Science.gov

Sample records for metal distribution transformers

  1. Amorphous metal distribution transformers: The energy-efficient alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    Amorphous metal distribution transformers have been commercially available for the past 13 years. During that time, they have realized the promise of exceptionally high core efficiency as compared to silicon steel transformer cores. Utility planners today must consider all options available to meet the requirements of load growth. While additional generation capacity will be added, many demand-side initiatives are being undertaken as complementary programs to generation expansion. The efficiency improvement provided by amorphous metal distribution transformers deserves to be among the demand-side options. The key to understanding the positive impact of amorphous metal transformer efficiency is to consider the aggregate contribution those transformers can make towards demand reduction. It is estimated that distribution transformer core losses comprise at least 1% of the utility`s peak demand. Because core losses are continuous, any significant reduction in their magnitude is of great significance to the planner. This paper describes the system-wide economic contributions amorphous metal distribution transformers can make to a utility and suggests evaluation techniques that can be used. As a conservation tool, the amorphous metal transformer contributes to reduced power plant emissions. Calibration of those emissions reductions is also discussed in the paper.

  2. Transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yue; Hu, Quanyin; Lin, Yiliang; Pacardo, Dennis B.; Wang, Chao; Sun, Wujin; Ligler, Frances S.; Dickey, Michael D.; Gu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    To date, numerous inorganic nanocarriers have been explored for drug delivery systems (DDSs). However, the clinical application of inorganic formulations has often been hindered by their toxicity and failure to biodegrade. We describe here a transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine, based on a core–shell nanosphere composed of a liquid-phase eutectic gallium-indium core and a thiolated polymeric shell. This formulation can be simply produced through a sonication-mediated method with bioconjugation flexibility. The resulting nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) have an average diameter of 107 nm and demonstrate the capability to fuse and subsequently degrade under a mildly acidic condition, which facilitates release of Dox in acidic endosomes after cellular internalization. Equipped with hyaluronic acid, a tumour-targeting ligand, this formulation displays enhanced chemotherapeutic inhibition towards the xenograft tumour-bearing mice. This liquid metal-based DDS with fusible and degradable behaviour under physiological conditions provides a new strategy for engineering theranostic agents with low toxicity. PMID:26625944

  3. Transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yue; Hu, Quanyin; Lin, Yiliang; Pacardo, Dennis B.; Wang, Chao; Sun, Wujin; Ligler, Frances S.; Dickey, Michael D.; Gu, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    To date, numerous inorganic nanocarriers have been explored for drug delivery systems (DDSs). However, the clinical application of inorganic formulations has often been hindered by their toxicity and failure to biodegrade. We describe here a transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine, based on a core-shell nanosphere composed of a liquid-phase eutectic gallium-indium core and a thiolated polymeric shell. This formulation can be simply produced through a sonication-mediated method with bioconjugation flexibility. The resulting nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) have an average diameter of 107 nm and demonstrate the capability to fuse and subsequently degrade under a mildly acidic condition, which facilitates release of Dox in acidic endosomes after cellular internalization. Equipped with hyaluronic acid, a tumour-targeting ligand, this formulation displays enhanced chemotherapeutic inhibition towards the xenograft tumour-bearing mice. This liquid metal-based DDS with fusible and degradable behaviour under physiological conditions provides a new strategy for engineering theranostic agents with low toxicity.

  4. Radon Transform and Light-Cone Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    The relevance of Radon transform for generalized and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions is discussed. The new application for conditional (fracture) parton distributions and dihadron fragmentation functions is suggested.

  5. Entangled Husimi Distribution and Complex Wavelet Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li-Yun; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2010-05-01

    Similar in spirit to the preceding work (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 48:1539, 2009) where the relationship between wavelet transformation and Husimi distribution function is revealed, we study this kind of relationship to the entangled case. We find that the optical complex wavelet transformation can be used to study the entangled Husimi distribution function in phase space theory of quantum optics. We prove that, up to a Gaussian function, the entangled Husimi distribution function of a two-mode quantum state | ψ> is just the modulus square of the complex wavelet transform of e^{-\\vert η \\vert 2/2} with ψ( η) being the mother wavelet.

  6. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  7. Distribution, origin, and transformation of metal and metalloid pollution in vegetable fields, irrigation water, and aerosols near a Pb-Zn mine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liqiang; Chu, Binbin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Xiaofang; Xu, Tao; Bo, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Pollution of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in vegetable fields was investigated near a Pb-Zn mine that has been exploited for over 50 years without a tailing reservoir. A total of 205 water, soil, and aerosol samples were taken and quantified by combined chemical, spectrometric, and mineral analytical methods. The pollution origins were identified by Pb isotopes and the pathways of transformation and transport of the elements and minerals was studied. The data showed that the vegetable fields were seriously polluted by As, Cd, and Pb. Some concentrations in the samples were beyond the regulatory levels and not suitable for agricultural activities. This study revealed that: (1) particulate matter is a major pollution source and an important carrier of mineral particles and pollutants; (2) the elements from the polluted water and soils were strongly correlated with each other; (3) Pb isotope ratios from the samples show that Pb minerals were the major pollution sources in the nearby vegetable fields, and the aerosols were the main carrier of mining pollution; (4) the alkaline, rich-carbonate, and wet conditions in this area promoted the weathering and transformation of galena into the secondary minerals, anglesite and cerussite, which are significant evidence of such processes; (5) the soil and the aerosols are a recycled secondary pollution source for each other when being re-suspended with wind.Highlights• Mining activities generated heavy metal pollution in fields around a Pb-Zn mine• The elements from water and soils are strongly correlated• Anglesite and cerussite are evidence of galena transformation into secondary minerals• Particulate matter is an important transport carrier of pollution.

  8. Distribution transformer BIL reduction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Baranowski, J.F.; Goedde, G.L. . Thomas A. Edison Technical Center)

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes an investigation into the feasibility of reducing basic insulation levels (BIL) for oil-immersed distribution transformers. A projected market makeup of popular kVA and system voltages was determined for the 5 kV to 35 kV insulation classes of pole-type and pad-mount distribution transformers. Reduced BIL design cases were used to determine the impact on the transformer's design and performance. The final results provide both industry cost and total owning cost savings.

  9. Distributed transform coding via source-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2012-12-01

    Transform coding (TC) is one of the best known practical methods for quantizing high-dimensional vectors. In this article, a practical approach to distributed TC of jointly Gaussian vectors is presented. This approach, referred to as source-split distributed transform coding (SP-DTC), can be used to easily implement two terminal transform codes for any given rate-pair. The main idea is to apply source-splitting using orthogonal-transforms, so that only Wyner-Ziv (WZ) quantizers are required for compression of transform coefficients. This approach however requires optimizing the bit allocation among dependent sets of WZ quantizers. In order to solve this problem, a low-complexity tree-search algorithm based on analytical models for transform coefficient quantization is developed. A rate-distortion (RD) analysis of SP-DTCs for jointly Gaussian sources is presented, which indicates that these codes can significantly outperform the practical alternative of independent TC of each source, whenever there is a strong correlation between the sources. For practical implementation of SP-DTCs, the idea of using conditional entropy constrained (CEC) quantizers followed by Slepian-Wolf coding is explored. Experimental results obtained with SP-DTC designs based on both CEC scalar quantizers and CEC trellis-coded quantizers demonstrate that actual implementations of SP-DTCs can achieve RD performance close to the analytically predicted limits.

  10. The Outer Halo Metallicity Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MA, ZHIBO; Morrison, H.; Harding, P.; Xue, X.; Rix, H.; Rockosi, C.; Johnson, J.; Lee, Y.; Cudworth, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new determination of the metallicity distribution function in the Milky Way halo, based on an in situ sample of more than 5000 K giants from SDSS/SEGUE. We have also measured the metallicity gradient in the halo, using our sample which stretches from 5 kpc to more than 100 kpc from the galactic center. The halo metallicity gradient has been a controversial topic in recent studies, but our in-situ study overcomes the problems caused in these studies by their extrapolations from local samples to the distant halo. We also describe our extensive checks of the log g and [Fe/H] measurements from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters pipeline, using globular and open cluster stars and SEGUE stars with follow-up high-resolution analysis. In addition, we present a new Bayesian estimate of distances to the K giants, which avoids the distance bias introduced by the red giant branch luminosity function.

  11. Transforming Distance Education Curricula through Distributive Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppell, Mike; O'Dwyer, Carolyn; Lyon, Betsy; Childs, Merilyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines a core leadership strategy for transforming learning and teaching in distance education through flexible and blended learning. It focuses on a project centred on distributive leadership that involves collaboration, shared purpose, responsibility and recognition of leadership irrespective of role or position within an…

  12. Transforming Distance Education Curricula through Distributive Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppell, Mike; O'Dwyer, Carolyn; Lyon, Betsy; Childs, Merilyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a core leadership strategy for transforming learning and teaching in distance education through flexible and blended learning. It focuses on a project centred on distributive leadership that involves collaboration, shared purpose, responsibility and recognition of leadership irrespective of role or position within an…

  13. Distributed Constrained Optimization with Semicoordinate Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macready, William; Wolpert, David

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown how information theory extends conventional full-rationality game theory to allow bounded rational agents. The associated mathematical framework can be used to solve constrained optimization problems. This is done by translating the problem into an iterated game, where each agent controls a different variable of the problem, so that the joint probability distribution across the agents moves gives an expected value of the objective function. The dynamics of the agents is designed to minimize a Lagrangian function of that joint distribution. Here we illustrate how the updating of the Lagrange parameters in the Lagrangian is a form of automated annealing, which focuses the joint distribution more and more tightly about the joint moves that optimize the objective function. We then investigate the use of "semicoordinate" variable transformations. These separate the joint state of the agents from the variables of the optimization problem, with the two connected by an onto mapping. We present experiments illustrating the ability of such transformations to facilitate optimization. We focus on the special kind of transformation in which the statistically independent states of the agents induces a mixture distribution over the optimization variables. Computer experiment illustrate this for &sat constraint satisfaction problems and for unconstrained minimization of NK functions.

  14. Economic analysis of efficient distribution transformer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, D.J.; McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R.; Hadley, S.W.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This report outlines an approach that will account for uncertainty in the development of evaluation factors used to identify transformer designs with the lowest total owning cost (TOC). The TOC methodology is described and the most highly variable parameters are discussed. The model is developed to account for uncertainties as well as statistical distributions for the important parameters. Sample calculations are presented. The TOC methodology is applied to data provided by two utilities in order to test its validity.

  15. Ecotoxic heavy metals transformation by bacteria and fungi in aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Amiy Dutt; Pal, Dharm; Penta, Santhosh; Kumar, Awanish

    2015-10-01

    Water is the most important and vital molecule of our planet and covers 75% of earth surface. But it is getting polluted due to high industrial growth. The heavy metals produced by industrial activities are recurrently added to it and considered as dangerous pollutants. Increasing concentration of toxic heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+)) in water is a severe threat for human. Heavy metal contaminated water is highly carcinogenic and poisonous at even relatively low concentrations. When they discharged in water bodies, they dissolve in the water and are distributed in the food chain. Bacteria and fungi are efficient microbes that frequently transform heavy metals and remove toxicity. The application of bacteria and fungi may offer cost benefit in water treatment plants for heavy metal transformation and directly related to public health and environmental safety issues. The heavy metals transformation rate in water is also dependent on the enzymatic capability of microorganisms. By transforming toxic heavy metals microbes sustain aquatic and terrestrial life. Therefore the application of microbiological biomass for heavy metal transformation and removal from aquatic ecosystem is highly significant and striking. This paper reviews the microbial transformation of heavy metal, microbe metal interaction and different approaches for microbial heavy metal remediation from water bodies.

  16. Role of Oxidative Stress in Transformation Induced by Metal Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Silva-Aguilar; Emilio, Rojas; Mahara, Valverde

    2011-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity. PMID:22191014

  17. 10 CFR 431.198 - Enforcement testing for distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement testing for distribution transformers. 431.198... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Compliance and Enforcement § 431.198 Enforcement testing for distribution transformers. (a) Test notice. Upon receiving information in...

  18. TRACE METAL TRANSFORMATION MECHANISMS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article reviews mechanisms governing the fate of trace metals during coal combustion and presents new theoretical results that interpret existing data. Emphasis is on predicting the size-segregated speciation of trace metals in pulverized-coal-fired power plant effluents. Thi...

  19. Diverse transformations of liquid metals between different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-09-10

    Transformation from a film into a sphere, rapid merging of separate objects, controlled self-rotation, and planar locomotion are the very unusual phenomena observed in liquid metals under application of an electric field to a liquid metal immersed in or sprayed with water. A mechanism for these effects is suggested and potential applications - for example the recovery of liquid metal previously injected into the body for therapeutic purposes - are outlined. PMID:24889178

  20. Distribution transformer performance when subjected to steep front impulses

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, L.M.; Shaw, J.H. . Thomas A. Edison Technical Center); McConnell, B.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The experimental method and the results of subjecting arrester protected pole type distribution transformers to the combined stresses caused by the conducted steep front impulse and rated 60 Hz voltages are described. Comparisons are drawn between these results and those of similar experiments on unenergized distribution transformers. It is concluded that tank mounted direct connected arresters provide a high degree of protection to these transformers, tank mounted externally gapped or crossarm mounted arresters may not provide sufficient protection; internal transformer insulation system failures caused by the steep front impulse do not necessarily result in immediate catastrophic failures of the transformers.

  1. First-Order, Structural Transformations in Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corb, B. W.; O'Handley, R. C.; Megusar, J.; Grant, N. J.

    1983-10-01

    Magnetic evidence is presented for a first-order, structural transformation in the local order of a cobalt-base metallic glass. The transformation is centered at T0=180° C and shows a scan-rate-dependent thermal hysteresis of ΔT=100° C. A critical volume for nucleation of the transformation is estimated to contain approximately 200 atoms. The transformation appears in samples which show no microcrystallites greater than 30 Å and vanishes in samples with appreciable crystallinity. The observations are discussed in terms of model clusters of icosahedral, trigonal, and octahedral symmetry.

  2. Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report, March 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levalized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. The complete distribution transformer loss evaluation equation is shown, with the nomenclature and definitions for the parameters provided. Tasks described are entitled: Establish Loss Evaluation Techniques; Compile System Cost Parameters; Compile Load Parameters and Loading Policies; Develop Transformer Cost/Performance Relationship; Define Characteristics of Multiple Efficiency Transformer Package; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Single Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Multiple Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; and Interpretation.

  3. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  4. A lognormal distribution of metal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    For national or global resource estimation of frequencies of metals, a lognormal distribution has commonly been recommended but not adequately tested. Tests of frequencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, and Au contents of 1 984 well-explored mineral deposits display a poor fit to the lognormal distribution. When the same metals plus Mo, Co, Nb2O3, and REE2O3 are grouped into 19 geologically defined deposit types, only eight of the 73 tests fail to be fit by lognormal distribution, and most of those failures are in two deposit types suggesting a problem with those types. Estimates of the mean and standard deviation of each of the metals in each of the deposit types are provided for modeling.

  5. Product Distribution Theory and Semi-Coordinate Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Airiau, Stephane; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PD) theory is a new framework for doing distributed adaptive control of a multiagent system (MAS). We introduce the technique of "coordinate transformations" in PD theory gradient descent. These transformations selectively couple a few agents with each other into "meta-agents". Intuitively, this can be viewed as a generalization of forming binding contracts between those agents. Doing this sacrifices a bit of the distributed nature of the MAS, in that there must now be communication from multiple agents in determining what joint-move is finally implemented However, as we demonstrate in computer experiments, these transformations improve the performance of the MAS.

  6. Factored-matrix representation of distributed fast transforms. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bainbridge, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    Parallel implementations of Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) and other fast transforms are represented using factored, partitioned matrices. The factored matrix description of a distributed FFT is introduced using a decimation in time (DIT) FFT algorithm suitable for implementation on a distributed-signal processor. The heart of the matrix representation of distributed fast transforms is the use of permutations of an NxN identity matrix to describe the required interprocessor data transfers on the Butterfly Network. The properties of these transfer matrices and the resulting output ordering are discussed in detail. The factored matrix representation is then used to show that the Fast Hartley Transform (FHT) and the Walsh Hadamard Transform (WHT) are supported by the Butterfly Network.

  7. Exploration of transformational and distributed leadership.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Julie

    2012-07-01

    Throughout government policy in Scotland, a new emphasis has been placed on clinical leaders as a way to improve quality and restore the public's confidence in health care. This article reports on a study that explored the leadership styles of senior charge nurses and the effects these may have on clinical teams. Findings suggest that, where there is transformational leadership and sharing of leadership roles across teams, staff are more engaged and organisational goals are met. The findings also highlight the need for better communication between senior management and clinical teams to ensure sustainable, good services. PMID:22900385

  8. Partially transformed relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with distributed phase transformation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals such as PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT undergo field driven phase transformations when electrically or mechanically loaded in crystallographic directions that provide a positive driving force for the transformation. The observed behavior in certain compositions is a phase transformation distributed over a range of fields without a distinct forward or reverse coercive field. This work focuses on the material behavior that is observed when the crystals are loaded sufficiently to drive a partial transformation and then unloaded, as might occur when driving a transducer to achieve high power levels. Distributed transformations have been modeled using a normal distribution of transformation thresholds. A set of experiments was conducted to characterize the hysteresis loops that occur with the partial transformations. In this work the normal distribution model is extended to include the partial transformations that occur when the field is reversed before the transformation is complete. The resulting hysteresis loops produced by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. The probabilistic distribution of metal whisker lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Niraula, D. Karpov, V. G.

    2015-11-28

    Significant reliability concerns in multiple industries are related to metal whiskers, which are random high aspect ratio filaments growing on metal surfaces and causing shorts in electronic packages. We derive a closed form expression for the probabilistic distribution of metal whisker lengths. Our consideration is based on the electrostatic theory of metal whiskers, according to which whisker growth is interrupted when its tip enters a random local “dead region” of a weak electric field. Here, we use the approximation neglecting the possibility of thermally activated escapes from the “dead regions,” which is later justified. We predict a one-parameter distribution with a peak at a length that depends on the metal surface charge density and surface tension. In the intermediate range, it fits well the log-normal distribution used in the experimental studies, although it decays more rapidly in the range of very long whiskers. In addition, our theory quantitatively explains how the typical whisker concentration is much lower than that of surface grains. Finally, it predicts the stop-and-go phenomenon for some of the whiskers growth.

  10. Development and application of amorphous core-distribution transformers in Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.; Alexandrov, N.; Simoneau, R.; Roberge, R.; Tetreault, J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes research and development activities at Hydro-Quebec over the last ten years for improving the efficiency of distribution transformers in Quebec. A shell-type (wound-core) design making optimum use of the properties of amorphous metals (Metglas TCA formerly known as Metglas 2605s-2, Allied Signal Inc., Morristown, NJ) was adopted. Dry and oil-cooled, amorphous-core transformer prototypes were built. The joint research and development project was initiated with Transformateurs Ferranti-Packard Ltee, a company of Rolls-Royce Industries Canada Inc., to build and test a few units of high performance transformers on the Hydro-Quebec power system.

  11. Transformation of heavy metal speciation during sludge drying: mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Huanxin; Ma, Xue-Wen; Fu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Zan; Tian, Li-Xun; Liu, Chongxuan

    2014-01-30

    Speciation can fundamentally affect on the stability and toxicity of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants. This research investigated the speciation of heavy metals in sludge from both municipal and industrial sources, and metal speciation change as a result of drying process to reduce sludge volume. The changes in sludge properties including sludge moisture content, temperature, density, and electrical conductivity were also monitored to provide insights into the mechanisms causing the change in heavy metal speciation. The results show that the drying process generally stabilized the Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb in sludge by transforming acid-soluble, reducible and oxidizable species into structurally stable forms. Such transformation and stabilization occurred regardless of the sludge source and type, and were primarily caused by the changes in sludge properties associated with decomposition of organic matter and sulfide. The results enhanced our understanding of the geochemical behavior of heavy metals in municipal sludge, and are useful for designing a treatment system for environment-friendly disposal of sludge.

  12. Formability Evaluation of Sheet Metals Based on Global Strain Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Lin, Jianping; Min, Junying; Ye, You; Kang, Liugen

    2016-06-01

    According to the conventional methods for formability evaluation, e.g., forming limit curve (FLC), limit dome height, and total elongation, inconsistent results are observed when comparing the formability of four advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) with an ultimate tensile strength grade of 1000 MPa. The strain distribution analysis with the aid of digital image correlation technique shows that different uniform deformation capabilities of sheet metals under the same loading conditions are responsible for this inconsistency. In addition, metallurgical analysis suggests that inhomogeneous microstructure distribution and phase transformation during deformation in some materials play important roles in the uniform deformation capability of sheet metal. Limit strains on the commonly used FLC only relate to the major and minor strains of local deforming elements associated with the onset of necking. However, the formability of a sheet metal component is determined by the strain magnitudes of all deforming elements involved during the forming process. Hence, the formability evaluation of sheet metals from a global aspect is more applicable for practical engineering. A new method based on two indices (i.e., which represent global formability and uniform deformation capability, respectively) is proposed to evaluate the formability of sheet metals based on global strain distribution. The formability and evolution of deformation uniformity of the investigated AHSS at different stress states are studied with this new method. Compared with other formability evaluation methods, the new method is demonstrated to be more appropriate for practical engineering, and it is applicable to both in-plane and out-of-plane deformation. Additionally, the global formability of sheet metals can be more comprehensively understood with this new method.

  13. Elimination of inrush current of transformers and distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Asghar, M.S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Repeated switching of distribution transformers take place due to poor generation and load shading. The transformer mounted on electric locomotive is also regularly reswitched after crossing each buffer zone between two substations. The steady-state magnetizing current of a transformer is about 5% of the full load current.But the transient inrush current may be as high as ten times the full-load current. The switching instant decides the nature and magnitude of the switching current and it is used here to control the inrush current. Another method is adopted by placing a capacitor at the secondary side of the unloaded transformer connected at the sending or receiving end of the distribution line. Third method is proposed using the distribution line as a low-pass filter. In case of a three-phase transformer, when it is switched, inrush current flows in either one or two phase windings. Instead of a simultaneous switching of all the phases (windings), each winding of transformer is switched at predetermined switching instants sequentially. Thus inrush currents are contained to steady-state level using an instant-controlled switching circuit. Switching of all phases completes within 1/3 or 1/4 of the power-cycle depending upon the mode of transformer configuration and the switching strategy. The switching current is found same as the steady-state no-load current. These schemes are useful for traction transformer as well as for poorly supplied and poorly maintained distribution lines including traction line which are subjected to repeated switching.

  14. Nonlinearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method.

    PubMed

    Filobello-Nino, Uriel; Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Benhammouda, Brahim; Hernandez-Martinez, Luis; Hoyos-Reyes, Claudio; Perez-Sesma, Jose Antonio Agustin; Jimenez-Fernandez, Victor Manuel; Pereyra-Diaz, Domitilo; Marin-Hernandez, Antonio; Diaz-Sanchez, Alejandro; Huerta-Chua, Jesus; Cervantes-Perez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes non-linearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method (NDLT-HPM) to find approximate solutions for linear and nonlinear differential equations with finite boundary conditions. We will see that the method is particularly relevant in case of equations with nonhomogeneous non-polynomial terms. Comparing figures between approximate and exact solutions we show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Biomolecular Mechanisms Controlling Metal and Radionuclide Transformations in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans

    SciTech Connect

    Beliaev, Alexander S.; Fredrickson, James K.; Loeffler, Frank E.; Sanford, Robert A.

    2006-06-01

    Microbiological reduction and immobilization of U(VI) and Tc(VII) has been proposed as a strategy for remediating radionuclide-contaminated environments. Numerous studies focusing on the reduction kinetics and speciation of these metals have been carried out using contaminated sediment samples, microbial consortia, and pure bacterial cultures. While previous work with model organisms has increased the general understanding of radionuclide transformation processes, fundamental questions regarding radionuclide reduction mechanisms by indigenous microorganisms are poorly understood, especially under the commonly encountered scenario where multiple electron acceptors are present. Therefore, the overall goal of the proposed research is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of radionuclide biotransformation by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans, a predominant member of indigenous microorganism commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments, and to assess the effects of relevant environmental factors affecting these transformation reactions.

  16. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-04-19

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively.

  17. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-04-01

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively.

  18. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively. PMID:27090597

  19. Environmental assessment of heavy metal transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hongwei; Huang, Lei; Wang, Jingyu; He, Guojian; Reible, Danny

    2016-01-25

    The environmental impact of heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, (90)Sr and (137)Cs) transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay (China) was assessed through a comprehensive model that integrates hydrodynamics, sediment and heavy metal transport. A mechanistic surface complexation model was used to estimate the adsorption and desorption of heavy metal by suspended sediment under different aqueous chemistry conditions. The dynamics of metal exchange to and from the seabed was also assessed. The primary processes regulating heavy metal distribution, i.e., convection-diffusion, adsorption-desorption, sedimentation-resuspension, as well as other physical and chemical processes related to mass exchange between adjacent sediment layers, were considered in detail. The accidental discharge of (137)Cs was simulated as an example and results showed that (137)Cs transported along the coast driven by tidal flow. Most (137)Cs distributed near the outfall and accumulated in the seabed sediment. The proposed model can be a useful tool for predicting heavy metal transport and fate and provide a theoretical basis to guide field sampling, assessment of risks and the design of remediation strategies.

  20. Classification of Transient Phenomena in Distribution System using wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    An efficient procedure for classification of transient phenomena in distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has been applied to classify some transient phenomena such as inrush current, load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. The new scheme is based on wavelet transform algorithm. All of the events for feature extraction and test are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results show high accuracy of proposed method.

  1. Development and application of amorphous core-distribution transformers in Québec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, R.; Alexandrov, N.; Tétreault, J.; Simoneau, R.; Roberge, R.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes research and development activities at Hydro-Québec over the last ten years for improving the efficiency of distribution transformers in Québec. A shell-type (wound-core) design making optimum use of the properties of amorphous metals (Metglas TCA formerly known as Metglas 2605s-2, Allied Signal Inc., Morristown, NJ) was adopted. Dry and oil-cooled, amorphous-core transformer prototypes were built. The joint research and development project was initiated with Transformateurs Ferranti-Packard Ltée, a company of Rolls-Royce Industries Canada Inc., to build and test a few units of high performance transformers on the Hydro-Québec power system.

  2. Distribution Coefficients of Impurities in Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. V.

    2014-04-01

    Impurities dissolved in very pure metals at the level of parts per million often cause an elevation or depression of the freezing temperature of the order of millikelvins. This represents a significant contribution to the uncertainty of standard platinum resistance thermometer calibrations. An important parameter for characterizing the behavior of impurities is the distribution coefficient , which is the ratio of the solid solubility to liquid solubility. A knowledge of for a given binary system is essential for contemporary methods of evaluating or correcting for the effect of impurities, and it is therefore of universal interest to have the most complete set of values possible. A survey of equilibrium values of (in the low concentration limit) reported in the literature for the International Temperature Scale of 1990 fixed points of Hg, Ga, In, Sn, Zn, Al, Au, Ag, and Cu is presented. In addition, thermodynamic calculations of using MTDATA are presented for 170 binary systems. In total, the combined values of from all available sources for 430 binary systems are presented. In addition, by considering all available values of for impurities in 25 different metal solvents (1300 binary systems) enough data are available to characterize patterns in the value of for a given impurity as a function of its position in the periodic table. This enables prediction of for a significant number of binary systems for which data and calculations are unavailable. By combining data from many sources, values of for solutes (atomic number from 1 to 94) in ITS-90 fixed points from Hg to Cu are suggested, together with some tentative predicted values where literature data and calculations are unavailable.

  3. Nd:YAG Laser Welding of Sheet Metal Assembly: Transformation Induced Volume Strain Affect on Elastoplastic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seang, C.; David, A. K.; Ragneau, E.

    This study presents the effect of transformation induced volume strain on the thermo-elastoplastic model in the simulation of Nd: YAG laser welding process applied for thin sheet metal dual phases steel DP600. The metallurgical phase transformations during heating and during cooling are used as the thermal expansion dependent parameters. The effect of transformation induced volumetric strain was identified where the comparisons of the elastoplastic model with and without metallurgical effect are based on the global distribution of residual stresses such as the longitudinal residual stresses and the transverse residual stresses.

  4. 10 CFR 431.197 - Manufacturer's determination of efficiency for distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.197 Section 431.197 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Compliance and Enforcement § 431.197 Manufacturer's determination of efficiency for distribution transformers. When...

  5. 76 FR 45471 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice of Intent To Negotiate Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... medium voltage dry-type distribution transformers. The purpose of the subcommittee will be to discuss and... rule applied to liquid-immersed and medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformers. In December 2007... amendments to the standards for liquid-immersed and medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformers,...

  6. Diffusion and Phase Transformations of Transition Metals on Silicon Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Yi.

    The role of surface diffusion and surface phase reaction kinetics of nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) on Si(111) and Si(100) are investigated under Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) conditions using Auger Spectroscopy (AES), Reflection High Electron Energy Diffraction (RHEED) and surface X-ray diffraction. The surface segregation phenomenon and the formation conditions for Si(111)-sqrt{19 } x sqrt{19}- rm R+/-23.4^circ phase (hereafter called sqrt{19}) for Ni/Si(111) are studied by RHEED and AES. Quench cooling induces surface segregation which restores the total accumulated dose of Ni to two surfaces of the wafer. The coverage dependence of phases thus produced follows: 7 x 7 to 1 x 1-RC(0.05Ml) to sqrt{19} (0.16Ml) then to B-type NiSi_2. It is found that there are 3 Ni atoms in the sqrt{19 } unit cell. A "race" of bulk diffusion versus surface diffusion for Ni in/on Si(111) is studied by depositing a laterally confined dot of metal on one side of the double side polished and UHV cleaned Si wafer and then measuring the lateral Auger profile on the reverse side following annealing and quenching. Ni reaches the far side of the wafer at temperatures as low as 500C via bulk diffusion with no measurable contribution from the surface paths, which are short-circuited by numerous, fast bulk paths. Similar results are found for Ni and Co on Si(111) and Si(100). The diffusivity and solid solubility calculated from the experiments are close to the bulk values known from the literature. In addition, the thermal stability, phase transformation and different dissolution mechanisms of sqrt {19} and 1 x 1-RC surface phases of Ni/Si(111) are carefully examined. The activation energies of these processes are compared on an Arrhenius plot. These are discussed in terms of the migration and formation mechanisms involved in these phase transformations. An energy level diagram is used to summarize the atomistic kinetics.

  7. Spatial distribution of metals in the constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kongroy, Porntawee; Tantemsapya, Netnapid; Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh Ren; Wirojanagud, Wanpen

    2012-02-01

    Investigation of the spatial distribution of metals was conducted for two constructed wetlands used as tertiary treatment in Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science (CNU) and Metal Processing Industries (MPI) located in Tainan, Taiwan. These two distinguished sites were selected to compare the distribution of metals for constructed wetlands treating different types of wastewater. Along the distance, samples of water, sediment, and macrophytes were analyzed for metals including Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Additionally, measurements of water quality including temperature, pH, EC, ORP, DO, TSS, BOD, COD, and turbidity were performed. Results show that, at CNU, wastewater contained higher organic consititute (BOD 29.3 +/- 11.7 mg/, COD 46.7 +/- 33.6 mg/L) with low metals content. Wastewater at MPI contained low level of organic consititute (BOD 7.1 +/- 3.3 mg/L, and COD 66.0 +/- 56.5 mg/L) and higher metals content. Metals distribution of both sites showed similar results where metals in the sediments in the inlet zone have greater concentrations than other areas. The constructed wetlands can remove Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, there was no removal of Al, Cr, Fe, and Mn. A distance along the constructed wetlands had no effect on metal concentrations in macrophyte and water. PMID:22567700

  8. Radial distribution of metallicity in the LMC cluster systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontizas, M.; Kontizas, E.; Michalitsianos, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    New determinations of the deprojected distances to the galaxy center for 94 star clusters and their metal abundances are used to investigate the variation of metallicity across the two LMC star cluster systems (Kontizas et al. 1990). A systematic radial trend of metallicity is observed in the extended outer cluster system, the outermost clusters being significantly metal poorer than the more central ones, with the exception of six clusters (which might lie out of the plane of the cluster system) out of 77. A radial metallicity gradient has been found, qualitatively comparable to that of the Milky Way for its system of the old disk clusters. If the six clusters are taken into consideration then the outer cluster system is well mixed up to 8 kpc. The spatial distribution of metallicities for the inner LMC cluster system, consisting of very young globulars does not show a systematic radial trend; they are all metal rich.

  9. Simulating the transformation of heavy metals during coal or sewage sludge combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.; Xu, M.; Yao, H.; Furuuchi, M.; Sakano, T.; Kim, H.J.

    2007-01-15

    A mathematical model (FPM) is presented to predict the transformation of heavy metals in the downstream of combustor or incinerator. The model accounts for the transformation of heavy metals through the combined effect of condensation, nucleation, coagulation, external force and thermophoresis force. The calculation of heavy metals is embodied in the post-processor appended to Fluent software. Before the simulation, velocity, temperature, PbCl{sub 2} concentration and other initial parameters are obtained by experiment. In addition, the transformation of PbCl{sub 2} is also experimentally studied. The comparison of experimental and predicted results indicate that the fine particle model (FPM) is valid for predicting the transformation of heavy metals in the downstream of incinerator or combustor.

  10. Contamination of the transformer oil of power transformers and shunting reactors by metal-containing colloidal particles

    SciTech Connect

    L'vov, S. Yu.; Komarov, V. B.; Bondareva, V. N.; Seliverstov, A. F.; Lyut'ko, E. O.; L'vov, Yu. N.; Ershov, B. G.

    2011-05-15

    The results of a measurement of the contamination of the oil in 66 transformers by metal-containing colloidal particles, formed as a result of the interaction of the oil with the structural materials (the copper of the windings, the iron of the tank and core etc.), and also the results of measurements of the optical turbidity of the oil in 136 transformers when they were examined at the Power Engineering Research and Development Center Company are presented. Methods of determining the concentration of copper and iron in transformer oil are considered. The limiting values of the optical turbidity factors, the copper and iron content are determined. These can serve as a basis for taking decisions on whether to replace the silica gel of the filters for continuously purifying the oil of power transformers and the shunting reactors in addition to the standardized oil contamination factors, namely, the dielectric loss tangent and the acidity number of the oil.

  11. Metal hybrid nanoparticles for catalytic organic and photochemical transformations.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunjoon

    2015-03-17

    In order to understand heterogeneous catalytic reactions, model catalysts such as a single crystalline surface have been widely studied for many decades. However, catalytic systems that actually advance the reactions are three-dimensional and commonly have multiple components including active metal nanoparticles and metal oxide supports. On the other hand, as nanochemistry has rapidly been developed and been applied to various fields, many researchers have begun to discuss the impact of nanochemistry on heterogeneous catalysis. Metal hybrid nanoparticles bearing multiple components are structurally very close to the actual catalysts, and their uniform and controllable morphology is suitable for investigating the relationship between the structure and the catalytic properties in detail. In this Account, we introduce four typical structures of metal hybrid nanoparticles that can be used to conduct catalytic organic and photochemical reactions. Metal@silica (or metal oxide) yolk-shell nanoparticles, in which metal cores exist in internal voids surrounded by thin silica (or metal oxide) shells, exhibited extremely high thermal and chemical stability due to the geometrical protection of the silica layers against the metal cores. The morphology of the metal cores and the pore density of the hollow shells were precisely adjusted to optimize the reaction activity and diffusion rates of the reactants. Metal@metal oxide core-shell nanoparticles and inverted structures, where the cores supported the shells serving an active surface, exhibited high activity with no diffusion barriers for the reactants and products. These nanostructures were used as effective catalysts for various organic and gas-phase reactions, including hydrogen transfer, Suzuki coupling, and steam methane reforming. In contrast to the yolk- and core-shell structures, an asymmetric arrangement of distinct domains generated acentric dumbbells and tipped rods. A large domain of each component added multiple

  12. Enhanced densification of metal powders by transformation-mismatch plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Schuh, C.; Noel, P.; Dunand, D.C.

    2000-05-11

    The densification of titanium powders is investigated in uniaxial die pressing experiments carried out isothermally at 980 C (in the {beta}-field of titanium) and during thermal cycling between 860 and 980 C (about the {alpha}/{beta} phase transformation of titanium). Thermal cycling is found to enhance densification kinetics through the emergence of transformation-mismatch plasticity (the mechanism responsible for transformation superplasticity) as a densification mechanism. The isothermal hot-pressing data compare favorably with existing models of powder densification, and these models are successfully adapted to the case of transformation-mismatch plasticity during thermal cycling. Similar conclusions are reached for the densification of titanium powders containing 1, 5, or 10 vol.% ZrO{sub 2} particles. However, the addition of ZrO{sub 2} hinders densification by dissolving in the titanium matrix during the hot-pressing procedure.

  13. The Metallicity Distribution of the Milky Way Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, M.; Freeman, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Galactic bulge of the Milky Way is made up of stars with a broad range of metallicity, -3.0 < [Fe/H] < 1 dex. The mean of the metallicity distribution function decreases as a function of height z from the plane and, more weakly, with galactic radius R GC. The most metal-rich stars in the inner Galaxy are concentrated to the plane and the more metal-poor stars are found predominantly further from the plane, with an overall vertical gradient in the mean of the metallicity distribution function of about - 0.45 dex kpc-1. This vertical gradient is believed to reflect the changing contribution with height of different populations in the innermost region of the Galaxy. The more metal-rich stars of the bulge are part of the boxy/peanut structure and comprise stars in orbits which trace out the underlying X-shape. There is still a lack of consensus on the origin of the metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -0.5) in the region of the bulge. Some studies attribute the more metal-poor stars of the bulge to the thick disk and stellar halo that are present in the inner region, and other studies propose that the metal-poor stars are a distinct `old spheroid' bulge population. Understanding the origin of the populations that make up the metallicity distribution function of the bulge, and identifying if there is a unique bulge population which has formed separately from the disk and halo, has important consequences for identifying the relevant processes in the formation and evolution of the Milky Way.

  14. Metal mixture (As-Cd-Pb)-induced cell transformation is modulated by OLA1.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Baeza, Elia; Rojas, Emilio; Valverde, Mahara

    2016-07-01

    Environmental pollutants are complex mixtures in which metals are ubiquitous. Metal mixtures of arsenic, cadmium and lead are present in the occupational environment and generate health effects such as cardiovascular, renal and cancer diseases. Cell transformation induced by metal mixtures that depend on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell viability maintenance and avoidance of senescence was previously reported by our group. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of a Obg-like ATPase1 (OLA1) in the cell transformation of BALB/c 3T3 A31-1-1 clonal cells induced by a metal mixture (2 µM NaAsO2, 2 µM CdCl2 and 5 µM Pb(C2H3O2)2 3H2O) through ROS generation. The interest in OLA1 is justified because this protein has been proposed to be a negative regulator of the cellular antioxidant response. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown OLA1 before the initiation stage of the transformation assay. We evaluated (ROS) and OLA1 protein expression throughout the initiation and promotion stages of transformation. OLA1 knockdown modulated metal mixture-induced cell transformation more strongly when the metal mixture was an initiator stimulus than when it was a promoter. The ability of the metal mixture to initiate cell transformation was diminished by OLA1 knockdown, an effect that depended on intracellular ROS levels. The effect of OLA1 was synergistic with N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) co-treatment. Oxidative stress-associated transcription factors Egr1 and Smad were also down-regulated by the OLA1 knockdown, contributing to the rescue of metal mixture cell transformation. PMID:26984302

  15. Graphene growth by a metal-catalyzed solid-state transformation of amorphous carbon.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Julio A; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Banhart, Florian

    2011-02-22

    Single and few-layer graphene is grown by a solid-state transformation of amorphous carbon on a catalytically active metal. The process is carried out and monitored in situ in an electron microscope. It is observed that an amorphous carbon film is taken up by Fe, Co, or Ni crystals at temperatures above 600 °C. The nucleation and growth of graphene layers on the metal surfaces happen after the amorphous carbon film has been dissolved. It is shown that the transformation of the energetically less favorable amorphous carbon to the more favorable phase of graphene occurs by diffusion of carbon atoms through the catalytically active metal.

  16. Distribution of metal and adsorbed guest species in zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Chmelka, B.F.

    1989-12-01

    Because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-size cavity dimensions, zeolites are used widely as catalysts, shape- selective supports, or adsorbents in a variety of important chemical processes. For metal-catalyzed reactions, active metal species must be dispersed to sites within the zeolite pores that are accessible to diffusing reactant molecules. The distribution of the metal, together with transport and adsorption of reactant molecules in zeolite powders, are crucial to ultimate catalyst performance. The nature of the metal or adsorbed guest distribution is known, however, to be dramatically dependent upon preparatory conditions. Our objective is to understand, at the molecular level, how preparatory treatments influence the distribution of guest species in zeolites, in order that macroscopic adsorption and reaction properties of these materials may be better understood. The sensitivity of xenon to its adsorption environment makes {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy an important diagnostic probe of metal clustering and adsorbate distribution processes in zeolites. The utility of {sup 129}Xe NMR depends on the mobility of the xenon atoms within the zeolite-guest system, together with the length scale of the sample heterogeneity being studied. In large pore zeolites containing dispersed guest species, such as Pt--NaY, {sup 129}Xe NMR is insensitive to fine structural details at room temperature.

  17. 77 FR 32916 - Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... distribution transformers (77 FR 7282). On February 23, 2012, DOE held a public meeting to present the amended... Transformers: Public Meeting and Availability of Supplementary Analysis AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... additional information that it is making available about the liquid-immersed distribution...

  18. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  19. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  20. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  1. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  2. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  3. Microfocus study of metal distribution and speciation in tissue extracted from revised metal on metal hip implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Alister J.; Sandison, Ann; Quinn, Paul; Sampson, Barry; Atkinson, Kirk D.; Skinner, John A.; Goode, Angela; Powell, Jonathan J.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.

    2009-11-01

    Unexplained tissue inflammation in metal-on-metal hip replacements is suspected to be caused by implant-derived nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of the metal particles in tissue surrounding metal-on-metal (MOM) hips that has been extracted during revision. Mapping of tissue surrounding the failed MOM hips was performed using microfocus X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). This revealed mainly Cr which was localized to the cellular regions. There was co-localisation of Co, were present, to areas of high Cr abundance. XANES of the tissue and appropriate standards revealed that the most common species were Cr(III) and Co(II). EXAFS analysis of the tissue and various metal standards revealed that the most abundant implant-related species was Cr(III) phosphate. Different tissue preparation methods, including frozen sectioning, were examined but were found not to affect the distribution or speciation of the metals in the tissue.

  4. Probing the electromagnetic field distribution within a metallic nanodisk.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Rodríguez, David; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; Prieto, Patricia; Anguita, José; González, María U; García-Martín, José M; Cebollada, Alfonso; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles, Gaspar

    2011-12-01

    A Co nanolayer is used as a local probe to evaluate the vertical inhomogeneous distribution of the electromagnetic (EM) field within a resonant metallic nanodisk. Taking advantage of the direct relation between the magneto-optical activity and the electromagnetic field intensity in the Co layer, it is shown that the nonuniform EM distribution within the nanodisk under plasmon resonant conditions has maximum values close to the upper and lower flat faces, and a minimum value in the middle.

  5. Metal contamination of drinking water from corrosion of distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Alam, I A; Sadiq, M

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metal contamination of drinking water resulting from the corrosion of distribution pipes and its significance to human health. A community in Dhahran, which is served from its own desalination facilities, was chosen for this study. About 150 drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for metal concentrations using an inductively coupled argon plasma analyzer. It was found that copper, iron and zinc in the drinking water increased during its transportation from the desalination plant to the consumers. This increase was related to the length and material of distribution pipes. Concentrations of copper and zinc were increased during overnight storage of water in the appliances. Metal concentrations found in this study are discussed with reference to human health.

  6. Metal contamination of drinking water from corrosion of distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Alam, I A; Sadiq, M

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metal contamination of drinking water resulting from the corrosion of distribution pipes and its significance to human health. A community in Dhahran, which is served from its own desalination facilities, was chosen for this study. About 150 drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for metal concentrations using an inductively coupled argon plasma analyzer. It was found that copper, iron and zinc in the drinking water increased during its transportation from the desalination plant to the consumers. This increase was related to the length and material of distribution pipes. Concentrations of copper and zinc were increased during overnight storage of water in the appliances. Metal concentrations found in this study are discussed with reference to human health. PMID:15092461

  7. Hydrated lime for metals immobilization and explosives transformation: Treatability study.

    PubMed

    Martin, W Andy; Larson, S L; Nestler, C C; Fabian, G; O'Connor, G; Felt, D R

    2012-05-15

    Fragmentation grenades contain Composition B (RDX and TNT) within a steel shell casing. There is the potential for off-site migration of high explosives and metals from hand grenade training ranges by transport in surface water and subsurface transport in leachate. This treatability study used bench-scale columns and mesocosm-scale laboratory lysimeters to investigate the potential of hydrated lime as a soil amendment for in situ remediation of explosives and metals stabilization in hand grenade range soils. Compared to the unamended soil there was a 26-92% reduction of RDX in the leachate and runoff water from the lime treated soils and a 66-83% reduction of zinc in the leachate and runoff water samples; where the hand grenade range metals of concern were zinc, iron, and manganese. The amended soil was maintained at the target pH of greater than 10.5 for optimum explosives decomposition. The treatability study indicated a high potential of success for scale-up to an in situ field study. PMID:22445717

  8. Variations of metal distribution in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Nomeda, Sabiene; Valdas, Paulauskas; Chen, Shen-Yi; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2008-01-01

    In the study, the variations of heavy metal distributions (of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) during the sewage sludge composting process were investigated by sequential extraction procedures. The total content of Cu and Zn in the composted mixture increased after the composting process. Mn and Zn were mainly found in mobile fractions (exchangeable fraction (F1), carbonate fraction (F2), and Fe/Mn oxide fraction (F3)). Cu and Pb were strongly associated with the stable fractions (organic matter/sulfides fraction (F4) and residual fraction (F5)). These five metal fractions were used to calculate the metal mobility (bioavailability) in the sewage sludge and composted mixture. The mobility (bioavailability) of Mn, Pb, and Zn (but not Cu) increased during the composting process. The metal mobility in the composted mixture ranked in the following order: Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu.

  9. Heavy metal distribution in sediments from Calabar River, southeastern Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Ntekim, E.E.U.; Ekwere, S.J.; Ukpong, E.E.

    1993-08-01

    The concentration and areal distribution of selected metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Fe, and Cr) in the sediments of the Calabar River were studied to determine the extent of anthropogenic input and to estimate the effects of dumping industrial waste materials into the river. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu indicate relatively moderate pollution mainly on the left-hand side of the river while Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, and Fe levels are below values found to have adverse effects on the lives of marine biota. High metal contents are found close to industrial establishments and so enhanced metal concentrations are related to industrial sewage and metal leaching from garbage and solid waste dumps. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Elucidating the Composition and Distribution of Trace Metals in Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, G.; Webb, S. M.; Apprill, A.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs host a plethora of marine life and thereby provide a wealth of aesthetic and economic benefits to coastal countries. Anthropogenic influences, including local coastal water contamination, however threaten the health of these delicate ecosystems. Metal incorporation into carbonate minerals, the backbone of coral reefs, is known to have a large yet variable impact on carbonate structure and solubility. Yet, trace metal influences on the structure, porosity, composition, and solubility of coral skeletons is largely unknown. Here, we coupled synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (u-XRF) mapping and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy with micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) to explore the distribution and speciation of trace metals associated with corals and their impact on the carbonate structure of corals obtained from reefs varying in anthropogenic influence - Florida Keys, FL USA and the Federated States of Micronesia. Iron and copper were the most abundant metals in the biological tissue, while in some areas zinc was observed in the tissue, overlapping with the skeleton. Trace metals were not detectable in the aragonite skeletons; in fact, the distributions of Ca and Fe were anti-correlated. XANES spectra show that the iron is primarily Fe(III), likely as the poorly crystalline iron oxide ferrihydrite structure or trapped within ferretin proteins. The same trace metals were observed in corals of different species and from different environments. This in situ investigation corroborates previous studies that corals tend to incorporate iron into the biological components but not into the aragonite skeleton. Given the dominant partitioning of metals within the biological tissue rather than the coral skeleton, the specific carbon molecules responsible for metal attenuation and their fate under changing geochemical conditions and following coral death require exploration.

  11. Quasiparticle transformation during a metal-insulator transition in graphene.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Aaron; McChesney, Jessica L; Emtsev, Konstantin V; Seyller, Thomas; Horn, Karsten; Kevan, Stephen D; Rotenberg, Eli

    2009-07-31

    Here we show, with simultaneous transport and photoemission measurements, that the graphene-terminated SiC(0001) surface undergoes a metal-insulator transition upon dosing with small amounts of atomic hydrogen. We find the room temperature resistance increases by about 4 orders of magnitude, a transition accompanied by anomalies in the momentum-resolved spectral function including a non-Fermi-liquid behavior and a breakdown of the quasiparticle picture. These effects are discussed in terms of a possible transition to a strongly (Anderson) localized ground state. PMID:19792520

  12. The migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals during the hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Jun; Yuan, Xing-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Various hydrothermal treatment methods, including hydrothermal carbonization, liquefaction and sub/super-critical water gasification, have been applied to the disposal of sewage sludge for producing bio-materials or bio-fuels. It has become a research hotspot whether the heavy metals contained in sewage sludge can be well treated/stabilized after the hydrothermal treatments. This review firstly summarized the methods of assessing heavy metals' contamination level/risk and then discussed the migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals from the following aspects: the effect of reaction temperature, the effect of additives (catalysts and other biomass), the effect of the type of solvent and the effect of reaction time. This review can provide an important reference for the further study of the migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals during the hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge. PMID:26577578

  13. Characterisation and distribution of heavy metals at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, M.; Rymer, H.; Gillman, M.; Blake, S.

    2011-12-01

    Activity at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is characterised by periodic cycles of intense gas emission that last years to decades. The volcano entered its current phase of degassing in 1993, which resulted in a low-level persistent gas plume. As a result of this continuous emission, the substantial deposition of heavy metals onto the surrounding soils (andosols) is thought to be occurring (Delfosse et al., 2003). The deposition of these heavy metal plume components, and their incorporation into soil, is of key interest because once discharged to the environment they accumulate throughout the food chain and may pose a serious ecological threat (Alloway, 1995). Although many studies have focused on the impacts of volcanic gases on the environment, few have addressed the fate of the metals released by persistent gas plumes. This study therefore investigates the patterns of heavy metal transport, deposition and distribution at Masaya in order to provide additional information on the processes that govern the behaviour of volcanic heavy metals. A number of agricultural and non-agricultural soils at two horizons (A: 0-10 cm and B: 20-30 cm) were collected and their trace metal content analysed. Twenty sites were sampled from the active vent to ~5 km downwind, as well as two control sites upwind of the volcano. Preliminary data suggest that a rapid deposition of metals occurs close to the source, with metal concentrations in the soil generally decreasing with distance away from the active vent. Cr and As clearly follow this trend, with maximum concentrations of 20.71 and 7.61 mg/kg respectively occurring closest to the vent. Concentration peaks for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn (959.30, 21.57, 13.44, 152.85, and 72.73 mg/kg respectively) occur slightly further away from the vent, implying that these metals are transported further. The concentration of Cr, Co, Al, Ni and Mn was found to increase from soil horizon A to B, whereas the abundance of Zn decreases with depth. Heavy metal

  14. [Transformations of parameters in the generalized Poisson distribution for test data analysis].

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, H

    1996-02-01

    The generalized Poisson distribution is a distribution which approximates various forms of mixtures of Poisson distributions. The mean and variance of the generalized Poisson distribution, which are simple functions of the two parameters of the distribution, are more useful than the original parameters in test data analysis. Therefore, we adopted two types of transformations of parameters. The first model has new parameters of mean and standard deviation. The second model contains new parameters of mean and variance/mean. An example indicates that the transformed parameters are convenient to understand the properties of data. PMID:8935832

  15. Higher-order transformation and the distributed data problem.

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Victor Lono; Subramaniam, Mahadevan

    2003-12-01

    The distributed data problem, is characterized by the desire to bring together semantically related data from syntactically unrelated portions of a term. Two strategic combinators, dynamic and transient, are introduced in the context of a classical strategic programming framework. The impact of the resulting system on instances of the distributed data problem is then explored.

  16. Metal electrode integration on macroporous silicon: pore distribution and morphology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a new approach for the one-step integration of interdigitated electrodes on macroporous silicon substrates is presented. Titanium/gold interdigitated electrodes are used to pattern p-type silicon substrates prior the anodization in an organic electrolyte. The electrolyte characteristics, conductivity, and pH have been found to affect the adherence of the metal layer on the silicon surface during the electrochemical etching. The impact of the metal pattern on size distribution and morphology of the resulting macroporous silicon layer is analyzed. A formation mechanism supported by finite element simulation is proposed. PMID:22799456

  17. Catalytic and photocatalytic transformations on metal nanoparticles with targeted geometric and plasmonic properties.

    PubMed

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip; Xin, Hongliang; Marimuthu, Andiappan

    2013-08-20

    Heterogeneous catalysis by metals was among the first enabling technologies that extensively relied on nanoscience. The early intersections of catalysis and nanoscience focused on the synthesis of catalytic materials with high surface to volume ratio. These synthesis strategies mainly involved the impregnation of metal salts on high surface area supports. This would usually yield quasi-spherical nanoparticles capped by low-energy surface facets, typically with closely packed metal atoms. These high density areas often function as the catalytically active surface sites. Unfortunately, strategies to control the functioning surface facet (i.e., the geometry of active sites that performs catalytic turnover) are rare and represent a significant challenge in our ability to fine-tune and optimize the reactive surfaces. Through recent developments in colloidal chemistry, chemists have been able to synthesize metallic nanoparticles of both targeted size and desired shape. This has opened new possibilities for the design of heterogeneous catalytic materials, since metal nanoparticles of different shapes are terminated with different surface facets. By controlling the surface facet exposed to reactants, we can start affecting the chemical transformations taking place on the metal particles and changing the outcome of catalytic processes. Controlling the size and shape of metal nanoparticles also allows us to control the optical properties of these materials. For example, noble metals nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Cu) interact with UV-vis light through an excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), which is highly sensitive to the size and shape of the nanostructures. This excitation is accompanied by the creation of short-lived energetic electrons on the surface of the nanostructure. We showed recently that these energetic electrons could drive photocatalytic transformations on these nanostructures. The photocatalytic, electron-driven processes on metal nanoparticles

  18. Development of a Simplified Calculation Tool for Voltage Drop caused by Transformer Inrush in Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakachi, Yoshiki; Fukae, Takayuki; Sugahara, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hayato; Koyama, Mitsuaki; Ueda, Fukashi

    It is well known that the voltage drop due to the inrush current at energizing transformer, may at times, interrupt electrical equipment. Generally, the voltage drop is calculated by using the sophisticated tool such as EMTP, so the transformer saturation phenomenon has been properly represented. However, it is not practical for distribution system engineers to calculate the voltage drop with transformer inrush by using EMTP, because there are a lot of network access requests needing such calculations with many kinds of transformers. Therefore, in this paper, a simplified and easy-to-use calculation tool for voltage drop caused by transformer inrush in distribution system is developed. In order to grasp the voltage drop by inrush current during the planning stage, it is formulated by considering the transformer saturation/unsaturation periods in each winding type, the developed tool is based on the versatile spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel®. It can be used with accuracy almost similar to the EMTP.

  19. Studies on distribution of heavy metals in Ganga water and its bed sediments along the Patna stretch.

    PubMed

    Ram, Parashuram; Singh, A K

    2007-07-01

    In the present study, the distribution of heavy metals in Ganga water and its bed sediments were studied at three sampling stations along the stretch of Patna. The samples were collected, preserved, digested with HNO3-HClO4 and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The heavy metals were not detected in the dissolved form in Ganga water. The reason may be alkaline nature of water. These were detected in trace quantity in Ganga water and its bed sediments samples as total metals. The heavy metals exist in the aqueous phase due to their absorption on particulate. The sources may be attributed to geo-chemical transformation, weathering of soils and anthropogenic activities. The presence of heavy metals in the bed sediments and in the suspended phase indicates that Ganga riverine system acts as both carrier and sink for heavy metals in trace levels.

  20. Studies on distribution of heavy metals in Ganga water and its bed sediments along the Patna stretch.

    PubMed

    Ram, Parashuram; Singh, A K

    2007-07-01

    In the present study, the distribution of heavy metals in Ganga water and its bed sediments were studied at three sampling stations along the stretch of Patna. The samples were collected, preserved, digested with HNO3-HClO4 and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The heavy metals were not detected in the dissolved form in Ganga water. The reason may be alkaline nature of water. These were detected in trace quantity in Ganga water and its bed sediments samples as total metals. The heavy metals exist in the aqueous phase due to their absorption on particulate. The sources may be attributed to geo-chemical transformation, weathering of soils and anthropogenic activities. The presence of heavy metals in the bed sediments and in the suspended phase indicates that Ganga riverine system acts as both carrier and sink for heavy metals in trace levels. PMID:18476446

  1. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  2. Size distributions of metal nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svergun, D. I.; Shtykova, E. V.; Dembo, A. T.; Bronstein, L. M.; Platonova, O. A.; Yakunin, A. N.; Valetsky, P. M.; Khokhlov, A. R.

    1998-12-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering is used to study size distributions of noble metal nanoparticles embedded in polyelectrolyte hydrogels with oppositely charged surfactants. A procedure is proposed to subtract matrix scattering and to extract pure scattering due to the nanoparticles allowing to evaluate their size distribution functions by means of a regularization technique. Two kinds of collapsed gel-surfactant complexes were studied: a complex of a cationic gel of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (PDADMACl/SDS), and that of an anionic gel of poly(methacrylic acid) with a cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (PMA/CPC). Addition of a gold compound (HAuCl4ṡ3H2O) to the PDADMACl/SDS system forms the metal compound clusters and leads to a partial distortion of the gel structure. After subsequent reduction of the gold compound with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) ordering in the gel disappears and gold nanoparticles are formed. Their size distribution includes a fraction of small particles with approximately the same size as the compound clusters before reduction and a fraction of larger particles with the radii up to 40 nm. For the collapsed PDADMACl/SDS gels, aging does not change the size distribution profile; for the noncollapsed PDADMACl gels without surfactant, metal particles are found to grow with time. This suggests that the aggregation of metal colloids is prevented by the ordering in the collapsed gel-surfactant complex. The addition of HAuCl4ṡ3H2O and the subsequent reduction of the metal ions in the PMA/CPC system does not distort the gel structure as the degree of incorporation of AuCl4- ions is very low. Particle sizes in the PMA/CPC system are found to be somewhat larger than those in the PDADMACl/SDS system. The PDADMACl/SDS gels loaded with the PtCl4 compound were also studied to analyze the influence of the reducing agent type on the particle size distribution distributions. Fast reduction

  3. Development of a distribution transformer not subject to destructive failure--an update

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoly, T.O.; Baranowski, J.F.; Ghinazzi, J.M.; Goedde, G.L.; Porter, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    This paper reviews the application of a pancake coil winding in a 25 kVA, 15 kV class distribution transformer that is constructed using inorganic insulating materials. Techniques for designing transformers utilizing pancake coils have been developed and confirmed in full-size working models.

  4. Development of a distribution transformer that is not subject to catastrophic failure

    SciTech Connect

    Baranowski, J.F.; Goedde, G.L.

    1986-02-01

    Inorganically insulated, oil-free transformers offer potential for improving the safety of distribution systems. Laboratory tests - as well as initial results of field trials - indicate that a 25-kVA pole-mounted unit developed in this study will eliminate the rapid pressure increases that lead to catastrophic failures of conventional transformers.

  5. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... distribution transformers (72 FR 58190). The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005), Public Law 109-25, amended... transformers (77 FR 7282). Need for Correction As published, values in certain tables of the proposed rule are... February 10 NOPR. Corrections In proposed rule FR Doc. 2012-2642 appearing on page 7282 in the issue...

  6. Water molecule-driven reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation of a multi-metallic coordination polymer with controllable metal ion movement.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zheng; Ma, Jian-Gong; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Peng

    2014-02-21

    A single-crystal to single-crystal (SC-SC) transformation process driven by water molecules has been exhibited by a multi-metallic coordination polymer. The in situ heating single crystal X-ray diffraction technique was applied to study the control of metal ion movement in the reversible SC-SC transformation process.

  7. 10 CFR 431.197 - Manufacturer's determination of efficiency for distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Compliance and... characteristics of that basic model; (ii) The AEDM is based on engineering and statistical analysis, computer... methods used; the mathematical model, the engineering or statistical analysis, computer simulation...

  8. ALPHA ENHANCEMENT AND THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF PLAUT'S WINDOW

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Christian I.; Michael Rich, R.; Fulbright, Jon P.; Valenti, Elena; McWilliam, Andrew E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: evalenti@eso.org

    2011-05-10

    We present Fe, Si, and Ca abundances for 61 giants in Plaut's window (l = -1{sup 0}, b = -8.{sup 0}5) and Fe abundances for an additional 31 giants in a second, nearby field (l = 0{sup 0}, b = -8{sup 0}) derived from high-resolution (R {approx} 25,000) spectra obtained with the Blanco 4 m telescope and Hydra multifiber spectrograph. The median metallicity of red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Plaut's field is {approx}0.4 dex lower than those in Baade's window, and confirms the presence of an iron abundance gradient along the bulge minor axis. The full metallicity range of our (biased) RGB sample spans -1.5 < [Fe/H] < +0.3, which is similar to that found in other bulge fields. We also derive a photometric metallicity distribution function for RGB stars in the (l = -1{sup 0}, b = -8{sup 0}.5) field and find very good agreement with the spectroscopic metallicity distribution. The radial velocity (RV) and dispersion data for the bulge RGB stars are in agreement with previous results of the Bulge Radial Velocity Assay survey, and we find evidence for a decreasing velocity dispersion with increasing [Fe/H]. The [{alpha}/Fe] enhancement in Plaut field stars is nearly identical to that observed in Baade's window, and suggests that an [{alpha}/Fe] gradient does not exist between b = -4{sup 0} and -8{sup 0}. Additionally, a subset of our sample (23 stars) appears to be foreground red clump stars that are very metal rich, exhibit small metallicity and RV dispersions, and are enhanced in {alpha} elements. While these stars likely belong to the Galactic inner disk population, they exhibit [{alpha}/Fe] ratios that are enhanced above the thin and thick disk.

  9. Steep front short duration low voltage impulse performance of distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, L.M.; Veverka, E.F.; McConnell, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive literature search of steep front short duration (SFSD) impulse sources, their characteristics and effect on power system equipment has led to the specification of a test program to evaluate key apparatus and insulations. Distribution transformers, although not overly susceptible to impulse damage, have been selected as one of the candidate apparatus for low and high voltage SFSD impulse tests. This paper covers the low voltage SFSD impulse response of conventional oil insulated shell form and core form distribution transformers.

  10. Temperature measurement inside metallic cables using distributed temperature system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, metallic cables are produced so as to avoid the maximum allowable temperature of the cable by the normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature for short-circuit the exceeding the maximum allowable internal temperature. The temperature increase is an unwanted phenomena causing losses in the cable and its abrasion. Longterm overload can lead to damaging of the cable or to the risk of fire in extreme cases. In our work, we present the temperature distribution measurement inside the metallic cables using distributed temperature system. Within the cooperation with manufacturer of the metallic cables, optical fibers were implemented into these cables. The cables are double coated and the fibers are allocated between these coatings and also in the centre of the cable. Thus we are able to measure the temperature inside the cable and also on the surface temperature along the whole cable length with spatial resolution 1 m during the cable heating. This measurement method can be also used for short-circuit prediction and detection, because this phenomena is always accompanied with temperature increase. Distributed temperature systems are already successfully implemented in temperature measurements in industry environment, such as construction, sewer systems, caliducts etc. The main advantage of these systems is electromagnetic resistance, low application price and the possibility of monitoring several kilometers long distances.

  11. Pb(II) distributions at biofilm-metal oxide interfaces.

    PubMed

    Templeton, A S; Trainor, T P; Traina, S J; Spormann, A M; Brown, G E

    2001-10-01

    The distribution of aqueous Pb(II) sorbed at the interface between Burkholderia cepacia biofilms and hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) or corundum (alpha-Al(2)O(3)) surfaces has been probed by using an application of the long-period x-ray standing wave technique. Attached bacteria and adsorbed organic matter may interfere with sorption processes on metal oxide surfaces by changing the characteristics of the electrical double layer at the solid-solution interface, blocking surface sites, or providing a variety of new sites for metal binding. In this work, Pb L(alpha) fluorescence yield profiles for samples equilibrated with 10(-7) to 10(-3.8) M Pb(II) were measured and modeled to determine quantitatively the partitioning of Pb(II) at the biofilm-metal oxide interface. Our data show that the reactive sites on the metal oxide surfaces were not passivated by the formation of a monolayer biofilm. Instead, high-energy surface sites on the metal oxides form the dominant sink for Pb(II) at submicromolar concentrations, following the trend alpha-Fe(2)O(3) (0001) > alpha-Al(2)O(3) (1102) > alpha-Al(2)O(3) (0001), despite the greater site density within the overlying biofilms. At [Pb] > 10(-6) M, significant Pb uptake by the biofilms was observed.

  12. Nanoscale Twinning and Martensitic Transformation in Shock-Deformed BCC Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L L

    2005-03-22

    Shock-induced twinning and martensitic transformation in BCC-based polycrystalline metals (Ta and U-6wt%Nb) have been observed and studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The length-scale of domain thickness for both twin lamella and martensite phase is found to be smaller than 100 nm. While deformation twinning of {l_brace}112{r_brace}<111>-type is found in Ta when shock-deformed at 15 GPa, both twinning and martensitic transformation are found in Ta when shock-deformed at 45 GPa. Similar phenomena of nanoscale twinning and martensitic transformation are also found in U6Nb shock-deformed at 30 GPa. Since both deformation twinning and martensitic transformation occurred along the {l_brace}211{r_brace}{sub b} planes associated with high resolved shear stresses, it is suggested that both can be regarded as alternative paths for shear transformations to occur in shock-deformed BCC metals. Heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms for shock-induced twinning and martensitic transformation are proposed and discussed.

  13. Toward "metalloMOFzymes": Metal-Organic Frameworks with Single-Site Metal Catalysts for Small-Molecule Transformations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Seth M; Zhang, Zhenjie; Boissonnault, Jake A

    2016-08-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are being increasingly studied as scaffolds and supports for catalysis. The solid-state structures of MOFs, combined with their high porosity, suggest that MOFs may possess advantages shared by both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts, with few of the shortcomings of either. Herein, efforts to create single-site catalytic metal centers appended to the organic ligand struts of MOFs will be discussed. Reactions important for advanced energy applications, such as H2 production and CO2 reduction, will be highlighted. Examining how these active sites can be introduced, their performance, and their existing limitations should provide direction for design of the next generation of MOF-based catalysts for energy-relevant, small-molecule transformations. Finally, the introduction of second-sphere interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding via squaramide groups) as a possible route to enhancing the activity of these metal centers is reported. PMID:27231968

  14. Size resolved metal distribution in the PM matter of the city of Turin (Italy).

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Mery; Casazza, Marco; Abollino, Ornella; Minero, Claudio; Maurino, Valter

    2016-03-01

    A work on the characterization of the air quality in the city of Turin was carried out in different sampling periods, reflecting early autumn and winter conditions, including a snow episode during the early 2012 European cold wave. The concentrations of 13 elements in eight size fractions of the aerosol were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The collection was carried out with a Andersen MkII cascade impactor. The size distribution of elements allowed the identification of three main behavioural types: (a) elements associated with coarse particles (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Sn); (b) elements found within fine particles (As, Co, Pb and V) and (c) elements spread throughout the entire size range (Ni and Zn). Principal Component Analysis allowed to examine the relationships between the inorganic elements and to infer about their origin. Chemometric investigation and assessment of similarity in the distribution led to similar conclusions on the sources. The concentration of gaseous trace pollutants (O3, NOx and VOCs) was determined. The concentrations of these pollutants are scarcely correlated with the metal contents of all the size classes of the PM. The differences found in the O3, NO2 and VOCs levels of the two winter campaigns due to the high photochemical reactivity in the period after the snow episode, do not reflect in differences in the metals distribution in the PM. Since PM metals, NOx and VOC have common sources, this behaviour is due to relevant differences in the transformation and deposition processes. PMID:26802934

  15. Main Group Lewis Acid-Mediated Transformations of Transition-Metal Hydride Complexes.

    PubMed

    Maity, Ayan; Teets, Thomas S

    2016-08-10

    This Review highlights stoichiometric reactions and elementary steps of catalytic reactions involving cooperative participation of transition-metal hydrides and main group Lewis acids. Included are reactions where the transition-metal hydride acts as a reactant as well as transformations that form the metal hydride as a product. This Review is divided by reaction type, illustrating the diverse roles that Lewis acids can play in mediating transformations involving transition-metal hydrides as either reactants or products. We begin with a discussion of reactions where metal hydrides form direct adducts with Lewis acids, elaborating the structure and dynamics of the products of these reactions. The bulk of this Review focuses on reactions where the transition metal and Lewis acid act in cooperation, and includes sections on carbonyl reduction, H2 activation, and hydride elimination reactions, all of which can be promoted by Lewis acids. Also included is a section on Lewis acid-base secondary coordination sphere interactions, which can influence the reactivity of hydrides. Work from the past 50 years is included, but the majority of this Review focuses on research from the past decade, with the intent of showcasing the rapid emergence of this field and the potential for further development into the future.

  16. Utilizing Hilbert-Huang transform in detection some of mechanical properties of the refractory metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Arshed Abdulhamed; Haris, Sallehuddin Mohamed; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki

    2016-02-01

    This study is one of the first to report on the use of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to determine the modulus of elasticity of a material, which is one of the most important properties of metals. In addition, this study involves an analytical study of the process of transfer of energy, which was represented in the form of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Moreover, the distribution of IMFs within the time-frequency-plain was determined by testing eight test specimens. Five test specimens were refractory materials, namely, Ti, Ti6AL4V, Zr, Nb, and Ta, and the other three were non-refractory materials, namely, Al, Brass, and ST4340. The new setup was composed of Mg and involves the use of two piezoelectric transducers, which were used as the emitter and receiver. The setup was designed and implemented in this research based on Mg usage to test the metals. First, a new relationship was derived between the pressure transmission coefficient (PTC) of the transmitted wave (through the emitter-water-test specimen-Mg to the receiver) and the corresponding values of the product of the density (ρ) and the modulus of elasticity (E) for the same test specimen. Another relationship was established between the PTCs and the total energy transmitted at high frequencies. This energy indicates the summation of IMFs that have high frequencies (THIMFs), higher than 10 kHz, can determine E better than TOF for most test specimens. To verify this results, with regard to the second conclusion, a new simulation for this setup was carried out using Simulink in MATLAB. Twelve theoretical tests were done, for high acoustic impedance metals, like Hf, Mo, WNiFe and W in addition to test the same group which was tested experimentally. The results of theoretical tests supported the experimental results except for Nb. Most of the conclusions were obtained through practical results and analytical studies. The results proved that THIMFs can determine the change in the microstructure of the alloys

  17. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF FOUR LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon; Saha, Abhijit; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J. E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu

    2015-06-15

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color–color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color–color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%–50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution.

  18. Laser induced mechanisms controlling the size distribution of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zeming; Vitrant, Guy; Lefkir, Yaya; Bakhti, Said; Destouches, Nathalie

    2016-09-21

    This paper describes a model to simulate changes in the size distribution of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in TiO2 films upon continuous wave light excitation. Interrelated laser induced physical and chemical processes initiated directly by photon absorption or by plasmon induced thermal heating are considered. Namely the model takes into account the NP coalescence, Ostwald ripening, the reduction of silver ions and the oxidation of metallic NPs, competitive mechanisms that can lead to counter-intuitive behaviors depending on the exposure conditions. Theoretical predictions are compared successfully to the experimental results deduced from a thorough analysis of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) pictures of Ag:TiO2 films processed with a scanning visible laser beam at different speeds. Ag:TiO2 systems are considered for many applications in solar energy conversion, photocatalysis or secured data printing. Numerical investigations of such a system provide a better understanding of light induced growth and shrinking processes and open up prospects for designing more efficient photocatalytic devices based on metal NP doped TiO2 or for improving the size homogeneity in self-organized metallic NP patterns, for instance. PMID:27539293

  19. Particle-size-distribution measurement using a Hankel transform of a Fraunhofer diffraction spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nakadate, S; Saito, H

    1983-11-01

    A new method for the measurement of the size distribution of circular particles by using a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is proposed, which basically consists of performing the following two steps: (1) a Hankel transform of the radial spectral intensity that is diffracted from randomly distributed circular objects and (2) a calculation of a correlation between the Hankel-transformed function and a characteristic operator, such as a digital third-derivative operator. The method provides continuous size distribution of circular objects with high resolution.

  20. Controlling the plasmonic surface waves of metallic nanowires by transformation optics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yichao; Yuan, Jun; Yin, Ge; Ma, Yungui; He, Sailing

    2015-07-06

    In this letter, we introduce the technique of using transformation optics to manipulate the mode states of surface plasmonic waves of metallic nanowire waveguides. As examples we apply this technique to design two optical components: a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic mode rotator and a mode convertor. The rotator can rotate the polarization state of the surface wave around plasmonic nanowires by arbitrarily desired angles, and the convertor can transform the surface wave modes from one to another. Full-wave simulation is performed to verify the design and efficiency of our devices. Their potential application in photonic circuits is envisioned.

  1. Steering light by a sub-wavelength metallic grating from transformation optics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yadong; Fu, Yangyang; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-01-01

    Transformation optics has shown great ability in designing devices with novel functionalities, such as invisibility cloaking. A recent work shows that it can also be used to design metasurfaces which usually come from the concept of phase discontinuities. However, metasurfaces from transformation optics have very complicated material parameters. Here in this work, we propose a practical design, a sub-wavelength metallic grating with discrete and gradient index materials. Such a design not only inherits some functionalities of metasurfaces from phase discontinuities, but also shows richer physics. Our work will also provide a guidance to recent activities of acoustic metasurfaces, especially for those made of extremely anisotropic metamaterials. PMID:26183391

  2. Steering light by a sub-wavelength metallic grating from transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yadong; Fu, Yangyang; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-07-01

    Transformation optics has shown great ability in designing devices with novel functionalities, such as invisibility cloaking. A recent work shows that it can also be used to design metasurfaces which usually come from the concept of phase discontinuities. However, metasurfaces from transformation optics have very complicated material parameters. Here in this work, we propose a practical design, a sub-wavelength metallic grating with discrete and gradient index materials. Such a design not only inherits some functionalities of metasurfaces from phase discontinuities, but also shows richer physics. Our work will also provide a guidance to recent activities of acoustic metasurfaces, especially for those made of extremely anisotropic metamaterials.

  3. Spatial Variability and Distribution of the Metals in Surface Runoff in a Nonferrous Metal Mine

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bozhi; Chen, Yangbo; Zhu, Guocheng; Wang, Zhenghua; Zheng, Xie

    2016-01-01

    The spatial variation and distribution features of the metals tested in the surface runoff in Xikuangshan Bao Daxing miming area were analyzed by combining statistical methods with a geographic information system (GIS). The results showed that the maximum concentrations of those five kinds of the metals (Sb, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in the surface runoff of the antimony mining area were lower than the standard value except the concentration of metal Ni. Their concentrations were 497.1, 2.0, 1.8, 22.2, and 22.1 times larger than the standard value, respectively. This metal pollution was mainly concentrated in local areas, which were seriously polluted. The variation coefficient of Sb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd was between 0.4 to 0.6, wherein the Sb's spatial variability coefficient is 50.56%, indicating a strong variability. Variation coefficients of the rest of metals were less than 50%, suggesting a moderate variability. The spatial structure analysis showed that the squared correlation coefficient (R2) of the models fitting for Sb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd was between 0.721 and 0.976; the ratio of the nugget value (C0) to the abutment value (C + C0) was between 0.0767 and 0.559; the semivariogram of Sb, Zn, Ni, and Pb was in agreement with a spherical model, while semivariogram of Cu and Cd was in agreement with Gaussian model, and both had a strong spatial correlation. The trend and spatial distribution indicated that those pollution distributions resulting from Ni, Pb, and Cd are similar, mainly concentrated in both ends of north and south in eastern part. The main reasons for the pollution were attributed to the residents living, transportation, and industrial activities; the Sb distribution was concentrated mainly in the central part, of which the pollution was assigned to the mining and the industrial activity; the pollution distributions of Zn and Cu were similar, mainly concentrated in both ends of north and south as well as in west; the sources of the metals were

  4. Spatial Variability and Distribution of the Metals in Surface Runoff in a Nonferrous Metal Mine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bozhi; Chen, Yangbo; Zhu, Guocheng; Wang, Zhenghua; Zheng, Xie

    2016-01-01

    The spatial variation and distribution features of the metals tested in the surface runoff in Xikuangshan Bao Daxing miming area were analyzed by combining statistical methods with a geographic information system (GIS). The results showed that the maximum concentrations of those five kinds of the metals (Sb, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in the surface runoff of the antimony mining area were lower than the standard value except the concentration of metal Ni. Their concentrations were 497.1, 2.0, 1.8, 22.2, and 22.1 times larger than the standard value, respectively. This metal pollution was mainly concentrated in local areas, which were seriously polluted. The variation coefficient of Sb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd was between 0.4 to 0.6, wherein the Sb's spatial variability coefficient is 50.56%, indicating a strong variability. Variation coefficients of the rest of metals were less than 50%, suggesting a moderate variability. The spatial structure analysis showed that the squared correlation coefficient (R (2)) of the models fitting for Sb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd was between 0.721 and 0.976; the ratio of the nugget value (C 0) to the abutment value (C + C 0) was between 0.0767 and 0.559; the semivariogram of Sb, Zn, Ni, and Pb was in agreement with a spherical model, while semivariogram of Cu and Cd was in agreement with Gaussian model, and both had a strong spatial correlation. The trend and spatial distribution indicated that those pollution distributions resulting from Ni, Pb, and Cd are similar, mainly concentrated in both ends of north and south in eastern part. The main reasons for the pollution were attributed to the residents living, transportation, and industrial activities; the Sb distribution was concentrated mainly in the central part, of which the pollution was assigned to the mining and the industrial activity; the pollution distributions of Zn and Cu were similar, mainly concentrated in both ends of north and south as well as in west; the sources of the metals

  5. Light-Induced In Situ Transformation of Metal Clusters to Metal Nanocrystals for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zeng, Zhiping; Hsu, Shao-Hui; Hung, Sung-Fu; Chen, Hao Ming; Liu, Bin

    2015-12-30

    In situ transformation of glutathione-capped gold (Aux) clusters to gold (Au) nanocrystals under simulated solar light irradiation was achieved and utilized as a facile synthetic approach to rationally fabricate Aux/Au/TiO2 ternary and Au/TiO2 binary heterostructures. Synergistic interaction of Aux clusters and Au nanocrystals contributes to enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalysis.

  6. Detection of defects in formed sheet metal using medial axis transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, Naresh C.; Velgan, Roman

    2003-05-01

    In the metal forming processes, the sheet metals are often prone to various defects such as thinning, dents, wrinkles etc. In the present manufacturing environments with ever increasing demand of higher quality, detecting the defects of formed sheet metal using an effective and objective inspection system is the foremost norm to remain competitive in market. The defect detection using optical techniques aspire to satisfy its needs to be non-contact and fast. However, the main difficulties to achieve this goal remain essentially on the development of efficient evaluation technique and accurate interpretation of extracted data. The defect like thinning is detected by evaluating the deviations of the thickness in the formed sheet metal against its nominal value. The present evaluation procedure for determination of thickness applied on the measurements data is not without deficiency. To improve this procedure, a new evaluation approach based on medial axis transformation is proposed here. The formed sheet metals are digitized using fringe projection systems in different orientations, and afterwards registered into one coordinate frame. The medial axis transformation (MAT) is applied on the point clouds, generating the point clouds of MAT. This data is further processed and medial surface is determined. The thinning defect is detected by evaluating local wall thickness and other defects like wrinkles are determined using the shape recognition on the medial surface. The applied algorithm is simple, fast and robust.

  7. Momentum distribution function of the electron gas at metallic densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Yasutami; Yasuhara, H.

    1991-10-01

    The momentum distribution function n(k) of the electron gas is calculated in the effective-potential-expansion method at metallic densities. The recently established self-consistency relation between n(k) and the correlation energy [Y. Takada and T. Kita, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 25 (1991)] is employed to check the accuracy of our results. This check shows that the effective-potential-expansion method provides probably the exact and at least more accurate results of n(k) than all the other methods that have given n(k) thus far.

  8. Constructing velocity distributions in crossed-molecular beam studies using Fourier Transform Doppler Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monge, Josue Roberto

    The goal of our scattering experiments is to derive the distribution the differential cross-section and elucidate the dynamics of a bimolecular collision via pure rotational spectroscopy. We have explored the use of a data reduction model to directly transform rotational line shapes into the differential cross section and speed distribution of a reactive bimolecular collision. This inversion technique, known as Fourier Transform Doppler Spectroscopy (FTDS), initially developed by James Kinsey, deconvolves the velocity information contained in one-dimensional Doppler Profiles to construct the non-thermal, state-selective three-dimensional velocity distribution. By employing an expansion in classical orthogonal polynomials, the integral transform in FTDS can be simplified into a set of purely algebraic expressions technique; i.e. the Taatjes method. In this investigation, we extend the Taatjes method for general use in recovering asymmetric velocity distributions. We have also constructed a hypothetical asymmetric distribution from adiabatic scattering in Argon-Argon to test the general method. The angle- and speed-components of the sample distribution were derived classically from a Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, with collisions at 60 meV, and mapped onto Radon space to generate a set of discrete Doppler profiles. The sample distribution was reconstructed from these profiles using FTDS. Both distributions were compared along with derived total cross sections for the Argon--Argon system. This study serves as a template for constructing velocity distributions from bimolecular scattering experiments using the FTDS inversion technique.

  9. Metal-induced rapid transformation of diamond into single and multilayer graphene on wafer scale

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Diana; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Narayanan, Badri; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Yan, Zhong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Zinovev, Alexander; Rosenmann, Daniel; Sumant, Anirudha V.

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of intrinsic properties of graphene during the transfer process constitutes a major challenge in graphene device fabrication, stimulating the need for direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates. Previous attempts of metal-induced transformation of diamond and silicon carbide into graphene suffers from metal contamination and inability to scale graphene growth over large area. Here, we introduce a direct approach to transform polycrystalline diamond into high-quality graphene layers on wafer scale (4 inch in diameter) using a rapid thermal annealing process facilitated by a nickel, Ni thin film catalyst on top. We show that the process can be tuned to grow single or multilayer graphene with good electronic properties. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanism of graphene growth on polycrystalline diamond. In addition, we demonstrate the lateral growth of free-standing graphene over micron-sized pre-fabricated holes, opening exciting opportunities for future graphene/diamond-based electronics. PMID:27373740

  10. Metal-induced rapid transformation of diamond into single and multilayer graphene on wafer scale.

    PubMed

    Berman, Diana; Deshmukh, Sanket A; Narayanan, Badri; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Yan, Zhong; Balandin, Alexander A; Zinovev, Alexander; Rosenmann, Daniel; Sumant, Anirudha V

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of intrinsic properties of graphene during the transfer process constitutes a major challenge in graphene device fabrication, stimulating the need for direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates. Previous attempts of metal-induced transformation of diamond and silicon carbide into graphene suffers from metal contamination and inability to scale graphene growth over large area. Here, we introduce a direct approach to transform polycrystalline diamond into high-quality graphene layers on wafer scale (4 inch in diameter) using a rapid thermal annealing process facilitated by a nickel, Ni thin film catalyst on top. We show that the process can be tuned to grow single or multilayer graphene with good electronic properties. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanism of graphene growth on polycrystalline diamond. In addition, we demonstrate the lateral growth of free-standing graphene over micron-sized pre-fabricated holes, opening exciting opportunities for future graphene/diamond-based electronics. PMID:27373740

  11. Metal-induced rapid transformation of diamond into single and multilayer graphene on wafer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Diana; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Narayanan, Badri; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Yan, Zhong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Zinovev, Alexander; Rosenmann, Daniel; Sumant, Anirudha V.

    2016-07-01

    The degradation of intrinsic properties of graphene during the transfer process constitutes a major challenge in graphene device fabrication, stimulating the need for direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates. Previous attempts of metal-induced transformation of diamond and silicon carbide into graphene suffers from metal contamination and inability to scale graphene growth over large area. Here, we introduce a direct approach to transform polycrystalline diamond into high-quality graphene layers on wafer scale (4 inch in diameter) using a rapid thermal annealing process facilitated by a nickel, Ni thin film catalyst on top. We show that the process can be tuned to grow single or multilayer graphene with good electronic properties. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanism of graphene growth on polycrystalline diamond. In addition, we demonstrate the lateral growth of free-standing graphene over micron-sized pre-fabricated holes, opening exciting opportunities for future graphene/diamond-based electronics.

  12. Pressure-induced Transformations of Dense Carbonyl Sulfide to Singly Bonded Amorphous Metallic Solid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minseob; Dias, Ranga; Ohishi, Yasuo; Matsuoka, Takehiro; Chen, Jing-Yin; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The application of pressure, internal or external, transforms molecular solids into non-molecular extended network solids with diverse crystal structures and electronic properties. These transformations can be understood in terms of pressure-induced electron delocalization; however, the governing mechanisms are complex because of strong lattice strains, phase metastability and path dependent phase behaviors. Here, we present the pressure-induced transformations of linear OCS (R3m, Phase I) to bent OCS (Cm, Phase II) at 9 GPa; an amorphous, one-dimensional (1D) polymer at 20 GPa (Phase III); and an extended 3D network above ~35 GPa (Phase IV) that metallizes at ~105 GPa. These results underscore the significance of long-range dipole interactions in dense OCS, leading to an extended molecular alloy that can be considered a chemical intermediate of its two end members, CO2 and CS2. PMID:27527241

  13. Pressure-induced Transformations of Dense Carbonyl Sulfide to Singly Bonded Amorphous Metallic Solid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minseob; Dias, Ranga; Ohishi, Yasuo; Matsuoka, Takehiro; Chen, Jing-Yin; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The application of pressure, internal or external, transforms molecular solids into non-molecular extended network solids with diverse crystal structures and electronic properties. These transformations can be understood in terms of pressure-induced electron delocalization; however, the governing mechanisms are complex because of strong lattice strains, phase metastability and path dependent phase behaviors. Here, we present the pressure-induced transformations of linear OCS (R3m, Phase I) to bent OCS (Cm, Phase II) at 9 GPa; an amorphous, one-dimensional (1D) polymer at 20 GPa (Phase III); and an extended 3D network above ~35 GPa (Phase IV) that metallizes at ~105 GPa. These results underscore the significance of long-range dipole interactions in dense OCS, leading to an extended molecular alloy that can be considered a chemical intermediate of its two end members, CO2 and CS2. PMID:27527241

  14. Pressure-induced Transformations of Dense Carbonyl Sulfide to Singly Bonded Amorphous Metallic Solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minseob; Dias, Ranga; Ohishi, Yasuo; Matsuoka, Takehiro; Chen, Jing-Yin; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2016-08-01

    The application of pressure, internal or external, transforms molecular solids into non-molecular extended network solids with diverse crystal structures and electronic properties. These transformations can be understood in terms of pressure-induced electron delocalization; however, the governing mechanisms are complex because of strong lattice strains, phase metastability and path dependent phase behaviors. Here, we present the pressure-induced transformations of linear OCS (R3m, Phase I) to bent OCS (Cm, Phase II) at 9 GPa an amorphous, one-dimensional (1D) polymer at 20 GPa (Phase III); and an extended 3D network above ~35 GPa (Phase IV) that metallizes at ~105 GPa. These results underscore the significance of long-range dipole interactions in dense OCS, leading to an extended molecular alloy that can be considered a chemical intermediate of its two end members, CO2 and CS2.

  15. [Effects of stabilization treatment on migration and transformation of heavy metals in mineral waste residues].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Pan, Wei-Bin; Peng, Xiao-Chun; Che, Rong; Ou, Ying-Juan; Lei, Guo-Jian; Zhou, Ding

    2014-04-01

    Different forms of heavy metals in soil will produce different environmental effects, and will directly influence the toxicity, migration and bioavailability of heavy metals. This study used lime, fly ash, dried sludge, peanut shells as stabilizers in the treatment of heavy metals in mineral waste residues. Morphological analyses of heavy metal, leaching experiments, potted plant experiments were carried out to analyze the migration and transformation of heavy metals. The results showed that after adding stabilizers, the pH of the acidic mineral waste residues increased to more than neutral, and the organic matter content increased significantly. The main existing forms of As, Pb, and Zn in the mineral waste residues were the residual. The contents of exchangeable and organic matter-bound As decreased by 65.6% and 87.7% respectively after adding fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shells. Adding lime, fly ash and peanut shells promoted the transformation of As from the Fe-Mn oxide-bound to the carbonate-bound, and adding lime and fly ash promoted the transformation of Pb and Zn from the exchangeable, Fe-Mn oxide-bound, organic matter-bound to the residual. After the early stage of the stabilization treatment, the contents of As, Pb and Zn in the leachate had varying degrees of decline, and adding peanut shells could reduce the contents of As, Pb and Zn in the leachate further. Among them, the content of As decreased most significantly after treatment with fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shells, with a decline of 57.4%. After treatment with lime, fly ash and peanut shells, the content of Zn decreased most significantly, by 24.9%. The addition of stabilizers was advantageous to the germination and growth of plants. The combination of fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shell produced the best effect, and the Vetiveria zizanioides germination rate reached 76% in the treated wasted mineral residues.

  16. A general purpose subroutine for fast fourier transform on a distributed memory parallel machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, A.; Zubair, M.; Grosch, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    One issue which is central in developing a general purpose Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) subroutine on a distributed memory parallel machine is the data distribution. It is possible that different users would like to use the FFT routine with different data distributions. Thus, there is a need to design FFT schemes on distributed memory parallel machines which can support a variety of data distributions. An FFT implementation on a distributed memory parallel machine which works for a number of data distributions commonly encountered in scientific applications is presented. The problem of rearranging the data after computing the FFT is also addressed. The performance of the implementation on a distributed memory parallel machine Intel iPSC/860 is evaluated.

  17. Chemical transformation of toxic metals by a Psuedomonas strain from a toxic waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Choate, D.; Blake, R.; Revis, N. Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN )

    1991-03-11

    Pseudomonas maltophilia, 0-2, isolated from soil at a toxic waste site in Oak Ridge, TN, catalyzed the transformation and precipitation of numerous toxic metal cations and oxyanions. When a viable inoculum (1%) of 0-2 was introduced into LB broth containing 0.2 mM Hg(II), 1 mM Cr(VI), 40 mM Se(IV), 3 mM Pb(II), 3mM Au(III), 3mM Cd(II), 10mM Te(IV), or 4mM Ag(I), effective removal of the toxic metal was complete within 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 4, 5, and 7 days, respectively. The NADPH-dependent reduction of Hg(II) was catalyzed by an inducible mercuric reductase. The reduction of selenite and tellurite to their insoluble elemental forms appeared to be mediated by an intracellular glutathione reductase that utilized the spontaneously-formed bis(glutathio)Se or bis(glutathio)Te, respectively, as pseudosubstrates. The biomolecules responsible for the remaining metal transformations are currently under investigation. This project could provide useful information toward the eventual exploitation of P. maltophilia and related organisms for the removal of toxic metal wastes from selected, heavily polluted sites.

  18. Role of Oxalic Acid Overexcretion in Transformations of Toxic Metal Minerals by Beauveria caledonica

    PubMed Central

    Fomina, M.; Hillier, S.; Charnock, J. M.; Melville, K.; Alexander, I. J.; Gadd, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Beauveria caledonica was highly tolerant to toxic metals and solubilized cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc minerals, converting them into oxalates. This fungus was found to overexcrete organic acids with strong metal-chelating properties (oxalic and citric acids), suggesting that a ligand-promoted mechanism was the main mechanism of mineral dissolution. Our data also suggested that oxalic acid was the main mineral-transforming agent. Cadmium, copper, and zinc oxalates were precipitated by the fungus in the local environment and also in association with the mycelium. The presence of toxic metal minerals often led to the formation of mycelial cords, and in the presence of copper-containing minerals, these cords exhibited enhanced excretion of oxalic acid, which resulted in considerable encrustation of the cords by copper oxalate hydrate (moolooite). It was found that B. caledonica hyphae and cords were covered by a thick hydrated mucilaginous sheath which provided a microenvironment for chemical reactions, crystal deposition, and growth. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed that mycogenic metal oxalates overgrew parental fungal hyphae, leaving a labyrinth of fungal tunnels within the newly formed mineral matter. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that oxygen ligands played a major role in metal coordination within the fungal biomass during the accumulation of mobilized toxic metals by B. caledonica mycelium; these ligands were carboxylic groups in copper phosphate-containing medium and phosphate groups in pyromorphite-containing medium. PMID:15640211

  19. Experimental characterization of shear transformation zones for plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Pan, D.; Inoue, A.; Sakurai, T.; Chen, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    We report experimental characterization of shear transformation zones (STZs) for plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) based on a newly developed cooperative shearing model [Johnson WL, Samwer K (2005) A universal criterion for plastic yielding of metallic glasses with a (T/Tg)2/3 temperature dependence. Phys Rev Lett 95: 195501]. The good agreement between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions in the STZ volumes provides compelling evidence that the plastic flow of metallic glasses occurs through cooperative shearing of unstable STZs activated by shear stresses. Moreover, the ductility of BMGs was found to intrinsically correlate with their STZ volumes. The experiments presented herein pave a way to gain a quantitative insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of BMG mechanical behavior. PMID:18815377

  20. Influence of early diagenesis on the vertical distribution of metal forms in sediments of Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Honglei; Xing, Meinan; Shao, Xiaolong; Zhao, Feng; Li, Xiaojuan; Liu, Qiongqiong; Yu, Dan; Yuan, Xuezhu; Yuan, Min

    2014-11-15

    The influence of early diagenesis on the vertical distribution of metal forms in the sediments of Bohai Bay was discussed in this paper. The results showed that the concentrations were: Al > Fe ≈ Ca > Mn > Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. In vertical distribution, the forms of Cr and Pb were stable from the top to the bottom. However, the exchangeable forms and acid-extracted forms of Cd, Cu and Zn presented an obvious declining trend. The metals would be transformed to more stable forms during the early-diagenesis process. Further analysis found that early diagenesis can change the sedimentary environment, affecting pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), total dissolved solid (TDS) and the structure of organic matter (OM), all main factors influencing metal forms in the sediments of Bohai Bay.

  1. Formation of nanostructured Group IIA metal activated sensors: The transformation of Group IIA metal compound sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tune, Travis C.; Baker, Caitlin; Hardy, Neil; Lin, Arthur; Widing, Timothy J.; Gole, James L.

    2015-05-01

    Trends in the Group IIA metal oxides and hydroxides of magnesium, calcium, and barium are unique in the periodic table. In this study we find that they display novel trends as decorating nanostructures for extrinsic semiconductor interfaces. The Group IIA metal ions are strong Lewis acids. We form these M2+ ions in aqueous solution and bring these solutions in contact with a porous silicon interface to form interfaces for conductometric measurements. Observed responses are consistent with the formation of MgO whereas the heavier elements display behaviors which suggest the effect of their more basic nature. Mg(OH)2, when formed, represents a weak base whereas the heavier metal hydroxides of Ca, Sr, and Ba are strong bases. However, the hydroxides tend to give up hydrogen and act as Brönsted acids. For the latter elements, the reversible interaction response of nanostructures deposited to the porous silicon (PS) interface is modified, as the formation of more basic sites appears to compete with M2+ Lewis acidity and hydroxide Brönsted acidity. Mg2+ forms an interface whose response to the analytes NH3 and NO is consistent with MgO and well explained by the recently developing Inverse Hard/Soft Acid/Base model. The behavior of the Ca2+ and Ba2+ decorated interfaces as they interact with the hard base NH3 follows a reversal of the model, indicating a decrease in acidic character as the observed conductometric response suggests the interaction with hydroxyl groups. A change from oxide-like to hydroxide-like constituents is supported by XPS studies. The changes in conductometric response is easily monitored in contrast to changes associated with the Group IIA oxides and hydroxides observed in XPS, EDAX, IR, and NMR measurements.

  2. Transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals during integrated composting-vermicomposting of sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2012-05-01

    Transformation and availability of nutrients and some heavy metals were assessed during the integrated composting-vermicomposting of both primary sewage sludge (PSS) and waste activated sewage sludge (WAS) using matured vermicompost as indigenous bulking material and employing Eisenia fetida as earthworm species. Vermicomposting resulted in significant increase in total N (TN) (PSS: 41.7-64.6%, F=11.6, P<0.05; WAS: 36.4-58.6%, F=6.4, P<0.05), water soluble N (WSN) (PSS: 37.1-50.5%, F=30.1, P<0.05; WAS: 40.1-53.0%, F=27.6, P<0.05), total P (TP) (PSS: 39.9-69.8%, F=27.1, P<0.05; WAS: 32.2-56.6%, F=21.4, P<0.05) and water soluble P (WSP) (PSS: 25.2-34.3%, F=163.9, P<0.05; WAS: 24.1-34.2%, F=144.3, P<0.05) as compared to the initial compost material depending on different experimental conditions. The study demonstrated that the vermicomposting significantly improved the availability of nutrients in sewage sludges. In addition, vermicomposting considerably reduced the availability of heavy metals except Fe and Mn, presumably by forming organic-bound complexes in spite of several fold increase in their total content. The environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity), in general, showed significant effect on the transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals. There was no effect of earthworm density on the transformation and availability of heavy metals and nutrients except N and P, possibly due to prior exposure during acclimation period in sewage sludge. PMID:22277776

  3. Mechanism of Occurring Over-Voltage Phenomena in Distributed Power System on Energization of Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakachi, Yoshiki; Ueda, Fukashi; Kajikawa, Takuya; Amau, Tooru; Kameyama, Hirokazu; Ito, Hisanori

    This paper verifies the mechanism of occurring over voltage phenomena in the distributed power system on energizing the transformer. This over-voltage, which is observed at the actual distributed power system, with heavy inrush current is found to occur at about 0.1-0.2sec after the energizing and continue for a duration of more than 0.1[sec]. There is a concern that this over-voltage may operate the protection relay and deteriorate the insulation of apparatus. It is basically caused by the resonance between the shunt capacitors and saturated/unsaturated magnetizing inductance of transformer, system inductance. By using analytical formulation of a simple equivalent circuit, its mechanism has been verified through simulations carried out by using EMTP. Moreover, the sympathetic interaction between transformers is prolonged the duration of the over-voltage by the field test data is discussed in this paper.

  4. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Enforcement Pt. 429, Subpt. C, App. C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 429—Sampling Plan for...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Enforcement Pt. 429, Subpt. C, App. C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 429—Sampling Plan for...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Enforcement Pt. 429, Subpt. C, App. C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 429—Sampling Plan for...

  7. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  8. Analytical method for distribution of metallic gasket contact stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiu; Gu, Boqing; Wei, Long; Sun, Jianjun

    2008-11-01

    Metallic gasket seals have been widely used in chemical and petrochemical plants. The failure of sealing system will lead to enormous pecuniary loss, serious environment pollution and personal injury accident. The failure of sealing systems is mostly caused not by the strength of flanges or bolts but by the leakage of the connections. The leakage behavior of bolted flanged connections is related to the gasket contact stress. In particular, the non-uniform distribution of this stress in the radial direction caused by the flange rotational flexibility has a major influence on the tightness of bolted flanged connections. In this paper, based on Warters method and considering the operating pressure, the deformation of the flanges is analyzed theoretically, and the formula for calculating the angle of rotation of the flanges is derived, based on which and the mechanical property of the gasket material, the method for calculating the gasket contact stresses is put forward. The maximum stress at the gasket outer flank calculated by the analytical method is lower than that obtained by numerical simulation, but the mean stresses calculated by the two methods are nearly the same. The analytical method presented in this paper can be used as an engineering method for designing the metallic gasket connections.

  9. Impact of radial migration on stellar and gas radial metallicity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, Robert J. J.; Kawata, Daisuke; Cropper, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Radial migration is defined as the change in guiding centre radius of stars and gas caused by gains or losses of angular momentum that result from gravitational interaction with non-axisymmetric structure. This has been shown to have significant impact on the metallicity distribution in galactic discs, and therefore affects the interpretation of Galactic archaeology. We use a simulation of a Milky Way-sized galaxy to examine the effect of radial migration on the star and gas radial metallicity distribution. We find that both the star and gas component show significant radial migration. The stellar radial metallicity gradient remains almost unchanged but the radial metallicity distribution of the stars is broadened to produce a greater dispersion at all radii. However, the metallicity dispersion of the gas remains narrow. We find that the main drivers of the gas metallicity distribution evolution are metal enrichment and mixing: more efficient metal enrichment in the inner region maintains a negative slope in the radial metallicity distribution, and the metal mixing ensures the tight relationship of the gas metallicity with the radius. The metallicity distribution function reproduces the trend in the age-metallicity relation found from observations for stars younger than 1.0 Gyr in the Milky Way.

  10. Phagocytosis and transforming activity of crystalline metal sulfide particles are related to their negative surface charge

    SciTech Connect

    Abbracchio, M.P.; Heck, J.D.; Costa, M.

    1982-01-01

    Crystalline nickel sulfide (alpha NiS) and cobalt sulfide (CoS2) particles can cause greater cell transformation and cellular toxicity than the respective amorphous metal sulfide particles. Cultured mammalian cells phagocytose the crystalline metal sulfide particles more readily than the amorphous ones. In the case of the nickel sulfides, the crystalline metal sulfide particles had negatively charged surfaces (Zeta potential: -27.012 mV) in contrast to the amorphous particles, which were positively charge (Zeta potential: +9.174 mV). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of amorphous and crystalline NiS particles revealed that the outermost surface (1-4 nm) of the two particles had striking differences in Ni/S ratios and in their sulfur oxidation states. Rendering particles' surfaces more negative by reduction with lithium aluminum hydride enhanced their phagocytosis, and in the case of amorphous NiS chemical reduction resulted in an incidence of morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells comparable to that observed with untreated crystalline alpha NiS.

  11. Characterization of Solid State Phase Transformation in Continuously Heated and Cooled Ferritic Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, B; Mills, Michael J.; Specht, Eliot D; Santella, Michael L; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2010-12-01

    Arc welding processes involve cooling rates that vary over a wide range (1-100 K/s). The final microstructire is thus a product of the heating and cooling cycles experienced by the weld in addition to the weld composition. It has been shown that the first phase to form under weld cooling conditions may not be that predicted by equilibrium calculations. The partitioning of different interstitial/substitutional alloying elements at high temperatures can dramatically affect the subsequent phase transformations. In order to understand the effect of alloying on phase transformation temperatures and final microstructures time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique has been successfully used for characterization. The work by Jacot and Rappaz on pearlitic steels provided insight into austenitization of hypoeutectic steels using a finite volume model. However there is very little work done on the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation paths in bainitic/martensitic steels and weld metals. Previous work on a weld with higher aluminum content, deposited with a FCAW-S process indicated that even at aluminum levels where the primary phase to solidify from liquid should be delta ferrite, non-equilibrium austenite was observed. The presence of inhomogeneity in composition of the parent microstructure has been attributed to differences in transformation modes, temperatures and microstructures in dual-phase, TRIP steels and ferritic welds. The objectives of the work included the identification of the stability regions of different phases during heating and cooling, differences in the effect of weld heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation temperatures, and the variation in phase fractions of austenite and ferrite in the two phase regions as a function of temperature. The base composition used for the present work is a Fe-1%Al-2%Mn-1%Ni-0.04%C weld metal. A pseudo-binary phase diagram shows the expected solidification path under equilibrium

  12. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  13. Carcinogenic potential of metal nanoparticles in BALB/3T3 cell transformation assay.

    PubMed

    Sighinolfi, G L; Artoni, E; Gatti, A M; Corsi, L

    2016-05-01

    Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs), are currently used in many application fields including consumer products, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical treatments. In spite to their wide applications, an in-depth study of their potential toxic effects is still lacking. The aim of the present research was to investigate the potential initiator or promoter-like activity of different metallic NPs such as gold, iron, cobalt, and cerium using the Balb/3T3 two-stage transformation assay. The results indicated that all the selected metallic NPs, except for cobalt, when used as initiators did not induce any transformation in Balb/3T3 cell line. Moreover, Au and Fe3 O4 NPs, when used in place of the tumor promoter treatment TPA, increased significantly the number of Foci/dish as compared to the MCA treatment alone. The number of Foci/dish was 2.6 for Au NPs and 2.13 for Fe3 O4 ones, similar to those obtained by the positive control treatment (MCA + TPA), whereas 1.27 for MCA treatment alone. On the contrary, CeO2 NPs did not show any difference in the number of Foci/dish, as compared to MCA alone, but it decreased the number of foci by 65% in comparison to the positive control (MCA + TPA). As expected, cobalt NPs showed an increased cytotoxicity and only a few surviving cells were found at the time of analysis showing a number of Foci/dish of 0.13. For the first time, our data clearly showed that Au and Fe3 O4 NPs act as promoters in the two stage transformational assay, suggesting the importance to fully investigate the NPs carcinogenic potential with different models. PMID:25358123

  14. Atmospheric mass and metal size distributions measured around Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Seung-Muk Yi; Sofuoglu, S.C.; Holsen, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    This study, which was part of a multi-university AEOLOS investigation, involved an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in the dry deposition fluxes and mass size distributions (MSDs) of total mass, crustal (aluminum and magnesium), and anthropogenic (lead and copper) metals over the southern basin of Lake Michigan. The work included measurement of deposition fluxes and MSDs during winter, summer and fall, concurrently, in Chicago, IL, over Lake Michigan, and in South Haven, MI. A Cascade impactor was used to determine the size distribution in the fine particles (<2.5 {mu}m), while Noll Rotary Impactor (NRI) was used to collect coarse particles (>2.5 {mu}m). The flux of these metals was substantially higher in Chicago than at either South Haven or over Lake Michigan. The measured average aluminum and magnesium fluxes were 2.23 and 5.32 mg/m{sup 2}-day over Chicago, and 0.24 and 0.28 mg/m{sup 2}-day over Lake Michigan, while the average aluminum and magnesium fluxes in South Haven were 0.17 and 0.12 mg/m{sup 2}-day respectively. The measured average lead and copper fluxes were 0.07 and 0.06 mg/m{sup 2}-day in Chicago, 0.003 and 0.01 mg/m{sup 2}-day over Lake Michigan, and 0.004 and 0.003 mg/m{sup 2}-day in South Haven. This research provided evidence of three possible peaks in the MSDs: the first in the 0-1 {mu}m range, the second in the 1-10 {mu}m region, and the third in the > 10-50 {mu}m range, with the MSDs being unimodal, bimodal or trimodal. Temporal variations in flux were not evident in this study. The wind direction (e.g., from over land, or from over lake) had large impact on both fluxes and size distributions. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Experimental determination of the MHD-EMP effects on power distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. ); Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX )

    1991-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that geomagnetic storms influence electrical power transmission and distribution systems. Previous cases of such storms in the northern latitudes have resulted in occasional power disruptions, and in some cases, damage to transformers. These effects are caused by a time variation of the earth's magnetic field creating an induced electric field along the surface of the earth. This E-field acts as a voltage source along long power transmission or distribution lines, and if the line is connected to the earth at both ends, a quasi-dc current can flow. This current can cause unwanted saturation in the magnetic cores of transformers in the power system, and this, in turn produces harmonic distortion and transformer heating. This can lead to system upset (shutdown) and possibly transformer burn-out. The detonation of a high altitude nuclear explosion is also known to affect the magnetosphere, producing late-time variations of the earth's magnetic field for several hundreds of seconds. Known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), or E{sub 3}, this environment is of particular concern to electrical power systems in the event of a nuclear attack. Although the MHD-EMP induced currents can be significantly larger in magnitude, they last for a shorter period of time than do those from a geomagnetic storm. The effect of this environment compounds the adverse effects of the early-time high altitude EMP (HEMP) environment, posing a potentially serious threat to the electrical system. The present paper documents an experimental program designed to better understand the behavior of distribution-class transformers subjected to quasi-dc current excitation. Given the knowledge of the MHD-EMP-induced current flowing in a long power line, and the transformer response characteristics obtained in this program, it will be possible to make more accurate assessments of the behavior of the overall power system to EMP. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Effects of Metal Oxides on a Fungal Laccase Activity and Catechol Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, M.; Dec, J.; Bollag, J.

    2003-12-01

    The transformation of naturally occurring phenols to humic polymers is generally catalyzed by various phenoloxidases commonly present in soil. Some poorly crystalline metal oxides and hydroxides may also participate in these reactions. In this study, catechol (0.1 M) was incubated with a fungal laccase (950 unit/mL) in the presence of poorly crystalline minerals (ferrihydrite; 50 mg/mL: birnessite; 1 mg/mL: aluminum hydroxide; 50 mg/mL) to examine the interaction between these soil components under field conditions. Birnessite had an inhibitory effect on the laccase-mediated transformation of catechol (by up to 40%). Enzyme inhibition was possibly caused by the rapid production of humic-like polymers by birnessite. An additional inhibitory effect was caused by Manganese ion released from birnessite as it oxidized catechol (up to 70% loss in enzyme activity). In contrast to birnessite, aluminum hydroxide had an additive effect on the disappearance of catechol despite the rapid adsorption of the enzyme by this mineral (Xm=6.18μ g/mg). Apparently, the adsorbed laccase retained some enzyme activity. Ferrihydrite also had an additive effect on catechol transformation. However, as compared to aluminum hydroxide, ferrihydrite adsorbed less laccase (Xm=0.89μ g/mg) and more humic-like polymers. Unlike birnessite, aluminum hydroxide and ferrihydrite released negligible amounts of metal ions. In conclusion, under field conditions, phenoloxidase activity may be diminished by the presence of birnessite, but the presence of either ferrihydrite or aluminum hydroxide is less likely to inhibit enzyme activity, and may even enhance substrate transformation.

  17. Influence of phase transformation on stress evolution during growth of metal thin films on silicon.

    PubMed

    Fillon, A; Abadias, G; Michel, A; Jaouen, C; Villechaise, P

    2010-03-01

    In situ stress measurements during two-dimensional growth of low mobility metal films on amorphous Si were used to demonstrate the impact of interface reactivity and phase transformation on stress evolution. Using Mo1-xSix films as examples, the results show that the tensile stress rise, which develops after the film has become crystalline, is correlated with an increase in lateral grain size. The origin of the tensile stress is attributed to the volume change resulting from the alloy crystallization, which occurs at a concentration-dependent critical thickness. PMID:20366996

  18. The origin of transformation textures in steel weld metals containing acicular ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluken, A. O.; Grong, Ø.; Hjelen, J.

    1991-03-01

    The present investigation is concerned with basic studies of the development of transformation textures in steel weld metals, using the electron backscattering pattern (EBSP) technique. It is shown that the acicular ferrite (AF) plates exhibit an orientation relationship with both the austenite and the prior delta ferrite columnar grains in which they grow. The observed orientation relationship lies within the Bain orientation region and can be described by three texture components, i.e., a <100> component and two complementary <111> components. Each of these texture components is orientated approximately parallel with the original cell/dendrite growth direction. Measurements of the spatial misorientation between neighboring plates confirm that the morphology of AF in low-alloy steel weld metals bears a close resemblance to upper bainite.

  19. Surface-Emitting Distributed Feedback Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers in Metal-Metal Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Williams, Benjamin S.; Qin, Qi; Lee, Alan W. M.; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Single-mode surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantumcascade lasers operating around 2.9 THz are developed in metal-metal waveguides. A combination of techniques including precise control of phase of reflection at the facets, and u e of metal on the sidewalls to eliminate higher-order lateral modes allow robust single-mode operation over a range of approximately 0.35 THz. Single-lobed far-field radiation pattern is obtained using a pi phase-shift in center of the second-order Bragg grating. A grating device operating at 2.93 THz lased up to 149 K in pulsed mode and a temperature tuning of 19 .7 GHz was observed from 5 K to 147 K. The same device lased up to 78 K in continuous-wave (cw) mode emitting more than 6 m W of cw power at 5 K. ln general, maximum temperature of pulsed operation for grating devices was within a few Kelvin of that of multi-mode Fabry-Perot ridge lasers

  20. Transform-limited pulses generated by an actively Q-switched distributed fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Pérez-Millán, P; Andrés, M V; Díez, A; Cruz, J L; Barmenkov, Yu O

    2008-11-15

    A single-mode, transform-limited, actively Q-switched distributed-feedback fiber laser is presented, based on a new in-line acoustic pulse generator. Our technique permits a continuous adjustment of the repetition rate that modulates the Q factor of the cavity. Optical pulses of 800 mW peak power, 32 ns temporal width, and up to 20 kHz repetition rates were obtained. The measured linewidth demonstrates that these pulses are transform limited: 6 MHz for a train of pulses of 10 kHz repetition rate, 80 ns temporal width, and 60 mW peak power. Efficient excitation of spontaneous Brillouin scattering is demonstrated.

  1. Understanding Dissolved and Colloidal Metal Transport and Transformation - Pathways for Aquatic Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, B. A.; Besser, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    transformation. Both processes lead to an enrichment of both copper and zinc in the mineral and algal coatings of cobbles and bed sediments where these metals enter the food web through benthic grazing, but the fates of these metals in stream food webs differ substantially. Zinc accumulates to high concentrations in grazing invertebrates but concentrations are substantially lower in higher-order consumers, whereas copper is passed more efficiently to higher order consumers and may pose risks of dietary toxicity to fish. Although this example addresses streams affected by mine drainage, these processes could be active and significant in many other settings where iron or other colloidal transport occurs.

  2. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. ); Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Schafer, D.A. )

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This smoking neutral'' results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  3. Managing changes in distributed biomedical ontologies using hierarchical distributed graph transformation.

    PubMed

    Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Haarslev, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The issue of ontology evolution and change management is inadequately addressed by available tools and algorithms, mostly due to the lack of suitable knowledge representation formalisms to deal with temporal abstract notations and the overreliance on human factors. Also most of the current approaches have been focused on changes within the internal structure of ontologies and interactions with other existing ontologies have been widely neglected. In our research, after revealing and classifying some of the common alterations in a number of popular biomedical ontologies, we present a novel agent-based framework, Represent, Legitimate and Reproduce (RLR), to semi-automatically manage the evolution of bio-ontologies, with emphasis on the FungalWeb Ontology, with minimal human intervention. RLR assists and guides ontology engineers through the change management process in general and aids in tracking and representing the changes, particularly through the use of category theory and hierarchical graph transformation.

  4. Managing changes in distributed biomedical ontologies using hierarchical distributed graph transformation.

    PubMed

    Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Haarslev, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The issue of ontology evolution and change management is inadequately addressed by available tools and algorithms, mostly due to the lack of suitable knowledge representation formalisms to deal with temporal abstract notations and the overreliance on human factors. Also most of the current approaches have been focused on changes within the internal structure of ontologies and interactions with other existing ontologies have been widely neglected. In our research, after revealing and classifying some of the common alterations in a number of popular biomedical ontologies, we present a novel agent-based framework, Represent, Legitimate and Reproduce (RLR), to semi-automatically manage the evolution of bio-ontologies, with emphasis on the FungalWeb Ontology, with minimal human intervention. RLR assists and guides ontology engineers through the change management process in general and aids in tracking and representing the changes, particularly through the use of category theory and hierarchical graph transformation. PMID:26255376

  5. Encapsulation of metal clusters within MFI via interzeolite transformations and direct hydrothermal syntheses and catalytic consequences of their confinement.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sarika; Zones, Stacey I; Iglesia, Enrique

    2014-10-29

    The encapsulation of metal clusters (Pt, Ru, Rh) within MFI was achieved by exchanging cationic metal precursors into a parent zeolite (BEA, FAU), reducing them with H2 to form metal clusters, and transforming these zeolites into daughter structures of higher framework density (MFI) under hydrothermal conditions. These transformations required MFI seeds or organic templates for FAU parent zeolites, but not for BEA, and occurred with the retention of encapsulated clusters. Clusters uniform in size (1.3-1.7 nm) and exposing clean and accessible surfaces formed in BEA and FAU zeolites; their size remained essentially unchanged upon transformation into MFI. Encapsulation selectivities, determined from the relative hydrogenation rates of small (toluene) and large (alkyl arenes) molecules and defined as the ratio of the surface areas of all the clusters in the sample to that of external clusters, were very high (8.1-40.9) for both parent and daughter zeolites. Encapsulation into MFI via direct hydrothermal syntheses was unsuccessful because metal precursors precipitated prematurely at the pH and temperatures required for MFI synthesis. Delayed introduction of metal precursors and F(-) (instead of OH(-)) as the mineralizing agent in hydrothermal syntheses increased encapsulation selectivities, but they remained lower than those achieved via interzeolite transformations. These interconversions provide a general and robust strategy for encapsulation of metals when precursors can be introduced via exchange into a zeolite that can be transformed into target daughter zeolites with higher framework densities, whether spontaneously or by using seeds or structure-directing agents (SDA).

  6. Low temperature phase transformations in the metallic phases of iron and stony-iron meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, K.B.; Williams, D.B.; Goldstein, J.I. )

    1988-03-01

    Analytical electron microscopy techniques were used to determine the Ni content and structure of kamacite and decomposed taenite (clear taenite 1 (tetrataenite), the cloudy zone, and clear taenite 2) in the metallic phases of meteorites. Clear taenite 1 contains 51.4-45.6 {plus minus} 1.3 wt% Ni and is ordered FeNi with three variants of the L1{sub 0} superstructure. The structure formed by an order/disorder transformation below 320{degree}C. The cloudy zone formed through spinodal decomposition resulting in a two-phase structure consisting of a globular phase and a surrounding honeycomb phase. The globular phase contains 50.9 {plus minus} 1.4 wt% Ni and is ordered FeNi; the honeycomb contains 11.7 {plus minus} 0.5 wt% Ni and is martensite. Clear taenite 2 contains 25.8 to 28.1 wt% Ni and may be ordered Fe{sub 3}Ni with the L1{sub 2} superstructure. Clear taenite 2 was found in all of the iron meteorite groups studied and in the pallasites, but not in the mesosiderites. Using this chemical and structural information, and a newly determined Fe-Ni phase diagram, a better understanding of the low temperature transformations in the metallic regions of meteorites has been obtained.

  7. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals.

    PubMed

    Han, J J; Wang, C P; Liu, X J; Wang, Y; Liu, Z-K; Zhang, T-Y; Jiang, J Z

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 10(11)-16.6 × 10(11) K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate. PMID:26939584

  8. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals

    PubMed Central

    Han, J. J.; Wang, C. P.; Liu, X. J.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z.-K.; Zhang, T.-Y.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 1011–16.6 × 1011 K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate. PMID:26939584

  9. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. J.; Wang, C. P.; Liu, X. J.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z.-K.; Zhang, T.-Y.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 1011–16.6 × 1011 K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate.

  10. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reaction and Transformation of Hg and Trace Metals in Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. Helble; Clara Smith; David Miller

    2009-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to produce a working dynamic model to predict the transformation and partitioning of trace metals resulting from combustion of a broad range of fuels. The information provided from this model will be instrumental in efforts to identify fuels and conditions that can be varied to reduce metal emissions. Through the course of this project, it was determined that mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) would be the focus of the experimental investigation. Experiments were therefore conducted to examine homogeneous and heterogeneous mercury oxidation pathways, and to assess potential interactions between arsenic and calcium. As described in this report, results indicated that the role of SO{sub 2} on Hg oxidation was complex and depended upon overall gas phase chemistry, that iron oxide (hematite) particles contributed directly to heterogeneous Hg oxidation, and that As-Ca interactions occurred through both gas-solid and within-char reaction pathways. Modeling based on this study indicated that, depending upon coal type and fly ash particle size, vaporization-condensation, vaporization-surface reaction, and As-CaO in-char reaction all play a role in arsenic transformations under combustion conditions.

  11. Numerical Simulations of the Metallicity Distribution in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Ripamonti, Emanuele; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Battaglia, G.; Abel, T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-12-12

    Recent observations show that the number of stars with very low metallicities in the dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way is low, despite the low average metallicities of stars in these systems. We undertake numerical simulations of star formation and metal enrichment of dwarf galaxies in order to verify whether this result can be reproduced with ''standard'' assumptions. The answer is likely to be negative, unless some selection bias against very low metallicity stars is present in the observations.

  12. A Visual Insight into the Degradation of Metals Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using AFM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the fundamental corrosion and passivation of metallic copper used in drinking water distribution materials is important in understanding the overall mechanism of the corrosion process. Copper pipes are widely used for drinking water distribution systems and although it...

  13. Distributed edge detection algorithm based on wavelet transform for wireless video sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiulin; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Wang, Dongsheng

    2010-12-01

    Edge detection algorithms are critical to image processing and computer vision. Traditional edge detection algorithms are not suitable for wireless video sensor network (WVSN) in which the nodes are with in limited calculation capability and resources. In this paper, a distributed edge detection algorithm based on wavelet transform designed for WVSN is proposed. Wavelet transform decompose the image into several parts, then the parts are assigned to different nodes through wireless network separately. Each node performs sub-image edge detecting algorithm correspondingly, all the results are sent to sink node, Fusing and Synthesis which include image binary and edge connect are executed in it. And finally output the edge image. Lifting scheme and parallel distributed algorithm are adopted to improve the efficiency, simultaneously, decrease the computational complexity. Experimental results show that this method could achieve higher efficiency and better result.

  14. Distributed edge detection algorithm based on wavelet transform for wireless video sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiulin; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-05-01

    Edge detection algorithms are critical to image processing and computer vision. Traditional edge detection algorithms are not suitable for wireless video sensor network (WVSN) in which the nodes are with in limited calculation capability and resources. In this paper, a distributed edge detection algorithm based on wavelet transform designed for WVSN is proposed. Wavelet transform decompose the image into several parts, then the parts are assigned to different nodes through wireless network separately. Each node performs sub-image edge detecting algorithm correspondingly, all the results are sent to sink node, Fusing and Synthesis which include image binary and edge connect are executed in it. And finally output the edge image. Lifting scheme and parallel distributed algorithm are adopted to improve the efficiency, simultaneously, decrease the computational complexity. Experimental results show that this method could achieve higher efficiency and better result.

  15. Number density distribution of solvent molecules on a substrate: a transform theory for atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Amano, Ken-Ichi; Liang, Yunfeng; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Hashimoto, Kota; Fukami, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Naoya; Sakka, Tetsuo; Onishi, Hiroshi; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2016-06-21

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquids can measure a force curve between a probe and a buried substrate. The shape of the measured force curve is related to hydration structure on the substrate. However, until now, there has been no practical theory that can transform the force curve into the hydration structure, because treatment of the liquid confined between the probe and the substrate is a difficult problem. Here, we propose a robust and practical transform theory, which can generate the number density distribution of solvent molecules on a substrate from the force curve. As an example, we analyzed a force curve measured by using our high-resolution AFM with a newly fabricated ultrashort cantilever. It is demonstrated that the hydration structure on muscovite mica (001) surface can be reproduced from the force curve by using the transform theory. The transform theory will enhance AFM's ability and support structural analyses of solid/liquid interfaces. By using the transform theory, the effective diameter of a real probe apex is also obtained. This result will be important for designing a model probe of molecular scale simulations.

  16. Wigner-Ville distribution and Gabor transform in Doppler ultrasound signal processing.

    PubMed

    Ghofrani, S; Ayatollahi, A; Shamsollahi, M B

    2003-01-01

    Time-frequency distributions have been used extensively for nonstationary signal analysis, they describe how the frequency content of a signal is changing in time. The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) is the best known. The draw back of WVD is cross-term artifacts. An alternative to the WVD is Gabor transform (GT), a signal decomposition method, which displays the time-frequency energy of a signal on a joint t-f plane without generating considerable cross-terms. In this paper the WVD and GT of ultrasound echo signals are computed analytically.

  17. [Influence of sulfur on the speciation transformation and phyto-availability of heavy metals in soil: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Juan; Duan, De-Chao; Peng, Cheng; He, Jun-Yu; Shi, Ji-Yan

    2014-07-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of sulfur can directly affect the speciation transformation of heavy metals in soils and their accumulation in plants. The toxicity of heavy metals in plants can be alleviated by their complexation with sulfur compounds like phytochelatins or metallothiones, consisting of the major mechanisms of phytodetoxification. Sulfur deficiency is becoming one of the limiting factors that influence Chinese agricultural production. Although the applications of sulfur fertilizer in soil have received much attention in recent years, the interaction mechanism of heavy metal with sulfur metabolism has not been studied extensively. In this paper, we reviewed current research advance on the impact of sulfur on the speciation transformation of soil heavy metals and their accumulation in plants, discussed the effect of sulfur on the detoxification mechanism of heavy metal in plants and provided further research prospective in this field. PMID:25345069

  18. [Influence of sulfur on the speciation transformation and phyto-availability of heavy metals in soil: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Juan; Duan, De-Chao; Peng, Cheng; He, Jun-Yu; Shi, Ji-Yan

    2014-07-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of sulfur can directly affect the speciation transformation of heavy metals in soils and their accumulation in plants. The toxicity of heavy metals in plants can be alleviated by their complexation with sulfur compounds like phytochelatins or metallothiones, consisting of the major mechanisms of phytodetoxification. Sulfur deficiency is becoming one of the limiting factors that influence Chinese agricultural production. Although the applications of sulfur fertilizer in soil have received much attention in recent years, the interaction mechanism of heavy metal with sulfur metabolism has not been studied extensively. In this paper, we reviewed current research advance on the impact of sulfur on the speciation transformation of soil heavy metals and their accumulation in plants, discussed the effect of sulfur on the detoxification mechanism of heavy metal in plants and provided further research prospective in this field.

  19. Species-range size distributions: products of speciation, extinction and transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, K. J.

    1998-01-01

    One basic summary of the spatial pattern of biodiversity across the surface of the Earth is provided by a species-range size distribution, the frequency distribution of the numbers of species exhibiting geographic ranges of different sizes. Although widely considered to be approximately lognormal, increasingly it appears that across a variety of groups of organisms this distribution systematically departs from such a form. Whatever its detailed shape, however, the distribution must arise as a product of three processes, speciation, extinction and transformation (the temporal dynamics of the range sizes of species during their life times). Considering the role potentially played by each of these processes necessitates drawing on information from a diverse array of research fields, and highlights the possible role of geographic range size as a common currency uniting them.

  20. Entropy-based heavy tailed distribution transformation and visual analytics for monitoring massive network traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Keesook J.; Hodge, Matthew; Ross, Virginia W.

    2011-06-01

    For monitoring network traffic, there is an enormous cost in collecting, storing, and analyzing network traffic datasets. Data mining based network traffic analysis has a growing interest in the cyber security community, but is computationally expensive for finding correlations between attributes in massive network traffic datasets. To lower the cost and reduce computational complexity, it is desirable to perform feasible statistical processing on effective reduced datasets instead of on the original full datasets. Because of the dynamic behavior of network traffic, traffic traces exhibit mixtures of heavy tailed statistical distributions or overdispersion. Heavy tailed network traffic characterization and visualization are important and essential tasks to measure network performance for the Quality of Services. However, heavy tailed distributions are limited in their ability to characterize real-time network traffic due to the difficulty of parameter estimation. The Entropy-Based Heavy Tailed Distribution Transformation (EHTDT) was developed to convert the heavy tailed distribution into a transformed distribution to find the linear approximation. The EHTDT linearization has the advantage of being amenable to characterize and aggregate overdispersion of network traffic in realtime. Results of applying the EHTDT for innovative visual analytics to real network traffic data are presented.

  1. Solidification microstructures and phase transformations in Al-Ti-Si-Mn deoxidized steel weld metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluken, A. O.; Grong, Ø.; Rørvik, G.

    1990-07-01

    The present investigation is concerned with basic studies of solidification mechanisms in Al-Ti-Si-Mn deoxidized steel weld metals. Assessment of the weld metal solidification micro-structures was done on the basis of optical microscopy in combination with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), while both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for characterization of indigenous oxide inclusions. It is shown that nonmetallic inclusions play a critical role in the development of the weld metal columnar grain structure by acting as inert substrates for nucleation of delta ferrite ahead of the advancing interface. The nucleation potency of the oxides increases in the order SiO2-MnO, Al2O3-Ti2O3-SiO2-MnO, A12O3, reflecting a corresponding increase in the inclusion/liquid interfacial energy. Moreover, a shift in the peritectic reaction (which facilitates growth of the austenite grains across the phosphorus-rich boundaries of the primary delta ferrite phase) has been observed in the presence of A12O3 inclusions. Indications are that the resulting decrease in the local phosphorus concentrations at the austenite grain boundaries will strongly alter the kinetics of the subsequent solid-state transformation reactions by promoting growth of grain boundary ferrite sideplates at the expense of intragranularly nucleated acicular ferrite.

  2. Metal distribution and spectroscopic analysis after soil washing with chelating agents and humic substances.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Hartley, Neil R

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradable chelating agents ([S,S]-ethylenediamine-N,N-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and glutamic-N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA)) and natural humic substances (lignite-derived, standard, and commercially available humic acids) are potentially useful for enhancing soil remediation of timber treatment sites. This study integrated macroscopic and spectroscopic analyses to assess their influence on the distribution and chemical speciation of the remaining metals as well as their interaction with the soil surface after 48-h washing of a field-contaminated soil. The results demonstrated that EDDS and GLDA were an appealing alternative to non-biodegradable ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid, but the three humic substances were less effective. As shown by sequential extractions, Cu was primarily extracted from the carbonate fraction while Cr and As extraction resulted from (co-)dissolution of the oxide fraction. As a result, the relative proportion of strongly bound organic matter and residual fractions increased by 7-16 %. However, it was noteworthy that the exchangeable fraction also increased by 5-11 %, signifying that a portion of the remaining metals was destabilized by chelating agents and transformed to be more labile in the treated soil. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra confirmed the substantial removal of readily accessible Cu from the soil surface, but Cr maintained its original chemical forms of trivalent chromium oxides and iron-chromium coprecipitates, whereas As remained as arsenic trioxide/pentoxide and copper arsenate precipitates. On the other hand, the absence of characteristic peaks of adsorbed carboxylate groups in the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra inferred that the extent of adsorption of chelating agents and humic substances on the bulk soil was insufficient to be characterized by FTIR analysis. These results suggested that attention should be paid to the exchangeable fraction of Cu and oxides/coprecipitates of As prior to possible on

  3. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  4. Intermediate-range order in simple metal-phosphate glasses: The effect of metal cations on the phosphate anion distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, B.C.; Boatner, L.A.; Ramey, J.O.

    1997-06-01

    The technique of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been used to probe the phosphate anion distribution in a variety of metal phosphate glasses including glasses made with trivalent metal cations (Al, In, Ga, La). The composition of each glass was chosen so that the average phosphate chain length was between 2 and 4 PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The widths of the resulting phosphate anion distributions were determined directly from an analysis of the HPLC chromatograms. Literature values for the free energy of formation of the crystalline metal-orthophosphate compounds with respect to P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and the metal oxide, were compared to the chromatogram widths. It was found that the smaller the energy of formation, the wider the distribution of phosphate chains, and the greater the ease of glass formation.

  5. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. III. THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION AND CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR FRACTION , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in a sample that includes 86 stars with [Fe/H] {<=} -3.0, based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, of which some 32 objects lie below [Fe/H] = -3.5. After accounting for the completeness function, the 'corrected' MDF does not exhibit the sudden drop at [Fe/H] = -3.6 that was found in recent samples of dwarfs and giants from the Hamburg/ESO survey. Rather, the MDF decreases smoothly down to [Fe/H] = -4.1. Similar results are obtained from the 'raw' MDF. We find that the fraction of CEMP objects below [Fe/H] = -3.0 is 23% {+-} 6% and 32% {+-} 8% when adopting the Beers and Christlieb and Aoki et al. CEMP definitions, respectively. The former value is in fair agreement with some previous measurements, which adopt the Beers and Christlieb criterion.

  6. Magnetostructural martensitic transformations with large volume changes and magneto-strains in all-d-metal Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, E. K.; Li, Y.; Han, X. L.; Du, Z. W.; Luo, H. Z.; Liu, G. D.; Xi, X. K.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.

    2016-08-01

    The all-d-metal Mn2-based Heusler ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Mn50Ni40-xCoxTi10 (x = 8 and 9.5) are realized. With a generic comparison between d-metal Ti and main-group elements in lowering the transformation temperature, the magnetostructural martensitic transformations are established by further introducing Co to produce local ferromagnetic Mn-Co-Mn configurations. A 5-fold modulation and (3, -2) stacking of [00 10] of martensite are determined by X-ray diffraction and HRTEM analysis. Based on the transformation, a large magneto-strain of 6900 ppm and a large volume change of -2.54% are observed in polycrystalline samples, which makes the all-d-metal magnetic martensitic alloys of interest for magnetic/pressure multi-field driven applications.

  7. The development of coil short circuits when transformer windings become contaminated with metal-containing colloidal particles

    SciTech Connect

    L'vov, S. Yu.; Lyut'ko, E. O.; Bondareva, V. N.; Komarov, V. B.; L'vov, Yu. N.

    2012-01-15

    The radiational-thermal development of coil short circuits due to the action of partial discharges of the first kind when the windings of transformers, autotransformers and shunting reactors become contaminated with metal-containing colloidal particles, formed in the transformer oil as a result of the interaction of the oil with the constructional materials (the copper of the windings, the iron of the tank, the core etc.) is considered. Acriterion of dangerous contamination of the coil insulation of the windings by metal-containing colloidal particles is proposed, namely, 3% of the mass content of copper and iron in it, which, if exceeded, may serve as a basis for recognizing the state of transformers, autotransformers and shunting reactors at a voltage of 110 kV and above the limit. It is shown that filters for continuously cleaning the oil play a considerable role in prolonging the life of transformer equipment.

  8. Engineered metal based nanomaterials in aqueous environments: Interactions, transformations and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunkotuwa, Imali Ama

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology offer potential routes towards addressing critical issues such as clean and sustainable energy, environmental protection and human health. Specifically, metal and metal oxide nanomaterials are found in a wide range of applications and therefore hold a greater potential of possible release into the environment or for the human to be exposed. Understanding the aqueous phase behavior of metal and metal oxide nanomaterials is a key factor in the safe design of these materials because their interactions with living systems are always mediated through the aqueous phase. Broadly the transformations in the aqueous phase can be classified as dissolution, aggregation and adsorption which are dependent and linked processes to one another. The complexity of these processes at the liquid-solid interface has therefore been one of the grand challenges that has persisted since the beginning of nanotechnology. Although classical models provide guidance for understanding dissolution and aggregation of nanoparticles in water, there are many uncertainties associated with the recent findings. This is often due to a lack of fundamental knowledge of the surface structure and surface energetics for very small particles. Therefore currently the environmental health and safety studies related to nanomaterials are more focused on understanding the surface chemistry that governs the overall processes in the liquid-solid interfacial region at the molecular level. The metal based nanomaterials focused on in this dissertation include TiO2, ZnO, Cu and CuO. These are among the most heavily used in a number of applications ranging from uses in the construction industry to cosmetic formulation. Therefore they are produced in large scale and have been detected in the environment. There is debate within the scientific community related to their safety as a result of the lack of understanding on the surface interactions that arise from the detailed nature of the surfaces

  9. Interpenetrating Metal-Metalloporphyrin Framework for Selective CO2 Uptake and Chemical Transformation of CO2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Tsai, Chen-Yen; Wojtas, Lukasz; Thiounn, Timmy; Lin, Chu-Chieh; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-08-01

    Herein we report a robust primitive cubic (pcu)-topology metal-metalloporphyrin framework (MMPF), MMPF-18, which was constructed from a ubiquitous secondary building unit of a tetranuclear zinc cluster, Zn4(μ4-O)(-COO)6, and a linear organic linker of 5,15-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (H2bcpp). The strong π-π stacking from porphyrins and the lengthy H2bcpp ligand affords a 4-fold-interpenetrating network along with reduced void spaces and confined narrow channels. Thereby, MMPF-18 presents segmented pores and high-density metalloporphyrin centers for selective CO2 uptake over CH4 and size-selective chemical transformation of CO2 with epoxides forming cyclic carbonates under ambient conditions. PMID:27337152

  10. A theoretical study of the omega-phase transformation in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanati, Mahdi

    I have studied the formation of o-phase from electronic and mesoscopic (domain wall) points of view. To study the formation of domain walls, I have extended the Landau model of Cook for the o-phase transition by including a spatial gradient (Ginzburg) term of the scalar order parameter. In general, the Landau free energy is an asymmetric double-well potential. From the variational derivative of the total free energy I obtained a static equilibrium condition. By solving this equation for different physical parameters and boundary conditions, I obtained different quasi-one-dimensional soliton-like solutions. These solutions correspond to three different types of domain walls between the o-phase and the beta-matrix. These results are used to model the formation of the o-phase in bcc Ti. Canonical band model and first principles calculations confirmed the instability of the bcc-phase of group III and IV transition metals with respect to the o-phase transformation. I showed that the d-electron density is the controlling parameter for this type of the transformation. Also the possibility of formation of the o-phase for rare earth metals is discussed. First-principles full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method (FPLMTO) calculations are performed for o-type displacement of the atoms to study the formation of the o-phase in TiAl and Ti 3Al2Nb alloys. The results of my calculations showed an instability in ordered B2 TiAl structure with respect to the o-phase when one third of the Al atoms are replaced by Nb atoms. These phenomena are explained, first by symmetry arguments; then a pair potential model is used to illustrate this instability based on interactions between different pair of atoms derived from the electronic structure. In addition, importance of the atomic arrangements on the structural stability of the Ti3Al2 Nb system is discussed.

  11. Temperature Dependence of Particle Size Distribution in Transformer Oil-Based Ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józefczak, Arkadiusz; Hornowski, Tomasz; Skumiel, Andrzej

    2011-04-01

    The temperature dependence of the particle size distribution (PSD) of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid was studied using an ultrasound method. The measurements of the ultrasound velocity and attenuation were carried out in the absence of an external magnetic field as a function of the volume concentration of magnetite particles at temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 80 °C. The experimental results of ultrasound measurements were analyzed within the framework of the Vinogradov-Isakovich theory which takes into account contributions to acoustical parameters due to friction and heat exchange between magnetic particles and the surrounding carrier liquid. From the best fit of the experimental results and theoretical predictions, the parameters characterizing the PSD at different temperatures were determined. In order to analyze ultrasonic data, the density and viscosity of ferrofluid samples and the transformer oil were also measured.

  12. Transform-limited pulses generated by an actively Q-switched distributed fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Pérez-Millán, P; Andrés, M V; Díez, A; Cruz, J L; Barmenkov, Yu O

    2008-11-15

    A single-mode, transform-limited, actively Q-switched distributed-feedback fiber laser is presented, based on a new in-line acoustic pulse generator. Our technique permits a continuous adjustment of the repetition rate that modulates the Q factor of the cavity. Optical pulses of 800 mW peak power, 32 ns temporal width, and up to 20 kHz repetition rates were obtained. The measured linewidth demonstrates that these pulses are transform limited: 6 MHz for a train of pulses of 10 kHz repetition rate, 80 ns temporal width, and 60 mW peak power. Efficient excitation of spontaneous Brillouin scattering is demonstrated. PMID:19015677

  13. Development of heterogeneous olympic medal metal nanoparticle catalysts for environmentally benign molecular transformations based on the surface properties of hydrotalcite.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Kiyotomi; Mitsudome, Takato; Mizugaki, Tomoo; Jitsukawa, Koichiro

    2010-12-08

    In this review, we describe the development by our research group of highly functionalized heterogeneous Olympic medal metal (gold, silver, and copper) nanoparticle catalysts using hydrotalcite as a support, aimed towards Green and Sustainable Chemistry. Olympic medal metal nanoparticles can cooperate with the basic sites on the hydrotalcite surface, providing unique and high performance catalysis in environmentally-benign organic transformations such as aerobic oxidation of alcohols, lactonization of diols and selective deoxygenation of epoxides and nitro aromatic compounds.

  14. Visualizing Metal Content and Intracellular Distribution in Primary Hippocampal Neurons with Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that metal dyshomeostasis plays an important role in human neurodegenerative diseases. Although distinctive metal distributions are described for mature hippocampus and cortex, much less is known about metal levels and intracellular distribution in individual hippocampal neuronal somata. To solve this problem, we conducted quantitative metal analyses utilizing synchrotron radiation X-Ray fluorescence on frozen hydrated primary cultured neurons derived from rat embryonic cortex (CTX) and two regions of the hippocampus: dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1. Comparing average metal contents showed that the most abundant metals were calcium, iron, and zinc, whereas metals such as copper and manganese were less than 10% of zinc. Average metal contents were generally similar when compared across neurons cultured from CTX, DG, and CA1, except for manganese that was larger in CA1. However, each metal showed a characteristic spatial distribution in individual neuronal somata. Zinc was uniformly distributed throughout the cytosol, with no evidence for the existence of previously identified zinc-enriched organelles, zincosomes. Calcium showed a peri-nuclear distribution consistent with accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria. Iron showed 2–3 distinct highly concentrated puncta only in peri-nuclear locations. Notwithstanding the small sample size, these analyses demonstrate that primary cultured neurons show characteristic metal signatures. The iron puncta probably represent iron-accumulating organelles, siderosomes. Thus, the metal distributions observed in mature brain structures are likely the result of both intrinsic neuronal factors that control cellular metal content and extrinsic factors related to the synaptic organization, function, and contacts formed and maintained in each region. PMID:27434052

  15. Visualizing Metal Content and Intracellular Distribution in Primary Hippocampal Neurons with Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Robert A; Jin, Qiaoling; Lai, Barry; Kiedrowski, Lech

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that metal dyshomeostasis plays an important role in human neurodegenerative diseases. Although distinctive metal distributions are described for mature hippocampus and cortex, much less is known about metal levels and intracellular distribution in individual hippocampal neuronal somata. To solve this problem, we conducted quantitative metal analyses utilizing synchrotron radiation X-Ray fluorescence on frozen hydrated primary cultured neurons derived from rat embryonic cortex (CTX) and two regions of the hippocampus: dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1. Comparing average metal contents showed that the most abundant metals were calcium, iron, and zinc, whereas metals such as copper and manganese were less than 10% of zinc. Average metal contents were generally similar when compared across neurons cultured from CTX, DG, and CA1, except for manganese that was larger in CA1. However, each metal showed a characteristic spatial distribution in individual neuronal somata. Zinc was uniformly distributed throughout the cytosol, with no evidence for the existence of previously identified zinc-enriched organelles, zincosomes. Calcium showed a peri-nuclear distribution consistent with accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria. Iron showed 2-3 distinct highly concentrated puncta only in peri-nuclear locations. Notwithstanding the small sample size, these analyses demonstrate that primary cultured neurons show characteristic metal signatures. The iron puncta probably represent iron-accumulating organelles, siderosomes. Thus, the metal distributions observed in mature brain structures are likely the result of both intrinsic neuronal factors that control cellular metal content and extrinsic factors related to the synaptic organization, function, and contacts formed and maintained in each region. PMID:27434052

  16. High pressure phase-transformation induced texture evolution and strengthening in zirconium metal: Experiment and modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruifeng; Weldon, David; Vogel, Sven C.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Brown, Donald W.; Wang, Yanbin; Reiche, Helmut M.; Wang, Shanmin; Du, Shiyu; et al

    2015-07-28

    We studied the phase-transition induced texture changes and strengthening mechanism for zirconium metal under quasi-hydrostatic compression and uni-axial deformation under confined high pressure using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus. It is shown that the experimentally obtained texture for ω-phase Zr can be qualitatively described by combining a subset of orientation variants previously proposed in two different models. The determined flow stress for the high-pressure ω-phase is 0.5–1.2 GPa, more than three times higher than that of the α-phase. Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the mechanical and electronic properties of the two Zr polymorphs. We find that the observed strengthening can bemore » attributed to the relatively strong directional bonding in the ω phase, which significantly increases its shear plastic resistance over the α-phase Zr. The present findings provide an alternate route for Zr metal strengthening by high-pressure phase transformation.« less

  17. High pressure phase-transformation induced texture evolution and strengthening in zirconium metal: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruifeng; Weldon, David; Vogel, Sven C.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Brown, Donald W.; Wang, Yanbin; Reiche, Helmut M.; Wang, Shanmin; Du, Shiyu; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-07-28

    We studied the phase-transition induced texture changes and strengthening mechanism for zirconium metal under quasi-hydrostatic compression and uni-axial deformation under confined high pressure using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus. It is shown that the experimentally obtained texture for ω-phase Zr can be qualitatively described by combining a subset of orientation variants previously proposed in two different models. The determined flow stress for the high-pressure ω-phase is 0.5–1.2 GPa, more than three times higher than that of the α-phase. Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the mechanical and electronic properties of the two Zr polymorphs. We find that the observed strengthening can be attributed to the relatively strong directional bonding in the ω phase, which significantly increases its shear plastic resistance over the α-phase Zr. The present findings provide an alternate route for Zr metal strengthening by high-pressure phase transformation.

  18. Chemical transformations drive complex self-assembly of uracil on close-packed coinage metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Anthoula C; Fischer, Sybille; Reichert, Joachim; Diller, Katharina; Blobner, Florian; Klappenberger, Florian; Allegretti, Francesco; Seitsonen, Ari P; Barth, Johannes V

    2012-03-27

    We address the interplay of adsorption, chemical nature, and self-assembly of uracil on the Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces as a function of molecular coverage (0.3 to 1 monolayer) and temperature. We find that both metal surfaces act as templates and the Cu(111) surface acts additionally as a catalyst for the resulting self-assembled structures. With a combination of STM, synchrotron XPS, and NEXAFS studies, we unravel a distinct polymorphism on Cu(111), in stark contrast to what is observed for the case of uracil on the more inert Ag(111) surface. On Ag(111) uracil adsorbs flat and intact and forms close-packed two-dimensional islands. The self-assembly is driven by stable hydrogen-bonded dimers with poor two-dimensional order. On Cu(111) complex structures are observed exhibiting, in addition, a strong annealing temperature dependence. We determine the corresponding structural transformations to be driven by gradual deprotonation of the uracil molecules. Our XPS study reveals unambiguously the tautomeric signature of uracil in the contact layer and on Cu(111) the molecule's deprotonation sites. The metal-mediated deprotonation of uracil and the subsequent electron localization in the molecule determine important biological reactions. Our data show a dependence between molecular coverage and molecule-metal interaction on Cu(111), as the molecules tilt at higher coverages in order to accommodate a higher packing density. After deprotonation of both uracil N atoms, we observe an adsorption geometry that can be understood as coordinative anchoring with a significant charge redistribution in the molecule. DFT calculations are employed to analyze the surface bonding and accurately describe the pertaining electronic structure.

  19. Probing the Dynamics of the Metallic-to-Semiconducting Structural Phase Transformation in MoS2 Crystals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yinsheng; Sun, Dezheng; Ouyang, Bin; Raja, Archana; Song, Jun; Heinz, Tony F; Brus, Louis E

    2015-08-12

    We have investigated the phase transformation of bulk MoS2 crystals from the metastable metallic 1T/1T' phase to the thermodynamically stable semiconducting 2H phase. The metastable 1T/1T' material was prepared by Li intercalation and deintercalation. The thermally driven kinetics of the phase transformation were studied with in situ Raman and optical reflection spectroscopies and yield an activation energy of 400 ± 60 meV (38 ± 6 kJ/mol). We calculate the expected minimum energy pathways for these transformations using DFT methods. The experimental activation energy corresponds approximately to the theoretical barrier for a single formula unit, suggesting that nucleation of the phase transformation is quite local. We also report that femtosecond laser writing converts 1T/1T' to 2H in a single laser pass. The mechanisms for the phase transformation are discussed.

  20. Estimation of phase wave-front aberration distribution function using wavelet transform profilometry.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Kambiz; Faez, Karim; Attaran-Kakhki, Ebrahim

    2012-06-01

    Reduction of image quality under the effects of wavefront aberration of the optical system has a direct impact on the vision system's performance. This paper tries to estimate the amount of aberration with the use of wavelet transform profilometry. The basic idea is based on the principle that under aberration effects, the position of the fringes' image on the image plane will change, and this change correlates with the amount of aberration. So the distribution of aberration function can directly be extracted through measuring the amount of changes in the fringes' image on the image plane. Experimental results and the empirical validity of this idea are evaluated.

  1. Distribution of heavy metals in a woodland food web

    SciTech Connect

    Scharenberg, W.; Ebeling, E.

    1996-03-01

    Often investigations deal with the residue situation in contaminated areas and their effects on ecosystems, however, information are rare concerning relatively uncontaminated areas - so called {open_quotes}reference areas{close_quotes}. In such areas we can assume an insignificant influence of pollutants and we can measure the metal flux under relatively natural conditions. Since 1988 we have investigated the nutrient and energy flow as well as the metal flux in an area which is hardly influenced by anthropogenic activities besides some agro-chemical compounds. For example, the deposition and contamination of some plants is relatively low in comparison to other places in North Germany. Also the average of geological background concentrations of soil from Schleswig-Holstein are higher than soil concentrations from Bornhoeved. With this investigation we demonstrate the flux of metals through selected biotic compartments of a relatively uncontaminated woodland. Good indicators accumulating the non essential metals Cd and Pb are beetles and isopods. In contrast ground spiders, although predators, show only low metal concentrations. The essential metals Cu and Zn were relatively homogeneous in concentration in the animals. Zn showed the highest values and beetles seem to accumulate it.

  2. A coordinate transformation method for calculating the 3D light intensity distribution in ICF hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhili; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Kuixia; Chen, Xudong; Chen, Mingyu; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-06-01

    For an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system, the light intensity distribution in the hohlraum is key to the initial plasma excitation and later laser-plasma interaction process. Based on the concept of coordinate transformation of spatial points and vector, we present a robust method with a detailed procedure that makes the calculation of the three dimensional (3D) light intensity distribution in hohlraum easily. The method is intuitive but powerful enough to solve the complex cases of random number of laser beams with arbitrary polarization states and incidence angles. Its application is exemplified in the Shenguang III Facility (SG-III) that verifies its effectiveness and it is useful for guiding the design of hohlraum structure parameter.

  3. Analysis of Distribution of Time Scores in Iterative Learning Type Courseware Using Fourier Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki

    In this research, an iterative learning type courseware was made, the distribution of time scores in the courseware is gotten by the learning management system. It is a proposed method by which the distribution of time scores is changed to frequency and to power spectrum using Fourier Transform. The learning process continues until students get the passing scores and are classified by using these values, which are related to average time and the average of scores‧ square. Furthermore, the cross-correlation coefficients between the standard student and students are calculated, and delay times are analyzed. Finally, the transfer functions of some students are calculated, and the characteristics of the learning processes are analyzed.

  4. Influence of marine phytoplankton, transition metals and sunlight on the species distribution of chromium in surface seawater.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Xing; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Deng, Nan-sheng; Lin, Lu-Xiu

    2009-01-01

    The photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by marine phytoplankton (diatoms, red and green algae), with or without the presence of transition metals (Fe(III), Cu(II) and Mn(II)) was studied. The direct influence of marine phytoplankton on the photochemical reduction of Cr(VI) was confirmed for the first time, and two kinds of mechanisms were suggested to be responsible for the species transformation: (a) Cr(VI) in excited state could be reduced by the electron donor in its ground state via photo produced electrons; and (b) the solvated electrons reduce the CrO(4)(2-) anions in their ground state. The conversion ratio of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing algae concentration and irradiation time. Different species of marine phytoplankton were found to have different photo-reducing abilities. The photochemical redox of transition metals could induce the species transformation of chromium. After photoreduction by marine phytoplankton and transition metals, the ratio of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was in the range of 1.45-2.16 for five green algae (Tetraselmis levis, Chlorella autotrophica, Dunaliella salina, Nannochloropsis sp., and Tetraselmis subcordiformis), and only 0.48 for Phaeodactylum tricornutum (diatom) and 0.71 for Porphyridium purpureum (red alga). The species distribution of chromium in the sunlit surface seawater was greatly affected by combined effects of marine phytoplankton (main contributor) and transition metals; both synergistic and antagonistic effects were observed. The results provided further insights into the species distribution and the biogeochemical cycle of chromium, and have significant implications for the risk assessment of chromium in the sunlit surface seawater. PMID:19307016

  5. THE STELLAR METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF THE GALACTIC HALO FROM SDSS PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    An, Deokkeun; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Lee, Young Sun; Bovy, Jo; Ivezic, Zeljko; Carollo, Daniela; Newby, Matthew

    2013-01-20

    We explore the stellar metallicity distribution function of the Galactic halo based on SDSS ugriz photometry. A set of stellar isochrones is calibrated using observations of several star clusters and validated by comparisons with medium-resolution spectroscopic values over a wide range of metal abundance. We estimate distances and metallicities for individual main-sequence stars in the multiply scanned SDSS Stripe 82, at heliocentric distances in the range 5-8 kpc and |b| > 35 Degree-Sign , and find that the in situ photometric metallicity distribution has a shape that matches that of the kinematically selected local halo stars from Ryan and Norris. We also examine independent kinematic information from proper-motion measurements for high Galactic latitude stars in our sample. We find that stars with retrograde rotation in the rest frame of the Galaxy are generally more metal poor than those exhibiting prograde rotation, which is consistent with earlier arguments by Carollo et al. that the halo system comprises at least two spatially overlapping components with differing metallicity, kinematics, and spatial distributions. The observed photometric metallicity distribution and that of Ryan and Norris can be described by a simple chemical evolution model by Hartwick (or by a single Gaussian distribution); however, the suggestive metallicity-kinematic correlation contradicts the basic assumption in this model that the Milky Way halo consists primarily of a single stellar population. When the observed metallicity distribution is deconvolved using two Gaussian components with peaks at [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -1.7 and -2.3, the metal-poor component accounts for {approx}20%-35% of the entire halo population in this distance range.

  6. The Stellar Metallicity Distribution Function of the Galactic Halo from SDSS Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Deokkeun; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Lee, Young Sun; Bovy, Jo; Ivezić, Željko; Carollo, Daniela; Newby, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We explore the stellar metallicity distribution function of the Galactic halo based on SDSS ugriz photometry. A set of stellar isochrones is calibrated using observations of several star clusters and validated by comparisons with medium-resolution spectroscopic values over a wide range of metal abundance. We estimate distances and metallicities for individual main-sequence stars in the multiply scanned SDSS Stripe 82, at heliocentric distances in the range 5-8 kpc and |b| > 35°, and find that the in situ photometric metallicity distribution has a shape that matches that of the kinematically selected local halo stars from Ryan & Norris. We also examine independent kinematic information from proper-motion measurements for high Galactic latitude stars in our sample. We find that stars with retrograde rotation in the rest frame of the Galaxy are generally more metal poor than those exhibiting prograde rotation, which is consistent with earlier arguments by Carollo et al. that the halo system comprises at least two spatially overlapping components with differing metallicity, kinematics, and spatial distributions. The observed photometric metallicity distribution and that of Ryan & Norris can be described by a simple chemical evolution model by Hartwick (or by a single Gaussian distribution); however, the suggestive metallicity-kinematic correlation contradicts the basic assumption in this model that the Milky Way halo consists primarily of a single stellar population. When the observed metallicity distribution is deconvolved using two Gaussian components with peaks at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.7 and -2.3, the metal-poor component accounts for ~20%-35% of the entire halo population in this distance range.

  7. Flexible mixture modeling via the multivariate t distribution with the Box-Cox transformation: an alternative to the skew-t distribution

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the automated search for groups of homogeneous observations in a data set. A popular modeling approach for clustering is based on finite normal mixture models, which assume that each cluster is modeled as a multivariate normal distribution. However, the normality assumption that each component is symmetric is often unrealistic. Furthermore, normal mixture models are not robust against outliers; they often require extra components for modeling outliers and/or give a poor representation of the data. To address these issues, we propose a new class of distributions, multivariate t distributions with the Box-Cox transformation, for mixture modeling. This class of distributions generalizes the normal distribution with the more heavy-tailed t distribution, and introduces skewness via the Box-Cox transformation. As a result, this provides a unified framework to simultaneously handle outlier identification and data transformation, two interrelated issues. We describe an Expectation-Maximization algorithm for parameter estimation along with transformation selection. We demonstrate the proposed methodology with three real data sets and simulation studies. Compared with a wealth of approaches including the skew-t mixture model, the proposed t mixture model with the Box-Cox transformation performs favorably in terms of accuracy in the assignment of observations, robustness against model misspecification, and selection of the number of components. PMID:22125375

  8. Fractional distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments collected from the Yellow River, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houqi; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Jie; Yuan, Zijiao; Da, Chunnian

    2016-06-01

    Bohai Sea is one of the most intensively exploited region in the world and its environment has been severely impacted by the extensive human activities. The Yellow River is the most important river which connects with the Bohai Sea. Therefore, this study focused on analyzing heavy metals (HMs) in 21 surface sediment samples collected from the Yellow River, China. Sequential extraction procedure (SEP), proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), was applied in the present study to determine the concentration and fractionation characteristics of these HMs. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution, fractionation, risk assessment, and sources of HMs, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni). The results obtained from this research will play a significant role in understanding the migration, transformation, and accumulation of HMs for future research in study area. Results of fractionation revealed that most of the HMs in the study area mainly existed in residual fraction; however, Mn mostly existed in exchangeable fraction. A high percentage of reducible fractions was found for Cu and Pb. The mean contamination factor (Cf) values indicated that Pb was the highest. It was >1 and showed moderate contamination, followed by Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn, had <1 and indicated low contamination. Among studied HMs Pb had higher enrichment factor (EF) as compared to others. Significant positive correlations within all studied HMs and principal component analysis (PCA) results indicated their common sources, however, Pb showed the different contamination sources. The total contents of HMs in sediment were compared with the threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) sediment quality guideline (TEL/PEL-based SQGs) values for trace metals in sediment, as well as literature reported data for comparative purposes, which indicated that the selected river in present study is not

  9. Distribution and contamination of heavy metals in surface sediments of the South Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huamao; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin

    2012-10-01

    The distributions, annual sedimentation and atmospheric deposition flux of heavy metals have been studied in sediments of the South Yellow Sea (SYS), in order to evaluate their levels and pollution status. The higher concentrations of heavy metals were generally found in the central part of the SYS, which may be associated with the organic matters due to their high affinity to the metals. According to the calculated enrichment factor (EF) of the studied metals, Cd in the sediments posed a high risk to local environments, while Mn, Hg, Pb and Zn were at moderate risk levels. Sedimentation fluxes study in the SYS showed that most heavy metals were deposited in the Chinese offshore. Annual dry deposition flux of these metals indicated that the particulate heavy metals deposition via atmosphere also play an important role in biogeochemical cycles in the SYS.

  10. The mobility and distribution of heavy metals during the formation of first cycle red beds.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Bloch, S.; Walker, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of the heavy metal content in a Holocene-Pliocene red bed sequence near San Felipe in N Baja California, Mexico, has yielded new information on the mobility and distribution of these metals during ageing of iron oxyhydroxides from the amorphous to the crystalline state. Whole-rock samples (27) and a series of successive leachates were analysed for V, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn by ICP spectrometry and for U by a delayed neutron technique. These data are supported by a variety of other mineralogical and petrographical observations. The results indicate that the metal content of the samples is predominantly inherited from the constituent detrital minerals. Reddening of the whole-rock samples does not promote major open-system migration of the heavy metals; rather, contained metals redistribute themselves on an intergranular scale, moving from detrital mineral hosts to the secondary iron oxides. The amount of secondary iron oxides and the fraction of whole-rock metals associated with these oxides increase during red-bed development. In addition, the abundance of well- crystallized iron oxides increases during this period. Differences in the leaching efficiency for various metals are related to differences in metal site distribution and intergranular permeability. Inferred conditions for rapid vs limited removal of metals from red beds are summarized. It is suggested that developed red beds which are well flushed by suitable pore fluids may be sources of significant quantities of heavy metals. -J.E.S.

  11. Defect distribution and Schottky barrier at metal/Ge interfaces: Role of metal-induced gap states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shogo; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    The defect distribution and Schottky barrier at metal/Ge interfaces were studied using first-principles calculation. It was shown that the defect density markedly increases around the interface owing to the stabilization caused by the hybridization of defect electronic states with metal-induced gap states (MIGS) and by the associated small elastic energy loss around the interface. By comparing the formation energies of various defects at a variety of metal/substrate interfaces, we showed that MIGS not only control the Schottky barrier but also promote a defect-density increase at most metal/semiconductor interfaces. Moreover, we showed that interface oxide layers block MIGS penetration into the Ge substrate and promote the observed breakdown of Fermi-level pinning.

  12. Advanced analysis of metal distributions in human hair

    SciTech Connect

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Skinner, William M.

    2008-06-09

    A variety of techniques (secondary electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence) were utilized to distinguish metal contamination occurring in hair arising from endogenous uptake from an individual exposed to a polluted environment, in this case a lead smelter. Evidence was sought for elements less affected by contamination and potentially indicative of biogenic activity. The unique combination of surface sensitivity, spatial resolution, and detection limits used here has provided new insight regarding hair analysis. Metals such as Ca, Fe, and Pb appeared to have little representative value of endogenous uptake and were mainly due to contamination. Cu and Zn, however, demonstrate behaviors worthy of further investigation into relating hair concentrations to endogenous function.

  13. Advanced analysis of metal distributions in human hair.

    PubMed

    Kempson, Ivan M; Skinner, William M; Kirkbride, K Paul

    2006-05-15

    A variety of techniques (secondary electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, time-of-flight--secondary ion mass spectrometry, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence) were utilized to distinguish metal contamination occurring in hair arising from endogenous uptake from an individual exposed to a polluted environment, in this case a lead smelter. Evidence was sought for elements less affected by contamination and potentially indicative of biogenic activity. The unique combination of surface sensitivity, spatial resolution, and detection limits used here has provided new insight regarding hair analysis. Metals such as Ca, Fe, and Pb appeared to have little representative value of endogenous uptake and were mainly due to contamination. Cu and Zn, however, demonstrate behaviors worthy of further investigation into relating hair concentrations to endogenous function. PMID:16749716

  14. Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-hua; Zhao, Jing-zhu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Söderlund, Leif; Liu, Guo-hua

    2005-08-01

    A potential hazard to Beijing was revealed due to the accumulation trend of heavy metals in agricultural soils with sewage irrigation, which results in metal contamination and human exposure risk. Samples including soils and plants were collected to assess the impacts of sewage irrigation on the irrigated farming area of Beijing. Concentrations of the five elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined in samples to calculate the accumulation factor and to establish a basis for environmental protection and the suitability of sewage irrigation for particular land use in the urban-rural interaction area of Beijing. Using reference values provided by the Beijing Background Research Cooperative Group in the 1970s, the pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF), and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load indices (sewage irrigation land 3.49) of soils indicated that metal contamination occurred in these sites. The metal enrichment (EF of Cd 1.8, Cr 1.7, Cu 2.3, Zn 2.0, Pb 1.9) and the metal contamination (CF of Cd 2.6, Cr 1.5, Cu 2.0, Zn 1.7, Pb 1.6) showed that the accumulation trend of the five toxic metals increased during the sewage irrigation as compared with the lower reference values than other region in China and world average, and that pollution with Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb was exacerbated in soils. The distributions of these metals were homogeneous in the irrigation area, but small-scale heterogeneous spatial distribution was observed. Irrigation sources were found to affect heavy metal distributions in soils. It was suggested that heavy metal transfer from soils to plants was a key pathway to human health exposure to metal contamination. However, with the expansion of urban areas in Beijing, soil inhalation and ingestion may become important pathways of human exposure to metal contamination.

  15. Thermal-mechanical behavior of oceanic transform faults: Implications for the spatial distribution of seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Emily; Behn, Mark D.; Hirth, Greg

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of earthquakes along oceanic transform faults, we utilize a 3-D finite element model to calculate the mantle flow field and temperature structure associated with a ridge-transform-ridge system. The model incorporates a viscoplastic rheology to simulate brittle failure in the lithosphere and a non-Newtonian temperature-dependent viscous flow law in the underlying mantle. We consider the effects of three key thermal and rheological feedbacks: (1) frictional weakening due to mantle alteration, (2) shear heating, and (3) hydrothermal circulation in the shallow lithosphere. Of these effects, the thermal structure is most strongly influenced by hydrothermal cooling. We quantify the thermally controlled seismogenic area for a range of fault parameters, including slip rate and fault length, and find that the area between the 350°C and 600°C isotherms (analogous to the zone of seismic slip) is nearly identical to that predicted from a half-space cooling model. However, in contrast to the half-space cooling model, we find that the depth to the 600°C isotherm and the width of the seismogenic zone are nearly constant along the fault, consistent with seismic observations. The calculated temperature structure and zone of permeable fluid flow are also used to approximate the stability field of hydrous phases in the upper mantle. We find that for slow slipping faults, the potential zone of hydrous alteration extends greater than 10 km in depth, suggesting that transform faults serve as a significant pathway for water to enter the oceanic upper mantle.

  16. [Effects of heavy metals pollution on paddy soil aggregates composition and heavy metals distribution].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang-Yun; Li, Lian-Qing; Pan, Gen-Xing; Cui, Li-Qiang; Li, Hong-Lei; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Shao, Jie-Qi

    2009-11-01

    Topsoil samples were collected from a polluted and an adjacent non-polluted paddy field in the Taihu Lake region of China. Different particle size fractions of soil aggregates were separated by low-energy dispersion procedure, and their mass composition and Pb, Cd, Hg, and As concentrations were determined. Under heavy metals pollution, the mass composition of sand-sized fractions reduced, while that of clay-sized fractions increased. The concentrations of test metals in different particle size fractions differed, with the highest in < 0.002 mm fraction, followed by in 2-0.2 mm fraction. In 0.02-0.002 mm and 0.2-0.02 mm fractions, all the test metals were relatively deficient, with an enrichment index of 0.56-0.96. The present study showed that the aggregation of fine particles could be depressed by heavy metals pollution, which in turn, led to a relative increase in the mass composition of fine particles and the associated allocation of heavy metals in weakly aggregated silt particles, and further, increased the risks of heavy metals translocation from polluted farmland into water and atmosphere. Further studies should be made on the impacts of heavy metals pollution on soil biophysical and biochemical processes and related mechanisms.

  17. Treatment of percolate from metal sulfide mine tailings with a permeable reactive barrier of transformed red mud.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, J J P; Dessì, R; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2010-04-01

    Metal sulfide tailings of the Sardinian (Italy) abandoned Baccu Locci arsenic mine show high concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, and zinc in acid percolate (pH = 4) and have been classified as "dangerous waste." This paper shows that the release of toxic metals can be strongly reduced when the tailings are placed on a reactive permeable bed (7 wt %) of porous, alkaline pellets of transformed red mud (TRM). During a laboratory percolation test, two columns with 80 kg of waste, of which one contained a bottom layer of TRM pellets, were each alimented with 600 L of de-ionized water. Comparing pH, electroconductivity, metal, and sulfate concentrations of collected percolate from both columns demonstrates efficient neutralization (pH = 7.4) and removal of metals (80 to 99%) for the column with the permeable reactive bottom layer. PMID:20432649

  18. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Power and distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.

    1994-05-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in power and distribution transformers important to license renewal in commercial nuclear power plants. The intent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  19. Bivariate distribution, correlation, and transformation properties of two-color infrared systems.

    PubMed

    Clow, R; McNolty, F

    1974-05-01

    A two-dimensional (two-color) statistical structure is formulated that is applicable to pattern recognition, discrimination, and detection problems occurring in infrared signal-processing systems. The methodology relates physical quantities such as the temperature T of an object, its projected area A, emissivity , range R from the sensor, and noise equivalent flux density (NEFD) to the geometry of a local orthogonal coordinate system where the coordinate axes correspond to the apparent radiant intensity J in each micron bandwidth. The bivariate distribution, correlation, and transformation properties attendant to this framework are discussed in detail. Additional insight into the structure of the problem is achieved by investigating the two-color system in terms of a nonorthogonal local coordinate system. The various results presented in the paper may be extended to three-, four-, or five-color systems by direct analogies.

  20. Distribution of heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments in Dubai Creeks, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Howari, Fares M

    2005-01-01

    Dubai is developing rapidly and many developmental activities are concentrated around its Creek. The present study reports the lateral distribution of heavy metals and compares it with local historical record of heavy metal concentrations. For this purpose surface sediment samples were collected and analyzed for metal contents, total organic carbon content (TOC), mineralogy and grain size. The percentages of the different grain size fraction of the collected sediments were as follow 65% for sand size, 15% for silt size fraction, and the rest accounted for clay size fraction. The microscopic analyses indicate that the sediment composed mainly from carbonate and quartz with traces of rock fragments. Such mineral composition is not believed to be a potential source of heavy metal. The study found that the average recorded heavy metal concentrations in the collected sediment samples were 87, 96, 127, 38.5, and 279 ppm for Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Those values were slightly higher than metal concentrations recoded in 2001 with 1.22 (Cr), 2.5 (Cu), 2.87 (Ni), 0.69 (Pb), and 2.1 (Zn) folds. However, in 2001 and 2003 the measured metal contents, along the creek, were lower than those of the average earth crust. Along the Creek most metals recorded the highest concentrations in the upper reach of the Creek. The distribution of the measured heavy metals was not affected significantly with the TOC values. The present study also documented obvious related point sources of pollution.

  1. Estimating spatially distributed monthly evapotranspiration rates by linear transformations of MODIS daytime land surface temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilagyi, J.; Jozsa, J.

    2009-05-01

    Under simplifying conditions catchment-scale vapor pressure at the drying land surface can be calculated as a function of its watershed-representative temperature () by the wet-surface equation (WSE, similar to the wet-bulb equation in meteorology for calculating the dry-bulb thermometer vapor pressure) of the Complementary Relationship of evaporation. The corresponding watershed ET rate, , is obtained from the Bowen ratio with the help of air temperature, humidity and percent possible sunshine data. The resulting (,) pair together with the wet-environment surface temperature () and ET rate (ETw), obtained by the Priestley-Taylor equation, define a linear transformation on a monthly basis by which spatially distributed ET rates can be estimated as a sole function of MODIS daytime land surface temperature, Ts, values within the watershed. The linear transformation preserves the mean which is highly desirable. , in the lack of significant open water surfaces within the study watershed (Elkhorn, Nebraska), was obtained as the mean of the smallest MODIS Ts values each month. The resulting period-averaged (2000-2007) catchment-scale ET rate of 624 mm/yr is very close to the water-balance derived ET rate of about 617 mm/yr. The latter is a somewhat uncertain value due to the effects of (a) observed groundwater depletion of about 1m over the study period caused by extensive irrigation, and; (b) the uncertain rate of net regional groundwater supply toward the watershed. The spatially distributed ET rates correspond well with soil/aquifer properties and the resulting land use type (i.e. rangeland versus center-pivot irrigated crops).

  2. Estimating spatially distributed monthly evapotranspiration rates by linear transformations of MODIS daytime land surface temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilagyi, J.; Jozsa, J.

    2009-03-01

    Under simplifying conditions catchment-scale vapor pressure at the drying land surface can be calculated as a function of its watershed-representative temperature () by the wet-surface equation (WSE, similar to the wet-bulb equation in meteorology for calculating the dry-bulb thermometer vapor pressure) of the complementary relationship of evaporation. The corresponding watershed ET rate, , is obtained from the Bowen ratio with the help of air temperature, humidity and percent possible sunshine data. The resulting (, ) pair together with the wet-environment surface temperature () and ET rate (ETw), obtained by the Priestley-Taylor equation, define a linear transformation on a monthly basis by which spatially distributed ET rates can be estimated as a sole function of MODIS daytime land surface temperature, Ts, values within the watershed. The linear transformation preserves the mean which is highly desirable. , in the lack of significant open water surfaces within the study watershed (Elkhorn, Nebraska), was obtained as the mean of the smallest MODIS Ts values each month. The resulting period-averaged (2000-2007) catchment-scale ET rate of 624 mm/yr is very close to the water-balance derived ET rate of about 617 mm/yr. The latter is a somewhat uncertain value due to the effects of (a) observed groundwater depletion of about 1m over the study period caused by extensive irrigation, and; (b) the uncertain rate of net regional groundwater supply toward the watershed. The spatially distributed ET rates correspond well with soil/aquifer properties and the resulting land use type (i.e., rangeland versus center-pivot irrigated crops).

  3. Plasticity in bulk metallic glasses investigated via the strain distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Jayanta; Mattern, Norbert; Eckert, Juergen; Bostroem, Magnus; Kvick, Aake; Yavari, Alain Reza; Greer, Alan Lindsay

    2007-09-01

    We measured the atomic-scale elastic strain in order to investigate the yielding of Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 20}Ni{sub 10}Al{sub 10}Ti{sub 5} and Cu{sub 47.5}Zr{sub 47.5}Al{sub 5} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by x-ray synchrotron radiation at room temperature. High resolution strain scanning reveals a deviation from the linear stress-strain relationship at the onset of macroplastic flow. Similar to polycrystalline metals, a saturation of the elastic strain components has been revealed in the case of the ''plastic'' Cu{sub 47.5}Zr{sub 47.5}Al{sub 5} BMG. The results show that the atomic-level elastic strains of the plastic Cu{sub 47.5}Zr{sub 47.5}Al{sub 5} BMG are more homogeneous compared to the 'brittle' Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 20}Ni{sub 10}Al{sub 10}Ti{sub 5} glass.

  4. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies on phase transformation and deformation behaviors in FCC metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yue

    This thesis focused on the phase transformation and deformation behaviors in face center cubic (FCC) metals and alloys. These studies used the new quantum modified Sutton-Chen (QMSC) many-body potentials for Cu, Ni, Ag, and Au and for their alloys through simple combination rules. Various systems and processes are simulated by standard equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD), quasi-static equilibrium MD and non-equilibrium MD (NEMD), cooperated with different periodic boundary conditions. The main topics include: (1) Melting, glass formation, and crystallization processes in bulk alloys. In our simulation CuNi and pure Cu always form an FCC crystal, while Cu4Ag6 always forms glass (with Tg decreasing as the quench rate increases) due to the large atomic size difference. (2) Size effects in melting and crystallization in Ni nano clusters. There is a transition from cluster or molecular regime (where the icosahedral is the stable structure) below ˜500 atoms to a mesoscale regime (with well-defined bulk and surface properties and surface melting processes, which leads to Tm,N = Tm,B - alpha N-1/3) above ˜750 atoms. (3) The deformation behavior of metallic nanowires of pure Ni, NiCu and NiAu alloys, under high rates of uniaxial tensile strain, ranging from 5*108/s to 5*1010/s. We find that deformation proceeds through twinning and coherent slipping at low strain rate and amorphization at high strain rate. This research provides a new method, fast straining, to induce amorphization except fast cooling and disordering. (4) The calculation of the ½ <110> screw dislocation in nickel (Ni). We calculated the core energy of screw dislocation after dissociation is 0.5 eV/b, the annihilation process of opposite signed dislocations depends dramatically on the configurations of dissociation planes and the cross-slip energy barrier is 0.1eV/b. (5) Friction anisotropy on clean Ni(100)/(100) interface. We found that static friction coefficient on flat and incommensurate interface is

  5. Distribution and Potential Toxicity of Trace Metals in the Surface Sediments of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Ramanathan, A.; Mathukumalli, B. K. P.; Datta, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, enrichment and ecotoxocity potential of Bangladesh part of Sundarban mangrove was investigated for eight trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) using sediment quality assessment indices. The average concentration of trace metals in the sediments exceeded the crustal abundance suggesting sources other than natural in origin. Additionally, the trace metals profile may be a reflection of socio-economic development in the vicinity of Sundarban which further attributes trace metals abundance to the anthropogenic inputs. Geoaccumulation index suggests moderately polluted sediment quality w.r.t. Ni and As and background concentrations for Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, As and Cd. Contamination factor analysis suggested low contamination by Zn, Cr, Co and Cd, moderate by Fe, Mn, Cu and Pb while Ni and As show considerable and high contamination, respectively. Enrichment factors for Ni, Pb and As suggests high contamination from either biota or anthropogenic inputs besides natural enrichment. As per the three sediment quality guidelines, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co and As would be more of a concern with respect to ecotoxicological risk in the Sundarban mangroves. The correlation between various physiochemical variables and trace metals suggested significant role of fine grained particles (clay) in trace metal distribution whereas owing to low organic carbon content in the region the organic complexation may not be playing significant role in trace metal distribution in the Sundarban mangroves.

  6. Distribution and speciation of metals in surface sediments of Taranto [corrected] gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, Alessandro; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Dell'Atti, Angelo; Di Leo, Antonella; Maci, Antonella; Petronio, Bianca Maria

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of metals (Al, Fe, Ti, Ni, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb) were determined in surface sediments from Taranto gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy) in order to assess the distribution and the bioavailability of metals. Total metal content and speciation of Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb were determined. Sediment cores were also sampled in some stations of particular interest. The analytical results show that metals distribution does not show significant variations in relation to depth. Metal distribution in the Taranto gulf is mainly influenced by industrial wastes from Taranto town, by rivers of the Basilicata region and by prevailing anticlockwise marine currents. These factors cause an accumulation of metals in the sediments near to the coasts of Calabria. The statistical analysis, effected by HCA and PCA methods, can be considered a good starting point in order to classify sediment samples and to locate accumulation areas. Metal speciation shows that Fe, Ni and Zn are present in sediments mainly as sulphides, Mn is present principally in an ion-exchange form or bound to carbonate, while Cu and Pb are mainly present in the fraction bounds to humic acids.

  7. Functional Analysis and Discovery of Microbial Genes Transforming Metallic and Organic Pollutants: Database and Experimental Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Wackett; Lynda B.M. Ellis

    2004-12-09

    Microbial functional genomics is faced with a burgeoning list of genes which are denoted as unknown or hypothetical for lack of any knowledge about their function. The majority of microbial genes encode enzymes. Enzymes are the catalysts of metabolism; catabolism, anabolism, stress responses, and many other cell functions. A major problem facing microbial functional genomics is proposed here to derive from the breadth of microbial metabolism, much of which remains undiscovered. The breadth of microbial metabolism has been surveyed by the PIs and represented according to reaction types on the University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database (UM-BBD): http://umbbd.ahc.umn.edu/search/FuncGrps.html The database depicts metabolism of 49 chemical functional groups, representing most of current knowledge. Twice that number of chemical groups are proposed here to be metabolized by microbes. Thus, at least 50% of the unique biochemical reactions catalyzed by microbes remain undiscovered. This further suggests that many unknown and hypothetical genes encode functions yet undiscovered. This gap will be partly filled by the current proposal. The UM-BBD will be greatly expanded as a resource for microbial functional genomics. Computational methods will be developed to predict microbial metabolism which is not yet discovered. Moreover, a concentrated effort to discover new microbial metabolism will be conducted. The research will focus on metabolism of direct interest to DOE, dealing with the transformation of metals, metalloids, organometallics and toxic organics. This is precisely the type of metabolism which has been characterized most poorly to date. Moreover, these studies will directly impact functional genomic analysis of DOE-relevant genomes.

  8. Distribution of rock, metals, and ices in Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Radio Doppler data from a single encounter (C3) of the Galileo spacecraft with Callisto, the outermost Galilean moon of Jupiter, indicated that Callisto was probably undifferentiated. Now, similar data from a second encounter (C9) corroborate this conclusion, but more accurate data from a third encounter (C10) indicate that the rock and ice within Callisto have partially, but not completely, separated. Callisto may be differentiated into a rock-metal core less than 25 percent of Callisto's radius, an outer layer of clean ice less than 350 km thick, and a middle layer of mixed rock and ice. Models in which ice and rock are mixed all the way to the center of Callisto are also consistent with the data.

  9. Atomistic Modeling of Diffusion and Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purja Pun, Ganga Prasad

    Dissertation consists of multiple works. The first part is devoted to self-diffusion along dislocation cores in aluminum followed by the development of embedded atom method potentials for Co, NiAl, CoAl and CoNi systems. The last part focuses on martensitic phase transformation (MPT) in Ni xAl1--x and Al xCoyNi1-- x--y alloys. New calculation methods were developed to predict diffusion coefficients in metal as functions of temperature. Self-diffusion along screw and edge dislocations in aluminum was studied by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Three types of simulations were performed with and without (intrinsic) pre-existing vacancies and interstitials in the dislocation core. We found that the diffusion along the screw dislocation was dominated by the intrinsic mechanism, whereas the diffusion along the edge dislocation was dominated by the vacancy mechanism. The diffusion along the screw dislocation was found to be significantly faster than the diffusion along the edge dislocation, and the both diffusivities were in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The intrinsic diffusion mechanism can be associated with the formation of dynamic Frenkel pairs, possibly activated by thermal jogs and/or kinks. The simulations show that at high temperatures the dislocation core becomes an effective source/sink of point defects and the effect of pre-existing defects on the core diffusivity diminishes. First and the foremost ingredient needed in all atomistic computer simulations is the description of interaction between atoms. Interatomic potentials for Co, NiAl, CoAl and CoNi systems were developed within the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) formalism. The binary potentials were based on previously developed accurate potentials for pure Ni and pure Al and pure Co developed in this work. The binaries constitute a version of EAM potential of AlCoNi ternary system. The NiAl potential accurately reproduces a variety of physical properties of the B2-NiAl and L12--Ni3Al phases

  10. [Effect of reclaimed water irrigation on soil properties and vertical distribution of heavy metal].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zong-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    Utilization of reclaimed water is one of the important methods to alleviate water shortage. The effect of reclaimed water irrigation on soil is always a concern. To understand the effect of long time reclaimed water irrigation on soil, typical farmland irrigated with reused water was selected. Soil properties and heavy metal concentration of soil and water samples were analyzed to identify the effect of the irrigation on heavy metal vertical distribution and organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and pH value in soil. The results show that heavy metal contents of irrigation water used in Liangshuihe farmland are 2.5 to 10.5 times higher than that of Beiyechang farmland, and reclaimed water irrigation could cause changes of soil properties that soil organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen were increased and pH values were reduced. Based on the field investigation results, the soil nutrient conditions benefit from irrigate reclaimed water, however, the accumulation of heavy metal in soil could raise the risk. As a source of soil heavy metal, reclaimed water irrigation could make differences on the accumulation and mobility of soil heavy metal. Also the distribution and mobility of soil heavy metal are influenced by soil organic matter content and there are more heavy metal were taken up by plants or transferred to the deeper area in Liangshuihe farmland.

  11. Effect of Drying on Heavy Metal Fraction Distribution in Rice Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yanbing; Huang, Biao; Darilek, Jeremy Landon

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how redox conditions affect soil heavy metal fractions in rice paddies is important due to its implications for heavy metal mobility and plant uptake. Rice paddy soil samples routinely undergo oxidation prior to heavy metal analysis. Fraction distribution of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd from paddy soil with a wide pH range was investigated. Samples were both dried according to standard protocols and also preserved under anaerobic conditions through the sampling and analysis process and heavy metals were then sequentially extracted for the exchangeable and carbonate bound fraction (acid soluble fraction), iron and manganese oxide bound fraction (reducible fraction), organic bound fraction (oxidizable fraction), and residual fraction. Fractions were affected by redox conditions across all pH ranges. Drying decreased reducible fraction of all heavy metals. Curesidual fraction, Pboxidizable fraction, Cdresidual fraction, and Niresidual fraction increased by 25%, 33%, 35%, and >60%, respectively. Pbresidual fraction, Niacid soluble fraction, and Cdoxidizable fraction decreased 33%, 25%, and 15%, respectively. Drying paddy soil prior to heavy metal analysis overestimated Pb and underestimated Cu, Ni, and Cd. In future studies, samples should be stored after injecting N2 gas to maintain the redox potential of soil prior to heavy metal analysis, and investigate the correlation between heavy metal fraction distribution under field conditions and air-dried samples. PMID:24823670

  12. The migration and transformation behavior of heavy metals during the liquefaction process of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Huang, Huajun; Jiang, Hongwei; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-09-01

    Bio-oils and bio-chars were obtained from sewage sludge (SS) by liquefaction with ethanol (or acetone) as the solvent at the temperature of 280, 320 and 360°C. The migration and transformation of HMs as Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni during liquefaction were thoroughly investigated. Meanwhile, the environmental risk of HMs in the bio-oils and bio-chars was assessed according to the risk assessment code (RAC). The results showed that the liquefaction solvent and temperature significantly affected the redistribution of HMs. HMs distributed mainly into the bio-chars, with less than 10% into the bio-oils. Increasing liquefaction temperature would promote a higher HM content in bio-oils. The environmental risk of HMs in bio-chars was mitigated compared to SS, especially for Ni. However, the environmental risk of Zn and Ni in bio-oils was undesirably high in comparison with bio-chars. It was suggested that the bio-oil should be pretreated before utilization.

  13. Reversible effects of sphingomyelin degradation on cholesterol distribution and metabolism in fibroblasts and transformed neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pörn, M I; Slotte, J P

    1990-10-01

    Plasma-membrane sphingomyelin appears to be one of the major determinants of the preferential allocation of cell cholesterol into the plasma-membrane compartment, since removal of sphingomyelin leads to a dramatic redistribution of cholesterol within the cell [Slotte & Bierman (1988) Biochem. J. 250, 653-658]. In the present study we examined the long-term effects of sphingomyelin degradation on cholesterol redistribution in cells and determined the reversibility of the process. In a human lung fibroblast-cell line, removal of 80% of the sphingomyelin led to a rapid and transient up-regulation (3-fold) of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity, and also, within 30 h, to the translocation of about 50% of the cell non-esterified cholesterol from a cholesterol oxidase-susceptible compartment (i.e. the cell surface) to oxidase-resistant compartments. At 49 h after the initial sphingomyelin degradation, the cell sphingomyelin level was back to 45% of the control level, and the direction of cell cholesterol flow was toward the cell surface, although the original distribution was not achieved. In a transformed neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), the depletion of sphingomyelin led to a similarly rapid and transient up-regulation of ACAT activity, and to the translocation of about 25% of cell-surface cholesterol into internal membranes (within 3 h). The flow of cholesterol back to the cholesterol oxidase-susceptible pool was rapid, and a pretreatment cholesterol distribution was reached within 20-49 h. Also, the resynthesis of sphingomyelin was faster in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and reached control levels within 24 h. The findings of the present study show that the cellular redistribution of cholesterol, as induced by sphingomyelin degradation, is reversible and suggest that the normalization of cellular cholesterol distribution is linked to the re-synthesis of sphingomyelin.

  14. Transient water age distributions in environmental flow systems: The time-marching Laplace transform solution technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaton, F. J.

    2012-03-01

    Environmental fluid circulations are very often characterized by analyzing the fate and behavior of natural and anthropogenic tracers. Among these tracers, age is taken as an ideal tracer which can yield interesting diagnoses, as for example the characterization of the mixing and renewal of water masses, of the fate and mixing of contaminants, or the calibration of hydrodispersive parameters used by numerical models. Such diagnoses are of great interest in atmospheric and ocean circulation sciences, as well in surface and subsurface hydrology. The temporal evolution of groundwater age and its frequency distributions can display important changes as flow regimes vary due to natural change in climate and hydrologic conditions and/or human induced pressures on the resource to satisfy the water demand. Groundwater age being nowadays frequently used to investigate reservoir properties and recharge conditions, special attention needs to be put on the way this property is characterized, would it be using isotopic methods or mathematical modeling. Steady state age frequency distributions can be modeled using standard numerical techniques since the general balance equation describing age transport under steady state flow conditions is exactly equivalent to a standard advection-dispersion equation. The time-dependent problem is however described by an extended transport operator that incorporates an additional coordinate for water age. The consequence is that numerical solutions can hardly be achieved, especially for real 3-D applications over large time periods of interest. A novel algorithm for solving the age distribution problem under time-varying flow regimes is presented and, for some specific configurations, extended to the problem of generalized component exposure time. The algorithm combines the Laplace transform technique applied to the age (or exposure time) coordinate with standard time-marching schemes. The method is validated and illustrated using analytical

  15. Effects of medium and trace metals on kinetics of carbon tetrachloride transformation by pseudomonas sp. strain KC

    SciTech Connect

    Tatara, G.M.; Dybas, M.J.; Criddle, C.S. )

    1993-07-01

    In recent years, interest has increased degradation of hazardous contaminants in situ by stimulating selected bacterial populations or by addition of novel organisms to contaminated sites. Advantages of introduced organisms include extensive study in the laboratory which improves prospects for control of their activities in the field. Chloroform (CF) is a common end product of carbon tetrachloride (CT) but is more presistant and is a suspected carcinogen. Metabolic pathways that do not produce CF are of interest. This study reports on the kinetics of CT transformation by Pseudomonas sp. strain KC and describes experiments to evaluate the role of trace metals in CT transformation kinetics. Evidence is provide that accelerated CT transformation can be obtained in iron-rich ground waters and soil slurries by adding strain KC after pH adjustment. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Trace metal distribution in sediments of northern continental shelf of Crete Island, Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulos, S. E.; Dounas, C. G.; Alexandrakis, G.; Koulouri, P.; Drakopoulos, P.

    2009-08-01

    The present study investigates the distribution of trace metals (Zn, Hg, Cd, Cu, and Pb), as indicators of pollution, in the surficial offshore shelf sediments along the northern coast of Heraklion Prefecture (Crete, Mediterranean Sea). The concentrations and the spatial distribution of the different trace metals, in relation to the sedimentological characteristics and the water circulation pattern of the entire continental shelf, are associated with human inshore sources of pollutants located along the coastline of the study area. Although the trace metal concentrations measured are higher than the background values, they are not considered to be dangerous to human health, as they are lower than the standard values given by the World Health Organisation, with only a few localised exceptions. Furthermore, results reveal the important role of local hydrodynamism that moves fine-grained material and associated trace metals offshore (seawards to wave breaking zone) and then transports them eastwards by entrapping them in the prevailing offshore shelf-water circulation.

  17. Distribution transformers not subject to destructive failure: Phase 3, Design improvements and preliminary market analyses: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baranowski, J.F.; Goedde, G.L.

    1987-10-01

    This research project investigated the substitution of inorganic high temperature insulating materials for the oil/paper system in present transformer designs. A variety of designs for a transformer were studied and the processing techniques necessary to fabricate transformers were developed. Materials were found that could function successfully as turn-to-turn insulations and barrier insulations. But in order to utilize these materials effectively a pancake coil design had to be developed along with the necessary fabrication techniques. Twenty 25 kVA field test transformers were constructed and supplied to host utilities across the country. This report describes work to improve the transformer efficiency and to examine the feasibility of commercializing the non-destructive transformer technology. The initial market penetration would be limited to special utility and industrial market applications in competition with cast coil and open ventilated, dry-type transformers. This would involve larger kVA sizes and as a result, larger wide foil concentric designs were considered. It was expected that by building volume in this specialty market the cost of the inorganic materials would be reduced so that eventually this technology could compete in the distribution transformer market.

  18. Distribution patterns of the metal pollutants Cd and Ni in soybean seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malan, H. L.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Farrant, J. M.; Linder, P. W.

    2012-02-01

    Soybean ( Glycine max) plants were grown to maturity in nutrient solution, amended with either Cd or Ni. The distribution of these metals in mature seeds was examined with micro-PIXE. The levels of Cd were too low for mapping and only average concentrations from selected regions could be obtained. Cd was localised mainly in the seed coat and cotyledons, with very little in the embryo axis. Levels of Ni were high enough to obtain the distribution maps. This metal was mainly concentrated in the axis, particularly in the apical meristem and cortex, and least in the cotyledons. Localisation of Ni within different tissues of the embryo was facilitated by mapping of Ca which is present in the cell walls of plants. This enabled the different plant tissues of the seed embryo to be identified. Micro-PIXE is a valuable tool for localising the distribution of metal pollutants in plant tissue.

  19. Size distributions and aerodynamic equivalence of metal chondrules and silicate chondrules in Acfer 059

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, William R.; Leenhouts, James M.

    1993-01-01

    The CR2 chondrite Acfer 059 is unusual in that the original droplet shapes of metal chondrules are well preserved. We determined separate size distributions for metal chondrules and silicate chondrules; the two types are well sorted and have similar size distributions about their respective mean diameters of 0.74 mm and 1.44 mm. These mean values are aerodynamically equivalent for the contrasting densities, as shown by calculated terminal settling velocities in a model solar nebula. Aerodynamic equivalence and similarity of size distributions suggest that metal and silicate fractions experienced the same sorting process before they were accreted onto the parent body. These characteristics, together with depletion of iron in Acfer 059 and essentially all other chondrites relative to primitive CI compositions, strongly suggest that sorting in the solar nebula involved a radial aerodynamic component and that sorting and siderophile depletion in chondrites are closely related.

  20. [Soil Heavy Metal Spatial Distribution and Source Analysis Around an Aluminum Plant in Baotou].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-ke; Li, Hai-peng; Huang, Xue-min; Li, Yu-mei; Jiao, Kun-ling; Sun, Peng; Wang, Wei-da

    2016-03-15

    The soil with 500 m distance from an aluminum plant in Baotou was studied. A total of 64 soil samples were taken from the 0-5 cm, 5-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm layers, and the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Mn were tested, respectively. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to identify the sources of these heavy metals in soils. The results suggested that the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Mn in study area were 32.9, 50.35, 69.92, 43.78, 0.54, 554.42 and 36.65 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively. All seven heavy metals tested were overweight compared with the background values of soil in Inner Mongolia. The spatial distribution of heavy metals showed that the horizontal distribution of heavy metals was obviously enriched in the southwest, while in vertical distribution, the heavy metal content (0 to 5 cm) was highest in the surface soil, and the heavy metal content decreased with increasing depth and tended to be stabilized when the depth was over 20 cm. Source analysis showed that the source of Cu, Zn, Cr and Mn might be influenced by the aluminum plant and the surrounding industrial activity. The source of Pb and Cd might be mainly related to road transportation. The source of Ni may be affected by agricultural activities and soil parent material together. PMID:27337911

  1. [Soil Heavy Metal Spatial Distribution and Source Analysis Around an Aluminum Plant in Baotou].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-ke; Li, Hai-peng; Huang, Xue-min; Li, Yu-mei; Jiao, Kun-ling; Sun, Peng; Wang, Wei-da

    2016-03-15

    The soil with 500 m distance from an aluminum plant in Baotou was studied. A total of 64 soil samples were taken from the 0-5 cm, 5-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm layers, and the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Mn were tested, respectively. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to identify the sources of these heavy metals in soils. The results suggested that the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Mn in study area were 32.9, 50.35, 69.92, 43.78, 0.54, 554.42 and 36.65 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively. All seven heavy metals tested were overweight compared with the background values of soil in Inner Mongolia. The spatial distribution of heavy metals showed that the horizontal distribution of heavy metals was obviously enriched in the southwest, while in vertical distribution, the heavy metal content (0 to 5 cm) was highest in the surface soil, and the heavy metal content decreased with increasing depth and tended to be stabilized when the depth was over 20 cm. Source analysis showed that the source of Cu, Zn, Cr and Mn might be influenced by the aluminum plant and the surrounding industrial activity. The source of Pb and Cd might be mainly related to road transportation. The source of Ni may be affected by agricultural activities and soil parent material together.

  2. Experimental Investigation on Liquid Metal Flow Distribution in Insulating Manifold under Uniform Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Masato; Ueki, Yoshitaka; Yokomine, Takehiko; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2012-11-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problem which is caused by interaction between electrical conducting fluid flow and the magnetic field is one of the biggest problem in the liquid metal blanket of the fusion reactor. In the liquid metal blanket concept, it is necessary to distribute liquid metal flows uniformly in the manifold because imbalance of flow rates should affect the heat transfer performance directly, which leads to safety problem. While the manifold is insulated electrically as well as the flow duct, the 3D-MHD effect on the flowing liquid metal in the manifold is more apparent than that in straight duct. With reference to the flow distribution in this concept, the liquid metal flow in the electrical insulating manifold under the uniform transverse magnetic field is investigated experimentally. In this study, GaInSn is selected as working fluid. The experimental system includes the electrical magnet and the manifold test section which is made of acrylic resin for perfectly electrical insulation. The liquid metal flows in a non-symmetric 180°-turn with manifold, which consists of one upward channel and two downward channels. The flow rates in each channel are measured by electromagnetic flow meters for several combinations Reynolds number and Hartman number. The effects of magnetic field on the uniformity of flow distribution are cleared.

  3. Heavy metals distribution in the sediments of Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, V. ); Van Grieken, R.; Van't Dack, L. )

    1987-01-01

    Bed sediments were collected from the entire region of the Ganges basin and some parts of the Brahmaputra. In addition, selected stations were sampled for suspended sediments as well. The samples were analyzed for a number of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Zn) by the thin-film energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. There are pronounced temporal and spatial variations in the heavy metals distributions. Suspended sediments are 5-10 times richer than the bed sediments. None of the tributaries contribute significant heavy metal load, but around urban areas in Yamuna (tributary of Ganges), very high levels due to the distribution from the drainage network are observed. Compared to the Brahmaputra, the distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in the Ganges sediments are more erratic and highly variable. All the metals considered show high correlation among themselves. Given the high flux of suspended sediments from the Himalayan rivers (nearly 20% of the global flux), the worldwide budget for heavy metal transport may need to be suitable revised.

  4. Heavy metals distribution in the sediments of ganges and Brahmaputra rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, V.; van Grieken, R.; van't Dack, L.

    1987-06-01

    Bed sediments were collected from the entire region of the Ganges basin and some parts of the Brahmaputra. In addition, selected stations were sampled for suspended sediments as well. The samples were analysed for a number of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Zn) by the thin-film energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. There are pronounced temporal and spatial variations in the heavy metals distributions. Suspended sediments are 5-10 times richer than the bed sediments. None of the tributaries contribute significant heavy metal load, but around urban areas in Yamuna (tributary of Ganges), very high levels due to the distribution from the drainage network are observed. Compared to the Brahmaputra, the distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in the Ganges sediments are more erratic and highly variable. All the metals considered show high correlation among themselves. Given the high flux of suspended sediments from the Himalayan rivers (nearly 20% of the global flux), the worldwide budget for heavy metal transport may need to be suitably revised.

  5. Triple junction and grain boundary character distributions in metallic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fortier, P.; Miller, W.A.; Aust, K.T.

    1997-08-01

    Triple junction and grain boundary orientations were obtained by electron backscattered diffraction in high purity aluminium and copper, and in copper-bismuth alloys, and were then characterized using the CSL, CAD and I-line (O-lattice) geometrical models. A computer simulation was also performed and compared to the experimental results. Relationships were established between triple junction and grain boundary character distributions using both experimental and computer simulated results. A general trend was observed which shows an increase in special triple junction character density with increasing special grain boundary character content. An increased frequency of low angle and twin boundaries is shown to lead to an increase in the I-line triple junction density.

  6. Fate and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Irrigated Calcareous Soils

    PubMed Central

    Stietiya, Mohammed Hashem; Duqqah, Mohammad; Udeigwe, Theophilus; Zubi, Ruba; Ammari, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in Jordanian soils irrigated with treated wastewater threatens agricultural sustainability. This study was carried out to investigate the environmental fate of Zn, Ni, and Cd in calcareous soils irrigated with treated wastewater and to elucidate the impact of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) amendment on metal redistribution among soil fractions. Results showed that sorption capacity for Zarqa River (ZR1) soil was higher than Wadi Dhuleil (WD1) soil for all metals. The order of sorption affinity for WD1 was in the decreasing order of Ni > Zn > Cd, consistent with electrostatic attraction and indication of weak association with soil constituents. Following metal addition, Zn and Ni were distributed among the carbonate and Fe/Mn oxide fractions, while Cd was distributed among the exchangeable and carbonate fractions in both soils. Amending soils with 3% HFO did not increase the concentration of metals associated with the Fe/Mn oxide fraction or impact metal redistribution. The study suggests that carbonates control the mobility and bioavailability of Zn, Ni, and Cd in these calcareous soils, even in presence of a strong adsorbent such as HFO. Thus, it can be inferred that in situ heavy metal remediation of these highly calcareous soils using iron oxide compounds could be ineffective. PMID:24723833

  7. Flow and heat distribution analysis of different transformer sub-stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasini, H.; Shuaib, N. H.; Yogendran, S. B.; Toh, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes CFD investigation on the flow and heat transfer in transformers at different sub-station buildings. The analysis aimed to determine the cooling capability of the existing transformer building employing natural ventilation system to dissipate heat sufficiently when new dry-type transformer operating under full load condition is used. The transformer and building models were developed based on the actual transformer configuration in operation at three different locations in Malaysia. The calculation was carried out on three different types of sub-stations namely stand-alone, attach-to-building and underground. The effect of natural ventilation speed and building volume on the transformer surfaces temperature are also investigated. It was predicted that the existing sub-station configuration is able to dissipate heat produced from the dry type transformer by using its natural ventilation system regardless of the sub-station types. However, the smallest building case shows relatively high surrounding temperature.

  8. Which kind of data (normally distributed, standardized, transformed) for a realistic factor analysis?

    PubMed

    Aruga, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    Taking into account that the problem of the best pretreatment of data for factor analysis has not yet arrived at generally accepted solutions, it has been tried to estimate, by an empiric procedure, the goodness of the results of repeated factor analyses with different pretreatments, conditions and statistical distribution of variables. Sets of multivariate data for river waters have been constructed firstly, after fixing the number and nature of the latent factors corresponding to the sources of pollution. A series of R-mode factor analyses has then been performed on these data, using various pretreatments (autoscaling, logarithmic transformation and their combinations), various factor rotations (rigid and oblique) and methods of computation of significant factors (40 data processing on the whole). Factor analyses have also been performed on real data of the Po river in the Piedmont region. Comparisons between the results obtained by factor analysis and the actual situation of the systems investigated have made it possible to draw some conclusions on how to proceed in order to obtain realistic results with this chemometric technique.

  9. Angular distribution of atoms ejected by laser ablation of different metals

    SciTech Connect

    Konomi, I.; Motohiro, T.; Asaoka, T.

    2009-07-01

    Angular distributions of 13 different metals ejected by laser ablation using fourth harmonics (wavelength=266 nm) of neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser and a fluence close to near-threshold value (2.3 J/cm{sup 2}) have been investigated with a high angular resolution. The angular distribution which is characterized by the exponent n of cos{sup n} theta distribution showed very broad range of values between 3 and 24 for different metals. A simple relation that the exponent n is proportional to the square root of particle atomic weight as reported previously has not been observed. Instead, a general trend has been found that the metals with higher sublimation energy such as Ta and Zr show narrower angular distribution than those with lower sublimation energy such as Sn and In. While the sublimation energy of metals has a great influence on the angular distribution of ejected atoms, a simple consideration suggests that their thermal conductivity and specific heat have little effect on it.

  10. Characterization and distribution of metal and nonmetal elements in the Alberta oil sands region of Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; McPhedran, Kerry N; Yang, Lingling; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the characterization and distribution of metals and nonmetals in the Alberta oil sands region (AOSR) of Canada. The development of the oil sands industry has resulted in the release of organic, metal and nonmetal contaminants via air and water to the AOSR. For air, studies have found that atmospheric deposition of metals in the AOSR decreased exponentially with distance from the industrial emission sources. For water, toxic metal concentrations often exceeded safe levels leading to the potential for negative impacts to the receiving aquatic environments. Interestingly, although atmospheric deposition, surface waters, fish tissues, and aquatic bird eggs exhibited increasing level of metals in the AOSR, reported results from river sediments showed no increases over time. This could be attributed to physical and/or chemical dynamics of the river system to transport metals to downstream. The monitoring of the airborne emissions of relevant nonmetals (nitrogen and sulphur species) was also considered over the AOSR. These species were found to be increasing along with the oil sands developments with the resultant depositions contributing to nitrogen and sulphur accumulations resulting in ecosystem acidification and eutrophication impacts. In addition to direct monitoring of metals/nonmetals, tracing of air emissions using isotopes was also discussed. Further investigation and characterization of metals/nonmetals emissions in the AOSR are needed to determine their impacts to the ecosystem and to assess the need for further treatment measures to limit their continued output into the receiving environments. PMID:26766359

  11. The seasonal influence on the spatial distribution of dissolved selected metals in Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamau, Joseph Nyingi; Gachanja, Anthony; Ngila, Catherine; Kazungu, Johnson Michael; Zhai, Mingzhe

    Lake Naivasha is the only freshwater Lake in Rift Valley, in Kenya. It lies in a fertile semi-arid basin. The Lake has no surface water outlet and is presumed to be under stress. Dissolved metals are directly taken up by bacteria, algae, plants, and planktonic and benthic organisms. Dissolved metals can also adsorb to particulate matter in water column and enter aquatic organisms through various routes. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc may bioaccumulate within lower organisms, yet they do not biomagnify up the food chain as do mercury and selenium. This study reports on the levels and distribution of dissolved heavy metals and investigates the influence of physicochemical parameters on metal mobilization. The bioavailability of selected metals was investigated by relating the levels of dissolved metals to that in fish. Water abstraction for irrigation and domestic use, compounded with organic matter inflow will affect physicochemical parameters and hence influences the mobilization of heavy metals. Dissolved Zn correlated highly with sediment pH (r = 0.67) indicating that dissolution increases with increase in pH. In addition, the fact that the pH also correlated positively with organic matter r = 0.50, Eh r = 0.63, temperature r = 0.56 and dissolved oxygen r = 56, would suggest that organic bound Zn contributed significantly to the concentration of dissolved Zn. In situ flux experiments indicated that the fringing papyrus reeds located along the shores of Lake Naivasha provided sites for metal immobilization due to their coprecipitation on redox sensitive.

  12. Characterization and distribution of metal and nonmetal elements in the Alberta oil sands region of Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; McPhedran, Kerry N; Yang, Lingling; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the characterization and distribution of metals and nonmetals in the Alberta oil sands region (AOSR) of Canada. The development of the oil sands industry has resulted in the release of organic, metal and nonmetal contaminants via air and water to the AOSR. For air, studies have found that atmospheric deposition of metals in the AOSR decreased exponentially with distance from the industrial emission sources. For water, toxic metal concentrations often exceeded safe levels leading to the potential for negative impacts to the receiving aquatic environments. Interestingly, although atmospheric deposition, surface waters, fish tissues, and aquatic bird eggs exhibited increasing level of metals in the AOSR, reported results from river sediments showed no increases over time. This could be attributed to physical and/or chemical dynamics of the river system to transport metals to downstream. The monitoring of the airborne emissions of relevant nonmetals (nitrogen and sulphur species) was also considered over the AOSR. These species were found to be increasing along with the oil sands developments with the resultant depositions contributing to nitrogen and sulphur accumulations resulting in ecosystem acidification and eutrophication impacts. In addition to direct monitoring of metals/nonmetals, tracing of air emissions using isotopes was also discussed. Further investigation and characterization of metals/nonmetals emissions in the AOSR are needed to determine their impacts to the ecosystem and to assess the need for further treatment measures to limit their continued output into the receiving environments.

  13. Determination of grain size distribution function using two-dimensional Fourier transforms of tone pulse encoded images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Microstructural images may be tone pulse encoded and subsequently Fourier transformed to determine the two-dimensional density of frequency components. A theory is developed relating the density of frequency components to the density of length components. The density of length components corresponds directly to the actual grain size distribution function from which the mean grain shape, size, and orientation can be obtained.

  14. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

  15. The transformation of organic amines by transition metal cluster compounds. Progress report, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper reports results on the following five studies: (1) The activation of tertiary amines by osmium cluster complexes; (2) Nucleophilic ring opening of thietane ligand in metal carbonyl cluster complexes; (3) Ring opening of a nitrogen containing strained ring heterocycle by an osmium cluster complex; (4) Insertion of an alkynes into a metal-metal bond -- evidence for an intramolecular insertion with a trans-stereochemistry; and (5) Cyclobutyne -- the ligand. Plans for future research are also briefly discussed. Two studies are planned: (1) studies of the synthesis and reactivity of strained ring ligands in metal cluster compounds; and (2) studies of the reactivity of dimetallic complexes with alkynes.

  16. Effects of drip irrigation on migration and distribution of heavy metals in soil profile.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Dong, Yunshe; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Jing; Xue, Yuan; Guo, Shufang

    2016-02-01

    Drip irrigation systems have been widely applied in semiarid and arid regions of China. However, little is known about the migration of heavy metals in cultivated soil under drip irrigation. Therefore, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil were determined. The mean contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in surface soil subjected to irrigation with low and high amounts of water (W1 and W2) were 0.11, 117.50, 37.51, 13.53, 78.10, and 38.41 mg/kg and 0.20, 94.45, 29.71, 22.48, 63.00, and 36.62 mg/kg, respectively. Metal concentrations in deep soil varied slightly between W1 and W2. Among different distances from the dropper, the metal levels in surface soil varied widely, while they varied slightly in deep soil. The Igeo (geo-accumulation index) values indicated that the soil was usually contaminated by Cr, Cu, and Cd. Under W1, Cd and Cu usually accumulated in surface soil near the dropper, while the other metals leached into subsurface soil. Moreover, the metals generally accumulated in soil away from the dropper. However, significant leaching of metals to the subsurface and deep soil was observed near the dropper under W2. Away from the dropper, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb usually accumulated in surface and deep soil. This suggested that heavy metals generally migrated to the soil away from the dropper when subjected to lower amounts of irrigation, while metals usually moved to surface soil and deep soil under high irrigation amounts. These findings indicate that drip irrigation greatly affected the distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil, with irrigation with lower amounts of irrigation water significantly affecting the horizontal migration of heavy metals and higher amounts influencing the vertical movement of heavy metals.

  17. Heavy metal removal and speciation transformation through the calcination treatment of phosphorus-enriched sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Li, Rundong; Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Yanlong; Wang, Weiyun; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the heavy metal (Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ni) control problem during the thermochemical recovery of phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge (SS), P-enriched sewage sludge ash (PSSA) was calcined at 1100°C. The effect of organic chlorinating agent (PVC) and inorganic chlorinating agent (MgCl2) on the fixed rate of P removal and the speciation transformation of heavy metal was studied. The removal of heavy metals Cd, Pb, As, Zn, and Cr exhibited an increasing tendency with the addition of chlorinating agent (PVC). However, an obvious peak under 100gCl/kg of PSSA appeared for Cu, owing to the presence of carbon and hydrogen in PVC. MgCl2 was found to be more effective than PVC in the removal of most heavy metals, such that up to 98.9% of Cu and 97.3% of Zn was effectively removed. Analyses of heavy metal forms showed that Pb and Zn occurred in the residue fraction after calcination. Meanwhile, the residue fraction of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Cu exhibited a decreasing tendency with the increase in the added chlorinating agent (MgCl2). Losses of P from PSSA were around 16.6% without the addition of chlorinating agent, which were greatly reduced to around 7.7% (PVC) and to only 1.7% (MgCl2).

  18. Spatial and temporal trace metal distribution of a Peruvian basin: recognizing trace metal sources and assessing the potential risk.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, C; Blazquez, N; Pérez-Foguet, A; Miralles, N

    2013-10-01

    Recent efforts have been made to determine the environmental impact of mining over the past 11 years in the Jequetepeque River basin, in northern Peru. We have now analyzed data from two studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal trace metal distributions and to assess the sources of contamination. These two studies were carried out from 2003 to 2008 by a Peruvian government administration and from 2008 to 2010 by us. We analyzed 249 samples by principal component analysis, measuring: pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chloride, weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, total cyanide, nitrite and nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and trace metals and metalloids (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Within the spatial distribution of the basin, the highest Al, As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb concentrations were found at the closest point to the mine sites for both periods of time, with the higher peaks measured during the first years of the sampling data. Temporal trends showed higher concentrations of Cu and Fe in samples taken before 2005, at which point the two mines were closed. Risk assessment was quantified by the hazard quotient as related to water ingestion. The risk for human health posed by the concentrations of several trace metals and metalloids was found to be highly adverse (As and Cr), significant (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb), or minimal (Ni and Zn). PMID:23479118

  19. Subcellular Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Bivalve Modiolus Modiolus Living Along a Metal Contamination Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgurskaya, Olga V.; Kavun, Victor Ya.

    2006-03-01

    Concentration and distribution of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni among subcellular fractions (cellular membrane structures and cytosol) and Zn, Cu, Cd among cytoplasmic proteins in the kidney and digestive gland of mussel Modiolus modiolus living along a polymetallic concentration gradient were studied. It was found in the kidney of M. modiolus from contaminated sites that the Fe percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn percent increased in the cytosol compared to the kidney of the control mussel. Note kidney cytosol of M. modiolus from clean and contaminated sites sequestered major parts of Cu and Cd. In the digestive gland of M. modiolus from contaminated sites Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Cu, Pb percent increased in the cytosol compared to digestive gland of control mussel. Gel-filtration chromatography shows kidney of M. modiolus contains increased metallothionein-like protein levels irrespective of ambient dissolved metal concentrations. It was shown that the metal detoxification system in the kidney and digestive gland of M. modiolus was efficient under extremely high ambient metal levels. However, under complex environmental contamination in the kidney of M. modiolus, the metal detoxification capacity of metallothionein-like proteins was damaged.

  20. Spontaneous, Solvent-Free, Polymer-Templated, Solid-Solid Transformation of Thin Metal Films into Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cruz, Olivia; Avila-Gutierrez, Lizeth; Zolotukhin, Mikhail G; Gonzalez, Gonzalo; Monroy, B Marel; Montiel, Raúl; Vera-Graziano, Ricardo; Romero-Ibarra, Josue E; Novelo-Peralta, Omar; Massó Rojas, Felipe Alonso

    2016-09-14

    Metal nanoparticles have unusual optical, electronic, sensing, recognition, catalytic, and therapeutic properties. They are expected to form the basis of many of the technological and biological innovations of this century. A prerequisite for future applications using nanoparticles as functional entities is control of the shape, size, and homogeneity of these nanoparticles and of their interparticle spacing and arrangement on surfaces, between electrodes, or in devices. Here, we demonstrate that thin films of gold, silver, and copper sputter-deposited onto the surface of an organic polymer poly[[1,1':4',1″-terphenyl]-4,4″-diyl(2-bromo-1-carboxyethylidene)] (PTBC) undergo spontaneous solid-solid transformation into nanoparticles. Furthermore, we show that, by varying the thickness of the films, the volume-to-surface ratio of the polymer substrate, and the amount of plasticizer, it is possible to control the rate of transformation and the morphology of the nanoparticles formed. PTBC containing Au nanoparticles was found to enhance the cell adhesion and proliferation. To the best of our knowledge, our findings constitute the first experimental evidence of spontaneous, room-temperature, solid-solid transformation of metal films sputtered onto the surface of an organic polymeric substrate into nanoparticles (crystals).

  1. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentationmore » studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.« less

  2. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentation studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.

  3. Efficient implementation of a multidimensional fast fourier transform on a distributed-memory parallel multi-node computer

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan V.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2008-01-01

    The present in invention is directed to a method, system and program storage device for efficiently implementing a multidimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a multidimensional array comprising a plurality of elements initially distributed in a multi-node computer system comprising a plurality of nodes in communication over a network, comprising: distributing the plurality of elements of the array in a first dimension across the plurality of nodes of the computer system over the network to facilitate a first one-dimensional FFT; performing the first one-dimensional FFT on the elements of the array distributed at each node in the first dimension; re-distributing the one-dimensional FFT-transformed elements at each node in a second dimension via "all-to-all" distribution in random order across other nodes of the computer system over the network; and performing a second one-dimensional FFT on elements of the array re-distributed at each node in the second dimension, wherein the random order facilitates efficient utilization of the network thereby efficiently implementing the multidimensional FFT. The "all-to-all" re-distribution of array elements is further efficiently implemented in applications other than the multidimensional FFT on the distributed-memory parallel supercomputer.

  4. Efficient implementation of multidimensional fast fourier transform on a distributed-memory parallel multi-node computer

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan V.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2012-01-10

    The present in invention is directed to a method, system and program storage device for efficiently implementing a multidimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a multidimensional array comprising a plurality of elements initially distributed in a multi-node computer system comprising a plurality of nodes in communication over a network, comprising: distributing the plurality of elements of the array in a first dimension across the plurality of nodes of the computer system over the network to facilitate a first one-dimensional FFT; performing the first one-dimensional FFT on the elements of the array distributed at each node in the first dimension; re-distributing the one-dimensional FFT-transformed elements at each node in a second dimension via "all-to-all" distribution in random order across other nodes of the computer system over the network; and performing a second one-dimensional FFT on elements of the array re-distributed at each node in the second dimension, wherein the random order facilitates efficient utilization of the network thereby efficiently implementing the multidimensional FFT. The "all-to-all" re-distribution of array elements is further efficiently implemented in applications other than the multidimensional FFT on the distributed-memory parallel supercomputer.

  5. Distribution of platinum and other traffic related metals in sediments and clams (Corbicula sp.).

    PubMed

    Ruchter, Nadine; Sures, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    Platinum is part of traffic-emitted metals since the introduction of automotive catalyst converters. Still, automobile emissions are one of the major sources for metals in European river systems. However, field data on Pt is scarce and there is a lack of knowledge concerning the distribution and biological availability of Pt. Therefore, the distribution of traffic related metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt, and Zn) was analyzed in sediment samples and in the Asian clam Corbicula sp. Samples were taken from three transects following road runoff inlets. Pt was introduced into the river by road runoff. The highest Pt concentrations in sediments were analyzed in the silt/clay fraction (45 ng/g), while the highest total Pt burden was obtained for the sand fraction, that makes up more than 60% of the sediment. Metal concentrations were related to the area of the drained street section as well as to their distance from the discharge point, and to grain size distribution within the sediment. Pt and other traffic related metals were accumulated by clams. Due to the feeding behavior of the freshwater mussel Corbicula sp. Pt concentrations in the soft tissue remain relatively low (max Pt concentration: 1.3 ng/g freeze dried soft tissue) and acute lethal or toxic effects therefore appear to be unlikely. Nonetheless, chronic exposure effects still have to be examined.

  6. Distribution of platinum and other traffic related metals in sediments and clams (Corbicula sp.).

    PubMed

    Ruchter, Nadine; Sures, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    Platinum is part of traffic-emitted metals since the introduction of automotive catalyst converters. Still, automobile emissions are one of the major sources for metals in European river systems. However, field data on Pt is scarce and there is a lack of knowledge concerning the distribution and biological availability of Pt. Therefore, the distribution of traffic related metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt, and Zn) was analyzed in sediment samples and in the Asian clam Corbicula sp. Samples were taken from three transects following road runoff inlets. Pt was introduced into the river by road runoff. The highest Pt concentrations in sediments were analyzed in the silt/clay fraction (45 ng/g), while the highest total Pt burden was obtained for the sand fraction, that makes up more than 60% of the sediment. Metal concentrations were related to the area of the drained street section as well as to their distance from the discharge point, and to grain size distribution within the sediment. Pt and other traffic related metals were accumulated by clams. Due to the feeding behavior of the freshwater mussel Corbicula sp. Pt concentrations in the soft tissue remain relatively low (max Pt concentration: 1.3 ng/g freeze dried soft tissue) and acute lethal or toxic effects therefore appear to be unlikely. Nonetheless, chronic exposure effects still have to be examined. PMID:25543241

  7. Cosmic distribution of highly ionized metals and their physical conditions in the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-06-01

    We study the distribution and evolution of highly ionized intergalactic metals in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. EAGLE has been shown to reproduce a wide range of galaxy properties while its subgrid feedback was calibrated without considering gas properties. We compare the predictions for the column density distribution functions (CDDFs) and cosmic densities of Si IV, C IV, N V, O VI and Ne VIII absorbers with observations at redshift z = 0 to ˜6 and find reasonable agreement, although there are some differences. We show that the typical physical densities of the absorbing gas increase with column density and redshift, but decrease with the ionization energy of the absorbing ion. The typical metallicity increases with both column density and time. The fraction of collisionally ionized metal absorbers increases with time and ionization energy. While our results show little sensitivity to the presence or absence of AGN feedback, increasing/decreasing the efficiency of stellar feedback by a factor of 2 substantially decreases/increases the CDDFs and the cosmic densities of the metal ions. We show that the impact of the efficiency of stellar feedback on the CDDFs and cosmic densities is largely due to its effect on the metal production rate. However, the temperatures of the metal absorbers, particularly those of strong O VI, are directly sensitive to the strength of the feedback.

  8. Speciation and transformation of heavy metals during vermicomposting of animal manure.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of vermicomposting on the speciation and mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cu) in cattle dung (CD) and pig manure (PM) using tessier sequential extraction method. Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon and C/N ratio were reduced, while the electric conductivity and humic acid increased after 90days vermicomposting. Moreover, the addition of earthworm could accelerate organic stabilization in vermicomposting. The total heavy metals in final vermicompost from CD and PM were higher than the initial values and the control without worms. Sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting decreased the migration and availability of heavy metals, and the earthworm could reduce the mobile fraction, while increase the stable fraction of heavy metals. Furthermore, these results indicated that vermicomposting played a positive role in stabilizing heavy metals in the treatment of animal manure. PMID:26976060

  9. Grain-size distribution and morphology of metal in E-chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, A. J.

    1983-03-01

    The size distribution and morphology of metal grains have been examined in 11 sections of types I and II E-chondrites. The changes in the grain-size distribution and morphology of metal grains correspond with the petrologic types and define a series that reflects increase in thermal metamorphism in the following order: type I, Kota Kota-Indarch-South Oman-St. Mark's; and type II, Jajh deh Kot Lalu-Atlanta-Daniel's Kuil-Hvittis-Pillistfer-Khairpur-Blithfield. Concentrations of metal grains adjacent to the perimeters of chondrules are observable throughout the sequence and delineate relic chondritic structure in six of the seven type II E-chondrites; relic structures are absent from Blithfield.

  10. Distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals in human scalp hair from Balkans.

    PubMed

    Zunic, Z S; Tokonami, S; Mishra, S; Arae, H; Kritsananuwat, R; Sahoo, S K

    2012-11-01

    The possible consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) used in Balkan conflicts in 1995 and 1999 for the people and the environment of this reason need attention. The heavy metal content in human hair may serve as a good indicator of dietary, environmental and occupational exposures to the metal compounds. The present work summarises the distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Cs in the scalp hair of inhabitants from Balkans exposed to DU directly and indirectly, i.e. Han Pijesak, Bratoselce and Gornja Stubla areas. Except U and Cs, all other metals were compared with the worldwide reported values of occupationally unexposed persons. Uranium concentrations show a wide variation ranging from 0.9 ± 0.05 to 449 ± 12 µg kg(-1). Although hair samples were collected from Balkan conflict zones, uranium isotopic measurement ((235)U/(238)U) shows a natural origin rather than DU.

  11. Occurrence and distribution of selected metals in streams near Huntsville, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, E.R.; Knight, Alfred L.

    1973-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and zinc are widely distributed around Huntsville, Ala. However, concentrations of these metals in streamflow in the vicinity of the Huntsville municipal water intake during June, August, and September 1971 did not exceed the limits recommended for a public drinking water supply. The occurrence of these metals in general is related to man's activities. Information gained during this study suggests that cadmium and the other metals are associated with and transported with suspended sediment, bed material, and airborne dust particles. Lead and zinc were the most abundant of the selected metals in streamflow, bed material, and rainwater samples. The highest concentration of cadmium was detected downstream from an industrial park in the Flint River basin; rainwater samples also contained a relatively high level of cadmium.

  12. Distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments from the South China Sea ecosystem, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee, Khadijeh; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Naghavi, Kazem; Saion, Elias; Shafaei, Mohammad Ali; Soltani, Nayere

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc in surface sediments collected from the east coast of peninsular Malaysia, along the South China Sea, were measured by two methods instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The obtained results were use to determine the areal distribution of the metals of in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia and potential sources of these metals to this environment. The geochemical data propose that most of the metals found in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia constitute a redistribution of territorial materials within the ecosystem. Then, the metal concentrations can be considered to be present at natural background levels in surface sediments.

  13. Similarities and differences of metal distributions in the tissues of molluscs by using multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Yap, Chee Kong; Edward, Franklin Berandah; Tan, Soon Guan

    2010-06-01

    Multivariate analysis including correlation, multiple stepwise linear regression, and cluster analyses were applied to investigate the heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the different parts of bivalves and gastropods. It was also aimed to distinguish statistically the differences between the marine bivalves and the gastropods with regards to the accumulation of heavy metals in the different tissues. The different parts of four species of bivalves and four species of gastropods were obtained and analyzed for heavy metals. The multivariate analyses were then applied on the data. From the multivariate analyses conducted, there were correlations found between the soft tissues of bivalves and gastropods, but none was found between the shells and the soft tissues of most of the molluscs (except for Cerithidea obtusa and Puglina cochlidium). The significant correlations (P < 0.05) found between the soft tissues were further complemented by the multiple stepwise linear regressions where heavy metals in the total soft tissues were influenced by the accumulation in the different types of soft tissues. The present study found that the distributions of heavy metals in the different parts of molluscs were related to their feeding habits and living habitats. The statistical approaches proposed in this study are recommended for use in biomonitoring studies, since multivariate analyses can reduce the cost and time involved in identifying an effective tissue to monitor the heavy metal(s) bioavailability and contamination in tropical coastal waters.

  14. Distribution of metals between particulate and gaseous forms in a volcanic plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain information on the distribution of metals between particles and gaseous forms in the plume of Kilauea volcano, a filter designed to collect metals associated with particles was followed in series by two other collectors intended to trap metals present in gaseous (atomic, molecular, or complexed) form: first an acid-bubbler bath and then a cold trap. Of the six metals measured, all of the In, Tl and Bi, and almost all of the Cd, Pb and Cu were found on the filter. None of any of the metals was detected in the acid-bubbler bath. Masses equivalent to 0.3% of the amount of Cd on the filter, 0.4% of the amount of Pb, and 9.3% of the Cu, were measured in the cold trap. The results indicate that all or nearly all of the six metals were partitioned to the particulate portion of the physical mixture of gases and particles that constitutes a volcanic plume, but that there may be systematic differences between chalcophile metals in the ways they are partitioned between particulate and gaseous phases in a cooled plume, and possibly differences in the acidity or other chemical properties of the molecular phases. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Metal distribution in coral reef complex Cayo Arcas in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cram, Silke; Ponce de León, Claudia A; Sommer, Irene; Miceli, Susi; Fernández, Pilar; Rivas, Hilda; Galicia, Leopoldo

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the coral reef system Cayos Arcas and Triangulos in the Campeche Bank region, off the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico. No information has been generated before for the incorporation of natural and non-natural occurring metals, some of which are possibly endowed by the oil marine station Cayo Arcas. The multivariate exploratory study of the metals on the coral skeletons, showed the formation of two distinct groups. The metals that have the highest influence on the differentiation of the groups are the metals that are natural constituents of the coral skeletons, in particular Sr can explain much of the differences between the groups, and to a much lesser extent are the metals that could be indicators of pollution. This differentiation suggests that, in our case, the environment around the corals has a higher impact than the non-naturally occurring metals (and possible indicators of pollution). The two groups formed corresponded to: the coral cores influenced by open sea variables and the coral cores in the inner part of the keys which is less exposed to open sea variables. A chronological study was made to two samples that had the longest coral section and were situated in two clearly distinctive zones: an exposed surface subjected to high wave forces and another that was less exposed. Ni and Zn show an accumulation trend in both coral samples, while Ba showed an increase in incorporation around 1980 when the Cayo Arcas oil marine station was constructed.

  16. Thermodynamic Study of Transformation of Methane to Synthesis Gas Over Metal Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohi, P.; Alizadeh, R.; Fatehifar, E.

    2015-01-01

    A metal oxide reduction-water splitting cycle is a new developing method to produce synthesis gas without using a catalyst. In the reduction stage, metal oxide reduction and methane activation are combined in an efficient and energy-saving process using methane as a reducing agent. In this study, the effect of temperature and reductant (oxidant) amount on the equilibrium composition of products, graphitic carbon formation, yield of synthesis gas (water splitting stage), and produced ratio are thermodynamically investigated. This investigation includes metal oxides of zinc, tin, cobalt, and nickel. The results show that the synthesis gas is produced simultaneously with gaseous zinc, molten tin, solid cobalt, and solid nickel for those metal oxides in the reduction process. In the case of tin oxide, the feasibility of the graphitic carbon formation is less than the other oxides. The maximum yield of synthesis gas occurs in the stoichiometric molar ratio of methanothermal reduction reactions. From the methane consumption point of view, zinc oxide has a much higher synthesis gas yield. Finally, it is proposed that cobalt and nickel oxides can be used only in the reduction stage to produce synthesis gas and reduced metals due to low equilibrium conversion in the water splitting stage. The metal oxide reduction-water splitting cycle can be developed as an environmentally friendly technology for synthesis gas production over metal oxides.

  17. Transformation of bisphenol A in water distribution systems: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Wang, Zilong; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Liu, Jingqing; Mao, Xinwei; Zhang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of a cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated. The water in the pilot-scale WDS was chlorinated with a free chlorine concentration of 0.7 mg L(-1) using sodium hypochlorite, and with an initial BPA concentration of 100 μg L(-1) was spiked in the WDS. Halogenated compounds in the BPA experiments were identified using EI/GC/MS and GC. Several BPA congeners, including 2-chlorobisphenol A (MCBPA), dichlorobisphenol A (D2-CBPA), 2,2',6-trichlorobisphenol A (T3CBPA), 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobisphenol A (T4CBPA), 2-bromobisphenol A (MBBPA), and bromochlorobisphenol A (MBMCBPA) were found. Moreover, further halogenation yielded other reaction intermediates, including 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (T3CP), dichlorobisphenol A, bromodichlorophenol, and dibromochlorophenol. After halogenation for 120min, most of the abovementioned reaction intermediates disappeared and were replaced by trihalomethanes (THMs). Based on these experimental findings, the halogenation process of BPA oxidation in a WDS includes three stages: (1) halogenation on the aromatic ring; (2) chlorine or bromine substitution followed by cleavage of the α-C bond on the isopropyl moiety with a positive partial charge and a β'-C bond on the benzene moiety with a negative partial charge; and (3) THMs and a minor HAA formation from phenolic intermediates through the benzene ring opening with a chlorine and bromine substitution of the hydrogen on the carbon atoms. The oxidation mechanisms of the entire transformation from BPA to THM/HAA in the WDS were proposed.

  18. Spatially distributed modeling of sediment and associated heavy metal transport on regional and catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Schmidt, Jürgen; Käpermann, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Achievements of new legislations, as EU-Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), require great efforts in order to reduce the yields of sediment and sediment attached heavy metals of surface water bodies. In this regard planning authorities strongly need comparable assessments on regional scale, which enables predictions on the level of measures. The study aims to identify the main sediment delivery areas in the German federal state of Saxony (18400 km²) and to locate pass over points of sediment and associated heavy metals into surface waters. Applying the process based EROSION 3D simulation model spatially distributed (20 m grid cell) estimates of sediment and particle attached heavy metal inputs are realized on regional and catchment scale related to three land use scenarios and a 10years rainfall event. Concerning these calculations it has to be considered, that this substances are predominantly attached to the fine-grained soil particles. The selective nature of soil erosion causes a preferentially transport of this fine particles while less contaminated larger particles remain on site. Consequently heavy metals are enriched in the eroded sediment compared to the origin soil. Hence it is essential that EROSION 3D provides the particle size distribution (clay, silt and sand) of transported sediments. Regarding heavy metal input calculations from sediment inputs, heavy metal contents of particle size classes has to be known. For this purpose particle size separates of erosion susceptible soils are analyzed. Comprehensive heavy metal contents of origin top soils are interpolated via kriging using available monitoring data. The regional scaled simulations identify the Saxon loess belt as the main affected region of sediment inputs. Since particle attached heavy metal transport to surface waters is strongly related to sediment delivery, the streams of this region suffer from considerable inputs. Compared to empirical estimates, the results of this study suggest that

  19. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media. PMID:23645478

  20. [Effects of Tillage on Distribution of Heavy Metals and Organic Matter Within Purple Paddy Soil Aggregates].

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiong-bin; Zhao, Xiu-lan; Chang, Tong-ju; Lu, Ji-wen

    2016-05-15

    A long-term experiment was utilized to study the effects of tillage methods on the contents and distribution characteristics of organic matter and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe and Mn) in aggregates with different sizes (including 1-2, 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 mm and < 0.05 mm) in a purple paddy soil under two tillage methods including flooded paddy field (FPF) and paddy-upland rotation (PR). The relationship between heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates was also analyzed. The results showed that the aggregates of two tillage methods were dominated by 0.05-0.25 mm and < 0.05 mm particle size, respectively. The contents of organic matter in each aggregate decreased with the decrease of aggregate sizes, however, compared to PR, FPF could significantly increase the contents of organic matter in soils and aggregates. The tillage methods did not significantly affect the contents of heavy metals in soils, but FPF could enhance the accumulation and distribution of aggregate, organic matter and heavy metals in aggregates with diameters of 1-2 mm and 0.25-1 mm. Correlation analysis found that there was a negative correlation between the contents of heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates, but a positive correlation between the amounts of heavy metal and organic matter accumulated in soil aggregates. From the slope of the correlation analysis equations, we could found that the sensitivities of heavy metals to the changes of soil organic matters followed the order of Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Fe > Cd under the same tillage. When it came to the same heavy metal, it was more sensitive in PR than in FPF. PMID:27506049

  1. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  2. Regional distribution pattern of groundwater heavy metals resulting from agricultural activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A. H.; Jahed, G. R.; Babaei, A. A.

    2008-09-01

    Contaminations of groundwater by heavy metals due to agricultural activities are growing recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate and map regional patterns of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in groundwater on a plain with high agricultural activities. The study was conducted to investigate the concentration of heavy metals and distribution in groundwater in regions of Shush Danial and Andimeshk aquifers in the southern part of Iran. Presently, groundwater is the only appropriate and widely used source of drinking water for rural and urban communities in this region. The region covers an area of 1,100 km2 between the Dez and Karkhe rivers, which lead to the Persian Gulf. For this study, the region was divided into four sub-regions A, B, C and D. Additionally, 168 groundwater samples were collected from 42 water wells during the earlier months of 2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS-Flame) was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals in water samples and the Surfer software was used for determination of the contour map of metal distribution. The results demonstrated that in all of the samples, Cd and Zn concentrations were below the EPA MCLG and EPA secondary standard, respectively. However, the Cu contents of 4.8 % of all samples were higher than EPA MCL. It is also indicated that the concentrations of metals were more pronounced at the southern part of the studied region than at the others. The analysis of fertilizers applied for agricultural activities at this region also indicated that a great majority of the above-mentioned heavy metals were discharged into the environment. Absence of confining layers, proximity to land surface, excess agricultural activities in the southern part and groundwater flow direction that is generally from the north to the southern parts in this area make the southern region of the Shush plain especially vulnerable to pollution by heavy metals than by other contaminants.

  3. [Effects of Tillage on Distribution of Heavy Metals and Organic Matter Within Purple Paddy Soil Aggregates].

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiong-bin; Zhao, Xiu-lan; Chang, Tong-ju; Lu, Ji-wen

    2016-05-15

    A long-term experiment was utilized to study the effects of tillage methods on the contents and distribution characteristics of organic matter and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe and Mn) in aggregates with different sizes (including 1-2, 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 mm and < 0.05 mm) in a purple paddy soil under two tillage methods including flooded paddy field (FPF) and paddy-upland rotation (PR). The relationship between heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates was also analyzed. The results showed that the aggregates of two tillage methods were dominated by 0.05-0.25 mm and < 0.05 mm particle size, respectively. The contents of organic matter in each aggregate decreased with the decrease of aggregate sizes, however, compared to PR, FPF could significantly increase the contents of organic matter in soils and aggregates. The tillage methods did not significantly affect the contents of heavy metals in soils, but FPF could enhance the accumulation and distribution of aggregate, organic matter and heavy metals in aggregates with diameters of 1-2 mm and 0.25-1 mm. Correlation analysis found that there was a negative correlation between the contents of heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates, but a positive correlation between the amounts of heavy metal and organic matter accumulated in soil aggregates. From the slope of the correlation analysis equations, we could found that the sensitivities of heavy metals to the changes of soil organic matters followed the order of Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Fe > Cd under the same tillage. When it came to the same heavy metal, it was more sensitive in PR than in FPF.

  4. [Fraction distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in stream sediments from a typical nonferrous metals mining city].

    PubMed

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Jiang, Yan-Min; Pan, Cheng-Rong; Chen, Jing; Xu, Jing-Jing

    2013-03-01

    A modified Tessier's sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the fraction of seven types of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, As) in the surface sediments from Huixi Stream in Tongling City, a typical nonferrous metals mining city, China. Based on speciation distribution analysis of these metals, contamination degree and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals were conducted by means of risk assessment code (RAC) and mean sediment quality guideline quotient (SQG-Q). The results show that: (1) Cr and As are major composed with residual fractions, Zn, Ni and Pb are mainly constituted of residual and bound to iron and manganese oxides fractions, and Cu is dominated by bounding to organic matter, while Cd exists in approximate mass fractions of exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron and manganese oxides, and residue. (2) Carbonate and exchangeable mass fractions of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and As reach 46.48%, 4.62%, 4.05%, 4.12%, 9.17%, 0.97% and 0.03%, respectively. According to the RAC, Cd is of high risk to the environment, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni are of low risk to the environment, while Pb and As pose extreme low risk to the environment. (3) The SQG index, calculated with SQG-Q, is 10.42, which is far higher than the threshold value 1.0, indicating that the sediment in Huixi Stream has a very high potential for biological toxicity effect. The PEL-Q indexes corresponding to Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and As approach 4.23, 1.14, 20.75, 6.04, 2.33, 4.58 and 41.71, respectively, suggesting that all these metals have great potentials for biological toxicity and the adverse effects will frequently occur.

  5. Distribution depth of the transforming stage larvae of myctophid fishes in the subtropical tropical waters of the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Kawaguchi, Kouichi; Hirota, Yuichi; Ishida, Minoru

    2007-12-01

    We describe the day-night vertical distribution patterns of 18 species or types of myctophid fish larvae at the transforming stage based on discrete depth sampling from the surface down to 1000-m depth in the subtropical-tropical western North Pacific. A total of 551 transforming stage larvae were collected at the 19 sampling stations. Except for the Diaphus species and Notolychnus valdiviae, all of the transforming stage larvae (including genera Benthosema, Bolinichthys, Centrobranchus, Ceratoscopelus, Diogenichthys, Hygophum, Lampanyctus, Lobianchia, Myctophum, Symbolophorus, and Triphoturus) were collected in the lower mesopelagic zone from 600- to 900-m depth during both day and night, showing no diel vertical migration (DVM). On the contrary, the Diaphus species and N. valdiviae larvae undergo DVM during the transforming stage, occurring below 200-m layer during the daytime and migrating up to the upper 150-m layer at night, i.e., they show earlier adaptation to juvenile-adult behaviors. Most myctophid fish larvae are known to undertake substantial ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM) from the epipelagic to mesopelagic zones during their early life stage. Although considerable sampling effort was carried out in this study, transforming larvae, except for the above two migratory ones, were not collected in the epipelagic and upper mesopelagic zones, strongly suggesting that their sinking speed would be high. It would be advantageous for survival to spend their highly vulnerable transforming stage in the lower mesopelagic zone, where predation pressures are lower and physical conditions are more stable than in the upper layers.

  6. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from

  7. [Distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil profiles by high-resolution sampling].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xin-ling; Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhao, Yu-guo; Yuan, Da-gang; Wu, Yun-jin

    2006-05-01

    The vertical distribution of heavy metals in soils profiles is a result of heavy metals accumulation and migration under combining influence of edaphic factors and environmental conditions. It's an important basis for evaluation of heavy metals pollution and remediation of contaminated soils. By traditional sampling methods, i.e., soils were sampled according to pedogenetic horizons, only very general information about element migration can be learned. In the current study, three sites near a steel factory were selected to represent three types of land use, i.e. forest, dry land for vegetable cultivation and rice paddy field. Soils were sampled horizontally by high-resolution sampling method. In the top of 40 cm soils were sectioned in 2 cm intervals, then 5 cm intervals in next 40 cm, and 10 cm intervals in the last 20 cm of profile. Total content of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd were determined, and the vertical distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd in every profile was analyzed. The results indicated that enrichment of heavy metals appeared in the upper most layer of the natural forest soil that without any anthropic disturbance, and this phenomenon proved that heavy metals were coming from atmospheric deposition. We found that Cu, Zn and Pb moved downward in a short distance, Cd migrated relatively faster than Cu, Zn and Pb, while Cr had no recognizable location of migration front. In the soil profiles of dry land and paddy field, there were influences of agricultural practice, the distribution and movement of metals were thus different form those of the forest soil. In cultivated layer heavy metals were evenly distributed because soils in the upper layer were mixed by cultivation, however, bellow the cultivated layer obvious migration took place again. It is concluded that different heavy metals have different mobility and there is such a relative order: Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb. The study shows that the distribution pattern can be obtained with the currently adopted high

  8. [Distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil profiles by high-resolution sampling].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xin-ling; Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhao, Yu-guo; Yuan, Da-gang; Wu, Yun-jin

    2006-05-01

    The vertical distribution of heavy metals in soils profiles is a result of heavy metals accumulation and migration under combining influence of edaphic factors and environmental conditions. It's an important basis for evaluation of heavy metals pollution and remediation of contaminated soils. By traditional sampling methods, i.e., soils were sampled according to pedogenetic horizons, only very general information about element migration can be learned. In the current study, three sites near a steel factory were selected to represent three types of land use, i.e. forest, dry land for vegetable cultivation and rice paddy field. Soils were sampled horizontally by high-resolution sampling method. In the top of 40 cm soils were sectioned in 2 cm intervals, then 5 cm intervals in next 40 cm, and 10 cm intervals in the last 20 cm of profile. Total content of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd were determined, and the vertical distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd in every profile was analyzed. The results indicated that enrichment of heavy metals appeared in the upper most layer of the natural forest soil that without any anthropic disturbance, and this phenomenon proved that heavy metals were coming from atmospheric deposition. We found that Cu, Zn and Pb moved downward in a short distance, Cd migrated relatively faster than Cu, Zn and Pb, while Cr had no recognizable location of migration front. In the soil profiles of dry land and paddy field, there were influences of agricultural practice, the distribution and movement of metals were thus different form those of the forest soil. In cultivated layer heavy metals were evenly distributed because soils in the upper layer were mixed by cultivation, however, bellow the cultivated layer obvious migration took place again. It is concluded that different heavy metals have different mobility and there is such a relative order: Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb. The study shows that the distribution pattern can be obtained with the currently adopted high

  9. Genotoxicity and contamination of natural and anthropogenically transformed soils of the city of Rostov-on-Don with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.; Varduni, T. V.; Gorovtsov, A. V.; Tagiverdiev, S. S.; Hildebrant, Yu. A.

    2015-12-01

    The integrated characteristics of urban soils included the assessment of heavy metal pollution linked to the determination of soil genotoxicity, which characterizes the soil capacity to affect the structural and functional state of the genetic apparatus of soil biota. Increased concentration of chromium caused by the high background level was found in soils of the city of Rostov-on-Don. A weak contamination of surface horizons with lead and arsenic was also noted. Maximum permissible concentration of zinc was locally exceeded, including deep soil horizons. It was found that there is no definite correlation between the total content of heavy metals, their mobile compounds, and the parameters of genotoxicity in the natural and anthropogenically transformed soils. It was concluded that soil genotoxicity characterizes the total mutagenic activity associated with the presence of a set of genotoxicants of different nature.

  10. Determination of the size distribution of metallic nanoparticles by optical extinction spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, Ovidio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Iglesias, Vladimir; Kellermann, Guinther; Crespo-Sosa, Alejandro; Cheang-Wong, Juan Carlos; Silva-Pereyra, Hector Gabriel; Arenas-Alatorre, Jesus; Oliver, Alicia

    2009-01-20

    A method is proposed to estimate the size distribution of nearly spherical metallic nanoparticles (NPs) from optical extinction spectroscopy (OES) measurements based on Mie's theory and an optimization algorithm. The described method is compared against two of the most widely used techniques for the task: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The size distribution of Au and Cu NPs, obtained by ion implantation in silica and a subsequent thermal annealing in air, was determined by TEM, grazing-incidence SAXS (GISAXS) geometry, and our method, and the average radius obtained by all the three techniques was almost the same for the two studied metals. Concerning the radius dispersion (RD), OES and GISAXS give very similar results, while TEM considerably underestimates the RD of the distribution.

  11. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R.; Tesche, F.M.; Schafer, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This ``smoking neutral`` results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  12. Metal-Organic Frameworks Stabilize Solution-Inaccessible Cobalt Catalysts for Highly Efficient Broad-Scope Organic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Manna, Kuntal; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-03-01

    New and active earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed to replace precious metal-based catalysts for sustainable production of commodity and fine chemicals. We report here the design of highly robust, active, and reusable cobalt-bipyridine- and cobalt-phenanthroline-based metal-organic framework (MOF) catalysts for alkene hydrogenation and hydroboration, aldehyde/ketone hydroboration, and arene C-H borylation. In alkene hydrogenation, the MOF catalysts tolerated a variety of functional groups and displayed unprecedentedly high turnover numbers of ∼2.5 × 10(6) and turnover frequencies of ∼1.1 × 10(5) h(-1). Structural, computational, and spectroscopic studies show that site isolation of the highly reactive (bpy)Co(THF)2 species in the MOFs prevents intermolecular deactivation and stabilizes solution-inaccessible catalysts for broad-scope organic transformations. Computational, spectroscopic, and kinetic evidence further support a hitherto unknown (bpy(•-))Co(I)(THF)2 ground state that coordinates to alkene and dihydrogen and then undergoing σ-complex-assisted metathesis to form (bpy)Co(alkyl)(H). Reductive elimination of alkane followed by alkene binding completes the catalytic cycle. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for discovering new base-metal molecular catalysts and exhibit enormous potential in sustainable chemical catalysis.

  13. The Role of Thermomechanical Routes on the Distribution of Grain Boundary and Interface Plane Orientations in Transformed Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beladi, Hossein; Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, a series of thermomechanical routes were used to produce different microstructures (i.e., ferrite and martensite) in low-carbon low alloy steels. The five-parameter grain boundary character distribution was measured for all microstructures. The thermomechanical processing route altered the texture of the fully ferritic microstructure and significantly influenced the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution. Generally, the population of (111) planes increased with an increase in the γ-fiber texture for the ferritic microstructure, but it did not change the shape of the grain boundary plane distribution at specific misorientations. The most commonly observed boundaries in the fully ferritic structures produced through different routes were {112} symmetric tilt boundaries with the Σ3 = 60 deg/[111] misorientation; this boundary also had a low energy. However, the grain boundary plane distribution was significantly changed by the phase transformation path (i.e., ferrite vs martensite) for a given misorientation. In the martensitic steel, the most populous Σ3 boundary was the {110} symmetric tilt boundary. This results from the crystallographic constraints associated with the shear transformation (i.e., martensite) rather than the low-energy interface that dominates in the diffusional phase transformation (i.e., ferrite).

  14. Spatial Distribution, Sources Apportionment and Health Risk of Metals in Topsoil in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunyuan; Zhao, Wenji; Zhang, Qianzhong; Yu, Xue; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Jiayin; Lv, Ming

    2016-07-20

    In order to acquire the pollution feature and regularities of distribution of metals in the topsoil within the sixth ring road in Beijing, a total of 46 soil samples were collected, and the concentrations of twelve elements (Nickel, Ni, Lithium, Li, Vanadium, V, Cobalt, Co, Barium, Ba, Strontium, Sr, Chrome, Cr, Molybdenum, Mo, Copper, Cu, Cadmium, Cd, Zinc, Zn, Lead, Pb) were analyzed. Geostatistics and multivariate statistics were conducted to identify spatial distribution characteristics and sources. In addition, the health risk of the analyzed heavy metals to humans (adult) was evaluated by an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency health risk assessment model. The results indicate that these metals have notable variation in spatial scale. The concentration of Cr was high in the west and low in the east, while that of Mo was high in the north and low in the south. High concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in the central part of the city. The average enrichment degree of Cd is 5.94, reaching the standard of significant enrichment. The accumulation of Cr, Mo, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb is influenced by anthropogenic activity, including vehicle exhaustion, coal burning, and industrial processes. Health risk assessment shows that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected heavy metals are within the safety standard and the rank of the carcinogenic risk of the four heavy metals is Cr > Co > Ni > Cd.

  15. A uniform metal distribution in the intergalactic medium of the Perseus cluster of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Werner, Norbert; Urban, Ondrej; Simionescu, Aurora; Allen, Steven W

    2013-10-31

    Most of the metals (elements heavier than helium) produced by stars in the member galaxies of clusters currently reside within the hot, X-ray-emitting intra-cluster gas. Observations of X-ray line emission from this intergalactic medium have suggested a relatively small cluster-to-cluster scatter outside the cluster centres and enrichment with iron out to large radii, leading to the idea that the metal enrichment occurred early in the history of the Universe. Models with early enrichment predict a uniform metal distribution at large radii in clusters, whereas those with late-time enrichment are expected to introduce significant spatial variations of the metallicity. To discriminate clearly between these competing models, it is essential to test for potential inhomogeneities by measuring the abundances out to large radii along multiple directions in clusters, which has not hitherto been done. Here we report a remarkably uniform iron abundance, as a function of radius and azimuth, that is statistically consistent with a constant value of ZFe = 0.306 ± 0.012 in solar units out to the edge of the nearby Perseus cluster. This homogeneous distribution requires that most of the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium occurred before the cluster formed, probably more than ten billion years ago, during the period of maximal star formation and black hole activity.

  16. Spatial Distribution, Sources Apportionment and Health Risk of Metals in Topsoil in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunyuan; Zhao, Wenji; Zhang, Qianzhong; Yu, Xue; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Jiayin; Lv, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In order to acquire the pollution feature and regularities of distribution of metals in the topsoil within the sixth ring road in Beijing, a total of 46 soil samples were collected, and the concentrations of twelve elements (Nickel, Ni, Lithium, Li, Vanadium, V, Cobalt, Co, Barium, Ba, Strontium, Sr, Chrome, Cr, Molybdenum, Mo, Copper, Cu, Cadmium, Cd, Zinc, Zn, Lead, Pb) were analyzed. Geostatistics and multivariate statistics were conducted to identify spatial distribution characteristics and sources. In addition, the health risk of the analyzed heavy metals to humans (adult) was evaluated by an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency health risk assessment model. The results indicate that these metals have notable variation in spatial scale. The concentration of Cr was high in the west and low in the east, while that of Mo was high in the north and low in the south. High concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in the central part of the city. The average enrichment degree of Cd is 5.94, reaching the standard of significant enrichment. The accumulation of Cr, Mo, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb is influenced by anthropogenic activity, including vehicle exhaustion, coal burning, and industrial processes. Health risk assessment shows that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected heavy metals are within the safety standard and the rank of the carcinogenic risk of the four heavy metals is Cr > Co > Ni > Cd. PMID:27447657

  17. Size distribution of heavy metal aerosols in cooling and spray dryer system

    SciTech Connect

    Wey, M.Y.; Yang, J.T.; Peng, C.Y.; Chiang, B.C.

    1999-11-01

    The cooling process prior to treating flue gas and the spray dryer process that removes acid components in flue gas are believed to influence the mass and elemental size distributions of heavy metal in fly ash. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the mass and elemental size distributions of heavy metals in fly ash produced from a fluidized bed incineration and a water cooling or spray dryer flue gas treatment system. The operating parameters investigated included (1) the controlling temperature in the gas cooling system; (2) the controlling temperature in the spray dryer system; (3) the addition of organic chlorides; and (4) the addition of inorganic chloride. The experimental results indicated that the water cooling process and spray dryer process increase the amount of coarse fly ash and increase the total concentration of metal in fly ash. The amounts of fine fly ash and the total concentration of metal in fine fly ash increase with decreasing temperature during the water cooling process. However, the amounts of fine fly ash and the total concentration of metal in fine fly ash decrease with decreasing temperature during the spray dryer process.

  18. Spatial Distribution, Sources Apportionment and Health Risk of Metals in Topsoil in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunyuan; Zhao, Wenji; Zhang, Qianzhong; Yu, Xue; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Jiayin; Lv, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In order to acquire the pollution feature and regularities of distribution of metals in the topsoil within the sixth ring road in Beijing, a total of 46 soil samples were collected, and the concentrations of twelve elements (Nickel, Ni, Lithium, Li, Vanadium, V, Cobalt, Co, Barium, Ba, Strontium, Sr, Chrome, Cr, Molybdenum, Mo, Copper, Cu, Cadmium, Cd, Zinc, Zn, Lead, Pb) were analyzed. Geostatistics and multivariate statistics were conducted to identify spatial distribution characteristics and sources. In addition, the health risk of the analyzed heavy metals to humans (adult) was evaluated by an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency health risk assessment model. The results indicate that these metals have notable variation in spatial scale. The concentration of Cr was high in the west and low in the east, while that of Mo was high in the north and low in the south. High concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in the central part of the city. The average enrichment degree of Cd is 5.94, reaching the standard of significant enrichment. The accumulation of Cr, Mo, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb is influenced by anthropogenic activity, including vehicle exhaustion, coal burning, and industrial processes. Health risk assessment shows that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected heavy metals are within the safety standard and the rank of the carcinogenic risk of the four heavy metals is Cr > Co > Ni > Cd. PMID:27447657

  19. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongbin; Gao, Yongnian; Fan, Chengxin

    2011-10-01

    The distribution, sources and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu were studied. Results showed that the measured heavy metals had varied spatial distribution patterns, indicating that they had complex origins and controlling factors. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that the total phosphorus and the loss on ignition were positively correlated with the measured metals except Cd. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb might originate from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater, whereas As predominantly originated from natural processes. Potential ecological risk indices indicated that sediment from Wuli Lake, Gonghu Bay and the Northwest Area suffered high pollution, whereas other areas of Lake Taihu were moderately polluted. A comparison of metal levels with the effects range low (ERL) and effects range median (ERM) showed that metals exceeded their corresponding ERL limit at 13.6-72.3% (72.3% for As, 52.4% for Pb, 27.7% for Cu, 22.8% for Cd, 16.0 for Hg and 13.6% for Cr) of the sites investigated. Moreover, 3.90% and 0.50% of the sites sampled exceeded the ERM thresholds for Hg and Pb, respectively.

  20. Distribution and speciation of metals in annual rings of black willow.

    PubMed

    Punshon, Tracy; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Harper, Steve; Bertsch, Paul M; Burger, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    Information on the spatial distribution and speciation of metals in nonhyperaccumulator plants is lacking. This study used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) compositional imaging to investigate the spatial distribution of Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe in annual rings of black willow (Salix nigra L.) collected from a metal-contaminated area, and used X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to investigate Ni and Mn speciation in regions of the annual rings with elevated Ni concentrations. Annual rings were recollected in early 2003 from an individual known to be enriched with Ni from previous studies. Compositional imaging showed Ni and associated co-contaminants conservatively located in an annual ring. When compared with a corresponding photomicrograph, SXRF compositional images showed that metals were sharply constrained by the boundaries of the annual ring, indicating a sudden onset and cessation of uptake, and a lack of post-growth mobility of the metals. There was a particularly strong correlation between Ni and Mn in the metal-enriched annual ring (r = 0.8822), which suggested similar transport and binding behavior of these elements. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed Ni and Mn to be present in the 2+ oxidation state. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) fingerprinting of localized, highly Ni-enriched regions within the lumen of willow xylem vessels found similarities with Ni-pectic acid complexes, Ni-histidine, and NiSO4.

  1. Heavy metal distribution in dust from elementary schools in Hermosillo, Sonora, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; De la O-Villanueva, Margarita; De la Parra, Maria Luisa

    The city of Hermosillo, Sonora in northern Mexico was investigated for its heavy metals content. Samples of sedimented dust in roofs from 25 elementary schools were analyzed for their contents of Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, Co, Ba, V, Pb, Fe and Cu after digestion with nitric acid. The results of the analysis were used to determine spatial distribution and magnitude of heavy metals pollution. The results of this study reveal that heavy metals distribution is different in two areas of the city. The southern area contains higher concentrations of heavy metals than the northcentral area. The mean level of Cd in exterior dust is 5.65 mg kg -1 in the southern area whereas the mean level of Cd is 2.83 mg kg -1 in the northcentral area. Elevated concentrations of Zn (2012 mg kg -1), Pb (101.88 mg kg -1), Cr (38.13 mg kg -1) and Cd (28.38 mg kg -1) in roof dust were found in samples located near industrial areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the data matrix to evaluate the analytical results and to identify the possible pollution sources of metals. PCA shows two main sources: (1) Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn are mainly derived from industrial sources, combined with traffic sources; (2) Fe, Co and Ba are mainly derived from natural sources. V and Ni are highly correlated and possibly related to fuel combustion processes. Enrichment factors were calculated, which in turn further confirms the source identification. Ba and Co are dominantly crustal. Anthropogenically added Cd, Pb, Zn and Cr show maximum enrichment relative to the upper continental crustal component. The distribution of the heavy metals in dust does not seem to be controlled only by the topography of the city, but also by the location of the emission sources.

  2. Metal distribution in soils of an in-service urban parking lot.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinyan; Zhang, Chaosheng; Tang, Ya

    2015-07-01

    Increasing traffic is becoming one of the main sources of metal pollution in urban areas. To investigate the possible impacts of traffic-related activities on metal distribution in soils, a total of 370 soil samples were collected in a ground parking space in service for about 20 years in Chengdu, China. The concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, and Zn in soils were measured using portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Soil samples exhibited various levels of metal pollution ranging from no pollution to borderline moderate pollution for Zn and Pb, with median enrichment factors following the order of Zn (2.7), Pb (2.2), Sr (1.9), Cu (1.8), Fe (1.3), Rb (1.1), and Mn (0.5). Both cluster analysis and spatial distribution mapping demonstrated that Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Sr, and Fe concentrations in the parking space were influenced by traffic, with strong spatial variation in different areas of the parking space. These metals shared similar spatial distribution patterns with relatively elevated concentrations in the four corners, left and right sides and entrance and rear areas, compared with the metal concentrations in the central area. Such spatial patterns revealed the influences of yellow road paint, wear and tear of vehicular parts including brakes and tires, as well as tailpipe emissions. The pollution sources in the parking space were identified as yellow road paint and vehicular emissions. This study highlights that metal pollution in the parking areas should be given more attention.

  3. Metal distribution in soils of an in-service urban parking lot.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinyan; Zhang, Chaosheng; Tang, Ya

    2015-07-01

    Increasing traffic is becoming one of the main sources of metal pollution in urban areas. To investigate the possible impacts of traffic-related activities on metal distribution in soils, a total of 370 soil samples were collected in a ground parking space in service for about 20 years in Chengdu, China. The concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, and Zn in soils were measured using portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Soil samples exhibited various levels of metal pollution ranging from no pollution to borderline moderate pollution for Zn and Pb, with median enrichment factors following the order of Zn (2.7), Pb (2.2), Sr (1.9), Cu (1.8), Fe (1.3), Rb (1.1), and Mn (0.5). Both cluster analysis and spatial distribution mapping demonstrated that Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Sr, and Fe concentrations in the parking space were influenced by traffic, with strong spatial variation in different areas of the parking space. These metals shared similar spatial distribution patterns with relatively elevated concentrations in the four corners, left and right sides and entrance and rear areas, compared with the metal concentrations in the central area. Such spatial patterns revealed the influences of yellow road paint, wear and tear of vehicular parts including brakes and tires, as well as tailpipe emissions. The pollution sources in the parking space were identified as yellow road paint and vehicular emissions. This study highlights that metal pollution in the parking areas should be given more attention. PMID:26130244

  4. Speciation dynamics of metals in dispersion of nanoparticles with discrete distribution of charged binding sites.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, Pavel D; Duval, Jérôme F L

    2014-02-01

    We report a comprehensive theory to evaluate the kinetics of complex formation between metal ions and charged spherical nanoparticles. The latter consist of an ion-impermeable core surrounded by a soft shell layer characterized by a discrete axisymmetric 2D distribution of charged sites that bind metal ions. The theory explicitly integrates the conductive diffusion of metal ions from bulk solution toward the respective locations of the reactive sites within the particle shell volume. The kinetic constant k for outer-sphere nanoparticle-metal association is obtained from the sum of the contributions stemming from all reactive sites, each evaluated from the corresponding incoming flux of metal ions derived from steady-state Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. Illustrations are provided to capture the basic intertwined impacts of particle size, overall particle charge, spatial heterogeneity in site distribution, type of particle (hard, core-shell or porous) and concentration of the background electrolyte on k. As a limit, k converges with predictions from previously reported analytical expressions derived for porous particles with low and high charge density, cases that correspond to coulombic and mean-field (smeared-out) electrostatic treatments, respectively. The conditions underlying the applicability of these latter approaches are rigorously identified in terms of (i) the extent of overlap between electric double layers around charged neighbouring sites, and (ii) the magnitude of the intraparticulate metal concentration gradient. For the first time, the proposed theory integrates the differentiated impact of the local potential around the charged binding sites amidst the overall particle field, together with that of the so-far discarded intraparticulate flux of metal ions. PMID:24336523

  5. [Distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Zhalong Wetland].

    PubMed

    Ye, Hua-Xiang; Zang, Shu-Ying; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Hong

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments of the Zhalong Wetland using ICP-MS, analyzed their spatial distributions, evaluated the potential ecological risk, and explored the pollution sources and environmental influencing factors. The results can be summarized as the followings: (1) The concentrations of Hg, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr were 0.065, 0.155, 10.26, 18.20, 21.35, 52.08 and 46.47 mg x kg(-1), respectively, which were all above the soil background values of the Songnen Plain. Their spatial distributions were distinctly different. The concentration of heavy metals in the north was higher than that in the south, and the east was higher than the west. Particularly in the eastern region, the concentrations of Hg and Cd were 20.8 and 32.4 times the minimum values of the whole area. And in the core zone, the concentration was relatively low. (2) The sequence of the potential ecological risk posed by the metals was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. The average potential ecological risk index (RI) of the Zhalong Wetland was 171.9 (ranged from 76.9-473.5), suggesting a moderate ecological risk. However, the potential ecological risk was extremely high in the east which should be treated as the major heavy metal pollution prevention site in the future. (3) Except for Hg and Pb, the concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly correlated to each other, indicating that those heavy metals had homology. (4) Organic matter was the major environmental influencing factor. However, the trend of land salinization in the Zhalong Wetland has been intensified, indicating a higher risk of heavy metal releasing from the sediments, to which the local authorities should pay enough attention. PMID:23798110

  6. Deep SDSS optical spectroscopy of distant halo stars. I. Atmospheric parameters and stellar metallicity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, C.; Fernández-Alvar, E.; Schlesinger, K. J.; Lee, Y. S.; Morrison, H. L.; Schneider, D. P.; Beers, T. C.; Bizyaev, D.; Ebelke, G.; Malanushenko, E.; Malanushenko, V.; Oravetz, D.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A.; Simmerer, J.; Sobeck, J.; Robin, A. C.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: We analyze a sample of tens of thousands of spectra of halo turnoff stars, obtained with the optical spectrographs of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), to characterize the stellar halo population "in situ" out to a distance of a few tens of kpc from the Sun. In this paper we describe the derivation of atmospheric parameters. We also derive the overall stellar metallicity distribution based on F-type stars observed as flux calibrators for the Baryonic Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Methods: Our analysis is based on an automated method that determines the set of parameters of a model atmosphere that reproduces each observed spectrum best. We used an optimization algorithm and evaluate model fluxes by means of interpolation in a precomputed grid. In our analysis, we account for the spectrograph's varying resolution as a function of fiber and wavelength. Our results for early SDSS (pre-BOSS upgrade) data compare well with those from the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP), except for stars with log g (cgs units) lower than 2.5. Results: An analysis of stars in the globular cluster M 13 reveals a dependence of the inferred metallicity on surface gravity for stars with log g < 2.5, confirming the systematics identified in the comparison with the SSPP. We find that our metallicity estimates are significantly more precise than the SSPP results. We also find excellent agreement with several independent analyses. We show that the SDSS color criteria for selecting F-type halo turnoff stars as flux calibrators efficiently excludes stars with high metallicities, but does not significantly distort the shape of the metallicity distribution at low metallicity. We obtain a halo metallicity distribution that is narrower and more asymmetric than in previous studies. The lowest gravity stars in our sample, at tens of kpc from the Sun, indicate a shift of the metallicity distribution to lower abundances, consistent with what is expected from a dual halo system

  7. Airfall of metals from the Palmerton, PA, zinc plant: Distribution and preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.; Lofaro, J.; Burrows, J.; Blake, J.; Smith, K.

    2008-12-01

    The stacks of the NJ Zinc Co. created airfall deposits throughout the 20th century in the region surrounding Palmerton, PA. The deposition of zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic, led to the destruction of a forest ecosystem along the neighboring Kittatinny Ridge and metals contamination in the town and surrounding area. Although the smelter was closed in the 1980's, concerns linger over whether the soil still remains contaminated with elevated levels of smelter-derived metals. The present concentration and distribution of metals in the soil is the result of the initial (20th century) concentration an the processes of leaching, erosion, and biological uptake and dispersal that have proceeded since the smelter was shut down. At the site of the smelter, analyses of samples from 141 shallow soil pits had zinc concentrations up to 95 mg/kg, with a mean value of 14 mg/kg. Lead concentrations in the same soils had concentrations ranging up to 250 mg/kg, with a mean value of 72 mg/kg. We have now sampled a suite of soils from the "far field" region up to 25 km away from the smelter site to determine the spatial extent of remaining metals contamination. We dug soil pits and collected samples from the shallow O-horizon, the underlying A horizon (typically 2-4 cm depth), and the B-horizon at about 20-30 cm to determine not only the geographic distributions of metals, but also the depths at which these different metals are now found in the subsurface. The far field data distribution can now provide information for local communities regarding soils chemistry and help to guide land use practices within residential, business, and agricultural properties throughout the region. Concerns regarding contamination from metals airfall have played a role in depressing local economies, further exacerbating and perpetuating the economic impact of the closure of the smelter itself. Our analyses can potentially ameliorate such concerns by providing the actual distribution and concentrations of

  8. Distribution of trace metals in anchialine caves of Adriatic Sea, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuculić, Vlado; Cukrov, Neven; Kwokal, Željko; Mlakar, Marina

    2011-11-01

    This study presents results of the first comprehensive research on ecotoxic trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) in aquatic anchialine ecosystems. Data show the influence of hydrological and geological characteristics on trace metals in highly stratified anchialine water columns. Distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in two anchialine water bodies, Bjejajka Cave and Lenga Pit in the Mljet National park, Croatia were investigated seasonally from 2006 to 2010. Behaviour and concentrations of dissolved and total trace metals in stratified water columns and metal contents in sediment, carbonate rocks and soil of the anchialine environment were evaluated. Trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in both anchialine water columns were significantly elevated compared to adjacent seawater. Zn and Cu concentrations were the highest in the Lenga Pit water column and sediment. Elevated concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cu in Bjejajka Cave were mainly terrigenous. Significantly elevated concentrations of cadmium (up to 0.3 μg L -1) were found in the water column of Bjejajka cave, almost two orders of magnitude higher compared to nearby surface seawater. Laboratory analysis revealed that bat guano was the major source of cadmium in Bjejajka Cave. Cadmium levels in Lenga Pit, which lacks accumulations of bat guano, were 20-fold lower. Moreover, low metal amounts in carbonate rocks in both caves, combined with mineral leaching experiments, revealed that carbonates play a minor role as a source of metals in both water columns. We observed two types of vertical distribution pattern of cadmium in the stratified anchialine Bjejajka Cave water column. At lower salinities, non-conservative behaviour was characterized by strong desorption and enrichment of dissolved phase while, at salinities above 20, Cd behaved conservatively and its dissolved concentration decreased. Conservative behaviour of Cu, Pb, Zn and DOC was observed throughout the water column. After heavy rains, Cd

  9. Label-free colorimetric detection of mercury via Hg2+ ions-accelerated structural transformation of nanoscale metal-oxo clusters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun; She, Shan; Zhang, Jiangwei; Bayaguud, Aruuhan; Wei, Yongge

    2015-01-01

    Mercury and its compounds are known to be extremely toxic but widely distributed in environment. Although many works have been reported to efficiently detect mercury, development of simple and convenient sensors is still longed for quick analyzing mercury in water. In this work, a nanoscale metal-oxo cluster, (n-Bu4N)2[Mo5NaO13(OCH3)4(NO)], (MLPOM), organically-derivatized from monolacunary Lindqvist-type polyoxomolybdate, is found to specifically react with Hg2+ in methanol/water via structural transformation. The MLPOM methanol solution displays a color change from purple to brown within seconds after being mixed with an aqueous solution containing Hg2+. By comparing the structure of polyoxomolybdate before and after reaction, the color change is revealed to be the essentially structural transformation of MLPOM accelerated by Hg2+. Based on this discovery, MLPOM could be utilized as a colorimetric sensor to sense the existence of Hg2+, and a simple and label-free method is developed to selectively detect aqueous Hg2+. Furthermore, the colorimetric sensor has been applied to indicating mercury contamination in industrial sewage. PMID:26559602

  10. Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiu-Wen; Kao, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chih-Feng; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2007-01-01

    The distribution, enrichment, and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments, especially those at the vicinity of tributary estuaries of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan were investigated. Sediment samples from six locations in the Kaohsiung Harbor were collected quarterly in the period from 2002 to 2005 and characterized for metal content (e.g., Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Al), water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total grease, and grain size. Results showed that metal concentrations varied from 0.58 mg kg(-1) for Cd to 596 mg kg(-1) for Zn. Metal concentrations at the vicinity of river mouths were higher than those at other locations. All heavy metals studied, except Cr, had relatively high enrichment factors and geo-accumulation indices in the estuaries. Moreover, metal concentrations correlated closely to the physical-chemical properties of the sediments, which strongly suggested the influence of industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged from the neighboring industrial parks and river basins. Results would help develop strategies for pollution control and sediment remediation of Kaohsiung Harbor.

  11. Metal concentrations and distribution in paint waste generated during bridge rehabilitation in New York State.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhan; Axe, Lisa; Jahan, Kauser; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Kochersberger, Carl

    2015-09-01

    Between 1950 and 1980, lead and chromium along with other metals have been used in paint coatings to protect bridges from corrosion. In New York State with 4500 bridges in 11 Regions 2385 of the bridges have been rehabilitated and subsequently repainted after 1989 when commercial use of lead based paint was prohibited. The purpose of this research was to address the concentration and distribution of trace metals in the paint waste generated during bridge rehabilitation. Using hypothesis testing and stratified sampling theory, a representative sample size of 24 bridges from across the state was selected that resulted in 117 paint waste samples. Field portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) analysis revealed metal concentrations ranged from 5 to 168,090 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 49,367 to 799,210 mg kg(-1) for Fe, and 27 to 425,510 mg kg(-1) for Zn. Eighty percent of the samples exhibited lead concentrations greater than 5000 mg kg(-1). The elevated iron concentrations may be attributed to the application of steel grit as an abrasive blasting material routinely used by state Departments of Transportation in the paint removal process. Other metals including Ba and Cr were observed in the paint waste as well. As a result of the paint formulation, metals were found to be associated in the paint waste (Pb correlated with Cr (r=0.85)). The elevated metal concentrations observed raises concern over the potential impact of leaching from this waste stream.

  12. Distribution of the concentration of heavy metals associated with the sediment particles accumulated on road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zafra, C A; Temprano, J; Tejero, I

    2011-07-01

    The heavy metal pollution caused by road run-off water constitutes a problem in urban areas. The metallic load associated with road sediment must be determined in order to study its impact in drainage systems and receiving waters, and to perfect the design of prevention systems. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on road surfaces in the city of Torrelavega (northern Spain) during a period of 65 days (132 samples). Two sample types were collected: vacuum-dried samples and those swept up following vacuuming. The sediment loading (g m(-2)), particle size distribution (63-2800 microm) and heavy metal concentrations were determined. The data showed that the concentration of heavy metals tends to increase with the reduction in the particle diameter (exponential tendency). The concentrations ofPb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Fe, Mn and Co in the size fraction <63 microm were 350, 630, 124, 57, 56, 38, 3231, 374 and 51 mg kg(-1), respectively (average traffic density: 3800 vehicles day(-1)). By increasing the residence time of the sediment, the concentration increases, whereas the ratio of the concentration between the different size fractions decreases. The concentration across the road diminishes when the distance between the roadway and the sampling siteincreases; when the distance increases, the ratio between size fractions for heavy metal concentrations increases. Finally, the main sources of heavy metals are the particles detached by braking (brake pads) and tyre wear (rubber), and are associated with particle sizes <125 microm.

  13. Kriging with cumulative distribution function of order statistics for delineation of heavy-metal contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, K.W.; Lee, D.Y.; Hsiao, C.K.

    1998-10-01

    Accurate delineation of contaminated soils is essential for risk assessment and remediation. The probability of pollutant concentrations lower than a cutoff value is more important than the best estimate of pollutant concentrations for unsampled locations in delineating contaminated soils. In this study, a new method, kriging with the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of order statistics (CDF kriging), is introduced and compared with indicator kriging. It is used to predict the probability that extractable concentrations of Zn will be less than a cut-off value for soils to be declared hazardous. The 0.1 M HCl-extractable Zn concentrations of topsoil of a paddy field having an area of about 2000 ha located in Taiwan are used. A comparison of the CDF of order statistics and indicator function transformation shows that the variance and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the CDF of order statistics transformed data are smaller than those of the indicator function transformed data. This suggests that the CDF of order statistics transformation possesses less variability than does the indicator function transformation. In addition, based on cross-validation, CDF kriging is found to reduce the mean squared errors of estimations by about 30% and to reduce the mean kriging variances by about 26% compared with indicator kriging.

  14. Estimating the frequency distributions of particulate matter and their metal elements in a temple.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsin-Chung; Fang, Gour-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen

    2006-07-01

    Air quality inside Asian temples is typically poor because of the burning of incense. This study measured and analyzed concentrations of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter and their metal elements inside a temple in central Taiwan. Experimental results showed that the concentrations of metals Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr inside the temple were higher than those at rural, suburban, urban, and industrial areas in other studies. Three theoretical parent distributions (lognormal, Weibull, and gamma) were used to fit the measured data. The lognormal distribution was the most appropriate distribution for representing frequency distributions of PM10, PM2.5, and their metal elements. Furthermore, the central limit theorem, H-statistic-based scheme, and parametric and nonparametric bootstrap methods were used to estimate confidence intervals for mean pollutant concentrations. The estimated upper confidence limits (UCLs) of means between different methods were very consistent, because the sample coefficient of variation (CV) was < 1. When the sample CV was > 1, the UCL based on H-statistical method tended to overestimate the UCLs when compared with other methods. Confidence intervals for pollutant concentrations at different percentiles were evaluated using parametric and nonparametric bootstrap methods. The probabilities of pollutants exceeding a critical concentration were also calculated.

  15. Stress-driven crystallization via shear-diffusion transformations in a metallic glass at very low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yunwei; Li, Ju; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Qian, Xiaofeng; Ma, Evan

    2015-06-01

    At elevated temperatures, glasses crystallize via thermally activated diffusion. However, metallic glasses can also undergo deformation-induced crystallization at very low temperatures. Here we demonstrate the crystallization of A l50F e50 metallic glasses under cyclic deformation at 50 K using molecular dynamics simulations and reveal the underlying atomic-scale processes. We demonstrate that stress-driven nonaffine atomic rearrangements, or shear diffusion transformation (SDT) events, lead to successive metabasin-to-metabasin transitions and long-range ordering. We also illustrate that the nucleation and growth of the crystal proceed via collective attachment of ordered clusters, advancing the amorphous/crystal interface in an intermittent manner. The cooperative nature of the steplike crystallization is attributed to the large activation volume of Eshelby transformations which generate as a by-product nonaffine diffusive atomic displacements that accumulate over loading cycles. The dual nature of shear (affine) and diffusion (nonaffine) in low-temperature stress-driven SDT events thus unifies inelasticity with crystallization.

  16. Non-canonical distribution and non-equilibrium transport beyond weak system-bath coupling regime: A polaron transformation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dazhi; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-08-01

    The concept of polaron, emerged from condense matter physics, describes the dynamical interaction of moving particle with its surrounding bosonic modes. This concept has been developed into a useful method to treat open quantum systems with a complete range of system-bath coupling strength. Especially, the polaron transformation approach shows its validity in the intermediate coupling regime, in which the Redfield equation or Fermi's golden rule will fail. In the polaron frame, the equilibrium distribution carried out by perturbative expansion presents a deviation from the canonical distribution, which is beyond the usual weak coupling assumption in thermodynamics. A polaron transformed Redfield equation (PTRE) not only reproduces the dissipative quantum dynamics but also provides an accurate and efficient way to calculate the non-equilibrium steady states. Applications of the PTRE approach to problems such as exciton diffusion, heat transport and light-harvesting energy transfer are presented.

  17. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in surface soil, plant and mushroom beside high-frequency road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krbić, Biljana Å.; Milovac, Snežana; Stošić, Dušan; Zorić, Miroslav; Matavulj, Milan

    2010-05-01

    One of the undesirable aspects of urbanization process is the introduction of potentially harmful pollutants into environment. Urban soils are often contaminated by metals deriving from industry, transportation and other human activities. In this study, concentration of heavy metals were investigated in roadside surface soil, linden tree bark (Tilia sp.), mushroom Schizophyllum commune and dust samples collected at different distances (0.2 - 200 m) from main high-frequency road. The samples were microwave digested in accordance to US EPA 3051 method and analyzed by flame (Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn), graphite furnace (Cr) and cold vapor (Hg) atomic absorption spectrometry. The results of the analysis were used to determine major sources and distribution of heavy metals pollution. The obtained results showed significant decrease of traffic-related metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and Cd) in soil samples with increasing distance from road edge. In order to assess possible pollution, heavy metal contents in soil were compared with the National legislation and Netherlands soil quality standards. Also, elevated concentrations of traffic-related metals, especially Pb and Cr in analyzed tree bark, mushroom and dust samples, indicate the obvious roadside contamination whose primary contributors appear to be vehicular local traffic. In addition, Index of Bioaccumulation (IBA) was calculated in order to estimate plant and mushroom ability of heavy metals accumulation. Assessment of statistical differences among samples was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Moreover, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the heavy metals content allowed a meaningful classification of the samples according to the main sources of pollution.

  18. Leaching behavior of heavy metals and transformation of their speciation in polluted soil receiving simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects.

  19. Leaching behavior of heavy metals and transformation of their speciation in polluted soil receiving simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects. PMID:23185399

  20. Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals and Transformation of Their Speciation in Polluted Soil Receiving Simulated Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects. PMID:23185399

  1. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy for characterization of the protein/peptide distribution in single microspheres.

    PubMed

    Wang, Manli; Lu, Xiaolong; Yin, Xianzhen; Tong, Yajun; Peng, Weiwei; Wu, Li; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai; Xiao, Tiqiao; Chen, Min; Zhang, Jiwen

    2015-05-01

    The present study establishes a visualization method for the measurement of the distribution and localization of protein/peptide constituents within a single poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microsphere using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy (SR-FTIR). The representative infrared wavenumbers specific for protein/peptide (Exenatide) and excipient (PLGA) were identified and chemical maps at the single microsphere level were generated by measuring and plotting the intensity of these specific bands. For quantitative analysis of the distribution within microspheres, Matlab software was used to transform the map file into a 3D matrix and the matrix values specific for the drug and excipient were extracted. Comparison of the normalized SR-FTIR maps of PLGA and Exenatide indicated that PLGA was uniformly distributed, while Exenatide was relatively non-uniformly distributed in the microspheres. In conclusion, SR-FTIR is a rapid, nondestructive and sensitive detection technology to provide the distribution of chemical constituents and functional groups in microparticles and microspheres. PMID:26579456

  2. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy for characterization of the protein/peptide distribution in single microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manli; Lu, Xiaolong; Yin, Xianzhen; Tong, Yajun; Peng, Weiwei; Wu, Li; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai; Xiao, Tiqiao; Chen, Min; Zhang, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The present study establishes a visualization method for the measurement of the distribution and localization of protein/peptide constituents within a single poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microsphere using synchrotron radiation–based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy (SR-FTIR). The representative infrared wavenumbers specific for protein/peptide (Exenatide) and excipient (PLGA) were identified and chemical maps at the single microsphere level were generated by measuring and plotting the intensity of these specific bands. For quantitative analysis of the distribution within microspheres, Matlab software was used to transform the map file into a 3D matrix and the matrix values specific for the drug and excipient were extracted. Comparison of the normalized SR-FTIR maps of PLGA and Exenatide indicated that PLGA was uniformly distributed, while Exenatide was relatively non-uniformly distributed in the microspheres. In conclusion, SR-FTIR is a rapid, nondestructive and sensitive detection technology to provide the distribution of chemical constituents and functional groups in microparticles and microspheres. PMID:26579456

  3. Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soil Samples in China: A Graphical Review.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiannan; Lee, Jianchao; Liu, Yansong; Chen, Han; Hu, Huanyu

    2016-09-01

    Soil pollution in China is one of most wide and severe in the world. Although environmental researchers are well aware of the acuteness of soil pollution in China, a precise and comprehensive mapping system of soil pollution has never been released. By compiling, integrating and processing nearly a decade of soil pollution data, we have created cornerstone maps that illustrate the distribution and concentration of cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, copper and chromium in surficial soil across the nation. These summarized maps and the integrated data provide precise geographic coordinates and heavy metal concentrations; they are also the first ones to provide such thorough and comprehensive details about heavy metal soil pollution in China. In this study, we focus on some of the most polluted areas to illustrate the severity of this pressing environmental problem and demonstrate that most developed and populous areas have been subjected to heavy metal pollution.

  4. Spatial distribution and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in Yangtze estuary sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruimin; Men, Cong; Liu, Yongyan; Yu, Wenwen; Xu, Fei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-09-15

    To analyze the spatial distribution patterns and ecological risks of heavy metals, 30 sediment samples were taken in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) in May 2011. The content of Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb increased as follows: inner-regionmetals, Mn turned to be the severest pollutant and As did not contribute too much to the contamination of the YRE. That was most probably because that Mn was closely related to the carbonate-associated (CARB) and As was related to organic-associated (OM) which is more stable than CARB. The fractions played an important role in the contamination assessment of heavy metals. PMID:27267116

  5. Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soil Samples in China: A Graphical Review.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiannan; Lee, Jianchao; Liu, Yansong; Chen, Han; Hu, Huanyu

    2016-09-01

    Soil pollution in China is one of most wide and severe in the world. Although environmental researchers are well aware of the acuteness of soil pollution in China, a precise and comprehensive mapping system of soil pollution has never been released. By compiling, integrating and processing nearly a decade of soil pollution data, we have created cornerstone maps that illustrate the distribution and concentration of cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, copper and chromium in surficial soil across the nation. These summarized maps and the integrated data provide precise geographic coordinates and heavy metal concentrations; they are also the first ones to provide such thorough and comprehensive details about heavy metal soil pollution in China. In this study, we focus on some of the most polluted areas to illustrate the severity of this pressing environmental problem and demonstrate that most developed and populous areas have been subjected to heavy metal pollution. PMID:27342589

  6. Spatial distribution and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in Yangtze estuary sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruimin; Men, Cong; Liu, Yongyan; Yu, Wenwen; Xu, Fei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-09-15

    To analyze the spatial distribution patterns and ecological risks of heavy metals, 30 sediment samples were taken in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) in May 2011. The content of Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb increased as follows: inner-regionmetals, Mn turned to be the severest pollutant and As did not contribute too much to the contamination of the YRE. That was most probably because that Mn was closely related to the carbonate-associated (CARB) and As was related to organic-associated (OM) which is more stable than CARB. The fractions played an important role in the contamination assessment of heavy metals.

  7. Single Particle ICPMS for Characterizing Metal-based Nanoparticles and Monitoring Transformation Processes in Surface Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered metal-based nanomaterials will likely be used in increasing quantities in consumer and industrial products. These may be introduced into surface waters by a variety of paths depending on usage. Other naturally occurring and anthropogenic particles containing these met...

  8. Distribution of heavy metals in road dust along an urban-rural gradient in Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apeagyei, Eric; Bank, Michael S.; Spengler, John D.

    2011-04-01

    Human exposures to particulate matter emitted from on-road motor vehicles include complex mixtures of metals from tires, brakes, parts wear and resuspended road dust. The aim of this study was to assess road dust for metals associated with motor vehicle traffic, particularly those metals coming from brake and tire wears. We hypothesized that the road dust would show significant difference in both composition and concentration by traffic type, road class and by location. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses of 115 parked car tires showed Zn and Ca were likely associated with tire wear dust. XRF results of three used brake pads indicated high concentrations of Fe, Ti, Cu, Ba, Mo and Zr. To assess heavy metal exposures associated with tires and brake wear adjacent to roads of varying traffic and functional classes, 85 samples of road dust were collected from road surfaces adjacent to the curb and analyzed by XRF. Median concentrations for Fe, Ca and K were greater than Ti (1619 ppm), with concentration ratios of Fe: Ca: K: Ti [16:5:3:1]. Cumulative frequency distribution graphs showed distribution of Fe, Ba, Cu, and Mo were similar regardless of road traffic rating. However, Zn, Ti, and Zr varied significantly ( p < 0.05) with traffic ratings of roadways (heavy > moderate > low traffic). Fe, Ba, Cu, and Mo also had similar distributions regardless of road class while composition of Zn, Ti, and Zr varied significantly across road class ( p < 0.05) (Major roads > Minor roads > highway). In comparing urban road dust to rural road dust, we observed Fe, Ca, K, and Ti were significantly greater in urban road dust ( p < 0.05). In urban road dust the Fe: Ca: K: Ti relationship with median Ti of 2216 ppm was 12: 6: 3.5: 1. These results indicate that roadway dust may be important sources of metals for runoff water and localized resuspended particulate matter.

  9. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Amendments on Heavy Metal Distribution in Reclaimed Sodic Soils

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline–alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers. Results showed that pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable sodium percentage in amended soils were significantly reduced from 10.2 to 8.46, 1.8 to 0.2 dS/m, and 18.14% to 1.28%, respectively. As and Hg concentrations in the soils were found to be positively correlated with FGD gypsum added. The amount of Hg in the leachate was positively correlated with FGD gypsum application ratio, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Pb concentration in the leachate and the FGD gypsum ratio. Results revealed that heavy metal concentrations in soils complied well with Environmental Quality Standard for Soils in China (GB15618-1995). This work helps to understand the fate of FGD gypsum-introduced heavy metals in sodic soils and provides a baseline for further environmental risk assessment associated with applying FGD gypsum for sodic soil remediation. PMID:26064038

  10. Particle size distributions of metal and non-metal elements in an urban near-highway environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Michael D.; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Baldauf, Richard; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Determination of the size-resolved elemental composition of near-highway particulate matter (PM) is important due to the health and environmental risks it poses. In the current study, twelve 24 h PM samples were collected (in July-August 2006) using a low-pressure impactor positioned 20 m from a Raleigh, North Carolina interstate. The interstate supported ˜125,000 vehicles/d, the majority of which were light-duty gasoline passenger vehicles. The overall near-highway PM mass size distribution was trimodal with a major accumulation mode peak at 500-800 nm. PM mass levels reflected daily traffic activity, while mean near-highway PM 10 (33 ± 7.5 μg m -3), PM 2.5 (29 ± 6.8 μg m -3), and PM 0.1 (1.4 ± 0.3 μg m -3) mass levels varied less than 24% over the two week sampling period. The elemental composition of the impactor-collected PM was investigated using magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (SF-ICPMS). Accumulation mode sulfur (7 ± 4% w/w) was the major inorganic constituent detected at the near-highway site followed by coarse mode group IA and IIA elements likely from re-suspension of crustal matter. As expected, elements regularly detected in asphalt, vehicle, catalyst (e.g., Pt, Rh, and Pd), brake, and tire wear (e.g., Cu and Sb) were also found in the near highway PM. Maximum concentrations of the platinum group, rare earth, and common brake and tire wear elements were observed at d50 = 1-2 μm, d50 = 1-4 μm, and d50 ≥ 1-4 μm, respectively. Ten of the eleven metals listed as EPA air toxics (Mn, Cr, Sb, Ni, Pb, As, Co, Cd, Se, and Be) were detected in each PM size fraction but were generally enriched in PM 0.1. Several biologically antagonistic suites of metals (Cd, Cu, and V) were found in multiple PM size modes. Some of these metals showed erratic size distributions with daily changes in enrichment (e.g., Ni, Zn, Cd, As, and Cu) and particle size, suggesting a variety of emissions and metal exposure scenarios occurring in the

  11. Bond-length distributions for ions bonded to oxygen: alkali and alkaline-earth metals

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Olivier Charles; Hawthorne, Frank Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Bond-length distributions have been examined for 55 configurations of alkali-metal ions and 29 configurations of alkaline-earth-metal ions bonded to oxygen, for 4859 coordination polyhedra and 38 594 bond distances (alkali metals), and for 3038 coordination polyhedra and 24 487 bond distances (alkaline-earth metals). Bond lengths generally show a positively skewed Gaussian distribution that originates from the variation in Born repulsion and Coulomb attraction as a function of interatomic distance. The skewness and kurtosis of these distributions generally decrease with increasing coordination number of the central cation, a result of decreasing Born repulsion with increasing coordination number. We confirm the following minimum coordination numbers: [3]Li+, [3]Na+, [4]K+, [4]Rb+, [6]Cs+, [3]Be2+, [4]Mg2+, [6]Ca2+, [6]Sr2+ and [6]Ba2+, but note that some reported examples are the result of extensive dynamic and/or positional short-range disorder and are not ordered arrangements. Some distributions of bond lengths are distinctly multi-modal. This is commonly due to the occurrence of large numbers of structure refinements of a particular structure type in which a particular cation is always present, leading to an over-representation of a specific range of bond lengths. Outliers in the distributions of mean bond lengths are often associated with anomalous values of atomic displacement of the constituent cations and/or anions. For a sample of [6]Na+, the ratio U eq(Na)/U eq(bonded anions) is partially correlated with 〈[6]Na+—O2−〉 (R 2 = 0.57), suggesting that the mean bond length is correlated with vibrational/displacement characteristics of the constituent ions for a fixed coordination number. Mean bond lengths also show a weak correlation with bond-length distortion from the mean value in general, although some coordination numbers show the widest variation in mean bond length for zero distortion, e.g. Li+ in [4]- and [6]-coordination, Na+ in [4]- and [6

  12. Bond-length distributions for ions bonded to oxygen: alkali and alkaline-earth metals.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Olivier Charles; Hawthorne, Frank Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Bond-length distributions have been examined for 55 configurations of alkali-metal ions and 29 configurations of alkaline-earth-metal ions bonded to oxygen, for 4859 coordination polyhedra and 38 594 bond distances (alkali metals), and for 3038 coordination polyhedra and 24 487 bond distances (alkaline-earth metals). Bond lengths generally show a positively skewed Gaussian distribution that originates from the variation in Born repulsion and Coulomb attraction as a function of interatomic distance. The skewness and kurtosis of these distributions generally decrease with increasing coordination number of the central cation, a result of decreasing Born repulsion with increasing coordination number. We confirm the following minimum coordination numbers: ([3])Li(+), ([3])Na(+), ([4])K(+), ([4])Rb(+), ([6])Cs(+), ([3])Be(2+), ([4])Mg(2+), ([6])Ca(2+), ([6])Sr(2+) and ([6])Ba(2+), but note that some reported examples are the result of extensive dynamic and/or positional short-range disorder and are not ordered arrangements. Some distributions of bond lengths are distinctly multi-modal. This is commonly due to the occurrence of large numbers of structure refinements of a particular structure type in which a particular cation is always present, leading to an over-representation of a specific range of bond lengths. Outliers in the distributions of mean bond lengths are often associated with anomalous values of atomic displacement of the constituent cations and/or anions. For a sample of ([6])Na(+), the ratio Ueq(Na)/Ueq(bonded anions) is partially correlated with 〈([6])Na(+)-O(2-)〉 (R(2) = 0.57), suggesting that the mean bond length is correlated with vibrational/displacement characteristics of the constituent ions for a fixed coordination number. Mean bond lengths also show a weak correlation with bond-length distortion from the mean value in general, although some coordination numbers show the widest variation in mean bond length for zero distortion, e.g. Li(+) in

  13. Bond-length distributions for ions bonded to oxygen: alkali and alkaline-earth metals.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Olivier Charles; Hawthorne, Frank Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Bond-length distributions have been examined for 55 configurations of alkali-metal ions and 29 configurations of alkaline-earth-metal ions bonded to oxygen, for 4859 coordination polyhedra and 38 594 bond distances (alkali metals), and for 3038 coordination polyhedra and 24 487 bond distances (alkaline-earth metals). Bond lengths generally show a positively skewed Gaussian distribution that originates from the variation in Born repulsion and Coulomb attraction as a function of interatomic distance. The skewness and kurtosis of these distributions generally decrease with increasing coordination number of the central cation, a result of decreasing Born repulsion with increasing coordination number. We confirm the following minimum coordination numbers: ([3])Li(+), ([3])Na(+), ([4])K(+), ([4])Rb(+), ([6])Cs(+), ([3])Be(2+), ([4])Mg(2+), ([6])Ca(2+), ([6])Sr(2+) and ([6])Ba(2+), but note that some reported examples are the result of extensive dynamic and/or positional short-range disorder and are not ordered arrangements. Some distributions of bond lengths are distinctly multi-modal. This is commonly due to the occurrence of large numbers of structure refinements of a particular structure type in which a particular cation is always present, leading to an over-representation of a specific range of bond lengths. Outliers in the distributions of mean bond lengths are often associated with anomalous values of atomic displacement of the constituent cations and/or anions. For a sample of ([6])Na(+), the ratio Ueq(Na)/Ueq(bonded anions) is partially correlated with 〈([6])Na(+)-O(2-)〉 (R(2) = 0.57), suggesting that the mean bond length is correlated with vibrational/displacement characteristics of the constituent ions for a fixed coordination number. Mean bond lengths also show a weak correlation with bond-length distortion from the mean value in general, although some coordination numbers show the widest variation in mean bond length for zero distortion, e.g. Li(+) in

  14. THE RADIAL METALLICITY GRADIENTS IN THE MILKY WAY THICK DISK AS FOSSIL SIGNATURES OF A PRIMORDIAL CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Curir, A.; Serra, A. L.; Spagna, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Re Fiorentin, P.; Diaferio, A.

    2014-04-01

    In this Letter we examine the evolution of the radial metallicity gradient induced by secular processes, in the disk of an N-body Milky Way-like galaxy. We assign a [Fe/H] value to each particle of the simulation according to an initial, cosmologically motivated, radial chemical distribution and let the disk dynamically evolve for ∼6 Gyr. This direct approach allows us to take into account only the effects of dynamical evolution and to gauge how and to what extent they affect the initial chemical conditions. The initial [Fe/H] distribution increases with R in the inner disk up to R ≈ 10 kpc and decreases for larger R. We find that the initial chemical profile does not undergo major transformations after ∼6 Gyr of dynamical evolution. The final radial chemical gradients predicted by the model in the solar neighborhood are positive and of the same order as those recently observed in the Milky Way thick disk. We conclude that (1) the spatial chemical imprint at the time of disk formation is not washed out by secular dynamical processes and (2) the observed radial gradient may be the dynamical relic of a thick disk originated from a stellar population showing a positive chemical radial gradient in the inner regions.

  15. Dynamic Loading of Substation Distribution Transformers: An Application for use in a Production Grade Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming

    Recent trends in the electric power industry have led to more attention to optimal operation of power transformers. In a deregulated environment, optimal operation means minimizing the maintenance and extending the life of this critical and costly equipment for the purpose of maximizing profits. Optimal utilization of a transformer can be achieved through the use of dynamic loading. A benefit of dynamic loading is that it allows better utilization of the transformer capacity, thus increasing the flexibility and reliability of the power system. This document presents the progress on a software application which can estimate the maximum time-varying loading capability of transformers. This information can be used to load devices closer to their limits without exceeding the manufacturer specified operating limits. The maximally efficient dynamic loading of transformers requires a model that can accurately predict both top-oil temperatures (TOTs) and hottest-spot temperatures (HSTs). In the previous work, two kinds of thermal TOT and HST models have been studied and used in the application: the IEEE TOT/HST models and the ASU TOT/HST models. And, several metrics have been applied to evaluate the model acceptability and determine the most appropriate models for using in the dynamic loading calculations. In this work, an investigation to improve the existing transformer thermal models performance is presented. Some factors that may affect the model performance such as improper fan status and the error caused by the poor performance of IEEE models are discussed. Additional methods to determine the reliability of transformer thermal models using metrics such as time constant and the model parameters are also provided. A new production grade application for real-time dynamic loading operating purpose is introduced. This application is developed by using an existing planning application, TTeMP, as a start point, which is designed for the dispatchers and load specialists. To

  16. Spatial distribution of metals in urban topsoils of Xuzhou (China): controlling factors and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Song; Qin, Yong

    2006-03-01

    The contamination of soils by metals from various sources is a subject of increasing concern in recent times. Twenty-eight elements (Fe, Ti, Cr, Al, Ga, Pb, Sc, Ba, Li, Cd, Be, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, Mo, Pt, Pd, Au, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Bi, Ag and Sn) have been analyzed from urban topsoil from the city of Xuzhou. The concentrations of these analyzed elements have been correlated to some soil parameters such as organic matter, pH, cation exchange capacity, carbonate content, and granulometric fractions (clay, silt and sand). Results of the statistical analysis show a large variety and complexity in these relationships. The spatial distributions of these metal concentrations were also constructed using geographical information system. The spatial distribution patterns of the elements analyzed show that traffic and industrial activities are the principal anthropogenic pollutant sources.

  17. On the Metallicity Distribution of the Peculiar Globular Cluster M22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Woo

    2016-10-01

    In our previous study, we showed that the peculiar globular cluster (GC) M22 contains two distinct stellar populations, namely the Ca-w and Ca-s groups, which have different physical properties, chemical compositions, spatial distributions, and kinematics. We proposed that M22 was most likely formed via a merger of two GCs with heterogeneous metallicities in a dwarf galaxy environment and then later accreted to our Galaxy. In their recent study, Mucciarelli et al. claimed that M22 is a normal monometallic globular cluster without any perceptible metallicity spread among the two groups of stars, which challenges our results and those of others. We devise new strategies for the local thermodynamic equilibrium abundance analysis of red giant branch stars in GCs and show that there exists a spread in the iron abundance distribution in M22.

  18. A novel fractionation approach for water constituents – distribution of storm event metals

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Young, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel fractionation method, based on both particle size and settling characteristics, was employed to examine metal distributions among five fractions. In-stream and stormwater runoff samples were collected from four land use types: highway, urban, agricultural (storm event and irrigation), and natural. Highway samples contained the highest dissolved concentrations for most metals, and freshwater ambient water quality criteria were exceeded for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the first storm of the water year. Anthropogenic sources were indicated for Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in highway and urban samples, and total metal loadings (mg/km2) were observed to be as follows: highway > urban > agricultural storm event ~ natural > agricultural irrigation. Notably, ~10-fold higher suspended solids concentration was observed in the agricultural storm event sample, and suspended solids-associated metals were correspondingly elevated. Distribution coefficients revealed the following affinities: Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb to large dense particles; and Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Pb to colloidal organic matter. PMID:23535891

  19. Effects of rare earth elements on the distribution of mineral elements and heavy metals in horseradish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2008-09-01

    In order to investigate the effects of rare earth elements (REEs) on horseradish, the distribution of the mineral elements and heavy metals in different organs of horseradish have been studied by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Meanwhile, three variable major parameters, namely the concentration of REEs, the type of REEs, and the growth stage of plant were chosen. The results indicated that the test REEs, Ce(III) and Tb(III), could be accumulated in leaves, stems and roots of horseradish. In addition, we found that the content of mineral elements was increased in horseradish treated with 20mgl(-1) of Ce(III), but not those with the 20mgl(-1) of Tb(III). Moreover, the content of mineral elements in horseradish was decreased with the increasing concentration of REEs (100, 300mgl(-1)). Furthermore, we found that there were the opposite effects on the content of the heavy metals in horseradish treated with REEs. Finally, we found that the effect of REEs on the accumulation of REEs, and the content of mineral elements or heavy metals of horseradish during vigorous growth stage, no matter positive or negative, was more obvious than that of the other growth stages. These results demonstrated that the distribution behaviors of mineral elements and heavy metals in horseradish can be affected by the type and concentration of REEs, and the growth period of plant.

  20. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G.; Synolakis, Costas

    2013-01-01

    The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plant effluents, and (iii) paint and oil scraps from substandard ship maintenance activities that take place on ports breakwaters. A few neighboring beaches were found to have similar heavy metal concentrations, with mean values of Cu, Zn, and Pb ranging from 80 to 130, 15 to 25, and 25 to 40 mg/kg, respectively. Existing legislation regarding dredging activities in Greece appears insufficient for sustainable and environmentally friendly nourishment. We conclude that before opportunistic beach restoration projects materialize with material borrowed from ports and harbors the quality of the dredged material needs to be assessed. PMID:24379742

  1. X-ray diffraction studies of phase transformations in heavy-metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, N. P.; Doremus, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies of the crystallization properties of five ZrF4-based glass compositions have indicated that the crystalline phase in Zr-Ba-La-Pb fluoride glass is beta-BaZrF6; no such identification of crystal phases was obtainable, however, for the other glasses. Reversible polymorphic phase transformations occur in Zr-Ba-La-Li and Zr-Ba-La-Na fluoride glasses, upon heating to higher temperatures.

  2. Revealing β-relaxation mechanism based on energy distribution of flow units in metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Shang, B. S.; Sun, Y. T.; Zhu, Z. G.; Guan, P. F.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The β-relaxation, which is the source of the dynamics in glass state and has practical significance to relaxation and mechanical properties of glasses, has been an open question for decades. Here, we propose a flow unit perspective to explain the structural origin and evolution of β-relaxation based on experimentally obtained energy distribution of flow units using stress relaxation method under isothermal and linear heating modes. Through the molecular dynamics simulations, we creatively design various artificial metallic glass systems and build a direct relation between β-relaxation behavior and features of flow units. Our results demonstrate that the β-relaxation in metallic glasses originates from flow units and is modulated by the energy distribution of flow units, and the density and distribution of flow units can effectively regulate the β-relaxation behavior. The results provide a better understanding of the structural origin of β-relaxation and also afford a method for designing metallic glasses with obvious β-relaxation and better mechanical properties.

  3. [Heavy metals distribution characteristics and risk assessment of water below an electroplating factory].

    PubMed

    Hang, Xiao-Shuai; Wang, Huo-Yan; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2008-10-01

    Surface water and shallow groundwater within the flow of an electroplating factory was analyzed in order to study the resulting impact. The analysis method of ICP-AES was used to analyze content of zinc, manganese, chromium, copper and nickel in surface water and groundwater samples. The results indicate acidic pollutants of zinc, manganese, chromium, copper and nickel were discharged from the factory with concentrations of 1.34, 3.77, 28.1, 6.40 and 9.37 mg x L(-1), respectively; and pH was 2.32. They all exceeded permissible levels according to Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard except zinc. Factory discharge is responsible for the longitudinal distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the stream water downstream from the factory. Heavy metals variations in the well water do not suggest they were affected by heavy metals in the stream, indicating that the migration rates of heavy metals in soils were relatively low. Risk assessment shows surface water quality significantly deteriorated. Nickel and manganese in the stream water exceeded the standard levels seriously, and chromium and copper in some samples were also above Grade III standard levels according to Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water. Moreover, all studied heavy metals in 14 groundwater samples measured within drinking water standard, except manganese in 4 groundwater samples, which were Grade IV according to Quality Standard for Ground water. PMID:19143363

  4. Distribution and mobility of metals in agricultural soils near a copper smelter in South China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ningjing; Li, Zeqin; Huang, Peng; Tao, Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and mobility of heavy metals in the paddy soils surrounding a copper smelting plant in south China was investigated. We assessed the degree of metal contamination using an index of geoaccumulation. The metals were divided into two groups: (1) Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, whose concentrations were heavily affected by anthropogenic inputs, and (2) Ni, Co and Cr, which were mainly of geochemical origin. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb in the polluted soils were higher than the Chinese soil quality criteria. The chemical partitioning patterns of Pb, Zn and Cu indicated that Pb was largely associated with the residual and NH(2)OH HCl extractable fractions. In contrast, Cd was predominantly associated with the MgCl(2) extractable fraction. A large proportion of Cu was bound to the acidic H(2)O(2) extractable fractions, while Zn was predominantly found in the residual phase. The fraction of mobile species, which potentially is the most harmful to the environment, was found to be elevated compared to unpolluted soils in which heavy metals are more strongly bound to the matrix. The mobility of the metals was studied by water extraction using a modification of Tessier's procedure, and the order of mobility was Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb. PMID:16528598

  5. A comprehensive study of metal distribution in three main classes of seaweed.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Siobhan; McLoughlin, Peter; O'Donovan, Orla

    2012-08-01

    This paper provides one of the most comprehensive studies of metal distributions in three main macroalgae species. In this novel study, levels of total, intracellular and surface bound Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni associated with Polysiphonia lanosa (L) Tandy, Ascophyllum nodosum (L) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (L) and Ulva sp. were determined. Additionally, water and sediment metal levels were analysed to gain an insight into the relative uptake efficiencies of different macroalgal species. Samples were collected from a clean site in Fethard-on-Sea, Wexford, Ireland (52°11'53.68'N, 6°49'34.64'W), in May 2008. Results demonstrated that total, intracellular and surface bound metal levels varied according to metal and seaweed species, with the highest proportion of metals found to be intracellular. Inhibition of Mn uptake by Zn was indicated for P. lanosa. Furthermore, P. lanosa had enhanced bioaccumulation ability, with the highest Concentration Factor reported of any seaweed to date. PMID:22575098

  6. Distribution and mobility of metals in agricultural soils near a copper smelter in South China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ningjing; Li, Zeqin; Huang, Peng; Tao, Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and mobility of heavy metals in the paddy soils surrounding a copper smelting plant in south China was investigated. We assessed the degree of metal contamination using an index of geoaccumulation. The metals were divided into two groups: (1) Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, whose concentrations were heavily affected by anthropogenic inputs, and (2) Ni, Co and Cr, which were mainly of geochemical origin. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb in the polluted soils were higher than the Chinese soil quality criteria. The chemical partitioning patterns of Pb, Zn and Cu indicated that Pb was largely associated with the residual and NH(2)OH HCl extractable fractions. In contrast, Cd was predominantly associated with the MgCl(2) extractable fraction. A large proportion of Cu was bound to the acidic H(2)O(2) extractable fractions, while Zn was predominantly found in the residual phase. The fraction of mobile species, which potentially is the most harmful to the environment, was found to be elevated compared to unpolluted soils in which heavy metals are more strongly bound to the matrix. The mobility of the metals was studied by water extraction using a modification of Tessier's procedure, and the order of mobility was Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb.

  7. [Heavy metals distribution characteristics and risk assessment of water below an electroplating factory].

    PubMed

    Hang, Xiao-Shuai; Wang, Huo-Yan; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2008-10-01

    Surface water and shallow groundwater within the flow of an electroplating factory was analyzed in order to study the resulting impact. The analysis method of ICP-AES was used to analyze content of zinc, manganese, chromium, copper and nickel in surface water and groundwater samples. The results indicate acidic pollutants of zinc, manganese, chromium, copper and nickel were discharged from the factory with concentrations of 1.34, 3.77, 28.1, 6.40 and 9.37 mg x L(-1), respectively; and pH was 2.32. They all exceeded permissible levels according to Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard except zinc. Factory discharge is responsible for the longitudinal distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the stream water downstream from the factory. Heavy metals variations in the well water do not suggest they were affected by heavy metals in the stream, indicating that the migration rates of heavy metals in soils were relatively low. Risk assessment shows surface water quality significantly deteriorated. Nickel and manganese in the stream water exceeded the standard levels seriously, and chromium and copper in some samples were also above Grade III standard levels according to Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water. Moreover, all studied heavy metals in 14 groundwater samples measured within drinking water standard, except manganese in 4 groundwater samples, which were Grade IV according to Quality Standard for Ground water.

  8. [Analysis of heavy metals distribution characteristics and pollution assessment in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Nan-Jing; Yuan, Jing; Ma, Ming-Jun; Fang, Li; Wang, Yin; Meng, De-Shuo; Yu, Yang; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2014-07-01

    By means of field sampling and laboratory analysis, the content distribution characteristics of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin in Anhui province were analyzed. Assessment of heavy metal pollutions was conducted using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the average mass fraction of Cd and Cu was 0.113 5 and 22.09 mg x kg(-1) respectively in the study area soil, which were above the background values 0.097 and 20.4 mg x kg(-1) in Anhui Province. The average mass fraction of other four heavy metals did not exceed the average values of Anhui Province. The results of the evaluations from geoaccumulation index and ecological risk assessment discovered that Cd is the strongest pollution metal among six heavy metals in the study area soil. For some samples of the study soil, Cd was slight risk for the ecosystem. The ecosystem risks caused by the other five heavy metals were not obviously for the sampling points. The entire study area soils were mid integrated potential ecological risk.

  9. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms in east and west Guangdong coastal regions, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-30

    Heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As) concentrations, distribution and bioaccumulation were studied in marine organisms in Guangdong coastal regions. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in organisms showed characteristics according to areas and species. Heavy metal concentrations in most organisms were higher in west than in east, tightly related to the local industry structure and the disequilibrium of metal discharge. Generally, high heavy metal concentrations were detected in molluscs and low concentrations were detected in fish. Bioaccumulation factor was used to assess the accumulation level of marine organisms to heavy metals, of which Cd, Cu and As were the most accumulated elements. Accumulation abilities to heavy metals varied among organism species, such as Distorsio reticulate accumulating Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Loligo beka Sasaki accumulating Pb, Cu, Cr, and Turritella bacillum Kiener accumulating Zn, Cd, As. By comparison, Johnius belengeri, Argyrosomus argentatus, Cynoglossus sinicus Wu had relatively low accumulation abilities.

  10. Correlated structural and electronic phase transformations in transition metal chalcogenide under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyu; Ke, Feng; Hu, Qingyang; Yu, Zhenhai; Zhao, Jinggeng; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yan, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Here, we report comprehensive studies on the high-pressure structural and electrical transport properties of the layered transition metal chalcogenide (Cr2S3) up to 36.3 GPa. A structural phase transition was observed in the rhombohedral Cr2S3 near 16.5 GPa by the synchrotron angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurement using a diamond anvil cell. Through in situ resistance measurement, the electric resistance value was detected to decrease by an order of three over the pressure range of 7-15 GPa coincided with the structural phase transition. Measurements on the temperature dependence of resistivity indicate that it is a semiconductor-to-metal transition in nature. The results were also confirmed by the electronic energy band calculations. Above results may shed a light on optimizing the performance of Cr2S3 based applications under extreme conditions.

  11. Critical metals in manganese nodules from the Cook Islands EEZ, abundances and distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Spinardi, Francesca; Okamoto, Nobuyuki; Mizell, Kira; Thorburn, Darryl; Tawake, Akuila

    2015-01-01

    Compiled data from a series of four cruises by the Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Mining agency of Japan from 1985 to 2000 were used to generate a map that defines the statistical distribution of nodule abundance throughout the EEZ, except the Manihiki Plateau. The abundance distribution map shows a belt of high nodule abundance (19–45 kg/m2) that starts in the southeast corner of the EEZ, runs northwest, and also bifurcates into a SW trending branch. Small, isolated areas contain abundances of nodules of up to 58 kg/m2. Six ~ 20,000 km2 areas of particularly high abundance were chosen to represent potential exploration areas, and maps for metal concentration were generated to visualize metal distribution and to extrapolate estimated metal tonnages within the six sites and the EEZ as a whole. Grades for Mn, Cu, and Ni are low in CIs nodules in areas of high abundance; however, Ti, Co, and REY show high contents where nodule abundances are high. Of the six areas identified to represent a range of metal contents, one at the northern end of the N-S abundance main belt optimizes the most metals and would yield the highest dry metric tons for Mn (61,002,292), Ni (1,247,834), Mo (186,166), V (356,247), W (30,215), and Zr (195,323). When compared with the Clarion–Clipperton Zone, the CIs nodules show higher nodule abundances (> 25 kg/m2 over ~ 123,844 km2), and are more enriched in the green-tech, high-tech, and energy metals Co, Ti, Te, Nb, REY, Pt, and Zr. The CIs EEZ shows a significant resource potential for these critical metals due to their high prices, high demand, and the high nodule abundance, which will allow for a smaller footprint for a 20-year mine site and therefore smaller environmental impact.

  12. The transformation of organic amines by transition metal cluster compounds: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    Research during the current award period has covered several related topics which have emerged and grown as a consequence of the various discoveries that have been made during this award period. They have been divided into the following subsections for clarity and emphasis: The activation of tertiary amines by osmium cluster complexes; CH bond activation and ring opening of a nitrogen containing strained ring heterocycle by an osmium cluster complex; Ring opening of cyclic thioethers; cyclooligomerization of Thietanes; Studies of the cyclobutyne ligand; Insertion of an alkynes into metal-metal bonds; and Energy storage in metal clusters. A summary of the results of these studies is given in the following sections of this report. These studies have resulted in 50 scientific publications over the last three years and details of their studies beyond that given in the following sections can be found in those reports. All of these reports are listed in the final section of this report by the author`s names, title and journal citation.

  13. Mechanical contact induced transformation from the amorphous to the crystalline state in metallic glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Friction and wear tests were conducted with 3.2- and 6.4-millimeter-diameter aluminum oxide spheres sliding, in reciprocating motion, on a Fe67Co18B14Si1 metallic foil. Crystallites with a size range of 10 to 150 nanometers were produced on the wear surface of the amorphous alloy. A strong interaction between transition metals and metalloids such as silicon and boron results in strong segregation during repeated sliding, provides preferential transition metal-metalloid clustering in the amorphous alloy, and subsequently produces the diffused honeycomb structure formed by dark grey bands and primary crystals, that is, alpha-Fe in the matrix. Large plastic flow occurs on an amorphous alloy surface with sliding and the flow film of the alloy transfers to the aluminum oxide pin surface. Multiple slip bands due to shear deformation are observed on the side of the wear track. Two distinct types of wear debris were observed as a result of sliding: an alloy wear debris, and/or powdery-whiskery oxide debris.

  14. [Heavy metals distribution characteristics and ecological risk evaluation in surface sediments of dammed Jinshan lake].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Long-Mei; Chen, Xi; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Li, Yi-Min; Liu, Biao

    2014-11-01

    In order to reveal the pollution loading of heavy metals in Dammed Jinshan lake, six heavy metals (As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr) from 18 sediment samples were analyzed using ICP, and the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the sediment were comprehensively evaluated through concentration coefficient, geo-acumulation indexes, potential ecological risk evaluation and traceability analysis. The results showed that (1) the average contents of As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd were 23.22, 26.20, 24.42, 143.12, 245.30 and 0.67 mg x kg(-1), respectively, in the surface sediments of dammed Jinshan Lake. The average contents of Pb and Cu were lower than the primary standard and secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. The average contents of Zn and Cr were lower than the primary standard and higher than the secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. The average contents of As and Cd were higher than the primary and secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. From the spatial distribution, the contents of Pb and Zn were the highest at sampling site No. 1, which was located at the Beigushan Square. The contents of As,Cu, Cr, Cd were the highest at sampling sites Nos. 12, 3, 14, and 7, respectively; (2) The order of concentration coefficient was As > Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu, which indicated that the enrichment amount of As was the highest and that of Cu was the lowest; (3) Based on the geo-acumulation indexes, the Cu is clean and Pb, Zn, Cd is the light pollution and As, Cr moderate pollution; (4) The order of Potential ecological risk coefficient was Cd > As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn were of light ecological risk and As, Cd were of medium ecological risk. From the spatial distribution, the sampling sites Nos. 1, 6, 7 and 12 had medium potential ecological risk, and the rest sample points had slight potential ecological risk; (5) The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the main reason for the differences

  15. Phylogenetic distribution and evolutionary dynamics of the sex determination genes doublesex and transformer in insects.

    PubMed

    Geuverink, E; Beukeboom, L W

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination in insects is characterized by a gene cascade that is conserved at the bottom but contains diverse primary signals at the top. The bottom master switch gene doublesex is found in all insects. Its upstream regulator transformer is present in the orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera, but has thus far not been found in Lepidoptera and in the basal lineages of Diptera. transformer is presumed to be ancestral to the holometabolous insects based on its shared domains and conserved features of autoregulation and sex-specific splicing. We interpret that its absence in basal lineages of Diptera and its order-specific conserved domains indicate multiple independent losses or recruitments into the sex determination cascade. Duplications of transformer are found in derived families within the Hymenoptera, characterized by their complementary sex determination mechanism. As duplications are not found in any other insect order, they appear linked to the haplodiploid reproduction of the Hymenoptera. Further phylogenetic analyses combined with functional studies are needed to understand the evolutionary history of the transformer gene among insects.

  16. 76 FR 11396 - Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... rate that reflects the real consumer cost of capital and puts the LCC in present-value terms. The PBP... present value (NPV) of total customer costs and savings expected to result from amended standards at... transformers. 72 FR 58190 (October 12, 2007) (the 2007 final rule); see 10 CFR 431.196(b)-(c). \\1\\...

  17. Aerobic transformation of cadmium through metal sulfide biosynthesis in photosynthetic microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a non-essential metal that is toxic because of its interference with essential metals such as iron, calcium and zinc causing numerous detrimental metabolic and cellular effects. The amount of this metal in the environment has increased dramatically since the advent of the industrial age as a result of mining activities, the use of fertilizers and sewage sludge in farming, and discharges from manufacturing activities. The metal bioremediation utility of phototrophic microbes has been demonstrated through their ability to detoxify Hg(II) into HgS under aerobic conditions. Metal sulfides are generally very insoluble and therefore, biologically unavailable. Results When Cd(II) was exposed to cells it was bioconverted into CdS by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, and the cyanobacterium, Synechoccocus leopoliensis. Supplementation of the two eukaryotic algae with extra sulfate, but not sulfite or cysteine, increased their cadmium tolerances as well as their abilities to produce CdS, indicating an involvement of sulfate assimilation in the detoxification process. However, the combined activities of extracted serine acetyl-transferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) used to monitor sulfate assimilation, was not significantly elevated during cell treatments that favored sulfide biosynthesis. It is possible that the prolonged incubation of the experiments occurring over two days could have compensated for the low rates of sulfate assimilation. This was also the case for S. leopoliensis where sulfite and cysteine as well as sulfate supplementation enhanced CdS synthesis. In general, conditions that increased cadmium sulfide production also resulted in elevated cysteine desulfhydrase activities, strongly suggesting that cysteine is the direct source of sulfur for CdS synthesis. Conclusions Cadmium(II) tolerance and CdS formation were significantly enhanced by sulfate supplementation, thus

  18. Distribution of metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in sediments, soils and plants from an informal e-waste dismantling site, South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junxia; Liu, Lili; Wang, Jinfu; Pan, Bishu; Fu, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Long; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)) and metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg and As) in sediments, soils and herb plants from unregulated e-waste disposal sites were examined. The metal concentrations, ∑PBDE and TBBPA concentrations in all samples from the examined e-waste dismantling sites were relatively high in comparison with those of rural and urban areas around the world. The PBDE and TBBPA levels in soils significantly decreased with increasing distance from the e-waste dismantling sites, indicating that PBDEs and TBBPA had similar transport potential from the e-waste dismantling process as a point source to the surrounding region. BDE-209 and TBBPA predominated in all samples, which is consistent with the evidence that the deca-BDE and TBBPA commercial mixtures were extensively used in electronic products. Metals, PBDEs and TBBPA displayed significant positive correlations with TOC, whereas the correlations with pH were insignificant, indicating that TOC was a major factor governing the spatial distribution, transportation and fate in sediments and soils. A significant relationship between log-transformed metals and BFR concentrations indicated common pollution sources. Moreover, cluster analysis and principal component analysis further confirmed that the metals and BFRs had a common source, and penta- and deca-BDE commercial products may be two sources of PBDEs in this region.

  19. Speciation and Distribution of Trace Metals Associated with Iron Sulfides in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, D. M.; Cahill, M.

    2014-12-01

    Black shales underlying the areas from Eastern Ohio, through Pennsylvania, and into Central New York State have become of economic interest lately due to the recent economic viability of shale gas extraction. Sulfide minerals such as pyrite and marcasite occurring in these shales are often the primary phases that trace metals are associated with. Trace metals can be incorporated into these sulfides via various pathways during initial shale deposition and secondary diagenesis including substitution for Fe (Co and Ni), substitution for S (As and Se), and excluded to form other sulfide phases (Cu and Zn). The manner in which these trace metals are incorporated directly influences how they are released into the environment during sulfide oxidation following shale weathering or hydraulic fracturing. The aim of this research is to examine the distribution of trace metals in iron sulfides from black shales using Synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe techniques including micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction of shale thin sections. Marcellus Shale samples were collected from: (1) outcrops from the Oatka member in Leroy, NY and Jersey Shore, PA and the Union Springs member in Lewiston, PA, and (2) drilling core sample from Beaver Meadow, NY and Hancock Co, TN (Chattanooga shale). Analyses have shown that the sulfide grains are a combination of pyrite and marcasite. As and Se are spatially correlated with each other and within the pyrite grains. Ni is spatially correlated with larger euhedral pyrite, as well as smaller non-iron sulfide grains. Cu and Zn are not spatially correlated with the pyrite and form separate Cu- and Zn- sulfides. During iron sulfide oxidative dissolution, these differences in distribution of trace metals will affect the order and rate in which they are released into the environment.

  20. Characterization and spatial distribution of heavy metals in sediment from Cedar and Ortega rivers subbasin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Ying; Higman, John; Thompson, Jeanne; O'Toole, Tim; Campbell, Dean

    2002-01-01

    The Cedar and Ortega rivers subbasin is a complex environment where both natural and anthropogenic processes influence the characteristics and distributions of sediments and contaminants, which in turn is of importance for maintenance, dredging and pollution control. This study investigated the characteristics and spatial distribution of heavy metals, including lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd), from sediments in the subbasin using field measurements and three-dimensional kriging estimates. Sediment samples collected from three sampling depth intervals (i.e., 0-0.10, 0.11-0.56 and 0.57-1.88 m) in 58 locations showed that concentrations of Pb ranged from 4.47 to 420.00 mg/kg dry weight, Cu from 2.30 to 107.00 mg/kg dry weight, Zn from 9.75 to 2,050.00 mg/kg dry weight and Cd from 0.07 to 3.83 mg/kg dry weight. Kriging estimates showed that Pb, Cu and Cd concentrations decreased significantly from the sediment depth of 0.10 to 1.5 m, whereas Zn concentrations were still enriched at 1.5 m. It further revealed that the Cedar River area was a potential source area since it was more contaminated than the rest of the subbasin. Comparison of aluminum (Al)-normalized metal concentrations indicated that most of the metals within the top two intervals (0-0.56 m) had concentrations exceeding the background levels by factors of 2-10. A three-dimensional view of the metal contamination plumes showed that all of the heavy metals, with concentrations exceeding the threshold effect level (TEL) that could pose a threat to the health of aquatic organisms, were primarily located above the sediment depth of 1.5 m.

  1. Spatial distribution and potential sources of trace metals in insoluble particles of snow from Urumqi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolan; Jiang, Fengqing; Wang, Shaoping; Turdi, Muyesser; Zhang, Zhaoyong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize trace elements in snow in urban-suburb gradient over Urumqi city, China. The spatial distribution patterns of 11 trace metals in insoluble particulate matters of snow were revealed by using 102 snow samples collected in and around urban areas of Urumqi, a city suffering from severe wintertime air pollution in China. Similar spatial distribution for Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb was found and their two significant high-value areas located in the west and east, respectively, and a high-value area in the south, which were correlated with factory emissions, traffic activities, and construction fugitive dust. The high-value areas of Cr, Ni, and V occurred in the northeast corner and along main traffic paths, which were linked to oil refinery and vehicular emissions. High value of Be presented in the west of the city. The high-value area of Co in the northeast could be related to local soil. Cd and U displayed relatively even spatial patterns in the urban area. In view of distance from the urban center, e.g., from the first circular belt to the fourth circular belt, except Be, V, Cd, and U, the contents of other metals generally decreased from the first circular belt to the forth circular belt, implying the effect of human activity clearly. Additionally, prevailing northwesterly winds and occasionally southeasterly winds in winter were associated with decreased, generally, concentrations of trace metal in snow from the urban center to the southern suburb along a northwest and southeast transect. The information on concentrations and spatial distributions of these metals in insoluble particles of snow in winter will be valuable for further environmental protection and planning. PMID:25412892

  2. THE DYNAMICS AND METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION OF THE DISTANT DWARF GALAXY VV124

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Bellazzini, Michele

    2012-05-20

    VV124 (UGC 4879) is an isolated, dwarf irregular/dwarf spheroidal (dIrr/dSph) transition-type galaxy at a distance of 1.36 Mpc. Previous low-resolution spectroscopy yielded inconsistent radial velocities for different components of the galaxy, and photometry hinted at the presence of a stellar disk. In order to quantify the stellar dynamics, we observed individual red giants in VV124 with the Keck/Deep Extragalactic Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS). We validated members based on their positions in the color-magnitude diagram, radial velocities, and spectral features. Our sample contains 67 members. The average radial velocity is (v{sub r} ) = -29.1 {+-} 1.3 km s{sup -1} in agreement with the previous radio measurements of H I gas. The velocity distribution is Gaussian, indicating that VV124 is supported primarily by velocity dispersion inside a radius of 1.5 kpc. Outside that radius, our measurements provide only an upper limit of 8.6 km s{sup -1} on any rotation in the photometric disk-like feature. The velocity dispersion is {sigma}{sub v} = 9.4 {+-} 1.0 km s{sup -1}, from which we inferred a mass of M{sub 1/2} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} and a mass-to-light ratio of (M/L{sub V} ){sub 1/2} = 5.2 {+-} 1.1 M{sub Sun }/L{sub Sun }, both measured within the half-light radius. Thus, VV124 contains dark matter. We also measured the metallicity distribution from neutral iron lines. The average metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = -1.14 {+-} 0.06, is consistent with the mass-metallicity relation defined by dSph galaxies. The dynamics and metallicity distribution of VV124 appear similar to dSphs of similar stellar mass.

  3. Spatial distribution and potential sources of trace metals in insoluble particles of snow from Urumqi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolan; Jiang, Fengqing; Wang, Shaoping; Turdi, Muyesser; Zhang, Zhaoyong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize trace elements in snow in urban-suburb gradient over Urumqi city, China. The spatial distribution patterns of 11 trace metals in insoluble particulate matters of snow were revealed by using 102 snow samples collected in and around urban areas of Urumqi, a city suffering from severe wintertime air pollution in China. Similar spatial distribution for Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb was found and their two significant high-value areas located in the west and east, respectively, and a high-value area in the south, which were correlated with factory emissions, traffic activities, and construction fugitive dust. The high-value areas of Cr, Ni, and V occurred in the northeast corner and along main traffic paths, which were linked to oil refinery and vehicular emissions. High value of Be presented in the west of the city. The high-value area of Co in the northeast could be related to local soil. Cd and U displayed relatively even spatial patterns in the urban area. In view of distance from the urban center, e.g., from the first circular belt to the fourth circular belt, except Be, V, Cd, and U, the contents of other metals generally decreased from the first circular belt to the forth circular belt, implying the effect of human activity clearly. Additionally, prevailing northwesterly winds and occasionally southeasterly winds in winter were associated with decreased, generally, concentrations of trace metal in snow from the urban center to the southern suburb along a northwest and southeast transect. The information on concentrations and spatial distributions of these metals in insoluble particles of snow in winter will be valuable for further environmental protection and planning.

  4. Reductive dechlorination pathways of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene and subsequent transformation of their dechlorination products by mackinawite (FeS) in the presence of metals.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hoon Y; Kim, Haekyung; Hayes, Kim F

    2007-11-15

    Because of frequent co-occurrence of metals with chlorinated organic pollutants, Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Hg(II) were evaluated for their impact on the dechlorination pathways of PCE and TCE and the subsequent transformation of the initial dechlorination products by FeS. PCE transforms to acetylene via beta-elimination, TCE via hydrogenolysis, and 1,1-DCE via alpha-elimination, while TCE transforms to acetylene via beta-elimination and cis-DCE and 1,1-DCE via hydrogenolysis. Acetylene subsequently transforms in FeS batches, but little transformation of cis-DCE and 1,1-DCE was observed. Branching ratio calculations indicate that the added metals decrease the reductive transformation of PCE and TCE via beta-elimination relative to hydrogenolysis, resulting in a higher production of the toxic DCE byproducts. Nonetheless, acetylene is generally the dominant product. Production of highly water-soluble compound(s) is suspected as a significant source for incomplete mass recoveries. In the transformation of PCE and TCE, the formation of unidentified product(s) is most significant in Co(II)-added FeS batches. Although nearly complete mass recoveries were observed in the other FeS batches, the subsequent transformation of acetylene would lead to the formation of unidentified product(s) over long time periods.

  5. Stepwise Transformation of the Molecular Building Blocks in a Porphyrin-Encapsulating Metal-Organic Material

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Wojtas, Lukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2013-06-05

    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal–organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd2(COO)6]2– molecular building blocks (MBBs) into novel tetranuclear [Cu4X2(COO)6(S)2] MBBs to form P11-Cu. The transformation occurs in single-crystal to single-crystal fashion, and its stepwise mechanism was studied by varying the Cd2+/Cu2+ ratio of the solution in which crystals of P11 were immersed. P11-16/1 (Cd in framework retained, Cd in encapsulated porphyrins exchanged) and other intermediate phases were thereby isolated and structurally characterized. P11-16/1 and P11-Cu retain the microporosity of P11, and the relatively larger MBBs in P11-Cu permit a 20% unit cell expansion and afford a higher surface area and a larger pore size.

  6. Electrical phenomena in a metal/nanooxide/p{sup +}-silicon structure during its transformation to a resonant-tunneling diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kareva, G. G.; Vexler, M. I.

    2013-08-15

    To investigate and develop novel silicon-based electronic components, the electro-physical effects in a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure with nanometer size parameters, gained by enhancement of the silicon doping level up to N{sub A} {approx} 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and reduction of the oxide thickness down to 0.4-4.0 nm, have been studied. As a result of such changes, the MIS nanostructure satisfies necessary and sufficient conditions for the electron resonant tunneling that can be observed at relatively low (some volts) reverse biases. Thereby a MIS capacitor can be transformed into a resonant-tunneling diode with substantial extension of its properties and functions.

  7. Self-Assembly of Metal Phenolic Mesocrystals and Morphosynthetic Transformation toward Hierarchically Porous Carbons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Jae; Antonietti, Markus; Fechler, Nina

    2015-07-01

    A facile and sustainable synthetic strategy based on the coordination of natural polyphenols with metal ions is developed for the textural engineering of mesocrystals and hierarchical carbon nanomaterials. The desired control of coordination between ellagic acid and zinc ions enables the macroscopic self-assembly behavior of crystalline nanoplatelets to be tailored into round and elongated "peanut"-like micron-sized mesostructured particles. Direct carbonization of these mesocrystals generates hierarchically porous carbon particles in good yields, possessing bimodal micro- and mesoporous architecture along with a well-preserved macroscopic structure. The pore system provides both small storage sites, demonstrated by high CO2 uptake, and transport channels also accessible by larger molecules.

  8. Fast Hadamard transforms for compressive sensing of joint systems: measurement of a 3.2 million-dimensional bi-photon probability distribution.

    PubMed

    Lum, Daniel J; Knarr, Samuel H; Howell, John C

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate how to efficiently implement extremely high-dimensional compressive imaging of a bi-photon probability distribution. Our method uses fast-Hadamard-transform Kronecker-based compressive sensing to acquire the joint space distribution. We list, in detail, the operations necessary to enable fast-transform-based matrix-vector operations in the joint space to reconstruct a 16.8 million-dimensional image in less than 10 minutes. Within a subspace of that image exists a 3.2 million-dimensional bi-photon probability distribution. In addition, we demonstrate how the marginal distributions can aid in the accuracy of joint space distribution reconstructions.

  9. Inheritance of Properties of Normal and Non-Normal Distributions after Transformation of Scores to Ranks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how population parameters representing heterogeneity of variance, skewness, kurtosis, bimodality, and outlier-proneness, drawn from normal and eleven non-normal distributions, also characterized the ranks corresponding to independent samples of scores. When the parameters of population distributions from which samples were…

  10. [Distribution of Urban Soil Heavy Metal and Pollution Evaluation in Different Functional Zones of Yinchuan City].

    PubMed

    Wang, You-qi; Bai, Yi-ru; Wang, Jian-yu

    2016-02-15

    Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) from eight different functional areas in Yinchuan city were collected. There were 10 samples respectively in each functional area. The urban soil heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr) pollution characteristics and sources in eight different functional areas were evaluated by mathematical statistics and geostatistical analysis method. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of heavy metals based on the geography information system (GIS) were plotted. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr were 74.87, 0.15, 29.02, 553.55, 40.37 and 80.79 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the average value of soil heavy metals was higher than the soil background value of Ningxia, which indicated accumulation of the heavy metals in urban soil. The single factor pollution index of soil heavy metals was in the sequence of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cd > Mn. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr were higher in north east, south west and central city, while the average values of Mn and Cu were higher in north east and central city. There was moderate pollution in road and industrial area of Yinchuan, while the other functional areas showed slight pollution according to Nemoro synthesis index. The pollution degree of different functional areas was as follows: road > industrial area > business district > medical treatment area > residential area > public park > development zone > science and education area. The results indicated that the soil heavy metal pollution condition in Yinchuan City has been affected by human activities with the development of economy.

  11. [Distribution of Urban Soil Heavy Metal and Pollution Evaluation in Different Functional Zones of Yinchuan City].

    PubMed

    Wang, You-qi; Bai, Yi-ru; Wang, Jian-yu

    2016-02-15

    Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) from eight different functional areas in Yinchuan city were collected. There were 10 samples respectively in each functional area. The urban soil heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr) pollution characteristics and sources in eight different functional areas were evaluated by mathematical statistics and geostatistical analysis method. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of heavy metals based on the geography information system (GIS) were plotted. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr were 74.87, 0.15, 29.02, 553.55, 40.37 and 80.79 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the average value of soil heavy metals was higher than the soil background value of Ningxia, which indicated accumulation of the heavy metals in urban soil. The single factor pollution index of soil heavy metals was in the sequence of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cd > Mn. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr were higher in north east, south west and central city, while the average values of Mn and Cu were higher in north east and central city. There was moderate pollution in road and industrial area of Yinchuan, while the other functional areas showed slight pollution according to Nemoro synthesis index. The pollution degree of different functional areas was as follows: road > industrial area > business district > medical treatment area > residential area > public park > development zone > science and education area. The results indicated that the soil heavy metal pollution condition in Yinchuan City has been affected by human activities with the development of economy. PMID:27363164

  12. [Heavy metal distribution in superficial sedimenta ta Saco, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Valentina Fuentes, María; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Diaz, Alfredo; Martínez, Gregorio

    2010-10-01

    The Gulf of Cariaco is a marine ecosystem with high primary productivity, which gives it an ecological and socioeconomic importance. Nevertheless, anthropogenic activities around the Gulf produce wastes that are deposited directly or by runoff into the sediments, and consequently, increases concentrations of metals in this ecosystem. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc in geochemical fractions of surface sediments, using modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The concentrations were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. In addition, the contents of soluble and exchangeable metals associated to carbonate fractions, determined by BCR, were compared with those determined by the method of Campanella. Samples were collected in 12 stations during June 2007. The applied methodologies were evaluated with a certified reference material of marine sediments (HISS-1) and the results indicated that these methods provide adequate accuracy and precision for the extraction of metals. The total metal concentrations (microg g(-1)) were, Cd: < limit of detection (LD)-5.0; Pb: 1.79-60.41; Cu: no detected (ND)-42.18; Zn: 25.13-104.57; Mn: 66.31-80.29 and Ni: 3.29-24.58. Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb at several stations, exceeded the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines of the Lowest Effect Levels (LEL). Cadmium was identified as being the most mobile of the elements, having the highest concentrations in soluble and exchangeable cations and carbonates. However, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn levels were found highly associated to organic matter and sulfide fractions. The methods did not show significant statistical differences for the extraction of soluble and exchangeable cations and the metals associated to carbonate fraction. There are several significant correlations between heavy metals, which suggest their common origin. PMID:21302528

  13. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils in Riverside Park, Milwaukee, WI: Character, Bioavailability, and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dansand, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2007-12-01

    Prior to being breached in 1990, the North Avenue Dam on the Milwaukee River had created a 2.5-mile impoundment for over 150 years. Upstream urban runoff and industrial pollution resulted in the deposition of heavy metal rich sediments in the slow moving waters of the impoundment. After the dam removal, the river returned to a more natural flowpath and as the river narrowed, newly exposed riverbed was annexed as part of Riverside Park, enabling ecological recovery efforts on the river and riparian zones. However, these newly exposed soils are enriched with heavy metal contaminants, most notably, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni, concentrated by the impoundment. The current study has analyzed the location and concentrations of these trace metals, as well as their mobility and availability. This study is being conducted in conjunction with the Urban Ecology Center, a nonprofit environmental organization located in Riverside Park that is dedicated to serving the local community and urban youth while restoring and protecting the natural areas along the Milwaukee River. Analyses have included determination of general soil parameters such as particle size, organic content, and point of zero charge analyses. Beyond bulk chemical analysis, we have conducted selective sequential extractions to estimate the chemical speciation of these elements, which showed that approximately 30 percent of contaminants are highly available. Additionally, the soils have been analyzed with an Electron Microprobe to directly observe phase relationships of metals in the soils. Microprobe and other analyses have shown that heavy metals are associated with a variety of phases, including Mn and Fe oxy-hydroxides, and vary in concentration and phase relationships with depth and distance from the river. Finally, a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF), coupled with GPS data, is being used to create a geochemical map of heavy metal distributions throughout the park.

  14. Solvent-Mediated Transformation from Achiral to Chiral Nickel(II) Metal-Organic Frameworks and Reassembly in Solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoju; Yu, Zhenjiang; Li, Xinxiong; Guo, Xiaofang

    2015-11-01

    Reactions of 5-nitroisophthalic acid (NO2 -H2 ip), 1,4-bis(imidazol-1'-yl)butane (bimb), and Ni(NO3 )2 ⋅6 H2 O gave rise to four metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Ni2 (NO2 -ip)2 (bimb)1.5 ]n (1), [Ni4 (NO2 -ip)3 (bimb)2 (OH)2 (H2 O)]n ⋅(CH3 CH2 OH)0.5 n (2), [Ni(NO2 -ip)(bimb)1.5 (H2 O)]n ⋅(H2 O)n ⋅(CH3 CH2 OH)0.5 n (3), and [Ni(NO2 -ip) (bimb)(μ-H2 O)]n ⋅(H2 O)n (4). The metal/ligand ratio, pH value, and solvent exerted a subtle but crucial influence on the formation of complexes 1-4, which possess different visual color and crystal structures. Complex 1 exhibits a twofold interpenetrating 3D pillared bilayer framework composed of binuclear and mononuclear Ni(II) units, whereas complex 2 is a 3D chiral network that consists of asymmetric tetranuclear Ni(II) units. Complexes 3 and 4 are 3D layer-pillared frameworks that consist of mononuclear Ni(II) ions and a 3D six-connected network of μ-water-bridged dinuclear Ni(II) units, respectively. Interestingly, achiral 4 can be transformed into chiral 2 by using a solvent-mediated single-crystal-to-single-crystal process without any chiral auxiliary. Magnetic analyses of 2 and 4 show the occurrence of antiferromagnetic interactions. Complex 3 is difficult to obtain directly as a single solid phase, but it can be homogeneously formed by solvent-mediated transformations from 1, 2, and 4.

  15. Plutonium Oxidation State Distribution under Aerobic and Anaerobic Subsurface Conditions for Metal-Reducing Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. T.; Swanson, J.; Khaing, H.; Deo, R.; Rittmann, B.

    2009-12-01

    The fate and potential mobility of plutonium in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium is the near-surface contaminant of concern at several DOE sites and continues to be the contaminant of concern for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. The mobility of plutonium is highly dependent on its redox distribution at its contamination source and along its potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. The redox distribution of plutonium in the presence of facultative metal reducing bacteria (specifically Shewanella and Geobacter species) was established in a concurrent experimental and modeling study under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pu(VI), although relatively soluble under oxidizing conditions at near-neutral pH, does not persist under a wide range of the oxic and anoxic conditions investigated in microbiologically active systems. Pu(V) complexes, which exhibit high chemical toxicity towards microorganisms, are relatively stable under oxic conditions but are reduced by metal reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. These facultative metal-reducing bacteria led to the rapid reduction of higher valent plutonium to form Pu(III/IV) species depending on nature of the starting plutonium species and chelating agents present in solution. Redox cycling of these lower oxidation states is likely a critical step in the formation of pseudo colloids that may lead to long-range subsurface transport. The CCBATCH biogeochemical model is used to explain the redox mechanisms and final speciation of the plutonium oxidation state distributions observed. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their importance in defining the overall migration

  16. Electronic and structural transformations near the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazilbash, M. M.; Tripathi, A.; Frenzel, A.; Shpyrko, O. G.; Basov, D. N.; Holt, M. V.; Maser, J. M.; Chae, Byung-Gyu; Kim, Bong-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Tak

    2010-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) at T 340 K accompanied by a change in the lattice structure. Numerous studies of this phase transition in VO2 have focused either on the electronic change or on the structural change. The interplay between the electronic and lattice degrees of freedom has been relatively unexplored. In previous work using scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM), we showed that the electronic IMT in VO2 films proceeds via nucleation and percolation of nanoscale metallic domains [1,2,3]. Here we present nanoscale X-ray diffraction measurements that image the structural changes in a VO2 film with 40 nm spatial resolution. In addition, local resistivity and SNIM measurements of the electronic IMT in the VO2 film allow us to present a coherent picture of this complex phase transition. 1. M. M. Qazilbash et al., Science 318, 1750 (2007). 2. M. M. Qazilbash et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 075107 (2009). 3. A. Frenzel et al., Phys. Rev. B 80, 115115 (2009).

  17. Assessment of factors related to heavy metals distribution in abandoned mining soils in Madrid, central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Manuel; Carral, Pilar; Alvarez, Ana M.; Hernández, Zulimar; Lorena, Recio-Vázquez; Marques, Maria J.; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    Exploitation of metallic mineral deposits and its subsequent abandonment in last decades has lead to significant environmental hazard for natural systems. The present study concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals and trace elements mainly As, Cu, Cd, Co, Mn and V, in sulphide-rich soils. The site studied (Sierra de Guadarrama, Garganta de los Montes, Madrid) is at 1200 m asl. Soils are Humic and Dystric Cambisols (WRB) developed on gneisses; the main minerals consist of sulphides and include chalcopyrite, pyrite, marcasite, galena and arsenopyrite. Concentration data of the different species of heavy metals as dependent variables in addition to a series of independent variables mainly soil organic matter were subjected to multivariate chemometric treatments including multidimensional scaling (MDS), principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) for a preliminary survey on the possible role of soil organic matter in the distribution and speciation of heavy metals in soils. The soil heavy metals speciation was determined using the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference, European Commission) sequential extraction procedure and analysed by ICP-MS. The total contents of these elements were calculated as the sum of the four BCR fractions. The results showed element concentrations decreasing with the distance from the source of pollution. The highest amounts of As and Mn, and Cu, Cd, Co and V were found at 10 and 100 m respectively. These values exceed the allowed limits of the environmental regulation. The percentages of extractable elements (step one of BCR) in relation to total elements show that Cu and Cd were significantly more easily extractable than the other elements. Metal availability in soils was generally controlled by total metal concentration. Data processing techniques coincided in pointing out the association of high levels of organic matter with the concentrations of elements extracted just in the most available forms: i

  18. The distribution of star formation and metals in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. E.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Wang, Sharon X.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the MUSCEL Programme (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies), a project aimed at determining the star-formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies. MUSCEL utilizes ground-based optical spectra and space-based UV and IR photometry to fully constrain the star-formation histories of our targets with the aim of shedding light on the processes that led low surface brightness galaxies down a different evolutionary path from that followed by high surface brightness galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Here we present the spatially resolved optical spectra of UGC 628, observed with the VIRUS-P IFU at the 2.7-m Harlen J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and utilize emission-line diagnostics to determine the rate and distribution of star formation as well as the gas-phase metallicity and metallicity gradient. We find highly clustered star formation throughout UGC 628, excluding the core regions, and a log(O/H) metallicity around -4.2, with more metal-rich regions near the edges of the galactic disc. Based on the emission-line diagnostics alone, the current mode of star formation, slow and concentrated in the outer disc, appears to have dominated for quite some time, although there are clear signs of a much older stellar population formed in a more standard inside-out fashion.

  19. Elemental distribution of metals in urban river sediments near an industrial effluent source.

    PubMed

    Tamim, Umma; Khan, Rahat; Jolly, Yeasmin Nahar; Fatema, Kanij; Das, Sopan; Naher, Kamrun; Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Islam, S M Azharul; Hossain, Syed Mohammod

    2016-07-01

    To study the compositional trends associated with the spatial and layer wise distribution of heavy metals as well as the sediment response towards the untreated chemical wastes, we have analyzed river (Buriganga, Bangladesh) sediments by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). In nine sediment samples 27 elements were determined where Na, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Dy, Hf, Th and U were determined by INAA and Cu, Sr, Ba, Hg and Pb were determined by EDXRF. Pollution level and the origin of pollutants were evaluated by the aid of geo-accumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF), pollution load index (PLI) and the inter-element correlation analysis. Major elements are somehow buffered even though the pollution level is severe while the trace metals seem to be highly responsive. Among the heavy metals, Cr is the dominant pollutant, though the pollution level varies systematically with the sampling depth and the distance from the contamination source. Positive linear correlation between Cr and Zn (0.94) ensures the similar anthropogenic source(s) for these two metals, but the sediments of this study respond differently depending upon their geochemical behavior. Rare earth elements (here La, Ce, Sm and Dy), Th and U seem to have crustal origin and the Th/U ratio varies from 2.58 to 4.96. PMID:27151427

  20. Metal distributions in complexes with Chlorella vulgaris in seawater and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, P.R.; Kowalak, A.D.

    1999-10-01

    Divalent cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) simultaneous complexes with an algal biomass Chlorella vulgaris were studied for bioremediation purposes in various aqueous media: distilled-deionized water (DDIW), seawater, nuclear-reactor pool water, and process wastewater. Reactions were monitored using various dry masses of algae at constant temperature and constant metal concentrations for reaction times ranging from 0 to 150 minutes. Complexes occurred within 30 minutes and reached a steady state after 80 to 120 minutes. Distribution constants (K{prime}{sub d}) were calculated for the complexes and relative orders of K{prime}{sub d} were reported. The K{prime}{sub d} are used to evaluate relative efficiency of metal remediation from waters. Lead, Cu, and Ni complexes had the greatest K{prime}{sub d} values and those metals were most efficiently removed from these waters. Zinc and Fe formed the most labile complexes. The order of K{prime}{sub d} values for complexes in DDIW was Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn, then Cu > Cd > Zn in seawater, Cd > Cu > Zn in reactor pool water, and Ni > Cd > Cu > Zn > Fe in wastewater. C. vulgaris biomass may potentially be used as an alternative to traditional water treatment methods for simultaneous extraction of metals from seawater, process wastewater, or drinking water.

  1. [Speciation distribution characters of heavy metals in waste printed circuit boards].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-hua; Luo, Xing-zhang; Huang, Zhuo-hui; Feng, Jing-wei; Zheng, Zheng; Gao, Shun-zhi; Nie, Er; Ni, Li-xiao

    2009-09-15

    The environmental availability of heavy metals from the waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were studied through BCR's three-stage extraction procedures from EU and Tessier's five sequential extraction procedures. The results show that the heavy metal extraction rates with BCR's procedures are higher than that with Tessier's from waste PCBs. There are significant differences in fraction distributions of heavy metals in PCBs. The speciation of Ni in the PCBs exists mainly in residual forms and has little effect on the environment. The percentage of acidic extractable forms with BCR's method and the total amount of exchangeable and carbonate which bound for Tessier's procedure of Pb and Zn are high, in the South China, the two metals are more easily released by acid rain. Acidic extractable forms of Cu is the main speciation in PCBs with BCR's extraction procedures, while the percentage of Fe-Mn oxides- bound of Cu is the highest with Tessier's procedures, though the result is not agree consistent, due to the high content of Cu in PCBs, the harm of Cu from PCBs could not be neglected.

  2. Study on the resistance distribution at the contact between molybdenum disulfide and metals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yao; Han, Yuxiang; Li, Jiapeng; Xiang, An; Wei, Xianlong; Gao, Song; Chen, Qing

    2014-08-26

    Contact resistance hinders the high performance of electrical devices, especially devices based on two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenide. To engineer contact resistance, understanding the resistance distribution and carrier transport behavior at the contact area is essential. Here, we developed a method that can be used to obtain some key parameters of contact, such as transfer length (Lt), sheet resistance of the 2D materials beneath the contacting metal (Rsh), and contact resistivity between the 2D materials and the metal electrode (ρc). Using our method, we studied the contacts between molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and metals, such as titanium and gold, in bilayer and few-layered MoS2 devices. Especially, we found that Rsh is obviously larger than the sheet resistance of the same 2D materials in the channel (Rch) in all the devices we studied. With the increasing of the back-gate voltage, Lt increases and Rsh, ρc, Rch, and the contact resistance Rc decrease in all the devices we studied. Our results are helpful for understanding the metal–MoS2 contact and improving the performances of MoS2 devices.

  3. Effects of simulated acid rain, EDTA, or their combination, on migration and chemical fraction distribution of extraneous metals in Ferrosol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fang; Hou, Hong; Yao, Na; Yan, Zengguang; Bai, Liping; Li, Fasheng

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory repacked soil-leaching column experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain or EDTA by themselves or in combination, on migration and chemical speciation distribution of Pb and its alternative rare metals including Ag, Bi, In, Sb, and Sn. Experimental results demonstrate that leaching with simulated acid rain promoted the migration of Bi, In and Pb, and their migration reached down to 8 cm in the soil profile, no enhancement of Sb, Ag or Sn migration was observed. Addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the migration of all six metals, especially Bi, In and Pb. The migration of metals was in the order Pb>Bi>In>Sb>Sn>Ag. The individual and combined effects of acid rain and EDTA increased the environmental risk of metals, by increasing the soluble content of metals in soil solutions and the relative distribution of the exchangeable fraction. Leaching risks of Bi, In and Pb were higher than other three metals.

  4. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  5. [Effects of Hydrothermal Treatment Time on the Transformations of N, P, K and Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-dong; Lin, Jing-jiang; Li, Zhi-wei; Chao, Huan-ping; Yu, Guang-wei; Wang, Yin

    2016-03-15

    Hydrothermal treatment (HTT) of sewage sludge was conducted, focusing on the influence of HTT time on the dewaterability of sludge and transformations of elements N, P, K and heavy metals. The results showed that at a hydrotherma temperature of 160°C, with HTT time increasing from 30 to 120 min, the sludge dewatering performance was significantly improved. The transfer rate of N element in the sludge transferring to aqueous product increased gradually. Almost all of P element remained in the solid phase, and most of K element (57%-62%) was still in the solid phase although it was more easily transferred to the liquid phase than P element. The transferring behavior of heavy metals during the HTT related to their own properties, and their transferring behaviors were different with the increase of HTT time. Compared with the raw sludge, the contents of Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb in the dewatered sludge increased significantly, As increased slowly, while Ni and Cd were first lower than those in raw sludge, and then increased with the prolonging HTT time. PMID:27337899

  6. Metal-Semiconductor Transition Concomitant with a Structural Transformation in Tetrahedrite Cu12Sb4S13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiromi I.; Suekuni, Koichiro; Umeo, Kazunori; Nagasaki, Toshiki; Sato, Hitoshi; Kutluk, Galif; Nishibori, Eiji; Kasai, Hidetaka; Takabatake, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    The tetrahedrite Cu12Sb4S13 undergoes a metal-semiconductor transition (MST) at TMST = 85 K, whose mechanism remains elusive. Our Cu 2p X-ray photoemission spectroscopy study revealed the monovalent state of Cu ions occupying the two sites in this compound. This fact excludes the possibilities of previously proposed antiferromagnetic order and Jahn-Teller instability inherent in a divalent Cu system. A synchrotron X-ray diffraction study has revealed that the body-centered cubic cell of Cu12Sb4S13 transforms into a body-centered 2a × 2a × 2c tetragonal supercell below TMST, where the cell volume per formula unit expands by 0.25%. We have further studied pressure effects on the MST as well as the effects of the substitution of As for Sb. The application of pressure above 1 GPa completely inhibits the MST and leads to a metallic state, suggesting that the low-temperature structure with a larger volume becomes unstable under pressure. The As substitution also reduces the volume and suppresses the MST but the full substitution induces another transition at 124 K.

  7. Physico-chemical characteristics affect the spatial distribution of pesticide and transformation product loss to an agricultural brook.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, M; Olsson, O; Stamm, C; Weiler, M; Kümmerer, K

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse entry of pesticide residues from agriculture into rivers is spatially unevenly distributed. Therefore, the identification of critical source areas (CSAs) may support water quality management in agricultural catchments. In contrast to former studies, we followed the hypothesis that not only hydrological and topographical characteristics but also physico-chemical properties of pesticide residues have a major influence on their loss to rivers and on corresponding formation of CSAs. We designed a virtual experiment, i.e. a numerical experiment as close as possible to environmental conditions, in a headwater catchment where pronounced spatial differences in hydrological transport processes were identified in the past. 144 scenarios with different combinations of adsorption coefficients (KOC = 10-1000 ml/g) and transformation half-lives (DT50 = 3-60 days) for pesticide parent compounds (PCs) and their transformation products (TPs) were simulated using the catchment-scale spatially distributed reactive transport model ZIN-AgriTra. Export fractions of substances in the virtual experiment ranged from 0.001-15% for pesticides and 0.001-1.8% for TPs. The results of the scenario investigations suggest that more of the calculated export mass variability could be attributed to KOC than to DT50 for both PCs and TPs. CSAs for TPs were spatially more equally distributed in the catchment than for PC export which was likely an effect of changing physico-chemical properties during transformation. The ranking of highest export fields was different between PCs and TPs for most of the investigated scenarios but six fields appeared among the top ten export fields in 95% of the scenarios, which shows the influence of site characteristics such as tile drains or soil properties in the catchment. Thus, the highest export fields were determined by a combination of site characteristics and substance characteristics. Therefore, despite the challenge of widely differing physico

  8. Behavior of suspended particles in the Changjiang Estuary: Size distribution and trace metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingzhen; Wang, Xiaojing; Jian, Huimin; Chen, Hongtao; Yu, Zhigang

    2016-02-15

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples were collected along a salinity gradient in the Changjiang Estuary in June 2011. A custom-built water elutriation apparatus was used to separate the suspended sediments into five size fractions. The results indicated that Cr and Pb originated from natural weathering processes, whereas Cu, Zn, and Cd originated from other sources. The distribution of most trace metals in different particle sizes increased with decreasing particle size. The contents of Fe/Mn and organic matter were confirmed to play an important role in increasing the level of heavy metal contents. The Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd contents varied significantly with increasing salinity in the medium-low salinity region, thus indicating the release of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd particles. Thus, the transfer of polluted fine particles into the open sea is probably accompanied by release of pollutants into the dissolved compartment, thereby amplifying the potential harmful effects to marine organisms. PMID:26743609

  9. Distribution of heavy metals and foraminiferal assemblages in sediments of Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carnahan, E.A.; Hoare, A.M.; Hallock, P.; Lidz, B.H.; Reich, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy-metal pollution is an issue of concern in estuaries influenced by agriculture, urban, and harbor activities. Foraminiferal assemblages have been shown to be effective indicators of pollution. Sediment samples (n = 110) from Biscayne Bay were analyzed for heavy metals, foraminiferal assemblages, and grain-size distribution. Highest Cu, Zn, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Ni concentrations were found closest to Miami and near the mouths of several canals along the western margin of the bay. Few samples exceeded limits of possible biological effects as defined by previous studies. Ammonia and Cribroelphidium, two known stress-tolerant genera, correlated positively with Cu, Zn, Hg, and Ni (r ??? 0.43). Symbiont-bearing foraminifers, Archaias, Laevipeneroplis, and Androsina, correlated negatively with Cu, Zn, Hg, and Ni (r ??? -0.26).

  10. [Distribution of heavy metals in PM10 and its release in the simulated acid rain].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi-dan; Dang, Zhi; Wang, Huan-xiang; Lu, Yan-bo; Lü, Xan-wen; Huang, Wei-lin

    2006-12-01

    The distribution of heavy metals in inhalable particulate matter (PM10), which were collected in Foshan during December of 2004, was characterized by scanning electron microscope-X-ray energy dispersive analysis technique (SEM-EDS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The releases of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd were also examined for their potential releases in simulated acid rain, which were quantified with batch reactors. The results showed that the daily average concentration of PM10 was 0.19 mg/m(3), about 79% higher than the secondary standard of China. The relatively contents of Zn and Pb in PM10 were much higher than Cd and Zn, whereas the releasing rates of Cd and Zn in simulated acid rain were greater than that of Cu and Pb. The releasing rates of heavy metals from PM10 were increased as the pH of the acid rain decreased.

  11. Pore size distribution, strength, and microstructure of portland cement paste containing metal hydroxide waste

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, Z.A.; Mahmud, H.; Shaaban, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification of hazardous wastes is used to convert hazardous metal hydroxide waste sludge into a solid mass with better handling properties. This study investigated the pore size development of ordinary portland cement pastes containing metal hydroxide waste sludge and rice husk ash using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effects of acre and the addition of rice husk ash on pore size development and strength were studied. It was found that the pore structures of mixes changed significantly with curing acre. The pore size shifted from 1,204 to 324 {angstrom} for 3-day old cement paste, and from 956 to 263 {angstrom} for a 7-day old sample. A reduction in pore size distribution for different curing ages was also observed in the other mixtures. From this limited study, no conclusion could be made as to any correlation between strength development and porosity. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. [Particle Size Distribution, Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Human Exposure Assessment of Heavy Metals in Typical Settled Dust from Beijing].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi-guo; Yu, Gang; Lü, Xiang-ying; Wang, Meng-lei; Li, Qi-lu; Feng, Jing-lan; Yan, Guang-xuan; Yu, Hao; Sun, Jian-hui

    2016-04-15

    Four types of dust from dormitories, offices, hotels and roads in Beijing were collected and fractionated into 9 fractions, respectively. Totally 36 samples were obtained and analyzed for heavy metals including Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd and Ni. Particle size distributions of those heavy metals in these four types of dust were investigated and the influencing mechanisms were discussed. Distribution patterns of the same heavy metal in different types of dust showed various characteristics. Also different metals in the same type of dust represented different distribution patterns. Heavy metals in road dust tended to concentrate in finer particles. Two offices from the same building, located in Beijing, China, were selected to study the seasonality of heavy metals in dust. Dust sampling from Office A was conducted at weekly intervals between March 2012 and August 2012, while dust from Office B was sampled fortnightly from March 2012 to December 2012. Generally, levels of all heavy metals remained stable among different seasons, however, Cr and Pb represented more significant fluctuations than other four heavy metals. Based on the geo-accumulation index method, the pollution of Zn, Cu and Pb was more serious in the investigated samples, and dust from offices and hotels were moderately polluted by Zn. According to the risk assessment results, the carcinogenic health risks of the six heavy metals in the four types of dust were negligible.

  13. [Particle Size Distribution, Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Human Exposure Assessment of Heavy Metals in Typical Settled Dust from Beijing].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi-guo; Yu, Gang; Lü, Xiang-ying; Wang, Meng-lei; Li, Qi-lu; Feng, Jing-lan; Yan, Guang-xuan; Yu, Hao; Sun, Jian-hui

    2016-04-15

    Four types of dust from dormitories, offices, hotels and roads in Beijing were collected and fractionated into 9 fractions, respectively. Totally 36 samples were obtained and analyzed for heavy metals including Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd and Ni. Particle size distributions of those heavy metals in these four types of dust were investigated and the influencing mechanisms were discussed. Distribution patterns of the same heavy metal in different types of dust showed various characteristics. Also different metals in the same type of dust represented different distribution patterns. Heavy metals in road dust tended to concentrate in finer particles. Two offices from the same building, located in Beijing, China, were selected to study the seasonality of heavy metals in dust. Dust sampling from Office A was conducted at weekly intervals between March 2012 and August 2012, while dust from Office B was sampled fortnightly from March 2012 to December 2012. Generally, levels of all heavy metals remained stable among different seasons, however, Cr and Pb represented more significant fluctuations than other four heavy metals. Based on the geo-accumulation index method, the pollution of Zn, Cu and Pb was more serious in the investigated samples, and dust from offices and hotels were moderately polluted by Zn. According to the risk assessment results, the carcinogenic health risks of the six heavy metals in the four types of dust were negligible. PMID:27548946

  14. Heavy metal content in tea soils and their distribution in different parts of tea plants, Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Anderson, Todd Alan; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2016-07-01

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals may pose a threat to environment and human health if metals enter the food chain over and above threshold levels. In general, there is a lack of information on the presence of heavy metals in tea [Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze] plants and the soils in which they are grown. Therefore, an attempt was made to establish a database on the important heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). For an initial survey on heavy metals, soil samples were collected randomly from tea-growing areas of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka, India. Parallel studies were conducted in the greenhouse on uptake of Pb, Cd, and Ni from soils supplemented with these metals at different concentrations. Finally, metal distribution in the tea plants under field conditions was also documented to assess the accumulation potential and critical limit of uptake by plants. PMID:27334344

  15. Enhancement of light absorption in polyazomethines due to plasmon excitation on randomly distributed metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, P.; Antosiewicz, T. J.; Stefaniuk, T.; Ciesielski, A.; Iwan, A.; Wronkowska, A. A.; Wronkowski, A.; Szoplik, T.

    2015-05-01

    In photovoltaic devices, metal nanoparticles embedded in a semiconductor layer allow the enhancement of solar-toelectric energy conversion efficiency due to enhanced light absorption via a prolonged optical path, enhanced electric fields near the metallic inclusions, direct injection of hot electrons, or local heating. Here we pursue the first two avenues. In the first, light scattered at an angle beyond the critical angle for reflection is coupled into the semiconductor layer and confined within such planar waveguide up to possible exciton generation. In the second, light is trapped by the excitation of localized surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles leading to enhanced near-field plasmon-exciton coupling at the peak of the plasmon resonance. We report on results of a numerical experiment on light absorption in polymer- (fullerene derivative) blends, using the 3D FDTD method, where exact optical parameters of the materials involved are taken from our recent measurements. In simulations we investigate light absorption in randomly distributed metal nanoparticles dispersed in polyazomethine-(fullerene derivative) blends, which serve as active layers in bulkheterojunction polymer solar cells. In the study Ag and Al nanoparticles of different diameters and fill factors are diffused in two air-stable aromatic polyazomethines with different chemical structures (abbreviated S9POF and S15POF) mixed with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). The mixtures are spin coated on a 100 nm thick Al layer deposited on a fused silica substrate. Optical constants of the active layers are taken from spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectance measurements using a rotating analyzer type ellipsometer with auto-retarder performed in the wavelength range from 225 nm to 2200 nm. The permittivities of Ag and Al particles of diameters from 20 to 60 nm are assumed to be equal to those measured on 100 to 200 nm thick metal films.

  16. Characterisation of an electrical heating method for metallic-coated optical fibres for distributed sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-05-01

    In several applications a temperature contrast between the sensing fibre and the environment is required to detect changes in the environmental heat capacity. For this purpose the process of electrical heating in metallic-coated fibres is theoretically analysed and modelled in steady-state conditions based on the thermal energy generated by resistive heating and the losses induced by convection and radiation. The impact of ambient temperature and pressure is investigated. The proposed model for the thermal exchange is experimentally validated using a high-resolution Brillouin distributed fibre sensor, which is used to measure the longitudinal profile of the temperature reached by electrical heating along an Alcoated optical fibre.

  17. High-Frequency Waves in a Random Distribution of Metallic Nanoparticles in an External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2016-09-01

    Propagation of magnetoplasma waves at an angle to a static magnetic field is studied for a random distribution of spherical metallic nanoparticles. A general analytical expression for dispersion relation of the system is derived and useful expressions are obtained in the limiting cases. It is found that the interaction between longitudinal and transverse modes leads to coupled modes in the vicinity of the frequency √ {f + ξ } {ω _p}, where ξ is the ratio of the volume occupied by all the nanoparticles to the entire volume, ωp the plasma frequency of electrons inside a nanoparticle, and f a geometrical factor of order unity (1/3 for spherical nanoparticles).

  18. Distribution of copper and other metals in gully sediments of part of Okanogan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, Kenneth F.; Rinehart, C. Dean

    1972-01-01

    A geochemical exploration program aimed at determining regional patterns of metal distribution as well as pinpointing areas likely to contain undiscovered ore deposits was carried out in north-central Okanogan County, Washington. About 1,000 gully and stream sediment samples were collected from a rectangular area of about 800 square miles. The area includes two contiguous, virtually dormant, mining districts that had yielded nearly $1.4 million in gold, silver, lead, copper, and zinc prior to the end of World War I, mostly from quartz lodes.

  19. Distributed-feedback Terahertz Quantum-cascade Lasers with Laterally Corrugated Metal Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.

    2005-01-01

    We report the demonstration of distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a first-order grating fabricated via a lateral corrugation in a double-sided metal ridge waveguide. The phase of the facet reflection was precisely set by lithographically defined facets by dry etching. Single-mode emission was observed at low to moderate injection currents, although multimode emission was observed far beyond threshold owing to spatial hole burning. Finite-element simulations were used to calculate the modal and threshold characteristics for these devices, with results in good agreement with experiments.

  20. Geographic distribution of arsenic and trace metals in lotic ecosystems of the Pampa Plain, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Juan José; Troncoso, Juan José; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the geographic distribution of arsenic and other trace elements in surface waters of 39 lotic ecosystems of central Argentina was evaluated. Manganese and arsenic were the most conspicuous elements, being present in 82% and 59% of the sampled ecosystems of this region, respectively. As concentration averaged 113.69 μg L⁻¹ varying between 55 and 198 μg L⁻¹, other trace elements were hardly detected or not detected at all. It was remarkable the absence of detectable concentrations of anthropogenically derived metals as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd).

  1. Blood Clearance, Distribution, Transformation, Excretion, and Toxicity of Near-Infrared Quantum Dots Ag2Se in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huan; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Yang, Yi-Fan; Ke, Da-Ming; Liu, Jia-Hui; Chen, Xing; Wang, Haifang; Liu, Yuanfang

    2016-07-20

    As a novel fluorescent probe in the second near-infrared window, Ag2Se quantum dots (QDs) exhibit great prospect in in vivo imaging due to their maximal penetration depth and negligible background. However, the in vivo behavior and toxicity of Ag2Se QDs still largely remain unknown, which severely hinders their wide-ranging biomedical applications. Herein, we systematically studied the blood clearance, distribution, transformation, excretion, and toxicity of polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated Ag2Se QDs in mice after intravenous administration with a high dose of 8 μmol/kg body weight. QDs are quickly cleared from the blood with a circulation half-life of 0.4 h. QDs mainly accumulate in liver and spleen and are remarkably transformed into Ag and Se within 1 week. Ag is excreted from the body readily through both feces and urine, whereas Se is excreted hardly. The toxicological evaluations demonstrate that there is no overt acute toxicity of Ag2Se QDs to mice. Moreover, in regard to the in vivo stability problem of Ag2Se QDs, the biotransformation and its related metabolism are intensively discussed, and some promising coating means for Ag2Se QDs to avert transformation are proposed as well. Our work lays a solid foundation for safe applications of Ag2Se QDs in bioimaging in the future. PMID:27351208

  2. Low temperature phase transformations in the metallic phases of iron and stony-iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, K. B.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1988-03-01

    The nickel content and the structure of kamacite and decomposed taenite (clear taenite 1, CT-1; the cloudy zone, CZ; and clear taenite 2, CT-2) in the metallic phases of meteorites were determined using X-ray microanalysis techniques in the AEM. The kamacite near the CT-1 interface was found to contain about 4 wt pct Ni. The CT-1 structure contains 51.4-45.6 wt pct Ni; it is ordered FeNi with the L1(0) superstructure. The CZ structure consists of two phases: a globular phase (ordered FeNi containing 50.9 wt pct Ni) and a surrounding honeycomb martensitic phase containing 11.7 wt pct Ni. The CT-2 was found in all of the iron meteorite groups studied and in the pallasites, but not in the mesosiderites. Based on the preliminary evidence, this region is believed to be ordered Fe3Ni. Possible mechanisms for the decomposition of taenite are discussed.

  3. Microorganism mediated biosynthesis of metal chalcogenides; a powerful tool to transform toxic effluents into functional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Vena, M Paula; Jobbágy, Matías; Bilmes, Sara A

    2016-09-15

    Cadmium contained in soil and water can be taken up by certain crops and aquatic organisms and accumulate in the food-chain, thus removal of Cd from mining or industrial effluents - i.e. Ni-Cd batteries, electroplating, pigments, fertilizers - becomes mandatory for human health. In parallel, there is an increased interest in the production of luminescent Q-dots for applications in bioimaging, sensors and electronic devices, even the present synthesis methods are economic and environmentally costly. An alternative green pathway for producing Metal chalcogenides (MC: CdS, CdSe, CdTe) nanocrystals is based on the metabolic activity of living organisms. Intracellular and extracellular biosynthesis of can be achieved within a biomimetic approach feeding living organisms with Cd precursors providing new routes for combining bioremediation with green routes for producing MC nanoparticles. In this mini-review we present the state-of-the-art of biosynthesis of MC nanoparticles with a critical discussion of parameters involved and protocols. Few existing examples of scaling-up are also discussed. A modular reactor based on microorganisms entrapped in biocompatible mineral matrices - already proven for bioremediation of dissolved dyes - is proposed for combining both Cd-depletion and MC nanoparticle's production.

  4. Load-balancing and scalable multimedia distribution using the Mojette transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedon, Jeanpierre V.; Normand, Nicolas; Verbert, Pierre; Parrein, Benoit; Autrusseau, Florent

    2001-07-01

    Video (and other multimedia sources) distribution starts to implement industrial solutions that supposes no quality of service (QoS) properties for the network. To overcome congestion problems in the core of a worldwide Internet network, mirrors sites at the edges of the network are dispatched. Thus the QoS problem is only relevant for the network extremities. Nevertheless, this strategy implies to replicate the multimedia database (denoted at MDB) at multiple edge points to meet the real-time constraints and to establish specific mechanisms between mirror sites to satisfy customer needs as for video distribution. For each of both kind of constraints, we propose a unique data/network representation.

  5. Distribution, migration and potential risk of heavy metals in the Shima River catchment area, South China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Ke, Zhiting; Wang, Jiang; Shimizu, Yuta; Zhu, Aiping

    2015-10-01

    The distribution, migration and potential risk of heavy metals in water and soil environments, related to city water supply, were investigated. Heavy metal concentrations in waters from the Shima River water ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 749 μg L(-1) for Mn, n.d. to 151 μg L(-1) for Ni, 7.00 to 494 μg L(-1) for Zn, n.d. to 93.0 μg L(-1) for Cu and n.d. to 9860 μg L(-1) for Fe. The highest concentration of heavy metals was found at an upstream site in February as a result of industrial effluent discharge. Groundwater (GW1-GW5) and soil (S1-S8) samples along the riverbank showed similar levels of contamination due to a close hydraulic relationship and frequent exchange of water, probably resulting in migration of heavy metals from river water to the aquifer and accumulation at the interface. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil profiles were in the ranges of 2.50-19.0 mg kg(-1) for As, 2.80-11.2 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 20.3-165 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 14.5-298 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 11.4-102 mg kg(-1) for Ni, 7.00-95.0 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 40.4-465 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 8.80 × 10(3)-21.8 × 10(3) mg kg(-1) for Fe, and 62.2-430 mg kg(-1) for Mn, showing severe soil pollution by Cd. LUMISTox testing and the potential ecological risk index (RI) were used to assess the potential for adverse ecological effects caused by heavy metals in water and soil media. River water samples posed slight acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri with luminescence inhibition rates (LIRs) ranging from 24.6% to 38.4% in February. Elevated Zn and Cu concentrations significantly contributed to the toxicity. However, groundwater did not exhibit any toxicity to Vibrio fischeri. The severity of the potential ecological risk for individual metals (Er(i)) decreased in the order of Cd > Cu > Ni > As > Pb > Zn > Cr. RI values indicated that all soil samples in the study area posed a high level of ecological risk. Cd contributed significantly (95.5-98.9%) to potential ecological risk in soils.

  6. Profiling measurements of metal ion distribution in thin polymer inclusion membranes by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedioura, B.; Bendjaballah, N.; Alioui, N.

    2014-05-01

    Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) composed of a homogeneous mixture of cellulose triacetate matrix, 2-nitro-phenyl-octyl-ether as plasticizer and tri-octyl-phosphine-oxyde as carrier were synthesized by the spin coating method. Synthesized membranes were doped with molybdenum metal ions and then characterized by four experimental techniques: thermo gravimetric and differential analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectrometry using a 3.2 MeV He+ ion beam. The RBS analysis has established both the elemental composition as well as the Mo+ metal profiling of the studied PIMs. The experimental irradiation conditions were optimized in order to determine the ion fluence thresholds resulting in measurable changes in elemental composition of membranes. Changes in physico-chemical properties of the irradiated PIMs vs He+ ion fluence were observed with the ATR-FTIR analysis. Also, the SEM analysis of PIMs surfaces has revealed a porous texture, while the thermal analysis of annealed PIMs at 105°C has showed no significant changes of mass (∼1%) of the studied samples.

  7. Versatile chemical transformations of benzoxazole based ligands on complexation with 3d-metal ions.

    PubMed

    Iasco, Olga; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Jeanneau, Erwann; Tommasino, Jean Bernard; Roques, Nans; Luneau, Dominique

    2012-02-20

    Two benzoxazoles derivative ligands were synthesized from the condensation of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone (DTBBQ) with ethanolamine or 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane in methanol. Condensation of DTBBQ with ethanolamine gives the expected 5,7-di-tert-butyl-2-methylenhydroxylbenzoxazole (HL1) while with 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane it gives (2-hydroxyethyl-2-{2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1-phenol-6 amino}-2{5,7-di-tert-butyl-benzoxazole}) (H(2)L2) with only one benzoxazole ring instead of the symmetric bis-benzoxazole derivative. The structure of HL1 and H(2)L2 were confirmed by NMR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction on a single crystal for HL1. The reaction of HL1 with CuCl(2) gives a mononuclear [Cu(II)(HL1)(2)Cl(2)] (1) complex for which the crystal structure shows that HL1 is preserved. In contrast, upon reaction with nickel(II), cobalt(II), and manganese(II) H(2)L2 is further oxidized and transformed in new ligands HL3 in mononuclear complexes [M(II)(L3)(2)] (M = Ni(II) (2); M = Co(II) (3)) and H(2)L4 in tetranuclear complex [Mn(II)(4)(HL4)(4)Cl(4)] (4) as found from the crystal structures of complexes 2-4. Electrochemical studies for complexes 2 and 3 evidence complicated redox properties. [Mn(II)(4)(HL4)(4)Cl(4)] (4) has a cubane-like structure with a "4 + 2" fashion The magnetic susceptibility of 4 is well fitted considering one Mn---Mn interaction J(a)(Mn(II)-Mn(II)) = -0.50(1) cm(-1) with g = 2.00(7).

  8. Distribution of heavy metals in riverine soils and sediments of the Turia River basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Pascual, Juan Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Water is a scarce and contested good, and a primary need for the population all over. Rivers are one of the mainsources of freshwater to people but, in the same way, receive both point source and difuse pollution, usually frorm wastewaters and agriculture. However, they are not independent bodies but they influence different associated ecosystems that compound the catchment. Soils of the river banks often acts as the last phase of the diffuse contamination pathways, favouring the contaminants input to the river waters. In this sense, the fluvial sedimentary phase usually acts as a sink of pollutants. Sediments can work as resevoirs that accumulate contaminants fixing them or allowing their decomposition or metabolization. However, environmental or human induced, such as variations in water pH, increases in the turbulence or intensity of the water flow, etc.could favour their release to the environment. In this work, the incidence and distribution of seven heavy metals was monitored in riverine soils and sediments of the Turia River. Along the river course, 22 zones were selected for sampling according different lithologies, land uses, size of populations and the proximity to waste waters treatment plants (WWTPs), from the headwaters to the mouth. The selected metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) were analysed to determine its total and extractable contents in the sediments. Total content of metals was extracted by microwave acid digestion and the extractable fraction by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of all metals. Highest values for sediments were mainly observed in zones 10 and 22, close to urban areas, reaching values of 172.86 mg/kg for Pb, or 58.34 mg/kg for Cr. However, zone 2 near in the headwaters of the Alfambra River and supposedly of reference for the River authorities shows the highest values of zinc with 96.96 mg/kg. Regarding the available

  9. Wavelength modulated SERS hot spot distribution in 1D nanostructures on metal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Zeng, Xiping; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xuemei; Wei, Hua; Huang, Yingzhou; Liu, Anping; Wang, Shuxia; Wen, Weijia

    2016-10-01

    Surface plasmons confining strong electromagnetic fields near metal surfaces, well-known as hot spots, provide an extremely efficient platform for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, SERS spectra of probing molecules in a silver particle-wire 1D nanostructure on a thin gold film are investigated. The Raman features of SERS spectra collected at the particle-wire joints exhibit an obvious wavelength dependence phenomenon. This result is confirmed electromagnetic field simulation, revealing that hot spot distribution is sensitively influenced by the wavelength of incident light at the joints. Further studies indicate this wavelength dependence of hot spot distribution is immune to influence from the geometric shape of the particle or the angle between wire and particle, which improves fabrication tolerance. This technology may have promising applications in surface plasmon related fields, such as ultrasensors, solar energy and selective surface catalysis.

  10. Log-normal diameter distribution of Pd-based metallic glass droplet and wire

    PubMed Central

    Yaginuma, S.; Nakajima, C.; Kaneko, N.; Yokoyama, Y.; Nakayama, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the formation of Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20 metallic glass droplets and wires in the gas atomization process. We demonstrate that the sizes of droplets and wires can be distinguished by the Ohnesorge number (Oh), which is the proportion of the spinnability to the capillary instability, and the diameter distributions follow a log-normal distribution function, implying cascade fragmentation. For droplets, the number significantly increases at Oh < 1 but the diameter gradually decreases. For wires, the number greatly increases at Oh > 1 while the diameter steadies below 400 nm. Further, the wire diameter is quadrupled at Oh = 16 due to the high viscosity which suppresses both capillary breakup and ligament elongation. PMID:26030090

  11. Metallicity Distribution Functions of Dwarf Galaxies: A Probe of Star Formation History and Baryonic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escala, Ivanna; Kirby, Evan N.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2016-06-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) of simulated, isolated dwarf galaxies (M_{star} = 4 × 10^{4} - 3 × 10^{8} M_{⊙}) from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project to quantify the impact of star formation history (SFH) and baryonic physics. These high-resolution cosmological simulations include realistic treatments of stellar evolution and complex gas dynamics and do not require the usual approximations (e.g., instantaneous recycling and instantaneous mixing) of analytic chemical evolution models. The evolution of the MDF with redshift informs which processes drive the dominant contributions to the distribution at z = 0, thus enabling a reconstruction of the SFH and gas loss/accretion history. We then compare the theoretical MDFs to the observed MDFs of Local Group dwarf galaxies to infer plausible SFHs for each matched galaxy.

  12. A cage-based cationic body-centered tetragonal metal-organic framework: single-crystal to single-crystal transformation and selective uptake of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di-ming; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A cage-based cationic body-centered metal-organic framework was successfully synthesized using a custom-designed bifunctional triazolcarboxylate ligand. It shows interesting single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation upon solvent exchange process and selective uptake of organic dyes.

  13. The distribution of cotransformed transgenes in particle bombardment-mediated transformed wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although particle bombardment is the predominant method of foreign DNA direct transfer, whether transgene is integrated randomly into the genome has not been determined. In this study, we identified the distribution of transgene loci in 45 transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines containing c...

  14. Transforming the Doctorate from Residential to Online: A Distributed PhD Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Greg; Warren, Scott J.; Ennis-Cole, Demetria; Knezek, Gerald; Lin, Lin; Norris, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a systemic change that expanded the doctorate in Learning Technologies at the University of North Texas to include a distributed option, delivered primarily online. It provides an overview of the development process from concept to initial implementation. The article examines the specific differences that make the online…

  15. Effect of pH and organic acids on nitrogen transformations and metal dissolution in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Minhong.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of pH (4, 6, and 8) on nitrogen mineralization was evaluated in three Iowa surface soils treated with crop residues (corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)) and incubated in leaching columns under aerobic conditions at 30C for 20 weeks. In general, N mineralization was significantly depressed at soil pH 4, compared with pH 6 or 8. The types of crop residues added influenced the pattern and amount of N mineralization. A study on the effect of 19 trace elements on the nitrate red activity of four Iowa surface soils showed that most trace elements inhibited this enzyme in acid and neutral soils. The trace elements Ag(I), Cd(II), Se(IV), As(V), and W(VI) were the most effective inhibitors, with >75% inhibition. Mn(II) was the least effective inhibitor, with <10% inhibition. Other trace elements included Cu(I), Co(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Al(III), As(III), Cr(III), Fe(III), V(IV), Mo(VI), and Se(VI). The application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that, when coupled to a refractive index detector, it is a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for determining organic acids in soils. Three organic acids, acetic (2-20 mM), propionic (0-3 mM), and n-butyric (0-1.4 mM), were identified with HPLC and confirmed by gas chromatography in crop-residue-treated soils incubated under waterlogged conditions at 25C for 72 h. No organic acids were detected under aerobic conditions. Four mineral acids and 29 organic acids were studied for their effect on N mineralization and metal dissolution in soils incubated under waterlogged conditions at 30C for 10 days.

  16. Distribution behavior and risk assessment of metals in bio-oils produced by liquefaction/pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Huang, Huajun; Peng, Xin; Chen, Hongmei; Wang, Hou; Wang, Lele; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    The distribution behaviors of metals in bio-oils derived from sewage sludge (SS) by liquefaction with different solvents (ethanol, methanol, or acetone) and by pyrolysis at different temperatures (550-850 °C) were investigated. The concentrations of crust metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al) in bio-oils were much higher than those of the anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, V, Mn, Ba, Co, Ti, Sn, As, and Hg), but the anthropogenic metals were more inclined to distribute in bio-oil phase compared with crust metals. The anthropogenic metals in bio-oils can be divided in three groups in terms of the distribution similarities according to Cluster analysis: (A) Cu, Co, Ni, V, and Sn; (B) Cr, Ti, Mn, and Ba; (C) Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Zn. Cu, Cr, Hg, Cd, V, Co, and Sn distributed in the liquefaction/pyrolysis bio-oils accounted for as high as 5-20% of the metals in SS and were evaluated "moderate enrichment" by the enrichment factors method. According to the potential ecological risk index (PERI) method, Hg presented very high risk, Cu presented moderate risk, and Cd presented low to moderate risk; and the overall risk levels of these bio-oils were very high risk (except P550, presented considerable risk).

  17. Randomly Distributed Fabry-Pérot-type Metal Nanowire Resonators and Their Lasing Action

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Kyungmok; Jung, Youngho; Kim, Minkyung; Shim, Jaeho; Yu, Kyoungsik

    2016-01-01

    Optical feedback mechanisms are often obtained from well-defined resonator structures fabricated by top-down processes. Here, we demonstrate that two-dimensional networks of metallic nanowires dispersed on the semiconductor slab can provide strong in-plane optical feedback and, thus, form randomly-distributed Fabry-Pérot-type resonators that can achieve multi- or single-mode lasing action in the near infrared wavelengths. Albeit with their subwavelength-scale cross-sections and uncontrolled inter-nanowire distances, a cluster of nearly parallel metal nanowires acts as an effective in-situ reflector for the semiconductor-metal slab waveguide modes for coherent optical feedback in the lateral direction. Fabry-Pérot type resonance can be readily developed by a pair of such clusters coincidentally formed in the solution-processed random nanowire network. Our low-cost and large-area approach for opportunistic random cavity formation would open a new pathway for integrated planar light sources for low-coherence imaging and sensing applications. PMID:27102220

  18. Chemical Forms and Distribution of Platinum Group Metals and Technetium During Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhitonov, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Amongst the fission products present in spent nuclear fuel of Nuclear Power Plants there are considerable quantities of platinum group metals (PGMs): ruthenium, rhodium and palladium. At the same time there are considerable amounts of technetium in the spent fuel, the problem of its removal at radiochemical plants being in operation encountering serious difficulties. Increased interest in this radionuclides is due not only to its rather large yield, but to higher mobility in the environment as well. However, the peculiarities of technetium chemistry in nitric acid solutions create certain problems when trying to separate it as a single product in the course of NPP's spent fuel reprocessing. The object of this work was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of platinum group metals and technetium behavior at various stages of spent fuel reprocessing and to seek the decisions which could make it possible to separate its as a single product. The paper will report data on platinum metals (PGM) and technetium distribution in spent fuel reprocessing products. The description of various techniques for palladium recovery from differing in composition radioactive solutions arising from reprocessing is given. (authors)

  19. Randomly Distributed Fabry-Pérot-type Metal Nanowire Resonators and Their Lasing Action.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kyungmok; Jung, Youngho; Kim, Minkyung; Shim, Jaeho; Yu, Kyoungsik

    2016-04-22

    Optical feedback mechanisms are often obtained from well-defined resonator structures fabricated by top-down processes. Here, we demonstrate that two-dimensional networks of metallic nanowires dispersed on the semiconductor slab can provide strong in-plane optical feedback and, thus, form randomly-distributed Fabry-Pérot-type resonators that can achieve multi- or single-mode lasing action in the near infrared wavelengths. Albeit with their subwavelength-scale cross-sections and uncontrolled inter-nanowire distances, a cluster of nearly parallel metal nanowires acts as an effective in-situ reflector for the semiconductor-metal slab waveguide modes for coherent optical feedback in the lateral direction. Fabry-Pérot type resonance can be readily developed by a pair of such clusters coincidentally formed in the solution-processed random nanowire network. Our low-cost and large-area approach for opportunistic random cavity formation would open a new pathway for integrated planar light sources for low-coherence imaging and sensing applications.

  20. Distribution of heavy metals in sediments of a tropical reservoir in Brazil: Sources and fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Vinícius A.; Wasserman, Julio C.

    2015-11-01

    Juturnaíba Lake has been utilized for the captation of water to supply over one million people in the Lakes Region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The water treatment plant sludges have been directly disposed in the margins of the lake, constituting a potential threat for the water quality. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the geochemical processes that control concentrations and mobility of metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) in the sediments of the Juturnaíba Reservoir, and whether they are affected by the disposal of the water treatment sludges. Sediment samples were collected from thirty-two stations in the Juturnaíba lake, and the total concentration of metals (pseudo-total concentrations), granulometry, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations were evaluated. Distribution maps and attenuation models were constructed. The results show that the metals concentrations are affected by the presence of large stands of the aquatic macrophyte Egeria sp. (Hydrocharitaceae). The sludges from the water treatment plants do not seem to contribute to the contamination of the sediments, probably because the mobility of the contaminants in the dumping piles is low.

  1. Understanding the Metal Distribution in Core-Shell Nanoparticles Prepared in Micellar Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tojo, Concha; Buceta, David; López-Quintela, M. Arturo

    2015-08-01

    The factors that govern the reaction rate of Au/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles prepared in microemulsions by a one-pot method are examined in the light of a simulation model. Kinetic analysis proves that the intermicellar exchange has a strong effect on the reaction rates of the metal precursors. Relating to Au, reaction rate is controlled by the intermicellar exchange rate whenever concentration is high enough. With respect to Pt, the combination of a slower reduction rate and the confinement of the reactants inside micelles gives rise to an increase of local Pt salt concentration. Two main consequences must be emphasized: On one hand, Pt reduction may continue independently whether or not a new intermicellar exchange takes place. On the other hand, the accumulation of Pt reactants accelerates the reaction. As the reactant accumulation is larger when the exchange rate is faster, the resulting Pt rate increases. This results in a minor difference in the reduction rate of both metals. This difference is reflected in the metal distribution of the bimetallic nanoparticle, which shows a greater degree of mixture as the intermicellar exchange rate is faster.

  2. Study on stress distribution around holes in metal plates and transition to fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, John; Hu, Biyu; Yoshida, Sanichiro

    2009-11-01

    With strength analysis of metal connectors used for buildings in mind, stress distribution around holes in tensile-loaded thin metal plates has been investigated. An optical interferometer sensitive to in-plane displacement of the specimen is set up in front of the tensile machine. Interferometric fringe patterns as a whole image of the specimen are formed on a real-time basis at a preset interval in the order of few seconds. A previously observed bright band-like fringe patterns representing stress concentration in similar specimens without holes are observed around the hole at a late stage of deformation. This band-like pattern is found to run at about 45 deg to the tensile axis through the hole. Sometimes two patterns appear simultaneously around the same hole, forming an ``X'' like shape. The appearance of the pattern greatly depends on the thickness of the specimen, the locations of the holes and the type of the metal. To a certain extent, the transition to fracture can be predicted from the shape of the pattern. Comparison with finite element analysis indicates that this pattern appears in the region where the von-Mises yield criterion is satisfied.

  3. Accelerating Sequences in the Presence of Metal by Exploiting the Spatial Distribution of Off-Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew R.; Artz, Nathan S.; Koch, Kevin M.; Samsonov, Alexey; Reeder, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate feasibility of exploiting the spatial distribution of off-resonance surrounding metallic implants for accelerating multispectral imaging techniques. Theory Multispectral imaging (MSI) techniques perform time-consuming independent 3D acquisitions with varying RF frequency offsets to address the extreme off-resonance from metallic implants. Each off-resonance bin provides a unique spatial sensitivity that is analogous to the sensitivity of a receiver coil, and therefore provides a unique opportunity for acceleration. Methods Fully sampled MSI was performed to demonstrate retrospective acceleration. A uniform sampling pattern across off-resonance bins was compared to several adaptive sampling strategies using a total hip replacement phantom. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to compare noise propagation of two of these strategies. With a total knee replacement phantom, positive and negative off-resonance bins were strategically sampled with respect to the B0 field to minimize aliasing. Reconstructions were performed with a parallel imaging framework to demonstrate retrospective acceleration. Results An adaptive sampling scheme dramatically improved reconstruction quality, which was supported by the noise propagation analysis. Independent acceleration of negative and positive off-resonance bins demonstrated reduced overlapping of aliased signal to improve the reconstruction. Conclusion This work presents the feasibility of acceleration in the presence of metal by exploiting the spatial sensitivities of off-resonance bins. PMID:24431210

  4. Distribution of heavy metals in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, southern China: implications for sources and historical changes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Dawen; Tian, Lei; Zeng, Yanyi

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd and As) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary was investigated. The spatial distribution of heavy metals displayed a decreasing pattern from the turbidity maxima to both upstream and downstream of the estuary, which suggested that suspended sediments played an important role in the trace metal distribution in the Pearl River Estuary. In addition, metal concentrations were higher in the west part of the estuary which received most of the pollutants from the Pearl River. In the sediment cores, fluxes of heavy metals were consistent with a predominant anthropogenic input in the period 1970-1990. From the mid-1990s to the 2000s, there was a significant decline in heavy metal pollution. The observed decline has shown the result of pollution control in the Pearl River Delta. However, it is noteworthy that the metal concentrations in the most recent sediment still remained considerably high. Taken together, the enrichment of heavy metals in sediments was largely controlled by anthropogenic pollution.

  5. Probing baryonic processes and gastrophysics in the formation of the Milky Way dwarf satellites. I. Metallicity distribution properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Jun; Yu, Qingjuan; Lu, Youjun

    2014-08-10

    The Milky Way (MW) dwarf satellites, as the smallest galaxies discovered in the present-day universe, are potentially powerful probes to various baryonic processes in galaxy formation occurring in the early universe. In this paper, we study the chemical properties of the stars in the dwarf satellites around the MW-like host galaxies, and explore the possible effects of several baryonic processes, including supernova (SN) feedback, the reionization of the universe, and H{sub 2} cooling, and how current and future observations may put some constraints on these processes. We use a semianalytical model to generate MW-like galaxies, for which a fiducial model can reproduce the luminosity function and the stellar metallicity-stellar mass correlation of the MW dwarfs. Using the simulated MW-like galaxies, we focus on investigating three metallicity properties of their dwarfs: the stellar metallicity-stellar mass correlation of the dwarf population, and the metal-poor and metal-rich tails of the stellar metallicity distribution in individual dwarfs. We find that (1) the slope of the stellar metallicity-stellar mass correlation is sensitive to the SN feedback strength and the reionization epoch; (2) the extension of the metal-rich tails is mainly sensitive to the SN feedback strength; (3) the extension of the metal-poor tails is mainly sensitive to the reionization epoch; (4) none of the three chemical properties are sensitive to the H{sub 2} cooling process; and (5) a comparison of our model results with the current observational slope of the stellar metallicity-stellar mass relation suggests that the local universe is reionized earlier than the cosmic average, local sources may have a significant contribution to the reionization in the local region, and an intermediate to strong SN feedback strength is preferred. Future observations of metal-rich and metal-poor tails of stellar metallicity distributions will put further constraints on the SN feedback and the reionization

  6. LONG GRBs ARE METALLICITY-BIASED TRACERS OF STAR FORMATION: EVIDENCE FROM HOST GALAXIES AND REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G. E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies and the redshift distribution of long GRBs by considering that long GRBs occur in low-metallicity environments. We calculate the upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy which can produce long GRBs by utilizing the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation of galaxies. After comparing with the observed GRB host galaxies masses, we find that the observed GRB host galaxy masses can fit the predicted masses well if GRBs occur in low-metallicity 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7. GRB host galaxies have low metallicity, low mass, and high star formation rate compared with galaxies of seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We also study the cumulative redshift distribution of the latest Swift long GRBs by adding dark GRBs and 10 new GRBs redshifts from the TOUGH survey. The observed discrepancy between the GRB rate and the star formation history can be reconciled by considering that GRBs tend to occur in low-metallicity galaxies with 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7. We conclude that the metallicity cutoff that can produce long GRBs is about 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7 from the host mass distribution and redshift distribution.

  7. [Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in soil of relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Shi, Yao; Han, Chao-Nan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the pollution level and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The contents and spatial distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were analyzed. The integrated pollution index and potential ecological risk index were used to evaluate the contamination degree and potential ecological risk of these elements. The results indicated that the average contents of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in the samples were 0.61, 23.11, 58.25, 22.65, 58.99 and 16.95 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Compared with the background value of soils from Henan province, all these 6 elements except Zn were enriched to some extent, especially Cd. Similar patterns were observed for the spatial distribution of Cu, Zn, and Pb. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface sediments of the typical domestic reservoirs, Cd and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were heavily accumulated. The correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations among Pb, Cu, and Zn. And there was also significant positive correlation between Cr and Pb. In contrast, negative correlation was found between Cr and As. To sum up, the comprehensive assessment results showed that Cd was the primary element with high ecological risk.

  8. Optical Sizing of Ultrafine Metallic Particles: Retrieval of Particle Size Distribution from Spectral Extinction Measurements.

    PubMed

    Oshchepkov; Sinyuk

    1998-12-01

    The inverse problem of optical sizing of ultrafine metallic particles from the spectral extinction measurements in the visible range is investigated. Solving the inverse problem becomes possible due to the strong size effect which in the framework of classical electrodynamics can be described by the dependence of complex refractive index on the particle size. It is shown that the size effect leads to the considerable increase of information content of spectral extinction data with respect to desired size composition of the particles. This makes it possible to retrieve the size distribution of ultrafine metallic particles with reasonably high accuracy, including the Rayleigh size region. The analysis is performed mainly within the framework of numerical tests by the typical example of ultrafine silver particles in a gelatin matrix. The results in retrieving of size distribution from experimentally measured extinction spectra are also presented. Calculations of spectral extinction coefficient are made by means of Mie theory. In so doing, the dielectric function of particles is modified by using the electron's mean free path limitation model. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. An integrated approach to the determination of trace metal distribution within Lahontan Reservoir, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Rowland, J.; Ritter, D.F. . Quaternary Sciences Center); Lechler, P.J.; Desilets, M.; Hsu, L.C.; Price, J.G. )

    1993-04-01

    Milling and mining of the gold and silver rich Comstock ore during the late 1800's released substantial quantities of Hg, Au, and Ag to the Carson River system of west-central Nevada. As a result, Lahontan Reservoir, built in 1915 along the Carson River, has become a trace metal sink. Below normal precipitation since 1986 resulted in some of the lowest water stages on record for Lahontan Reservoir. Low water allowed for the delineation and mapping of stratigraphic units that underlie the reservoir. Eleven stratigraphic units have been defined and mapped, seven of which post-date dam construction. The post-1915 units represent sedimentation in coastal, deep-water, and deltaic environments. More than 80 samples collected from the post-dam units have been analyzed for Hg, Au, and Ag. The chemical data indicate that trace metal concentrations vary between stratigraphic units. However, Hg, Au, and Ag concentrations are relatively uniform within the individual deposits. These geologic/geochemical relations allow for a more detailed understanding of contaminant distribution than can be obtained from commonly invoked methods of random geochemical sampling. For example, only two units, representing deposition in deltaic and deep-water zones, exhibit high levels of Hg, Au, and Ag in Lahontan Reservoir. Developed geologic maps not only show the distribution of these units, but indicate the percentage of the reservoir significantly contaminated. In addition, combining geologic and geochemical data allows the quantity and loading rates of non-conservative trace elements to be estimated.

  10. Grain boundary character distribution in nanocrystalline metals produced by different processing routes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bober, David B.; Kumar, Mukal; Rupert, Timothy J.; Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein

    2015-12-28

    Nanocrystalline materials are defined by their fine grain size, but details of the grain boundary character distribution should also be important. Grain boundary character distributions are reported for ball-milled, sputter-deposited, and electrodeposited Ni and Ni-based alloys, all with average grain sizes of ~20 nm, to study the influence of processing route. The two deposited materials had nearly identical grain boundary character distributions, both marked by a Σ3 length percentage of 23 to 25 pct. In contrast, the ball-milled material had only 3 pct Σ3-type grain boundaries and a large fraction of low-angle boundaries (16 pct), with the remainder being predominantlymore » random high angle (73 pct). Furthermore, these grain boundary character measurements are connected to the physical events that control their respective processing routes. Consequences for material properties are also discussed with a focus on nanocrystalline corrosion. As a whole, the results presented here show that grain boundary character distribution, which has often been overlooked in nanocrystalline metals, can vary significantly and influence material properties in profound ways.« less

  11. Estimation of the electrical potential distribution along metallic casing from surface self-potential profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maineult, Alexis

    2016-06-01

    Corroding casings of wells generate negative self-potential (SP) anomalies, increasing from about - 10 to - 500 mV in the vicinity of the well to 0 mV at large distances. As reported in previous laboratory experiment, SP can be used to retrieve the distribution of electrical potential along the casing, which is somehow a proxy for the corrosion state of the casing. These studies used 3D (whole space) or surface 2D (whole surface) measurements of SP distribution; here we reported a field example, for which only a 1D surface SP profile is available. In order to retrieve the most probable associated potential distribution (defined by a spline) along the 11.1-m long metallic casing, we develop a direct model based on geometrical and geoelectrical properties of the medium, which was then used in a (non-deterministic) optimization procedure by simulated annealing, including some physical constrains. Tests carried out on a synthetic case allowed the initial source to be correctly retrieved, provided that the number of nodes used for the spline defining the potential distribution along the casing is large enough. The inversion of real field data provided a dipolar anomaly, with minimal negative amplitude of around - 600 mV at 5 m, and maximal positive amplitude of about 1100 mV at 9 m (close to the level of the water table), this shape being in agreement with the results of previous laboratory studies.

  12. Grain boundary character distribution in nanocrystalline metals produced by different processing routes

    SciTech Connect

    Bober, David B.; Kumar, Mukal; Rupert, Timothy J.; Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein

    2015-12-28

    Nanocrystalline materials are defined by their fine grain size, but details of the grain boundary character distribution should also be important. Grain boundary character distributions are reported for ball-milled, sputter-deposited, and electrodeposited Ni and Ni-based alloys, all with average grain sizes of ~20 nm, to study the influence of processing route. The two deposited materials had nearly identical grain boundary character distributions, both marked by a Σ3 length percentage of 23 to 25 pct. In contrast, the ball-milled material had only 3 pct Σ3-type grain boundaries and a large fraction of low-angle boundaries (16 pct), with the remainder being predominantly random high angle (73 pct). Furthermore, these grain boundary character measurements are connected to the physical events that control their respective processing routes. Consequences for material properties are also discussed with a focus on nanocrystalline corrosion. As a whole, the results presented here show that grain boundary character distribution, which has often been overlooked in nanocrystalline metals, can vary significantly and influence material properties in profound ways.

  13. Observation of Hydrogen Distribution Around Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steels with Tritium Microautoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, Teppei; Hanada, Hitoshi; Nakashima, Hidehiko; Sakamoto, Kan; Hayakawa, Masao; Hashizume, Kenichi; Sugisaki, Masayasu

    2005-07-15

    Hydrogen distributions around non-metallic inclusions in steels are successfully characterized with high-resolution tritium autoradiography. The autoradiographs show that hydrogen accumulation characteristics around the inclusions depend on types of the inclusions. In the case of MnS, hydrogen was inhomogeneously distributed in the ferrite matrix surrounding the MnS inclusion, probably because hydrogen is trapped in defects formed around MnS. The inhomogeneous distribution of hydrogen may be originated from the asymmetric stress field produced by a contraction of the MnS phase in the heat treatment, i.e. the inhomogeneous volumetric change of MnS owing to its larger thermal expansion than that of the ferrite phase. In the case of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, hydrogen was intensely localized at boundary layers of the ferrite matrix surrounding the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusion. This could be attributed to hydrogen trapping at defects introduced by a residual stress in the boundary layers of the ferrite matrix due to larger contraction of the ferrite phase than that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase on cooling. Similarly hydrogen was accumulated in the surrounding ferrite matrix but more widely distributed around Cr carbide probably because difference in the thermal expansion between the Cr carbide and ferrite phases is less than that between the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ferrite phases.

  14. Grain Boundary Character Distributions in Nanocrystalline Metals Produced by Different Processing Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bober, David B.; Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein; Kumar, Mukul; Rupert, Timothy J.

    2016-03-01

    Nanocrystalline materials are defined by their fine grain size, but details of the grain boundary character distribution should also be important. Grain boundary character distributions are reported for ball-milled, sputter-deposited, and electrodeposited Ni and Ni-based alloys, all with average grain sizes of ~20 nm, to study the influence of processing route. The two deposited materials had nearly identical grain boundary character distributions, both marked by a Σ3 length percentage of 23 to 25 pct. In contrast, the ball-milled material had only 3 pct Σ3-type grain boundaries and a large fraction of low-angle boundaries (16 pct), with the remainder being predominantly random high angle (73 pct). These grain boundary character measurements are connected to the physical events that control their respective processing routes. Consequences for material properties are also discussed with a focus on nanocrystalline corrosion. As a whole, the results presented here show that grain boundary character distribution, which has often been overlooked in nanocrystalline metals, can vary significantly and influence material properties in profound ways.

  15. Catalytic transformations of biomass substrates using mixed metal oxides derived from substituted hydrotalcites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macala, Gerald Stephen, II

    Fueled by seemingly endless reserves of cheap and easily accessible fossil energy, the industrial age has brought to the developed world tremendous advances in human health and well being. Unfortunately the burning of fossil fuels has also been implicated in increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global climate change. Concerns about short-term and long-term supply further build a case for the need for alternative energy sources. Biomass derived materials are a tantalizing source of fuels and fine chemicals. Unlike petroleum derived hydrocarbons, biomass can be both renewable and carbon neutral. Crops can be regenerated annually or even more often in tropical climates, and since the captured carbon originates as atmospheric CO2, the overall cycle has the potential to be nearly carbon neutral regardless of the final fate of the carbon. In contrast to petroleum derived hydrocarbons, which can often be made more valuable by adding functionality, biomass derived materials are already highly functionalized and can usually be made more valuable by selective removal of functionality. The development of robust catalysts capable of selective defuntionalization of biomass derived substrates remains an important challenge with potentially enormous economic and societal impact. In addition to being robust and selective, catalysts should preferably be heterogeneous to allow for easier removal and regeneration after the reaction is complete. New materials consisting of Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like structures, with a limiting percentage of Mg or Al substituted with other M2+ or M3+ cations, were synthesized by a co-precipitation process in basic aqueous solution with carbonate as counterion. Calcination of these materials at 460 °C resulted in evolution of CO2 and water and yielded high surface area mixed metal oxides with enhanced reactivity. Materials were characterized by ICP for elemental analysis, XRD for structural information, XPS for surface elemental analysis and TEM

  16. Transformation of Bisphenol A in Water Distribution Systems, A Pilot-scale Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated under the condition: pH 7.3±0.3, water flow velocity of 1.0 m/s, and 25 °C ± 1 °C in water temperature. The testing water was chlorinated f...

  17. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  18. New spectroscopic binary companions of giant stars and updated metallicity distribution for binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluhm, P.; Jones, M. I.; Vanzi, L.; Soto, M. G.; Vos, J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Drass, H.; Jenkins, J. S.; Olivares, F.; Mennickent, R. E.; Vučković, M.; Rojo, P.; Melo, C. H. F.

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of 24 spectroscopic binary companions to giant stars. We fully constrain the orbital solution for 6 of these systems. We cannot unambiguously derive the orbital elements for the remaining stars because the phase coverage is incomplete. Of these stars, 6 present radial velocity trends that are compatible with long-period brown dwarf companions. The orbital solutions of the 24 binary systems indicate that these giant binary systems have a wide range in orbital periods, eccentricities, and companion masses. For the binaries with restricted orbital solutions, we find a range of orbital periods of between ~97-1600 days and eccentricities of between ~0.1-0.4. In addition, we studied the metallicity distribution of single and binary giant stars. We computed the metallicity of a total of 395 evolved stars, 59 of wich are in binary systems. We find a flat distribution for these binary stars and therefore conclude that stellar binary systems, and potentially brown dwarfs, have a different formation mechanism than planets. This result is confirmed by recent works showing that extrasolar planets orbiting giants are more frequent around metal-rich stars. Finally, we investigate the eccentricity as a function of the orbital period. We analyzed a total of 130 spectroscopic binaries, including those presented here and systems from the literature. We find that most of the binary stars with periods ≲30 days have circular orbits, while at longer orbital periods we observe a wide spread in their eccentricities. Based on observations collected at La Silla - Paranal Observatory under programs IDs IDs 085.C-0557, 087.C.0476, 089.C-0524, 090.C-0345, 096.A-9020 and through the Chilean Telescope Time under programs IDs CN2012A-73, CN2012B-47, CN2013A-111, CN2013B-51, CN2014A-52 and CN2015A-48.

  19. Distribution of coal combustion derived heavy metals on croplands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Ying, S.; Bu, J.; Weiss, D. J.; Gan, Y.; Wilcox, J.; Lambin, E.; Fendorf, S.

    2013-12-01

    As the world's number one consumer of energy derived from coal, China produces massive amounts of coal combustion by-products annually, including fly ash, which can then be transported and deposited onto agricultural lands. To explore the impact of fly ash as a point source of heavy metals to crops, we use a combination of spatial, thermodynamic, and coal combustion models and field measurements to determine the amount and composition of fly ash that is distribute over different land cover types around a power plant in China. First, a database of Chinese coal compositions was created to determine the range in chemical concentrations of heavy metals in coals. Using this information, we then determined the amount of fly ash produced by a typical power plant by applying the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). An estimate of the composition of fly ash (based on the coal composition) is then predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The resulting information regarding the concentration of As, Pb, and Cd in the fly ash is entered into an atmospheric transport model which determines the mass of fly ash deposited as a function of distance from the stack. Transport modeling results, land cover data, and topographic information are incorporated using GIS to determine the croplands affected by fly ash deposition. Furthermore, we determine the Pb206/Pb207 isotopic ratios of coal and fly ash taken from Yangluo Power Plant in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and compare the values to those measured in soils collected within a 10 km radius around the power plant. Ultimately, the results of this project can be utilized in a comprehensive model that can determine the amount and distribution of heavy metals from fly ash produced by coal-fired power plants based on coal composition and power plant specifications.

  20. Modeling metal bioaccumulation and tissue distribution in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) in three contaminated estuaries.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Jessica; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally assessed the uptake, loss, and resulting tissue distribution of As(V), Cd, Cr(III), Hg(II), and methylmercury (MeHg) in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) following aqueous exposure in water collected from 3 contaminated field sites-Baltimore Harbor and Elizabeth River (Chesapeake Bay), and Mare Island (San Francisco Bay)-using a radiotracer technique. Uptake rate constants (L g-1 d-1) were highest for MeHg (0.370-0.781) and lowest for As (0.00028-0.00065). Loss rate constants (d-1) were highest for As (0.046-0.096) and lowest for MeHg (0.006-0.009). Tissue distribution data showed that MeHg was redistributed around the body throughout the 9-d depuration period, and drinking may be an uptake mechanism for Cd from the aqueous phase in higher-salinity water. The kinetic parameters calculated in the present study were entered into a bioaccumulation model to calculate the predicted body burden of each metal at steady state and the percentage body burden attributable to dietary exposure on a site-specific basis. Calculated body burdens varied between field sites for all metals except Cr. The predicted values for Cd, Hg(II), and MeHg matched independent field data from contaminated estuaries, indicating that the model can account for the major processes governing metal concentration in killifish. The diet accounted for >97% of the body burden of Cd and MeHg and was the predominant exposure route for As and Cr.

  1. Characteristics of trace metals in traffic-derived particles in Hsuehshan Tunnel, Taiwan: size distribution, fingerprinting metal ratio, and emission factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-C.; Tsai, C.-J.; Wu, Y.-C.; Zhang, R.; Chi, K.-H.; Huang, Y.-T.; Lin, S.-H.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2014-05-01

    Traffic emissions are a significant source of airborne particulate matter (PM) in ambient environments. These emissions contain high abundance of toxic metals and thus pose adverse effects on human health. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected from May to September 2013 by using micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI). Sample collection was conducted simultaneously at the inlet and outlet sites of Hsuehshan Tunnel in northern Taiwan, which is the second longest freeway tunnel (12.9 km) in Asia. Such endeavor aims to characterize the chemical constituents, size distributions, and fingerprinting ratios, as well as the emission factors of particulate metals emitted by vehicle fleets. A total of 36 metals in size-resolved aerosols were determined through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Three major groups, namely, tailpipe emissions (Zn, Pb, and V), wear debris (Cu, Cd, Fe, Ga, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Sn), and resuspended dust (Ca, Mg, K, and Rb), of airborne PM metals were categorized on the basis of the results of enrichment factor, correlation matrix, and principal component analysis. Size distributions of wear-originated metals resembled the pattern of crustal elements, which were predominated by super-micron particulates (PM1-10). By contrast, tailpipe exhaust elements such as Zn, Pb, and V were distributed mainly in submicron particles. By employing Cu as a tracer of wear abrasion, several inter-metal ratios, including Fe/Cu (14), Ba/Cu (1.05), Sb/Cu (0.16), Sn/Cu (0.10), and Ga/Cu (0.03), served as fingerprints for wear debris. Emission factor of PM10 mass was estimated to be 7.7 mg vkm-1. The metal emissions were mostly predominated in super-micron particles (PM1-10). Finally, factors that possibly affect particulate metal emissions inside Hsuehshan Tunnel are discussed.

  2. Benzene under high pressure: A story of molecular crystals transforming to saturated networks, with a possible intermediate metallic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2011-01-01

    In a theoretical study, benzene is compressed up to 300 GPa. The transformations found between molecular phases generally match the experimental findings in the moderate pressure regime (<20 GPa): phase I (Pbca) is found to be stable up to 4 GPa, while phase II (P43212) is preferred in a narrow pressure range of 4–7 GPa. Phase III (P21/c) is at lowest enthalpy at higher pressures. Above 50 GPa, phase V (P21 at 0 GPa; P21/c at high pressure) comes into play, slightly more stable than phase III in the range of 50–80 GP, but unstable to rearrangement to a saturated, four-coordinate (at C), one-dimensional polymer. Actually, throughout the entire pressure range, crystals of graphane possess lower enthalpy than molecular benzene structures; a simple thermochemical argument is given for why this is so. In several of the benzene phases there nevertheless are substantial barriers to rearranging the molecules to a saturated polymer, especially at low temperatures. Even at room temperature these barriers should allow one to study the effect of pressure on the metastable molecular phases. Molecular phase III (P21/c) is one such; it remains metastable to higher pressures up to ~200 GPa, at which point it too rearranges spontaneously to a saturated, tetracoordinate CH polymer. At 300 K the isomerization transition occurs at a lower pressure. Nevertheless, there may be a narrow region of pressure, between P = 180 and 200 GPa, where one could find a metallic, molecular benzene state. We explore several lower dimensional models for such a metallic benzene. We also probe the possible first steps in a localized, nucleated benzene polymerization by studying the dimerization of benzene molecules. Several new (C6H6)2 dimers are predicted.

  3. Nanoscale Transformations in Covellite (CuS) Nanocrystals in the Presence of Divalent Metal Cations in a Mild Reducing Environment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We studied the structural and compositional transformations of colloidal covellite (CuS) nanocrystals (and of djurleite (Cu1.94S) nanocrystals as a control) when exposed to divalent cations, as Cd2+ and Hg2+, at room temperature in organic solvents. All the experiments were run in the absence of phosphines, which are a necessary ingredient for cation exchange reactions involving copper chalcogenides, as they strongly bind to the expelled Cu+ ions. Under these experimental conditions, no remarkable reactivity was indeed seen for both CuS and Cu1.94S nanocrystals. On the other hand, in the covellite structure 2/3 of sulfur atoms form covalent S–S bonds. This peculiarity suggests that the combined presence of electron donors and of foreign metal cations can trigger the entry of both electrons and cations in the covellite lattice, causing reorganization of the anion framework due to the rupture of the S–S bonds. In Cu1.94S, which lacks S–S bonds, this mechanism should not be accessible. This hypothesis was proven by the experimental evidence that adding ascorbic acid increased the fraction of metal ions incorporated in the covellite nanocrystals, while it had no noticeable effect on the Cu1.94S ones. Once inside the covellite particles, Cd2+ and Hg2+ cations engaged in exchange reactions, pushing the expelled Cu+ ions toward the not-yet exchanged regions in the same particles, or out to the solution, from where they could be recaptured by other covellite nanoparticles/domains. Because no good solvating agent for Cu ions was present in solution, they essentially remained in the nanocrystals. PMID:26617434

  4. Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals Including Rare Earth Elements, Thorium, and Uranium in Sludge from Industry Water Treatment Plant and Recovery Method of Metals by Biosurfactants Application

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90–100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution. PMID:22693485

  5. Behavior and distribution of heavy metals including rare Earth elements, thorium, and uranium in sludge from industry water treatment plant and recovery method of metals by biosurfactants application.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90-100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution.

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution and pollution assessment of trace metals in marine sediments in Oyster Bay, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Alyazichi, Yasir M; Jones, Brian G; McLean, Errol

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of untreated urban and industrial wastewater has a deleterious effect on both the water and sediment quality of Oyster Bay located in south Sydney, Australia. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the potential pollution of marine sediments in Oyster Bay. The results of metals were compared with adverse biological effect values effect range low (ERL) and effect range median (ERM). Spatial distribution of trace metals was estimated by applying geographic information system. The results indicated that the sediments were polluted with Cu, Zn, As and Pb, which exceeded ERL levels. However, these metals were still below ERM values, and other metals Cr and Ni were below ERL. Moreover, the highest concentrations of metals were around discharge points and in the inner bay. Further, trace metals could be attributed to human activities within the bay as they declined in concentrations with increasing sediment depth.

  7. Distribution of metals in various particle-size fractions in topsoil of a gully system (European Russia, forest zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samonova, Olga; Aseyeva, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Being depressions in a relief gullies often serve as locations for illegal dumping of hazardous substances, which may be mobilized, retained or recycled during the transport. In the present study we analyze concentrations and distributions of Fe, Ti and potentially hazardous trace elements in various grain-size fractions of a gully's topsoil and focus on examination of spatial variations and grain-size effect. The study object is located in the southern taiga zone of European Russia and represents a relatively young erosional landform, incised in Quaternary deposits. It has a simple rhomboid plan view and the length of about 200 m. Sampling of cross-sectional and longitudinal sequences of soils was performed. In total 25 samples of surface soil horizons were collected in different positions of the system including its internal (slopes, bottom, detrial fan) and external (watershed) units. The distributions of Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Zn, Pb, Zr were analyzed in undifferentiated samples and in particle-size fractions: coarse and medium sand (1-0,25 mm), fine and very fine sand (0,25-0,05 mm), coarse silt (0,05-0,01 mm), medium and fine silt (0,01-0,001 mm) and clay (<0,001 mm). The concentrations of the studied metals in total sample population vary differently in each particle-size fraction: for the majority of elements the variations are diminishing from coarser to finer fractions. Clearly defined relationship between fraction size and metal concentrations is typical of Ti and Zr. The highest levels of Ti are found in silt fractions, while concentrations of Zr show highest values in coarse silt and finer sand fraction. The concentrations of many elements (Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn) are generally higher in clay fractions than in other fractions while the concentrations of Cu and Pb are higher in medium and fine silt. The comparison between the samples collected in different landform positions revealed that soil material in the gully's bottom in all size fractions

  8. Thermal effects in the shear-transformation-zone theory of amorphous plasticity: comparisons to metallic glass data.

    PubMed

    Falk, M L; Langer, J S; Pechenik, L

    2004-07-01

    We extend our earlier shear-transformation-zone theory of amorphous plasticity to include the effects of thermally assisted molecular rearrangements. This version of our theory is a substantial revision and generalization of conventional theories of flow in noncrystalline solids. As in our earlier work, it predicts a dynamic transition between jammed and flowing states at a yield stress. Below that yield stress, it now describes thermally assisted creep. We show that this theory accounts for the experimentally observed strain-rate dependence of the viscosity of metallic glasses, and that it also captures many of the details of the transient stress-strain behavior of those materials during loading. In particular, it explains the apparent onset of superplasticity at sufficiently high stress as a transition between creep at low stresses and plastic flow near the yield stress. We also argue that there are internal inconsistencies in the conventional theories of these deformation processes, and suggest ways in which further experimentation as well as theoretical analysis may lead to better understanding of a broad range of nonequilibrium phenomena. PMID:15324056

  9. Characterization of a water-dispersible metal protective coating with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Stamatis C; Douvas, Antonios M; Argyropoulos, Vassilike; Siatou, Amalia; Vlachopoulou, Marilena

    2012-05-01

    An ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymer, formulated by BASF as a waterborne suspension of its alkylammonium salt and used, among other applications, in art conservation as a temporary protective coating was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy aided by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and ellipsometry. The thermal conversion of thin copolymer films from the freshly applied state, where carboxylic acid and carboxylate ion functional groups co-exist, to a purely acidic working state was spectroscopically followed. Transmission mid-infrared data of the working state showed a 1 : 12 ratio of methacrylic acid towards ethylene units. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) in the same state was found at 45 °C. Copolymer films spin-coated on mechanically polished bronze and iron coupons were characterized with transflection infrared spectroscopy and compared to corresponding transmission mid-infrared spectra of copolymer films spin-coated on silicon wafers. In the case of bronze coupons, evidence for interaction of the carboxylate ion with the copper substrate was obtained. The chemical structure and the thermal behavior of the coating, as well as some implications on its protective capability towards iron and copper alloys, is discussed as this material has received considerable attention in the field of metal conservation and coatings.

  10. Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2014-01-01

    A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale.

  11. Heavy metals contamination potential and distribution in sediments of the River Turia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Maiquez Moya, Mónica; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on the state of waters and sediments of the rivers in the European Union is compulsory. Identification and quantification and monitoring of contaminants is somewhat established in the Water Framework Directive, so it can be acquired a reliable knowledge of the quality for further application of corrective messures can be developed when required. Heavy metals is one of the groups of contaminants that appear in the list of priority substances and in the legislation, so it is essential to attend its study to provide knowledge on the existing loads in different environmental matrices, such as sediments. This work presents a procedure that determines the presence and degree of concentration of a group of seven heavy metals (Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the sediments of the River Turia, a typical Mediterranean River, located in the East of the Iberian Peninsula. The methodology includes their identification in two years (2012, 22 sampling points, and 2013, 27 sampling points). Two pollution index, one individual (Geo-accumulation Igeo, Igeo) that estimated the potential contamination of each metal and a synthetic one (Potential ecorisk index range, PERI) which gets the potential contamination of all 7 grouped applied to each set of data. In addition, to establish possible spatial patterns it has been developed an analysis of the distribution of both indicators and on both dates with Geographic Information Systems, for that purpose it has been divided the River into three segments: upper part (represented by 10 points in 2012 and 13 in 2013), middle part (with 7 points in 2012 and 6 in 2013) and lower section (with 5 points in 2012 and 8 in 2013). Results show that lower concentrations of contaminants were given in 2012 than in 2013. In 2012 the Igeo index, which is distributed in a qualitative range of seven categories ranging from low pollution to very high pollution, are only meaningful for Zn, with "low to moderate" pollution in 13 places (6 points in

  12. Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the

  13. Distribution of trace metals in the vicinity of a wastewater treatment plant on the Potomac River, Washington, DC, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. P.; Muller, A. C.

    2013-05-01

    Predicting the fate and distribution of anthropogenic-sourced trace metals in riverine and estuarine systems is challenging due to multiple and varying source functions and dynamic physiochemical conditions. Between July 2011 and November 2012, sediment and water column samples were collected from over 20 sites in the tidal-fresh Potomac River estuary, Washington, DC near the outfall of the Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (BPWTP) for measurement of select trace metals. Field observations of water column parameters (conductivity, temperature, pH, turbidity) were also made at each sampling site. Trace metal concentrations were normalized to the "background" composition of the river determined from control sites in order to investigate the distribution BPWTP-sourced in local Potomac River receiving waters. Temporal differences in the observed distribution of trace metals were attributed to changes in the relative contribution of metals from different sources (wastewater, riverine, other) coupled with differences in the physiochemical conditions of the water column. Results show that normalizing near-source concentrations to the background composition of the water body and also to key environmental parameters can aid in predicting the fate and distribution of anthropogenic-sourced trace metals in dynamic riverine and estuarine systems like the tidal-fresh Potomac River.

  14. [Regional distribution and ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in surface sediments from coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jie; Li, Pei-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Li, Ping; Zhu, Long-Hai

    2012-04-01

    Characteristics of heavy metal distributions in surface sediments of different areas in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland are analyzed, and the influences of sediment environment on heavy metal distributions are discussed. Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risk in surface sediments of the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland are estimated by using Hakanson potential ecological risk (PER) factors method. The analyzed results indicate that the average contents of Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr are 0.034, 18.733, 19.393, 65.317, 0.235 and 62.940 microg x g(-1), respectively. The heavy metal distributions vary with regional environment changes. The accumulating index of heavy metals in the current outfall area is the highest of the three regions assigned by author,the second is that of the ancient Yellow River Delta in the north of Shandong province, and the lowest is that of the abandoned delta. Heavy metal distributions in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland are affected significantly by hydrodynamic system. In addition, the content of clay in surface sediments plays an important role in the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals. The results also suggest that the heavy metal pollution in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland is in a low pollution level, with a comprehensive pollution index varying from 0.10 to 4.14. And element Cr is the major pollution factor and its average of single pollution index is 0.63. The order of pollution extents of six typical pollutants is Cr > Cu > Zn > Cd > Pb > Hg. The comprehensive potential ecological risk index is between 0.46 and 51.88, indicating a low potential ecological risk. The order of potential ecological risk parameter is Cd > Hg > Cu > Cr > Pb > Zn. Element Cd is also the major factor of potential ecological risks in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland.

  15. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shibao; Wang, Jianhua; Pei, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the soil-crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of reclaimed water for irrigation varies. Reclaimed water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the national standard, which indicates that the vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. The heavy metals brought into the soil by reclaimed water are less than that taken away by the crops. The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the soil. This paper provides a reference for the evaluation and safety control of irrigation with reclaimed water. PMID:27005639

  16. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shibao; Wang, Jianhua; Pei, Liang

    2016-03-01

    Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the soil-crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of reclaimed water for irrigation varies. Reclaimed water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the national standard, which indicates that the vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. The heavy metals brought into the soil by reclaimed water are less than that taken away by the crops. The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the soil. This paper provides a reference for the evaluation and safety control of irrigation with reclaimed water. PMID:27005639

  17. Heavy metals in Semarang`s urban streams: Spatial distribution and bioindication using the guppy (Lepistes reticulatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Widianarko, B.

    1996-12-31

    A field survey on cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc was performed in Semarang, the fifth largest city in Indonesia. Water, sediment, and fish samples were collected from 101 grids of 2 x 2 km. The objectives of the study were (1) to identify the spatial distribution of metals in the sediments of the greater Semarang area, (2) to estimate the background concentrations of the metals present in Semarang, (3) to provide a simple tool for deriving standards for metals in the sediment, and (4) to explore the potential use of the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus) as a bioindicator of urban metal pollution. To map the spatial distribution of the metals, concentrations of each metal in sediment were plotted against the corresponding city coordinate. On the basis of these plots, background concentrations of the metals were estimated. A combined pollution index can be derived thereafter by calculating the difference between metals concentrations from a particular grid and their respective background concentrations. Potential use of the guppy as a bioindicator is assessed, based on a comparison on several demographic parameters (i.e., size structure, sex ratio, reproductive success and energetic status) between unpolluted and heavily polluted populations. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shibao; Wang, Jianhua; Pei, Liang

    2016-03-08

    Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the soil-crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of reclaimed water for irrigation varies. Reclaimed water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the national standard, which indicates that the vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. The heavy metals brought into the soil by reclaimed water are less than that taken away by the crops. The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the soil. This paper provides a reference for the evaluation and safety control of irrigation with reclaimed water.

  19. Colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents: Characterization and role in metal distribution.

    PubMed

    Worms, Isabelle A M; Al-Gorani Szigeti, Zsofia; Dubascoux, Stephane; Lespes, Gaetane; Traber, Jacqueline; Sigg, Laura; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plants was characterized and examined with respect to its role in metal distribution by using tangential flow ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon and UV detectors, and an asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AFlFFF) multidetection platform. Results revealed that a humic-like fraction of low aromaticity with an average molar mass ranging from 1600 to 2600Da was the main colloidal component. High molar mass fractions (HMM), with molar mass ranges between 20 and 200kDa, were present in lower proportions. Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn and Zn were found mainly in the dissolved phase (<0.45microm) and their distribution between colloidal and truly dissolved fractions was strongly influenced by the distribution of dissolved organic carbon. AFlFFF coupled to ICP-MS showed that Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn and Zn associate to the low molar mass fraction of the colloidal pool, whereas Al, Fe and Pb were equally bound to low and high molar mass fractions. PMID:19836819

  20. Atmospheric quality and distribution of heavy metals in Argentina employing Tillandsia capillaris as a biomonitor.

    PubMed

    Pignata, M L; Gudiño, G L; Wannaz, E D; Plá, R R; González, C M; Carreras, H A; Orellana, L

    2002-01-01

    The atmospheric quality and distribution of heavy metals were evaluated throughout a wide region of Argentina. In addition, the biomonitor performance of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris was studied in relation to the accumulation of heavy metals and to its physiologic response to air pollutants. A sampling area of 50,000 km2 was selected in the central region of the Argentine Republic. This area was subdivided into grids of 25 x 25 km. Pools of T. capillaris, where present, were collected at each intersection point. From each pool three sub-samples were analyzed independently. Furthermore, five replicates were collected at 20% of the points in order to analyze the variability within the site. The content of Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Chemical-physiological parameters were also determined to detect symptoms of foliar damage. Chlorophylls, phaeophytins, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and sulfur were quantified in T. capillaris. Some of these parameters were used to calculate a foliar damage index. Data sets were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and mapping. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. According to our results it can be inferred that Fe, Mn and Co probably originated in the soil. For Pb, the highest values were found in the mountainous area, which can be attributed to the presence of Pb in the granitic rocks. Ni showed mainly an anthropogenic origin, with higher values found in places next to industrial centers. For Zn the highest values were in areas of agricultural development. The same was observed for Cu, whose presence could be related to the employment of pesticides. The foliar damage index distribution map showed that the central and southeastern zones were the ones where the major damage in the bioindicator was

  1. Effect of metal loading processes on the stability and thermal transformation of Co{sup 2+}- and Cu{sup 2+}-zeolite Y prepared from Egyptian kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    EL-Mekkawi, Doaa M. Selim, Mohamed M.

    2012-07-15

    This paper aims to assess the effect of the transition metals (TM) loading procedure on the incorporation of Co{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} in zeolite Y, and their relevance to stability of the zeolite, particularly with respect to the thermal transformation to the spinel phases. In this work, zeolite Y prepared from Egyptian kaolin was used. XRF, XRD, TEM, UV/visible absorption measurements, and atomic absorption analyses in addition to the visual observations are recorded. XRF has been used to investigate the materials composition. TEM and XRD indicate the presence of nanoparticle spinel upon the calcination of the TM-zeolites at 1000 Degree-Sign C. In addition to spinel particles, XRD shows the formation of metal oxides, SiO{sub 2} and alumino-silicate phases. According to the transition metal and the cation loading process, different phases were detected. UV/visible absorption measurements and the visual observations are used to determine the experimental condition of the highest spinel content. It has been noticed that the experimental conditions of the metal sorption processes greatly affect the phase transformation. Stability and thermal transformation of zeolite depend on the initial concentration of the transition cation solutions and the number of loading cycles. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effects of loading procedure in the incorporation of TM in zeolite Y. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthetic zeolite Y prepared from Egyptian kaolin has been used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The type of TM affects the stability and thermal transformation of zeolite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loading processes affect the stability and thermal transformation of zeolite.

  2. Implication of heavy metals distribution for a municipal solid waste management system--a case study in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2008-09-01

    Heavy metal contamination in municipal solid waste (MSW) is of increasing concern. The occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in MSW and their implications for the integrated MSW management system in mega-cities have been investigated by means of material flow analysis based on a case study of Shanghai in China. A good statistical basis was provided through a one-year monitoring program on the mass and metals composition of the waste from three MSW treatment facilities. The results showed that the main heavy metals in the MSW were Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb (on average >100 mg kg(-1)), followed by Ni, Cd, and Hg. The MSW contained higher levels of Cu and Ni in metals, Cr and Pb in plastics, and Pb and Zn in the inorganic fractions. Regardless of the sources, the statistically similar heavy metal contents in the organic fractions indicated that effective blending and diffusion of heavy metals had taken place throughout the MSW collection, transfer, transportation, and storage, leading to cross-contamination of the waste fractions. PU (composed of putrescible waste and miscellaneous indistinguishable particles) contributed the majority of the heavy metals to the MSW, followed by plastics, as a result of the predominance in the overall composition of PU and plastics rather than from differences in their heavy metal contents. Therefore, manual or mechanical separation of some significantly heavy metal-rich fractions alone is not sufficient to reduce the heavy metal contents in the MSW. Source separation of organic waste and the diversion of tailored inorganic waste such as hazardous components, construction and demolition waste, etc., are proposed to control the heavy metal contamination in MSW. For the mixed MSW management system, physicochemical fractionation to exclude particles containing high levels of heavy metals can be conducted.

  3. Effects of Ni(2+) on aluminum hydroxide scale formation and transformation on a simulated drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendong; Song, Shan; Zhang, Xiaoni; Mitchell Spear, J; Wang, Xiaochang; Wang, Wen; Ding, Zhenzhen; Qiao, Zixia

    2014-07-01

    Observations of aluminum containing sediments/scales formed within the distribution pipes have been reported for several decades. In this study, the effect of Ni(2+) on the formation and transformation processes of aluminum hydroxide sediment in a simulated drinking water distribution system were investigated using X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermodynamic calculation methods. It was determined that the existence of Ni(2+) had notable effects on the formation of bayerite. In the system without Ni(2+) addition, there was no X-ray diffraction signal observed after 400 d of aging. The presence of Ni(2+), however, even when present in small amounts (Ni/Al=1:100) the formation of bayerite would occur in as little as 3d at pH 8.5. As the molar ratio of Ni/Al increase from 1:100 to 1:10, the amount of bayerite formed on the pipeline increased further; meanwhile, the specific area of the pipe scale decreased from 160 to 122 m(2)g(-1). In the system with Ni/Al molar ratio at 1:3, the diffraction spectrum strength of bayerite became weaker, and disappeared when Ni/Al molar ratios increased above 1:1. At these highs Ni/Al molar ratios, Ni5Al4O11⋅18H2O was determined to be the major component of the pipe scale. Further study indicated that the presence of Ni(2+) promoted the formation of bayerite and Ni5Al4O11⋅18H2O under basic conditions. At lower pH (6.5) however, the existence of Ni(2+) had little effect on the formation of bayerite and Ni5Al4O11⋅18H2O, rather the adsorption of amorphous Al(OH)3 for Ni(2+) promoted the formation of crystal Ni(OH)2.

  4. The geochemistry of Seine River Basin particulate matter: Distribution of an integrated metal pollution index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meybeck, Michel; Horowitz, A.J.; Grosbois, C.

    2004-01-01

    Spatial analysis (1994-2001) and temporal trends (1980-2000) for particulate-associated metals at key stations in the Seine River Basin have been determined using a new metal pollution index (MPI). The MPI is based on the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, normalized to calculated background levels estimated for each particulate matter samples for four fractions (clays and other aluminosilicates, carbonates, organic matter, and quartz). Background levels ascribed to each fraction were determined from a specific set of samples collected from relatively pristine areas in the upper Seine basin and validated on prehistoric samples. The unitless MPI is designed to vary between 0 for pristine samples to 100 for the ones extremely impacted by human activities and to assess the trends of general metal contamination and its mapping. Throughout the Seine basin, MPI currently range from 1 to 40, but values exceeding 100 have been found in periurban streams and the Eure tributary. Based on the MPI spatial distribution, the Seine River Basin displays a wide range of anthropogenic impacts linked to variations in population density, stream order, wastewater discharges and industrial activities. Correlations between the MPI and other trace elements indicate that anthropogenic impacts also strongly affect the concentrations of Ag, Sb, and P, marginally affect the concentrations of Ba, Ni, and Cr, and appear to have little effect on the concentrations of Li, Be, V, Co, and the major elements. Temporal MPI trends can also be reconstituted from past regulatory surveys. In the early 1980s, MPI were 2-5 times higher than nowadays at most locations, particularly downstream of Greater Paris where it reached levels as high as 250 (now 40), a value characteristic of present Paris urban sewage. The exceptional contamination of the Seine basin is gradually improving over the last 20 years but remains very high. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional distribution of ventilation assessed by Kr-81m scintigraphy employing temporal Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect

    Slosman, D.; Susskind, H.; Cinotti, L.; van Giessen, J.W.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Temporal Fourier analysis was applied to Kr-81m ventilation scintigraphy to determine the amplitude (AMP1) and phase (PHA1) of the first harmonic of a single composite respiratory cycle and to compare regional patterns in subjects with obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and nonobstructed subjects. Six nonobstructed subjects, three subjects with small airway disease, six subjects with COPD, and one subject with restrictive disease were investigated. The mean value of the functional PHA1 image (PHA1m) correlated negatively with 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) (r = -0.801, P less than .001), with %FEV1/FVC (r = -0.636, P less than .01) and maximum midexpiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) (r = -0.723, P less than .002), and correlated positively with residual volume (r = 0.640, P less than .01). PHA1m values for the six subjects with COPD were significantly higher (t = 2.359, P less than .05) than for the ten nonobstructed subjects. Display of phase and amplitude functional images permits a visual evaluation of the regional distribution of ventilation to be made. Regional abnormalities of air flow were detected in obstructed subjects, and the presence of airway obstruction could be predicted. Dynamic ventilation imaging, therefore, appears to be a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung impairment on a localized level.

  6. Electronic state and distribution of heavy metals and their passivator in aluminum oxide and cracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Chukin, G.D.; Zhdan, P.A.; Dagurov, V.G.; Gertsik, B.M.

    1987-07-01

    The authors studies of the electronic state and distribution of nickel, iron, vanadium, and antimony in aluminum oxide and in RSG-6ts cracking catalyst, treated under various conditions, were performed in an ESCALAB-5 x-ray photoelectron spectrometer, using Mg K/sub ..cap alpha.. and AlK/sub ..cap alpha.. radiation. In recording the spectra and working up the spectral data, a DS-4025 data processing system based on a PDP-11 computer was used. The sensitivity of the XPS method restricted the investigate to samples with a metal content of 10,000 ppm or more. In the investigation, therefore, they used samples of the original zeolitic microbead catalyst RSG-6ts and a sample of catalyst poisoned with vanadium, iron, or nickel to a bulk content of 10,000 ppm.

  7. Macroscopic tensile plasticity by scalarizating stress distribution in bulk metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meng; Dong, Jie; Huan, Yong; Wang, Yong Tian; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The macroscopic tensile plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is highly desirable for various engineering applications. However, upon yielding, plastic deformation of BMGs is highly localized into narrow shear bands and then leads to the “work softening” behaviors and subsequently catastrophic fracture, which is the major obstacle for their structural applications. Here we report that macroscopic tensile plasticity in BMG can be obtained by designing surface pore distribution using laser surface texturing. The surface pore array by design creates a complex stress field compared to the uniaxial tensile stress field of conventional glassy specimens, and the stress field scalarization induces the unusual tensile plasticity. By systematically analyzing fracture behaviors and finite element simulation, we show that the stress field scalarization can resist the main shear band propagation and promote the formation of larger plastic zones near the pores, which undertake the homogeneous tensile plasticity. These results might give enlightenment for understanding the deformation mechanism and for further improvement of the mechanical performance of metallic glasses. PMID:26902264

  8. Macroscopic tensile plasticity by scalarizating stress distribution in bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meng; Dong, Jie; Huan, Yong; Wang, Yong Tian; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2016-02-01

    The macroscopic tensile plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is highly desirable for various engineering applications. However, upon yielding, plastic deformation of BMGs is highly localized into narrow shear bands and then leads to the “work softening” behaviors and subsequently catastrophic fracture, which is the major obstacle for their structural applications. Here we report that macroscopic tensile plasticity in BMG can be obtained by designing surface pore distribution using laser surface texturing. The surface pore array by design creates a complex stress field compared to the uniaxial tensile stress field of conventional glassy specimens, and the stress field scalarization induces the unusual tensile plasticity. By systematically analyzing fracture behaviors and finite element simulation, we show that the stress field scalarization can resist the main shear band propagation and promote the formation of larger plastic zones near the pores, which undertake the homogeneous tensile plasticity. These results might give enlightenment for understanding the deformation mechanism and for further improvement of the mechanical performance of metallic glasses.

  9. Antibodies labeled with metallic radionuclides: influence of nuclide chemistry on dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, A T; Yankuba, S C; Anderson, P

    1987-01-01

    An antibody with human CEA specificity has been labeled with either yttrium-90, scandium-47, or indium-111, via a diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) link covalently bound to the protein. The clearance of these proteins from the blood of mice can be described by a single exponential; the half-life decreases in the order indium-111 greater than yttrium-90 greater than scandium-47. Associated with the blood clearance is an uptake of radioactivity into the liver; scandium-47 has the highest concentration, indium-111 has the least, and yttrium-90 is intermediate. There is no correlation between these results and the equilibrium stability constants of the metals with DTPA-like ligands. The results obtained show that, in vivo, scandium-47 and yttrium-90 are more easily displaced from DTPA by other ions than is indium-111. They also show that free DTPA is able to extract yttrium-90 and scandium-47, but not indium-111, from the liver of treated animals, indicating that indium-111 is resistant to ligand exchange reactions in vivo. These data indicate that 1) the equilibrium stability constant is not a good indicator of the in vivo stability of metal-labeled proteins and 2) it is possible to manipulate the ion distribution and therefore the dose from scandium-47 and yttrium-90 after injection of the labeled proteins. PMID:3029601

  10. Macroscopic tensile plasticity by scalarizating stress distribution in bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Dong, Jie; Huan, Yong; Wang, Yong Tian; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The macroscopic tensile plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is highly desirable for various engineering applications. However, upon yielding, plastic deformation of BMGs is highly localized into narrow shear bands and then leads to the "work softening" behaviors and subsequently catastrophic fracture, which is the major obstacle for their structural applications. Here we report that macroscopic tensile plasticity in BMG can be obtained by designing surface pore distribution using laser surface texturing. The surface pore array by design creates a complex stress field compared to the uniaxial tensile stress field of conventional glassy specimens, and the stress field scalarization induces the unusual tensile plasticity. By systematically analyzing fracture behaviors and finite element simulation, we show that the stress field scalarization can resist the main shear band propagation and promote the formation of larger plastic zones near the pores, which undertake the homogeneous tensile plasticity. These results might give enlightenment for understanding the deformation mechanism and for further improvement of the mechanical performance of metallic glasses. PMID:26902264

  11. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin.

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC

  12. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin.

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC

  13. Effect of soil type on distribution and bioaccessibility of metal contaminants in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi; Bowman, Mark; McLure, Stuart

    2012-11-01

    Shooting ranges from Department of Defence sites around Australia were investigated for extent of metal contamination. Shooting range soils contained concentrations ranging from 399 to 10,403 mg/kg Pb, 6.57 to 252 mg/kg Sb, 28.7 to 1250 mg/kg Cu, 5.63 to 153 mg/kg Zn, 1.35 to 8.8 mg/kg Ni and 3.08 to 15.8 mg/kg As. Metal(loid)s were primarily concentrated in the stop butt and the surface soil (0-10 cm). The distribution of contamination reflected firing activity, soil properties, climate and management practices. Climatic variations among sites in Australia are significant, with a temperate climate in the south and tropical climate with high rainfall in the north. Up to 8% of total Pb resided in soil fines (<0.075 mm), due to the fragmentation of bullets on impact. Distribution and bioaccessibility varied between each site. Acidic Townsville soil had the highest proportion of water extractable Pb at 10%, compared to the alkaline Murray Bridge with only 2% Pb water extractable. Soil properties such as CEC, pH and dissolved organic carbon influence mobility. This is reflected in the subsoil concentrations of Pb in Townsville and Darwin which are up to 30 and 46% of surface concentration in the subsoil respectively. Similarly bioaccessibility is influenced by soil properties and ranges from 46% in Townsville to 70% in Perth. Acidic pH promotes dissolution of secondary minerals and the downward movement of Pb in the profile. The secondary Pb minerals formed as a result of weathering in these soils were cerussite, hydrocerussite, pyromorphite, galena and anglesite. Copper oxide was also reported on fragments from bullet jackets. These results have implications for range management. PMID:23026152

  14. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had

  15. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had

  16. The distribution of some metallic elements in eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) and sediment in the Limfjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brix, Hans; Lyngby, Jens Erik

    1983-04-01

    The distribution of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn in different parts of eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) and sediment (0-25 cm depth) collected at three locations in the Limfjord, Denmark, were investigated. Eelgrass plants were divided into roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves according to age, and the metal content in each fraction was determined. The distribution pattern of the metals could be divided into separate groups according to the following criteria: (i) the age-dependent distribution pattern of the metals in the leaves (the concentrations of Ca, Cd, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn increased with the age of the leaves; the concentrations of Cu and K decreased with age); (ii) the concentration level of the metals in the roots compared to that in the rhizomes (Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations were highest in the roots; K, Mg and Na concentrations were highest in rhizomes); (iii) the concentration level of the metals in the 'stem'-fraction compared to that in the youngest leaf (the concentration of Fe, K, Mg, Na and Pb were highest in the 'stem'-fraction; the concentrations of Ca, Cd, Mn and Zn were highest in the youngest leaf). The distribution pattern of the metals are discussed, especially in relation to the gross morphology of eelgrass. Finally, the relatively large quantity of metals tied up in the eelgrass biomass at the three localities indicated that the eelgrass beds most likely exerted a significant role in the metal cycling in the Limfjord.

  17. Asymmetri Distribution of Metals in the Xenopus Laevis Oocyte: a Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microprobe Study

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, B.F.G.; Belak, Z.R.; Ignatyev, K.; Ovsenek, N.; Nichol, H.; /Saskatchewan U. /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-29

    The asymmetric distribution of many components of the Xenopus oocyte, including RNA, proteins, and pigment, provides a framework for cellular specialization during development. During maturation, Xenopus oocytes also acquire metals needed for development, but apart from zinc, little is known about their distribution. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe was used to map iron, copper, and zinc and the metalloid selenium in a whole oocyte. Iron, zinc, and copper were asymmetrically distributed in the cytoplasm, while selenium and copper were more abundant in the nucleus. A zone of high copper and zinc was seen in the animal pole cytoplasm. Iron was also concentrated in the animal pole but did not colocalize with zinc, copper, or pigment accumulations. This asymmetry of metal deposition may be important for normal development. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe will be a useful tool to examine how metals accumulate and redistribute during fertilization and embryonic development.

  18. Asymmetric Distribution of Metals in the Xenopus Laevis Oocyte: a Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microprobe Study

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, B.F.Gh.; Belak, Z.R.; Ignatyev, K.; Ovsenek, N.; Nichol, H.

    2009-06-04

    The asymmetric distribution of many components of the Xenopus oocyte, including RNA, proteins, and pigment, provides a framework for cellular specialization during development. During maturation, Xenopus oocytes also acquire metals needed for development, but apart from zinc, little is known about their distribution. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe was used to map iron, copper, and zinc and the metalloid selenium in a whole oocyte. Iron, zinc, and copper were asymmetrically distributed in the cytoplasm, while selenium and copper were more abundant in the nucleus. A zone of high copper and zinc was seen in the animal pole cytoplasm. Iron was also concentrated in the animal pole but did not colocalize with zinc, copper, or pigment accumulations. This asymmetry of metal deposition may be important for normal development. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe will be a useful tool to examine how metals accumulate and redistribute during fertilization and embryonic development.

  19. Contamination and distribution of heavy metals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative halogenated flame retardants in a pristine mangrove.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Peng, Yisheng; Guo, Pengran; Zhou, Song; Li, Qing; Geng, Xinhua; Miao, Shenyu

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the expanding metal and electronics industries, pollution in the Pearl River Estuary needs special concern. Given the hydrodynamic effect, the pristine mangrove in Qi'ao Island would be contaminated by tidal flushing. Thus, we examined (1) the contamination of pollutants in this mangrove, including heavy metals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs), and (2) how habitat characteristics and sediment properties affect their distribution. Results showed that the sediment in Qi'ao mangrove had higher concentrations of heavy metals, PBDEs and AHFRs than that in other pristine mangroves, and similar concentrations to those mangroves impacted by point sources. Heavy metal concentrations were lower in the vegetated areas than mudflat, while the opposite was found for PBDEs and AHFRs. The findings imply that tidal flushing was an important pollution source, while mangrove plants have the capacity to minimize the impact of heavy metals, but not PBDEs and AHFRs.

  20. Contamination and distribution of heavy metals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative halogenated flame retardants in a pristine mangrove.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Peng, Yisheng; Guo, Pengran; Zhou, Song; Li, Qing; Geng, Xinhua; Miao, Shenyu

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the expanding metal and electronics industries, pollution in the Pearl River Estuary needs special concern. Given the hydrodynamic effect, the pristine mangrove in Qi'ao Island would be contaminated by tidal flushing. Thus, we examined (1) the contamination of pollutants in this mangrove, including heavy metals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs), and (2) how habitat characteristics and sediment properties affect their distribution. Results showed that the sediment in Qi'ao mangrove had higher concentrations of heavy metals, PBDEs and AHFRs than that in other pristine mangroves, and similar concentrations to those mangroves impacted by point sources. Heavy metal concentrations were lower in the vegetated areas than mudflat, while the opposite was found for PBDEs and AHFRs. The findings imply that tidal flushing was an important pollution source, while mangrove plants have the capacity to minimize the impact of heavy metals, but not PBDEs and AHFRs. PMID:26759186

  1. Metal contamination and their distribution in different grain size fractions of sediments in an industrial development area.

    PubMed

    Krishna, A Keshav; Mohan, K Rama

    2013-02-01

    Assessment of metal contamination and their distribution in different grain size fractions of the surface sediments of a lake in Kazipalli industrial development area has been investigated. Since the persistent toxic metals pose serious health risks, this research concentrated on investigating the concentrations and spatial distribution of metals in and around the Kazipalli Lake. Ten sampling points were selected and approximately 500 g of surface sediments were obtained from 1ft depth. Samples were sieved and four grain size fractions (>250, 110-250, 61-110, <61 μm) from each sample were selected for the analysis of metals. The average concentration of ten points for individual metals (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) revealed data ranging from 9.6 to 131.4 mg/kg for As, 3.0-20.8 mg/kg for Co, 15.3-196 mg/kg for Cr, 13-40 mg/kg for Cu, 18-74 mg/kg for Ni, 51-328 mg/kg for Pb and 27-335.1 mg/kg for Zn. Enrichment factor and correlation analysis were also applied to the data set. The overall results indicate that sediment grain size played important role in controlling the distribution of heavy metals in surficial sediments of Kazipalli Lake.

  2. Distribution and assessment of heavy metals off the Changjiang River mouth and adjacent area during the past century and the relationship of the heavy metals with anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Bi, Shipu; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Yong; Mei, Xi; Li, Anchun

    2015-07-15

    Forty-three surface sediment samples and one gravity core obtained from the offshore area of the Changjiang River were analyzed for selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg) to evaluate the spatial distribution and potential ecological risk during the last century. The results indicated that the sediments are composed of silty sand, sandy silt and silt and were deposited in a relatively stable environment over the last century. The studied marine sediments are fine and easily adsorb heavy metals from aquatic systems. The heavy metal concentrations were found to be enriched in the sediments and were generally closely related to anthropogenic activities. However, the data analysis demonstrated that the levels of heavy metal contamination were below background values during the last century, indicating low ecological risk. Spatially, a higher concentration was found at the entrance to the Changjiang River, while it decreased to the northeast. The vertical distribution of contamination levels and ecological risk can be divided into four periods based on the downcore variation in heavy metals: pre-1940s, 1940s-1970s, 1970s-1990s and the late 1990s to the present. These conclusions form the basis for implementing appropriate policies to protect marine sediment quality. PMID:26002099

  3. Enhanced chlorine dioxide decay in the presence of metal oxides: relevance to drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; von Gunten, Urs; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) decay in the presence of typical metal oxides occurring in distribution systems was investigated. Metal oxides generally enhanced ClO2 decay in a second-order process via three pathways: (1) catalytic disproportionation with equimolar formation of chlorite and chlorate, (2) reaction to chlorite and oxygen, and (3) oxidation of a metal in a reduced form (e.g., cuprous oxide) to a higher oxidation state. Cupric oxide (CuO) and nickel oxide (NiO) showed significantly stronger abilities than goethite (α-FeOOH) to catalyze the ClO2 disproportionation (pathway 1), which predominated at higher initial ClO2 concentrations (56-81 μM). At lower initial ClO2 concentrations (13-31 μM), pathway 2 also contributed. The CuO-enhanced ClO2 decay is a base-assisted reaction with a third-order rate constant of 1.5 × 10(6) M(-2) s(-1) in the presence of 0.1 g L(-1) CuO at 21 ± 1 °C, which is 4-5 orders of magnitude higher than in the absence of CuO. The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) significantly enhanced the formation of chlorite and decreased the ClO2 disproportionation in the CuO-ClO2 system, probably because of a higher reactivity of CuO-activated ClO2 with NOM. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to simulate CuO-enhanced ClO2 decay at various pH values. Model simulations that agree well with the experimental data include a pre-equilibrium step with the rapid formation of a complex, namely, CuO-activated Cl2O4. The reaction of this complex with OH(-) is the rate-limiting and pH-dependent step for the overall reaction, producing chlorite and an intermediate that further forms chlorate and oxygen in parallel. These novel findings suggest that the possible ClO2 loss and the formation of chlorite/chlorate should be carefully considered in drinking water distribution systems containing copper pipes.

  4. Trends in alkali metal hydrosulfides: a combined Fourier transform microwave/millimeter-wave spectroscopic study of KSH (X1A').

    PubMed

    Bucchino, M P; Sheridan, P M; Young, J P; Binns, M K L; Ewing, D W; Ziurys, L M

    2013-12-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of KSH (X(1)A') has been measured using millimeter-wave direct absorption and Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) techniques. This work is the first gas-phase experimental study of this molecule and includes spectroscopy of KSD as well. In the millimeter-wave system, KSH was synthesized in a DC discharge from a mixture of potassium vapor, H2S, and argon; a discharge-assisted laser ablation source, coupled with a supersonic jet expansion, was used to create the species in the FTMW instrument. Five and three rotational transitions in the range 3-57 GHz were recorded with the FTMW experiment for KSH and KSD, respectively, in the K(a) = 0 component; in these data, potassium quadrupole hyperfine structure was observed. Five to six transitions with K(a) = 0-5 were measured in the mm-wave region (260-300 GHz) for the two species. The presence of multiple asymmetry components in the mm-wave spectra indicates that KSH has a bent geometry, in analogy to other alkali hydrosulfides. The data were analyzed with an S-reduced asymmetric top Hamiltonian, and rotational, centrifugal distortion, and potassium electric quadrupole coupling constants were determined for both isotopolgues. The r0 geometry for KSH was calculated to be r(S-H) = 1.357(1) Å, r(K-S) = 2.806(1) Å, and θ(M-S-H) (°) = 95.0 (1). FTMW measurements were also carried out on LiSH and NaSH; metal electric quadrupole coupling constants were determined for comparison with KSH. In addition, ab initio computations of the structures and vibrational frequencies at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,2pd) and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ levels of theory were performed for LiSH, NaSH, and KSH. Overall, experimental and computational data suggest that the metal-ligand bonding in KSH is a combination of electrostatic and covalent forces.

  5. Distribution of Precious Metals (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Rh) Between Copper Matte and Iron Silicate Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avarmaa, Katri; Johto, Hannu; Taskinen, Pekka

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of precious metals (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Rh) between copper matte and silica-saturated iron silicate slag were determined at 1523 K to 1623 K (1250 °C to 1350 °C), in controlled CO-CO2-SO2-Ar gas mixtures. The experiments were done in silica crucibles and a fixed partial pressure of sulfur dioxide for matte grades of 55, 65, and 75 wt pct Cu. High-temperature equilibration/quenching/electron probe X-ray microanalysis technique was used to obtain compositions of the equilibrated matte and slag. The technique was applied for the first time to the distributions of precious metals in simulated flash smelting conditions. The resolution of electron probe microanalysis became critical as the detection limits were insufficient to measure reliably the precious metals concentrations (except silver) in the slag. The distribution coefficient of silver, L m/s[Ag] = [wt pctAg in matte]/(wt pctAg in slag), was found to be between 200 and 300, which agrees well with the latest studies in the literature. For other precious metals, the minimum values of distribution coefficients were determined according to the detection limits in the slag. The values obtained were for gold and platinum >250, for palladium >1000, and for rhodium >900. The distribution coefficients of palladium, although locating above distribution coefficient of the detection limit, formed a clear dependency with a good repeatability as a function of the matte grade. It increased along with matte grade and was approximately 1000 at 50 pct Cu and 2000 to 3000 at 70 pct Cu. The precious metals replace metal in the matte structure and they are present as sulfides in the copper matte.

  6. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Metals along a Salinity Gradient in a River Estuary of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.; Xu, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion has become a significant problem for many coastal rivers due to global climate change and the continuous sea level rise. The flocculation of dissolved metals during estuarine mixing plays a critical role in self-purification of metals. A number of studies have investigated pH and salinity effects on metal mobility. Many of these studies were conducted in a laboratory setting. The reported field studies considered only few metals and their dynamics under marginal pH / salinity variation, typically over a short period of time. Since the spring of 2013, we have been conducting a study on spatiotemporal distribution of metals along a 90-km reach of the Calcasieu River estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Monthly field trips were made to conduct in-situ measurements and collect water samples at six sites along the river. In addition, sediment samples from the riverbed surface were collected at the same sites four times to assess metal accumulation. Field measurements included water temperature, pH, salinity, and specific conductivity; Water samples were analyzed for concentration of a range of metals including Al, Ba, B, Cd, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, K, Si, Ag, Na, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. The estuarine river reach showed a wide range of salinity and pH (salinity: 0.04 - 21.78 ppt; pH: 6.2-8.1), strongly affected by river hydrology and tidal mixing. Concentration and spatial distribution of the metals in river water show response to flow regimes from the low (400 cfs) to the intermediate (400-2600 cfs) and high flows. This paper presents the dynamics of the metals under varying flow, pH and salinity gradients over the seasons and discusses a potential "intrusion" of metal accumulation in riverbed upstream as sea level rise persists.

  7. Risk assessment of heavy metals and their source distribution in waters of a contaminated industrial site.

    PubMed

    Krishna, A Keshav; Mohan, K Rama

    2014-03-01

    Industrially contaminated sites with hazardous materials are a priority and urgent problem all over the world. Appropriate risk assessment is required to determine health risks associated with contaminated sites. The present study was conducted to investigate distribution of potentially hazardous, heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations in surface and groundwater samples collected during summer (pre-monsoon) and winter (post-monsoon) seasons from an industrially contaminated site, Hyderabad, India, with potential source of metal contamination because of industrial effluents and usage of pesticides in agriculture. Heavy metal (HM) concentrations were analysed by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and were compared with permissible limits set by the World Health Organisation. Data obtained was treated using multivariate statistical approaches like R-mode factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis, cluster analysis, geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor, contamination factor and the degree of contamination. Health risk assessment like chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) were also calculated. Relatively high levels were noted in surface water with average concentrations during summer and winter seasons showing 16.13 and 11.83 for As, 7.91 and 1.64 for Cd, 88.33 and 32.90 for Cr, 58.11 and 28.26 for Cu, 53.62 and 69.96 for Ni, 173.8 and 118.6 for Pb, and 2,943 and 1,889 μg/L for Zn. While in groundwater, the mean metal levels during two seasons were 18.18 and 3.76 for As, 1.67 and 0.40 for Cd, 29.40 and 5.15 for Cr, 17.03 and 4.19 for Cu, 25.4 and 6.09 for Ni, 81.7 and 2.87 for Pb and 953 and 989 μg/L for Zn, respectively. FA identified two factors with cumulative loadings of F1-60.82 % and F2-76.55 % for pre-monsoon surface water and F1-48.75 % and F2-67.55 % for groundwater. Whereas, three factors with cumulative loadings of F1-39.13 %, F2-66.60 % and F3-81.01 % for post-monsoon surface water and F1

  8. Heavy metals distribution and environmental quality assessment for sediments off the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Zhang, Yong; Bi, Shipu; Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaoyue; Lin, Manman; Hu, Gang

    2015-11-15

    A systematic study was conducted on the distribution characteristics of heavy metals and on associated influencing factors in sediments off the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China, based on the results of a heavy metals analysis on 157 surface sediment samples from coastal waters of the study area and on 46 samples from surrounding rivers flowing into the sea. An environmental quality assessment of heavy metals was performed using the Nemerow index. The results show that the distribution characteristics of sediment heavy metals in coastal waters outside of Qingdao can be divided into three classes: (1) Class I - Cr, Cu and Zn, with high-value areas extending from the northeast to the southwest in a banded or tongue-like pattern; (2) Class II - As, Cd and Pb, with high-value areas mainly distributed off the southeastern coast of Mt. Lao; and (3) Class III - Hg only, with high-value areas mainly in the northern area of Jiaozhou Bay. Integrated assessment based on the Nemerow index reveals that heavy metals pollution has occurred in surface sediments in a number of coastal water areas outside of Qingdao. This pollution is mainly found off the southeastern coast of Mt. Lao and in the northeastern section of Jiaozhou Bay. Results show that grain size of surface sediments, surrounding rivers and human activities are the main reasons for the element distribution pattern.

  9. Characteristics of trace metals in traffic-derived particles in Hsuehshan Tunnel, Taiwan: size distribution, potential source, and fingerprinting metal ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-C.; Tsai, C.-J.; Wu, Y.-C.; Zhang, R.; Chi, K.-H.; Huang, Y.-T.; Lin, S.-H.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2015-04-01

    Traffic emissions are a significant source of airborne particulate matter (PM) in ambient environments. These emissions contain an abundance of toxic metals and thus pose adverse effects on human health. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected from May to September 2013 by using micro-orifice uniform deposited impactors (MOUDIs). Sample collection was conducted simultaneously at the inlet and outlet sites of Hsuehshan Tunnel in northern Taiwan, which is the second-longest freeway tunnel (12.9 km) in Asia. This endeavor aims to characterize the chemical constituents and size distributions, as well as fingerprinting ratios of particulate metals emitted by vehicle fleets. A total of 36 metals in size-resolved aerosols were determined through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Three major groups - namely, tailpipe emissions (Zn, Pb, and V in fine mode), wear debris (Cu, Cd, Fe, Ga, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Sn), and resuspended dust (Ca, Mg, K, and Rb) - of airborne PM metals were categorized on the basis of the results of enrichment factor, correlation matrix, and principal component analysis. Size distributions of wear-originated metals resembled the pattern of crustal elements, which were predominated by super-micron particulates (PM1-10). By contrast, tailpipe exhaust elements such as Zn, Pb, and V were distributed mainly in submicron particles. By employing Cu as a tracer of wear abrasion, several inter-metal ratios - including Fe / Cu (14), Ba / Cu (1.05), Sb / Cu (0.16), Sn / Cu (0.10), and Ga / Cu (0.03) - served as fingerprints for wear debris. However, the data set collected in this work is useful for further studies on traffic emission inventory and human health effects of traffic-related PM.

  10. Hydrodynamic analysis and calculation of metal temperature distribution in spiral water wall of ultra supercritical tower boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengwu; Yang, Dong; Yao, Danhua; Zhu, Yufeng; Xu, Xueyuan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the spiral water wall system of a 1000MW ultra supercritical tower boiler is simplified as a network system, consisting of circuits, pressure grids and connecting tubes. The establishment of the mathematical model for calculating the mass flux distribution and metal temperature in water wall is based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. The water wall flow distribution and temperature profile of the boiler were computed. The result shows that the differences of outlet temperature and mass flux are small in spiral tube water wall at BMCR, 75%BMCR load and 40%BMCR load. The metal temperatures are all in the allowable ranger.

  11. Chemical activation of molecules by metals: Experimental studies of electron distributions and bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberger, D. L.

    1987-12-01

    Results are reported in the following areas: fundamental principles of ionization energy/bond energy relationships; relative strengths of early transition metal M-H and M-C bonds in substituted niobocenes and tantalocenes. Thermodynamic trends and electronic factors of olefin insertion into a metal-hydride bond; additivity of ligand electronic effects. Complete phosphine substitution of Group VI metal hexacarbonyls; organometallic methylene-bridged metal dimers; delocalization of metal electron density in metallacycle formation; metal-heteroatom and metal-alkylidyne multiple bonds; the electronic factors favoring intermediates in acetylene metathesis and polymerization; improvements in an electron energy analyzer.

  12. [Seasonal Provincial Characteristics of Vertical Distribution of Dust Loadings and Heavy Metals near Surface in City].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Shu-ting

    2015-06-01

    With the emergence of urban high-rise building, the vertical space of human daily life gradually extended upward. Seasonal characteristics of vertical distribution of dust loadings and heavy metals near surface are remarkable. In this study, we collected dust deposited on the windowsill at different space height (1th-8th floor) from three buildings in Guiyang city during spring, summer, autumn and winter, and analyzed the deposition fluxes of dust and elements including Ca, Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The results showed that: the total changing trend of vertical distribution of dust loadings was that the deposition fluxes of dust in winter were the highest, followed by those in spring, and the deposition fluxes of dust in summer were the lowest. The degree of variation on dust loadings dependent on the change of elevation was the highest in winter, followed by that in summer, and was relatively lower in spring and autumn. The effect on dust loadings by seasonal changing was relatively heavier on windowsill on the lower level than on the higher level. The levels of elements were the highest in spring dust, while those in autumn were relatively lower. Among the 8 elements, the variability of Zn in dust related to space time variation was the most obvious, and that of Ca was weaker. The atmospheric inversion condition might be one of the reasons that improved the deposition fluxes of dust and the contents of Ph and Zn in dust during winter and spring.

  13. [Profile distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in soils under livestock feces composts].

    PubMed

    Chao, Lei; Zhou, Qi-xing; Cui, Shuang; Chen, Su; Ren, Li-ping

    2007-06-01

    This paper studied the profile distribution of heavy metals in soils under different kind livestock feces composts. The results showed that in the process of livestock feces composting, the pH value and organic matter content of soil under feces compost increased significantly, and had a decreased distribution with soil depth. The contents of soil Zn and Cd also had an obvious increase, and decreased with increasing soil depth. Under the composts of chicken and pig feces, soil Cu content decreased with soil depth, while under cattle feces compost, it had little change. Soil Cd and Zn had a stronger mobility than soil Cu, and the Zn, Cd and Cu contents in some soil layers exceeded the first level of the environmental quality standard for soils in China. The geo-accumulation indices showed that only the 0-10 cm soil layer under chicken feces compost and the 0-40 cm soil layer under egg chicken feces compost were lightly polluted by Zn, while the soil profiles under other kinds of livestock feces compost were not polluted by Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd.

  14. Pore distributions in nanocrystalline metals from small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, P.G.; Weertman, J.R.; Eastman, J.A.

    1998-07-24

    Recent upgrades in inert-gas condensation processing equipment have produced nanocrystalline metal samples with high densities and low-impurity levels. Typical Cu and Pd samples have densities {ge}98% of theoretical and oxygen and hydrogen impurity concentrations {le}0.5 at. %. Lower porosity and impurity levels may make it difficult to produce and maintain samples with the smallest nanocrystalline grain sizes. These improved samples were studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to determine the volume fraction and size distribution of pores. Excellent correlation was obtained between the total volume fraction of pores and the Archimedes density for Pd, signifying that most of the pores were relatively small and in the detectability range of SANS ({approx}1--100 nm). Nanocrystalline Cu is shown to exhibit a wider pore size distribution. For Pd, the average pore sizes were slightly smaller than the average grain size, while for Cu the pore size and grain size were about the same. Both materials exhibited a trend of increasing pore size with increasing grain size. In terms of processing prerequisites, the principal condition for the production of high-density nanocrystalline Cu is an exceptionally clean synthesis environment, while nanocrystalline Pd requires compaction at elevated temperatures. These differences are the result of Cu having both a lower melting point and a greater susceptibility to contamination by gaseous impurities such as oxygen.

  15. [Seasonal Provincial Characteristics of Vertical Distribution of Dust Loadings and Heavy Metals near Surface in City].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Shu-ting

    2015-06-01

    With the emergence of urban high-rise building, the vertical space of human daily life gradually extended upward. Seasonal characteristics of vertical distribution of dust loadings and heavy metals near surface are remarkable. In this study, we collected dust deposited on the windowsill at different space height (1th-8th floor) from three buildings in Guiyang city during spring, summer, autumn and winter, and analyzed the deposition fluxes of dust and elements including Ca, Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The results showed that: the total changing trend of vertical distribution of dust loadings was that the deposition fluxes of dust in winter were the highest, followed by those in spring, and the deposition fluxes of dust in summer were the lowest. The degree of variation on dust loadings dependent on the change of elevation was the highest in winter, followed by that in summer, and was relatively lower in spring and autumn. The effect on dust loadings by seasonal changing was relatively heavier on windowsill on the lower level than on the higher level. The levels of elements were the highest in spring dust, while those in autumn were relatively lower. Among the 8 elements, the variability of Zn in dust related to space time variation was the most obvious, and that of Ca was weaker. The atmospheric inversion condition might be one of the reasons that improved the deposition fluxes of dust and the contents of Ph and Zn in dust during winter and spring. PMID:26387336

  16. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Huifang; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    The chemical stability of iron corrosion scales and the microbial community of biofilm in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have great impact on the iron corrosion and corrosion product release, which may result in "red water" issues, particularly under the situation of source water switch. In this work, experimental pipe loops were set up to investigate the effect of sulfate on the dynamical transformation characteristics of iron corrosion products and bacterial community in old cast iron distribution pipes. All the test pipes were excavated from existing DWDS with different source water supply histories, and the test water sulfate concentration was in the range of 50-350 mg/L. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that iron release increased markedly and even "red water" occurred for pipes with groundwater supply history when feed water sulfate elevated abruptly. However, the iron release of pipes with only surface water supply history changed slightly without noticeable color even the feed water sulfate increased multiply. The thick-layered corrosion scales (or densely distributed tubercles) on pipes with surface water supply history possessed much higher stability due to the larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) in their top shell layer; instead, the rather thin and uniform non-layered corrosion scales on pipes with groundwater supply history contained relatively higher proportion of less stable iron oxides (e.g. β-FeOOH, FeCO3 and green rust). The less stable corrosion scales tended to be more stable with sulfate increase, which was evidenced by the gradually decreased iron release and the increased stable iron oxides. Bacterial community analysis indicated that when switching to high sulfate water, iron reducing bacteria (IRB) maintained dominant for pipes with stable corrosion scales, while significant increase of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB

  17. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Huifang; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    The chemical stability of iron corrosion scales and the microbial community of biofilm in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have great impact on the iron corrosion and corrosion product release, which may result in "red water" issues, particularly under the situation of source water switch. In this work, experimental pipe loops were set up to investigate the effect of sulfate on the dynamical transformation characteristics of iron corrosion products and bacterial community in old cast iron distribution pipes. All the test pipes were excavated from existing DWDS with different source water supply histories, and the test water sulfate concentration was in the range of 50-350 mg/L. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that iron release increased markedly and even "red water" occurred for pipes with groundwater supply history when feed water sulfate elevated abruptly. However, the iron release of pipes with only surface water supply history changed slightly without noticeable color even the feed water sulfate increased multiply. The thick-layered corrosion scales (or densely distributed tubercles) on pipes with surface water supply history possessed much higher stability due to the larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) in their top shell layer; instead, the rather thin and uniform non-layered corrosion scales on pipes with groundwater supply history contained relatively higher proportion of less stable iron oxides (e.g. β-FeOOH, FeCO3 and green rust). The less stable corrosion scales tended to be more stable with sulfate increase, which was evidenced by the gradually decreased iron release and the increased stable iron oxides. Bacterial community analysis indicated that when switching to high sulfate water, iron reducing bacteria (IRB) maintained dominant for pipes with stable corrosion scales, while significant increase of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB

  18. Pb, Cu, and Zn distributions at humic acid-coated metal-oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingge; Michel, F. Marc; Choi, Yongseong; Eng, Peter J.; Levard, Clement; Siebner, Hagar; Gu, Baohua; Bargar, John R.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2016-09-01

    (II) mobilized from the ESHA coatings onto the α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces increased from 40% (no added Ca) to 58% (with 2 mM Ca) after 72 h of reaction time, possibly due to displacement of Pb(II) by Ca(II) from binding sites in the ESHA coatings. In contrast, Pb(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) present in the ESHA coatings were found to be unreactive with the α-Al2O3 (0 0 0 1) surface. The observed reactivities of the three ESHA-coated metal-oxide surfaces with respect to metal-ion sorption are consistent with the trend observed for the uncoated metal-oxide surfaces: α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) > α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) > α-Al2O3 (0 0 0 1). In addition, Pb(II) partitioning onto α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces increased with increasing pH from 4.0 to 9.0 as a result of the increasingly negative surface charge. These results show that intrinsic properties (nature of binding sites, binding affinities, and surface charge) of the ESHA coatings and metal-oxide surfaces, as well as external parameters such as pH and competing ions, are key factors governing the distribution and speciation of metal ions at complex NOM/mineral interfaces.

  19. Impact of Internal Metallic Ports in Temporary Tissue Expanders on Postmastectomy Radiation Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Susie A.; Ogunleye, Tomiwa; Dhabbaan, Anees; Huang, Eugene H.; Losken, Albert; Gabram, Sheryl; Davis, Lawrence; Torres, Mylin A.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Temporary tissue expanders (TTE) with an internal magnetic metal port (IMP) have been increasingly used for breast reconstruction in post-mastectomy patients who receive radiation therapy (XRT). We evaluated XRT plans of patients with IMP to determine its effect on XRT dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Original treatment plans with CT simulation scans of 24 consecutive patients who received XRT (ORI), planned without heterogeneity corrections, to a reconstructed breast containing an IMP were used. Two additional treatment plans were then generated: one treatment plan with the IMP assigned the electron density of the rare earth magnet, nickel plated neodymium-iron-boron (HET), and a second treatment plan with the IMP assigned a CT value of 1 to simulate a homogeneous breast without an IMP (BRS). All plans were prescribed 50 Gy to the reconstructed breast (CTV). Results: CTV coverage by 50 Gy was significantly lower in the HET (mean 87.7% CTV) than in either the ORI (mean 99.7% CTV, P<.001) or BRS plans (mean 95.0% CTV, P<.001). The effect of the port was more pronounced on CT slices containing the IMP with prescription dose coverage of the CTV being less in the HET than in either ORI (mean difference 33.6%, P<.01) or BRS plans (mean difference 30.1%, P<.001). HET had a less homogeneous and conformal dose distribution than BRS or ORI. Conclusion: IMPs increase dose heterogeneity and reduce dose to the breast CTV through attenuation of the beam. For optimal XRT treatment, heterogeneity corrections should be used in XRT planning for patients with TTE with IMP, as the IMP impacts dose distribution.

  20. [Impact of typhoon "Fung-wong" on the distribution patterns of heavy metals in the Quanzhou Bay].

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Hai; Chen, Jian; Chen, Jian-Ning; Huang, Cai-Bin; Wang, Ai-Jun; Li, Dong-Yi

    2010-06-01

    Based on the inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) data of concentrations of 7 heavy metals (including Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and As) in suspended particles and surface sediments samples collected at 6 and 1 13-hours-mooring stations, respectively, in Quanzhou Bay 4 days after the landing of typhoon "Fung-wong". The average contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd are 60.4, 50.3, 26.5, 101.7, 3.36, 40.0 and 0.180 microg/g, respectively, in the surface sediments, and are 1.108-7.408, 0.476-3. 394, 0.809-5.046, 3.190-19.337, 0.087-0.595, 2.621-10.073 microg/L and 4.160-50.828 ng/L, respectively, in different stations in the suspended particles. The contents and distribution patterns of 7 heavy metals during a tidal cycle were significantly changed after typhoon "Fung-wong" by contrasting with that in same stations and tidal time at an ordinary situation. The contents of heavy metals, besides Ni, evidently decreased but the distribution patterns were similar with that in an ordinary condition with relatively large grads after typhoon "Fung-wong" in the surface sediments at station Q4. While in the suspended particles, the contents of heavy metals were evidently increased with the distribution patterns varied obviously and differently due to their geographical position after typhoon "Fung-wong". These impacts of typhoon "Fung-wong" to the contents and distribution patterns of heavy metals could be attribute to the "second contamination" and the increased supply of particles materials from continent during the typhoon process. The results of this study provide a reference to accurate assessing and scientific governing the heavy metals' contamination, and provide a directly support to evaluating the integrated impacts of typhoon process on the contamination of heavy metals in the Quanzhou Bay.

  1. Heavy metal distribution in Laportea peduncularis and growth soil from the eastern parts of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mahlangeni, Nomfundo T; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-02-01

    Laportea peduncularis is a medicinal plant consumed by the native communities in South Africa. Due to its oral consumption, its potential for harming the human health and the distribution of metals in the leaves of L. peduncularis as a function of soil characteristics were evaluated. Broadly, the concentrations of metals in the soil were in decreasing order of Fe > Ca > Mg > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > Cd > Pb. Low-molecular-weight organic acid, calcium chloride, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid extraction methods were employed to assess for exchangeable forms of metals in the soil. Geoaccumulation indices and enrichment factors showed no contamination or enrichment for most of the heavy metals studied except for Cd, which showed moderate contamination and significant enrichment at Mona, KwaZulu-Natal. Principal component and cluster analyses revealed that As, Cd, Fe, and Ni in the soil came from the same source, whilst Cu, Pb, and Zn in the soil were from a common origin. Correlation analysis showed significantly positive correlation between heavy metals As, Cd, Fe, and Ni in the soil, as well as between Cu, Pb, and Zn, confirming the metals' common origin. Concentrations of metals in plants and soil were influenced by site, but the availability and uptake of the metals solely depended on the plant's inherent controls. PMID:26733469

  2. Metal distribution in the tissues of two benthic fish from paddy fields in the middle reach of the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Huang, Yingping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Metal content was determined in two fish species (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Monopterus albus) inhabiting rice paddies along the Middle Reach of the Yangtze River. Both are species important food fish in East Asia. The levels of eight metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, As, Cd, Pb) in skin, muscle and intestinal tissues were measured and correlated with fish size. Metal distribution among the tissues was examined and the potential risk of fish consumption was evaluated. Correlations between metal concentration and fish size were not significant. Concentrations of essential metals varied significantly among tissues, but the differences were not significant for non-essential metals. Correlations among metals in skin tissue were stronger than in intestinal and muscle tissues. Metal concentrations in the edible tissues of both fish met permissible levels for consumption, except Pb in loach skin and Cr loach in muscle. The potential risk caused by Pb from skin and Cr from muscle of loach consumption should be considered in future risk assessmeents.

  3. Achnanthidium minutissimum (Bacillariophyta) valve deformities as indicators of metal enrichment in diverse widely-distributed freshwater habitats.

    PubMed

    Cantonati, Marco; Angeli, Nicola; Virtanen, Laura; Wojtal, Agata Z; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Falasco, Elisa; Lavoie, Isabelle; Morin, Soizic; Marchetto, Aldo; Fortin, Claude; Smirnova, Svetlana

    2014-03-15

    In the presence of different environmental stressors, diatoms can produce frustules presenting different types of deformities. Metals and trace elements are among the most common causes of these teratological forms. Metal enrichment in water bodies can be attributed to the geological setting of the area or to pollution. The widespread benthic diatom Achnanthidium minutissimum (ADMI) is one of the most metal-tolerant species. In the present study, ADMI teratologies were defined from samples taken from eight very diverse, widely-distributed inland-water habitats: streams affected by active and abandoned mining areas, a metal-contaminated stream, a spring in an old chalcopyrite mine, a mineral-water fountain, and a sediment core taken from a lake affected by metal contamination in the past. Deformed frustules of ADMI were characterised mainly by one (sometimes two) more or less bent off ending, conferring to the specimens a cymbelloid outline (cymbelliclinum-like teratology, CLT). Marked teratologies were distinguished from slight deformities. Hydrochemical analyses, including metals and trace elements, were carried out and enrichment factors (EF) relative to average crustal composition were calculated. To improve our knowledge on the potential of different metals and trace elements to trigger the occurrence of ADMI CLT, we carefully selected 15 springs out of 110 (CRENODAT dataset) where both ADMI and above-average metal or metalloid concentrations occurred, and re-analysed these samples. The results from the eight widely-distributed core sites as well as from the 15 selected CRENODAT springs led to the hypothesis that two metals (copper and zinc) and a metalloid (antimony) were the most likely triggers of ADMI CLT formation. From a quantitative point of view, it is worth noting that the lowest concentrations triggering ADMI CLT can be fairly low, particularly in the case of copper contamination. The antimony-rich site was characterised by a marked-teratology variant

  4. Phase equilibria and distribution constants of metal ions in diantipyryl alkane-organic acid-hydrochloric acid-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtev, M. I.; Popova, O. N.; Yuminova, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The ability of antipyrine and its derivatives (diantipyryl alkanes) to form separating systems in the presence of salicylic (sulfosalicylic) acid and hydrochloric acid and water is studied. The optimum volume of the organic phase, the composition of complexes, and the mechanism for the distribution of metal ions are determined, depending on the concentrations of the main components and the salting-out agent. The complex distribution and extraction constants are calculated.

  5. Observation of Accumulated Metal Cation Distribution in Fish by Novel Stigmatic Imaging Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Jun; Ikeda, Shinichiro; Toyoda, Michisato

    2014-02-01

    The accumulation of radioactive substances in biological organisms is a matter of great concern since the incident at the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. We have developed a novel technique for observing the distribution of accumulated metal cations in fish that employs a new imaging mass spectrometer, MULTUM-IMG2. Distributions of 133Cs and 88Sr in a sliced section of medaka (Oryzias latipes) are obtained with spatial resolution of µm-scale.

  6. Erosional distribution of metal oxides and its implication for soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhe, A. A.; Newman, A.; Hunsaker, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Iron (Fe) and Aluminum (Al) oxides are common minerals in the soil system that can constitute 0.5 to 50% of soil mass. Fe and Al oxides occur in both crystalline and poorly crystalline forms, typically as <150nm in diameter nano-particles that have high specific surface area, high degree of hydration, and are very reactive with a variable charge. Fe and Al oxides have a tendency to form strong organic matter (OM)-mineral bonds through anion and inner-sphere ligand exchange reactions that enable them to be critical for persistence of OM in the soil system. Currently, we lack basic measurements and understanding of rates of lateral distribution of metal oxides with soil erosion; factors regulating transport of reactive soil minerals; and its implications for SOM dynamics. In this study, we determined concentration in soils and the rate of sediment and carbon erosional export from catchments within the Kings River Experimental Watersheds of California (Sierra National Forest in the southern part of the Sierra Nevada). In addition, we determined soil concentrations and rate of erosion of three classes of Fe and Al oxides (total pedogenic Fe, poorly crystalline Fe and Al oxides, and Fe and Al complexed with organic matter). Our results show that considerable variability exists in the concentration and transport rates of Fe and Al oxides in the study watersheds, but slope is strongly associated with rate of oxide transport across the three years (2009-2011) that we studied. We also found that the crystalline and poorly crystalline species of Fe and Al were transported at higher rates than the metal oxides that were complexed with iron oxides.

  7. Distribution, bioavailability, and leachability of heavy metals in soil particle size fractions of urban soils (northeastern China).

    PubMed

    Yutong, Zong; Qing, Xiao; Shenggao, Lu

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the distribution, mobility, and potential environmental risks of heavy metals in various particle size fractions of urban soils. Representative urban topsoils (ten) collected from Anshan, Liaoning (northeastern China), were separated into six particle size fractions and their heavy metal contents (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) were determined. The bioaccessibility and leachability of heavy metals in particle size fractions were evaluated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction, respectively. The results indicated that the contents of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the size fractions increased with the decrease of particle size. The clay fraction of <2 μm had the highest content of heavy metals, indicating that the clay fraction was polluted by heavy metals more seriously than the other size fractions in urban topsoils. Cr also concentrated in the coarse fraction of 2000-1000 μm, indicating a lithogenic contribution. However, the dominant size fraction responsible for heavy metal accumulation appeared to belong to particle fraction of 50-2 μm. The lowest distribution factors (DFs) of heavy metals were recorded in the 2000- to 1000-μm size fraction, while the highest in the clay fraction. The DFs of heavy metals in the clay fraction followed Zn (3.22) > Cu (2.84) > Pb (2.61) > Cr (2.19) > Cd (2.05). The enrichment factor suggested that the enrichment degree of heavy metal increased with the decrease of the particle size, especially for Cd and Zn. The TCLP- and EDTA-extractable concentrations of heavy metals in the clay fraction were relatively higher than those in coarse particles. Cd bioavailability was higher in the clay fraction than in other fractions or whole soils. In contrast, Cr exhibits similar bioaccessibilities in the six size fractions of soils. The results suggested that fine particles were the main sources of potentially toxic

  8. Distribution and accumulation of metals in the surface sediments of Coleroon river estuary, East coast of India.

    PubMed

    Anithamary, Irudhayanathan; Ramkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Venkatramanan, Senapathi

    2012-03-01

    This study deals with the geochemical nature of distribution of metals (iron, manganese, lead and zinc) in bulk sediments and its association with sand, silt, clay and organic carbon. Ten numbers of surface sediment samples were collected during summer season of 2009 from Coleroon estuary. The sediments are mostly sandy silt in nature. The organic carbon distribution indicates that they are brought in the surroundings of coastal areas. Correlation analysis clearly indicates that fine particles and organic carbon control the distribution of metals. The most evident the significant correlations where zinc vs manganese (r = 0.641), manganese versus iron (r = 0.618), lead versus manganese (r = 0.574). The correlation between organic carbon versus manganese (r = 0.768), organic carbon versus sand (r = 0.872), organic carbon versus silt (r = 0.902), organic carbon versus clay (r = 0.793). The degree of correlation between metals and other major constituents is often used to indicate the origin of the metals. Strong positive correlation coefficient of all the above said metals and organic carbon are mainly associated with the fine grained sediments.

  9. Metal concentrations and distribution in the household, stairs and entryway dust of some Egyptian homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Salwa Kamal Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Household, stairs and entryway dust samples were collected from 16 houses distributed across Greater Cairo by using vacuum cleaner and sweeping methods during summer season of 2009. Lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) were measured in different dust particle sizes: <38 μm, >38-45 μm and >45-63 μm. The highest average concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Cu, and Cr in different particle sizes were found in entryway followed by household and stairs. Al, Fe and Zn concentrations followed the pattern of entryway > stairs > household. Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Co and Cr were found in significantly (p < 0.01) higher concentrations in dust of the small particle size (<38 μm), whereas Al, Fe and Cu were detected in significantly (p < 0.01) higher concentrations in dust of the large particle size (>45-63 μm). The average concentrations of the individual metals in dust of the small particle size (<38 μm) were 268, 196.4 and 254.49 μg gm-1 for Pb, 49.6, 43.5 and 46.66 μg gm-1 for Ni, 2.86, 2.15 and 2.71 μg gm-1 for Cd, 4340, 3796 and 2602 μg gm-1 for Al, 2860, 2200 and 2004 μg gm-1 for Fe, 209.25, 152.3 and 103.26 μg gm-1 for Zn, 4.1, 2.88 and 1.96 μg gm-1 for Co, 85.99, 74.06 and 83.17 μg gm-1 for Cr and 168.2, 156.5 and 122.02 μg gm-1 for Cu in entryway, stairs and household, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cu and Pb in the entryway, stairs and household dust exceeded the maximum permissible limit 100 μg gm-1 for Cu and Pb in soil. The highest concentrations of Pb, Cd, Co and Ni were found in urban areas, Al and Fe in the residential areas, and Cu, Zn and Cr in the residential near to industrial area. Significant positive correlation (p < 0.001) were found between the metal concentrations in household and entryway dust, indicating that the metals in household dust may be derived from outdoor sources in addition to dust generated within the house itself. The contribution of

  10. Distribution and phytoavailability of heavy metal chemical fractions in artificial soil on rock cut slopes alongside railways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoqiong; Ai, Yingwei; Fang, Chen; Wang, Kexiu; Li, Wei; Liu, Shui; Li, Chunlin; Xiao, Jingyao; Huang, Zhiyu

    2014-05-30

    Artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes alongside railroad tracks to promote revegetation. This study evaluated the heavy metal content and the distribution of heavy metal chemical fractions in the soil, as well as the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The soil at four sites was determined to be considerably contaminated with Cd and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increased with the length of time the railway had been in use and decreased further away from the railway tracks. Pb primarily existed in reducible form but as residual fractions, whereas Cd was predominantly in exchangeable form. A correlation analysis indicated that pH, organic matter, and total phosphorus levels were important factors affecting the distribution of the heavy metal chemical fractions. The amounts of exchangeable Pb and Cd in the soil were highly correlated with their amounts in the plants sampled, indicating that the exchangeable fraction is a better indication of heavy metal phytoavailability than the total amount of heavy metals in the soil. Bioaccumulation and translocation factors indicated that Indigofera amblyantha had moderate tolerance and bioaccumulation capability for Pb, as did Leucaena leucocephala for Cd. These two plant species can serve as ideal slope remediation plants. PMID:24727018

  11. Effects of simulated acid rain, EDTA, or their combination, on migration and chemical fraction distribution of extraneous metals in Ferrosol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fang; Hou, Hong; Yao, Na; Yan, Zengguang; Bai, Liping; Li, Fasheng

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory repacked soil-leaching column experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain or EDTA by themselves or in combination, on migration and chemical speciation distribution of Pb and its alternative rare metals including Ag, Bi, In, Sb, and Sn. Experimental results demonstrate that leaching with simulated acid rain promoted the migration of Bi, In and Pb, and their migration reached down to 8 cm in the soil profile, no enhancement of Sb, Ag or Sn migration was observed. Addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the migration of all six metals, especially Bi, In and Pb. The migration of metals was in the order Pb>Bi>In>Sb>Sn>Ag. The individual and combined effects of acid rain and EDTA increased the environmental risk of metals, by increasing the soluble content of metals in soil solutions and the relative distribution of the exchangeable fraction. Leaching risks of Bi, In and Pb were higher than other three metals. PMID:22921654

  12. Distribution of heavy metals in tissues of the shrimp Penaeus californiensis from the northwest coast of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Tron-Mayen, L.

    1995-08-01

    The brown shrimp, Penaeus californiensis Holmes, is an Eastern Pacific species which is geographically distributed from San Francisco, California, USA, including the Gulf of California, to Callao, Peru. In Mexico and particularly in the Pacific Coast, this crustacean supports 75% of the commercial catch of shrimp. Knowledge of the distribution of metals in isolated tissues of marine organisms is useful in order to identify specific organs that may be particularly selective and sensitive to accumulation of heavy metals. This paper presents data on the levels of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn in five different tissues of the P. californiensis populations from the northwest coast of Mexico. Additionally, the accumulation of metals by males and females is examined. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. [Distribution patterns and pollution assessments of heavy metals in the Spartina alterniflora salt-marsh wetland of Rudong, Jiangsu province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long-Hui; Du, Yong-Fen; Wang, Dan-Dan; Gao, Shu; Gao, Wen-Hua

    2014-06-01

    To understand the ecological impact of Spartina alterniflora on the coastal wetland environment, field survey was carried out in July, 2010, over the intertidal areas of Rudong coast, Jiangsu province; sediment samples were collected from a series of stations with different conditions of vegetation cover and S. alterniflora growth. The contents of eight heavy metals, together with sediment composition and total organic carbon were analyzed to reveal the distribution patterns of the heavy metals. Environmental quality status was evaluated using both the index of geoaccumulation (I(geo)) and the index of the Håkanson ecological risk. The analytical results showed that the average contents of Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were below the standard for the Category I sediment quality, among which Cd, Hg, Ni and Zn exceeded the sediment background value of the region. On the whole, the contents of eight heavy metals in vegetation areas were higher than those associated with the adjacent bare flat areas. These data sets indicate a non-polluted condition in term of I(geo) estimation; however, a critical state of low to moderate degrees of pollution and a low level of risk were deduced according to the index of the Håkanson potential ecological risk. Both indices suggested that the pollution level of Hg and Cd were the highest among the eight metals measured. Along the transection from seaward to landward, the contents of As, Cu and Hg, their indices of I(geo) and Håkanson ecological risk all showed an increasing tread, in accordance with the condition of vegetation cover. Along the coastline with S. alterniflora being distributed in patchiness, all metal contents and their ecological risk level values for the marshes were higher than those for the unvegetated sediments nearby; moreover, except for Hg, other seven metals exhibited relatively low values than those in the shore-normal section with a better S. alterniflora growth. These findings indicate that S

  14. [Distribution patterns and pollution assessments of heavy metals in the Spartina alterniflora salt-marsh wetland of Rudong, Jiangsu province].