east elevation. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Fire Station & Marine Barracks, D Street, at corner of 4th Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  18. View of building 11050 looking northeast, showing metal sided and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050 looking northeast, showing metal sided and roofed addition on east elevation. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Fire Station & Marine Barracks, D Street, at corner of 4th Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  19. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel. The comosition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than aproximatley 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300.degree. C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  20. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-15

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel is disclosed. The composition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than approximately 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  1. Building Toxic Metal Characterization and Decontamination Report: Area 6, Building 914

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Industrial Hygiene

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this report is to outline the toxic metal characterization and decontamination efforts in Area 6, Building 914. This includes the initial building inspection, the hotspot sampling, results/findings, building cleanup, and the verification sampling. Building 914 is a steel light frame building that was constructed in 1992. It is about 16,454 square feet, and five employees are assigned to this building. According to the building's floor plan blueprints, it could be inferred that this building was once a Wiremen/Lineman shop. In 2002-2004, the National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office embarked on a broad characterization of beryllium (Be) surface concentrations throughout the North Las Vegas Facility, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), and ancillary facilities like the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, etc. Building 914 was part of this characterization. The results of the 2002 study illustrated that the metal housekeeping limits were within acceptable limits and from a Be standpoint, the building was determined to be fit for occupancy. On March 2, 2011, based on a request from Building 914 users, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) Industrial Hygiene (IH) collected bulk samples from the southwest corner of Building 914 at heights above 6 feet where black dust had been noticed on this particular wall. IH conducted surface swipe sampling of the area and analyzed the samples for toxic metals, namely, beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn). The sample results indicated values two to four times above the housekeeping threshold for Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Mn. Subsequently, the facility was closed and posted; the necessary personnel were notified; and controls were instituted for ingress and egress of the building. On March 17, 2011, IH performed an extensive sampling event involving the entire warehouse in accordance with NSTec Organization Procedure OP-P250

  2. Metal buildings study: performance of materials and field validation

    SciTech Connect

    Loss, W.

    1987-12-01

    A 5000 square-foot metal building located at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been monitored over a winter season. Energy flows through wall sections were monitored using portable calorimeters. Air infiltration was measured using perfluorocarbon tracers, and the associated heat losses were calculated. Slab losses were assessed through a comparison of measured temperature gradients with results obtained through the use of heat-flow meters. The effect of thermal bridges and compressed insulation in locations where support beams are joined to the exterior skin was found to increase heat losses significantly. A retrofit strategy including spray insulation of beams is projected to save 30% on heating energy.

  3. Taxonomy of factors which influence heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, An; Gunawardana, Chandima; Gunawardena, Janaka; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces is a complex process and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Although numerous research studies have been conducted in the area of heavy metals build-up, limited research has been undertaken to rank these factors in terms of their influence on the build-up process. This results in limitations in the identification of the most critical factor/s for accurately estimating heavy metal loads and for designing effective stormwater treatment measures. The research study undertook an in-depth analysis of the factors which influence heavy metals build-up based on data generated from a number of different geographical locations around the world. Traffic volume was found to be the highest ranked factor in terms of influencing heavy metals build-up while land use was ranked the second. Proximity to arterial roads, antecedent dry days and road surface roughness has a relatively lower ranking. Furthermore, the study outcomes advances the conceptual understanding of heavy metals build-up based on the finding that with increasing traffic volume, total heavy metal build-up load increases while the variability decreases. The outcomes from this research study are expected to contribute to more accurate estimation of heavy metals build-up loads leading to more effective stormwater treatment design.

  4. Heterogeneity within a Mesoporous Metal-Organic Framework with Three Distinct Metal-Containing Building Units.

    PubMed

    Tu, Binbin; Pang, Qingqing; Ning, Erlong; Yan, Wenqing; Qi, Yi; Wu, Doufeng; Li, Qiaowei

    2015-10-28

    Materials built from multiple constituents have revealed emerging properties that are beyond linear integration of those from single components. We report a mesoporous metal-organic framework made from three geometrically distinct metal-containing secondary building units (SBUs) as a result of topological induction. The combinations of the Cu-based triangular, Zn-based octahedral, and Zn-based square pyramidal SBUs have created four types of cages in the network, despite that only one organic linker pyrazolecarboxylate was used. The longest distance for molecules maneuvering inside the largest cage is 5.2 nm. Furthermore, the complex and diversified pore environments allow the installation of various new functionalities in the framework as well as the expedited Ag nanoparticle formation in the pores. As presented in the molecule movement diagram, the crystal has provided specific arrangements of cages and apertures with distinct chemical features for guests transporting between the pores. PMID:26335899

  5. Heterogeneity within a Mesoporous Metal-Organic Framework with Three Distinct Metal-Containing Building Units.

    PubMed

    Tu, Binbin; Pang, Qingqing; Ning, Erlong; Yan, Wenqing; Qi, Yi; Wu, Doufeng; Li, Qiaowei

    2015-10-28

    Materials built from multiple constituents have revealed emerging properties that are beyond linear integration of those from single components. We report a mesoporous metal-organic framework made from three geometrically distinct metal-containing secondary building units (SBUs) as a result of topological induction. The combinations of the Cu-based triangular, Zn-based octahedral, and Zn-based square pyramidal SBUs have created four types of cages in the network, despite that only one organic linker pyrazolecarboxylate was used. The longest distance for molecules maneuvering inside the largest cage is 5.2 nm. Furthermore, the complex and diversified pore environments allow the installation of various new functionalities in the framework as well as the expedited Ag nanoparticle formation in the pores. As presented in the molecule movement diagram, the crystal has provided specific arrangements of cages and apertures with distinct chemical features for guests transporting between the pores.

  6. ETR, TRA642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA647) AND ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA-647) AND ELECTRICAL BUILDING (TRA-648) ATTACHED. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-11, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100919, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 9. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627 interior view. Metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627 interior view. Metal roll-up door on north end (rear) of building. Camera facing northeast. Ineel photo no. 1-12. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Instruments to reduce the leaching of heavy metals from building materials in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Breemen, A J H; Vermij, P H M

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands the leaching of heavy metals from metal building and constructing materials results in serious contamination problems in the water system. The most common sources of these heavy metals in construction materials are copper waterworks and roofs, zinc roofs, gutters and rain pipes, zinced steel, stainless steel, and lead sealing material. In urban waters the surface water and sediment standards are often exceeded. Although building and construction materials are certainly not the only source of heavy metals, they are an important part of the problem. This article focuses on six instruments that are in use in the Netherlands to try to reduce impact on the surface waters. In addition to this, national as well as international, a reconsideration of the risks and surface water standards for several heavy metals is considered. A balanced use of instruments can be considered as the application of a best practice.

  9. Spatial analysis and indicator building for metal accumulation in mosses.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland

    2004-11-01

    Mosses are used as passive accumulation monitors for metal accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. Under leadership of the Federal Agency for Environmental Protection Germany took part in the previous European-wide moss monitoring campaigns 1990, 1995 and 2000. The investigations accomplished thereby cannot be presented completely in this article. The remarks rather concentrate on methodical aspects of the statistical data analysis. In Chapter 2 the design of data collection is summarized. Chapter 3 treats the geostatistical analysis and transformation of point data to areal information. Chapter 4 describes the aggregation of the element-specific metal concentrations in mosses to a spatially and temporally differentiated indicator of metal accumulation by means of descriptive and multivariate statistics. The work presented is only a small part of geostatistics and multivariate statistics which fit for analysis of moss monitoring data. Taking the results presented here as a basis, the following steps would further be of great importance: cluster-analytic evaluation of the results of the Moss Monitoring 1990 and 1995, detailing the cluster results using additional empirical and location describing information (e.g. moss species, ecoregions, site and species specific variability of metal accumulation) as well as optimizing the indicator buildung by testing of multivariate statistical regression models (e.g. Classification and Regression Trees). PMID:15473533

  10. Sensing Metal Ions with DNA Building Blocks: Fluorescent Pyridobenzimidazole Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jeong; Kool, Eric T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe novel fluorescent N-deoxyribosides (1 and 2) having 2-pyrido-2-benzimidazole and 2-quino-2-benzimidazole as aglycones. The compounds were prepared from the previously unknown heterocyclic precursors and Hoffer’s chlorosugar, yielding alpha anomers as the chief products. X-ray crystal structures confirmed the geometry, and showed that the pyridine and benzimidazole ring systems deviated from coplanarity in the solid state by 154° and 140°, respectively. In methanol the compounds 1 and 2 had absorption maxima at 360 and 370 nm respectively, and emission maxima at 494 and 539 nm. Experiments revealed varied fluorescence responses of the nucleosides to a panel of seventeen monovalent, divalent and trivalent metal ions in methanol. One or both of the nucleosides showed significant changes with ten of the metal ions. The most pronounced spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 1 included red shifts in fluorescence (Au+, Au3+), strong quenching (Cu2+, Ni2+, Pt2+), and in substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with redshifts (Ag+, Cd2+, Zn2+). The greatest spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 2 included a redshift in fluorescence (Ag+), a blueshift (Cd2+), strong quenching (Pd2+, Pt2+), and in substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with a blueshift (Zn2+). The compounds could be readily incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides, where an initial study revealed that they retained sensitivity to metal ions in aqueous solution, and demonstrated possible cooperative sensing behavior with several ions. The two free nucleosides alone can act as differential sensors for at multiple metal ions, and they are potentially useful monomers for contributing metal ion sensing capability to DNAs. PMID:16669686

  11. Building up strain in colloidal metal nanoparticle catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Brian T; Young, Allison P; Tsung, Chia-Kuang

    2015-08-01

    The focus on surface lattice strain in nanostructures as a fundamental research topic has gained momentum in recent years as scientists investigated its significant impact on the surface electronic structure and catalytic properties of nanomaterials. Researchers have begun to tell a more complete story of catalysis from a perspective which brings this concept to the forefront of the discussion. The nano-'realm' makes the effects of surface lattice strain, which acts on the same spatial scales, more pronounced due to a higher ratio of surface to bulk atoms. This is especially evident in the field of metal nanoparticle catalysis, where displacement of atoms on surfaces can significantly alter the sorption properties of molecules. In part, the concept of strain-engineering for catalysis opened up due to the achievements that were made in the synthesis of a more sophisticated nanoparticle library from an ever-expanding set of methodologies. Developing synthesis methods for metal nanoparticles with well-defined and strained architectures is a worthy goal that, if reached, will have considerable impact in the search for catalysts. In this review, we summarize the recent accomplishments in the area of surface lattice-strained metal nanoparticle synthesis, framing the discussion from the important perspective of surface lattice strain effects in catalysis.

  12. Study of thermosiphon and radiant panel passive heating systems for metal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Biehl, F.A.; Schnurr, N.M.; Wray, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    A study of passive-heating systems appropriate for use on metal buildings is being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. The systems selected for study were chosen on the basis of their appropriateness for retrofit applications, although they are also suitable for new construction: simple radiant panels that communicate directly with the building interior and a backflow thermosiphon that provides heat indirectly.

  13. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: implication for stormwater reuse.

    PubMed

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a "fit-for-purpose" road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. PMID:25687783

  14. A study on the potential of metal corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria in animal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Riskowski, G.L.; Mackie, R.I.

    1999-06-01

    The potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to cause metal corrosion in animal buildings was examined in this study. An analysis was done on the bacterial colonization and the corrosion products on the surfaces of metals exposed to three animal buildings and one environmentally controlled building over a two-year period. Data from this study showed that the levels of SRB on metal surfaces were low after two-year's exposure (maximum count: 1.7 x 10{sup 4}/cm{sup 2}). SRB colonization levels after two years were not sufficient to corrode metal products exposed in animal environments. In addition, metal surface analysis data using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the corrosion compounds formed on the surfaces of different metals were not due to the SERB-induced corrosion mechanisms. These compounds were mainly oxides and carbonates (FeO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Fe(CO){sub 5} on iron samples; ZnO and ZnCO{sub 3} on galvanized steel samples: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZnO, and ZnCO{sub 3} on Galvalume samples), and were normally generated due to the classic types of corrosion mechanisms. Some sulfur was present to form ZnS on the galvanized steel samples, but might not be attributed to SRB. The origin of this sulfur was not clear.

  15. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: implication for stormwater reuse.

    PubMed

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a "fit-for-purpose" road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety.

  16. Analysis of build-up of heavy metals and volatile organics on urban roads in gold coast, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Yigitcanlar, Tan

    2011-01-01

    Urban water quality can be significantly impaired by the build-up of pollutants such as heavy metals and volatile organics on urban road surfaces due to vehicular traffic. Any control strategy for the mitigation of traffic related build-up of heavy metals and volatile organic pollutants should be based on the knowledge of their build-up processes. In the study discussed in this paper, the outcomes of a detailed experimental investigation into build-up processes of heavy metals and volatile organics are presented. It was found that traffic parameters such as average daily traffic, volume over capacity ratio and surface texture depth had similar strong correlations with the build-up of heavy metals and volatile organics. Multicriteria decision analyses revealed that that the 1-74 microm particulate fraction of total suspended solids (TSS) could be regarded as a surrogate indicator for particulate heavy metals in build-up and this same fraction of total organic carbon could be regarded as a surrogate indicator for particulate volatile organics build-up. In terms of pollutants affinity, TSS was found to be the predominant parameter for particulate heavy metals build-up and total dissolved solids was found to be the predominant parameter for the potential dissolved particulate fraction in heavy metals buildup. It was also found that land use did not play a significant role in the build-up of traffic generated heavy metals and volatile organics.

  17. Performance-based Design of RC Frame Buildings with Metallic and Friction Dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, Deepsikha; Singh, Yogendra

    2014-12-01

    Supplemental energy dissipation is a technique of earthquake resistant design and for improving the seismic performance of existing buildings. In the present study, a comprehensive design methodology for performance based design of frame buildings with metallic and friction dampers has been proposed. In this study, the target performance level is aimed to achieve both in terms of inter-storey drift and plastic hinge rotation. A non-iterative step-by-step design procedure is proposed to achieve the target performance level. The methodology provides the design yield forces in case of metallic dampers, and slip forces in case of friction dampers. A satisfactory distribution of both types of dampers along the height of the building is also provided in the methodology. The efficiency of the proposed design methodology is validated by applying to a ten storey building and performing nonlinear time history analysis. The building, with and without dampers, is subjected to five spectrum compatible time histories with peak ground acceleration of 0.24 g and the relative performance of the building with the two types of dampers is studied.

  18. Build-up of toxic metals on the impervious surfaces of a commercial seaport.

    PubMed

    Ziyath, Abdul M; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-05-01

    In the context of increasing threats to the sensitive marine ecosystem by toxic metals, this study investigated the metal build-up on impervious surfaces specific to commercial seaports. The knowledge generated from this study will contribute to managing toxic metal pollution of the marine ecosystem. The study found that inter-modal operations and main access roadway had the highest loads followed by container storage and vehicle marshalling sites, while the quay line and short term storage areas had the lowest. Additionally, it was found that Cr, Al, Pb, Cu and Zn were predominantly attached to solids, while significant amount of Cu, Pb and Zn were found as nutrient complexes. As such, treatment options based on solids retention can be effective for some metal species, while ineffective for other species. Furthermore, Cu and Zn are more likely to become bioavailable in seawater due to their strong association with nutrients. Mathematical models to replicate the metal build-up process were also developed using experimental design approach and partial least squares regression. The models for Cr and Pb were found to be reliable, while those for Al, Zn and Cu were relatively less reliable, but could be employed for preliminary investigations.

  19. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    PubMed

    Leuven, R S E W; Willems, F H G

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and environmental benefits, these secondary building materials contain various metals that may leach into river water. A leaching model was used to predict annual emissions of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Under the current utilisation and model assumptions, the contribution of secondary building materials to metal pollution in Dutch surface waters is expected to be relatively low compared to other sources (less than 0.1% and 0.2% in the years 2000 and 2025, respectively). However, continued and widespread large-scale applications of secondary building materials will increase pollutant leaching and may require further cuts to be made in emissions from other sources to meet emission reduction targets and water quality standards. It is recommended to validate available leaching models under various field conditions. Complete registration of secondary building materials will be required to improve input data for leaching models.

  20. Composition of heavy metals and airborne fibers in the indoor environment of a building during renovation.

    PubMed

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Baharudin, Nor Hafizah; Velayutham, Puvaneswary; Awang, Normah; Hamdan, Harimah; Mohamad, Ruqyyah; Mokhtar, Mazlin B

    2011-10-01

    The renovation of a building will certainly affect the quality of air in the vicinity of where associated activities were undertaken, this includes the quality of air inside the building. Indoor air pollutants such as particulate matter, heavy metals, and fine fibers are likely to be emitted during renovation work. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of heavy metals, asbestos and suspended particulates in the Biology Building, at the Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia (UKM). Renovation activities were carried out widely in the laboratories which were located in this building. A low-volume sampler was used to collect suspended particulate matter of a diameter size less than 10 μm (PM₁₀) and an air sampling pump, fitted with a cellulose ester membrane filter, were used for asbestos sampling. Dust was collected using a small brush and scope. The concentration of heavy metals was determined through the use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy and the fibers were counted through a phase contrast microscope. The concentrations of PM₁₀ recorded in the building during renovation action (ranging from 166 to 542 μg m⁻³) were higher than the value set by the Department of Safety and Health for respirable dust (150 μg m⁻³). Additionally, they were higher than the value of PM₁₀ recorded in indoor environments from other studies. The composition of heavy metals in PM₁₀ and indoor dust were found to be dominated by Zn and results also showed that the concentration of heavy metals in indoor dust and PM₁₀ in this study was higher than levels recorded in other similar studies. The asbestos concentration was 0.0038 ± 0.0011 fibers/cc. This was lower than the value set by the Malaysian Department of Occupational, Safety and Health (DOSH) regulations of 0.1 fibers/cc, but higher than the background value usually recorded in indoor environments. This study strongly suggests that renovation issues need to be considered seriously

  1. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    PubMed

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  2. Daylighting design analysis. Project status report No. 2, 1 March-31 December 1980. [For pre-engineered metal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hallagan, W.B.; Lindsey, L.L.; Snyder, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed scale model studies regarding daylighting aspects of the passive/hybrid solar test building located at Butler Research Center in Grandview, MO are discussed. The product development program is aimed at providing passive/hybrid system building alternatives for commercial, industrial, and community purchasers of Butler's Landmark pre-engineered metal buildings. Occasioned by recognition, early in the project, that daylighting could strongly influence annual energy consumption in buildings of the targetted use types, scale models of several alternative design configurations, including that of the test building in Grandview, were built and tested. The major design alternatives, test results, and conclusions to date are described.

  3. Seismic design or retrofit of buildings with metallic structural fuses by the damage-reduction spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Shuchuan; Zeng, Yan; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the structural fuse has become an important issue in the field of earthquake engineering. Due to the trilinearity of the pushover curve of buildings with metallic structural fuses, the mechanism of the structural fuse is investigated through the ductility equation of a single-degree-of-freedom system, and the corresponding damage-reduction spectrum is proposed to design and retrofit buildings. Furthermore, the controlling parameters, the stiffness ratio between the main frame and structural fuse and the ductility factor of the main frame, are parametrically studied, and it is shown that the structural fuse concept can be achieved by specific combinations of the controlling parameters based on the proposed damage-reduction spectrum. Finally, a design example and a retrofit example, variations of real engineering projects after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedures using buckling restrained braces as the structural fuses.

  4. Formation mechanism of the secondary building unit in a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu Cantu, David; McGrail, B. Peter; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra

    2014-09-18

    Based on density functional theory calculations and simulation, a detailed mechanism is presented on the formation of the secondary building unit (SBU) of MIL-101, a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework (MOF). SBU formation is key to MOF nucleation, the rate-limiting step in the formation process of many MOFs. A series of reactions that lead to the formation of the SBU of MIL-101 is proposed in this work. Initial rate-limiting reactions form the metal cluster with three chromium (III) atoms linked to a central bridging oxygen. Terephthalate linkers play a key role as chromium (III) atoms are joined to linker carboxylate groups prior to the placement of the central bridging oxygen. Multiple linker addition reactions, which follow in different paths due to structural isomers, are limited by the removal of water molecules in the first chromium coordination shell. The least energy path is identified were all linkers on one face of the metal center plane are added first. A simple kinetic model based on transition state theory shows the rate of secondary building unit formation similar to the rate metal-organic framework nucleation. The authors are thankful to Dr. R. Rousseau for a critical reading of the manuscript. This research would not have been possible without the support of the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the PNNL Institutional Computing (PIC) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  5. Air-core microcavities and metal-dielectric filters - building blocks for optofluidic microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Trevor Warren

    This thesis describes a study on two optical devices intended to be building blocks for the creation of integrated optical/microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. First, arrays of curved-mirror dome-shaped microcavities were fabricated by buckling self-assembly of a-Si/SiO2 multilayers. This novel technique employs controlled, stress-induced film delamination to form highly symmetric cavities with minimal roughness defects or geometrical imperfections. Measured cavity heights were in good agreement with predictions from elastic buckling theory. Also, the measured finesse (> 103) and quality factor (> 104 in the 1550-nm range) were close to reflectance-limited predictions, indicating low defects and roughness. Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian modes were observable, indicating a high degree of cylindrical symmetry. In the second part of the research, transmittance in periodic metal-dielectric multilayer structures was studied. Metal-dielectric stacks have many potential applications in optofluidic microsystems, including as transmission filters, superlenses, and substrates for surface plasmon sensors. In this work, we showed that potential transmittance theory provides a good method for describing the tunneling of photons through metal-dielectric stacks, for both Fabry-Perot and surface plasmon resonances. This approach explains the well-known fact that for a given thickness of metal, subdividing the metal into several thin films can increase the maximum transmittance. Conditions for admittance matching of dielectric-metal-dielectric unit cells to an external air medium were explored for Fabry-Perot based tunneling, revealing that thicker metal films require higher-index dielectrics for optimal admittance matching. It was also shown for the first time that potential transmittance theory can be used to predict the maximum possible transmittance in surface-plasmon-mediated tunneling. In a subsequent study, potential transmittance was used to derive an expression for

  6. Influence of uncertainty inherent to heavy metal build-up and wash-off on stormwater quality.

    PubMed

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-03-15

    Uncertainty inherent to heavy metal build-up and wash-off stems from process variability. This results in inaccurate interpretation of stormwater quality model predictions. The research study has characterised the variability in heavy metal build-up and wash-off processes based on the temporal variations in particle-bound heavy metals commonly found on urban roads. The study outcomes found that the distribution of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were consistent over particle size fractions <150 μm and >150 μm, with most metals concentrated in the particle size fraction <150 μm. When build-up and wash-off are considered as independent processes, the temporal variations in these processes in relation to the heavy metals load are consistent with variations in the particulate load. However, the temporal variations in the load in build-up and wash-off of heavy metals and particulates are not consistent for consecutive build-up and wash-off events that occur on a continuous timeline. These inconsistencies are attributed to interactions between heavy metals and particulates <150 μm and >150 μm, which are influenced by particle characteristics such as organic matter content. The behavioural variability of particles determines the variations in the heavy metals load entrained in stormwater runoff. Accordingly, the variability in build-up and wash-off of particle-bound pollutants needs to be characterised in the description of pollutant attachment to particulates in stormwater quality modelling. This will ensure the accounting of process uncertainty, and thereby enhancing the interpretation of the outcomes derived from modelling studies.

  7. Interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks formed by self-assembly of tetrahedral and octahedral building blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yongming; Lan Yaqian; Xu Yanhong; Su Zhongmin; Li Shunli; Zang Hongying; Xu Guangjuan

    2009-11-15

    To investigate the relationship between topological types and molecular building blocks (MBBs), we have designed and synthesized a series of three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks based on different polygons or polyhedra under hydrothermal conditions, namely [Cd(bpib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 1})] (1), [Cd(bpib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 2})].H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(bpib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 3})] (3) and [Cd(bib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 1})] (4), where bpib=1,4-bis(2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane, bib=1,4-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane, H{sub 2}L{sup 1}=4-(4-carboxybenzyloxy)benzoic acid, H{sub 2}L{sup 2}=4,4'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(oxy))dibenzoic acid and H{sub 2}L{sup 3}=4,4'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))bis(oxy)dibenzoic acid, respectively. Their structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compounds 1-3 display alpha-Po topological nets with different degrees of interpenetration based on the similar octahedral [Cd{sub 2}(-COO){sub 4}] building blocks. Compound 4 is a six-fold interpenetrating diamondoid net based on tetrahedral MBBs. By careful inspection of these structures, we find that various carboxylic ligands and N-donor ligands with different coordination modes and conformations, and metal centers with different geometries are important for the formation of the different MBBs. It is believed that different topological types lie on different MBBs with various polygons or polyhedra. Such as four- and six-connected topologies are formed by tetrahedral and octahedral building blocks. In addition, with the increase of carboxylic ligands' length, the degrees of interpenetration have been changed in the alpha-Po topological nets. And the luminescent properties of these compounds have been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: A series of three-dimensional interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks based on different polygons or polyhedra

  8. Interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks formed by self-assembly of tetrahedral and octahedral building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yong-Ming; Lan, Ya-Qian; Xu, Yan-Hong; Su, Zhong-Min; Li, Shun-Li; Zang, Hong-Ying; Xu, Guang-Juan

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between topological types and molecular building blocks (MBBs), we have designed and synthesized a series of three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks based on different polygons or polyhedra under hydrothermal conditions, namely [Cd(bpib) 0.5(L 1)] ( 1), [Cd(bpib) 0.5(L 2)]·H 2O ( 2), [Cd(bpib) 0.5(L 3)] ( 3) and [Cd(bib) 0.5(L 1)] ( 4), where bpib=1,4-bis(2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-imidazol-1-yl)butane, bib=1,4-bis(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)butane, H 2L 1=4-(4-carboxybenzyloxy)benzoic acid, H 2L 2=4,4'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(oxy))dibenzoic acid and H 2L 3=4,4'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))bis(oxy)dibenzoic acid, respectively. Their structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compounds 1- 3 display α-Po topological nets with different degrees of interpenetration based on the similar octahedral [Cd 2(-COO) 4] building blocks. Compound 4 is a six-fold interpenetrating diamondoid net based on tetrahedral MBBs. By careful inspection of these structures, we find that various carboxylic ligands and N-donor ligands with different coordination modes and conformations, and metal centers with different geometries are important for the formation of the different MBBs. It is believed that different topological types lie on different MBBs with various polygons or polyhedra. Such as four- and six-connected topologies are formed by tetrahedral and octahedral building blocks. In addition, with the increase of carboxylic ligands' length, the degrees of interpenetration have been changed in the α-Po topological nets. And the luminescent properties of these compounds have been investigated in detail.

  9. Electronic and optical excitations in building blocks of the metal organic framework MOF-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Bin; Hung, Linda; Yildirim, Taner; Ogut, Serdar

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of materials which are made of metal-oxide clusters linked by organic bridging ligands. In recent years, MOFs have received considerable attention due to their widely tunable structural, chemical and physical properties. We investigate one of the well characterized MOFs, MOF-5, whose framework consists of tetrahedral [Zn40]6+ units linked by rigid arylcarboxylate ligands. We use many-body perturbation (GW +BSE) and time-dependent DFT methods in real space to examine the electronic and optical excitations in the building blocks of MOF-5, such as Zn4O(COOH)6, basic zinc acetate [Zn4O(CH3COO)6], and tetranuclear zinc benzoate [Zn4O(C6H5COO)6]. The calculated spectra are compared with available experimental measurements and existing calculations to shed light on the controversy regarding the nature (metal-ligand versus ligand-ligand) of low-energy electronic and optical excitations in MOF-5. Supported by DOE Grant No. DE-SC0001853.

  10. Potential threat of heavy metals in re-suspended dusts on building surfaces in oilfield city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Lu, Bing; Bai, Zhipeng; Zhao, Xueyan; Chen, Li; Han, Bin; Li, Zhiyong; Ji, Yaqin; Xu, Yonghai; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Hua

    2011-08-01

    30 re-suspended dust samples were collected from building surfaces of an oilfield city, then re-suspended through PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM 100 inlets and analyzed for 10 metals including V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Metals concentrations in different fractions and locations were studied. Metals sources were identified by cluster and primary component analysis. The potential risk to human health was assessed by human exposure model. Results showed that Zn, Mn, Pb and Cu were higher in all the three fractions. V, Cr, Mn and Co ranged close to the background values of Chinese soil indicating that they were mainly from crustal materials. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Pb, V, Cr, Ni, Co and Cd were higher in old district than that in new district for the three fractions. The PM 2.5/PM 10, PM 10/PM 100 and PM 2.5/PM 100 ratios were higher for Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, As and Cr (all higher than 1.0), and lower for Co, Mn and V (all less than or close to 1.0) which meant that anthropologic sources associated metals were more easily accumulated in finer particles than metals from crustal materials. Spatial variations indicated that the ten metals peaked at surroundings near railway station, gas stations, industrial boilers and machine manufacturing plant implying the influence of local vehicle emission, fossil fuel combustion and industrial activities as well as crustal materials which was verified by cluster analysis and primary component analysis results. Ingestion of dust particles appeared to be the main route of exposure to re-suspended dust. Hazard Indexes of As were both highest for children and adult which could be a potential threat to human health for non-cancer effect and it also exhibited the highest values for cancer effect as 1.01E-06, 7.04E-07 and 7.21E-07 for PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM 100, respectively.

  11. Crystal engineering on superpolyhedral building blocks in metal-organic frameworks applied in gas adsorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying Pin; Liu, Tian Fu; Fordham, Stephen; Zhou, Hong Cai

    2015-12-01

    Two metal-organic frameworks [PCN-426(Ni) and PCN-427(Cu)] have been designed and synthesized to investigate the structure predictability using a SBB (supermolecular building blocks) approach. Tetratopic ligands featuring 120° angular carboxylate moieties were coordinated with a [Ni3(μ3-O)] cluster and a [Cu2O2] unit, respectively. As topologically predicted, 4-connected networks with square coordination adopted the nbo net for the Ni-MOF and ssb net for the Cu-MOF. PCN-426(Ni) was augmented with 12-connected octahedral SBBs, while PCN-427(Cu) was constructed with tetragonal open channels. After a CO2 supercritical drying procedure, the PCN-426(Ni) possessed a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area as high as 3935 m(2) g(-1) and impressively high N2 uptake of 1500 cm(3) g(-1). This work demonstrates the generalization of the SBB strategy, finding an alternative to inconvenient synthetic processes to achieve the desired structural features.

  12. Cation exchange at the secondary building units of metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Brozek, C K; Dincă, M

    2014-08-21

    Cation exchange is an emerging synthetic route for modifying the secondary building units (SBUs) of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). This technique has been used extensively to enhance the properties of nanocrystals and molecules, but the extent of its applications for MOFs is still expanding. To harness cation exchange as a rational tool, we need to elucidate its governing factors. Not nearly enough experimental observations exist for drawing these conclusions, so we provide a conceptual framework for approaching this task. We address which SBUs undergo exchange, why certain ions replace others, how the framework influences the process, the role of the solvent, and current applications. Using these guidelines, certain trends emerge from the available data and missing experiments become obvious. If future studies follow this framework, then a more comprehensive body of observations will furnish a deeper understanding of cation exchange and inspire future applications.

  13. Ironworker - Metal Building Systems Erector: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 40-1-06.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The graduate of the Ironworker - Metal Building System Erector apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) demonstrate the principles of drafting, how drawings originate and how to correctly interpret the…

  14. Expanded organic building units for the construction of highly porous metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Kong, Guo-Qiang; Han, Zhi-Da; He, Yabing; Ou, Sha; Zhou, Wei; Yildirim, Taner; Krishna, Rajamani; Zou, Chao; Chen, Banglin; Wu, Chuan-De

    2013-10-25

    Two new organic building units that contain dicarboxylate sites for their self-assembly with paddlewheel [Cu2(CO2)4] units have been successfully developed to construct two isoreticular porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), ZJU-35 and ZJU-36, which have the same tbo topologies (Reticular Chemistry Structure Resource (RCSR) symbol) as HKUST-1. Because the organic linkers in ZJU-35 and ZJU-36 are systematically enlarged, the pores in these two new porous MOFs vary from 10.8 Å in HKUST-1 to 14.4 Å in ZJU-35 and 16.5 Å in ZJU-36, thus leading to their higher porosities with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of 2899 and 4014 m(2) g(-1) for ZJU-35 and ZJU-36, respectively. High-pressure gas-sorption isotherms indicate that both ZJU-35 and ZJU-36 can take up large amounts of CH4 and CO2, and are among the few porous MOFs with the highest volumetric storage of CH4 under 60 bar and CO2 under 30 bar at room temperature. Their potential for high-pressure swing adsorption (PSA) hydrogen purification was also preliminarily examined and compared with several reported MOFs, thus indicating the potential of ZJU-35 and ZJU-36 for this important application. Studies show that most of the highly porous MOFs that can volumetrically take up the greatest amount of CH4 under 60 bar and CO2 under 30 bar at room temperature are those self-assembled from organic tetra- and hexacarboxylates that contain m-benzenedicarboxylate units with the [Cu2(CO2)4] units, because this series of MOFs can have balanced porosities, suitable pores, and framework densities to optimize their volumetric gas storage. The realization of the two new organic building units for their construction of highly porous MOFs through their self-assembly with [Cu2(CO2)4] units has provided great promise for the exploration of a large number of new tetra- and hexacarboxylate organic linkers based on these new organic building units in which different aromatic backbones can be readily incorporated

  15. Production of fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitat and manufacturing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The production of a fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitats and manufacturing facilities was the project for Clemson. The concept and development of the knowledge necessary to produce glass fibers originated in the spring semester. During the summer, while at Johnson Space Center, fiberglass from a rock composition similar to ones found at the Apollo 16 site on the moon was successfully produced. The project this year was a continuation of last year's studies. We addressed the following problems which emerged as the work progressed: (1) Methods for coating the fibers with a metal were explored. We manufactured composites in two stages: Glass fibers without any coating on them; and fibers coated with metals as they were made. This proved to be a difficult process. Future activities include using a chemical vapor deposition process on fibers which have been made. (2) A glass furnace was developed which relies primarily on solar energy for melting the glass. The temperature of the melted glass is maintained by electrical means. The design is for 250 kg of glass per day. An electrical engineering student developed a scheme for controlling the melting and manufacturing process from the earth. This was done to minimize the human risk. Graphite refractories are relied on to contain the melt. (3) The glass composition chosen for the project is a relatively pure anorthite which is available in the highland regions of the lunar surface. A major problems with this material is that it melts at a comparatively high temperature. This problem will be solved by using graphite refractory materials for the furnace. The advantage of this glass composition is that it is very stable and does not tend to crystallize. (4) We have also refined the experimental furnace and fiber making machinery which we will be using at Johnson Space Center this summer. We believe that we will be able to draw and coat glass fibers in a vacuum for use in composites. We intend to

  16. A Metal-Organic Framework Containing Unusual Eight-Connected Zr–-Oxo Secondary Building Units and Orthogonal Carboxylic Acids for Ultra-sensitive Metal Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Carboni, Michaël; Lin, Zekai; Abney, Carter W.; Zhang, Teng; Lin, Wenbin

    2015-08-21

    Two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Zr-oxo secondary building units (SBUs) were prepared by using p,p'-terphenyldicarboxylate (TPDC) bridging ligands pre-functionalized with orthogonal succinic acid (MOF-1) and maleic acid groups (MOF-2). Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of MOF-1 provides the first direct evidence for eight-connected SBUs in UiO-type MOFs. In contrast, MOF-2 contains twelve-connected SBUs as seen in the traditional UiO MOF topology. These structural assignments were confirmed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. The highly porous MOF-1 is an excellent fluorescence sensor for metal ions with the detection limit of <0.5 ppb for Mn2+ and three to four orders of magnitude greater sensitivity for metal ions than previously reported luminescent MOFs.

  17. Radon in indoor concentrations and indoor concentrations of metal dust particles in museums and other public buildings.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, G L; Braz, D; de Jesus, E F; Santos, S M; Cardoso, K; Hecht, A A; Dias da Cunha, Moore K

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the public and occupational exposure to radon and metal-bearing particles in museums and public buildings located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For this study, four buildings were selected: two historic buildings, which currently house an art gallery and an art museum; and two modern buildings, a chapel and a club. Integrated radon concentration measurements were performed using passive radon detectors with solid state nuclear track detector-type Lexan used as nuclear track detector. Air samplers with a cyclone were used to collect the airborne particle samples that were analyzed by the particle-induced X-ray emission technique. The average unattached-radon concentrations in indoor air in the buildings were above 40 Bq/m(3), with the exception of Building D as measured in 2009. The average radon concentrations in indoor air in the four buildings in 2009 were below the recommended reference level by World Health Organization (100 Bq/m(3)); however, in 2011, the average concentrations of radon in Buildings A and C were above this level, though lower than 300 Bq/m(3). The average concentrations of unattached radon were lower than 148 Bq/m(3) (4pCi/L), the USEPA level recommended to take action to reduce the concentrations of radon in indoor air. The unattached-radon average concentrations were also lower than the value recommended by the European Union for new houses. As the unattached-radon concentrations were below the international level recommended to take action to reduce the radon concentration in air, it was concluded that during the period of sampling, there was low risk to human health due to the inhalation of unattached radon in these four buildings.

  18. [Work injuries in building construction, metal shaping, and food production sectors in Jericho District in the Palestinian territory].

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, A; Maqdadi, R; Habash, R; Aliyan, G; Khofash, F; Grayesh, S

    2005-01-01

    Work injuries and accidents have a considerable impact on public and community health. This study targeted three work sectors: metal shaping, food production and building construction. Work injuries that occurred in these sectors were compared for the years 1999 and 2000 in Jericho District in the West Bank of Palestine. One hundred three injuries were examined and information recorded about the nature of the injury, site of injury in the body, direct cause of injury and some personal information about the injured worker. The most vulnerable group were young people in their twenties, and mostly those working in the metal shaping and building construction sectors. The kinds and sites of injuries varied. The data were compared with data from 1997, 1998 and 2001-2003, although only loosley as the available data about work injuries for these years were limited and inaccurate.

  19. Anderson-like alkoxo-polyoxovanadate clusters serving as unprecedented second building units to construct metal-organic polyhedra.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Teng; Wang, Xin-Long; Li, Shuang-Bao; Gong, Ya-Ru; Song, Bai-Qiao; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Su, Zhong-Min

    2016-08-11

    Unprecedented Anderson-like alkoxo-polyoxovanadate [V6O6(OCH3)9(μ6-SO4)(COO)3](2-) polyanions can serve as 3-connected second building units (SBUs) that assemble with dicarboxylate or tricarboxylate ligands to form a new family of metal organic tetrahedrons of V4E6 and V4F4 type (V = vertex, E = edge, and F = face). To our knowledge, this alkoxo-polyoxovanadate-based SBU is the first ever reported. PMID:27363544

  20. Ab Initio Study of the Adsorption of Small Molecules on Metal-Organic Frameworks with Oxo-centered Trimetallic Building Units: The Role of the Undercoordinated Metal Ion.

    PubMed

    Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Boese, A Daniel; Fink, Karin; Heine, Thomas; Klopper, Wim

    2015-09-01

    The interactions of H2, CO, CO2, and H2O with the undercoordinated metal centers of the trimetallic oxo-centered M3(III)(μ3-O)(X) (COO)6 moiety are studied by means of wave function and density functional theory. This trimetallic oxo-centered cluster is a common building unit in several metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as MIL-100, MIL-101, and MIL-127 (also referred to as soc-MOF). A combinatorial computational screening is performed for a large variety of trimetallic oxo-centered units M3(III)O (M = Al(3+), Sc(3+), V(3+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Rh(3+), In(3+), Ir(3+)) interacting with H2O, H2, CO, and CO2. The screening addresses interaction energies, adsorption enthalpies, and vibrational properties. The results show that the Rh and Ir analogues are very promising materials for gas storage and separations.

  1. Adsorption and mobility of metals in build-up on road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the adsorption and bioavailability characteristics of traffic generated metals common to urban land uses, in road deposited solids particles. To validate the outcomes derived from the analysis of field samples, adsorption and desorption experiments were undertaken. The analysis of field samples revealed that metals are selectively adsorbed to different charge sites on solids. Zinc, copper, lead and nickel are adsorbed preferentially to oxides of manganese, iron and aluminium. Lead is adsorbed to organic matter through chemisorption. Cadmium and chromium form weak bonding through cation exchange with most of the particle sizes. Adsorption and desorption experiments revealed that at high metal concentrations, chromium, copper and lead form relatively strong bonds with solids particles while zinc is adsorbed through cation exchange with high likelihood of being released back into solution. Outcomes from this study provide specific guidance for the removal of metals from stormwater based on solids removal.

  2. Metal-containing polymers: building blocks for functional (nano)materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosong; McHale, Ronan

    2010-02-16

    The incorporation of metallic units into polymer chains has emerged as a promising route towards functional metal-containing (nano)materials. The resulting polymers possess rich functions derived from their metallic elements, such as redox, optical, catalytic and magnetic properties. In addition, the directional and dynamic nature of metal coordination interactions provides further variables for the exploration of novel materials with designed nanostructures. These types of polymers can be synthesized through direct metal-ligand coordination or chain polymerization of metal containing monomers. Depending on the polymerization techniques and starting components, the resulting polymers, akin to their organic counterparts, can be produced in the form of insoluble networks, processible chain structures, gels or colloids. Research into this rising multidisciplinary subject has benefited from recent progress in several related areas such as supramolecular chemistry, colloidal chemistry etc., with the combination of the relative merits of each ensuring further developments in each individual discipline. For example, as a result of studies into organometallic block copolymers self-assembly behavior, living supramolecular polymerization has been unprecedentedly realized for the architectural design of micelles (see image on the right). Nevertheless, the field is still in a developmental stage and offers ample opportunities for fundamental research, as well as material exploration. In this Feature Article, we intend to overview the field with a brief survey of recent literature. PMID:21590911

  3. The metal alloys from the XIX century and weathering action in the Mercado do Ver-o-Peso building, northern Brazil: Identification with the usage of laboratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Palácios, Flávia Olegário; Angélica, Rômulo Simões; Sanjad, Thais Alessandra Bastos Caminha

    2014-10-15

    The fabrication of metallic buildings started in Europe after the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. Metallic constructions became very popular, and started being imported by several countries, due to the facility of constructing or assembling. Belém, a northern Brazilian city, holds a great number of buildings entirely made of iron, including the Ver-o-Peso, a fish market which structures were imported from England by the end of the 19th century. This building represents a unique type of architecture and it's an important part of the city's heritage. However, research so far did not focus on its construction materials. Ver-o-Peso building's metal alloys haven't been thoroughly studied concerning physical, chemical and mineralogical characterizations. This paper aims to identify the types of metal alloys used in the building, and also corrosion products' result from weathering actions. The methods used to characterize the materials were scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Through this research it was possible to identify four types of iron alloys used in the different parts of the building, characterize the paint coats, and determine types of corrosion. The characterization of the materials in the building allows enrolling basis for restoration processes, documenting the types of metal alloy used in architectural heritage from the 19th century, as well as understanding the advances of corrosion. - Highlights: • Ver-o-peso is a heritage building from the 19th century with unidentified alloys. • Alloy and weathering product characterization was done using SEM/EDS and XRD. • Four metal alloy types were described, indicating different types of foundries. • Weathering products showed distinct mineral phases and physical characteristics. • Original paint coats were found among corrosion products.

  4. A supermolecular building approach for the design and construction of metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Guillerm, Vincent; Kim, Dongwook; Eubank, Jarrod F; Luebke, Ryan; Liu, Xinfang; Adil, Karim; Lah, Myoung Soo; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-08-21

    In this review, we describe two recently implemented conceptual approaches facilitating the design and deliberate construction of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), namely supermolecular building block (SBB) and supermolecular building layer (SBL) approaches. Our main objective is to offer an appropriate means to assist/aid chemists and material designers alike to rationally construct desired functional MOF materials, made-to-order MOFs. We introduce the concept of net-coded building units (net-cBUs), where precise embedded geometrical information codes uniquely and matchlessly a selected net, as a compelling route for the rational design of MOFs. This concept is based on employing pre-selected 0-periodic metal–organic polyhedra or 2-periodic metal–organic layers, SBBs or SBLs respectively, as a pathway to access the requisite net-cBUs. In this review, inspired by our success with the original rht-MOF, we extrapolated our strategy to other known MOFs via their deconstruction into more elaborate building units (namely polyhedra or layers) to (i) elucidate the unique relationship between edge-transitive polyhedra or layers and minimal edge-transitive 3-periodic nets, and (ii) illustrate the potential of the SBB and SBL approaches as a rational pathway for the design and construction of 3-periodic MOFs. Using this design strategy, we have also identified several new hypothetical MOFs which are synthetically targetable.

  5. Colloidal metal nanoparticles: New building blocks for materials and amplification reagents for immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musick, Michael David

    This thesis describes new analytical uses for colloidal metal nanoparticles. Investigations into the ligand directed self-assembly of new materials from metal nanoparticles and applications of metal nanoparticle arrays in electrochemistry and immunosensing have addressed several issues; These include (i) the development of a stepwise method to assemble materials composed of metal nanoparticles entirely from solution, (ii) characterization of morphological, optical and electrical properties of these materials, and (iii) potential applications for nanoparticle materials such as biocompatible electrodes, microband electrodes, and patterned arrays. Also discussed are (iv) interactions of colloidal metal particle arrays with surface plasmons, and (v) a new motif for ultrasensitive detection of immunological binding events. A novel method of layer-by-layer film formation from solution of metal nanoparticles film generation was developed and investigated. Atomic force microscopy of multilayered structures revealed an underlying porous nanostructure and a lack of inter- and intra particle order. Optical properties and DC resistance were monitored as a function of colloid coverage and bifunctional crosslinker. High coverage films were similar to evaporated discontinuous metal films in transmission properties (uv-vis/NIR) and in appearance by eye these films resembled their bulk metal counterparts. The measured resistivity was only 100 times greater than bulk Au. Applications in electrochemistry and the construction of a microband electrode of nanometer dimensions, is discussed and detailed further in chapter 4. Chapter 5 encompasses probing nanoparticle assemblies with surface plasmon resonance and the applications of colloidal Au nanoparticles as signal amplification reagents in a sandwich immunoassay. The binding of anti-human IgG:Au colloid conjugate to human IgG immobilized on an Au film produced a enhanced shift in plasmon angle over unconjugated antibody. Detection

  6. Building thiol and metal-thiolate functions into coordination nets: Clues from a simple molecule

    SciTech Connect

    He Jun; Yang Chen; Xu Zhengtao; Zeller, Matthias; Hunter, Allen D.; Lin Jianhua

    2009-07-15

    The simple and easy-to-prepare bifunctional molecule 2,5-dimercapto-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 4}DMBD) interacts with the increasingly harder metal ions of Cu{sup +}, Pb{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} to form the coordination networks of Cu{sub 6}(DMBD){sub 3}(en){sub 4}(Hen){sub 6} (1), Pb{sub 2}(DMBD)(en){sub 2} (2) and Eu{sub 2}(H{sub 2}DMBD){sub 3}(DEF){sub 4} (3), where the carboxyl and thiol groups bind with distinct preference to the hard and soft metal ions, respectively. Notably, 1 features uncoordinated carboxylate groups and Cu{sub 3} cluster units integrated via the thiolate groups into an extended network with significant interaction between the metal centers and the organic molecules; 2 features a 2D coordination net based on the mercapto and carboxylic groups all bonded to the Pb{sup 2+} ions; 3 features free-standing thiol groups inside the channels of a metal-carboxylate-based network. This study illustrates the rich solid state structural features and potential functions offered by the carboxyl-thiol combination. - Graphical Abstract: Molecule 2,5-dimercapto-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid was reacted with Cu{sup +}, Pb{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions to explore solid state networks with the rich structural features arising from the carboxyl-thiol combination.

  7. Building thiol and metal-thiolate functions into coordination nets: Clues from a simple molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Yang, Chen; Xu, Zhengtao; Zeller, Matthias; Hunter, Allen D.; Lin, Jianhua

    2009-07-01

    The simple and easy-to-prepare bifunctional molecule 2,5-dimercapto-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H 4DMBD) interacts with the increasingly harder metal ions of Cu +, Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ to form the coordination networks of Cu 6(DMBD) 3(en) 4(Hen) 6 ( 1), Pb 2(DMBD)(en) 2 ( 2) and Eu 2(H 2DMBD) 3(DEF) 4 ( 3), where the carboxyl and thiol groups bind with distinct preference to the hard and soft metal ions, respectively. Notably, 1 features uncoordinated carboxylate groups and Cu 3 cluster units integrated via the thiolate groups into an extended network with significant interaction between the metal centers and the organic molecules; 2 features a 2D coordination net based on the mercapto and carboxylic groups all bonded to the Pb 2+ ions; 3 features free-standing thiol groups inside the channels of a metal-carboxylate-based network. This study illustrates the rich solid state structural features and potential functions offered by the carboxyl-thiol combination.

  8. Building a Chemical Intuition Under Pressure: Prediction of Alkali Metal Polyhydrides and Subhydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Eva

    2013-06-01

    Stabilization of solid phases with unusual combinations or stoichiometries, and unexpected electronic structures may be achieved by applying external pressure. The prediction of these structures using our chemical intuition (developed at 1 atmosphere) would be exceedingly difficult, making automated structure search techniques prudent. For this reason, we have written XtalOpt, an open-source evolutionary algorithm for crystal structure prediction. Whereas at 1 atmosphere the classic alkali hydrides combine in a one-to-one ratio, M+H-, under pressure non-classic stoichiometries MHn(n > 1) and MmH (m > 1) are preferred. For example, theoretical work has predicted that LiH6 and NaH9 become particularly stable phases at about 100 and 25 GPa, respectively. And the potassium, rubidium and cesium polyhydrides all contain the H3-anion, the simplest exaple of a three centered four electron bond. The alkaline-earth polyhydrides are considered as well. Chemical trends relating the stabilization pressure to the ionization potential, and the nature of the hydrogenic sublattice to the strength of the metal-hydride interaction can be made. These hydrogen-rich materials with nontraditional stoichiometries are computed to undergo an insulator to metal transition at pressures attainable in diamond anvil cells. It may be that these systems are superconductors at experimentally achievable pressures. The metal-rich region of the alkali/hydrogen phase diagram under pressure shows that alkali-metal subhydrides may also be stabilized under pressure. We acknowledge the NSF (DMR-1005413) for financial support.

  9. Metal-oxide based nanoobjects: reactivity, building blocks for polymeric structures and structural variety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Achim; Roy, Soumyajit

    2002-12-01

    From the unique 'library' of molybdenum-oxide based building blocks/fragments under reducing conditions in aqueous solution a huge variety of nanoobjects, allowing specific reactions at well-defined positions, can be generated. This enables us to perform a new type of nanochemistry. Examples include the well-known molecular big-wheel of the type {Mo176} and big-ball of the type {Mo132} including their derivatives which are considered here. In addition, the by far largest structurally well-characterised cluster having 368 molybdenum atoms with the shape of a lemon is outlined and discussed. The bibliography includes 71 references.

  10. Two Principles of Reticular Chemistry Uncovered in a Metal-Organic Framework of Heterotritopic Linkers and Infinite Secondary Building Units.

    PubMed

    Catarineu, Noelle R; Schoedel, Alexander; Urban, Philipp; Morla, Maureen B; Trickett, Christopher A; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-31

    Structural diversity of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been largely limited to linkers with at most two different types of coordinating groups. MOFs constructed from linkers with three or more nonidentical coordinating groups have not been explored. Here, we report a robust and porous crystalline MOF, Zn3(PBSP)2 or MOF-910, constructed from a novel linker PBSP (phenylyne-1-benzoate, 3-benzosemiquinonate, 5-oxidopyridine) bearing three distinct types of coordinative functionality. The MOF adopts a complex and previously unreported topology termed tto. Our study suggests that simple, symmetric linkers are not a necessity for formation of crystalline extended structures and that new, more complex topologies are attainable with irregular, heterotopic linkers. This work illustrates two principles of reticular chemistry: first, selectivity for helical over straight rod secondary building units (SBUs) is achievable with polyheterotopic linkers, and second, the pitch of the resulting helical SBUs may be fine-tuned based on the metrics of the polyheterotopic linker. PMID:27517606

  11. Color Bricks: Building Highly Organized and Strongly Absorbing Multicomponent Arrays of Terpyridyl Perylenes on Metal Oxide Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sariola-Leikas, Essi; Ahmed, Zafar; Vivo, Paola; Ojanperä, Anniina; Lahtonen, Kimmo; Saari, Jesse; Valden, Mika; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Efimov, Alexander

    2016-01-22

    Terpyridine-substituted perylenes containing cyclic anhydrides in the peri position were synthesized. The anhydride group served as an anchor for assembly of the terpyridyl-crowned chromophores as monomolecular layers on metal oxide surfaces. Further coordination with Zn(2+) ions allowed for layer-by-layer formation of supramolecular assemblies of perylene imides on the solid substrates. With properly selected anchor and linker molecules it was possible to build high quality structures of greater than ten successive layers by a simple and straightforward procedure. The prepared films were stable and had a broad spectral coverage and high absorbance. To demonstrate their potential use, the synthesized dyes were employed in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, and electron injection from the perylene antennas to titanium dioxide was observed.

  12. Two Principles of Reticular Chemistry Uncovered in a Metal-Organic Framework of Heterotritopic Linkers and Infinite Secondary Building Units.

    PubMed

    Catarineu, Noelle R; Schoedel, Alexander; Urban, Philipp; Morla, Maureen B; Trickett, Christopher A; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-31

    Structural diversity of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been largely limited to linkers with at most two different types of coordinating groups. MOFs constructed from linkers with three or more nonidentical coordinating groups have not been explored. Here, we report a robust and porous crystalline MOF, Zn3(PBSP)2 or MOF-910, constructed from a novel linker PBSP (phenylyne-1-benzoate, 3-benzosemiquinonate, 5-oxidopyridine) bearing three distinct types of coordinative functionality. The MOF adopts a complex and previously unreported topology termed tto. Our study suggests that simple, symmetric linkers are not a necessity for formation of crystalline extended structures and that new, more complex topologies are attainable with irregular, heterotopic linkers. This work illustrates two principles of reticular chemistry: first, selectivity for helical over straight rod secondary building units (SBUs) is achievable with polyheterotopic linkers, and second, the pitch of the resulting helical SBUs may be fine-tuned based on the metrics of the polyheterotopic linker.

  13. A bracket approach to improve the stability and gas sorption performance of a metal-organic framework via in situ incorporating the size-matching molecular building blocks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di-Ming; Tian, Jia-Yue; Liu, Chun-Sen; Du, Miao

    2016-06-28

    Incorporating the in situ formed size-matching molecular building blocks (MBBs) into the open channels will remarkably improve the robustness and gas sorption performance of an evacuated metal-organic framework. As a result, such MBBs can transfer the open metal sites from the framework walls to the channel centers and separate the large channels into multiple smaller voids, leading to a molecular sieving effect and high-performance gas-separation of the modified material. PMID:27301546

  14. Remote Stabilization of Copper Paddlewheel Based Molecular Building Blocks in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Cai, Rong; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A.; Hogan, Adam; Nugent, Patrick; Williams, Kia; Wojtas, Lukasz; Luebke, Ryan; Weseliinski, Lukasz J.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Space, Brian; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Shi, Xiaodong; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-08-21

    Copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks (MBBs) are ubiquitous and have been widely employed for the construction of highly porous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). However, most copper paddlewheel based MOFs fail to retain their structural integrity in the presence of water. This instability is directly correlated to the plausible displacement of coordinating carboxylates in the copper paddlewheel MBB, [Cu₂(O₂C-)₄], by the strongly coordinating water molecules. In this comprehensive study, we illustrate the chemical stability control in the rht-MOF platform via strengthening the coordinating bonds within the triangular inorganic MBB, [Cu₃O(N4–x(CH)xC-)₃] (x = 0, 1, or 2). Remotely, the chemical stabilization propagated into the paddlewheel MBB to afford isoreticular rht-MOFs with remarkably enhanced water/chemical stabilities compared to the prototypal rht-MOF-1.

  15. Stepwise Transformation of the Molecular Building Blocks in a Porphyrin-Encapsulating Metal-Organic Material

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Wojtas, Lukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2013-06-05

    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal–organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd2(COO)6]2– molecular building blocks (MBBs) into novel tetranuclear [Cu4X2(COO)6(S)2] MBBs to form P11-Cu. The transformation occurs in single-crystal to single-crystal fashion, and its stepwise mechanism was studied by varying the Cd2+/Cu2+ ratio of the solution in which crystals of P11 were immersed. P11-16/1 (Cd in framework retained, Cd in encapsulated porphyrins exchanged) and other intermediate phases were thereby isolated and structurally characterized. P11-16/1 and P11-Cu retain the microporosity of P11, and the relatively larger MBBs in P11-Cu permit a 20% unit cell expansion and afford a higher surface area and a larger pore size.

  16. Texture and Crystal Orientation in Ti-6Al-4V Builds Fabricated by Shaped Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baufeld, Bernd; van der Biest, Omer; Dillien, Steven

    2010-08-01

    The texture and crystal orientation of Ti-6Al-4V components, manufactured by shaped metal deposition (SMD), is investigated. SMD is a novel rapid prototyping tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding technique leading to near-net-shape components. This involves sequential layer by layer deposition with repeated partial melting and heat treatment, which results in epitaxial growth of large elongated prior β grains. This leads to a directionally solidified texture, where the prior β grains exhibit only a small misorientation with each other. The β grains grow in left< { 100} rightrangle direction with a second left< { 100} rightrangle direction perpendicular to the wall surface. During cooling, the α phase transformation follows the Burgers orientation relationship leading to a Widmanstätten structure, with orientation relations between most of the α lamellae and also of the residual β phase. The directionally solidification and the transformation into the α phase following the Burgers relationship results in a texture, where the hcp pole figures look similar to bcc pole figures.

  17. Decaborane thiols as building blocks for self-assembled monolayers on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bould, Jonathan; Macháček, Jan; Londesborough, Michael G S; Macías, Ramón; Kennedy, John D; Bastl, Zdeněk; Rupper, Patrick; Baše, Tomáš

    2012-02-01

    Three nido-decaborane thiol cluster compounds, [1-(HS)-nido-B(10)H(13)] 1, [2-(HS)-nido-B(10)H(13)] 2, and [1,2-(HS)(2)-nido-B(10)H(12)] 3 have been characterized using NMR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and quantum-chemical calculations. In the solid state, 1, 2, and 3 feature weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the sulfur atom and the relatively positive bridging hydrogen atoms on the open face of an adjacent cluster. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the value of the interaction energy is approximately proportional to the number of hydrogen atoms involved in the interaction and that these values are consistent with a related bridging-hydrogen atom interaction calculated for a B(18)H(22)·C(6)H(6) solvate. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 1, 2, and 3 on gold and silver surfaces have been prepared and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The variations in the measured sulfur binding energies, as thiolates on the surface, correlate with the (CC2) calculated atomic charge for the relevant boron vertices and for the associated sulfur substituents for the parent B(10)H(13)(SH) compounds. The calculated charges also correlate with the measured and DFT-calculated thiol (1)H chemical shifts. Wetting-angle measurements indicate that the hydrophilic open face of the cluster is directed upward from the substrate surface, allowing the bridging hydrogen atoms to exhibit a similar reactivity to that of the bulk compound. Thus, [PtMe(2)(PMe(2)Ph)(2)] reacts with the exposed and acidic B-H-B bridging hydrogen atoms of a SAM of 1 on a gold substrate, affording the addition of the metal moiety to the cluster. The XPS-derived stoichiometry is very similar to that for a SAM produced directly from the adsorption of [1-(HS)-7,7-(PMe(2)Ph)(2)-nido-7-PtB(10)H(11)] 4. The use of reactive boron hydride SAMs as templates on which further chemistry may be carried out is unprecedented, and the principle may be

  18. Computational Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Stable Zirconium Building Units for Storage and Delivery of Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Gualdron, DA; Gutov, OV; Krungleviciute, V; Borah, B; Mondloch, JE; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Snurr, RQ

    2014-10-14

    A metal organic framework (MOF) with high volumetric deliverable capacity for methane was synthesized after being identified by computational screening of 204 hypothetical MOF structures featuring (Zr6O4)(OH)(4)(CO2)(n) inorganic building blocks. The predicted MOF (NU-800) has an fcu topology in which zirconium nodes are connected via ditopic 1,4-benzenedipropynoic acid linkers. Based on our computer simulations, alkyne groups adjacent to the inorganic zirconium nodes provide more efficient methane packing around the nodes at high pressures. The high predicted gas uptake properties of this new MOF were confirmed by high-pressure isotherm measurements over a large temperature and pressure range. The measured methane deliverable capacity of NU-800 between 65 and 5.8 bar is 167 cc(STP)/cc (0.215 g/g), the highest among zirconium-based MOFs. High-pressure uptake values of H-2 and CO2 are also among the highest reported. These high gas uptake characteristics, along with the expected highly stable structure of NU-800, make it a promising material for gas storage applications.

  19. Expanded Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks by SCSC: Organic Building Units Modifying and Enhanced Gas-Adsorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weidong; Lin, Huan; Yuan, Xue; Dai, Fangna; Xiao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Liangliang; Luo, Liwen; Wang, Rongming

    2016-07-01

    Two amino-functional copper metal-organic frameworks of formula [Cu3(ATTCA)2(H2O)3]·2DMF·11H2O·12EtOH (1) (H3ATTCA = 2-amino-[1,1:3,1-terphenyl]-4,4,5-tricarboxylic acid, pyz = pyrazine, DMF = dimethylformamide) and [Cu3(ATTCA)2(pyz)(H2O)]·2DMF·12H2O·8EtOH (2) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses, and powder X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both complexes 1 and 2 are built of the Cu2(COO)4 paddlewheel secondary building units with an fmj topology. Importantly, complex 1 can be transformed into complex 2 by the single-crystal to single-crystal transformation of which the coordinated water molecules are replaced with pyz molecules. However, the adsorption abilities of 2 are obviously lower than those of 1, as its pores are partially blocked by pyz molecules. Moreover, gas-adsorption analysis showed that the amino-functional 1 possesses higher gas-adsorption capacity than UMCM-151 for N2, H2, CH4, and C2H2, especially for CO2. PMID:27315443

  20. 1,4-Cyclohexadienes--easy access to a versatile building block via transition-metal-catalysed Diels-Alder reactions.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Gerhard

    2014-06-01

    1,4-Cyclohexadiene derivatives are easily accessed via transition-metal cycloadditions of 1,3-dienes with alkynes. The mild reaction conditions of several transition-metal-catalysed reactions allows the incorporation of various functional groups to access functionalised 1,4-cyclohexadienes. The control of the regiochemistry in the intermolecular cobalt-catalysed Diels-Alder reaction is realised utilising different ligand designs. The functionalised 1,4-cyclohexadiene derivatives are valuable building blocks in follow-up transformations. Finally, the oxidation of the 1,4-cyclohexadienes can be accomplished under mild conditions to generate the corresponding arene derivatives.

  1. A polyhedral metal-organic framework based on the supermolecular building block strategy exhibiting high performance for carbon dioxide capture and separation of light hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Bing; Yao, Shuo; Wang, Tao; Li, Guanghua; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling

    2015-10-25

    By using the supermolecular building block (SBB) strategy, a polyhedron-based metal-organic framework (PMOF), which features three types of cages with multiple sizes and shapes, has been synthesized. It exhibits high performance for CO2 capture (170 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 K under 1 bar) and selectivity of CO2/CH4 (9.4) and C3H8/CH4 (271.5).

  2. Hybrid metal-coordinate transient networks: using bio-inspired building blocks to engineer the mechanical properties of physical hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindy, Scott; Barrett, Devin; Messersmith, Phillip; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Recently, metal-coordinate complex crosslinks have been suggested to contribute to the self-healing properties of mussel byssi. Two specific amino acid derivatives - 3,4 dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (dopa) and histidine (his) - are known to form coordinate complexes with trivalent and divalent ions (respectively) in aqueous solutions. We show here that, by functionalizing poly(ethylene glycol) polymers with dopa and his we are (1) able to characterize the fundamental kinetics and energetics of each specific metal-ligand pair using small amplitude oscillatory shear rheology and (2) create hybrid networks using various mixtures of metals and ligands. From this information, we can design gels with specific target mechanical properties by tailoring the amounts and types of metal-ligand crosslinks present in the gel network, resulting in the ability to engineer the mechanical relaxation spectrum. This work provides basic understanding necessary to intelligently design materials which incorporate metal-ligand crosslinks in more complex architectures.

  3. A Porous Metal-Organic Framework with Helical Chain Building Units Exhibiting Facile Transition from Micro- to Meso-porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinhee; Li, Jian-Rong; Carolina Sañudo, E.; Yuan, Daqiang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-01

    A metal–organic framework (MOF) with helical channels has been constructed by bridging helical chain secondary building units with 2,6-di-p-carboxyphenyl-4,4'-bipyridine ligands. The activated MOF shows permanent porosity and gas adsorption selectivity. Remarkably, the MOF exhibits a facile transition from micro- to meso-porosity.

  4. Characterization of Steel-Ta Dissimilar Metal Builds Made Using Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (VHP-UAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Norfolk, Mark; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing is a solid-state additive manufacturing technique that utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to bond metal tapes into near net-shaped components. The major advantage of this process is the ability to manufacture layered structures with dissimilar materials without any intermetallic formation. Majority of the published literature had focused only on the bond formation mechanism in Aluminum alloys. The current work pertains to explain the microstructure evolution during dissimilar joining of iron and tantalum using very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing and characterization of the interfaces using electron back-scattered diffraction and Nano-indentation measurement. The results showed extensive grain refinement at the bonded interfaces of these metals. This phenomenon was attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization process driven by the high strain rate plastic deformation and associated adiabatic heating that is well below 50 pct of melting point of both iron and Ta.

  5. Synthesis, characterizations and catalytic studies of a new two-dimensional metal-organic framework based on Co-carboxylate secondary building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Ashouri, Fatemeh; Đaković, Marijana

    2015-03-01

    A metal-organic framework [Co3(BDC)3(DMF)2(H2O)2] was synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that the framework contains a 2D polymeric chain through coordination of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid linker ligand to cobalt centers. The polymer crystallize in monoclinic P21/n space group with a=13.989(3) Å, b=9.6728(17) Å, c=16.707(3) Å, and Z=2. The polymer features a framework based on the perfect octahedral Co-O6 secondary building units. The catalytic activities of [Co3(BDC)3(DMF)2(H2O)2]n for olefins oxidation was conducted. The heterogeneous catalyst could be facilely separated from the reaction mixture, and reused three times without significant degradation in catalytic activity. Furthermore, no contribution from homogeneous catalysis of active species leaching into reaction solution was detected.

  6. Zeolitic polyoxometalates metal organic frameworks (Z-POMOF) with imidazole ligands and epsilon-Keggin ions as building blocks; computational evaluation of hypothetical polymorphs and a synthesis approach.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Albelo, L Marleny; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; Lewis, Dewi W; Gómez, Ariel; Mialane, Pierre; Marrot, Jérome; Dolbecq, Anne; Sampieri, Alvaro; Mellot-Draznieks, Caroline

    2010-08-14

    We investigate here a new family of zeolitic Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) based on imidazole (im) as the ligand and epsilon-type Keggin PolyOxoMetalates (POMs) as building units. The POM used in this study is the epsilon-{PMo(12)O(40)} Keggin isomer capped by four Zn(ii) ions (noted epsilon-Zn) in tetrahedral coordination. We describe here our methods to first construct and then evaluate the stability of hypothetical 3-D POMOFs possessing a tetrahedral network, typified by dense silica polymorphs and zeotypes and referred here to as Z-POMOFs. We use the analogy between the connectivity of silicon ion in dense minerals or zeolites and the epsilon-Zn, using imidazolate ligands to mimic the role of oxygen atoms in zeolites. Handling the epsilon-Keggin and imidazole as the constitutive building-blocks, a selection of 40 polymorphs were constructed and their relative stabilities computed. Among these Z-POMOFs, the cristobalite-like and zni-structure were identified as the most stable candidates. In parallel, we have attempted to synthesize Z-POMOF structures with epsilon-Zn POMs, synthesized in situ under hydrothermal conditions, and imidazole ligands. We present our first experimental result, the extended material [NBu(4)][PMo(V)(8)Mo(VI)(4)O(37)(OH)(3)Zn(4)(im)(Him)], named epsilon(im)(2). The structure of the hybrid framework is built by the connection of dimerized epsilon-Zn POMs to imidazole ligands in two directions. The obtaining of the first POMOF based on imidazole ligand is an encouraging step towards the synthesis of a new family of POMOFs.

  7. Building one-dimensional oxide nanostructure arrays on conductive metal substrates for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping; Huang, Xintang

    2011-01-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is potentially one of the most attractive energy storage devices. To meet the demands of future high-power and high-energy density requirements in both thin-film microbatteries and conventional batteries, it is challenging to explore novel nanostructured anode materials instead of conventional graphite. Compared to traditional electrodes based on nanostructure powder paste, directly grown ordered nanostructure array electrodes not only simplify the electrode processing, but also offer remarkable advantages such as fast electron transport/collection and ion diffusion, sufficient electrochemical reaction of individual nanostructures, enhanced material-electrolyte contact area and facile accommodation of the strains caused by lithium intercalation and de-intercalation. This article provides a brief overview of the present status in the area of LIB anodes based on one-dimensional nanostructure arrays growing directly on conductive inert metal substrates, with particular attention to metal oxides synthesized by an anodized alumina membrane (AAM)-free solution-based or hydrothermal methods. Both the scientific developments and the techniques and challenges are critically analyzed.

  8. Crystal architectures of copper and zinc metal complexes containing 2-thiophenepropionate and 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias de Souza, Nelson Luis G.; Garcia, Humberto Costa; de Souza, Marcia Cristina; Fernandes, Ana Luisa do Amaral; Pereira, Giselle Carvalho; Diniz, Renata; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.

    2015-04-01

    In this work the synthesis, spectroscopic properties (infrared and Raman) and crystal structures of three new coordination polymers named [Cu(2-TPA)2]n (1), {[Zn(bpa)(bpa)1/2(2-TPA)]ṡClO4}n (2) and {[Zn3(bpa)4(2-TPA)4]ṡ(ClO4)2}n (3) are reported, where 2-TPA is 2-thiophenepropionate and bpa is 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl) ethane. Compounds 1 and 3 were synthesized by the diffusion method, using methanol/water as solvent for compound 1 and ethanol/water for compound 3. Compound 2 was obtained using solvo-thermal synthesis, ethanol/water as solvent and with a maximum heating of 90 °C. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in monoclinic system and space group P21/c: for complex 1 was observed the presence of Cusbnd Cui bond with distance of 2.587 (2) Å, whereas for compound 2 was observed the formation of cavities in the structure. Compound 3 crystallizes in a triclinic system and space group P - 1, with two crystallographically distinct metallic centers named Zn1 and Zn2; the coordination sphere of Zn1 metal ion exhibits slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry, whereas the other metal site (Zn2) appears in a slightly distorted square-based pyramid (τ = 0.34). Another important point refers to the synthesis procedure adopted for obtaining different crystalline arrangements involving the same building blocks: by solvothermal or by diffusion, different compounds could be obtained. The vibrational spectra of all the compounds are very similar, and in agreement with the crystal data; the Raman and infrared spectra have shown important bands to confirm the compound formation, such as the coupled ν(CC)/ν(CN) mode at 1600-1620 cm-1 (in both Raman and infrared) and νa(COO) mode at ca. 1580 cm-1 (infrared).

  9. The Trade-off between Solar Reflectance and Above-Sheathing Ventilation for Metal Roofs on Residential and Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Kriner, Scott; Miller, William A

    2013-01-01

    An alternative to white and cool-color roofs that meets prescriptive requirements for steep-slope (residential and non-residential) and low-slope (non-residential) roofing has been documented. Roofs fitted with an inclined air space above the sheathing (herein termed above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV), performed as well as if not better than high-reflectance, high-emittance roofs fastened directly to the deck. Field measurements demonstrated the benefit of roofs designed with ASV. A computer tool was benchmarked against the field data. Testing and benchmarks were conducted at roofs inclined at 18.34 ; the roof span from soffit to ridge was 18.7 ft (5.7 m). The tool was then exercised to compute the solar reflectance needed by a roof equipped with ASV to exhibit the same annual cooling load as that for a direct-to-deck cool-color roof. A painted metal roof with an air space height of 0.75 in. (0.019 m) and spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) up the roof incline of 18.34 needed only a 0.10 solar reflectance to exhibit the same annual cooling load as a direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof (solar reflectance of 0.25). This held for all eight ASHRAE climate zones complying with ASHRAE 90.1 (2007a). A dark heat-absorbing roof fitted with 1.5 in. (0.038 m) air space spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) and inclined at 18.34 was shown to have a seasonal cooling load equivalent to that of a conventional direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof. Computations for retrofit application based on ASHRAE 90.1 (1980) showed that ASV air spaces of either 0.75 or 1.5 in. (0.019 and 0.038 m) would permit black roofs to have annual cooling loads equivalent to the direct-to-deck cool roof. Results are encouraging, and a parametric study of roof slope and ASV aspect ratio is needed for developing guidelines applicable to all steep- and low-slope roof applications.

  10. On the origin of the differences in structure directing properties of polar metal oxyfluoride [MO(x)F(6-x)]2- (x = 1, 2) building units.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Romain; Gautier, Régis; Chang, Kelvin B; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2015-02-16

    In oxyfluoride chemistry, the [MO(x)F(6-x)](2-) anions (M = transition metal) are interesting polar building units that may be used to design polar materials, but their polar vs antipolar orientations in the solid state, which directly depend on the interactions between O(2-)/F(-) ligands and the extended structure, remain difficult to control. To improve this control, these interactions were assessed through crystallization of five related [MO(x)F(6-x)](2-) (M = Ti(4+), V(5+), Mo(6+), W(6+)) anions with organic molecules. The hybrid organic-inorganic compounds, (4,4'-bpyH2)TiF6 (1), (enH2)MoO2F4 (2), (4-hpyH)2MoO2F4·H2O (3), (4,4'-bpyH2)WO2F4 (4), and (4,4'-bpyH2)VOF5 (5), exhibit isolated [MO(x)F(6-x)](2-) anions in a hydrogen bond network. The analysis of these crystal structures in combination with DFT calculations elucidate how differences in structure directing properties of these anions arise when π-overlap between O 2p orbitals and M d orbitals is weak and significantly affected by an increase of the energy of the d orbitals from 3d to 5d.

  11. An assessment of fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in endodontically treated teeth: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Bhupinder; Pujari, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure would require to be restored with post and core to enhance the strength and durability of the tooth and to achieve retention for the restoration. The non-metallic posts have a superior aesthetic quality. Various core build-up materials can be used to build-up cores on the posts placed in endodontically treated teeth. These materials would show variation in their bonding with the non-metallic posts thus affecting the strength and resistance to fracture of the remaining tooth structure. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors of approximately of the same size and shape were selected for the study. They were divided randomly into 3 groups of 15 each, depending on the types of non-metallic posts used. Each group was further divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 5 samples each depending on three core build-up material used. Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test was also used to analyse and compare each group with the other groups individually, and decide whether their comparisons were statistically significant. Results. Luxacore showed the highest fracture resistance among the three core build-up materials with all the three posts systems. Ti-core had intermediate values of fracture resistance and Lumiglass had the least values of fracture resistance. PMID:25755926

  12. Prefabricated building

    SciTech Connect

    Reaves, L.L.; Dawick, J.K.

    1987-03-10

    This patent describes a building constructed with prefabricated components comprising: front, back and side wall structures; prefabricated braced frame structures used in forming at least portions of the walls of the building constructed with prefabricated components. Each of the braced frame structures has a series of lateral wooden frame members interconnecting two longitudinal wooden frame members and a built-in wooden frame cross-bracing member extending in between the lateral wooden frame members. Metal connector plates interconnect the wooden members, the connector plates having teeth struck out from such plates and embedded into the wooden members; the wooden frame cross-bracing member in the braced frame structures being constructed so as to be formed by a series of wooden sections extending between the lateral frame members with the ends of the wooden sections abutting the sides of the respective adjacent the lateral frame members. Each of the wooden sections is interconnected with adjacent wooden sections and respective the lateral frame members by the metal connector plates.

  13. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: second floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: second floor metal multi-pane industrial-type sash windows; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  14. Interior building details of Building C, Room C101: historic painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-101: historic painted wood staircase, wood handrails, metal brackets and batter board; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  15. Interior building details of Building A, Room A101: painted wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, Room A-101: painted wood staircase, wood handrails with metal brackets, plastered finished brick walls; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  16. Interior building details of Building C, Room C101: historic painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-101: historic painted wood staircase, wood handrails, metal brackets and batter board, northeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  17. Unique anisotropic optical properties of a highly stable metal-organic framework based on trinuclear iron(iii) secondary building units linked by tetracarboxylic linkers with an anthracene core.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, A V; Milichko, V A; Zaake-Hertling, H; Aleksovska, A; Gruschinski, S; Schmorl, S; Kersting, B; Zolnhofer, E M; Sutter, J; Meyer, K; Lönnecke, P; Hey-Hawkins, E

    2016-05-01

    A highly stable metal-organic framework, [{Fe3(ACTBA)2}X·6DEF]n (1; X = monoanion), based on trinuclear iron(iii) secondary building units connected by tetracarboxylates with an anthracene core, 2,6,9,10-tetrakis(p-carboxylatophenyl)anthracene (ACTBA), is reported. Depending on the direction of light polarisation, crystals of 1 exhibit anisotropic optical properties with birefringence Δn = 0.3 (λ = 590 nm). PMID:26906040

  18. Investigation of porous Ni-based metal-organic frameworks containing paddle-wheel type inorganic building units via high-throughput methods.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Palanikumar; Stock, Norbert

    2011-06-01

    In the search of Ni based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing paddle-wheel type building units, three chemical systems Ni(2+)/H(n)L/base/solvent with H(n)L = H(3)BTC (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid), H(3)BTB (4,4',4'',-benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(benzoic acid)), and H(2)BDC (terephthalic acid) were investigated using high-throughput (HT) methods. In addition to the conventional heating, for the first time HT microwave assisted synthesis of MOFs was carried out. Six new compounds were discovered, and their fields of formation were established. In the first system, H(3)BTC was employed and a comprehensive HT-screening of compositional and process parameters was conducted. The synthesis condition for the Ni paddle-wheel unit was determined and two compounds [Ni(3)(BTC)(2)(Me(2)NH)(3)]·(DMF)(4)(H(2)O)(4) (1a) and [Ni(6)(BTC)(2)(DMF)(6)(HCOO)(6)] (1b) were discovered (Me(2)NH = dimethylamine, DMF = dimethylformamide). In the second system, the use of the extended tritopic linker H(3)BTB and the synthesis conditions for the paddle-wheel units led to the porous MOF, [Ni(3)(BTB)(2)(2-MeIm)(1.5)(H(2)O)(1.5)]·(DMF)(9)(H(2)O)(6.5) (2), (2-MeIm = 2-methylimidazole). This compound shows a selective adsorption of H(2)O and H(2) with a strong hysteresis. In the third system, H(2)BDC was used, and the base (DABCO) was incorporated as a bridging ligand into all structures. Thus, two pillared layered porous MOFs [Ni(2)(BDC)(2)(DABCO)]·(DMF)(4)(H(2)O)(1.5) (3a) and [Ni(2)(BDC)(2)(DABCO)]·(DMF)(4)(H(2)O)(4) (3b) as well as a layered compound [Ni(BDC)(DABCO)]·(DMF)(1.5)(H(2)O)(2) (3c) were isolated. The 3a and 3b polymorphs of the [Ni(2)(BDC)(2)(DABCO)] framework can be selectively synthesized. The combination of microwave assisted heating, low overall concentration, stirring of the reaction mixtures, and an excess of DABCO yields a highly crystalline pure phase of 3b. The fields of formation of all compounds were established, and scale-up was successfully performed for 1b, 2

  19. Novel M(II)-Hg(II) coordination polymers generated from metal-containing building blocks M(2-pyrazinecarboxylate) 2 · (H 2O) 2 (M=Cu, Ni, Co) and HgCl 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu-Bin; Smith, Mark D.; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2000-12-01

    A new class of M(II)-Hg(II) (M=Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II)) mixed-metal coordination polymers, Cu(2-pyrazinecarboxylate) 2HgCl 2 ( 4), [Co(2-pyrazinecarboxylate) 2(HgCl 2) 2] · 0.61H 2O ( 5) and [Ni(2-pyrazinecarboxylate) 2(HgCl 2) 2] · 0.77H 2O ( 6), have been prepared by self assembly of metal-containing building blocks, M(2-pyrazinecarboxylate) 2 · (H 2O) 2 (M=Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II)), with HgCl 2. Compounds 4- 6 were characterized fully by IR, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 4 crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/ c, with a=17.916(5) Å, b=7.223(2) Å, c=13.335(4) Å, β=128.726(3)°, V=1346.2(6) Å 3, Z=4. It contains alternating Hg(II) and Cu(II) metal centers that are cross-linked by 2-pyrazinecarboxylate spacers and chlorine co-ligands to generate a unique three-dimensional Hg(II)-Cu(II) mixed metal framework. Compound 5 crystallized in the triclinic space group P1¯, with a=6.3879(7) Å, b=6.6626(8) Å, c=13.2286(15) Å, α=96.339(2)°, β=91.590(2)°, γ=113.462(2)°, V=511.71(10) Å 3, Z=1. Compound 6 also crystallized in the triclinic space group P1¯, with a=6.3543(8) Å, b=6.6194(8) Å, c=13.2801(16) Å, α=96.449(2)°, β=92.263(2)°, γ=113.541(2)°, V=506.67(11) Å 3, Z=1. Compounds 5 and 6 are isostructural and in the solid state the Hg(II)⋯M(II)⋯Hg(II) units are connected by Hg 2Cl 2 linkages to produce a novel M(II)-Hg(II) (MCo(II), Ni(II)) zigzag mixed-metal chain, in which a new type of M-M'-M'-M array was observed. The metal containing building blocks, M(2-pyrazinecarboxylate) 2 · (H 2O) 2 (MCu(II), Co(II), Ni(II)), exhibit different connectivities to HgCl 2 depending on the metal cation contained within them.

  20. 44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "B" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  1. VIEW OF BUILDING 440 LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. BUILDING 440, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 440 LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. BUILDING 440, THE TRANSPORT MODIFICATION CENTER, CONSISTS OF FOUR HIGH-BAY CORRUGATED METAL STRUCTURES. BUILDING 440 WAS USED FOR PACKAGING AND STAGING SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND DEPLETED URANIUM FOR SHIPMENT AND TO MODIFY VEHICLES TO MEET SPECIFIC UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS. (2/8/84) - Rocky Flats Plant, Transport Modification Center, North of Cactus Avenue, approximately 400 feet east of Third Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings -- Part 4. Evaluation of the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS) for On-site Destruction of PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the fourth, also the last, report of the report series entitled “Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings.” This report evaluates the performance of an on-site PCB destruction method, known as the AMTS method, developed ...

  3. Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings -- Part 4. Evaluation of the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS) for On-site Destruction of PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the fourth, also the last, report of the report series entitled “Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings.” This report evaluates the performance of an on-site PCB destruction method, known as the AMTS method...

  4. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ∼25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ∼70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  5. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  6. Healthy Buildings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  7. Extraordinary Separation of Acetylene-Containing Mixtures with Microporous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open O Donor Sites and Tunable Robustness through Control of the Helical Chain Secondary Building Units.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zizhu; Zhang, Zhangjing; Liu, Lizhen; Li, Ziyin; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Chen, Banglin; Krishna, Rajamani; Xiang, Shengchang

    2016-04-11

    Acetylene separation is a very important but challenging industrial separation task. Here, through the solvothermal reaction of CuI and 5-triazole isophthalic acid in different solvents, two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, FJU-21 and FJU-22) with open O donor sites and controllable robustness have been obtained for acetylene separation. They contain the same paddle-wheel {Cu2(COO2)4} nodes and metal-ligand connection modes, but with different helical chains as secondary building units (SBUs), leading to different structural robustness for the MOFs. FJU-21 and FJU-22 are the first examples in which the MOFs' robustness is controlled by adjusting the helical chain SBUs. Good robustness gives the activated FJU-22 a, which has higher surface area and gas uptakes than the flexible FJU-21 a. Importantly, FJU-22 a shows extraordinary separation of acetylene mixtures under ambient conditions. The separation capacity of FJU-22 a for 50:50 C2H2/CO2 mixtures is about twice that of the high-capacity HOF-3, and its actual separation selectivity for C2H2/C2H4 mixtures containing 1% acetylene is the highest among reported porous materials. Based on first-principles calculations, the extraordinary separation performance of C2H2 for FJU-22 a was attributed to hydrogen-bonding interactions between the C2H2 molecules with the open O donors on the wall, which provide better recognition ability for C2H2 than other functional sites, including open metal sites and amino groups.

  8. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  9. Selectively catalytic activity of metal-organic frameworks depending on the N-position within the pyridine ring of their building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haitao; Gou, Yongxia; Ye, Jing; Xu, Zhen-liang; Wang, Zixuan

    2016-05-01

    Iron metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Fe(L)2(SCN)2]∝ (L1: 4-bpdh=2,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene for 1Fe; and L2: 3-bpdh=2,5-bis(3-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene for 2Fe) were assembled in a MeOH-H2O solvent system. 1Fe exhibits a two-dimensional extended-grid network, whereas 2Fe exhibits a stair-like double-chain; the N-position within the pyridine ring of the complexes was observed to regulate the MOF structure as layers or chains. Furthermore, selectively catalytic activity was observed for the layered MOF but not the chain-structured MOF; micro/nanoparticles of the layered MOF were therefore investigated for new potential applications of micro/nano MOFs.

  10. Reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Hista, J. C.

    1984-09-18

    Reactor building comprising a vessel shaft anchored in a slab which is peripherally locked. This reactor building comprises a confinement enclosure within which are positioned internal structures constituted by an internal structure floor, a vessel shaft, a slab being positioned between the general floor and the internal structure floor, the vesse

  11. Interior building details of Building C, Room C208: historic wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-208: historic wood floor, historic partition track on wood floor, four-over-four windows with decorative metal grilles, iron radiator; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  12. Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: profiled cement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: profiled cement plaster door surround, black mesh gate protects a two-light transom atop non-original metal door; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  13. Interior building details of Building C, Room C208: historic wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-208: historic wood floor, four-over-for windows with decorative metal grilles, four light door with four light transom; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  14. Exterior building details of Building C, south façade: second floor" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, south façade: second floor" four-over-four windows, arch brick lintels, brick sills, decorative metal grilles and tiebacks; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  15. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic fouroverfour ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic four-over-four window, brick lintel, brick quoins, corbelled brick cornice, spiral metal staircase to inclined stairs rising to second floor cantilever wooden walkway; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  16. Exterior building details of Building C, west façade: second floor: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, west façade: second floor: four-over-four windows, arch brick lintels, brick sills, decorative metal grilles; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  17. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: inscribed date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: inscribed date panel "hospital 1885", corbelled brick belt course, parapet, second floor historic four-over-four window with brick lintels, quoins and decorative metal grilled, cantilever wooden walkway; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  18. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, brick lintels, brick window sills, decorative metal grilles, scored cement finished brick wall; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  19. Self-assembly of ligands designed for the building of a new type of [2 x 2] metallic grid. anion encapsulation and diffusion NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Blanca R; Jalón, Félix A; Ortiz, Isabel M; Soriano, M Laura; Torre, Felipe Gómez de la; Elguero, José; Maestro, Miguel A; Mereiter, Kurt; Claridge, Tim D W

    2008-01-21

    The ligands 4,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyrimidine (bpzpm), 4,6-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)pyrimidine (bpz(*)pm), 4,6-bis(4-methylpyrazol-1-yl)pyrimidine (Mebpzpm), and 3,6-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)pyridazine (ppdMe) were synthesized and were made to react with Cu(I) centers in the presence of different counteranions. Different [2 x 2] metallic grids were obtained. With ligands bpzpm, bpz*pm, and Mebpzpm, a new type of grid was obtained where the facing ligands were divergent and two counteranions (BF(4-) or PF(6-)) were hosted in the resulting cavities and exhibit C-H...F and anion...pi interactions in the solid state. The presence of methyl groups on the pyrazolyl rings induced several distortions in the structure. In complexes with the ligand ppdMe, there were found two groups of parallel ligands in the grid, and the cavities generated were smaller. The counteranions were situated outside the grid, and the facing ligands exhibited aromatic pi-pi stacking interactions. Anion-pi interactions involving the pyridazine ring were found. The behavior in solution of the new derivatives with a special emphasis on the cation-anion interactions was studied by UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy. Diffusion NMR experiments performed for some complexes allowed us to conclude that weak cation-anion interactions exist in solution, with the counteranions undergoing fast exchange on the diffusion time scale between the free and ion-paired states.

  20. This photograph, taken from the main roof of E Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photograph, taken from the main roof of E Building, looking north, shows two metal penthouses at right, a similar brick structure and some of the vents and other mechanical devices of the building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  1. View of loading dock of American Railway Express Building, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of loading dock of American Railway Express Building, facing west. Projecting metal canopy and roll-up doors are principal elements - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Intelligent Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2001-01-01

    The topic of "intelligent buildings" (IBs) emerged in the early 1980s. Since, the term has been used to represent a variety of related, yet differing topics, each with a slightly different focus and purpose. Wiring and networking-infrastructure companies emphasize the cabling requirements for communication in intelligent buildings and the need to accommodate future needs for higher-speed broadband. Lucent (Lucent 2000) for example, defines an IB as "...one with a completely integrated wiring architecture. A single cabling system that handles all information traffic - voice, data, video, even the big building management systems."

  3. Building Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Management, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The combination of a prefabricated building system and a clustered terrace design has resulted in economical and aesthetically pleasing housing for students at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. (Author)

  4. PHOSPHATE CHEMICALS FOR BUILDING POTABLE WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buildings can contribute significant quantities of trace metal contamination to drinking water, particularly lead, copper and zinc. Discolored water may also result in corroded galvanized and steel plumbing and after prolonged stagnation times. To protect human health as well as ...

  5. Zinc(II) and lead(II) metal-organic networks driven by a multifunctional pyridine-carboxylate building block: Hydrothermal synthesis, structural and topological features, and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling; Li, Yu; You, Ao; Jiang, Juan; Zou, Xun-Zhong; Chen, Jin-Wei; Gu, Jin-Zhong; Kirillov, Alexander M.

    2016-09-01

    4-(5-Carboxypyridin-2-yl)isophthalic acid (H3L) was applied as a flexible, multifunctional N,O-building block for the hydrothermal self-assembly synthesis of two novel coordination compounds, namely 2D [Zn(μ3-HL)(H2O)]n·nH2O (1) and 3D [Pb2(μ5-HL)(μ6-HL)]n (2) coordination polymers (CPs). These compounds were obtained in aqueous medium from a mixture containing zinc(II) or lead(II) nitrate, H3L, and sodium hydroxide. The products were isolated as stable crystalline solids and were characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermogravimetric (TGA), powder (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 possesses a 2D metal-organic layer with the fes topology, which is further extended into a 3D supramolecular framework via hydrogen bonds. In contrast, compound 2 features a very complex network structure, which was topologically classified as a binodal 5,6-connected net with the unique topology defined by the point symbol of (47.63)(49.66). Compounds 1 and 2 disclose an intense blue or green luminescent emission at room temperature.

  6. 11. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE BUILDING 800 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE BUILDING 800 - AREA COMPLEX. ENRICHED URANIUM COMPONENTS WERE MANUFACTURED IN THIS AREA OF THE SITE. BUILDING 881, IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND OF THE PHOTOGRAPH, WAS THE ORIGINAL PLANT B. BUILDING 883, USED FOR ROLLING AND FORMING URANIUM COMPONENTS, IS DIRECTLY TO THE NORTH OF BUILDING 881. TO THE EAST OF BUILDING 883 IS BUILDING 885, A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FACILITY FOR ALLOYS AND NON-PLUTONIUM METALS. IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE WEST OF BUILDING 881 IS AN OFFICE BUILDING, 850 (6/7/90). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Team building

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, C.

    1993-04-01

    Power plants are particularly complicated projects with abundant opportunities for disputes. Efforts are beginning in the power industry to change the way the industry does business. Key elements of a comprehensive team-building approach include partnering, constructability, use of incentives, and the disputes review board.

  8. Building Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  9. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  10. Building No. 5, Main Building; Building NO. 9, Guard House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 5, Main Building; Building NO. 9, Guard House (left). Viewed from across corner Lakeside Avenue and Main Street - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  11. Building Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The building in the top photo is the new home of the National Permanent Savings Bank in Washington, D.C., designed by Hartman-Cox Architects. Its construction was based on a money-saving method of preparing building specifications which derived from NASA technology developed to obtain quality construction while holding down cost of launch facilities, test centers and other structures. Written technical specifications spell out materials and components to be used on construction projects and identify the quality tests each item must pass. Specifications can have major impact on construction costs. Poorly formulated specifications can lead to unacceptable construction which must be replaced, unnecessarily high materials costs, safety hazards, disputes and often additional costs due to delays and litigation. NASA's Langley Research Center developed a novel approach to providing accurate, uniform, cost-effective specifications which can be readily updated to incorporate new building technologies. Called SPECSINTACT, it is a computerized - system accessible to all NASA centers involved in construction programs. The system contains a comprehensive catalog of master specifications applicable to many types of construction. It enables designers of any structure to call out relevant sections from computer storage and modify them to fit the needs of the project at hand. Architects and engineers can save time by concentrating their efforts on needed modifications rather than developing all specifications from scratch. Successful use of SPECSINTACT has led to a number of spinoff systems. One of the first was MASTERSPEC, developed from NASA's experience by Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., an organization established by the American Institute of Architects. MASTERSPEC, used in construction of the bank building pictured, follows the same basic format as SPECSINTACT and can be used in either automated or manual modes. The striking appearance of the bank

  12. Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

  13. Confidence building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Juan G.

    Many conferences are being held on confidence building in many countries. Usually they are organized and attended by political scientists and science policy specialists. A remarkable exception, in which the main brainstorming was done by “grass roots” geophysicists, nuclear physicists, engineers and ecologists, was a meeting in July at St. John's College in Santa Fe, N. Mex.The aim of the conference Technology-Based Confidence Building: Energy and Environment was to survey programs of international cooperation in pertinent areas of mutual concern to all nations and to identify new initiatives that could contribute to enhanced international stability, with emphasis on cooperation between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.

  14. VIEW OF THE HYDROSPINNING EQUIPMENT IN BUILDING 865. THE HYDROSPINNING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE HYDROSPINNING EQUIPMENT IN BUILDING 865. THE HYDROSPINNING PROCESS FORMED METALS INTO DESIRED SHAPES BY ROLLERS WHILE THE METAL WAS ROTATED AT HIGH SPEED. BERYLLIUM, URANIUM, REFRACTORY METALS, AND OTHER NONFERROUS METALS WERE SPUN EITHER HOT OR COLD, INTO A VARIETY OF SHAPES. (11/9/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Metal Research & Development Laboratory, South of Central Avenue at south end of terminus of Ninth Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. 91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  16. View from southwest to northeast of warhead handling building. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of warhead handling building. Note earth embankment. The personnel entrance (left) and equipment entrance can clearly be seen in center of photograph. To the right is the emergency exit tunnel constructed of corrugated metal pipe. This building was salvaged and sealed after site inactivation - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Warhead Handling Building, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. 45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT). NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. LOFT. Containment building (TAN650) detail. Camera facing east. Service building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT. Containment building (TAN-650) detail. Camera facing east. Service building corner is at left of view above personnel access. Round feature at left of dome is tank that will contain borated water. Metal stack at right of view. Date: 1973. INEEL negative no. 73-1085 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Nanostructured particles from multi scale building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampsey, J. Eric

    Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the most exciting new and developing fields in science today. New nanoscale materials and devices such as nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanowires, and nanosensors could revolutionize the 21st century in the same way that the transistor and Internet led to the information age. One key component in developing these new technologies is to assemble individual atomic and molecular building blocks into larger structures with fundamentally new properties and functions. Nature is very efficient at assembling multi scale building blocks such as proteins, lipids, and minerals into nanostructured materials such as bone, teeth, diatoms, eggshells, seashells, cell membranes, and DNA. Surfactant and colloidal building block can also be assembled into different nanoscale materials and devices by utilizing hydrophobic/hydrophilic and other surface interactions. Using these concepts, this dissertation focuses on the syntheses and applications of nanostructured particles assembled from multi scale building blocks. Important factors in the synthesis of the particles include particle size, particle morphology, pore size and pore structure. Five different types of nanostructured particles assembled from different multi scale building blocks are demonstrated in this work: (1) Spherical metal/silica mesoporous particles with high surface areas and controllable pore sizes, pore structures, and metal content are synthesized from surfactant, silicate, and metal building blocks for catalytic applications; (2) Mesoporous hollow spheres with controllable pore sizes and pore structures are synthesized from surfactant, silica, and polystyrene building blocks; (3) Spherical mesoporous carbon particles with controllable pore sizes and pore structures are templated from silica particles assembled from silica and surfactant building blocks; (4) Spherical mesoporous, microporous, and bimodal carbon particles are synthesized from sucrose and silica building blocks

  20. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

  1. Biosorption of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Volesky, B. |; Holan, Z.R.

    1995-05-01

    Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-building capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. 115 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREESTORY REINFORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREE-STORY REINFORCED CONCRETE FACTORY WITH A SMALLER ONE-STORY LOADING DOCK AND ANOTHER ONE-STORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING ON THE EAST FACADE. THE THREE-STORY BUILDING HAS VERTICAL METAL PANELING ON THE UPPER STORY. THE ENTIRE COMPLEX IS PAINTED PINK WITH MUCH DAMAGE TO THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING ON THE SOUTH SIDE - American Can Company, 1400 Trombly Avenue, Detroit, MI

  3. Cluster-assembled metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartouzian, Aras

    2013-07-01

    A bottom-up approach to nanofabricate metallic glasses from metal clusters as building blocks is presented. Considering metallic glasses as a subclass of cluster-assembled materials, the relation between the two lively fields of metal clusters and metallic glasses is pointed out. Deposition of selected clusters or collections of them, generated by state-of-the-art cluster beam sources, could lead to the production of a well-defined amorphous material. In contrast to rapidly quenched glasses where only the composition of the glass can be controlled, in cluster-assembled glasses, one can precisely control the structural building blocks. Comparing properties of glasses with similar compositions but differing in building blocks and therefore different in structure will facilitate the study of structure-property correlation in metallic glasses. This bottom-up method provides a novel alternative path to the synthesis of glassy alloys and will contribute to improving fundamental understanding in the field of metallic glasses. It may even permit the production of glassy materials for alloys that cannot be quenched rapidly enough to circumvent crystallization. Additionally, gaining deeper insight into the parameters governing the structure-property relation in metallic glasses can have a great impact on understanding and design of other cluster-assembled materials.

  4. Cluster-assembled metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Kartouzian, Aras

    2013-07-30

    A bottom-up approach to nanofabricate metallic glasses from metal clusters as building blocks is presented. Considering metallic glasses as a subclass of cluster-assembled materials, the relation between the two lively fields of metal clusters and metallic glasses is pointed out. Deposition of selected clusters or collections of them, generated by state-of-the-art cluster beam sources, could lead to the production of a well-defined amorphous material. In contrast to rapidly quenched glasses where only the composition of the glass can be controlled, in cluster-assembled glasses, one can precisely control the structural building blocks. Comparing properties of glasses with similar compositions but differing in building blocks and therefore different in structure will facilitate the study of structure-property correlation in metallic glasses. This bottom-up method provides a novel alternative path to the synthesis of glassy alloys and will contribute to improving fundamental understanding in the field of metallic glasses. It may even permit the production of glassy materials for alloys that cannot be quenched rapidly enough to circumvent crystallization. Additionally, gaining deeper insight into the parameters governing the structure-property relation in metallic glasses can have a great impact on understanding and design of other cluster-assembled materials.

  5. 5. Interior, second floor. Pressed metal ceiling, and wooden floors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior, second floor. Pressed metal ceiling, and wooden floors visible. Overhead light source toward rear of building indicates location of skylight. - 25-27 East Hanover Street (Commercial Building), 25-27 East Hanover Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  6. Detail of metal canopy on west elevation of Railway Express ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of metal canopy on west elevation of Railway Express Building, facing east - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. Detail of metal canopy on south elevation of loading dock, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of metal canopy on south elevation of loading dock, looking west toward two story section of Railway Express Building - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. Building energy analysis tool

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  9. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  10. AFRD WAREHOUSE, SOUTH SIDE. FACING NORTH. METAL AWNING ALONG LENGTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AFRD WAREHOUSE, SOUTH SIDE. FACING NORTH. METAL AWNING ALONG LENGTH OF BUILDING AND VERTICAL METAL SIDING ARE ALTERATIONS MAD BY THE AFRD. - Minidoka Relocation Center Warehouse, 111 South Fir Street, Shoshone, Lincoln County, ID

  11. Metal aminoboranes

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  12. [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH ('MFU-5'): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} secondary building units and linear organic linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingya; Grzywa, Maciej; Weil, Matthias

    2010-01-15

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The title compound was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature powder diffraction (VT-XRPD), thermal analysis, as well as IR- and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Crystal data for MFU-5: hexagonal, P6/mcc (no. 192), a=25.645(9), c=17.105(11) A, V=9742(8) A{sup 3}, Z=12, 1690 structure factors, R[F{sup 2}>2sigma(F{sup 2})]=0.049. MFU-5 is a 3D metal-organic framework with 1D channels running along the c-axis hosting DABCO and methanol solvent molecules. The framework displays a zeolite-like structure constructed from mso cages, which represents the composite building units in the zeolites SSF, MSO and SZR. Two-fold interpenetration is observed between these building units. TG/DTA-MS and VT-XRPD characterization reveal a stepwise release of methanol and DABCO molecules upon heating, eventually resulting in a structural change into a non-porous material. - Graphical abstract: The metal-organic framework [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH (MFU-5) is constructed from a molecular precursor containing {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} secondary building units which become cross-linked into a 3D zeolite-type network with hexagonal symmetry by linear DABCO ligands (DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane).

  13. Building 1100--NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Building 1100 is the NASA administrative building. Services located in this building include two banks, a post office, barber shop, cafeteria, snack bar, travel agency, dry cleaners, the NASA Exchange retail store and medical facilities for employees.

  14. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, J.

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  15. Facility Focus: Science Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides examples of four university science buildings whose design fosters interdisciplinary interaction among students coupled with lab flexibility. Design concepts, innovations, and building layouts are examined. (GR)

  16. Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy`s Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

  17. 15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald S. Comedy, Photographer, November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald S. Comedy, Photographer, November 30, 1969 DETAIL OF METAL-SHEATHED FRONT - Mount Vernon Theatre, 918 Ninth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 45. SOUTHERN INTERIOR VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING SHOWING FINK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SOUTHERN INTERIOR VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING SHOWING FINK TRUSSES AND CORRUGATED METAL SHEETING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 3. BUILDING 901, EXTERIOR DETAILING ON NORTH SIDE SHOWING CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 901, EXTERIOR DETAILING ON NORTH SIDE SHOWING CONCRETE FOUNDATION AND METAL TERMITE SHIELD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Warehouse, West End of Crissy Field, Livingston Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey B. Baxter Matheny, Photographer, Spring, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey B. Baxter Matheny, Photographer, Spring, 1973 METAL CEILING AND ROSE WINDOW, ABOVE LOWERED CEILING - First United Methodist Church, 200 North Division Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  2. 19. VIEW OF PROCESSING ROOM. AFTER 1957, BUILDING 771 OPERATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF PROCESSING ROOM. AFTER 1957, BUILDING 771 OPERATIONS CONSISTED PRIMARILY OF AQUEOUS PLUTONIUM RECOVERY FROM SCRAP METAL. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Verlin Berry, Photographer October 20, 1977 LOWER LEVEL, VIEW OF METAL FIRE DOOR - Mishawaka Trust & Savings Company, North Main Street & Lincolnway West, Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, IN

  4. Building Strength in Schools: Why Steel Makes Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praeger, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of metal building and roofing systems, especially the use of steel. Considers such factors as installation ease and design flexibility, reliability and durability, and cost-effectiveness. (PKP)

  5. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF TRASH RACKS AND HEADWORKS; METALSIDED BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF TRASH RACKS AND HEADWORKS; METAL-SIDED BUILDING WITH GABLE ROOF IS THE ELEVATOR SHAFT TO THE CAVITY POWERHOUSE - Snoqualmie Falls Hydroelectric Project, .5 mile north of Snoqualmie, Snoqualmie, King County, WA

  6. Chemistry of carcinogenic metals.

    PubMed Central

    Martell, A E

    1981-01-01

    The periodic distribution of known and suspected carcinogenic metal ions is described, and the chemical behavior of various types of metal ions is explained in terms of the general theory of hard and soft acids and bases. The chelate effect is elucidated, and the relatively high stability of metal chelates in very dilute solutions is discussed. The concepts employed for the chelate effect are extended to explain the high stabilities of macrocyclic and cryptate complexes. Procedures for the use of equilibrium data to determine the speciation of metal ions and complexes under varying solution conditions are described. Methods for assessing the interferences by hydrogen ion, competing metal ions, hydrolysis, and precipitation are explained, and are applied to systems containing iron(III) chelates of fourteen chelating agents designed for effective binding of the ferric ion. The donor groups available for the building up of multidentate ligands are presented, and the ways in which they may be combined to achieve high affinity and selectivity for certain types of metal ions are explained. PMID:6791915

  7. Metal inks

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  8. Modular Buildings Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that child care program directors who are expanding their programs or opening new child care centers investigate the possibility of renting, leasing, or purchasing a modular building. Discusses the advantages of modular buildings over conventional building construction or rented space in an occupied building. Provides information about…

  9. The Building Commissioning Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, John A.; Casault, Rick

    This book discusses building commissioning, which is the process of certifying that a new facility meets the required specifications. As buildings have become more complex, the traditional methods for building start-up and final acceptance have been proven inadequate, and building commissioning has been developed, which often necessitates the use…

  10. Overview of Boiler House and Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Boiler House and Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops Building (center - with single large chimney), note the monitor on the original section of the Boiler House Building, view facing north - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  11. 46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH ALL METAL SIDING INSTALLED AND WITH EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM NEARING OCMPLETION ON "B" FACE (RIGHT). VIEW ALSO SHOWS TRAVELING "CLEANING" SYSTEM ON "B" FACE - NOW REMOVED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 25. WATER TOWER WITH SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. WATER TOWER WITH SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT AND PUMP HOUSE No. 1 ON THE LEFT. THE HOT METAL BRIDGE IS IN THE FAR BACKGROUND. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 13. View looking south on Main Street. The tall building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View looking south on Main Street. The tall building in the background on the right is the Metals Bank Building (1906), designed by Cass Gilbert. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  14. Trihaloethenes as versatile building blocks for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Adriana S; Magauer, Thomas

    2016-06-15

    This review highlights the chemistry of trihaloethene building blocks with a special focus on commercially available 1,1,2-trichloroethene. The topics surveyed herein include the use of trihaloethenes as C2-building blocks for transition metal-catalyzed coupling reactions, addition, elimination and cycloaddition reactions as well as natural product syntheses.

  15. 17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BUILDING 44 (444) UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BUILDING 44 (444) UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN 1952. BUILDING 444 WAS A HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED METAL FABRICATION AND MACHINE SHOP CAPABLE OF PRODUCING PARTS TO EXTREMELY CLOSE TOLERANCES FROM BERYLLIUM AND DEPLETED URANIUM (3/2/52). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. METAL PHTHALOCYANINES

    DOEpatents

    Frigerio, N.A.

    1962-03-27

    A process is given for preparing heavy metal phthalocyanines, sulfonated or not. The process comprises mixing an inorganic metal salt with dimethyl formamide or methyl sulfoxide; separating the metal complex formed from the solution; mixing the complex with an equimolar amount of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, or beryllium sulfonated or unsulfonated phthalocyanine whereby heavy-metal phthalocyanine crystals are formed; and separating the crystals from the solution. Uranyl, thorium, lead, hafnium, and lanthanide rare earth phthalocyanines can be produced by the process. (AEC)

  17. Silicone metalization

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  18. Silicone metalization

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  19. Metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Greer, A L

    1995-03-31

    Amorphous metallic alloys, relative newcomers to the world of glasses, have properties that are unusual for solid metals. The metallic glasses, which exist in a very wide variety of compositions, combine fundamental interest with practical applications. They also serve as precursors for exciting new nanocrystalline materials. Their magnetic (soft and hard) and mechanical properties are of particular interest.

  20. 1. 319 EAST COMMERCIAL AVENUE IS THE SINGLE STORY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 319 EAST COMMERCIAL AVENUE IS THE SINGLE STORY BUILDING IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. IT IS DISTINGUISHED BY ITS CAST METAL FACADE WITH WOODEN INLAY, AND THE PRESSED METAL CORNICE AT THE PARAPET WALL - Anaconda Historic District, 319 East Commercial Avenue, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  1. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable or combustible liquid storage..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND... combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flammable or combustible liquid storage..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND... combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4531 - Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL... flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Surface storage buildings or storage...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4531 - Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL... flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Surface storage buildings or storage...

  5. Building Blueprints: Making Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Depicts how Cornell University renovated its civil engineering and architecture building to include space for musical performances, teaching, and rehearsals. The article highlights the facility's contemporary design, which also compliments the form and massing of the original building. (GR)

  6. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  7. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  8. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Dave B.; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  9. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  10. Concepts in Building Firesafety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, M. David

    The goal of this book is to present in a graphical format the principles of design for building firesafety. The book's more than 270 illustrations represent the core of its coverage of factors affecting fire ignition and spread in buildings, building site planning for fire suppression and occupant rescue operations, protection by building…

  11. Green Building Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  12. Towards Responsive Building Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, John

    A synthesis of ideas and proposals that have emerged in the course of recent Programme on Educational Building activities places emphasis on issues relating to the economic management of existing building resources. In recent years the development and administration of educational building policies have been affected by changes in the organization…

  13. VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREESTORY REINFORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREE-STORY REINFORCED CONCRETE FACTORY WITH A SMALLER ONE-STORY LOADING DOCK AND ANOTHER ONE-STORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING ON THE EAST FACADE. THE THREE-STORY BUILDING HAS VERTICAL METAL PANELING ON THE UPPER STORY. THE ENTIRE COMPLEX IS PAINTED PINK WITH MUCH DAMAGE TO THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING ON THE SOUTH SIDE. (Duplicate color view of HAER MI-340-1) - American Can Company, 1400 Trombly Avenue, Detroit, MI

  14. Geomycology: metals, actinides and biominerals.

    PubMed

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael; Rhee, Young Joon; Stephenson, Karen; Wei, Zhan

    2012-06-01

    Geomycology can be simply defined as 'the scientific study of the roles of fungi in processes of fundamental importance to geology' and the biogeochemical importance of fungi is significant in several key areas. These include nutrient and element cycling, rock and mineral transformations, bioweathering, mycogenic biomineral formation and interactions of fungi with clay minerals and metals. Such processes can occur in aquatic and terrestrial habitats, but it is in the terrestrial environment where fungi probably have the greatest geochemical influence. Of special significance are the mutualistic relationships with phototrophic organisms, lichens (algae, cyanobacteria) and mycorrhizas (plants). Central to many geomycological processes are transformations of metals and minerals, and fungi possess a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Some fungal transformations have beneficial applications in environmental biotechnology, e.g. in metal and radionuclide leaching, recovery, detoxification and bioremediation, and in the production or deposition of biominerals or metallic elements with catalytic or other properties. Metal and mineral transformations may also result in adverse effects when these processes result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment. The ubiquity and importance of fungi in biosphere processes underlines the importance of geomycology as an interdisciplinary subject area within microbiology and mycology. PMID:23760792

  15. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health. PMID:26231502

  16. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  17. Building No. 1, left; Building No. 9, Guard House, center; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1, left; Building No. 9, Guard House, center; Building No. 5, Main Building, right. View from across Main Street - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  18. 10. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, air condition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, air condition repair shop, S end of building, looking N. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building 105, South Broadway, on Hudson River, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  19. 2. Building 5 west elevation, showing Building 4 west elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building 5 west elevation, showing Building 4 west elevation and stack associated with Building 3 to right. View looking SEE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 5, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 1. Building 1 south elevation oblique, showing loading dock, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building 1 south elevation oblique, showing loading dock, Building 1B (tower) center background, and stack associated with Building 3. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 1, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Building L west elevation oblique from cartway (between Buildings L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building L west elevation oblique from cartway (between Buildings L and M), also showing west elevation of Building J - Daniel F. Waters Germantown Dye Works, Building L, 37-55 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  3. Integrated building design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanguinetti, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    For many years, building design has been a very linear process with owners speaking to architects who then design building shells that they pass along to sub-consultants who must fit their systems into the allotted spaces. While this process has some advantages, it provides little opportunity to optimize systems based on such factors as energy use or occupant comfort. This presentation will focus on the evolution and implications of integrated building design, a method that has provided greater opportunities for interaction between design disciplines and with building users early on in the design process. Integration has resulted in buildings that are more sustainable than typical buildings and that can respond better to the needs of the owner and users. Examples of the application of the process and the resulting buildings will be presented from the view of a design engineer with experience of both processes. Specifically, the potential contribution of an acoustical consultant in the integrated process will be explored.

  4. South side. Building 520 is to the right. Building 516 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side. Building 520 is to the right. Building 516 is to the left. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Physiotherapy & Electrocardiograph Department Building, North of Building No. 516, East of corridor connecting Building No. 511 to Building No. 515, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. 23. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) FROM ROOF OF TON CONTAINER RECONDITIONING BUILDING, SHOWING FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING AT FOREGROUND AND BUILDING 741, 742 AND 743 AT CENTER BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. RIGGERS LOFT/PAINT SHOP/SHEET METAL SHOP, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. THE PAINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RIGGERS LOFT/PAINT SHOP/SHEET METAL SHOP, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. THE PAINT SHOP WAS LOCATED IN THE CLOSEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE SHEET METAL SHOP WAS LOCATED IN THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. THE RIGGERS LOFT WAS LOCATED IN THE PORTION OF THE BUILDING OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Riggers Loft/Paint Shop/Sheet Metal Shop, 1322 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R. )

    2002-08-31

    The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

  8. A&M. Dolly storage building (TAN647), interior details. Camera facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Dolly storage building (TAN-647), interior details. Camera facing northeast. Metal frame, metal walls, metal door. Date: August 6, 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-36-2-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Building robust architectures of carbon-wrapped transition metal nanoparticles for high catalytic enhancement of the 2LiBH4-MgH2 system for hydrogen storage cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu; Xiao, Xuezhang; Shao, Jie; Zhai, Bing; Fan, Xiulin; Cheng, Changjun; Li, Shouquan; Ge, Hongwei; Wang, Qidong; Chen, Lixin

    2016-08-21

    Nanoscale catalyst doping is regarded as one of the most effective strategies to improve the kinetics performance of hydrogen storage materials, but the agglomeration of nanoparticles is usually unavoidable during the repeated de/rehydrogenation processes. Herein, hierarchically structured catalysts (Fe/C, Co/C and Ni/C) were designed and fabricated to overcome the agglomeration issue of nanocatalysts applied to the 2LiBH4-MgH2 system for the first time. Uniform transition metal (TM) nanoparticles (∼10 nm) wrapped by few layers of carbon are synthesized by pyrolysis of the corresponding metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and introduced into the 2LiBH4-MgH2 reactive hydride composites (RHCs) by ball milling. The particular features of the carbon-wrapped architecture effectively avoid the agglomeration of the TM nanoparticles during hydrogen storage cycling, and high catalysis is maintained during the subsequent de/rehydrogenation processes. After de/rehydrogenation cycling, FeB, CoB and MgNi3B2 can be formed as the catalytically active components with a particle size of 5-15 nm, which show a homogeneous distribution in the hydride matrix. Among the three catalysts, in situ-formed MgNi3B2 shows the best catalytic efficiency. The incubation period of the Fe/C, Co/C and Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 system between the two dehydrogenation steps was reduced to about 8 h, 4 h and 2 h, respectively, which is about 8 h, 12 h and 14 h shorter than that of the undoped 2LiBH4-MgH2 sample. In addition, the two-step dehydrogenation peak temperatures of the Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 system drop to 323.4 °C and 410.6 °C, meanwhile, the apparent activation energies of dehydrogenated MgH2 and LiBH4 decrease by 58 kJ mol(-1) and 71 kJ mol(-1), respectively. In particular, the cycling hydrogen desorption of the Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 sample exhibits very good stability compared with the undoped sample. The present approach, which ideally addresses the agglomeration of nanoparticles with

  10. Building robust architectures of carbon-wrapped transition metal nanoparticles for high catalytic enhancement of the 2LiBH4-MgH2 system for hydrogen storage cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu; Xiao, Xuezhang; Shao, Jie; Zhai, Bing; Fan, Xiulin; Cheng, Changjun; Li, Shouquan; Ge, Hongwei; Wang, Qidong; Chen, Lixin

    2016-08-21

    Nanoscale catalyst doping is regarded as one of the most effective strategies to improve the kinetics performance of hydrogen storage materials, but the agglomeration of nanoparticles is usually unavoidable during the repeated de/rehydrogenation processes. Herein, hierarchically structured catalysts (Fe/C, Co/C and Ni/C) were designed and fabricated to overcome the agglomeration issue of nanocatalysts applied to the 2LiBH4-MgH2 system for the first time. Uniform transition metal (TM) nanoparticles (∼10 nm) wrapped by few layers of carbon are synthesized by pyrolysis of the corresponding metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and introduced into the 2LiBH4-MgH2 reactive hydride composites (RHCs) by ball milling. The particular features of the carbon-wrapped architecture effectively avoid the agglomeration of the TM nanoparticles during hydrogen storage cycling, and high catalysis is maintained during the subsequent de/rehydrogenation processes. After de/rehydrogenation cycling, FeB, CoB and MgNi3B2 can be formed as the catalytically active components with a particle size of 5-15 nm, which show a homogeneous distribution in the hydride matrix. Among the three catalysts, in situ-formed MgNi3B2 shows the best catalytic efficiency. The incubation period of the Fe/C, Co/C and Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 system between the two dehydrogenation steps was reduced to about 8 h, 4 h and 2 h, respectively, which is about 8 h, 12 h and 14 h shorter than that of the undoped 2LiBH4-MgH2 sample. In addition, the two-step dehydrogenation peak temperatures of the Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 system drop to 323.4 °C and 410.6 °C, meanwhile, the apparent activation energies of dehydrogenated MgH2 and LiBH4 decrease by 58 kJ mol(-1) and 71 kJ mol(-1), respectively. In particular, the cycling hydrogen desorption of the Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 sample exhibits very good stability compared with the undoped sample. The present approach, which ideally addresses the agglomeration of nanoparticles with

  11. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D.; Tiwari, Prabhat

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  12. Building robust architectures of carbon-wrapped transition metal nanoparticles for high catalytic enhancement of the 2LiBH4-MgH2 system for hydrogen storage cycling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Xiao, Xuezhang; Shao, Jie; Zhai, Bing; Fan, Xiulin; Cheng, Changjun; Li, Shouquan; Ge, Hongwei; Wang, Qidong; Chen, Lixin

    2016-08-01

    Nanoscale catalyst doping is regarded as one of the most effective strategies to improve the kinetics performance of hydrogen storage materials, but the agglomeration of nanoparticles is usually unavoidable during the repeated de/rehydrogenation processes. Herein, hierarchically structured catalysts (Fe/C, Co/C and Ni/C) were designed and fabricated to overcome the agglomeration issue of nanocatalysts applied to the 2LiBH4-MgH2 system for the first time. Uniform transition metal (TM) nanoparticles (~10 nm) wrapped by few layers of carbon are synthesized by pyrolysis of the corresponding metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and introduced into the 2LiBH4-MgH2 reactive hydride composites (RHCs) by ball milling. The particular features of the carbon-wrapped architecture effectively avoid the agglomeration of the TM nanoparticles during hydrogen storage cycling, and high catalysis is maintained during the subsequent de/rehydrogenation processes. After de/rehydrogenation cycling, FeB, CoB and MgNi3B2 can be formed as the catalytically active components with a particle size of 5-15 nm, which show a homogeneous distribution in the hydride matrix. Among the three catalysts, in situ-formed MgNi3B2 shows the best catalytic efficiency. The incubation period of the Fe/C, Co/C and Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 system between the two dehydrogenation steps was reduced to about 8 h, 4 h and 2 h, respectively, which is about 8 h, 12 h and 14 h shorter than that of the undoped 2LiBH4-MgH2 sample. In addition, the two-step dehydrogenation peak temperatures of the Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 system drop to 323.4 °C and 410.6 °C, meanwhile, the apparent activation energies of dehydrogenated MgH2 and LiBH4 decrease by 58 kJ mol-1 and 71 kJ mol-1, respectively. In particular, the cycling hydrogen desorption of the Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 sample exhibits very good stability compared with the undoped sample. The present approach, which ideally addresses the agglomeration of nanoparticles with efficient

  13. Building robust architectures of carbon-wrapped transition metal nanoparticles for high catalytic enhancement of the 2LiBH4-MgH2 system for hydrogen storage cycling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Xiao, Xuezhang; Shao, Jie; Zhai, Bing; Fan, Xiulin; Cheng, Changjun; Li, Shouquan; Ge, Hongwei; Wang, Qidong; Chen, Lixin

    2016-08-01

    Nanoscale catalyst doping is regarded as one of the most effective strategies to improve the kinetics performance of hydrogen storage materials, but the agglomeration of nanoparticles is usually unavoidable during the repeated de/rehydrogenation processes. Herein, hierarchically structured catalysts (Fe/C, Co/C and Ni/C) were designed and fabricated to overcome the agglomeration issue of nanocatalysts applied to the 2LiBH4-MgH2 system for the first time. Uniform transition metal (TM) nanoparticles (~10 nm) wrapped by few layers of carbon are synthesized by pyrolysis of the corresponding metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and introduced into the 2LiBH4-MgH2 reactive hydride composites (RHCs) by ball milling. The particular features of the carbon-wrapped architecture effectively avoid the agglomeration of the TM nanoparticles during hydrogen storage cycling, and high catalysis is maintained during the subsequent de/rehydrogenation processes. After de/rehydrogenation cycling, FeB, CoB and MgNi3B2 can be formed as the catalytically active components with a particle size of 5-15 nm, which show a homogeneous distribution in the hydride matrix. Among the three catalysts, in situ-formed MgNi3B2 shows the best catalytic efficiency. The incubation period of the Fe/C, Co/C and Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 system between the two dehydrogenation steps was reduced to about 8 h, 4 h and 2 h, respectively, which is about 8 h, 12 h and 14 h shorter than that of the undoped 2LiBH4-MgH2 sample. In addition, the two-step dehydrogenation peak temperatures of the Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 system drop to 323.4 °C and 410.6 °C, meanwhile, the apparent activation energies of dehydrogenated MgH2 and LiBH4 decrease by 58 kJ mol-1 and 71 kJ mol-1, respectively. In particular, the cycling hydrogen desorption of the Ni/C-doped 2LiBH4-MgH2 sample exhibits very good stability compared with the undoped sample. The present approach, which ideally addresses the agglomeration of nanoparticles with efficient

  14. ``Towards Strange Metallic Holography'

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva; Tong, David; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara

    2010-08-26

    We initiate a holographic model building approach to 'strange metallic' phenomenology. Our model couples a neutral Lifshitz-invariant quantum critical theory, dual to a bulk gravitational background, to a finite density of gapped probe charge carriers, dually described by D-branes. In the physical regime of temperature much lower than the charge density and gap, we exhibit anomalous scalings of the temperature and frequency dependent conductivity. Choosing the dynamical critical exponent z appropriately we can match the non-Fermi liquid scalings, such as linear resistivity, observed in strange metal regimes. As part of our investigation we outline three distinct string theory realizations of Lifshitz geometries: from F theory, from polarized branes, and from a gravitating charged Fermi gas. We also identify general features of renormalization group flow in Lifshitz theories, such as the appearance of relevant charge-charge interactions when z {ge} 2. We outline a program to extend this model building approach to other anomalous observables of interest such as the Hall conductivity.

  15. Metal Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, General Magnaplate Corporation developed process techniques for bonding dry lubricant coatings to space metals. The coatings were not susceptible to outgassing and offered enhanced surface hardness and superior resistance to corrosion and wear. This development was necessary because conventional lubrication processes were inadequate for lightweight materials used in Apollo components. General Magnaplate built on the original technology and became a leader in development of high performance metallurgical surface enhancement coatings - "synergistic" coatings, - which are used in applications from pizza making to laser manufacture. Each of the coatings is designed to protect a specific metal or group of metals to solve problems encountered under operating conditions.

  16. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  17. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    2005-03-02

    DOE2.1E-121SUNOS is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating,more » cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS).« less

  18. Metals 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G.; Boensch, F.D.; Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M.

    1993-05-01

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  19. Metal cladding envelope problems, retrofit solutions, and quality control investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    1992-04-01

    This paper deals with a case study of a building envelope retrofit of an insulated sheet steel and corrugated metal clad building. The building in discussion is a satellite testing facility which requires specific clean room conditions with controlled interior temperature (22 degree(s)C +/- 1 degree(s)C) and high relative humidity conditions (45% +/- 3%) to facilitate satellite testing programs. Preliminary mechanical system inspections indicated substantial increase in air intake to make up for air leakage losses. An infrared inspection along with an approximate air leakage test of the building envelope was requested by the client to determine the magnitude of the building envelope problem. This investigation concluded that significant air leakage was present throughout the building envelope and that existing mechanical systems did not have sufficient capacity to pressurize the building and negate wind and stack effect. Exfiltration particularly through openings on the top sections of the building were causing interior moisture to saturate wall insulation and render it ineffective. Concern for rusting of metal components was indicated. The subsequent envelope analysis discovered a number of typical metal building details that led to poor air tightness and wall insulation ineffectiveness. These were correlated to infrared investigation data. The retrofit solutions produced for this building not only apply to this building but to other similar building types. Further investigations indicated that air leakage and mechanical system performance were significant problems with buildings using metal cladding systems comparable to this building. Quality control before, during and after construction was identified as an important function of the architectural commissioning of the retrofit work and infrared investigations were used to verify locations of air leakage and insulation effectiveness.

  20. Survey of Solar Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Robert; Baker, Steven

    This survey brings together information concerning the growing number of buildings utilizing solar energy and is designed to facilitate the comparison of specific characteristics of the buildings. The 66 U.S. entries are divided into five regions, arranged by state, and roughly by date within each state. Seven entries are from other countries. A…

  1. Building Community Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Lori; And Others

    This handbook is intended to help local programs build a broad base of support for young children and their families. The strategies described are designed to help early childhood practitioners develop relationships with the community that will establish long-term commitments to early childhood programs and build a foundation for additional…

  2. Facility Focus: Academic Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Humanities Building at Rice University, the Health Sciences Center at Lake Sumter Community College, and the Norman S. and Lida M. Smith Academic Technology Center at Bentley College as examples of the importance of academic buildings in helping define campus image. Includes photographs. (EV)

  3. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  4. Building with Prudence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberfeld, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    A framework for college building is offered: (1) solve current plant problems without increasing the volume of enclosed space, (2) build only when there is a clear future need, (3) engage an architect only after policy formation, (4) develop a capital budget, and (5) treat facilities as a resource. (Author/MLW)

  5. Building Global Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  6. School Building Day, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ.

    This document presents information and development materials about "School Building Day" (an event spotlighting the school facility and developing support and pride in the community's schools) to help local school districts conduct their own "School Building Day" to be held on April 20th of 2001. Included are lists of suggested activities and…

  7. Building a Data Warehouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to build a data warehouse, using the Schools Interoperability Framework (www.sifinfo.org), that supports data-driven decision making and complies with the Freedom of Information Act. Provides several suggestions for building and maintaining a data warehouse. (PKP)

  8. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  9. Build your own

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniz, Ernest; McAndrew, Elizabeth; Chan, Albert; Eggleton, David

    2015-01-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Build your own LEGO particle collider" (2 December 2014, http://ow.ly/Fe3Vy, see also p3) which described a campaign to get the popular plastic-bricks firm to make a building set based on a particle accelerator, such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.

  10. Buildings for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Regional Inst. for School Building Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka).

    The quarterly review for October and December 1967 of the Asian Regional Institute for School Building Research at Colombo, Ceylon--(1) reviews two main activities of a cost and space utilization study and a report of the workshop of the directors and UNESCO experts on regional educational buildings, (2) describes a method for determining teacher…

  11. SUSY GUT Model Building

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Stuart

    2008-11-23

    In this talk I discuss the evolution of SUSY GUT model building as I see it. Starting with 4 dimensional model building, I then consider orbifold GUTs in 5 dimensions and finally orbifold GUTs embedded into the E{sub 8}xE{sub 8} heterotic string.

  12. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  13. Buildings That Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebenson, John

    1998-01-01

    Teachers can use "built teaching aids" or elements of the school building itself to expand teaching and enhance learning. Possibilities include bulletin boards, display cases, murals painted by local artists, permanent information panels, interior windows to classrooms, flags, and bas-reliefs on building exteriors. Playground pavement can become a…

  14. Build a Solar Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Attached solar greenhouses are relatively inexpensive and easy to build; they can provide additional heat to homes all winter as well as fresh vegetables and flowers. This bulletin: (1) describes the characteristics of a solar greenhouse; (2) provides a checklist of five items to consider before building a solar greenhouse; (3) describes the four…

  15. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  16. School Building Design Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Regional Inst. for School Building Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka).

    Guidelines are presented for the design, costs, and use of primary and secondary general schools in the 18 countries comprising the Asian region served by UNESCO. Because of the great diversity in climate, building design and construction skills, and resources in these countries, the generalizations about school building design and furniture…

  17. NREL Buildings Research Video

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Through research, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed many strategies and design techniques to ensure both commercial and residential buildings use as little energy as possible and also work well with the surroundings. Here you will find a video that introduces the work of NREL Buildings Research, highlights some of the facilities on the NREL campus, and demonstrates these efficient building strategies. Watch this video to see design highlights of the Science and Technology Facility on the NREL campus—the first Federal building to be LEED® Platinum certified. Additionally, the video demonstrates the energy-saving features of NRELs Thermal Test Facility. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/buildings/about_research_text_version.html

  18. 5. VIEW SOUTH FROM BUILDING 20 OF BUILDINGS 4, 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SOUTH FROM BUILDING 20 OF BUILDINGS 4, 3 AND 2; BUILDING 4 AT EXTREME LEFT CENTER; RUNDBOGENSTIL TOWER AT LEFT CENTER; BUILDING 3 AT CENTER; BUILDING 2 RIGHT OF CENTER AND '1876' STACK AT EXTREME RIGHT - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  19. VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) LEFT CENTER BUILDING 31 RIGGER'S SHOP (1890) CENTER BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (1853) RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  20. 2. Building 4 west elevation from roof of Building 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building 4 west elevation from roof of Building 1. Stack associated with Building 3 in background. Building 15 and hopper/chute partially visible on right. View looking SE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 4, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. GENERAL VIEW OF FLIGHT LINE SUPPORT BUILDINGS (ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF FLIGHT LINE SUPPORT BUILDINGS (ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION, BUILDING 2775; SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT SHOP (PARACHUTE AND DINGY SHOP), BUILDING 2784; MAINTENANCE DOCK (BUILDING 2785) AND BUILDING 2783 WAR). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  2. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT BUILDING 121, THE PLANT SECURITY BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT BUILDING 121, THE PLANT SECURITY BUILDING. BUILDING 121 WAS ONE OF THE ORIGINAL STRUCTURES AT THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT. IT SHARES A COMMON WALL WITH BUILDING 122, THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL BUILDING. (7/29/52) - Rocky Flats Plant, Security & Armory, West of Third Street, south of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  4. Metallic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvera, Isaac; Zaghoo, Mohamed; Salamat, Ashkan

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the Universe. At high pressure it is predicted to transform to a metal with remarkable properties: room temperature superconductivity, a metastable metal at ambient conditions, and a revolutionary rocket propellant. Both theory and experiment have been challenged for almost 80 years to determine its condensed matter phase diagram, in particular the insulator-metal transition. Hydrogen is predicted to dissociate to a liquid atomic metal at multi-megabar pressures and T =0 K, or at megabar pressures and very high temperatures. Thus, its predicted phase diagram has a broad field of liquid metallic hydrogen at high pressure, with temperatures ranging from thousands of degrees to zero Kelvin. In a bench top experiment using static compression in a diamond anvil cell and pulsed laser heating, we have conducted measurements on dense hydrogen in the region of 1.1-1.7 Mbar and up to 2200 K. We observe a first-order phase transition in the liquid phase, as well as sharp changes in optical transmission and reflectivity when this phase is entered. The optical signature is that of a metal. The mapping of the phase line of this transition is in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions for the long-sought plasma phase transition to metallic hydrogen. Research supported by the NSF, Grant DMR-1308641, the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656, and NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Award NNX14AP17H.

  5. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. EAST END OF BUILDING. CAMERA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. EAST END OF BUILDING. CAMERA FACING WEST. TRUCK ENCLOSURE (1986) TO THE LEFT, SMALL ADDITION IN ITS SHADOW IS ENCLOSURE OVER METAL PORT INTO HOT CELL NO. 1 (THE OLDEST HOT CELL). NOTE PERSONNEL LADDER AND PLATFORM AT LOFT LEVEL USED WHEN SERVICING AIR FILTERS AND VENTS OF CELL NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-32-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  7. 63. DETAIL VIEW OF LIGHT METAL TRUSSING SYSTEM ON PARTIALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. DETAIL VIEW OF LIGHT METAL TRUSSING SYSTEM ON PARTIALLY DEMOLISHED GABLE END OF UNIDENTIFIED BUILDING. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. VIEW OF WEST END OF METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST END OF METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS AND GABLE END OF POWER HOUSE, WITH STACK TO FAR RIGHT. VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  9. South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a door when it is open. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Root Cellar, West Pennington Avenue, North of Building No. 121, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. 23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, coke gas pipe to left; in background, BOF building, limestone piles, Levy's Slag Dump. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  11. INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE, METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE, METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS FROM THE ELECTRIC SHOP. RAILROAD TRACKS IN FLOOR. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  12. 8. Second floor front apartment showing ornately painted pressed metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Second floor front apartment showing ornately painted pressed metal ceiling, as well as modern partitions and wall treatments. View looking north. - Franklin Grocery Company Building, 1 South Main Street, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

  13. Detail of metal canopy on north elevation of loading dock, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of metal canopy on north elevation of loading dock, looking west - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. Metal-adeninate vertices for the construction of an exceptionally porous metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    An, Jihyun; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Pohl, Ehmke; Yeh, Joanne I; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2012-01-03

    Metal-organic frameworks comprising metal-carboxylate cluster vertices and long, branched organic linkers are the most porous materials known, and therefore have attracted tremendous attention for many applications, including gas storage, separations, catalysis and drug delivery. To increase metal-organic framework porosity, the size and complexity of linkers has increased. Here we present a promising alternative strategy for constructing mesoporous metal-organic frameworks that addresses the size of the vertex rather than the length of the organic linker. This approach uses large metal-biomolecule clusters, in particular zinc-adeninate building units, as vertices to construct bio-MOF-100, an exclusively mesoporous metal-organic framework. Bio-MOF-100 exhibits a high surface area (4,300 m(2) g(-1)), one of the lowest crystal densities (0.302 g cm(-3)) and the largest metal-organic framework pore volume reported to date (4.3 cm(3) g(-1)).

  15. 57. BUILDING NO. 1071, ORDNANCE FACILITY (CRYSTALLIZATION BUILDING), LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. BUILDING NO. 1071, ORDNANCE FACILITY (CRYSTALLIZATION BUILDING), LOOKING AT SOUTHEAST SIDE. NOTE ESCAPE CHUTES PROJECTING FROM SIDES OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  16. Elevation of pier building and main house looking south. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of pier building and main house looking south. Building at far right was fish smokehouse. Roof of building at right was used for drying fish. - Beacon Marine Basin, 211 East Main Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  17. 3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. 5. North side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. North side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  19. 4. South side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. South side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  20. 9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  1. 6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  2. 24. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER -- MWOC IN OPEARATION AT 1924 ZULU TIME. 26 OCTOBER, 1999. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  3. Black Maria Reconstruction (left foreground); Building No. 1; Main Building; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Black Maria Reconstruction (left foreground); Building No. 1; Main Building; Edison Storage Battery Building (right background) - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  4. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  5. 23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. 8. BUILDING No. 5 SOUTH SIDE (LEFT); BUILDING No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BUILDING No. 5 - SOUTH SIDE (LEFT); BUILDING No. 13 - WEST AND SOUTH SIDES (CENTER); BUILDING No. 6 - WEST SIDE (RIGHT), VIEW TO THE EAST - Whiting-Plover Paper Mill, 3243 Whiting Road, Whiting, Portage County, WI

  7. VIEW OF MLT BUILDING (LIME KILN BUILDING DIRECTLY BEHIND IT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MLT BUILDING (LIME KILN BUILDING DIRECTLY BEHIND IT WITH GOOD VIEW OF SKIP CAR TRACK) LOOKING EAST. - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  8. Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building 908 at extreme right for context. - Travis Air Force Base, Handling Crew Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  9. 1. Building 9 west elevation along Crawford Street. Adjoining Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building 9 west elevation along Crawford Street. Adjoining Building 10 on right. View looking SEE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 9, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 7. Building 7 interior, west end of building showing tier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Building 7 interior, west end of building showing tier of skylight windows and modern equipment. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 7, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 4. Building 5 east elevation. Building 4 partially visible to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Building 5 east elevation. Building 4 partially visible to left. View looking NWW. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 5, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon northwest cell: poured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon northwest cell: poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, exposed brick wall, vaulted veiling; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  13. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon central hallway: poured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon central hallway: poured concrete floors, plaster-finished brick walls, vaulted ceiling, arch entryway to cells; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  14. 51. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far left, acid fueling station and standby generator building on far right, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  15. 49. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far left, and building 160, acid fueling station on far right, looking west - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  16. 47. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far right, and building 160, acid fueling station on far left, looking northeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  17. 48. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far right, and building 160, acid fueling station on far left, looking east - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  18. 4. NORTHWEST SIDE LOOKING EAST, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND HEADQUARTERS BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTHWEST SIDE LOOKING EAST, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND HEADQUARTERS BUILDING TO LEFT - Santa Fe Land Improvement Company, Office Building, 16915 Avenida de Acacias, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  19. 9. FERTILIZER PLANT AND STORAGE BUILDINGS, LOOKING EAST FROM BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FERTILIZER PLANT AND STORAGE BUILDINGS, LOOKING EAST FROM BUILDING 149; LIVESTOCK HOLDING BUILDINGS (HOG AND SHEEP HOTELS) OCCUPIED OPEN AREA IN FOREGROUND - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. 13. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING "B" FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - "B" FACE LOADING DOCK AND PERSONNEL ACCESS RAMP TO FALLOUT SHELTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  1. 11. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING EVAPORATIVE COOLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  2. Smokestack with incinerator building (building 616) to right and unnumbered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Smokestack with incinerator building (building 616) to right and unnumbered building to right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Smokestack, 560 feet east-northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue, & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Metal nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Leon R; Gobin, Andre M; Lowery, Amanda R; Tam, Felicia; Drezek, Rebekah A; Halas, Naomi J; West, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01

    Metal nanoshells are a new class of nanoparticles with highly tunable optical properties. Metal nanoshells consist of a dielectric core nanoparticle such as silica surrounded by an ultrathin metal shell, often composed of gold for biomedical applications. Depending on the size and composition of each layer of the nanoshell, particles can be designed to either absorb or scatter light over much of the visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, including the near infrared region where penetration of light through tissue is maximal. These particles are also effective substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and are easily conjugated to antibodies and other biomolecules. One can envision a myriad of potential applications of such tunable particles. Several potential biomedical applications are under development, including immunoassays, modulated drug delivery, photothermal cancer therapy, and imaging contrast agents. PMID:16528617

  4. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Dave; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  5. INL Green Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  6. Nanoscale metal-organic materials.

    PubMed

    Carné, Arnau; Carbonell, Carlos; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Metal-organic materials are found to be a fascinating novel class of functional nanomaterials. The limitless combinations between inorganic and organic building blocks enable researchers to synthesize 0- and 1-D metal-organic discrete nanostructures with varied compositions, morphologies and sizes, fabricate 2-D metal-organic thin films and membranes, and even structure them on surfaces at the nanometre length scale. In this tutorial review, the synthetic methodologies for preparing these miniaturized materials as well as their potential properties and future applications are discussed. This review wants to offer a panoramic view of this embryonic class of nanoscale materials that will be of interest to a cross-section of researchers working in chemistry, physics, medicine, nanotechnology, materials chemistry, etc., in the next years.

  7. Metallized Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Since the early 1960's, virtually all NASA spacecraft have used metallized films for a variety of purposes, principally thermal radiation insulation. King Seeley manufactures a broad line of industrial and consumer oriented metallized film, fabric, paper and foam in single layer sheets and multi-layer laminates. A few examples, commercialized by MPI Outdoor Safety Products, are the three ounce Thermos Emergency Blanket which reflects and retains up to 80 percent of the user's body heat helping prevent post accident shock or keeping a person warm for hours under emergency cold weather conditions.

  8. Mysteries of metals in metalloenzymes.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Crystal E; Smith, Quentin A; Nechay, Michael R; Alexandrova, Anastassia N

    2014-10-21

    Natural metalloenzymes are often the most proficient catalysts in terms of their activity, selectivity, and ability to operate at mild conditions. However, metalloenzymes are occasionally surprising in their selection of catalytic metals, and in their responses to metal substitution. Indeed, from the isolated standpoint of producing the best catalyst, a chemist designing from first-principles would likely choose a different metal. For example, some enzymes employ a redox active metal where a simple Lewis acid is needed. Such are several hydrolases. In other cases, substitution of a non-native metal leads to radical improvements in reactivity. For example, histone deacetylase 8 naturally operates with Zn(2+) in the active site but becomes much more active with Fe(2+). For β-lactamases, the replacement of the native Zn(2+) with Ni(2+) was suggested to lead to higher activity as predicted computationally. There are also intriguing cases, such as Fe(2+)- and Mn(2+)-dependent ribonucleotide reductases and W(4+)- and Mo(4+)-dependent DMSO reductases, where organisms manage to circumvent the scarcity of one metal (e.g., Fe(2+)) by creating protein structures that utilize another metal (e.g., Mn(2+)) for the catalysis of the same reaction. Naturally, even though both metal forms are active, one of the metals is preferred in every-day life, and the other metal variant remains dormant until an emergency strikes in the cell. These examples lead to certain questions. When are catalytic metals selected purely for electronic or structural reasons, implying that enzymatic catalysis is optimized to its maximum? When are metal selections a manifestation of competing evolutionary pressures, where choices are dictated not just by catalytic efficiency but also by other factors in the cell? In other words, how can enzymes be improved as catalysts merely through the use of common biological building blocks available to cells? Addressing these questions is highly relevant to the enzyme

  9. RIVERSIDE AVE. FROM SOUTH, SOUTHEAST OF BUILDINGS #433 SHOWING BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RIVERSIDE AVE. FROM SOUTH, SOUTHEAST OF BUILDINGS #433 SHOWING BUILDINGS #434 AND #435, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST - Fort Leavenworth, Metropolitan Avenue & Seventh Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  10. 52. The Murray Motors Building on the right (101 South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. The Murray Motors Building on the right (101 South Colorado) is a one story building with a full basement for automobile storage. It has pest and beam construction, and has been altered only slightly. Both street facades have low, stepped gables. Beyond it, is the Parisian Dye House (56-60 West Galena), built in 1891 to house the Paumie Cleaners. The building still has its original cast-iron storefront on the ground floor as well as the original pressed-tin ceiling and woodwork inside. Metal window sills and lintles have been painted. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  11. Building Technologies Program Key Activities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Building Technologies Program (BTP) employs a balanced approach to making buildings more energy efficient. The three pillars of our program, research and development (R&D), market stimulation, and building and equipment standards, help meet our strategic vision.

  12. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

  13. The Building Blocks of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Betty O.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses teaching techniques for teaching about rocks, minerals, and the differences between them. Presents a model-building activity that uses plastic building blocks to build crystal and rock models. (YDS)

  14. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  15. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    2005-01-24

    DOE2.1E-121 is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating,more » cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS). DOE2.1E-121 contains modifications to DOE2.1E which allows 1000 zones to be modeled.« less

  16. Building Resilience in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Building Resilience Sleep Growing ...

  17. Building damage in Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blong, Russell

    2002-08-01

    Damage information on 173 buildings was collected in the immediate aftermath of the September 1994 eruption which destroyed large sections of Rabaul town, Papua New Guinea. The extent of damage is presented on a five-point scale and related to construction characteristics and tephra load. Total roof loads in Rabaul town ranged from 2 to 16 kN m-2 (about 100- to 950-mm tephra thickness). Most buildings which collapsed completely experienced loads >7.5 kN m-2, but many buildings sustained half this load with little more than cosmetic damage. Timber-framed buildings suffered more than buildings with at least some concrete block walls. However, some old, steel-framed buildings experienced severe damage with tephra loads as low as 2 kN m-2. Comparisons with tephra loads and building damage elsewhere are limited but suggest that Rabaul buildings experiencing roof loads of 2-5 kN m-2 generally survived reasonably well. However, the comparisons are unsatisfactory because of inadequate data on tephra unit weights, roof design, building ages, the quality of workmanship, and the natural variability of construction materials, particularly timber. The Rabaul data suggest that concrete block walls increase building resistance to tephra loads but it is doubtful that conventional residential buildings can be designed to sustain tephra loads exceeding 7 kN m-2. The Rabaul experience also indicates that building codes for volcanic areas need to consider mudfills and post-eruption corrosion of sheet metal roofs and wall cladding. Most importantly, had the majority of buildings in Rabaul survived the September 1994 tephra falls, wet season mudflows a few months later would still have made most of the town unsafe and uninhabitable.

  18. Building damage in Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blong, Russell

    Damage information on 173 buildings was collected in the immediate aftermath of the September 1994 eruption which destroyed large sections of Rabaul town, Papua New Guinea. The extent of damage is presented on a five-point scale and related to construction characteristics and tephra load. Total roof loads in Rabaul town ranged from 2 to 16 kN m-2 (about 100- to 950-mm tephra thickness). Most buildings which collapsed completely experienced loads >7.5 kN m-2, but many buildings sustained half this load with little more than cosmetic damage. Timber-framed buildings suffered more than buildings with at least some concrete block walls. However, some old, steel-framed buildings experienced severe damage with tephra loads as low as 2 kN m-2. Comparisons with tephra loads and building damage elsewhere are limited but suggest that Rabaul buildings experiencing roof loads of 2-5 kN m-2 generally survived reasonably well. However, the comparisons are unsatisfactory because of inadequate data on tephra unit weights, roof design, building ages, the quality of workmanship, and the natural variability of construction materials, particularly timber. The Rabaul data suggest that concrete block walls increase building resistance to tephra loads but it is doubtful that conventional residential buildings can be designed to sustain tephra loads exceeding 7 kN m-2. The Rabaul experience also indicates that building codes for volcanic areas need to consider mudfills and post-eruption corrosion of sheet metal roofs and wall cladding. Most importantly, had the majority of buildings in Rabaul survived the September 1994 tephra falls, wet season mudflows a few months later would still have made most of the town unsafe and uninhabitable.

  19. METAL COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1959-02-01

    Alloys of uranium which are strong, hard, and machinable are presented, These alloys of uranium contain bctween 0.1 to 5.0% by weight of at least one noble metal such as rhodium, palladium, and gold. The alloys may be heat treated to obtain a product with iniproved tensile and compression strengths,

  20. Heavy Metal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)

  1. Building technology roadmaps

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-27

    DOE's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is facilitating an industry-led initiative to develop a series of technology roadmaps that identify key goals and strategies for different areas of the building and equipment industry. This roadmapping initiative is a fundamental component of the BTS strategic plan and will help to align government resources with the high-priority needs identified by industry.

  2. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  3. Composite metal membrane

    DOEpatents

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  4. Composite metal membrane

    DOEpatents

    Peachey, Nathaniel M.; Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.; Birdsell, Stephan A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  5. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  6. Community Capacity Building:

    PubMed Central

    Goytia, Crispin N.; Todaro-Rivera, Lea; Brenner, Barbara; Shepard, Peggy; Piedras, Veronica; Horowitz, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background: Successful community–academic research partnerships require building the capacity of both community-based organizations (CBOs) and academics to conduct collaborative research of mutual interest and benefit. Yet, information about the needs and goals of research-interested CBOs is lacking. Our partnership aimed to conduct a community research needs assessment and to use results to develop future capacity-building programs for CBOs. Methods: Based on our review of the literature, informal interviews with research-interested CBOs and community-engaged research groups locally and nationally, we developed a needs assessment survey. Key domains of this survey included history and experience with research collaboration, interest in specific research topics, and preference for learning format and structure. We trained community health workers (CHWs) to recruit senior leaders from CBOs in New York City (NYC) and encourage them to complete an on-line survey. Results: Fully 54% (33/61) of CBOs completed the needs assessment. Most (69%) reported involvement with research or evaluation in the last 2 years and 33% had some funding for research. Although 75% had collaborated with academic institutions in the past, 58% did not rate this experience well. The four areas respondents prioritized for skills building were program evaluation, developing needs assessments, building surveys, and understanding statistical analyses. They were less interested in learning to build collaborations with academics. Conclusions: A formal needs assessment of research training and educational needs of CBOs revealed that most had experience, albeit negative, with academic collaborations. CBO leaders wanted to build skills to conduct and analyze assessments and program evaluations. Our community–academic partnership is using these findings to develop a research capacity-building course. Other partnerships should consider conducting such assessments to transform the capacity of CBOs to

  7. 31. SOUTH PLANT NORTHERN EDGE, SHOWING CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. SOUTH PLANT NORTHERN EDGE, SHOWING CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) AT LEFT, LABORATORY (BUILDING 241) AT CENTER AND CAUSTIC FUSION PLANT (BUILDING 254) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 10. Overall view of buildings showing building 101, administration, recreation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Overall view of buildings showing building 101, administration, recreation, and storage building on far right, and building 103, non-commissioned officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far left, looking southwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  9. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BUILDING 701. BUILDING 701 WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BUILDING 701. BUILDING 701 WAS USED TO DESIGN, BUILD, AND EVALUATE BENCH-SCALE TECHNOLOGIES USED IN ROCKY FLATS WASTE TREATMENT PROCESSES. (1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Design Laboratory, Northwest quadrant of Plant, between buildings 776-777 & 771, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. General view of buildings: Building No. 6 with smokestack (left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of buildings: Building No. 6 with smokestack (left foreground); Building No. 5 (left background); Base of Water Tower (right foreground); Buildings 4, 3, 2, 1 (center foreground to background) - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  11. Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B (on left) and north elevation of Building D (on right). The Germantown Dyeworks complex and smoke stack appear in the background. View looking east - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building C, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Context view, Building Nos. 2729, with Building No. 28 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view, Building Nos. 27-29, with Building No. 28 in the center, looking west at front of buildings, from a spot south of Building No. 29 - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Medical Officer in Charge Residence, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  13. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT BUILDING 771 UNDER CONSTRUCTION. BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT BUILDING 771 UNDER CONSTRUCTION. BUILDING 771 WAS ONE OF THE FIRST FOUR MAJOR BUILDINGS AT THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT, BUILDING 771 WAS ORIGINALLY THE PRIMARY FACILITY FOR PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. (5/29/52) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 2. Building 3 north elevation showing stack, Building 4 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building 3 north elevation showing stack, Building 4 on right, Building 15 with steel water tower and hopper behind. View looking SSW. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 3, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 1. Building 3 east elevation, Building 15 and steel water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building 3 east elevation, Building 15 and steel water tank (elevated) to left, stack associated with Building 3 Boiler room, center. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 3, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 19. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF BUILDING 374. BUILDING 374, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF BUILDING 374. BUILDING 374, ATTACHED TO BUILDING 371, BECAME OPERATIONAL IN 1978 AS THE NEW RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY, REPLACING BUILDING 774. (6/26/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. context view of building 2606, utility building, also showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    context view of building 2606, utility building, also showing the chapel, at far left, the transformers on the east side of the utility building, the combat operations center behind, and the cooling tower structure at the right, behind the parked trucks - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  18. 6. Interior, first floor front room. View of pressed metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior, first floor front room. View of pressed metal ceiling visible through opening in dropped ceiling. (Below the pressed metal ceiling are three wooden joists, two electrical wires and the edges of the dropped ceiling where a panel had been removed). - Ferree Building, 417 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Laser generating metallic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-04-01

    Recent developments in rapid prototyping have led to the concept of laser generating, the first additive manufacturing technology. This paper presents an innovative process of depositing multi-layer tracks, by fusing successive powder tracks, to generate three dimensional components, thereby offering an alternative to casting for small metal component manufacture. A coaxial nozzle assembly has been designed and manufactured enabling consistent omni-directional multi-layer deposition. In conjunction with this the software route from a CAD drawing to machine code generation has been established. The part is manufactured on a six axes machining center incorporating a 1.8 kW carbon-dioxide laser, providing an integrated opto-mechanical workstation. The part build-up program is controlled by a P150 host computer, linked directly to the DNC machining center. The direct manufacturing route is shown, including initial examples of simple objects (primitives -- cube, cylinder, cone) leading to more complex turbine blade generation, incorporating build-up techniques and the associated mechanical properties.

  20. 27. VIEW OF WEST END OF BUILDING 40, SECOND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW OF WEST END OF BUILDING 40, SECOND FLOOR VAULT; NOTE INTERIOR SHELVING; SIMILAR VAULTS WERE LOCATED THROUGHOUT THE COMPLEX AND WERE USED TO SECURE VALUABLE TOOLING, PRECIOUS METALS AND PARTS INVENTORY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  1. VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF OFFICE BUILDING, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF OFFICE BUILDING, EAST SIDE OF FOSTER HANGAR AND FRANCIS HANGAR, AND NORTH SIDE OF DAVIS HANGAR AND METAL STORAGE HANGAR - Capital City Airport, Francis Aviation, North side of Grand River Avenue, Lansing, Ingham County, MI

  2. 4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL RUSTIC STYLE CHIMNEY WITH GABLE FRAME, METAL ROOF, AND CONCRETE WALKWAY AND STEP TO OPEN SIDE-ENTRY DOOR AT PHOTO ENTER. ORIGINAL DECORATIVE WOOD SHIPLAP SIDING ON UPPER END GABLE HAS BEEN COVERED WITH ASPHALT SHINGLES. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  3. Metallic parts fabrication using the SIS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojdeh, Mehdi

    Since early 1980s, quite a few techniques of Rapid Prototyping (RP), also known as Layered Manufacturing, have been developed. By building three-dimensional parts in a layer-by-layer additive manner, these techniques allow freeform fabrication of parts of complex geometry. Despite recent advances in fabrication of polymer parts, most of the existing rapid prototyping processes are still not capable of fabrication of accurate metallic parts with acceptable mechanical properties. Insufficient dimensional accuracy, limited number of materials, proper mechanical properties, required post machining and lack of repeatability between builds have greatly limited the market penetration of these techniques. This dissertation presents an innovative layered manufacturing technique for fabrication of dense metallic parts called Selective Inhibition Sintering (SIS), developed at the University of Southern California. The SIS-Metal technology adapts RP capabilities and extends them to the field of fabrication of metallic parts for a variety of applications such as tooling and low volume production. Using this process, a metallic part, with varying 3 dimensional geometries, can be automatically constructed from a wide range of materials. SIS-Metal is the only RP process which is suitable for fabrication of dense, complex shaped, accurate objects using a variety of materials. In the SIS-Metal process a metallic part is built layer by layer by deposition for each layer of an inhibitor material which defines the corresponding layer boundary and then filling the voids of the created geometry with metal powder; and compacting the layer formed to reach a high powder density. The resulting green part is then sintered in a furnace to yield the final functional part. In this research different inhibition techniques were explored and a series of single and multi layer parts was fabricated using the most promising inhibition technique, namely, macro-mechanical inhibition. Dimensional

  4. Energy Simulator Residential Buildings

    1992-02-24

    SERI-RES performs thermal energy analysis of residential or small commercial buildings and has the capability of modeling passive solar equipment such as rock beds, trombe walls, and phase change material. The analysis is accomplished by simulation. A thermal model of the building is created by the user and translated into mathematical form by the program. The mathematical equations are solved repeatedly at time intervals of one hour or less for the period of simulation. Themore » mathematical representation of the building is a thermal network with nonlinear, temperature-dependent controls. A combination of forward finite differences, Jacobian iteration, and constrained optimization techniques is used to obtain a solution. An auxiliary interactive editing program, EDITOR, is included for creating building descriptions. EDITOR checks the validity of the input data and also provides facilities for storing and referencing several types of building description files. Some of the data files used by SERI-RES need to be implemented as direct-access files. Programs are included to convert sequential files to direct-access files and vice versa.« less

  5. Biopolymers Containing Unnatural Building Blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-06-30

    Although the main chain structure of polymers has a profound effect on their materials properties, the side groups can also have dramatic effects on their properties including conductivity, liquid crystallinity, hydrophobicity, elasticity and biodegradability. Unfortunately control over the side chain structure of polymers remains a challenge – it is difficult to control the sequence of chain elongation when mixtures of monomers are polymerized, and postpolymerization side chain modification is made difficult by polymer effects on side chain reactivity. In contrast, the mRNA templated synthesis of polypeptides on the ribosome affords absolute control over the primary sequence of the twenty amino acid monomers. Moreover, the length of the biopolymer is precisely controlled as are sites of crosslinking. However, whereas synthetic polymers can be synthesized from monomers with a wide range of chemically defined structures, ribosomal biosynthesis is largely limited to the 20 canonical amino acids. For many applications in material sciences, additional building blocks would be desirable, for example, amino acids containing metallocene, photoactive, and halogenated side chains. To overcome this natural constraint we have developed a method that allows unnatural amino acids, beyond the common twenty, to be genetically encoded in response to nonsense or frameshift codons in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells with high fidelity and good yields. Here we have developed methods that allow identical or distinct noncanonical amino acids to be incorporated at multiple sites in a polypeptide chain, potentially leading to a new class of templated biopolymers. We have also developed improved methods for genetically encoding unnatural amino acids. In addition, we have genetically encoded new amino acids with novel physical and chemical properties that allow selective modification of proteins with synthetic agents. Finally, we have evolved new metal-ion binding sites in proteins

  6. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes.

    PubMed

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  7. The Parameterization of Solid Metal-Liquid Metal Partitioning of Siderophile Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chabot, N. L.; Jones, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The composition of a metallic liquid can significantly affect the partitioning behavior of elements. For example, some experimental solid metal-liquid metal partition coefficients have been shown to increase by three orders of magnitude with increasing S-content of the metallic liquid. Along with S, the presence of other light elements, such as P and C, has also been demonstrated to affect trace element partitioning behavior. Understanding the effects of metallic composition on partitioning behavior is important for modeling the crystallization of magmatic iron meteorites and the chemical effects of planetary differentiation. It is thus useful to have a mathematical expression that parameterizes the partition coefficient as a function of the composition of the metal. Here we present a revised parameterization method, which builds on the theory of the current parameterization of Jones and Malvin and which better handles partitioning in multi-light-element systems.

  8. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  9. Energy conservation in swine buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.

    1980-05-01

    Saving energy in confinement swine buildings can be achieved by conserving existing animal heat through both proper building construction and control of the environment. Environmental management practices considered include building insulation and modifications, heating and cooling system selection, ventilation system adjustments, and proper building temperature. (MCW)

  10. Building Trades. Block II. Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Twelve informational lessons and eleven manipulative lessons are provided on foundations as applied to the building trades. Informational lessons cover land measurements; blueprint reading; level instruments; building and site planning; building site preparation; laying out building lines; soil preparation and special evacuation; concrete forms;…

  11. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  12. Building Air Quality. Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.

    Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the "Building Air Quality Guide," provides building owners and managers with an…

  13. Building functional cities.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J; Regan, Tanner; Samsonov, Ilia

    2016-05-20

    The literature views many African cities as dysfunctional with a hodgepodge of land uses and poor "connectivity." One driver of inefficient land uses is construction decisions for highly durable buildings made under weak institutions. In a novel approach, we model the dynamics of urban land use with both formal and slum dwellings and ongoing urban redevelopment to higher building heights in the formal sector as a city grows. We analyze the evolution of Nairobi using a unique high-spatial resolution data set. The analysis suggests insufficient building volume through most of the city and large slum areas with low housing volumes near the center, where corrupted institutions deter conversion to formal sector usage. PMID:27199420

  14. Building Informatics Environment

    2008-06-02

    The Building Informatics Environment is a modeling environment based on the Modelica language. The environment allows users to create a computer model of a building and its energy systems with various time scales and physical resolutions. The environment can be used for rapid development of, e.g., demand controls algorithms, new HVAC system solutions and new operational strategies (controls, fault detection and diagnostics). Models for building energy and control systems are made available in the environment.more » The models can be used as provided, or they can be changed and/or linked with each other in order to model the effects that a particular user is interested in.« less

  15. Building brains for bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Rodney Allen; Stein, Lynn Andrea

    1994-01-01

    We describe a project to capitalize on newly available levels of computational resources in order to understand human cognition. We will build an integrated physical system including vision, sound input and output, and dextrous manipulation, all controlled by a continuously operating large scale parallel MIMD computer. The resulting system will learn to 'think' by building on its bodily experiences to accomplish progressively more abstract tasks. Past experience suggests that in attempting to build such an integrated system we will have to fundamentally change the way artificial intelligence, cognitive science, linguistics, and philosophy think about the organization of intelligence. We expect to be able to better reconcile the theories that will be developed with current work in neuroscience.

  16. Seismic instrumentation of buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on how and why we deploy seismic instruments in and around building structures. The recorded response data from buildings and other instrumented structures can be and are being primarily used to facilitate necessary studies to improve building codes and therefore reduce losses of life and property during damaging earthquakes. Other uses of such data can be in emergency response situations in large urban environments. The report discusses typical instrumentation schemes, existing instrumentation programs, the steps generally followed in instrumenting a structure, selection and type of instruments, installation and maintenance requirements and data retrieval and processing issues. In addition, a summary section on how recorded response data have been utilized is included. The benefits from instrumentation of structural systems are discussed.

  17. Clad metal joint closure

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, O.W.

    1985-04-09

    A plasma arc spray overlay of cladding metals is used over joints between clad metal pieces to provide a continuous cladding metal surface. The technique permits applying an overlay of a high melting point cladding metal to a cladding metal surface without excessive heating of the backing metal.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.758 - Systems-engineered metal buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eave strut-to-frame connections, when girts or eave struts share common connection holes, at least one... cold-formed joists shall be fully bolted and/or welded to the support structure before: (1)...

  19. Re-Building Greensburg

    ScienceCinema

    Hewitt, Steven; Wallach, Daniel; Peterson, Stephanie

    2016-07-12

    Greensburg, KS - A town that was devastated by a tornado in 2007, yet came back to be one of the Nation's most energy-efficient, sustainable communities. Civic leaders and entrepreneurs helped rally residents behind the idea of "greening" Greensburg, inspiring the construction of numerous energy-efficient buildings, some of which generate their own renewable power with solar panels and wind turbines. Many of the town's government buildings use cutting edge energy-saving technologies, saving the local taxpayers' money. Greensburg has demonstrated to the world that any city can reach its energy efficiency and renewable energy goals today using widely available technologies.

  20. Building synthetic memory

    PubMed Central

    Inniss, Mara C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Cellular memory – conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response – is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and reengineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

  1. Re-Building Greensburg

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, Steven; Wallach, Daniel; Peterson, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Greensburg, KS - A town that was devastated by a tornado in 2007, yet came back to be one of the Nation's most energy-efficient, sustainable communities. Civic leaders and entrepreneurs helped rally residents behind the idea of "greening" Greensburg, inspiring the construction of numerous energy-efficient buildings, some of which generate their own renewable power with solar panels and wind turbines. Many of the town's government buildings use cutting edge energy-saving technologies, saving the local taxpayers' money. Greensburg has demonstrated to the world that any city can reach its energy efficiency and renewable energy goals today using widely available technologies.

  2. Energy-efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Hafemeister, D.

    1988-04-01

    Since the 1973 oil famine the US has learned to save 45 billion dollars a year by making homes and offices more energy efficient. Now an oil glut has led to complacency. For 50 to 100 years the nation will be paying energy bills for buildings going up today. This paper discusses innovative technologies and policies can could cut 50 billion dollars a year from these energy bills. Some of these technologies are solar-assisted building designs, superinsulated houses, fluorescent lighting systems, insulated windows, home appliance improvements, and use of off-peak power.

  3. Marine Science Building Dedicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Officials cut the ribbon during dedication ceremonies of the George A. Knauer Marine Science Building on Oct. 17 at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The $2.75 million facility, the first building at the test site funded by the state of Mississippi, houses six science labs, classrooms and office space for 40 faculty and staff. Pictured are, from left, Rear Adm. Thomas Donaldson, commander of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command; SSC Assistant Director David Throckmorton; Dr. George A. Knauer, founder of the Center of Marine Science at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM); Lt. Gov. Amy Tuck; and USM President Dr. Shelby Thames.

  4. 4. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627. West side and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627. West side and north end. Camera facing southeast. Shows original (lower roofed section) and later addition. Metal building next to south end is related to decontamination and demolition activities. Ineel photo no. 1-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA651. TWO JOY COMPRESSORS ARE INSTALLED. OUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-651. TWO JOY COMPRESSORS ARE INSTALLED. OUT OF VIEW ON RIGHT WERE TWO INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS. NOTE FRAME STRUCTURE OF METAL-SIDING BUILDING. COMPARE WITH ID-33-G-4. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1257. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/20/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Performance Metrics for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Wang, Na; Romero, Rachel L.; Deru, Michael P.

    2010-09-30

    Commercial building owners and operators have requested a standard set of key performance metrics to provide a systematic way to evaluate the performance of their buildings. The performance metrics included in this document provide standard metrics for the energy, water, operations and maintenance, indoor environmental quality, purchasing, waste and recycling and transportation impact of their building. The metrics can be used for comparative performance analysis between existing buildings and industry standards to clarify the impact of sustainably designed and operated buildings.

  7. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE BRICKEDIN WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE BRICKED-IN WINDOW ON RIGHT SIDE (BELOW PAINTED NUMERALS "665"). SLIDING METAL DOOR ON COVERED RAIL AT UPPER LEVEL. SHELTERED ENTRANCE TO STEEL SHIELDING DOOR. DOOR INTO MTR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, STANDS OPEN. MTR BEHIND CHOPPER BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. SPERTI Terminal Building (PER604) is under construction in foreground, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Terminal Building (PER-604) is under construction in foreground, with vertical metal siding partially affixed to gable end of building. Utility lines are laid in shallow trench to Reactor Pit and Instrument Cell Buildings also under construction in distance. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: April 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1001 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR (ETR) BUILDING, TRA642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR (ETR) BUILDING, TRA-642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING EAST. VERTICAL METAL SIDING. ROOF IS SLIGHTLY ELEVATED AT CENTER LINE FOR DRAINAGE. WEST SIDE OF ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643, PROJECTS TOWARD LEFT AT FAR END OF ETR BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-37-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Metal dusting

    SciTech Connect

    Edited by K. Natesan

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was held soon after the September 11th incident under a climate of sorrow and uncertainty among the people of the world, in particular the Workshop participants and their host organizations. With considerable help from the partiicpants, the Workshop was conducted as planed and we had excellent participation in spite of the circumstances. A good fraction of the attendees in the Workshop were from abroad and from several industries, indicating the importance and relevance of the subject for the chemical process industry. Degradation of structural metallic alloys by metal dusting has been an issue for over 40 years in the chemical, petrochemical, syngas, and iron ore reduction plants. However, the fundamental scientific reasons for the degradation of complex alloys in high carbon activity environments are not clear. one of the major parameters of importance is the variation in gas chemistry in both the laboratory experiments and in the plant-service environments. the industry has questioned the applicability of the laboratory test data, obtained in low steam environments, in assessment and life prediction for the materials in plant service where the environments contain 25-35% steam. Several other variables such as system pressure, gas flow velocity, incubation time, alloy chemistry, surface finish, and weldments, were also identified in the literature as to having an effect on the initiatino and propagation of metal dusting attack. It is the purpose of this Workshop to establish a forum in which the researchers from scientific and industrial laboratories, alloy manufacturers, end users, and research and development sponsors can exchange information, discuss different points of view, prioritize the issues, and to elaborate on the trends in industry for the future. We believe that we accomplished these goals successfully and sincerely thank the participants for their contributions.

  11. Building Alliances Series: Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Public-private partnerships done right are a powerful tool for development, providing enduring solutions to some of the greatest challenges. To help familiarize readers with the art of alliance building, the Global Development Alliance (GDA) office has created a series of practical guides that highlight proven practices in partnerships,…

  12. Energy efficient building design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  13. ABC's of Asset Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assets for Colorado Youth, Denver.

    Developmental assets are a research-based list of 40 essential building blocks of healthy youth development and comprise the relationships, experiences, and values that youth need to grow up caring, confident, and responsible. This kit is a resource designed for elementary schools and organizations working with youth and parents to help them…

  14. Building Bridges to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  15. Wayside Teaching: Building Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Educators can implement strategies to build positive relationships with students that will help them become more autonomous and less anonymous in school. These strategies allow young adolescents to become more self aware, to take greater responsibility for their actions, to reflect on their own lives and actions, and to have choices regarding…

  16. Building the Best Auditorium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Building a quality auditorium has never come at a cheap price. In today's economy, a $750,000 minimum price tag just for sound, lighting, stage rigging and seats can be exorbitant. However, schools that have built new auditoriums or upgraded existing ones in the past decade say the investment is worth every penny. This article discusses the…

  17. Building Automation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  18. LARGE BUILDING HVAC SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the monitoring and collection of data relating to indoor pressures and radon concentrations under several test conditions in a large school building in Bartow, Florida. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) used an integrated computational software, FSEC 3.0...

  19. If They Build It....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Impact fees are one-time charges assessed to residential developers that help pay for new roads, libraries, school buildings, and other infrastructure needed for growing populations. The fees' highly political nature has pitted school officials against developers, with mixed results. Utah, South Carolina, Florida, and Colorado initiatives are…

  20. Team Building Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. It briefly explains how team building concepts affect businesses in new ways and how they help create an environment that provides job satisfaction for everyone and high-quality products for the…

  1. Building a Straw Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  2. Building safer structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet; Page, Robert A.; Seekins, Linda

    1995-01-01

    In this century, major earthquakes in the United States have damaged or destroyed numerous buildings, bridges, and other structures. By monitoring how structures respond to earthquakes and applying the knowledge gained, scientists and engineers are improving the ability of structures to survive major earthquakes. Many lives and millions of dollars have already been saved by this ongoing research.

  3. Build a City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jean A.

    1985-01-01

    A week-long build-a-city project is described which lets students become familiar with the history of the five Platonic solids (tetrahedron, octahedron, hexahedron, isosahedron, dodecahedron) and then use these solids to create a city using posterboard and construction paper. (MNS)

  4. Building Industries Occupations: Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The Building Industries Occupations course is a two-year program of approximately 160 three-period teaching days per year. The required course content is designed to be effectively taught in 80 percent of the total course time, thus allowing 20 percent of the time for instruction adapted to such local conditions as employment prospects, student…

  5. Building Satellites is Easier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Phyllis Nimmo

    1996-01-01

    'Building Satellites' is a story about Jim Marsh's recovery from a severe head injury told by his wife Phyllis from the moment she learned of its happening, through the ups and downs of a lengthy rehabilitation, until his return to work and daily living. It continues on, however, and narrates his battle with the more insidious Grave's disease. Told in the first person, 'Building Satellites' vividly portrays Phyllis's thoughts and feelings throughout this experience with scrupulous honestly. This is a story worth reading for many reasons. First of all, Jim was an accomplished scientist, respected by his colleagues both in this country and abroad. Secondly, it narrates the many stages of his recovery from head injury with detailed readable accuracy; it informs us as well as inspires. Finally, 'Building Satellites" also tells us the story of Phyllis Marsh's remarkable creative response to this crisis. It narrates her personal experiences as she progresses through the strange and somewhat bizarre world of medicine and rehabilitation, guided by a few basic beliefs, which she learned as a child in Iowa, that provided her with the strength to endure. 'Building Satellites' seems to reaffirm our unconscious, but settled conviction, that when confornted overnight with adversity, we are somehow given the means for coping, supported by our basic beliefs, strengthened by family and friends, and eventually learning to accept any outcome.

  6. Building with Sand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  7. Looking into sick buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Scarry, R.L. )

    1994-07-01

    This article examines the effect of geographic location (humid vs dry climate) and indoor relative humidity on the potential for IAQ problems. Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) has been a problem for centuries. The more current interest surrounds the Legionella pneumophila epidemic of 1976. The Legionnaire's disease outbreak was the first recognized instance of a building related illness (BRI). Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a less well defined condition than BRI. In SBS, occupants of a building suffer ill health due to some obscure condition or conditions in the building. Additionally, the health condition appears to be self-resolving when the person leaves the premises. A complete listing of SBS variables has not been determined, but the general conditions have been identified. The primary groupings include irritants, allergens, and toxins. It should be noted that infectious agents were intentionally omitted as their involvement more specifically indicated a BRI. Additionally, some contaminants may be classified as more than a single type; e.g., Aspergillus sp. may be labeled both allergenic and toxigenic.

  8. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  9. Building Camaraderie from Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions have adopted athletics programs to promote character building. Sports help people feel comfortable in their skins and provide unique opportunities to develop qualities such as cooperation, perseverance, and the ability to cope with fear. But the arena can be a hothouse for more primal feelings that emerge in competition.…

  10. Building Relationships with Reporters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwai, Sabrina

    2008-01-01

    Each story that is written about career and technical education (CTE) increases knowledge and support with local government, school officials and the community. The first step in improving publicity for one's program is to build a relationship with local reporters covering education. In this article, the author discusses how important it is to…

  11. Plastics in Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeist, Irving, Ed.

    The evaluation and use of plastics in the construction industry are explained. The contributors offer extensive, timely, and thoroughly researched data on the chemistry, properties, functions, engineering behavior, and specific applications of plastics to building requirements. The major subjects discussed in depth are--(1) the role of plastics in…

  12. Checklist for Physics Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    This booklet was written to encourage close communication between architect and client and to assist planners of physics facilities in providing important features of building design. Some 300 items considered important are listed Also included is a list of 17 references related to facility construction (many available free of charge. A companion…

  13. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  14. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  15. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  16. Building Community in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.

    This book provides a view of community that educators can use to define and build community in their schools. Chapter 1 critiques the traditional view of schools as formal organizations and offers a theory of community as an alternative. Chapter 2 describes a pattern of relationships characteristic of communities, which can be applied to…

  17. Building Migratory Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  18. Building Codes and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  19. Library Building and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David J.; Gordon, Heather; Caddy, Julie; Kahlert, Maureen; Johnson, Carolyn; Holdstock, Fiona

    1997-01-01

    More frequently, community connections are being expressed in library design briefs and reflected in the completed buildings. This collection of brief articles discusses community involvement in library design and services and describes library construction projects in Australia and Malaysia. Also, discusses community art programs, integrating…

  20. Building a Better CTO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Geoffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    This article features the new Framework of Essential Skills of the K-12 CTO of the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN). This latest, version 2.0 iteration of the skills framework builds upon work the organization did earlier this decade. This time CoSN, a professional association for district technology leaders, reached out to a variety of…

  1. Financing Pennsylvania School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cober, John G.

    This report examines the relative merits of three types of bonds available in Pennsylvania for financing school buildings. These types are: (1) general obligation (GO) -- issued by the school board with or without the assent of electors, (2) municipal authorities created by local municipalities -- authorized to issue bonds to finance building…

  2. Deactivation of Building 7602

    SciTech Connect

    Yook, H.R.; Barnett, J.R.; Collins, T.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored research and development programs in Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1984. This work focused on development of advanced technology for processing nuclear fuels. Building 7602 was used for engineering-scale tests using depleted and natural uranium to simulate the nuclear fuel. In April 1994 the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) sent supplemental FY 1994 guidance to ORNL stating that in FY 1995 and beyond, Building 7602 is considered surplus to NE programs and missions and shall be shut down (deactivated) and maintained in a radiologically and industrially safe condition with minimal surveillance and maintenance (S&M). DOE-NE subsequently provided FY 1995 funding to support the deactivation activities. Deactivation of Building 7602 was initiated on October 1, 1994. The principal activity during the first quarter of FY 1995 was removal of process materials (chemicals and uranium) from the systems. The process systems were operated to achieve chemical solution concentrations needed for reuse or disposal of the solutions prior to removal of the materials from the systems. During this phase of deactivation the process materials processed and removed were: (1) Uranyl nitrate solution 30,178 L containing 4490 kg of uranium; (2) Nitric acid (neutralized) 9850 L containing less than 0.013 kg of uranium; (3) Organic solution 3346 L containing 265 kg of uranium; (4) Uranium oxide powder 95 kg; and (5) Miscellaneous chemicals. At the end of December 1994, the process systems and control systems were shut down and deactivated. Disposition of the process materials removed from the process systems in Building 7602 proved to be the most difficult part of the deactivation. An operational stand down and funding reductions at Y-12 prevented planned conversion of the uranyl nitrate solution to depleted uranium oxide powder. This led to disposal of the uranyl nitrate solution as waste.

  3. Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Froes, Francis H.; Eranezhuth, Baburaj G.; Prisbrey, Keith

    2001-01-01

    A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

  4. Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI COMPENDEX*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and equipment for recycling metal and steel scrap. Citations discuss automatic scrap recycling, scrap metal reprocessing, contaminated metal scrap, and mass-produced building materials from scrap. The design and evaluation of recycling processes in automotive, aircraft, beverage, electronics, and milling industries are examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, L.W.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1982-12-01

    Recent accomplishments in buildings energy research by the diverse groups in the Energy Efficient Buildings Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are summarized. We review technological progress in the areas of ventilation and indoor air quality, buildings energy performance, computer modeling, windows, and artificial lighting. The need for actual consumption data to track accurately the improving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressed by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL. We summarize results to date from our Building Energy Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) studies, which include time trends in the energy consumption of new commercial and new residential buildings, the measured savings being attained by both commercial and residential retrofits, and the cost-effectiveness of buildings energy conservation measures. We also examine recent comparisons of predicted vs. actual energy usage/savings, and present the case for building energy use labels.

  6. Flexible building primitives for 3D building modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, B.; Jancosek, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2015-03-01

    3D building models, being the main part of a digital city scene, are essential to all applications related to human activities in urban environments. The development of range sensors and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) technology facilitates our ability to automatically reconstruct level of details 2 (LoD2) models of buildings. However, because of the high complexity of building structures, no fully automatic system is currently available for producing building models. In order to simplify the problem, a lot of research focuses only on particular buildings shapes, and relatively simple ones. In this paper, we analyze the property of topology graphs of object surfaces, and find that roof topology graphs have three basic elements: loose nodes, loose edges, and minimum cycles. These elements have interesting physical meanings: a loose node is a building with one roof face; a loose edge is a ridge line between two roof faces whose end points are not defined by a third roof face; and a minimum cycle represents a roof corner of a building. Building primitives, which introduce building shape knowledge, are defined according to these three basic elements. Then all buildings can be represented by combining such building primitives. The building parts are searched according to the predefined building primitives, reconstructed independently, and grouped into a complete building model in a CSG-style. The shape knowledge is inferred via the building primitives and used as constraints to improve the building models, in which all roof parameters are simultaneously adjusted. Experiments show the flexibility of building primitives in both lidar point cloud and stereo point cloud.

  7. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  8. In situ pipe coating techniques for building plumbing

    SciTech Connect

    Hock, V.F.; Cardenas, H.E.; Emery, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    Water pipe failures (leaks) within buildings are an ongoing problem at many large installations such as military bases, universities, and industrial complexes. Such failures can cause severe, costly damage to building interiors, personal property, and electronic equipment. Most failures in metallic potable water pipes within buildings are a result of water-side corrosion. Water-side corrosion may be induced by certain constituents in the water and/or poor workmanship practices. Water temperatures, pressures, and velocities are also factors in the corrosion process. In order to mitigate water-side corrosion and comply with the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for lead and copper, 40 CFR 141.82, an alternative to chemical treatment was developed. The preliminary results of in situ pipe coatings for small diameter building plumbing are presented.

  9. Building Security into Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, John E.; Ahmed, Faruq

    2000-01-01

    Offers tips for redesigning safer school sites; installing and implementing security technologies (closed-circuit television cameras, door security hardware, electronic security panels, identification cards, metal detectors, and panic buttons); educating students and staff about security functions; and minimizing costs via a comprehensive campus…

  10. 70. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING WEST INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING WEST INTO STORAGE AREA SHOWING THE FOUR STORAGE ROOM ENTRANCES. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  11. Contextual view of building showing relation to building 91 at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building showing relation to building 91 at right; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Interior view showing interface between building 271 and with building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view showing interface between building 271 and with building 87 in background; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Contextual view showing building 50 east elevation, with building 46 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing building 50 east elevation, with building 46 on right; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Contextual view building 50 on right with building 52 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view building 50 on right with building 52 on left; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. 20. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 2 AND 1, AND BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 2 AND 1, AND BUILDING K, VIEW SOUTHEAST, NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  16. 60. SOUTH CORNER OF BUILDING 370 (ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE BUILDING) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. SOUTH CORNER OF BUILDING 370 (ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE BUILDING) IN BASE SPARES AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  17. 54. SOUTHWEST SIDE ELEVATION OF BUILDING 367 (ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE BUILDING) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. SOUTHWEST SIDE ELEVATION OF BUILDING 367 (ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE BUILDING) IN BASE SPARES AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  18. 24. CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 220 (ENTRY CONTROL BUILDING) LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 220 (ENTRY CONTROL BUILDING) LOOKING NORTH THROUGH SECURITY GATES. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  19. 18. Walkway between maintenance building and office building along south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Walkway between maintenance building and office building along south side of main plant looking east - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  20. 69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH DOOR-WAY INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  1. 71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE ROOM SHOWING CUBICLES FOR STORAGE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  2. VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER, BUILDING 24 IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Tennis Courts, Corner of Reeves Avenue & Pennsylvania Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Detail view of base of Building 70021, showing Building 70022 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of base of Building 70021, showing Building 70022 (background), facing southeast - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Randsburg Wash Facility Target Test Towers, Tower Road, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  4. View of building 11070, with building 11050 in the background ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11070, with building 11050 in the background (left side). Looking northeast. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  5. View of hoist southeast of Building 70022. facing northwest. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hoist southeast of Building 70022. facing northwest. Building 70022 is in background - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Randsburg Wash Facility Target Test Towers, Tower Road, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  6. View showing base of Building 70021 with Building 70022 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View showing base of Building 70021 with Building 70022 in background, facing southeast - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Randsburg Wash Facility Target Test Towers, Tower Road, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  7. View of building 11050. With view of building 11070 (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050. With view of building 11070 (See HABS No. CA 2774-B) in background. Looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  8. 11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  9. 51. BUILDING NO. 533, SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDING, LOOKING WEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BUILDING NO. 533, SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDING, LOOKING WEST AT SOUTHEAST (REAR) ELEVATION. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. 1. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building 800 in the background, facing east. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  11. 37. Threequarter view of building 161, fallout shelter, showing building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Three-quarter view of building 161, fallout shelter, showing building 104, mess hall in background, looking southeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  12. Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building 933-935 at extreme left. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 5, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  13. The building on the left is building 114, showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The building on the left is building 114, showing the right side of it's entrance and front. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Guest House, Northeast Corner of West Harlow Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. Smokestack with incinerator building in background and unnumbered building lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Smokestack with incinerator building in background and unnumbered building lower right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Smokestack, 560 feet east-northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue, & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT BUILDING 444 UNDER CONSTRUCTION. BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT BUILDING 444 UNDER CONSTRUCTION. BUILDING 444 WAS THE PRIMARY NON-PLUTONIUM MANUFACTURING FACILITY AT THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES COMPLETED IN THIS BUILDING WERE USED TO FABRICATE WEAPONS COMPONENTS AND ASSEMBLIES FOR A VARIETY OF MATERIALS, INCLUDING DEPLETED URANIUM, BERYLLIUM, STAINLESS STEEL, ALUMINUM, AND VANADIUM. (4/25/52) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  17. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  18. Metals production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Theodore S.

    1992-02-01

    Existing procedures for design of electrochemical plants can be used for design of lunar processes taking into consideration the differences in environmental conditions. These differences include: 1/6 Earth gravity, high vacuum, solar electrical and heat source, space radiation heat sink, long days and nights, and different availability and economics of materials, energy, and labor. Techniques have already been developed for operation of relatively small scale hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell systems used in the U.S. lunar landing program. Design and operation of lunar aqueous electrolytic process plants appears to be within the state-of-the-art. Finding or developing compatible materials for construction and designing of fused-magma metal winning cells will present a real engineering challenge.

  19. Metals production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Theodore S.

    1992-01-01

    Existing procedures for design of electrochemical plants can be used for design of lunar processes taking into consideration the differences in environmental conditions. These differences include: 1/6 Earth gravity, high vacuum, solar electrical and heat source, space radiation heat sink, long days and nights, and different availability and economics of materials, energy, and labor. Techniques have already been developed for operation of relatively small scale hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell systems used in the U.S. lunar landing program. Design and operation of lunar aqueous electrolytic process plants appears to be within the state-of-the-art. Finding or developing compatible materials for construction and designing of fused-magma metal winning cells will present a real engineering challenge.

  20. Interior building details of Building A, Room 2212: plaster ceiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, Room 2-212: plaster ceiling and two-over-two double-hung wood sash with a infilled panel below, window, Room A-213 painted plaster finished partition walls; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  1. Within compound, looking southeast, Satellite Communications Terminal Building (Building 5771) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, looking southeast, Satellite Communications Terminal Building (Building 5771) to left, Gate House (Building 5764) to right of center - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  2. 2. Overview of Buildings 2015, 2133 and 2009, with Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of Buildings 2015, 2133 and 2009, with Building 1001 (administration building) in background, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Texas State Highway 202, 4.8 miles east of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & U.S. State Highway 181, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  3. 34. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING ROOM 105 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - ROOM 105 - CHILLER ROOM, SHOWING SINGLE COMPRESSOR, LIQUID CHILLERS AND "CHILLED WATER RETURN", COOLING TOWER 'TOWER WATER RETURN" AND 'TOWER WATER SUPPLY" LINES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  4. 81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING NO. 561-A, PROPELLANT PLANT (FIREPROOF SHELTER), IN FOREGROUND, BUILDING NO. 561-D IN EXTREME FOREGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  5. 19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. 25. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1930 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. MWOC SCREEN ALSO SHOWS RADAR "FACE A" AND "FACE B" ACTIVE STATUS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  7. 26. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1945 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. "SPACE TRACK BOARD" DATA SHOWING ITEMS #16609 MIR (RUSSIA) AND #25544 ISS (INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION) BEING TRACKED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  9. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT BUILDING 122 DURING CONSTRUCTION. BUILDING 122, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT BUILDING 122 DURING CONSTRUCTION. BUILDING 122, THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL BUILDING, WAS ONE OF THE ORIGINAL STRUCTURES AT THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT. (5/29/52) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. 25. VIEW WEST FROM INSIDE EAST BUILDING TO CENTER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW WEST FROM INSIDE EAST BUILDING TO CENTER BUILDING OF STAIRWAY LANDING AT UPPER LEVEL BETWEEN EAST AND CENTER BUILDINGS. ROOF SHEATHING AND SILL BEAM WERE CUT TO ALLOW PASSAGE. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  11. 20. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING IN COMPUTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - IN COMPUTER ROOM LOOKING AT "CONSOLIDATED MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS CENTER" JOB AREA AND OPERATION WORK CENTER. TASKS INCLUDE RADAR MAINTENANCE, COMPUTER MAINTENANCE, CYBER COMPUTER MAINTENANCE AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 21. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT DISC STORAGE SYSTEMS A AND B (A OR B ARE REDUNDANT SYSTEMS), ONE MAINFRAME COMPUTER ON LINE, ONE ON STANDBY WITH STORAGE TAPE, ONE ON STANDBY WITHOUT TAPE INSTALLED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. 1. EAST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 471 WITH BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 471 WITH BUILDING 472 IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Thionyl Chloride Reaction-Drum Loading Building, 1190 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 42. CONTEXT VIEW LOOKING WEST OF BUILDING 269 (PAINT BUILDING) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. CONTEXT VIEW LOOKING WEST OF BUILDING 269 (PAINT BUILDING) IN ASSEMBLY AREA SHOWING BUILDING 272 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A-2) IN BACKGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  15. Interior building details of Building A, Room 2212: plaster ceiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, Room 2-212: plaster ceiling and one-over-one double hung wood sash over a fixed three-light window, Room A-213 painted plaster finished partition walls; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  16. VIEW OF BUILDING 112 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING NORTH, NORTHWEST. BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 112 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING NORTH, NORTHWEST. BUILDING 112, ONE OF THE FIRST TEN PERMANENT BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTED AT THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT, PROVIDED THE FIRST CAFETERIA SERVICES ON SITE. (6/52) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Cafeteria, Main entrance on Highway 93, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 14. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 27. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC MONITOR NO. 4 IN OPERATION AT 2002 ZULU, OCTOBER 26, 1999 CAPE COD, AS PAVE PAWS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 1. VIEW EAST, SEED EXTRACTOR BUILDING ON LEFT, IMPLEMENT BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST, SEED EXTRACTOR BUILDING ON LEFT, IMPLEMENT BUILDING ON RIGHT. (see also WV-237-5, WV-237-9, WV-237-h-1, WV-237-L-1) - Parsons Nursery, Seed Extractor Building, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  20. 29. INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 24A (POWER BUILDING) (1991). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 24A (POWER BUILDING) (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  1. Body Build Satisfaction and the Congruency of Body Build Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Norman E.; Bailey, Roger C.

    1979-01-01

    Females were administered the somatotype rating scale. Satisfied subjects showed greater congruency between their own and wished-for body build, and greater congruency between their own and friend/date body builds, but less congruency between their own body build and the female stereotype. (Author/BEF)

  2. 2. BUILDING NO. 9901 (LEFT) AND BUILDING NO. 9902 (RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING NO. 9901 (LEFT) AND BUILDING NO. 9902 (RIGHT) WITH CORRIDOR CONNECTOR LEADING TO RAMP NO. 1 (NOT SHOWN). VIEW SHOWS NORTHEAST CORNERS OF BUILDINGS AS VIEWED FROM ROOF OF RAMP NO. 1. - Madigan Hospital, Officers' & Nurses' Quarters, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  3. 3. View of Building 802 from the Guard Shack (Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Building 802 from the Guard Shack (Building 801), Buildings 800 and 804 beside, facing north. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  4. 187. BUILDING 7 (ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING), 194041. ALBERT KAHN, INC., ARCHITECTS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    187. BUILDING 7 (ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING), 1940-41. ALBERT KAHN, INC., ARCHITECTS. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST SHOWING ENTRANCE/MAIN ELEVATION AND SOUTHWEST SIDE. IN BACKGROUND ON LEFT: A PORTION OF BUILDING 41. IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT: STRUCTURE 68 (WATER TOWER). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  5. 45. BUILDING NO. 462, CHEMISTRY LAB (FORMERLY TRACER LOADING BUILDING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. BUILDING NO. 462, CHEMISTRY LAB (FORMERLY TRACER LOADING BUILDING), VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT WEST SIDE. BUILDING NO. 462-B, GENERAL PURPOSE MAGAZINE, AT LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  6. 10. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER "B" FACE AND "C" FACE ON WEST AND EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER AT NORTH. VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 45° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  7. 11. BUILDING NO. 18 (ENGINEERING BUILDING), CENTER, IN RELATION TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING NO. 18 (ENGINEERING BUILDING), CENTER, IN RELATION TO BUILDING NO. 19 (BENDING SHOP AND OVEN) AT FAR LEFT, AND TO THE WET BASIN AT FAR RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHWEST. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  8. Neurotoxicity of metals.

    PubMed

    Caito, Samuel; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metals are frequently used in industry and represent a major source of toxin exposure for workers. For this reason governmental agencies regulate the amount of metal exposure permissible for worker safety. While essential metals serve physiologic roles, metals pose significant health risks upon acute and chronic exposure to high levels. The central nervous system is particularly vulnerable to metals. The brain readily accumulates metals, which under physiologic conditions are incorporated into essential metalloproteins required for neuronal health and energy homeostasis. Severe consequences can arise from circumstances of excess essential metals or exposure to toxic nonessential metal. Herein, we discuss sources of occupational metal exposure, metal homeostasis in the human body, susceptibility of the nervous system to metals, detoxification, detection of metals in biologic samples, and chelation therapeutic strategies. The neurologic pathology and physiology following aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, mercury, and trimethyltin exposures are highlighted as classic examples of metal-induced neurotoxicity.

  9. Neurotoxicity of metals.

    PubMed

    Caito, Samuel; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metals are frequently used in industry and represent a major source of toxin exposure for workers. For this reason governmental agencies regulate the amount of metal exposure permissible for worker safety. While essential metals serve physiologic roles, metals pose significant health risks upon acute and chronic exposure to high levels. The central nervous system is particularly vulnerable to metals. The brain readily accumulates metals, which under physiologic conditions are incorporated into essential metalloproteins required for neuronal health and energy homeostasis. Severe consequences can arise from circumstances of excess essential metals or exposure to toxic nonessential metal. Herein, we discuss sources of occupational metal exposure, metal homeostasis in the human body, susceptibility of the nervous system to metals, detoxification, detection of metals in biologic samples, and chelation therapeutic strategies. The neurologic pathology and physiology following aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, mercury, and trimethyltin exposures are highlighted as classic examples of metal-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26563789

  10. Innovation in Building Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Thomas & Betts Corporation's Flat Conductor Cables, or FCC, were developed of necessity as aircraft and spacecraft became increasingly complex. In order to reduce size and weight of components, the use of thin flat wire instead of relatively thick and protrusive round cable, provided a dramatic reduction of the space occupied by the many miles of power distribution lines in an aerospace vehicle. Commercially, FCC offers cost savings in simplified building construction, reduced installation time and ease of alteration.

  11. [Sick building syndrome].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram

    2008-07-01

    Over the past 50 years, a new man-made ecosystem has developed--the controlled indoor environment within the sealed exterior shells of modern non-industrial buildings. Emitted toxic volatile compounds from building materials, furnishings, and equipment, and inappropriate ventilation (resulting from the need to reduce expenses) contribute to reduce indoor air quality (IAQ), which has considerable potential to affect public health. Consequently, health problems related to this ecosystem have emerged. "Building-related illnesses" (BRI) refers to a group of illnesses with a fairly homogeneous clinical picture, objective abnormalities on clinical or laboratory evaluation, and one or more identifiable sources or agents known to cause infectious, immunologic, or allergic diseases. The term "sick building syndrome" (SBS) is used to refer to a heterogeneous group of work-related symptoms--including irritation of the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and throat, headache, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating. These are considered illnesses because of the occurrence of symptoms, even though affected workers do not have objective clinical or laboratory abnormalities and causative agents cannot be found. The clinical symptoms of SBS, although not life-threatening are disruptive: they reduce productivity and increase absenteeism from work. Noteworthy, the association of symptoms with psychosocial factors does not mean that "the problem is all in the workers' heads". The results of psychological testing of symptomatic and asymptomatic office workers are similar. To improve IAQ and reduce symptoms of SBS adequate ventilation and fresh air, which will reduce volatile compounds, maintaining thermal comfort (with humidity not exceeding 60%), and adequate lighting should be ensured.

  12. Modelica buildings library

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wetter, Michael; Zuo, Wangda; Nouidui, Thierry S.; Pang, Xiufeng

    2013-03-13

    This paper describes the Buildings library, a free open-source library that is implemented in Modelica, an equation-based object-oriented modeling language. The library supports rapid prototyping, as well as design and operation of building energy and control systems. First, we describe the scope of the library, which covers HVAC systems, multi-zone heat transfer and multi-zone airflow and contaminant transport. Next, we describe differentiability requirements and address how we implemented them. We describe the class hierarchy that allows implementing component models by extending partial implementations of base models of heat and mass exchangers, and by instantiating basic models for conservation equations andmore » flow resistances. We also describe associated tools for pre- and post-processing, regression tests, co-simulation and real-time data exchange with building automation systems. Furthermore, the paper closes with an example of a chilled water plant, with and without water-side economizer, in which we analyzed the system-level efficiency for different control setpoints.« less

  13. Modelica buildings library

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael; Zuo, Wangda; Nouidui, Thierry S.; Pang, Xiufeng

    2013-03-13

    This paper describes the Buildings library, a free open-source library that is implemented in Modelica, an equation-based object-oriented modeling language. The library supports rapid prototyping, as well as design and operation of building energy and control systems. First, we describe the scope of the library, which covers HVAC systems, multi-zone heat transfer and multi-zone airflow and contaminant transport. Next, we describe differentiability requirements and address how we implemented them. We describe the class hierarchy that allows implementing component models by extending partial implementations of base models of heat and mass exchangers, and by instantiating basic models for conservation equations and flow resistances. We also describe associated tools for pre- and post-processing, regression tests, co-simulation and real-time data exchange with building automation systems. Furthermore, the paper closes with an example of a chilled water plant, with and without water-side economizer, in which we analyzed the system-level efficiency for different control setpoints.

  14. Large building characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Menetrez, M.Y.; Sanchez, D.C.; Kulp, R.N.; Pyle, B.; Williamson, A.; McDonough, S.

    1994-12-31

    Buildings are characterized in this project by examining radon concentrations and indoor air quality (IAQ) levels as affected by building ventilation dynamics. IAQ data collection stations (IAQDS), for monitoring and data logging, remote switches (pressure and sail switches), and a weather station were installed. Measurements of indoor radon, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and particle concentrations; temperature; humidity; indoor to outdoor or sub-slab pressure differentials; ambient and sub-slab radon concentrations; and outdoor air intake flow rates were collected. The outdoor air intake was adjusted, and fan cycles were controlled while tracer gas measurements were taken in all zones and IAQDS data are processed. Ventilation, infiltration, mixing rates, radon entry, pressure/temperature convective driving forces, CO{sub 2} generation/decay concentrations, and IAQ levels were defined. These dynamic interacting processes characterize the behavior of this and similar large buildings. The techniques incorporated into the experimental plan are discussed with project rationale. Results and the discussion of those results are beyond the limits of this paper.

  15. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  16. About the Building Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Building Technologies Program (BTP) actively pursues the research, development, and adoption of technologies and strategies that advance the energy efficiency of U.S. commercial and residential buildings.

  17. School Building Intrusions: Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Lanny R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the uses of building security systems to prevent loss from damage by vandalism in school buildings. Outlines types of systems, selection of systems, and current practices in securing schools. (MD)

  18. Energy for Buildings and Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevington, Rick; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    1990-01-01

    Described are new technologies such as superwindows, compact fluorescent lights, and automated control systems which, when combined with other strategies such as shade trees and light-colored buildings, could reduce building energy expenditures. (CW)

  19. Fade Measurements into Buildings from 500 to 3000 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Slant-path fade measurements from 500 to 3000 MHz were made into six different buildings employing a vector network analyzer, a tower-mounted transmitting antenna and an automatically positioned receiving antenna. The objective of the measurements was to provide information for satellite audio broadcasting and personal communications satellite design on the correlation of fading inside buildings. Fades were measured with 5 cm spatial separation and every 0.2 percent of the frequency. Median fades ranged from 10 to 20 dB in woodframe houses with metal roofs and walls without and with an aluminum heat shield, respectively. The median decorrelation distance was from 0.5 to 1.1. m and was independent of frequency. The attenuation into the buildings increased only moderately with frequency in most of the buildings with a median slope of about 1 to 3 db/GHz, but increased fastest in the least attenuating building with a slope of 5 dB/GHz. The median decorrelation bandwidth ranged from 1.2 to 3.8 percent of frequency in five of the buildings, and was largest in the least attenuating building, with 20.2 percent of frequency.

  20. Fade Measurements into Buildings from 500 to 3000 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Slant-path fade measurements from 500 to 3000 MHz were made into six different buildings employing a vector network analyzer, a tower-mounted transmitting antenna and an automatically positioned receiving antenna. The objective of the measurements was to provide information for satellite audio broadcasting and personal communications satellite design on the correlation of fading inside buildings. Fades were measured with 5 cm spatial separation and every 0.2% of the frequency. Median fades ranged from 10 to 20 dB in woodframe houses with metal roofs and walls without and with an aluminum heatshield, respectively. The median decorrelation distance was from 0.5 to 1.1 m and was independent of frequency. The attenuation into the buildings increased only moderately with frequency in most of the buildings with a median slope of about 1 to 3 dB/GHz, but increased fastest in the least attenuating building with a slope of 5 dB/GHz. The median decorrelation bandwidth ranged from 1.2 to 3.8% of frequency in five of the buildings, and was largest in the least attenuating building, with 20.2% of frequency.

  1. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2010-03-01

    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  2. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2010-03-01

    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  3. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  4. Virtual building environments (VBE) - Applying information modeling to buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-06-21

    A Virtual Building Environment (VBE) is a ''place'' where building industry project staffs can get help in creating Building Information Models (BIM) and in the use of virtual buildings. It consists of a group of industry software that is operated by industry experts who are also experts in the use of that software. The purpose of a VBE is to facilitate expert use of appropriate software applications in conjunction with each other to efficiently support multidisciplinary work. This paper defines BIM and virtual buildings, and describes VBE objectives, set-up and characteristics of operation. It informs about the VBE Initiative and the benefits from a couple of early VBE projects.

  5. Educational Dimensions of School Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Jan, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In all modern societies almost everyone of their citizens have spent many years in school buildings, and the largest professional group in modern societies, teachers, is working every day during the working year in school buildings. In spite of this, we know surprisingly little about the influence of school buildings on the people who use them and…

  6. Fire Hazards of Windowless Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juillerat, Ernest E.

    1964-01-01

    In response to the fast growing prominence of windowless buildings due to potential or possible aesthetic, psychological, and economic advantages, this article was written to discuss--(1) effects of windowless construction on the life safety of building occupants, (2) the possible extents of fire damage to the building and its contents, and (3)…

  7. Accelerated decarburization of Fe-C metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A process for improving the rate of metal production and FeO utilization in a steelmaking process or a process combining iron-making and steelmaking in a single reactor that uses or generates Fe-C metal alloy droplets submerged in an FeO-containing slag. The process involves discharging a charge build-up (electron accumulation) in the slag at the slag-metal alloy interface by means of an electron conductor connected between the metal alloy droplets and a gas at a gas-slag interface, said gas having an oxygen partial pressure of at least about 0.01 atmosphere.

  8. Accelerated decarburization of Fe-C metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Sadoway, D.R.

    1997-05-27

    A process is described for improving the rate of metal production and FeO utilization in a steelmaking process or a process combining iron-making and steelmaking in a single reactor that uses or generates Fe-C metal alloy droplets submerged in an FeO-containing slag. The process involves discharging a charge build-up (electron accumulation) in the slag at the slag-metal alloy interface by means of an electron conductor connected between the metal alloy droplets and a gas at a gas-slag interface, said gas having an oxygen partial pressure of at least about 0.01 atmosphere. 2 figs.

  9. Metal-phosphate binders

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Beth Ann; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  10. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  11. Measuring Building Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Beth

    2013-03-01

    Currently, the only way for homeowners to learn about the effectiveness of their home insulation is to hire an energy auditor. This difficulty deters homeowners from taking action to improve energy efficiency. In principle, measuring the temperature difference between a wall surface and the interior of a home is sufficient to determine the wall insulation, but in practice, temperature cycles from the heating system make a single measurement unreliable. I will describe a simple and inexpensive thermocouple-based device to measure this temperature difference and report results obtained by monitoring this temperature difference over multiple heating cycles in a range of buildings. Patent application 12/555371

  12. Agromining: farming for metals in the future?

    PubMed

    van der Ent, Antony; Baker, Alan J M; Reeves, Roger D; Chaney, Rufus L; Anderson, Christopher W N; Meech, John A; Erskine, Peter D; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Vaughan, James; Morel, Jean Louis; Echevarria, Guillaume; Fogliani, Bruno; Rongliang, Qiu; Mulligan, David R

    2015-04-21

    Phytomining technology employs hyperaccumulator plants to take up metal in harvestable plant biomass. Harvesting, drying and incineration of the biomass generates a high-grade bio-ore. We propose that "agromining" (a variant of phytomining) could provide local communities with an alternative type of agriculture on degraded lands; farming not for food crops, but for metals such as nickel (Ni). However, two decades after its inception and numerous successful experiments, commercial phytomining has not yet become a reality. To build the case for the minerals industry, a large-scale demonstration is needed to identify operational risks and provide "real-life" evidence for profitability.

  13. Agromining: farming for metals in the future?

    PubMed

    van der Ent, Antony; Baker, Alan J M; Reeves, Roger D; Chaney, Rufus L; Anderson, Christopher W N; Meech, John A; Erskine, Peter D; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Vaughan, James; Morel, Jean Louis; Echevarria, Guillaume; Fogliani, Bruno; Rongliang, Qiu; Mulligan, David R

    2015-04-21

    Phytomining technology employs hyperaccumulator plants to take up metal in harvestable plant biomass. Harvesting, drying and incineration of the biomass generates a high-grade bio-ore. We propose that "agromining" (a variant of phytomining) could provide local communities with an alternative type of agriculture on degraded lands; farming not for food crops, but for metals such as nickel (Ni). However, two decades after its inception and numerous successful experiments, commercial phytomining has not yet become a reality. To build the case for the minerals industry, a large-scale demonstration is needed to identify operational risks and provide "real-life" evidence for profitability. PMID:25700109

  14. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  15. Structure-Property Relations in Nonferrous Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Alan; Loong Lee, Kok

    2005-05-01

    A long-awaited text that fills the void in non-ferrous metallurgy literature While most undergraduate metallurgy textbooks focus on iron, the most commercially important metallic element, Structure-Property Relations in Nonferrous Metals is a comprehensive textbook covering the remaining eighty-two nonferrous metals. Designed to be readily accessible to materials engineering students at all academic levels, the text describes the relationships between the atomic-, crystal-, and micro-structures of nonferrous metals, and such physical behaviors as strength, ductility, electrical conductivity, and corrosion. In order to capture and retain students' interest, the authors maintain a strong focus on practical application. Each chapter supplements fundamental concepts with engaging examples from actual engineering case studies and industrial projects, directly relating content to real-world application. Part One describes the general concepts of crystal- and micro-structures and the implications of these structures for the mechanical, thermal, and electronic properties of nonferrous metals, intermetallic compounds, and metal matrix composites. Chapters focus on such relevant topics as: Point, line, and planar defects and their effects on a material's properties

  16. Dislocations and strengthening mechanisms Fracture and fatigue Strain rate effects and creep Deviations from classic crystallinity Processing methods Composites and intermetallic compounds Part Two builds on Part One by exploring how the concepts presented define the properties of a particular metallic element and its alloys, and how these properties contribute to the engineering uses of each nonferrous metal. An accompanying ftp site contains homework problems, appendices, bibliographies, and tables of data indicating the nations producing metallic elements and the quantities produced. Structure-Property Relations in Nonferrous Metals is a valuable reference for both students in

  17. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mcclelland - Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  18. Thermal insulated building slab

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J. H.

    1985-06-25

    A thermally insulated building foundation structure comprising a monolithic poured concrete foundation extending about the perimeter of a building site and having a plurality of elongate straight sides with flat, vertical outside surfaces with lower portions below the surface of the ground and upper portions above the surface of the ground and having flat, horizontal top surfaces, a thermal insulating girdle about the perimeter of the upper portion of the foundation comprised of a plurality of elongate straight horizontal channel sections in end to end relationship and having vertical outside walls defining the outside surface of said upper portion of the foundation, horizontal top walls defining the outer portion of said top surface of the foundation, horizontal bottom walls and upper and lower flanges on inner edges of the top and bottom walls and cores of thermal insulating material filling the channel sections; and a plurality of anchor units spaced about the girdle and having inner deadman portions set in the concrete and outer portions in secure engagement with the flanges of the channel sections.

  19. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    1990-09-01

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heatmore » absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.« less

  20. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R. L.

    1990-09-01

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  21. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  1. VIEW OF BUILDING 111 LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. BUILDING 111, BUILT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 111 LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. BUILDING 111, BUILT IN 1953, WAS ONE OF THE FIRST TEN PERMANENT STRUCTURES ON THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT. THE BUILDING SERVED AS AN ENTRY POINT FOR SITE EMPLOYEES AND HOUSED A PRINT SHOP AND PHOTOGRAPHY LAB. (12/26/52) - Rocky Flats Plant, Offices, Print Shop & Photography Lab, Northwest quad of plant near terminus of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BUILDING 661 LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BUILDINGS 662 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BUILDING 661 LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BUILDINGS 662 AND 663 ARE VISIBLE AT LEFT. A CONCRETE PLATFORM RUNS THE LENGTH OF THE BUILDING ALONG THE NORTHEAST SIDE. THE LONG LOW PROFILE WITH A FULL LENGTH MONITOR, THE MASONRY WALLS WITH WOODEN DOORS AND WINDOW CASINGS AND THE SYMMETRY OF PLAN AND ELEVATION ARE ALL DEFINING FEATURES OF THE STABLE. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. Building 247 is to the right, building 249 is to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 247 is to the right, building 249 is to the left. Beyond 247 is 211; beyond 249 is 213. The tall building in the background is 521, the movie theater. Looking south on N. 12th St. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  5. 30. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) INTERIOR BETWEEN GRIDS 17-A1 AND 18-A1, SHOWING REAR OF RADAR EMITTER ELECTRONIC INTERFACE TERMINAL NO. 3147-20, "RECEIVER TRANSMITTER RADAR" MODULE. VIEW IS ALSO SHOWING BUILDING FIRE STOP MATERIAL AT BOTTOM OF FLOOR. NOTE: WALL SLOPES BOTTOM TO TOP INWARD; STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ALSO SHOWS PIPING GRID OF CHILLED WATER LINES FOR ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS COOLING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. METAL PRODUCTION AND CASTING

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.

    1958-03-01

    This patent covers a method and apparatus for collecting the molten metal produced by high temperature metal salt reduction. It consists essentially of subjecting the reaction vessel to centrifugal force in order to force the liberatcd molten metal into a coherent molten mass, and allowing it to solidify there. The apparatus is particularly suitable for use with small quantities of rare metals.

  7. Ceramic to metal seal

    DOEpatents

    Snow, Gary S.; Wilcox, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  8. Guidelines for Building Science Education

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, Cheryn E.; Rashkin, Samuel; Huelman, Pat

    2015-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) residential research and demonstration program, Building America, has triumphed through 20 years of innovation. Partnering with researchers, builders, remodelers, and manufacturers to develop innovative processes like advanced framing and ventilation standards, Building America has proven an energy efficient design can be more cost effective, healthy, and durable than a standard house. As Building America partners continue to achieve their stretch goals, they have found that the barrier to true market transformation for high performance homes is the limited knowledge-base of the professionals working in the building industry. With dozens of professionals taking part in the design and execution of building and selling homes, each person should have basic building science knowledge relevant to their role, and an understanding of how various home components interface with each other. Instead, our industry typically experiences a fragmented approach to home building and design. After obtaining important input from stakeholders at the Building Science Education Kick-Off Meeting, DOE created a building science education strategy addressing education issues preventing the widespread adoption of high performance homes. This strategy targets the next generation and provides valuable guidance for the current workforce. The initiative includes: • Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Engages universities and provides students who will be the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers and entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and experience they need to begin careers in clean energy and generate creative solutions to real world problems. • Building Science to Sales Translator: Simplifies building science into compelling sales language and tools to sell high performance homes to their customers. • Building Science Education Guidance: Brings together industry and academia to solve problems related to

  9. Fabrication of metal nanoshells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoshells are fabricated by admixing an aqueous solution of metal ions with an aqueous solution of apoferritin protein molecules, followed by admixing an aqueous solution containing an excess of an oxidizing agent for the metal ions. The apoferritin molecules serve as bio-templates for the formation of metal nanoshells, which form on and are bonded to the inside walls of the hollow cores of the individual apoferritin molecules. Control of the number of metal atoms which enter the hollow core of each individual apoferritin molecule provides a hollow metal nonparticle, or nanoshell, instead of a solid spherical metal nanoparticle.

  10. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  11. Building Technologies Residential Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, Thomas J.

    2005-11-07

    Introduction A telephone survey of 1,025 residential occupants was administered in late October for the Building Technologies Program (BT) to gather information on residential occupant attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and perceptions. The next section, Survey Results, provides an overview of the responses, with major implications and caveats. Additional information is provided in three appendices as follows: - Appendix A -- Summary Response: Provides summary tabular data for the 13 questions that, with subparts, comprise a total of 25 questions. - Appendix B -- Benchmark Data: Provides a benchmark by six categories to the 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey administered by EIA. These were ownership, heating fuel, geographic location, race, household size and income. - Appendix C -- Background on Survey Method: Provides the reader with an understanding of the survey process and interpretation of the results.

  12. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  13. A nonchromate method for refurbishment of worn metallic components

    SciTech Connect

    Dearnaley, G.; Badger, P. |

    1995-12-31

    Hard chrome electrodeposition is a widely used method for building up worn metallic components, but regulations concerning hexavalent chromium effluent are making this process less acceptable. A new method is described in which electroless nickel with phosphorus is used in a closed-loop system in order to build up the worn surface, and an amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating is bonded to this to provide a low-friction bearing surface. The combination is highly resistant to wear and corrosion.

  14. Building better boards.

    PubMed

    Nadler, David A

    2004-05-01

    Companies facing new requirements for governance are scrambling to buttress financial-reporting systems, overhaul board structures--whatever it takes to comply. But there are limits to how much good governance can be imposed from the outside. Boards know what they ought to be: seats of challenge and inquiry that add value without meddling and make CEOs more effective but not all-powerful. A board can reach that goal only if it functions as a high-performance team, one that is competent, coordinated, collegial, and focused on an unambiguous goal. Such entities don't just evolve; they must be constructed to an exacting blueprint--what the author calls board building. In this article, Nadler offers an agenda and a set of tools that boards can use to define and achieve their objectives. It's important for a board to conduct regular self-assessments and to pay attention to the results of those analyses. As a first step, the directors and the CEO should agree on which of the following common board models best fits the company: passive, certifying, engaged, intervening, or operating. The directors and the CEO should then analyze which business tasks are most important and allot sufficient time and resources to them. Next, the board should take inventory of each director's strengths to ensure that the group as a whole possesses the skills necessary to do its work. Directors must exert more influence over meeting agendas and make sure they have the right information at the right time and in the right format to perform their duties. Finally, the board needs to foster an engaged culture characterized by candor and a willingness to challenge. An ambitious board-building process, devised and endorsed both by directors and by management, can potentially turn a good board into a great one.

  15. Amorphous metal composites

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Martin A.; Lupinski, John H.

    1984-01-01

    An improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite.

  16. Metal phthalocyanine polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Metal 4, 4', 4", 4"'=tetracarboxylic phthalocyanines (MPTC) are prepared by reaction of trimellitic anhydride, a salt or hydroxide of the desired metal (or the metal in powdered form), urea and a catalyst. A purer form of MPTC is prepared than heretofore. These tetracarboxylic acids are then polymerized by heat to sheet polymers which have superior heat and oxidation resistance. The metal is preferably a divalent metal having an atomic radius close to 1.35A.

  17. A new building for AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    1992-03-01

    On March 4 at AGU headquarters, the Real Estate Committee reviewed plans for the construction of a new headquarters building, which is to be completed in early 1994 on the current 2000 Florida Avenue site. The committee discussed in detail the project's budget, scheduling, and design. This meeting marks the completion of the design and development phase. The project's architect, Shalom Baranes, will now begin construction drawings.Several years ago, projections of the Union's growth showed that by about 1995, the current building would be insufficient to house the staff required to serve the Union. A study was undertaken by a special committee with the help of consultants. This “Real Estate Committee,” chaired by Ned A. Ostenso, explored the advantages and disadvantages of six expansion options: to sell the current building and lease; to sell the current building and buy another; to “do nothing” to the existing building and expand by leasing; to keep the existing building and build a new, independent addition; to renovate the existing building and add a new addition; or to construct a new building at the current site.

  18. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  19. Two Decades of Structure Building

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade I have been developing a very simple framework for describing the cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in discourse comprehension. I call this framework the Structure Building Framework, and it is based on evidence provided during the first decade of discourse processing research. According to the Structure Building Framework, the goal of comprehension is to build coherent mental representations or structures. Comprehenders build each structure by first laying a foundation. Comprehenders develop mental structures by mapping on new information when that information coheres or relates to previous information. However, when the incoming information is less related, comprehenders shift and attach a new substructure. The building blocks of mental structures are memory nodes, which are activated by incoming stimuli and controlled by two cognitive mechanisms: suppression and enhancement. In this article, first I review the seminal work on which the Structure Building Framework is based (the first decade of structure building research); then I recount the research I have conducted to test the Structure Building Framework (the second decade of structure building research). PMID:25484476

  20. Metrics for building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Koles, G.; Hitchcock, R.; Sherman, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents part of the work performed in phase I of a Laboratory Directors Research and Development (LDRD) funded project entitled Building Performance Assurances (BPA). The focus of the BPA effort is to transform the way buildings are built and operated in order to improve building performance by facilitating or providing tools, infrastructure, and information. The efforts described herein focus on the development of metrics with which to evaluate building performance and for which information and optimization tools need to be developed. The classes of building performance metrics reviewed are (1) Building Services (2) First Costs, (3) Operating Costs, (4) Maintenance Costs, and (5) Energy and Environmental Factors. The first category defines the direct benefits associated with buildings; the next three are different kinds of costs associated with providing those benefits; the last category includes concerns that are broader than direct costs and benefits to the building owner and building occupants. The level of detail of the various issues reflect the current state of knowledge in those scientific areas and the ability of the to determine that state of knowledge, rather than directly reflecting the importance of these issues; it intentionally does not specifically focus on energy issues. The report describes work in progress and is intended as a resource and can be used to indicate the areas needing more investigation. Other reports on BPA activities are also available.