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Sample records for metal mixture responses

  1. Toxic responses of bivalves to metal mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, P.; Menon, N.R. )

    1992-02-01

    Although there is a growing body of information on the toxicity of individual heavy metals to economically important on the toxicity of individual heavy metals to economically important species of bivalves, literature on the lethal toxicity of metal mixtures to bivalves under controlled conditions is rather limited. In the present investigation the toxic effects of combinations of copper - mercury and copper - mercury and copper - cadmium at lethal levels of two marine bivalve species, Perna indica and Donax incarnatus, have been delineated.

  2. Toxicological Responses of Environmental Mixtures: Environmental Metals Mixtures Display Synergistic Induction of Metal-Responsive and Oxidative Stress Genes in Placental Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A.; Ray, Paul D.; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metals mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu2+ transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. PMID:26472158

  3. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells.

    PubMed

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A; Ray, Paul D; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metal mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu(2+) transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals.

  4. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells.

    PubMed

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A; Ray, Paul D; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metal mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu(2+) transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. PMID:26472158

  5. Response predictions for organisms water-exposed to metal mixtures: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vijver, Martina G; Elliott, Elise G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2011-06-01

    To develop a multimetal toxicity model requires insight into the relationships between the composition of metal mixtures and their toxicological effects on organisms. As a first step in developing such a model, quantitative data from binary and higher mixture studies of Cu, Cd, and Zn were compiled and used to assess trends in toxicological effects on various organisms. The findings of this meta-analysis show relatively little occurrence of additive effects compared with antagonistic and synergistic effects. This observation held true irrespective of test species, environmental compartment, or metal concentrations in the mixture. However, the type of effect was significantly correlated with the metal combination tested and the selected toxicological endpoint. It was also found that different methods were used for assessing deviation from additivity in the various individual studies. For robust comparison, standardization on this point is required. Toxicological responses of organisms to metal mixtures were shown to be hard to predict and were often slightly less than or slightly more than additive. The interactions observed could not be explained by metal-metal interactions alone. We therefore conclude that with current scientific knowledge it is not yet possible to predict responses to metal mixtures in individual cases; at best this is possible only in terms of general patterns. Nevertheless, in the context of environmental risk policy, the assumption of additivity produces a conservative prediction of toxicity, because toxicity of a metal mixture will be either predicted correctly or overpredicted by default in approximately 75% of all cases. The use of models based on noninteraction is satisfactory from this regulatory perspective.

  6. Children Exposed to Metals Mixtures Demonstrate Dysregulation of Infectious Disease Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to toxic metals can have harmful health effects, particularly in children. Although studies have investigated the individual effects toxic metals have on gene expression and health outcomes, there are no studies assessing the effect of metal mixtures on gene expression p...

  7. Systematic Proteomic Approach to Characterize the Impacts of Chemical Interactions on Protein and Cytotoxicity Responses to Metal Mixture Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical interactions have posed a big challenge in toxicity characterization and human health risk assessment of environmental mixtures. To characterize the impacts of chemical interactions on protein and cytotoxicity responses to environmental mixtures, we established a systems...

  8. Predicting the toxicity of metal mixtures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of single and multiple metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) solutions to trout is predicted using an approach that combines calculations of: (1) solution speciation; (2) competition and accumulation of cations (H, Ca, Mg, Na, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) on low abundance, high affinity and high abundance, low affinity biotic ligand sites; (3) a toxicity function that accounts for accumulation and potency of individual toxicants; and (4) biological response. The approach is evaluated by examining water composition from single metal toxicity tests of trout at 50% mortality, results of theoretical calculations of metal accumulation on fish gills and associated mortality for single, binary, ternary, and quaternary metal solutions, and predictions for a field site impacted by acid rock drainage. These evaluations indicate that toxicity of metal mixtures depends on the relative affinity and potency of toxicants for a given aquatic organism, suites of metals in the mixture, dissolved metal concentrations and ratios, and background solution composition (temperature, pH, and concentrations of major ions and dissolved organic carbon). A composite function that incorporates solution composition, affinity and competition of cations for two types of biotic ligand sites, and potencies of hydrogen and individual metals is proposed as a tool to evaluate potential toxicity of environmental solutions to trout.

  9. Metal mixtures modeling evaluation project: 1. Background.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph S; Farley, Kevin J; Garman, Emily R

    2015-04-01

    Despite more than 5 decades of aquatic toxicity tests conducted with metal mixtures, there is still a need to understand how metals interact in mixtures and to predict their toxicity more accurately than what is currently done. The present study provides a background for understanding the terminology, regulatory framework, qualitative and quantitative concepts, experimental approaches, and visualization and data-analysis methods for chemical mixtures, with an emphasis on bioavailability and metal-metal interactions in mixtures of waterborne metals. In addition, a Monte Carlo-type randomization statistical approach to test for nonadditive toxicity is presented, and an example with a binary-metal toxicity data set demonstrates the challenge involved in inferring statistically significant nonadditive toxicity. This background sets the stage for the toxicity results, data analyses, and bioavailability models related to metal mixtures that are described in the remaining articles in this special section from the Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation project and workshop. It is concluded that although qualitative terminology such as additive and nonadditive toxicity can be useful to convey general concepts, failure to expand beyond that limited perspective could impede progress in understanding and predicting metal mixture toxicity. Instead of focusing on whether a given metal mixture causes additive or nonadditive toxicity, effort should be directed to develop models that can accurately predict the toxicity of metal mixtures.

  10. Role of Oxidative Stress in Transformation Induced by Metal Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Silva-Aguilar; Emilio, Rojas; Mahara, Valverde

    2011-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity. PMID:22191014

  11. The life-table demographic response of freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus to multi-metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Mn) mixture interaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ping; Xi, Yi-Long; Huang, Lin; Xiang, Xian-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The effects of multi-metal mixtures on the life-table demography of rotifers are not well known. In this study, the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus was exposed to mixture of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Mn, and the life-table demographic parameters including net reproductive rate, generation time, life expectancy at hatching, and intrinsic rate of population increase were calculated. The results showed that interactions between a given element concentration, except Mn, and the other four elements mixture concentration affected the intrinsic rate of population increase (p < 0.01). Interactions between Zn concentration, as well as Mn, and the other four elements mixture concentration affected the net reproductive rate and the life expectancy at hatching, respectively (p < 0.05). The variation of parameters with the rise of the other four elements mixture concentrations from 0 to high was mainly attributed to the difference of interaction among the five metals mixture with different ratio of concentrations.

  12. Transcriptional responses to complex mixtures: a review.

    PubMed

    Sen, Banalata; Mahadevan, Brinda; DeMarini, David M

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of people to hazardous compounds is primarily through complex environmental mixtures, those that occur through media such as air, soil, water, food, cigarette smoke, and combustion emissions. Microarray technology offers the ability to query the entire genome after exposure to such an array of compounds, permitting a characterization of the biological effects of such exposures. This review summarizes the published literature on the transcriptional profiles resulting from exposure of cells or organisms to complex environmental mixtures such as cigarette smoke, diesel emissions, urban air, motorcycle exhaust, carbon black, jet fuel, and metal ore and fumes. The majority of the mixtures generally up-regulate gene expression, with heme oxygenase 1 and CYP1A1 being up-regulated by all of the mixtures. Most of the mixtures altered the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response (OH-1, metallothioneins), immune/inflammation response (IL-1b, protein kinase), xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), coagulation and fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator/inhibitor), proto-oncogenes (FUS1, JUN), heat-shock response (HSP60, HSP70), DNA repair (PCNA, GADD45), structural unit of condensed DNA (Crf15Orf16, DUSP 15), and extracellular matrix degradation (MMP1, 8, 9, 11, 12). Genes involved in aldehyde metabolism, such as ALDH3, appeared to be uniquely modulated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke-exposed populations have been successfully distinguished from control nonexposed populations based on the expression pattern of a subset of genes, thereby demonstrating the utility of this approach in identifying biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility. The analysis of gene-expression data at the pathway and functional level, along with a systems biology approach, will provide a more comprehensive insight into the biological effects of complex mixtures and will improve risk assessment of the same. We suggest critical components of study design and reporting that will

  13. Transcriptional responses to complex mixtures: a review.

    PubMed

    Sen, Banalata; Mahadevan, Brinda; DeMarini, David M

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of people to hazardous compounds is primarily through complex environmental mixtures, those that occur through media such as air, soil, water, food, cigarette smoke, and combustion emissions. Microarray technology offers the ability to query the entire genome after exposure to such an array of compounds, permitting a characterization of the biological effects of such exposures. This review summarizes the published literature on the transcriptional profiles resulting from exposure of cells or organisms to complex environmental mixtures such as cigarette smoke, diesel emissions, urban air, motorcycle exhaust, carbon black, jet fuel, and metal ore and fumes. The majority of the mixtures generally up-regulate gene expression, with heme oxygenase 1 and CYP1A1 being up-regulated by all of the mixtures. Most of the mixtures altered the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response (OH-1, metallothioneins), immune/inflammation response (IL-1b, protein kinase), xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), coagulation and fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator/inhibitor), proto-oncogenes (FUS1, JUN), heat-shock response (HSP60, HSP70), DNA repair (PCNA, GADD45), structural unit of condensed DNA (Crf15Orf16, DUSP 15), and extracellular matrix degradation (MMP1, 8, 9, 11, 12). Genes involved in aldehyde metabolism, such as ALDH3, appeared to be uniquely modulated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke-exposed populations have been successfully distinguished from control nonexposed populations based on the expression pattern of a subset of genes, thereby demonstrating the utility of this approach in identifying biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility. The analysis of gene-expression data at the pathway and functional level, along with a systems biology approach, will provide a more comprehensive insight into the biological effects of complex mixtures and will improve risk assessment of the same. We suggest critical components of study design and reporting that will

  14. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution leaving a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180.degree. C. whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles.

  15. Development and application of a multimetal multibiotic ligand model for assessing aquatic toxicity of metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Santore, Robert C; Ryan, Adam C

    2015-04-01

    A multimetal, multiple binding site version of the biotic ligand model (mBLM) has been developed for predicting and explaining the bioavailability and toxicity of mixtures of metals to aquatic organisms. The mBLM was constructed by combining information from single-metal BLMs to preserve compatibility between the single-metal and multiple-metal approaches. The toxicities from individual metals were predicted by assuming additivity of the individual responses. Mixture toxicity was predicted based on both dissolved metal and mBLM-normalized bioavailable metal. Comparison of the 2 prediction methods indicates that metal mixtures frequently appear to have greater toxicity than an additive estimation of individual effects on a dissolved metal basis. However, on an mBLM-normalized basis, mixtures of metals appear to be additive or less than additive. This difference results from interactions between metals and ligands in solutions including natural organic matter, processes that are accounted for in the mBLM. As part of the mBLM approach, a technique for considering variability was developed to calculate confidence bounds (called response envelopes) around the central concentration-response relationship. Predictions using the mBLM and response envelope were compared with observed toxicity for a number of invertebrate and fish species. The results show that the mBLM is a useful tool for considering bioavailability when assessing the toxicity of metal mixtures.

  16. Metal accumulation and sublethal effects in the sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida, after waterborne exposure to metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brock, J R; Bielmyer, G K

    2013-09-01

    The marine environment is subjected to contamination by a complex mixture of metals from various anthropogenic sources. Measuring the biological responses of organisms to a complex mixture of metals allows for examination of metal-specific responses in an environmentally realistic exposure scenario. To address this issue, the sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida was exposed to a control and a metal mixture (copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium) at three exposure levels (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) for 7 days. Anemones were then transferred to metal-free seawater for an additional 7 days after the metal exposure to assess metal depuration and recovery. Metal accumulation, activity of the enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase, as well as, cell density of the symbiotic zooxanthellae were measured over 14 days. Metal accumulation in A. pallida occurred in a concentration dependent manner over the 7-day exposure period. Altered enzyme activity and tentacle retraction of the host, as well as decreased zooxanthellae cell density were observed responses over the 7 days, after exposure to a metal concentration as low as 10 μg/L. Metal depuration and physiological recovery were dependent on both the metal and the exposure concentration. Understanding how A. pallida and their symbionts are affected by metal exposures in the laboratory may allow better understanding about the responses of symbiotic cnidarians in metal polluted aquatic environments. PMID:23845877

  17. Combined toxicity of heavy metal mixtures in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xialu; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhou, Qi; Mao, Guochuan; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2016-09-01

    With rapid industrialization, China is now facing great challenges in heavy metal contamination in the environment. Human exposure to heavy metals through air, water and food commonly involves a mixture consisting of multiple heavy metals. In this study, eight common heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni) that cause environmental contamination were selected to investigate the combined toxicity of different heavy metal mixtures in HL7702 cells. Toxicity (24 h LC50 ) of each individual metal on the cells ranked Hg > Cr = Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb; toxicity of the different mixtures ranked: M5 > M3PbHgCd > M5+Mn > M5+Cu > M2CdNi > M4A > M8-Mn > M8 > M5+Zn > M4B > M8-Cr > M8-Zn > M8-Cu > M8-Pb > M8-Cd > M8-Hg > M8-Ni > M3PbHgNi > M3CuZnMn. The cytotoxicity data of individual metals were successfully used to build the additive models of two- to eight-component metal mixtures. The comparison between additive model and combination model or partly additive model was useful to evaluate the combined effects in mixture. Synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of the toxicity were observed in different mixtures. These results suggest that the combined effects should be considered in the risk assessment of heavy metal co-exposure, and more comprehensive investigations on the combined effects of different heavy metal mixtures are needed in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Assessing the risk of metal mixtures in contaminated sediments on Chironomus riparius based on cytosolic accumulation.

    PubMed

    Péry, Alexandre R R; Geffard, Alain; Conrad, Arnaud; Mons, Raphaël; Garric, Jeanne

    2008-11-01

    Sediments usually contain mixtures of trace metals introduced via natural geochemical processes and anthropogenic activities. Kinetics and effects of these metals are strongly dependent both on the composition of the mixture and on the physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment. Relating effects to metal concentration may consequently be advised. However, total accumulation may be a poor predictor of metal toxicity for Chironomus riparius exposed to contaminated field sediments. As an alternative, we proposed to relate effects on Chironomus growth with cytosolic metal accumulation, measured in larvae after a short exposure period. Dose-response relationships were derived for zinc, copper, and cadmium through single-metal exposure data analysed with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics models. They permitted, on the basis of cytosolic accumulation measures, to predict successfully the effects of mixtures of cadmium, zinc, and copper on the growth of larvae exposed to spiked sediments, as well as to field sediments in which zinc and copper were assumed to be predominant. PMID:18514899

  19. Cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction in rainbow trout: Effects of binary and quaternary metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Dew, William A; Veldhoen, Nik; Carew, Amanda C; Helbing, Caren C; Pyle, Greg G

    2016-03-01

    A functioning olfactory response is essential for fish to be able to undertake essential behaviors. The majority of work investigating the effects of metals on the olfactory response of fish has focused on single-metal exposures. In this study we exposed rainbow trout to cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, or a mixture of these four metals at or below the current Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Measurement of olfactory acuity using an electro-olfactogram demonstrated that cadmium causes significant impairment of the entire olfactory system, while the other three metals or the mixture of all four metals did not. Binary mixtures with cadmium and each of the other metals demonstrated that nickel and zinc, but not copper, protect against cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction. Testing was done to determine if the protection from cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction could be explained by binding competition between cadmium and the other metals at the cell surface, or if the protection could be explained by an up-regulation of an intracellular detoxification pathway, namely metallothionein. This study is the first to measure the effects of binary and quaternary metal mixtures on the olfactory response of fish, something that will aid in future assessments of the effects of metals on the environment. PMID:26775207

  20. Cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction in rainbow trout: Effects of binary and quaternary metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Dew, William A; Veldhoen, Nik; Carew, Amanda C; Helbing, Caren C; Pyle, Greg G

    2016-03-01

    A functioning olfactory response is essential for fish to be able to undertake essential behaviors. The majority of work investigating the effects of metals on the olfactory response of fish has focused on single-metal exposures. In this study we exposed rainbow trout to cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, or a mixture of these four metals at or below the current Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Measurement of olfactory acuity using an electro-olfactogram demonstrated that cadmium causes significant impairment of the entire olfactory system, while the other three metals or the mixture of all four metals did not. Binary mixtures with cadmium and each of the other metals demonstrated that nickel and zinc, but not copper, protect against cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction. Testing was done to determine if the protection from cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction could be explained by binding competition between cadmium and the other metals at the cell surface, or if the protection could be explained by an up-regulation of an intracellular detoxification pathway, namely metallothionein. This study is the first to measure the effects of binary and quaternary metal mixtures on the olfactory response of fish, something that will aid in future assessments of the effects of metals on the environment.

  1. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels.

  2. Effects of metal salt mixtures on Daphnia magna reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Biesinger, K.E.; Christensen, G.M.; Fiandt, J.T.

    1986-02-01

    Three binary metal experiments were conducted using a complete block design; testing the chlorides of Cd, Hg, and Zn individually and in combinations of Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg on Daphnia magna reproduction. These mixtures were tested at one-half, once, and twice the 16% reproductive impairment concentration previously determined for individual metals. The Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg mixtures all showed significant reductions in reproduction at concentrations where the metal salts alone caused no significant effect.

  3. Thermally responsive aqueous silicate mixtures and use thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Vinson, E.F.

    1987-02-03

    A method is described of plugging or sealing a zone in a subterranean formation comprising: (a) contacting the zone with an aqueous silicate composition consisting essentially of (i) an aqueous solution containing an alkali metal silicate; and, (ii) a thermally responsive gelation activator selected from the group consisting of lactose, dextrose, fructose, galactose, mannose, mantose, xylose and mixtures thereof; and (b) activating the gelation activator in response to a thermal change in the composition within the formation whereby the silicate composition is caused to form a gel in the zone.

  4. Metal mixture (As-Cd-Pb)-induced cell transformation is modulated by OLA1.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Baeza, Elia; Rojas, Emilio; Valverde, Mahara

    2016-07-01

    Environmental pollutants are complex mixtures in which metals are ubiquitous. Metal mixtures of arsenic, cadmium and lead are present in the occupational environment and generate health effects such as cardiovascular, renal and cancer diseases. Cell transformation induced by metal mixtures that depend on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell viability maintenance and avoidance of senescence was previously reported by our group. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of a Obg-like ATPase1 (OLA1) in the cell transformation of BALB/c 3T3 A31-1-1 clonal cells induced by a metal mixture (2 µM NaAsO2, 2 µM CdCl2 and 5 µM Pb(C2H3O2)2 3H2O) through ROS generation. The interest in OLA1 is justified because this protein has been proposed to be a negative regulator of the cellular antioxidant response. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown OLA1 before the initiation stage of the transformation assay. We evaluated (ROS) and OLA1 protein expression throughout the initiation and promotion stages of transformation. OLA1 knockdown modulated metal mixture-induced cell transformation more strongly when the metal mixture was an initiator stimulus than when it was a promoter. The ability of the metal mixture to initiate cell transformation was diminished by OLA1 knockdown, an effect that depended on intracellular ROS levels. The effect of OLA1 was synergistic with N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) co-treatment. Oxidative stress-associated transcription factors Egr1 and Smad were also down-regulated by the OLA1 knockdown, contributing to the rescue of metal mixture cell transformation. PMID:26984302

  5. Enhanced selective metal adsorption on optimised agroforestry waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Emilio; Ferreira, Laura; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Tavares, Teresa; Pazos, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to ascertain the potentials of different agroforestry wastes to be used as biosorbents in the removal of a mixture of heavy metals. Fern (FE), rice husk (RI) and oak leaves (OA) presented the best removal percentages for Cu(II) and Ni(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The performance of a mixture of these three biosorbents was evaluated, and an improvement of 10% in the overall removal was obtained (19.25mg/g). The optimum mixture proportions were determined using simplex-centroid mixture design method (FE:OA:RI=50:13.7:36.3). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the optimised mixture were fit by the pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption mechanism was studied, and the effects of the carboxylic, hydroxyl and phenolic groups on metal-biomass binding were demonstrated. Finally, the recoveries of the metals using biomass were investigated, and cationic metal recoveries of 100% were achieved when acidic solutions were used.

  6. Enhanced selective metal adsorption on optimised agroforestry waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Emilio; Ferreira, Laura; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Tavares, Teresa; Pazos, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to ascertain the potentials of different agroforestry wastes to be used as biosorbents in the removal of a mixture of heavy metals. Fern (FE), rice husk (RI) and oak leaves (OA) presented the best removal percentages for Cu(II) and Ni(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The performance of a mixture of these three biosorbents was evaluated, and an improvement of 10% in the overall removal was obtained (19.25mg/g). The optimum mixture proportions were determined using simplex-centroid mixture design method (FE:OA:RI=50:13.7:36.3). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the optimised mixture were fit by the pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption mechanism was studied, and the effects of the carboxylic, hydroxyl and phenolic groups on metal-biomass binding were demonstrated. Finally, the recoveries of the metals using biomass were investigated, and cationic metal recoveries of 100% were achieved when acidic solutions were used. PMID:25681794

  7. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  8. Modeling and interpreting biological effects of mixtures in the environment: introduction to the metal mixture modeling evaluation project.

    PubMed

    Van Genderen, Eric; Adams, William; Dwyer, Robert; Garman, Emily; Gorsuch, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The fate and biological effects of chemical mixtures in the environment are receiving increased attention from the scientific and regulatory communities. Understanding the behavior and toxicity of metal mixtures poses unique challenges for incorporating metal-specific concepts and approaches, such as bioavailability and metal speciation, in multiple-metal exposures. To avoid the use of oversimplified approaches to assess the toxicity of metal mixtures, a collaborative 2-yr research project and multistakeholder group workshop were conducted to examine and evaluate available higher-tiered chemical speciation-based metal mixtures modeling approaches. The Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation project and workshop achieved 3 important objectives related to modeling and interpretation of biological effects of metal mixtures: 1) bioavailability models calibrated for single-metal exposures can be integrated to assess mixture scenarios; 2) the available modeling approaches perform consistently well for various metal combinations, organisms, and endpoints; and 3) several technical advancements have been identified that should be incorporated into speciation models and environmental risk assessments for metals.

  9. Electrochemical response of carbon paste electrode modified with mixture of titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide in the detection of heavy metals: lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong Khanh Quoc; Lunsford, Suzanne K

    2012-11-15

    A novel carbon modified electrode was developed by incorporating titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide into the graphite carbon paste electrode to detect heavy metals-cadmium and lead. In this work, the development of the novel titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide modified carbon paste electrode was studied to determine the optimum synthesis conditions related to the temperature, heating duration, amount and ratio of titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide, and amount of surfactant, to create the most reproducible results. Using cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis, this study has proven that the novel titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide can be utilized to detect heavy metals-lead and cadmium, at relatively low concentrations (7.6×10(-6) M and 1.1×10(-5) M for Pb and Cd, respectively) at optimum pH value (pH=3). From analyzing CV data the optimal electrodes surface area was estimated to be 0.028 (±0.003) cm(2). Also, under the specific experimental conditions, electron transfer coefficients were estimated to be 0.44 and 0.33 along with the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants of 5.64×10(-3) and 2.42×10(-3) (cm/s) for Pb and Cd, respectively.

  10. A mixture hierarchical model for response times and response accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Xu, Gongjun

    2015-11-01

    In real testing, examinees may manifest different types of test-taking behaviours. In this paper we focus on two types that appear to be among the more frequently occurring behaviours – solution behaviour and rapid guessing behaviour. Rapid guessing usually happens in high-stakes tests when there is insufficient time, and in low-stakes tests when there is lack of effort. These two qualitatively different test-taking behaviours, if ignored, will lead to violation of the local independence assumption and, as a result, yield biased item/person parameter estimation. We propose a mixture hierarchical model to account for differences among item responses and response time patterns arising from these two behaviours. The model is also able to identify the specific behaviour an examinee engages in when answering an item. A Monte Carlo expectation maximization algorithm is proposed for model calibration. A simulation study shows that the new model yields more accurate item and person parameter estimates than a non-mixture model when the data indeed come from two types of behaviour. The model also fits real, high-stakes test data better than a non-mixture model, and therefore the new model can better identify the underlying test-taking behaviour an examinee engages in on a certain item. PMID:25873487

  11. Method of treating alkali metal sulfide and carbonate mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.; Rennick, Robert D.; Savinsky, Martin W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of removing and preferably recovering sulfur values from an alkali metal sulfide and carbonate mixture comprising the steps of (1) introducing the mixture in an aqueous medium into a first carbonation zone and reacting the mixture with a gas containing a major amount of CO.sub.2 and a minor amount of H.sub.2 S; (2) introducing the resultant product from step 1 into a stripping zone maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and contacting this product with steam to produce a gaseous mixture, comprising H.sub.2 S and water vapor, and a liquor of reduced sulfide content; (3) introducing the liquor of reduced sulfide content into a second carbonation zone, and reacting the liquor with substantially pure gaseous CO.sub.2 in an amount sufficient to precipitate bicarbonate crystals and produce an offgas containing CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S for use in step 1; (4) recovering the bicarbonate crystals from step 3, and thermally decomposing the crystals to produce an alkaline metal carbonate product and a substantially pure CO.sub.2 offgas for use in step 3.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Stress Induced Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans following Exposure to Environmental and Lab Reconstituted Complex Metal Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Pradhan, Ajay; Khan, Faisal Ahmad; Lindström, Pia; Ragnvaldsson, Daniel; Ivarsson, Per; Olsson, Per-Erik; Jass, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Metals are essential for many physiological processes and are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, high metal concentrations can be harmful to organisms and lead to physiological stress and diseases. The accumulation of transition metals in the environment due to either natural processes or anthropogenic activities such as mining results in the contamination of water and soil environments. The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate gene expression as an indicator of physiological response, following exposure to water collected from three different locations downstream of a Swedish mining site and a lab reconstituted metal mixture. Our results indicated that the reconstituted metal mixture exerted a direct stress response in C. elegans whereas the environmental waters elicited either a diminished or abrogated response. This suggests that it is not sufficient to use the biological effects observed from laboratory mixtures to extrapolate the effects observed in complex aquatic environments and apply this to risk assessment and intervention. PMID:26168046

  13. Transcriptional responses to complex mixtures - A review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of people to hazardous compounds is primarily through complex environmental mixtures, those that occur through media such as air, soil, water, food, cigarette smoke, and combustion emissions. Microarray technology offers the ability to query the entire genome after expos...

  14. Electrostatic separators of particles: Application to plastic/metal, metal/metal and plastic/plastic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Tilmatine, Amar; Medles, Karim; Bendimerad, Salah-Eddine; Boukholda, Fodil; Dascalescu, Lucien

    2009-01-01

    Electrostatic separation is a generic term given to a significant class of technologies of industrial waste processing, widely used for the sorting of granular mixtures due to electric forces acting on particles whose average size is approximately 5mm. The focus of this paper is on three electrostatic processes of separation used for processing of different types of mixtures: (i) role-type electrostatic separator, used to sort mixtures containing metal/plastic particles (copper/PVC for example); (ii) plate-type electrostatic separator, used to sort mixtures containing metal/metal particles (copper/lead for example) and (iii) free-fall electrostatic separator, used to sort mixtures of plastic/plastic particles (PVC/PE for example). Experiments carried out on industrial samples using laboratory electrostatic separators confirm the efficiency of these processes and show that the processes can improve the recovery and purity of products resulting from industrial wastes.

  15. Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation project: 2. Comparison of four modeling approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Kevin J.; Meyer, Joe; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; DeSchamphelaere, Karl; Iwasaki, Yuichi; Janssen, Colin; Kamo, Masashi; Lofts, Steve; Mebane, Christopher A.; Naito, Wataru; Ryan, Adam C.; Santore, Robert C.; Tipping, Edward

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation (MMME) project, models were developed by the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan), the U.S. Geological Survey (USA), HDR⎪HydroQual, Inc. (USA), and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (UK) to address the effects of metal mixtures on biological responses of aquatic organisms. A comparison of the 4 models, as they were presented at the MMME Workshop in Brussels, Belgium (May 2012), is provided herein. Overall, the models were found to be similar in structure (free ion activities computed by WHAM; specific or non-specific binding of metals/cations in or on the organism; specification of metal potency factors and/or toxicity response functions to relate metal accumulation to biological response). Major differences in modeling approaches are attributed to various modeling assumptions (e.g., single versus multiple types of binding site on the organism) and specific calibration strategies that affected the selection of model parameters. The models provided a reasonable description of additive (or nearly additive) toxicity for a number of individual toxicity test results. Less-than-additive toxicity was more difficult to describe with the available models. Because of limitations in the available datasets and the strong inter-relationships among the model parameters (log KM values, potency factors, toxicity response parameters), further evaluation of specific model assumptions and calibration strategies is needed.

  16. Metal mixture modeling evaluation project: 2. Comparison of four modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Farley, Kevin J; Meyer, Joseph S; Balistrieri, Laurie S; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Iwasaki, Yuichi; Janssen, Colin R; Kamo, Masashi; Lofts, Stephen; Mebane, Christopher A; Naito, Wataru; Ryan, Adam C; Santore, Robert C; Tipping, Edward

    2015-04-01

    As part of the Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation (MMME) project, models were developed by the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan), the US Geological Survey (USA), HDR|HydroQual (USA), and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom) to address the effects of metal mixtures on biological responses of aquatic organisms. A comparison of the 4 models, as they were presented at the MMME workshop in Brussels, Belgium (May 2012), is provided in the present study. Overall, the models were found to be similar in structure (free ion activities computed by the Windermere humic aqueous model [WHAM]; specific or nonspecific binding of metals/cations in or on the organism; specification of metal potency factors or toxicity response functions to relate metal accumulation to biological response). Major differences in modeling approaches are attributed to various modeling assumptions (e.g., single vs multiple types of binding sites on the organism) and specific calibration strategies that affected the selection of model parameters. The models provided a reasonable description of additive (or nearly additive) toxicity for a number of individual toxicity test results. Less-than-additive toxicity was more difficult to describe with the available models. Because of limitations in the available datasets and the strong interrelationships among the model parameters (binding constants, potency factors, toxicity response parameters), further evaluation of specific model assumptions and calibration strategies is needed.

  17. Effects of binary mixtures of inducers (toluene analogs) and of metals on bioluminescence induction of a recombinant bioreporter strain.

    PubMed

    Kong, In Chul

    2014-10-13

    This paper investigated the effects of binary mixtures of bioluminescence inducers (toluene, xylene isomers, m-toluate) and of metals (Cu, Cd, As(III), As(V), and Cr) on bioluminescence activity of recombinant (Pm-lux) strain KG1206. Different responses and sensitivities were observed depending on the types and concentrations of mixtures of inducers or metals. In the case of inducer mixtures, antagonistic and synergistic modes of action were observed, whereas metal mixtures showed all three modes of action. Antagonistic mode of action was most common for mixtures of indirect inducers, which showed bioluminescence ranging from 29% to 62% of theoretically expected effects (P(E)). On the other hand, synergistic mode of action was observed for mixtures of direct and indirect inducers, which showed bioluminescence between 141% and 243% of P(E). In the case of binary metal mixtures, bioluminescence activities were ranged from 62% to 75% and 113% to 164% of P(E) for antagonistic and synergistic modes of action, respectively (p-values 0.0001-0.038). Therefore, mixture effects could not be generalized since they were dependent on both the types and concentrations of chemicals, suggesting that biomonitoring may constitute a better strategy by investigating types and concentrations of mixture pollutants at contaminated sites.

  18. Testing an application of a biotic ligand model to predict acute toxicity of metal mixtures to rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Kamo, Masashi; Naito, Wataru

    2015-04-01

    The authors tested the applicability of a previously developed biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict acute toxicity of single metals and metal mixtures (cadmium, lead, and zinc) to rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a single available dataset. The BLM used in the present study hypothesizes that metals inhibit an essential cation (calcium) and organisms die as a result of its deficiency, leading to an assumption that the proportion of metal-binding ligand (f) is responsible for the toxic effects of metals on the survival of rainbow trout. The f value is a function of free-ion concentrations of metals computed by a chemical speciation model, and the function has affinity constants as model parameters. First, the survival effects of single metals were statistically modeled separately (i.e., f-survival relationship) by using the generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution. The modeled responses of survival rates to f overlapped reasonably irrespective of metals tested, supporting the theoretical prediction from the BLM that f-survival relationships are comparable regardless of metal species. The authors thus developed the generalized linear mixed model based on all data pooled across the single-metal tests. The best-fitted model well predicted the survival responses observed in mixture tests (r = 0.97), providing support for the applicability of the BLM to predict effects of metal mixtures.

  19. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    SciTech Connect

    Baderna, Diego Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-15

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. - Graphical abstract: Metals investigated: Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury, Nickel and Zinc. - Highlights: • The short-term phytotoxicity of seven metals was investigated with 3 higher plants. • Italian limits for arsenic and nickel in

  20. Behavioral avoidance of a metals mixture by rainbow trout and brown trout

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.A.; Bergman, H.L.; Woodward, D.F.; Little, E.E.; Deloney, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    Behavioral avoidance responses by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were determined in the laboratory to predict the effect of mixtures of copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc on the spatial distribution of fishes in the Clark fork River (CFR), Montana. The typical ambient concentration of these metals (in {micro}g/l) in the CFR was 12 Cu, 1.1 Cd, 3.2 Pb, and 50 Zn. Laboratory tests were conducted in an opposing-flow avoidance chamber using metals concentrations ranging from 10% to 1,000% of this CFR ambient concentration. Rainbow trout avoided all metals concentrations tested from 10% to 1,000% of ambient. Brown trout failed to avoid the 10% metals concentration but did avoid all concentrations higher than 50%. In a further experiment, both species were acclimated to pH 8.0 water and avoided all changes in acidity. However, the avoidance of metals was not altered by acidity additions in brown trout and only slightly altered in rainbow trout. In all experiments, brown trout were less sensitive than rainbow trout, which was consistent with observed species distributions within the river. Behavior avoidance of this metals mixture by rainbow and brown trout in the laboratory indicates metals may have contributed to reduced abundance and altered distribution of salmonids in the CFR.

  1. Toxicity of binary mixtures of metals and pyrethroid insecticides to Daphnia magna Straus. Implications for multi-substance risks assessment.

    PubMed

    Barata, Carlos; Baird, D J; Nogueira, A J A; Soares, A M V M; Riva, M C

    2006-06-10

    Two different concepts, termed concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), describe general relationships between the effects of single substances and their corresponding mixtures allowing calculation of an expected mixture toxicity on the basis of known toxicities of the mixture components. Both concepts are limited to cases in which all substances in a mixture influence the same experimental endpoint, and are usually tested against a "fixed ratio design" where the mixture ratio is kept constant throughout the studies and the overall concentration of the mixture is systematically varied. With this design, interaction among toxic components across different mixture ratios and endpoints (i.e. lethal versus sublethal) is not assessed. In this study lethal and sublethal (feeding) responses of Daphnia magna individuals to single and binary combinations of similarly and dissimilarly acting chemicals including the metals (cadmium, copper) and the pyrethroid insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin) were assayed using a composite experimental design to test for interactions among toxic components across mixture effect levels, mixture ratios, lethal and sublethal toxic effects. To account for inter-experiment response variability, in each binary mixture toxicity assay the toxicity of the individual mixture constituents was also assessed. Model adequacy was then evaluated comparing the slopes and elevations of predicted versus observed mixture toxicity curves with those estimated for the individual components. Model predictive abilities changed across endpoints. The IA concept was able to predict accurately mixture toxicities of dissimilarly acting chemicals for lethal responses, whereas the CA concept did so in three out of four pairings for feeding response, irrespective of the chemical mode of action. Interaction effects across mixture effect levels, evidenced by crossing slopes, were only observed for the binary mixture Cd and Cu for lethal effects

  2. Neural dynamics in response to binary taste mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Donald B.

    2013-01-01

    Taste stimuli encountered in the natural environment are usually combinations of multiple tastants. Although a great deal is known about how neurons in the taste system respond to single taste stimuli in isolation, less is known about how the brain deals with such mixture stimuli. Here, we probe the responses of single neurons in primary gustatory cortex (GC) of awake rats to an array of taste stimuli including 100% citric acid (100 mM), 100% sodium chloride (100 mM), 100% sucrose (100 mM), and a range of binary mixtures (90/10, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70, and 10/90%). We tested for the presence of three different hypothetical response patterns: 1) responses varying monotonically as a function of concentration of sucrose (or acid) in the mixture (the “monotonic” pattern); 2) responses increasing or decreasing as a function of degree of mixture of the stimulus (the “mixture” pattern); and 3) responses that change abruptly from being similar to one pure taste to being similar the other (the “categorical” pattern). Our results demonstrate the presence of both monotonic and mixture patterns within responses of GC neurons. Specifically, further analysis (that included the presentation of 50 mM sucrose and citric acid) made it clear that mixture suppression reliably precedes a palatability-related pattern. The temporal dynamics of the emergence of the palatability-related pattern parallel the temporal dynamics of the emergence of preference behavior for the same mixtures as measured by a brief access test. We saw no evidence of categorical coding. PMID:23365178

  3. A Mixture Rasch Model with Item Response Time Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    An examinee faced with a test item will engage in solution behavior or rapid-guessing behavior. These qualitatively different test-taking behaviors bias parameter estimates for item response models that do not control for such behavior. A mixture Rasch model with item response time components was proposed and evaluated through application to real…

  4. Use of metal/uranium mixtures to explore data uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Jordan, W.C.; Petrie, L.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-12-31

    A table of k{sub {infinity}} values for three homogenized metal/{sup 235}U systems calculated using both MCNP and the SCALE code system was presented in Ref. 3. The homogenized metal/{sup 235} U ratios were selected such that the MCNP analyses for each mixture provided k{sub {infinity}} {approx_equal} 1.0. The metals considered were Al, Zr, and Fe. These simplified systems were created in an effort to ease an investigation of discrepant results obtained using MCNP and SCALE to analyze large, dry systems of metal-clad, highly enriched fuel assemblies. Reference 3 has received considerable attention at ORNL and elsewhere because the reported k{sub {infinity}} values varied by as much as 38% between the MCNP results and those of SCALE. The ORNL approach was to analyze the systems using a broad range of codes and data and to seek an understanding of the discrepancies by studying differences in the basic data and processing methods. The continuous-energy codes and data applied in the ORNL study were (1) MCNP, using ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, and LANL data evaluations, (2) VIM, using ENDF/B-V data, and (3) MONK, using a 8,200-point library based on UKNDL evaluations and a preliminary JEF library. The VIM code provides treatment of unresolved resonances; MCNP does not. The MONK analyses provided a result using both an independent code and independent data evaluations. Although accessing continuous-energy data typically requires the use of Monte Carlo codes, 1-D deterministic codes can be used to accurately calculate K{sub {infinity}} values using a variety of multigroup data libraries and processing methods. The multigroup codes used in the study were MC and the CSAS1X sequence of the SCALE system. Both systems provide problem-dependent resonance processing of cross-section data and available fine-group libraries were used for the analyses. Broad-group libraries were not studied in any depth because there were non-readily available for intermediate-energy systems.

  5. Layer modeling of zinc removal from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yujie; Li, Xingang; Ding, Hui

    2015-08-01

    A layer model was established to elucidate the mechanism of zinc removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation. The removal process was optimized by response surface methodology, and the optimum operating conditions were the chamber pressure of 0.1Pa, heating temperature of 923K, heating time of 60.0min, particle size of 70 mesh (0.212mm) and initial mass of 5.25g. Evaporation efficiency of zinc, the response variable, was 99.79%, which indicates that the zinc can be efficiently removed. Based on the experimental results, a mathematical model, which bears on layer structure, evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, interprets the mechanism of the variable effects. Especially, in order to reveal blocking effect on the zinc removal, the Blake-Kozeny-Burke-Plummer equation was introduced into the mass transfer process. The layer model can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation.

  6. Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Scott, Tia-Marie; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Lesteberg, Kelsey E.; Rearick, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are present in low concentrations (<100 ng/L) in most municipal wastewater effluents but may be elevated locally because of factors such as input from pharmaceutical formulation facilities. Using existing concentration data, the authors assessed pharmaceuticals in laboratory exposures of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and added environmental complexity through effluent exposures. In the laboratory, larval and mature minnows were exposed to a simple opioid mixture (hydrocodone, methadone, and oxycodone), an opioid agonist (tramadol), a muscle relaxant (methocarbamol), a simple antidepressant mixture (fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), a sleep aid (temazepam), or a complex mixture of all compounds. Larval minnow response to effluent exposure was not consistent. The 2010 exposures resulted in shorter exposed minnow larvae, whereas the larvae exposed in 2012 exhibited altered escape behavior. Mature minnows exhibited altered hepatosomatic indices, with the strongest effects in females and in mixture exposures. In addition, laboratory-exposed, mature male minnows exposed to all pharmaceuticals (except the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor mixture) defended nest sites less rigorously than fish in the control group. Tramadol or antidepressant mixture exposure resulted in increased splenic T lymphocytes. Only male minnows exposed to whole effluent responded with increased plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Female minnows exposed to pharmaceuticals (except the opioid mixture) had larger livers, likely as a compensatory result of greater prominence of vacuoles in liver hepatocytes. The observed alteration of apical endpoints central to sustaining fish populations confirms that effluents containing waste streams from pharmaceutical formulation facilities can adversely impact fish populations but that the effects may not be temporally consistent. The present study highlights the importance of including diverse biological endpoints spanning

  7. Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches.

    PubMed

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Furlong, Edward T; Phillips, Pat J; Scott, Tia-Marie; Kolpin, Dana W; Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Lesteberg, Kelsey E; Rearick, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are present in low concentrations (<100 ng/L) in most municipal wastewater effluents but may be elevated locally because of factors such as input from pharmaceutical formulation facilities. Using existing concentration data, the authors assessed pharmaceuticals in laboratory exposures of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and added environmental complexity through effluent exposures. In the laboratory, larval and mature minnows were exposed to a simple opioid mixture (hydrocodone, methadone, and oxycodone), an opioid agonist (tramadol), a muscle relaxant (methocarbamol), a simple antidepressant mixture (fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), a sleep aid (temazepam), or a complex mixture of all compounds. Larval minnow response to effluent exposure was not consistent. The 2010 exposures resulted in shorter exposed minnow larvae, whereas the larvae exposed in 2012 exhibited altered escape behavior. Mature minnows exhibited altered hepatosomatic indices, with the strongest effects in females and in mixture exposures. In addition, laboratory-exposed, mature male minnows exposed to all pharmaceuticals (except the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor mixture) defended nest sites less rigorously than fish in the control group. Tramadol or antidepressant mixture exposure resulted in increased splenic T lymphocytes. Only male minnows exposed to whole effluent responded with increased plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Female minnows exposed to pharmaceuticals (except the opioid mixture) had larger livers, likely as a compensatory result of greater prominence of vacuoles in liver hepatocytes. The observed alteration of apical endpoints central to sustaining fish populations confirms that effluents containing waste streams from pharmaceutical formulation facilities can adversely impact fish populations but that the effects may not be temporally consistent. The present study highlights the importance of including diverse biological endpoints spanning

  8. Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches.

    PubMed

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Furlong, Edward T; Phillips, Pat J; Scott, Tia-Marie; Kolpin, Dana W; Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Lesteberg, Kelsey E; Rearick, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are present in low concentrations (<100 ng/L) in most municipal wastewater effluents but may be elevated locally because of factors such as input from pharmaceutical formulation facilities. Using existing concentration data, the authors assessed pharmaceuticals in laboratory exposures of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and added environmental complexity through effluent exposures. In the laboratory, larval and mature minnows were exposed to a simple opioid mixture (hydrocodone, methadone, and oxycodone), an opioid agonist (tramadol), a muscle relaxant (methocarbamol), a simple antidepressant mixture (fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), a sleep aid (temazepam), or a complex mixture of all compounds. Larval minnow response to effluent exposure was not consistent. The 2010 exposures resulted in shorter exposed minnow larvae, whereas the larvae exposed in 2012 exhibited altered escape behavior. Mature minnows exhibited altered hepatosomatic indices, with the strongest effects in females and in mixture exposures. In addition, laboratory-exposed, mature male minnows exposed to all pharmaceuticals (except the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor mixture) defended nest sites less rigorously than fish in the control group. Tramadol or antidepressant mixture exposure resulted in increased splenic T lymphocytes. Only male minnows exposed to whole effluent responded with increased plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Female minnows exposed to pharmaceuticals (except the opioid mixture) had larger livers, likely as a compensatory result of greater prominence of vacuoles in liver hepatocytes. The observed alteration of apical endpoints central to sustaining fish populations confirms that effluents containing waste streams from pharmaceutical formulation facilities can adversely impact fish populations but that the effects may not be temporally consistent. The present study highlights the importance of including diverse biological endpoints spanning

  9. Metal mixture modeling evaluation project: 3. Lessons learned and steps forward.

    PubMed

    Farley, Kevin J; Meyer, Joseph S

    2015-04-01

    A comparison of 4 metal mixture toxicity models (that were based on the biotic ligand model [BLM] and the Windermere humic aqueous model using the toxicity function [WHAM-FTOX ]) was presented in a previous paper. In the present study, a streamlined version of the 4 models was developed and applied to multiple data sets and test conditions to examine key assumptions and calibration strategies that are crucial in modeling metal mixture toxicity. Results show that 1) a single binding site on or in the organism was a useful and oftentimes sufficient framework for predicting metal toxicity; 2) a linear free energy relationship (LFER) for bidentate binding of metals and cations to the biotic ligand provided a good first estimate of binding coefficients; 3) although adjustments in metal binding coefficients or adjustments in chemical potency factors can both be used in model calibration for single-metal exposures, changing metal binding coefficients or chemical potency factors had different effects on model predictions for metal mixtures; and 4) selection of a mixture toxicity model (based on concentration addition or independent action) was important in predicting metal mixture toxicity. Moving forward, efforts should focus on reducing uncertainties in model calibration, including development of better methods to characterize metal binding to toxicologically active binding sites, conducting targeted exposure studies to advance the understanding of metal mixture toxicity, and further developing LFERs and other tools to help constrain the model calibration.

  10. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. PMID:25841179

  11. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants.

  12. Joint toxic action of binary metal mixtures of copper, manganese and nickel to Paronychiurus kimi (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Son, Jino; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Yongeun; Shin, Key-Il; Hyun, Seunghun; Cho, Kijong

    2016-10-01

    The joint toxic effects of binary metal mixtures of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) on reproduction of Paronhchiurus kimi (Lee) was evaluated using a toxic unit (TU) approach by judging additivity across a range of effect levels (10-90%). For all metal mixtures, the joint toxic effects of metal mixtures on reproduction of P. kimi decreased in a TU-dependent manner. The joint toxic effects of metal mixtures also changed from less than additive to more than additive at an effect level lower than or equal to 50%, while a more than additive toxic effects were apparent at higher effect levels. These results indicate that the joint toxicity of metal mixtures is substantially different from that of individual metals based on additivity. Moreover, the close relationship of toxicity to effect level suggests that it is necessary to encompass a whole range of effect levels rather than a specific effect level when judging mixture toxicity. In conclusion, the less than additive toxicity at low effect levels suggests that the additivity assumption is sufficiently conservative to warrant predicting joint toxicity of metal mixtures, which may give an additional margin of safety when setting soil quality standards for ecological risk assessment. PMID:27318557

  13. Joint toxic action of binary metal mixtures of copper, manganese and nickel to Paronychiurus kimi (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Son, Jino; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Yongeun; Shin, Key-Il; Hyun, Seunghun; Cho, Kijong

    2016-10-01

    The joint toxic effects of binary metal mixtures of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) on reproduction of Paronhchiurus kimi (Lee) was evaluated using a toxic unit (TU) approach by judging additivity across a range of effect levels (10-90%). For all metal mixtures, the joint toxic effects of metal mixtures on reproduction of P. kimi decreased in a TU-dependent manner. The joint toxic effects of metal mixtures also changed from less than additive to more than additive at an effect level lower than or equal to 50%, while a more than additive toxic effects were apparent at higher effect levels. These results indicate that the joint toxicity of metal mixtures is substantially different from that of individual metals based on additivity. Moreover, the close relationship of toxicity to effect level suggests that it is necessary to encompass a whole range of effect levels rather than a specific effect level when judging mixture toxicity. In conclusion, the less than additive toxicity at low effect levels suggests that the additivity assumption is sufficiently conservative to warrant predicting joint toxicity of metal mixtures, which may give an additional margin of safety when setting soil quality standards for ecological risk assessment.

  14. pH-Dependent Metal Ion Toxicity Influences the Antibacterial Activity of Two Natural Mineral Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Tanya M.; Koehl, Jennifer L.; Summers, Jack S.; Haydel, Shelley E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that several mineral products sold for medicinal purposes demonstrate antimicrobial activity, but little is known about the physicochemical properties involved in antibacterial activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using in vitro mineral suspension testing, we have identified two natural mineral mixtures, arbitrarily designated BY07 and CB07, with antibacterial activity against a broad-spectrum of bacterial pathogens. Mineral-derived aqueous leachates also exhibited antibacterial activity, revealing that chemical, not physical, mineral characteristics were responsible for the observed activity. The chemical properties essential for bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli were probed by testing antibacterial activity in the presence of metal chelators, the hydroxyl radical scavenger, thiourea, and varying pH levels. Chelation of the BY07 minerals with EDTA or desferrioxamine eliminated or reduced BY07 toxicity, respectively, suggesting a role of an acid-soluble metal species, particularly Fe3+ or other sequestered metal cations, in mineral toxicity. This conclusion was supported by NMR relaxation data, which indicated that BY07 and CB07 leachates contained higher concentrations of chemically accessible metal ions than leachates from non-bactericidal mineral samples. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the acidic environment of the hydrated minerals significantly contributes to antibacterial activity by increasing the availability and toxicity of metal ions. These findings provide impetus for further investigation of the physiological effects of mineral products and their applications in complementary antibacterial therapies. PMID:20209160

  15. Behavioural, physiological and biochemical markers in damselfly larvae (Ischnura elegans) to assess effects of accumulated metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Van Praet, Nander; De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Stoks, Robby; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-02-01

    Currently it is not known at which organismal level effects of metal mixtures in nature can best be detected, which is relevant to develop accurate monitoring schemes and quality standards. The present study investigated relationships between accumulated metals with different levels of biological organisation in the aquatic larval stage of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Larvae were collected in seven Flemish ponds differing in metal load. In each field-collected larva we quantified concentrations of accumulated metals and a set of biochemical markers (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)), physiological endpoints (energy storage), and behavioural responses (locomotory activity and the feeding rate). Accumulated metal levels and the measured endpoints significantly differed among ponds, however, a large variation in metal load index was observed within individuals of the same population. Only GST and energy availability could be partly predicted by the observed variation in metal load index on individual damselfly level. However, no single endpoint could be used to detect the observed variation in metal load index among populations. In conclusion, the sublethal endpoints cannot be used as reliable biomarkers to monitor the toxicity of accumulated metal mixtures in natural populations of I. elegans. PMID:24140691

  16. Comparison of different predictors of exposure for modeling impacts of metal mixtures on macroinvertebrates in stream microcosms.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Cadmus, Pete; Clements, William H

    2013-05-15

    Knowledge about which predictors of metal exposure are best to model the impacts of metal mixtures on river macroinvertebrates remains uncertain. A new predictor based on the amount of metals binding to humic acid, which is assumed to be a proxy of non-specific biotic ligand sites, has been proposed. The amount can be calculated using Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM), which we will refer to as the WHAM-HA approach. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the predictor based on the WHAM-HA approach provided a better estimate of metal effects observed in microcosm experiments than three other measures: total metal concentrations, free metal ion concentrations, and the cumulative criterion unit (CCU) which is a measure of the ratios of measured metal concentrations relative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency hardness adjusted criterion values. For this evaluation, we used nine macroinvertebrate metrics of abundance and richness obtained from microcosm experiments conducted with metal mixtures (Zn alone, Zn+Cd, and Zn+Cd+Cu). For each of the four predictors, we performed multiple linear regression with variables corresponding to the three metal concentrations or CCU and selected the best model based on Akaike's information criterion corrected for small sample sizes. For all of the macroinvertebrate metrics affected by metals, the WHAM-HA approach was selected as the best among the four predictors, followed by the model with total metal concentration. In most of best models, Zn and Cu or Cu alone was responsible for reductions in invertebrate metrics, even though the highest concentrations of Cd exceeded 100 times the hardness-adjusted criterion value. Either of the models with free metal ion concentration and CCU was the third ranked model. Our results suggest that the estimated amount of metals binding to humic acid is a better predictor for the effects on macroinvertebrate richness and abundance observed in microcosm experiments than total or free ion

  17. Low concentrations of metal mixture exposures have adverse effects on selected biomarkers of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Yologlu, Ertan; Ozmen, Murat

    2015-11-01

    Polluted ecosystems may contain mixtures of metals, such that the combinations of metals, even in low concentrations, may cause adverse effects. In the present study, we focused on toxic effects of mixtures of selected metals, the LC50 values, and also their safety limit in aquatic systems imposed by the European legislation using a model organism. Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used as test organisms. They were exposed to metals or their combinations due to 96-h LC50 values. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) levels were evaluated. Metallothionein concentrations were also determined. The LC50s for Cd, Pb, and Cu were calculated as 5.81mg AI/L, 123.05mg AI/L, and 0.85mg AI/L, respectively. Low lethality ratios were observed with unary exposure of each metal in lower concentrations. Double or triple combinations of LC50 and LC50/2 concentrations caused 100% lethality with Cd+Cu and Pb+Cd+Cu mixtures, while the Pb+Cu mixture also caused high lethal ratios. The selected enzyme activities were significantly affected by metals or mixtures, and dose-related effects were determined. The metallothionein levels generally increased as related to concentration in unary metals and mixtures. Acceptable limit values of unary metals and mixtures did not significantly change metallothionein levels. The results suggest that oxidative stress-related mechanisms are involved in the toxicity induced by selected metals with combinations of very low concentrations.

  18. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Hradil, George

    2011-11-15

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions.

  19. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions

    PubMed Central

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M.; Hradil, George

    2011-01-01

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:22102792

  20. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Hradil, George

    2011-11-15

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:22102792

  1. Metal silicate mixtures - Spectral properties and applications to asteroid taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Smith, Dorian G. W.; Lambert, Richard St. J.; Gaffey, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of combinations of olivine, orthopyroxene, and iron meteorite metal are experimentally studied, and the obtained variations in spectral properties are used to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the assemblages. The presence of metal most noticeably affects band area ratios, peak-to-peak and peak-to-minimum reflectance ratios, and band widths. Band width and band areas are useful for determining metal abundance in olivine and metal and orthopyroxene and metal assemblages, respectively. Mafic silicate grain size variations are best determined using band depth criteria. Band centers are most useful for determining mafic silicate composition. An application of these parameters to the S-class asteroid Flora is presented.

  2. Effect of a metal mixture on cadmium accumulation in transplanted macrophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of a metal mixture (Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) on Cd accumulation in the freshwater macrophyte Eriocaulon septangulare, was examined in a mesocosm experiment at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern, Ontario. Cd was added alone to treatment 1 and together with the metal mixture (at three increasing levels) to treatments 2, 3, and 4. Each treatment was represented by two mesocosms. Macrophytes were collected from the littoral region of lake 104, transported to nearby Roddy lake, and planted in plastic gardening trays containing exposed limnocorral sediments. The trays were lowered to the bottom of the limnocorrals and after 40 and 80 days the macrophytes were analyzed for metal content. The transplanted macrophytes accumulated Cd in both their shoots and roots. On day 40, Cd levels in the shoots of macrophytes exposed to the highest level of metal mixture were lower than in shoots from macrophytes exposed to cadmium alone, Between day 40 to day 80 Cd was lost from the shoots of macrophytes in all treatments. Cd levels in roots were higher in macrophytes exposed to the metal mixture on day 40 and significantly higher on day 80 compared to exposure to Cd alone. Elevated Cd levels in the roots of macrophytes exposed to the metal mixture reflected higher Cd levels in the water. The macrophyte Eriocaulon shows promise in environmental monitoring where test species are transplanted.

  3. Can nutrients mask community responses to insecticide mixtures?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Alexa C; Luis, Ana T; Culp, Joseph M; Baird, Donald J; Cessna, Allan J

    2013-09-01

    The ecological effect of simultaneous exposure to two nutrient gradients, three insecticides and different predator intensities was investigated over a 3-week period in 80 outdoor, artificial streams using field-collected benthic invertebrates. The experimental design consisted of a 2 × 5 factorial structure with two nutrient levels (oligotrophic or mesotrophic) and five concentrations of the ternary insecticide mixture consisting of the insecticides (chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and imidacloprid). Equivalent toxic unit doses were summed to create a ternary insecticide dose (e.g., 0.1 + 0.1 + 0.1 = 0.3 TU) resulting in a range of ternary insecticide mixture toxicity (i.e., control groundwater, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 TU). Two genera of insect predators, Gomphus spp. (Odonata) and Agnetina spp. (Plecoptera) were also added into each replicate stream, at densities and sizes comparable to those found at our collection site, to evaluate how the contribution of predators may change in nutrient limited (oligotrophic) versus amended (mesotrophic) systems. We describe a causal mechanism whereby the combined action of nutrients and insecticides reshaped aquatic community structure by interacting through multiple pathways. Specifically, mesotrophic conditions reduced the toxic effects of ternary insecticide mixtures for aquatic insects which, in some cases, appeared to increase abundance of aquatic insects. However, higher levels of insecticides in mesotrophic streams negated this effect and were even more toxic; for example, to aquatic insect grazers than the same insecticide doses in oligotrophic treatment levels. Effects of predators were only significant in oligotrophic streams. Evidence is provided as to how nutrient and contaminant interactions can greatly complicate the assessment of community level responses to insecticide mixtures due to direct and indirect effects of the resulting changes in the density of different genera and functional feeding groups within a

  4. Metal uptake from soils and soil-sediment mixtures by larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Vijver, Martina; Jager, Tjalling; Posthuma, Leo; Peijnenburg, Willie

    2003-03-01

    Bioassays were performed to evaluate the impact of soil characteristics on Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn uptake by larvae of Tenebrio molitor. Metal accumulation was determined in 13 natural field soils, one metal-spiked field soil, four soil-sediment mixtures, and Cd- or Zn-spiked OECD artificial soil. Statistical analyses were used to investigate covariation of accumulation patterns with various soil metal pools and soil properties. Body concentrations of Cu and Zn in Zn-spiked OECD soils, field soils, and soil-sediment mixtures mostly remained constant. Considerable variation was noted for all Cd and Pb steady-state body concentrations among field soils and soil-sediment mixtures. For the spiked field soil and in the Cd-spiked OECD soil, body concentrations increased almost linearly with time. For the nonessential metals Cd and Pb, larval body concentrations correlated mainly to the total metal pool of the soil. Cd uptake at similar total Cd concentrations was within the same range among spiked OECD soils, field soils, and mixtures. A comparison of the findings with studies on other soil-inhabiting species shows that metal uptake patterns depend on metal type, soil type, and exposed species. It is suggested that soil organisms can be categorized according to gross divergence in ecophysiological characteristics, determined by, for instance, (non)permeability of the outer integument. These characteristics appear as similarities among multivariate functions as derived for the beetle.

  5. A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyang; Cobbina, Samuel J; Mao, Guanghua; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Liuqing

    2016-05-01

    The rational for the study was to review the literature on the toxicity and corresponding mechanisms associated with lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), individually and as mixtures, in the environment. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and generally persist in the environment, enabling them to biomagnify in the food chain. Living systems most often interact with a cocktail of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metal exposure to biological systems may lead to oxidation stress which may induce DNA damage, protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and others. In this review, the major mechanism associated with toxicities of individual metals was the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, toxicities were expressed through depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Interestingly, a metal like Pb becomes toxic to organisms through the depletion of antioxidants while Cd indirectly generates ROS by its ability to replace iron and copper. ROS generated through exposure to arsenic were associated with many modes of action, and heavy metal mixtures were found to have varied effects on organisms. Many models based on concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) have been introduced to help predict toxicities and mechanisms associated with metal mixtures. An integrated model which combines CA and IA was further proposed for evaluating toxicities of non-interactive mixtures. In cases where there are molecular interactions, the toxicogenomic approach was used to predict toxicities. The high-throughput toxicogenomics combines studies in genetics, genome-scale expression, cell and tissue expression, metabolite profiling, and bioinformatics.

  6. Lead, arsenic and manganese metal mixture exposures: focus on biomarkers of effect

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, VL; Mateus, ML; Batoréu, MC; Aschner, M; Marreilha dos Santos, AP

    2015-01-01

    Summary The increasing exposure of human populations to excessive levels of metals continues to represent a matter of public health concern. Several biomarkers have been studied and proposed for the detection of adverse health effects induced by lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn); however, these studies have relied on exposures to each single metal, which fails to replicate real-life exposure scenarios. These 3 metals are commonly detected in different environmental, occupational and food contexts and they share common neurotoxic effects, which are progressive and once clinically apparent may be irreversible. Thus, chronic exposure to low levels of a mixture of these metals represents an additive risk of toxicity. Building upon their shared mechanisms of toxicity, such as oxidative stress, interference with neurotransmitters and effects on hematopoietic system, we address putative biomarkers, which may be assist in assessing onset of neurological diseases associated with exposure to this metal mixture. PMID:25693681

  7. Ecotoxicity of mixtures of metals to the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    SciTech Connect

    Kraak, M.H.S.; Lavy, D.; Schoon, H.; Toussaint, M.; Peeters, W.H.M.; Straalen, N.M. . Dept. of Aquatic Ecotoxicology)

    1994-01-01

    The effects of equitoxic mixtures of CuCl[sub 2], ZnCl[sub 2], and CdCl[sub 2] on the filtration rate of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha were determined. The amounts of added metals were expressed in toxic units, and a range of toxic units was tested. Cu + Zn was less than concentration additive, Zn + Cd was concentration additive, and Cu + Cd was more than concentration additive in their effects on the filtration rate of Dreissena polymorpha. An equitoxic mixture of all three metals was concentration additive. The effects of a mixture could not be predicted from the effects of the single metals. The concentrations at which Cu and Cd contributed to the toxicity of a mixture of Cu + Zn + Cd were at or below the NOECs for these metals, determined in single-metal toxicity tests. At low but elevated Cu and Zn concentrations in water, no accumulation of these metals in the mussels took place; Cd, on the contrary, was accumulated at all Cd concentrations in the water.

  8. Removing Endotoxin from Metallic Biomaterials with Compressed Carbon Dioxide-Based Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Tarafa, Pedro J.; Williams, Eve; Panvelker, Samir; Zhang, Jian; Matthews, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins have strong affinity for metallic biomaterials because of surface energy effects. Conventional depyrogenation methods may not eradicate endotoxins and may compromise biological properties and functionality of metallic instruments and implants. We evaluated the solubilization and removal of E. coli endotoxin from smooth and porous titanium (Ti) surfaces and stainless steel lumens using compressed CO2-based mixtures having water and/or surfactant Ls-54. The CO2/water/Ls-54 ternary mixture in the liquid CO2 region (25 °C and 27.6 MPa) with strong mixing removed endotoxin below detection levels. This suggests that the ternary mixture penetrates and dissolves endotoxins from all the tested substrates. The successful removal of endotoxins from metallic biomaterials with compressed CO2 is a promising cleaning technology for biomaterials and reusable medical devices. PMID:21499532

  9. Toxic effect of metal cation binary mixtures to the seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Luiz Fernando; Stevani, Cassius Vinicius; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Yokoya, Nair Sumie; Colepicolo, Pio

    2014-01-01

    The macroalga Gracilaria domingensis is an important resource for the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biotechnology industries. G. domingensis is at a part of the food web foundation, providing nutrients and microelements to upper levels. As seaweed storage metals in the vacuoles, they are considered the main vectors to magnify these toxic elements. This work describes the evaluation of the toxicity of binary mixtures of available metal cations based on the growth rates of G. domingensis over a 48-h exposure. The interactive effects of each binary mixture were determined using a toxic unit (TU) concept that was the sum of the relative contribution of each toxicant and calculated using the ratio between the toxicant concentration and its endpoint. Mixtures of Cd(II)/Cu(II) and Zn(II)/Ca(II) demonstrated to be additive; Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Mg(II), Cu(II)/Ca(II), Zn(II)/Mg(II), and Ca(II)/Mg(II) mixtures were synergistic, and all interactions studied with Cd(II) were antagonistic. Hypotheses that explain the toxicity of binary mixtures at the molecular level are also suggested. These results represent the first effort to characterize the combined effect of available metal cations, based on the TU concept on seaweed in a total controlled medium. The results presented here are invaluable to the understanding of seaweed metal cation toxicity in the marine environment, the mechanism of toxicity action and how the tolerance of the organism.

  10. Contrasted effects of natural complex mixtures of PAHs and metals on oxygen cycle in a microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Pringault, Olivier; Aube, Johanne; Bouchez, Olivier; Klopp, Christophe; Mariette, Jérome; Escudie, Frédéric; Senin, Pavel; Goni-Urriza, Marisol

    2015-09-01

    The contamination of polluted environments is often due to a complex mixture of pollutants sometimes at trace levels which nevertheless may have significant effects on the diversity and functioning of organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the functional responses of a microbial mat exposed to a natural complex mixture of PAHs and metals as a function of the maturation stage of the biofilm. Microbial mats sampled in a slightly polluted environment were exposed to contaminated water of a retention basin of an oil refinery. The responses of the microbial mats differed according to season. In spring 2012, strong inhibition of both oxygen production and respiration was observed relative to the control, with rates representing less than 5% of the control after 72 h of incubation. A decrease of microbial activities was followed by a decrease of the coupling between autotrophs and heterotrophs. In contrast, in autumn 2012, no significant changes for oxygen production and respiration were observed and the coupling between autotrophs and heterotrophs was not altered. The differences observed between the spring and autumn mats might be explained by the maturity of the microbial mat with dominance of heterotrophic bacteria in spring, and diatoms and cyanobacteria in autumn, as well as by the differences in the chemical composition of the complex mixture of PAHs and metals. PMID:25957138

  11. Contrasted effects of natural complex mixtures of PAHs and metals on oxygen cycle in a microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Pringault, Olivier; Aube, Johanne; Bouchez, Olivier; Klopp, Christophe; Mariette, Jérome; Escudie, Frédéric; Senin, Pavel; Goni-Urriza, Marisol

    2015-09-01

    The contamination of polluted environments is often due to a complex mixture of pollutants sometimes at trace levels which nevertheless may have significant effects on the diversity and functioning of organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the functional responses of a microbial mat exposed to a natural complex mixture of PAHs and metals as a function of the maturation stage of the biofilm. Microbial mats sampled in a slightly polluted environment were exposed to contaminated water of a retention basin of an oil refinery. The responses of the microbial mats differed according to season. In spring 2012, strong inhibition of both oxygen production and respiration was observed relative to the control, with rates representing less than 5% of the control after 72 h of incubation. A decrease of microbial activities was followed by a decrease of the coupling between autotrophs and heterotrophs. In contrast, in autumn 2012, no significant changes for oxygen production and respiration were observed and the coupling between autotrophs and heterotrophs was not altered. The differences observed between the spring and autumn mats might be explained by the maturity of the microbial mat with dominance of heterotrophic bacteria in spring, and diatoms and cyanobacteria in autumn, as well as by the differences in the chemical composition of the complex mixture of PAHs and metals.

  12. An optically trapped mixture of alkali-metal and metastable helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Adonis; Mishra, Hari Prasad; Vassen, Wim; Knoop, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold collisions between alkali-metal and metastable triplet helium (He*) atoms provide the opportunity to study Feshbach resonances in the presence of a strong loss channel, namely Penning ionization, which strongly depends on the internal spin-states of the atoms. Recently we have realized the first optically trapped alkali-metal-metastable helium mixture. To prepare the ultracold 87 Rb+4 He* mixture in a single beam optical dipole trap (ODT), we apply evaporative cooling in a strong quadrupole magnetic trap (QMT) for both species and subsequent transfer to the ODT via a hybrid trap. We will present lifetime measurements of different spin-state mixtures, testing the application of the universal loss model to this interesting multichannel collision system.

  13. Stability diagrams for fourfold coordination of polyvalent metal ions in molten mixtures of halide salts

    SciTech Connect

    Akdeniz, Z. Istanbul Univ. . Dept. of Physics); Tosi, M.P. . Dipt. di Fisica Teorica Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1988-11-01

    The stability of local fourfold coordination for divalent and trivalent metal ions in liquid mixtures of polyvalent metal halides and alkali halides is classified by means of structural coordinates obtained from properties of the elements. In parallel with earlier classifications of compound crystal structures and molecular shapes, the elemental properties are taken from first-principles calculations of valence electron orbitals in atoms, in the form of (i) the nodal radii of Andreoni, Baldereschi and Guizzetti or (ii) the pseudopotential radii or Zunger and Cohen. As a third alternative a classification based on Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale of the elements is also considered. The alternative structural classification schemes that are developed from these elemental properties are generally successfully in distinguishing molten mixtures in which the available experimental evidence indicates long-lived fourfold coordination of polyvalent metal ions. In addition, Pettifor's chemical scale scheme is useful in sorting out finer details of local coordination in the liquid state. 3 figs., 71 refs.

  14. Optimization of composite flour biscuits by mixture response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Laura C; Okoli, Eric C

    2013-08-01

    Biscuits were produced from blends of pigeon pea, sorghum and cocoyam flours. The study was carried out using mixture response surface methodology as the optimization technique. Using the simplex centroid design, 10 formulations were obtained. Protein and sensory quality of the biscuits were analyzed. The sensory attributes studied were appearance, taste, texture, crispness and general acceptability, while the protein quality indices were biological value and net protein utilization. The results showed that while the addition of pigeon pea improved the protein quality, its addition resulted in reduced sensory ratings for all the sensory attributes with the exception of appearance. Some of the biscuits had sensory ratings, which were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from biscuits made with wheat. Rat feeding experiments indicated that the biological value and net protein utilization values obtained for most of the biscuits were above minimum recommended values. Optimization suggested biscuits containing 75.30% sorghum, 0% pigeon pea and 24.70% cocoyam flours as the best proportion of these components. This sample received good scores for the sensory attributes.

  15. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-01-31

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end we shall use an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the First Quarter of this three year project work has centered around recruiting a graduate student to take responsibility for execution of portions of the research, and modifying the furnace and supporting equipment to allow the combustion of coal/MMS mixtures. We have readied the analytical panel for measuring NO{sub x} and other gaseous pollutants. We expect initial experiments for data gathering for coal/MSS mixtures to commence in the next Quarter.

  16. Effects of Multi-metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Mn) Mixtures on the Reproduction of Freshwater Rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ping; Xi, Yi-Long; Huang, Lin; Xiang, Xian-Ling

    2015-12-01

    In the field, organisms are usually exposed to mixtures of various metals. However, the effects of multi-metal mixtures on growth and reproduction of rotifers remain unknown. In the present study, effects of multi-metal mixtures (Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Mn) on reproduction of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were assessed by determining various endpoints, including the ratio of ovigerous females to nonovigerous females, the ratio of mictic to amictic females, the mictic rate, the fertilization rate, the population growth rate, and the resting eggs production. The results demonstrated that reproduction of rotifers was significantly affected by all multi-metal mixtures assessed. Moreover, the ratio of mictic to amictic females was the most sensitive endpoint and might be suitable to evaluate effects of multi-metal mixtures to rotifers. PMID:26464391

  17. Effects of Multi-metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Mn) Mixtures on the Reproduction of Freshwater Rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ping; Xi, Yi-Long; Huang, Lin; Xiang, Xian-Ling

    2015-12-01

    In the field, organisms are usually exposed to mixtures of various metals. However, the effects of multi-metal mixtures on growth and reproduction of rotifers remain unknown. In the present study, effects of multi-metal mixtures (Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Mn) on reproduction of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were assessed by determining various endpoints, including the ratio of ovigerous females to nonovigerous females, the ratio of mictic to amictic females, the mictic rate, the fertilization rate, the population growth rate, and the resting eggs production. The results demonstrated that reproduction of rotifers was significantly affected by all multi-metal mixtures assessed. Moreover, the ratio of mictic to amictic females was the most sensitive endpoint and might be suitable to evaluate effects of multi-metal mixtures to rotifers.

  18. New approach in modeling Cr(VI) sorption onto biomass from metal binary mixtures solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Fiol, Núria; Villaescusa, Isabel; Poch, Jordi

    2016-01-15

    In the last decades Cr(VI) sorption equilibrium and kinetic studies have been carried out using several types of biomasses. However there are few researchers that consider all the simultaneous processes that take place during Cr(VI) sorption (i.e., sorption/reduction of Cr(VI) and simultaneous formation and binding of reduced Cr(III)) when formulating a model that describes the overall sorption process. On the other hand Cr(VI) scarcely exists alone in wastewaters, it is usually found in mixtures with divalent metals. Therefore, the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and divalent metals in binary mixtures and the interactive mechanism governing Cr(VI) elimination have gained more and more attention. In the present work, kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto exhausted coffee from Cr(VI)-Cu(II) binary mixtures has been studied in a stirred batch reactor. A model including Cr(VI) sorption and reduction, Cr(III) sorption and the effect of the presence of Cu(II) in these processes has been developed and validated. This study constitutes an important advance in modeling Cr(VI) sorption kinetics especially when chromium sorption is in part based on the sorbent capacity of reducing hexavalent chromium and a metal cation is present in the binary mixture.

  19. Mechanical mixtures of metal oxides and phosphorus pentoxide as novel precursors for the synthesis of transition-metal phosphides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lijuan; Zhao, Yu; Yao, Zhiwei

    2016-01-21

    This study presents a new type of precursor, mechanical mixtures of metal oxides (MOs) and phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) are used to synthesize Ni2P, Co2P and MoP phosphides by the H2 reduction method. In addition, this is first report of common solid-state P2O5 being used as a P source for the synthesis of metal phosphides. The traditional precursors are usually prepared via a complicated preparation procedure involving dissolution, drying and calcination steps. However, these novel MOs/P2O5 precursors can be obtained only by simple mechanical mixing of the starting materials. Furthermore, unlike the direct transformation from amorphous phases to phosphides, various specific intermediates were involved in the transformation from MOs/P2O5 to phosphides. It is worthy to note that the dispersions of Ni2P, Co2P and MoP obtained from MOs/P2O5 precursors were superior to those of the corresponding phosphides prepared from the abovementioned traditional precursors. It is suggested that the morphology of the as-prepared metal phosphides might be inherited from the corresponding MOs. Based on the results of XRD, XPS, SEM and TEM, the formation pathway of phosphides can be defined as MOs/P2O5 precursors → complex intermediates (metals, metal phosphates and metal oxide-phosphates) → metal phosphides.

  20. An NCME Instructional Module on Latent DIF Analysis Using Mixture Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Suh, Youngsuk; Lee, Woo-yeol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an introduction to differential item functioning (DIF) analysis using mixture item response models. The mixture item response models for DIF analysis involve comparing item profiles across latent groups, instead of manifest groups. First, an overview of DIF analysis based on latent groups, called…

  1. A NONADDITITIVE TUMOR RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects, but this may not be consistent with the actual biological response. We used a rodent model of hereditary renal cancer to investigate the carcinogenic response of a mixture of drinkin...

  2. Heavy metal balances of an Italian soil as affected by sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moolenaar, S.W.; Beltrami, P.

    1998-07-01

    Applications of sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture (Bm) (a mixture of copper sulfate and lime) add heavy metals to the soil. At an experimental farm in the Cremona district (Italy), the authors measured current heavy metal contents in soil and their removal via harvested products. They also measured heavy metal adsorption by soil from this farm. With these data, projections were made of the long-term development of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) contents in soil, crop removal, and leaching at different application rates of sewage sludge and Bm. These projections were compared with existing quality standards of the European Union (EU) and Italy with regard to soil and groundwater. The calculations reveal that the permitted annual application rates of sewage sludge and Bm are likely to result in exceedance of groundwater and soil standards. Sewage sludge applications, complying with the Italian legal limits, may pose problems for Cd, Cu, and Zn within 30, 70, and 100 yr, respectively. Furthermore, severe Cu pollution of integrated and especially organic (Bm only) vineyards is unavoidable with the currently allowed application rates of Bm. The results suggest that the current Italian soil protection policy as well as the EU policy are not conducive of a sustainable heavy metal management in agroecosystems.

  3. Extractability and leachability of heavy metals in Technosols prepared from mixtures of unconsolidated wastes.

    PubMed

    Camps Arbestain, M; Madinabeitia, Z; Anza Hortalà, M; Macías-García, F; Virgel, S; Macías, F

    2008-12-01

    Mixtures of wastes were prepared to improve on the characteristics of the individual ingredients as Technosols, with special attention given to heavy metal extractability. An anaerobic digested sewage sludge and a CaO-treated aerobic sludge were used. A mixture of the two sludges (50:50 DW basis) was also prepared to provide a third type of sludge. The residues were mixed with other types of waste, such as fly ash, Linz-Donowitz slag, foundry sand, shot blasting machine scrap, fettling and barley straw. Extractability of Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn by 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction (Me(CACI(2)) was carried out, and leachability of these elements was estimated by acidification of an aqueous suspension of the mixtures with 0.5 N acetic acid (Me(acetic)). The total concentrations of the metals were also determined (Me(T)). The Me(CACI(2)/Me(T) ratios for Cu and Ni (means: 4.0% and 3.1%) were higher than those for Cr and Zn (means: 0.07% each). The mean Me(acetic)/Me(T) ratios followed the order Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr (19.5%, 4.1%, 3.7%, and 0.09%, respectively). The results highlight the existence of complex interactions among organic matter solubility, pH and heavy metal extractability. PMID:18329263

  4. Extractability and leachability of heavy metals in Technosols prepared from mixtures of unconsolidated wastes.

    PubMed

    Camps Arbestain, M; Madinabeitia, Z; Anza Hortalà, M; Macías-García, F; Virgel, S; Macías, F

    2008-12-01

    Mixtures of wastes were prepared to improve on the characteristics of the individual ingredients as Technosols, with special attention given to heavy metal extractability. An anaerobic digested sewage sludge and a CaO-treated aerobic sludge were used. A mixture of the two sludges (50:50 DW basis) was also prepared to provide a third type of sludge. The residues were mixed with other types of waste, such as fly ash, Linz-Donowitz slag, foundry sand, shot blasting machine scrap, fettling and barley straw. Extractability of Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn by 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction (Me(CACI(2)) was carried out, and leachability of these elements was estimated by acidification of an aqueous suspension of the mixtures with 0.5 N acetic acid (Me(acetic)). The total concentrations of the metals were also determined (Me(T)). The Me(CACI(2)/Me(T) ratios for Cu and Ni (means: 4.0% and 3.1%) were higher than those for Cr and Zn (means: 0.07% each). The mean Me(acetic)/Me(T) ratios followed the order Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr (19.5%, 4.1%, 3.7%, and 0.09%, respectively). The results highlight the existence of complex interactions among organic matter solubility, pH and heavy metal extractability.

  5. Electrostatic separator for micronized mixtures of metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messal, Sara; Corondan, Razvan; Chetan, Ionut; Ouiddir, Rabah; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    In spite of their extensive use for processing mixtures of granules exceeding 1 mm in size, very few industrial electrostatic separators are capable of handling micronized metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment. The aim of the present work is to validate the possibility of using a novel belt-type electrostatic separator for the selective sorting of such particulate mixtures, the dimensions of which are in the order of 0.1 mm. In this type of separator, the metal particles get charged by electrostatic induction in contact with the grounded metal belt electrode, while the plastics remain uncharged in the electric field and are collected separately. The experiments are performed with 2-g samples of a mixture composed in equal proportions (50% - 50%) of Aluminium and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) particles of average diameter ranging between 125 μm and 250 μm. They enabled the evaluation of the effects and the interaction of two control variables of the process: the angle of inclination of the roll-type electrode and the high voltage applied to it.

  6. Nonequilibrium multiphase mixture modeling of energetic material response

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Hertel, E.; Bell, R.

    1995-12-31

    To model the shock-induced behavior of porous or damaged energetic materials, a nonequilibrium mixture theory has been developed and incorporated into the shock physics code, CTH. Foundation for this multiphase model is based on a continuum mixture formulation given by Baer and Nunziato. In this nonequilibrium approach, multiple thermodynamic and mechanics fields are resolved including the effects of material relative motion, rate-dependent compaction, drag and heat transfer interphase effects and multiple-step combustion. Benchmark calculations are presented which simulate low-velocity piston impact on a propellant porous bed and experimentally-measured wave features are well replicated with this model. This mixture model introduces micromechanical models for the initiation and growth of reactive multicomponent flow which are key features to describe shock initiation and self-accelerated deflagration-to-detonation combustion behavior. To complement one-dimensional simulation, two dimensional numerical simulations are presented which indicate wave curvature effects due to the loss of wall confinement.

  7. Metal ions potentiate microglia responsiveness to endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Peferoen, Laura A N; Vogel, Daphne Y S; Alsalem, Inás W A; Amor, Sandra; Bontkes, Hetty J; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Scheper, Rik J; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2016-02-15

    Oral metal exposure has been associated with diverse adverse reactions, including neurotoxicity. We showed previously that dentally applied metals activate dendritic cells (MoDC) via TLR4 (Ni, Co, Pd) and TLR3 (Au). It is still unknown whether the low levels of dental metals reaching the brain can trigger local innate cells or prime them to become more responsive. Here we tested whether dentally applied metals (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Au, Hg) activate primary human microglia in vitro and, as a model, monocytic THP-1-cells, in high non-toxic as well as near-physiological concentrations. In addition the effects of 'near-physiological' metal exposure on endotoxin (LPS) responsiveness of these cells were evaluated. IL-8 and IL-6 production after 24h was used as read out. In high, non-toxic concentrations all transition metals except Cr induced IL-8 and IL-6 production in microglia, with Ni and Co providing the strongest stimulation. When using near-physiological doses (up to 10× the normal plasma concentration), only Zn and Cu induced significant IL-8 production. Of note, the latter metals also markedly potentiated LPS responsiveness of microglia and THP-1 cells. In conclusion, transition metals activate microglia similar to MoDCs. In near-physiological concentrations Zn and Cu are the most effective mediators of innate immune activation. A clear synergism between innate responses to Zn/Cu and LPS was observed, shedding new light on the possible relation between oral metal exposure and neurotoxicity.

  8. Low concentration toxic metal mixture interactions: Effects on essential and non-essential metals in brain, liver, and kidneys of mice on sub-chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wu, Xueshan; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Mao, Guanghua; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2015-08-01

    The deleterious effects of long term exposure to individual toxic metals in low doses are well documented. There is however, a paucity of information on interaction of low dose toxic metal mixtures with toxic and essential metals. This study reports on interactions between low dose mixtures of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) and toxic and essential metals. For 120d, six groups of forty mice each were exposed to metal mixtures, however, the control group was given distilled water. Exposure to Pb+Cd increased brain Pb by 479% in 30d, whiles Pb+Hg+As+Cd reduced liver Hg by 46.5%, but increased kidney As by 130% in 30d. Brain Cu, increased by 221% on Pb+Hg+As+Cd exposure, however, liver Ca reduced by 36.1% on Pb+Hg exposure in 60-d. Interactions within metal mixtures were largely synergistic. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that low dose metal exposures influenced greatly levels of Hg (in brain and liver) and As (brain). The influence exerted on essential metals was highest in liver (PC1) followed by kidney (PC2) and brain (PC3). Exposure to low dose metal mixtures affected homeostasis of toxic and essential metals in tissues of mice.

  9. Interactive effects of waterborne metals in binary mixtures on short-term gill-metal binding and ion uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Niyogi, Som; Nadella, Sunita R; Wood, Chris M

    2015-08-01

    Metal binding to fish gills forms the basis of the biotic ligand model (BLM) approach, which has emerged as a useful tool for conducting site-specific water quality assessments for metals. The current BLMs are designed to assess the toxicity of individual metals, and cannot account for the interactive effects of metal mixtures to aquatic organisms including fish. The present study was designed mainly to examine the interactive effects of waterborne metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Ni) in specific binary combinations on short-term (3h) gill-metal binding and essential ion (Ca(2+) and Na(+)) uptake (a physiological index of toxicity) in fish, using juvenile freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the model species. We hypothesized that binary mixtures of metals that share a common mode of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Zn - Ca(2+) antagonists, Cu and Ag - Na(+) antagonists) would reduce the gill binding of each other via competitive interactions and induce less than additive effects on ion transport. In addition, the mixture of metals that have different modes of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Cu, or Cd and Ni) would not exhibit any interactive effects either on gill-metal binding or ion transport. We found that both Zn and Cu reduced gill-Cd binding and vice versa, however, Ni did not influence gill-Cd binding in fish. Surprisingly, Ag was found to stimulate gill-Cu binding especially at high exposure concentrations, whereas, Cu had no effect on gill-Ag binding. The inhibitory effect of Cd and Zn in mixture on branchial Ca(2+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cd or Zn alone. Similarly, the inhibitory effect of Cu and Ag in mixture on branchial Na(+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cu or Ag alone. The inhibitory effects of Cd and Zn mixture on Ca(2+) uptake as well as Cu and Ag mixture on Na(+) uptake were found to follow the principles of simple additivity. In contrast, no significant additive effect on either Ca(2+) or Na

  10. Interactive effects of waterborne metals in binary mixtures on short-term gill-metal binding and ion uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Niyogi, Som; Nadella, Sunita R; Wood, Chris M

    2015-08-01

    Metal binding to fish gills forms the basis of the biotic ligand model (BLM) approach, which has emerged as a useful tool for conducting site-specific water quality assessments for metals. The current BLMs are designed to assess the toxicity of individual metals, and cannot account for the interactive effects of metal mixtures to aquatic organisms including fish. The present study was designed mainly to examine the interactive effects of waterborne metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Ni) in specific binary combinations on short-term (3h) gill-metal binding and essential ion (Ca(2+) and Na(+)) uptake (a physiological index of toxicity) in fish, using juvenile freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the model species. We hypothesized that binary mixtures of metals that share a common mode of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Zn - Ca(2+) antagonists, Cu and Ag - Na(+) antagonists) would reduce the gill binding of each other via competitive interactions and induce less than additive effects on ion transport. In addition, the mixture of metals that have different modes of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Cu, or Cd and Ni) would not exhibit any interactive effects either on gill-metal binding or ion transport. We found that both Zn and Cu reduced gill-Cd binding and vice versa, however, Ni did not influence gill-Cd binding in fish. Surprisingly, Ag was found to stimulate gill-Cu binding especially at high exposure concentrations, whereas, Cu had no effect on gill-Ag binding. The inhibitory effect of Cd and Zn in mixture on branchial Ca(2+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cd or Zn alone. Similarly, the inhibitory effect of Cu and Ag in mixture on branchial Na(+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cu or Ag alone. The inhibitory effects of Cd and Zn mixture on Ca(2+) uptake as well as Cu and Ag mixture on Na(+) uptake were found to follow the principles of simple additivity. In contrast, no significant additive effect on either Ca(2+) or Na

  11. Preliminary investigation of a technique to separate fission noble metals from fission product mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, G.B.; Jensen, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    A variation of the gold-ore fire assay technique was examined as a method for recovering Pd, Rh and Ru from fission products. The mixture of fission product oxides is combined with glass-forming chemicals, a metal oxide such as PbO (scavenging agent), and a reducing agent such as charcoal. When this mixture is melted, a metal button is formed which extracts the noble metals. The remainder cools to form a glass for nuclear waste storage. Recovery depended only on reduction of the scavenger oxide to metal. When such reduction was achieved, no difference in noble metal recovery efficiency was found among the scavengers studied (PbO, SnO, CuO, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/). Not all reducing agents studied, however, were able to reduce all scavenger oxides to metal. Only graphite would reduce SnO and CuO and allow noble metal recovery. The scavenger oxides Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and PbO, however, were reduced by all of the reducing agents tested. Similar noble metal recovery was found with each. Lead oxide was found to be the most promising of the potential scavengers. It was reduced by all of the reducing agents tested, and its higher density may facilitate the separation. Use of lead oxide also appeared to have no deterimental effect on the glass quality. Charcoal was identified as the preferred reducing agent. As long as a separable metal phase was formed in the melt, noble metal recovery was not dependent on the amount of reducing agent and scavenger oxide. High glass viscosities inhibited separation of the molten scavenger, while low viscosities allowed volatile loss of RuO/sub 4/. A viscosity of approx. 20 poise at the processing temperature offered a good compromise between scavenger separation and Ru recovery. Glasses in which PbO was used as the scavenging agent were homogeneous in appearance. Resistance to leaching was close to that of certain waste glasses reported in the literature. 12 figures. 7 tables.

  12. Investigation of antioxidant properties of metal ascorbates and their mixtures by voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vtorushina, A. N.; Nikonova, E. D.

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes modern ways for selection of anti-radical substances. Molding of such components with a carbon-based material decreases the rate of its oxidative destruction. Addition of such a component to a carbon-based material decreases the rate of its oxidative destruction. The purpose of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of ascorbates metals (Ca, Mg, Li, Co, Fe), used in the practice of medicine, as well as mixtures based on them together with well-known antioxidants. In this article we examine the effect of metals on the process of ascorbate oxygen electroreduction. From these ascorbates lithium and magnesium ascorbate showed the greatest activity toward cathode oxygen reduction process. Also mixtures with well-known examined antioxidants ascorbate (glucose, dihydroquercetin) were investigated at different concentrations of components. It is shown that the multicomponent mixtures exhibit lower activity than the individual drugs. Recommended the creation of drugs on the basis of ascorbate Mg and Li with not more than 3 number of components.

  13. Contributions of a compost-biochar mixture to the metal sorption capacity of a mine tailing.

    PubMed

    Forján, R; Asensio, V; Rodríguez-Vila, A; Covelo, E F

    2016-02-01

    One technique applied to restore degraded or contaminated soils is to use amendments made of different types of waste materials, which in turn may contain metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn. For this reason, it is important to determine the capacity of the soil to retain these materials, and to compare the sorption capacity between an amended soil and another unamended soil. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility and availability of these metals in the soil after applying the amendment, and how it affected the soil's sorption capacity. Sorption isotherms were compared with the empirical models of Langmuir and Freundlich to estimate the sorption capacity. The overall capacity of the soils to sorb Cu, Pb or Zn was evaluated as the slope Kr. The amendments used in this study were a mixture made of compost and biochar in different proportions (20, 40, 60, 100 %), which were applied to the mine tailing from a settling pond from a copper mine. The mine tailing that were amended with the mixture of compost and biochar had a higher sorption capacity than the mine tailing from the unamended pond, and their sorption isotherms had a greater affinity towards Cu, Pb and Zn than the mine tailing that was studied. Therefore, the results obtained show that adding a mixture of compost and biochar favours the retention of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine tailing.

  14. Separation and recovery of lead from a mixture of some heavy metals using Amberlite IRC 718 chelating resin.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K K

    2006-05-20

    A weakly acidic ion exchanger resin containing the iminodiacetate group has been used to separate and recover metal ion from their mixtures. Batch and column methods were applied for the separation studies. Previous study on the kinetics and thermodynamics shows that the selectivity of this resin for transition metals was quite high as compared to that of alkaline earth metals. The efficiency of this resin in different experimental conditions was established and because of the large difference in the distribution coefficient values separation of the metal ions from their mixture was performed.

  15. Responses of protocerebral neurons in Manduca sexta to sex-pheromone mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hong; Chiu, Hong-Yan; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Male Manduca sexta moths are attracted to a mixture of two components of the female's sex pheromone at the natural concentration ratio. Deviation from this ratio results in reduced attraction. Projection neurons innervating prominent male-specific glomeruli in the male's antennal lobe produce maximal synchronized spiking activity in response to synthetic mixtures of the two components centering around the natural ratio, suggesting that behaviorally effective mixture ratios are encoded by synchronous neuronal activity. We investigated the physiological activity and morphology of downstream protocerebral neurons that responded to antennal stimulation with single pheromone components and their mixtures at various concentration ratios. Among the tested neurons, only a few gave stronger responses to the mixture at the natural ratio whereas most did not distinguish among the mixtures that were tested. We also found that the population response distinguished among the two pheromone components and their mixtures, prior to the peak population response. This observation is consistent with our previous finding that synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons reaches its maximum before the firing rate reaches its peak. Moreover, the response patterns of protocerebral neurons are diverse, suggesting that the representation of olfactory stimuli at the level of protocerebrum is complex. PMID:23974854

  16. The effects of high metal concentrations in soil-compost mixtures on soil enzymes.

    PubMed

    Warman, P R; Munroe, M D

    2010-10-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the impact of high-metal composts on the activities of four soil enzymes. High concentrations of metal salts (Cr, Cu, Ni or a Co-Mo-Pb combination) were added to feedstocks during the thermophilic stage of composting. These four metal-enriched composts and an unamended control compost were then mixed with soil collected from long-term agriculture plots under organic management or conventional management. The compost-soil mixtures were prepared at two rates (1:1 or 1:3 compost:soil, v/v) and incubated at 20 degrees C for three weeks. These 20 combinations plus the five composts and the two soils were added to pots and incubated for three weeks. Following incubation, soil enzyme activities (acid phosphatase, arysulfatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase) were measured using traditional assay procedures. Compared to the control, none of the high-metal composts inhibited soil enzyme activity. Notably, the Cu compost treatment produced significantly higher activity of all four enzymes in the soil compared to the control. Previous soil management influenced the activity of three enzymes, arysulfatase and dehydrogenase had greater activity in the organic soil while phosphatase activity was greater in the conventional soil. Increasing the proportion of compost in the pot had a positive effect on phosphodiesterase activity only. In conclusion, the high-metal compost treatments either enhanced or caused no adverse effects on soil enzyme activity.

  17. Bioavailability of cyanide and metal-cyanide mixtures to aquatic life.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron; Santore, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide can be toxic to aquatic organisms, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed ambient water-quality criteria to protect aquatic life. Recent work suggests that considering free, rather than total, cyanide provides a more accurate measure of the biological effects of cyanides and provides a basis for water-quality criteria. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to free cyanide, although certain metals can form stable complexes and reduce the amount of free cyanide. As a result, total cyanide is less toxic when complexing metals are present. Cyanide is often present in complex effluents, which requires understanding how other components within these complex effluents can affect cyanide speciation and bioavailability. The authors have developed a model to predict the aqueous speciation of cyanide and have shown that this model can predict the toxicity of metal-cyanide complexes in terms of free cyanide in solutions with varying water chemistry. Toxicity endpoints based on total cyanide ranged over several orders of magnitude for various metal-cyanide mixtures. However, predicted free cyanide concentrations among these same tests described the observed toxicity data to within a factor of 2. Aquatic toxicity can be well-described using free cyanide, and under certain conditions the toxicity was jointly described by free cyanide and elevated levels of bioavailable metals.

  18. Microgravity effects on electrodeposition of metals and metal-cermet mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maybee, George W.; Riley, Clyde; Coble, H. Dwain

    1987-01-01

    An experimental system, designed to investigate the potential advantages of electrodeposition in microgravity, is being developed by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-Huntsville Division and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. It is intended to fly as an Orbiter payload when NASA resumes STS operations. The system will provide power, thermal conditioning, command and control for the production of electrodeposits; system performance data will be recorded for post-flight analysis. Plated metal surfaces will be created using simple electrolytic cells with pure metal electrodes immersed in aqueous electrolytic solutions. Crystalline structure and other properties will be analyzed to identify differences between samples produced in flight and those obtained from ground-based operations.

  19. Uptake of iodide by a mixture of metallic copper and cupric compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, G.; Alnot, M.; Ehrhardt, J.J.; Bessiere, J.

    1999-05-15

    Environmental contaminants harmful to the health of present and future generations involve nuclear fission products as iodine radioisotopes. {sup 129}I is potentially one of the more mobile products because of its long half-life and its tendency to go into solution as an anion that is not retarded with silicate minerals. Ability of copper/cupric compound mixtures to remove iodide from solution was investigated to predict sorption of radioactive iodine in the environment and to assess their use in a nuclear reprocessing method. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to study the stability of such mixtures in solution and to obtain equilibrium constants of Cu(0)/Cu(II)/I{sup {minus}} and Cu(0)/Cu(II)/Cl{sup {minus}} systems. Both calculations and experimental results showed that a Cu(0)/Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (azurite) mixture selectively uptakes iodide ions (initial concentrations: 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup {minus}1} M) in the presence of 10{sup {minus}1} M chloride ions. Reaction of iodide with copper powder and azurite crystal or copper plate and azurite powder have also been investigated, leading to precipitation of CuI onto massive copper phase. The different solids were separately analyzed by XPS and MEB-EDX, giving some insight in the uptake mechanism. It is proposed that soluble copper released by the cupric compound is reduced at the surface of metallic copper, leading to a preferential precipitation of CuI on copper surface.

  20. Response of tomato plants to simulated landfill gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J.J.; Leone, I.A.; Flower, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    The roots of tomato plants were fumigated with simulated refuse-generated gas mixtures at levels of methane (CH/sub 4/), carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), and oxygen (O/sub 2/) previously measured in the atmospheres of landfill cover soils associated with poor growth or death of plants. A concentration of 18% CO/sub 2/ or greater, exceeded in almost 30% of thirty-two landfills examined throughout the US, caused reduced growth and visible symptoms on tomato after 1 wk, regardless of O/sub 2/ level. Doubling the CO/sub 2/ level to that encountered in a typical local site (Edgeboro Landfill) resulted in more severe symptom development and the subsequent death of plants. Methane, in concentrations of 20% and above, found in more than 25% of the landfills visited, while not observed to be toxic per se; was associated with drastic O/sub 2/ depletion in the soil atmosphere, which activity was believed to be the cause of the plant decline.

  1. Toxicity and bioavailability of heavy metal mixtures in natural and synthetic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Frugis, M.; Clements, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Toxicity tests were conducted to compare differences in bioavailability of a metal mixture (zinc, copper, cadmium and lead) in natural and synthetic sediments to Chironomus tentans and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Preliminary tests were conducted with sediment collected at five stations from the Arkansas River (Leadville, CO) and one from the La Cache Poudre River (Fort Collins, CO). After seven days of exposure, mortality on C. tentans in sediment from the most contaminated station (AR3) was significantly different from the reference station (PDR). Bioaccumulation in these insects showed significant correlation with abiotic factors: particle size, organic matter, total carbon and cation exchange capacity. During a second experiment, particle size and carbon contents of synthetic sediment were modified to reflect composition of natural sediment. Two types of artificial sediments were spiked with 0X, 0.085X, 0.175X and 0.35X of metal mixture measured in AR3. After ten days, mortality of C. tentans in the 0.35X and AR3 treatments were similar. In a final experiment, synthetic and natural sediments were spiked at 0X, 0.175X, 0.35X, and 0.70X. Again, mortality of contents in 0.35X and AR3 were not significantly different. A 48hrs-acute test conducted with C. dubia showed that interstitial water from AR3 and AR5 stations had higher toxicity than other stations. In addition, toxicity of interstitial water from synthetic sediment was greater than from spiked natural sediment or sediments collected from the Arkansas River. These results indicate that heavy metals are more bioavailable in synthetic sediments than in natural substrates.

  2. Evaluating quantitative formulas for dose-response assessment of chemical mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Hertzberg, Richard C; Teuschler, Linda K

    2002-01-01

    Risk assessment formulas are often distinguished from dose-response models by being rough but necessary. The evaluation of these rough formulas is described here, using the example of mixture risk assessment. Two conditions make the dose-response part of mixture risk assessment difficult, lack of data on mixture dose-response relationships, and the need to address risk from combinations of chemicals because of public demands and statutory requirements. Consequently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed methods for carrying out quantitative dose-response assessment for chemical mixtures that require information only on the toxicity of single chemicals and of chemical pair interactions. These formulas are based on plausible ideas and default parameters but minimal supporting data on whole mixtures. Because of this lack of mixture data, the usual evaluation of accuracy (predicted vs. observed) cannot be performed. Two approaches to the evaluation of such formulas are to consider fundamental biological concepts that support the quantitative formulas (e.g., toxicologic similarity) and to determine how well the proposed method performs under simplifying constraints (e.g., as the toxicologic interactions disappear). These ideas are illustrated using dose addition and two weight-of-evidence formulas for incorporating toxicologic interactions. PMID:12634126

  3. Mixture Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2007-12-01

    A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

  4. Theoretic model and computer simulation of separating mixture metal particles from waste printed circuit board by electrostatic separator.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming; Zhou, Yaohe

    2008-05-30

    Traditionally, the mixture metals from waste printed circuit board (PCB) were sent to the smelt factory to refine pure copper. Some valuable metals (aluminum, zinc and tin) with low content in PCB were lost during smelt. A new method which used roll-type electrostatic separator (RES) to recovery low content metals in waste PCB was presented in this study. The theoretic model which was established from computing electric field and the analysis of forces on the particles was used to write a program by MATLAB language. The program was design to simulate the process of separating mixture metal particles. Electrical, material and mechanical factors were analyzed to optimize the operating parameters of separator. The experiment results of separating copper and aluminum particles by RES had a good agreement with computer simulation results. The model could be used to simulate separating other metal (tin, zinc, etc.) particles during the process of recycling waste PCBs by RES.

  5. Shock response of porous 2Al + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.T. Jr.; Graham, R.A.; Anderson, M.U.

    1993-08-01

    Time-resolved pressure measurements have been conducted on 2Al + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder mixtures using the (PVDF) stress-rate gauge. These measurements were made on samples which were 53% of solid density. Measurements were made at pressures from 0.67 to more than 10 GPa utilizing both impact loading with a compressed gas gun and direct contact high explosive loading. The sample is pressed to the desired density in a copper capsule. PVDF gauges were positioned in front of and behind the powder sample in direct contact with the sample; they measure input and propagated stress-rate and are used for precise measurement of velocity through the 4 mm thick sample. In the case of high explosive loading, gauges are also installed on the explosive side and on the capsule side of a metal driver plate to measure the shock velocity through the driver so that the driver pressure can be determined. The response of 2Al + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} under shock compression appears to demonstrate a more complex behavior than other materials. At approximately 4.6 GPa, the material compresses to beyond solid density. There was no evidence of chemical reaction.

  6. Headgroup interactions and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of a chelating surfactant, different foaming agents, and divalent metal ions.

    PubMed

    Svanedal, Ida; Boija, Susanne; Norgren, Magnus; Edlund, Håkan

    2014-06-10

    The correlation between interaction parameters and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of chelating surfactant metal complexes and different foaming agents was investigated. We have recently shown that chelating surfactant 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4-C12-DTPA) forms strong coordination complexes with divalent metal ions, and this can be utilized in ion flotation. Interaction parameters for mixed micelles and mixed monolayer formation for Mg(2+) and Ni(2+) complexes with the chelating surfactant 4-C12-DTPA and different foaming agents were calculated by Rubingh's regular solution theory. Parameters for the calculations were extracted from surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry. The effects of metal ion coordination on the interactions between 4-C12-DTPA and the foaming agents could be linked to a previously established difference in coordination chemistry between the examined metal ions. As can be expected from mixtures of amphoteric surfactants, the interactions were strongly pH-dependent. Strong correlation was found between interaction parameter β(σ) for mixed monolayer formation and the phase-transfer efficiency of Ni(2+) complexes with 4-C12-DTPA during flotation in a customized flotation cell. In a mixture of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), the significant difference in conditional stability constants (log K) between the metal complexes was utilized to selectively recover the metal complex with the highest log K (Cu(2+)) by ion flotation. Flotation experiments in an excess concentration of metal ions confirmed the coordination of more than one metal ion to the headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA.

  7. Headgroup interactions and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of a chelating surfactant, different foaming agents, and divalent metal ions.

    PubMed

    Svanedal, Ida; Boija, Susanne; Norgren, Magnus; Edlund, Håkan

    2014-06-10

    The correlation between interaction parameters and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of chelating surfactant metal complexes and different foaming agents was investigated. We have recently shown that chelating surfactant 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4-C12-DTPA) forms strong coordination complexes with divalent metal ions, and this can be utilized in ion flotation. Interaction parameters for mixed micelles and mixed monolayer formation for Mg(2+) and Ni(2+) complexes with the chelating surfactant 4-C12-DTPA and different foaming agents were calculated by Rubingh's regular solution theory. Parameters for the calculations were extracted from surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry. The effects of metal ion coordination on the interactions between 4-C12-DTPA and the foaming agents could be linked to a previously established difference in coordination chemistry between the examined metal ions. As can be expected from mixtures of amphoteric surfactants, the interactions were strongly pH-dependent. Strong correlation was found between interaction parameter β(σ) for mixed monolayer formation and the phase-transfer efficiency of Ni(2+) complexes with 4-C12-DTPA during flotation in a customized flotation cell. In a mixture of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), the significant difference in conditional stability constants (log K) between the metal complexes was utilized to selectively recover the metal complex with the highest log K (Cu(2+)) by ion flotation. Flotation experiments in an excess concentration of metal ions confirmed the coordination of more than one metal ion to the headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA. PMID:24824327

  8. A Mixture Proportional Hazards Model with Random Effects for Response Times in Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new model for test response times is proposed that combines latent class analysis and the proportional hazards model with random effects in a similar vein as the mixture factor model. The model assumes the existence of different latent classes. In each latent class, the response times are distributed according to a…

  9. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2003-06-02

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process.

  10. The use of invertebrate body burdens to predict ecological effects of metal mixtures in mining-impacted waters.

    PubMed

    De Jonge, Maarten; Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny

    2013-10-15

    The present study investigated whether invertebrate body burdens can be used to predict metal-induced effects on aquatic invertebrate communities. Total dissolved metal levels and four invertebrate taxa (Leuctra sp., Simuliidae, Rhithrogena sp. and Perlodidae) were sampled in 36 headwater streams located in the north-west part of England. Using the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System (RIVPACS) taxonomic completeness of invertebrate communities was assessed. Quantile regression was used to relate invertebrate body burdens to a maximum (90th quantile) ecological response, both for all metals separately and in mixtures. Significant relations between Cu, Zn and Pb burdens in Leuctra sp. (Zn, Pb), Simuliidae (Zn, Pb), Rhithrogena sp. (Cu, Zn, Cu+Zn) and Perlodidae (Zn) and both taxonomic completeness (O/E taxa) and Biological Monitoring Working Party index scores (O/E BMWP) were observed. Correspondingly the obtained Cu-Zn mixture model an acceptable impact of 5% change in taxonomic completeness is expected at Rhithrogena sp. body burdens of 1.9μmolg(-1) Cu (121 μg g(-1) Cu) in case of low Zn bioavailability (Rhithrogena sp. Zn body burden of 2.9 μmol g(-1) or 190 μg g(-1)), which will drop to 0.30 μmol g(-1) Cu (19.1 μg g(-1) Cu) in case of higher Zn bioavailability (Zn body burden of 72.6 μmol g(-1) or 4747 μg g(-1)). For Zn, 5% change in taxonomic completeness is expected at Rhithrogena sp. body burdens of 76.4 μmol g(-1) Zn (4995 μg g(-1) Zn) in case of low Cu bioavailability (Cu body burden of 0.19 μmol g(-1) or 12.1 μg g(-1)), which will drop to 6.6 μmol g(-1) Zn (432 μg g(-1) Zn) at higher Cu bioavailability (Cu body burden of 1.74 μmol g(-1) or 111 μg g(-1)). Overall, the present study concludes that invertebrate body burdens can be used to (1) predict metal-induced ecological effects and (2) to derive critical burdens for the protection of aquatic invertebrate communities.

  11. The use of invertebrate body burdens to predict ecological effects of metal mixtures in mining-impacted waters.

    PubMed

    De Jonge, Maarten; Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny

    2013-10-15

    The present study investigated whether invertebrate body burdens can be used to predict metal-induced effects on aquatic invertebrate communities. Total dissolved metal levels and four invertebrate taxa (Leuctra sp., Simuliidae, Rhithrogena sp. and Perlodidae) were sampled in 36 headwater streams located in the north-west part of England. Using the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System (RIVPACS) taxonomic completeness of invertebrate communities was assessed. Quantile regression was used to relate invertebrate body burdens to a maximum (90th quantile) ecological response, both for all metals separately and in mixtures. Significant relations between Cu, Zn and Pb burdens in Leuctra sp. (Zn, Pb), Simuliidae (Zn, Pb), Rhithrogena sp. (Cu, Zn, Cu+Zn) and Perlodidae (Zn) and both taxonomic completeness (O/E taxa) and Biological Monitoring Working Party index scores (O/E BMWP) were observed. Correspondingly the obtained Cu-Zn mixture model an acceptable impact of 5% change in taxonomic completeness is expected at Rhithrogena sp. body burdens of 1.9μmolg(-1) Cu (121 μg g(-1) Cu) in case of low Zn bioavailability (Rhithrogena sp. Zn body burden of 2.9 μmol g(-1) or 190 μg g(-1)), which will drop to 0.30 μmol g(-1) Cu (19.1 μg g(-1) Cu) in case of higher Zn bioavailability (Zn body burden of 72.6 μmol g(-1) or 4747 μg g(-1)). For Zn, 5% change in taxonomic completeness is expected at Rhithrogena sp. body burdens of 76.4 μmol g(-1) Zn (4995 μg g(-1) Zn) in case of low Cu bioavailability (Cu body burden of 0.19 μmol g(-1) or 12.1 μg g(-1)), which will drop to 6.6 μmol g(-1) Zn (432 μg g(-1) Zn) at higher Cu bioavailability (Cu body burden of 1.74 μmol g(-1) or 111 μg g(-1)). Overall, the present study concludes that invertebrate body burdens can be used to (1) predict metal-induced ecological effects and (2) to derive critical burdens for the protection of aquatic invertebrate communities. PMID:24076621

  12. The mechanisms associated with the development of hypertension after exposure to lead, mercury species or their mixtures differs with the metal and the mixture ratio.

    PubMed

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Beside life-style risk factors, exposure to lead and mercury species are increasingly discussed as potential risk factors. Although there are a few previous studies, the underlying mechanism by which exposure to lead and mercury disturb blood pressure regulation is not currently understood. Potential mechanisms are oxidative stress production, kidney damage and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), all of which can interact to cause dysregulation of blood pressure. Male rats (Wistar) were exposed to lead, inorganic mercury, methylmercury or two mixtures of all three metals for four weeks through the drinking water. The two mixture ratios were based on ratios of known reference values or environmental exposure from the literature. To investigate the potential mechanism of actions, blood pressure was measured after four weeks and compared to plasma nitrotyrosine or reduced/oxidized glutathione levels in liver as markers for oxidative stress. Plasma renin and angiotensin II levels were used as markers for RAS activation. Finally, kidney function and injury were assessed via urinary and plasma creatinine levels, creatinine clearance and urinary kidney-injury molecule (KIM-1). While exposure to lead by itself increased oxidative stress and kidney damage along with blood pressure, inorganic mercury did not affect blood pressure or any end-point examined. Conversely, methylmercury instead increased RAS activation along with blood pressure. Surprisingly, when administered as mixtures, lead no longer increased oxidative stress or altered kidney function. Moreover, the mixture based on an environmental ratio no longer had an effect on blood pressure, while the reference value ratio still retained an increase in blood pressure. Based on our results, the prominent mechanism of action associated with the development of hypertension seems to be oxidative

  13. The mechanisms associated with the development of hypertension after exposure to lead, mercury species or their mixtures differs with the metal and the mixture ratio.

    PubMed

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Beside life-style risk factors, exposure to lead and mercury species are increasingly discussed as potential risk factors. Although there are a few previous studies, the underlying mechanism by which exposure to lead and mercury disturb blood pressure regulation is not currently understood. Potential mechanisms are oxidative stress production, kidney damage and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), all of which can interact to cause dysregulation of blood pressure. Male rats (Wistar) were exposed to lead, inorganic mercury, methylmercury or two mixtures of all three metals for four weeks through the drinking water. The two mixture ratios were based on ratios of known reference values or environmental exposure from the literature. To investigate the potential mechanism of actions, blood pressure was measured after four weeks and compared to plasma nitrotyrosine or reduced/oxidized glutathione levels in liver as markers for oxidative stress. Plasma renin and angiotensin II levels were used as markers for RAS activation. Finally, kidney function and injury were assessed via urinary and plasma creatinine levels, creatinine clearance and urinary kidney-injury molecule (KIM-1). While exposure to lead by itself increased oxidative stress and kidney damage along with blood pressure, inorganic mercury did not affect blood pressure or any end-point examined. Conversely, methylmercury instead increased RAS activation along with blood pressure. Surprisingly, when administered as mixtures, lead no longer increased oxidative stress or altered kidney function. Moreover, the mixture based on an environmental ratio no longer had an effect on blood pressure, while the reference value ratio still retained an increase in blood pressure. Based on our results, the prominent mechanism of action associated with the development of hypertension seems to be oxidative

  14. Response Times to Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Timothy G.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of perceptually congruent gustatory and olfactory flavorants (sucrose and citral) was previously shown to be detected faster than predicted by a model of probability summation that assumes stochastically independent processing of the individual gustatory and olfactory signals. This outcome suggests substantial integration of the signals. Does substantial integration also characterize responses to mixtures of incongruent flavorants? Here, we report simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of 3 possible flavorants: monosodium glutamate, MSG (gustatory: “umami” quality), citral (olfactory: citrus quality), and a mixture of MSG and citral (gustatory–olfactory). Each stimulus (and, on a fraction of trials, water) was presented orally through a computer-operated, automated flow system, and subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 non-water stimuli. Unlike responses previously found to the congruent mixture of sucrose and citral, responses here to the incongruent mixture of MSG and citral took significantly longer (RTs were greater) and showed lower detection rates than the values predicted by probability summation. This outcome suggests that the integration of gustatory and olfactory flavor signals is less extensive when the component flavors are perceptually incongruent rather than congruent, perhaps because incongruent flavors are less familiar. PMID:26304508

  15. Response Times to Gustatory-Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Timothy G; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Marks, Lawrence E

    2015-10-01

    A mixture of perceptually congruent gustatory and olfactory flavorants (sucrose and citral) was previously shown to be detected faster than predicted by a model of probability summation that assumes stochastically independent processing of the individual gustatory and olfactory signals. This outcome suggests substantial integration of the signals. Does substantial integration also characterize responses to mixtures of incongruent flavorants? Here, we report simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of 3 possible flavorants: monosodium glutamate, MSG (gustatory: "umami" quality), citral (olfactory: citrus quality), and a mixture of MSG and citral (gustatory-olfactory). Each stimulus (and, on a fraction of trials, water) was presented orally through a computer-operated, automated flow system, and subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 non-water stimuli. Unlike responses previously found to the congruent mixture of sucrose and citral, responses here to the incongruent mixture of MSG and citral took significantly longer (RTs were greater) and showed lower detection rates than the values predicted by probability summation. This outcome suggests that the integration of gustatory and olfactory flavor signals is less extensive when the component flavors are perceptually incongruent rather than congruent, perhaps because incongruent flavors are less familiar.

  16. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability. PMID:26941699

  17. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability.

  18. Heavy metal extraction from an artificially contaminated sandy soil under EDDS deficiency: significance of humic acid and chelant mixture.

    PubMed

    Yip, Theo C M; Yan, Dickson Y S; Yui, Matthew M T; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lo, Irene M C

    2010-06-01

    Biodegradable EDDS ([S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) has been suggested for enhancing heavy metal extraction from contaminated soils. Recent studies showed that Zn and Pb are less effectively extracted due to metal exchange and re-adsorption onto the soil surfaces, especially for EDDS-deficiency conditions. This study therefore investigated the influence of dissolved organic matter and the co-presence of EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid) on metal extraction from an artificially contaminated sandy soil under deficient amount of chelants in batch kinetics experiments. The addition of 10 and 20mgL(-1) of humic acid as dissolved organic matter (DOC) suppressed metal extraction by EDDS, probably resulting from the competition of adsorbed humic acid for heavy metals and adsorption of metal-humate complexes onto the soil surfaces. The effects were most significant for Pb because of greater extent of metal exchange of PbEDDS and high affinity towards organic matter. Thus, one should be cautious when there is a high content of organic matter in soils or groundwater. On the other hand, compared to individual additions of EDDS or EDTA, the equimolar EDDS and EDTA mixture exhibited significantly higher Pb extraction without notable Pb re-adsorption. The synergistic performance of the EDDS and EDTA mixture probably resulted from the change of chemical speciation and thus less competition among Cu, Zn and Pb for each chelant. These findings suggest further investigation into an optimum chemistry of the chelant mixture taking into account the effectiveness and associated environmental impact.

  19. Hydrogen generation using silicon nanoparticles and their mixtures with alkali metal hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patki, Gauri Dilip

    mole of Si. We compare our silicon nanoparticles (˜10nm diameter) with commercial silicon nanopowder (<100nm diameter) and ball-milled silicon powder (325 mesh). The increase in rate upon decreasing the particle size to 10 nm was even greater than would be expected based upon the increase in surface area. While specific surface area increased by a factor of 6 in going from <100 nm to ˜10 nm particles, the hydrogen production rate increased by a factor of 150. However, in all cases, silicon requires a base (e.g. NaOH, KOH, hydrazine) to catalyze its reaction with water. Metal hydrides are also promising hydrogen storage materials. The optimum metal hydride would possess high hydrogen storage density at moderate temperature and pressure, release hydrogen safely and controllably, and be stable in air. Alkali metal hydrides have high hydrogen storage density, but exhibit high uncontrollable reactivity with water. In an attempt to control this explosive nature while maintaining high storage capacity, we mixed our silicon nanoparticles with the hydrides. This has dual benefits: (1) the hydride- water reaction produces the alkali hydroxide needed for base-catalyzed silicon oxidation, and (2) dilution with 10nm coating by, the silicon may temper the reactivity of the hydride, making the process more controllable. Initially, we analyzed hydrolysis of pure alkali metal hydrides and alkaline earth metal hydrides. Lithium hydride has particularly high hydrogen gravimetric density, along with faster reaction kinetics than sodium hydride or magnesium hydride. On analysis of hydrogen production we found higher hydrogen yield from the silicon nanoparticle—metal hydride mixture than from pure hydride hydrolysis. The silicon-hydride mixtures using our 10nm silicon nanoparticles produced high hydrogen yield, exceeding the theoretical yield. Some evidence of slowing of the hydride reaction rate upon addition of silicon nanoparticles was observed.

  20. Lead-induced cardiac and hematological alterations in aging Wistar male rats: alleviating effects of nutrient metal mixture.

    PubMed

    Basha, D Chand; Basha, S Sadak; Reddy, G Rajarami

    2012-08-01

    Age related mitochondrial impairments are considered to be contributors of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to examine whether early life exposure to lead (Pb) would lead to the Pb induced age related hematological and cardiac mitochondrial changes in rats, and to further examine the protective effect of nutrient metal mixture containing zinc, iron and calcium. Male albino rats were lactationally exposed to 0.2 % Pb-acetate or 0.2 % Pb-acetate together nutrient metal mixture (0.02 %) in drinking water of the mother from postnatal day 1 (PND1) to PND 21. The hemoglobin level, the activities of serum ceruloplasmin oxidase, cardiac mitochondrial enzymes catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, copper zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and Pb levels were analyzed at PND 45, 12 and 24 months age. The hematological parameters, and the cardiac TCA cycle and antioxidant enzyme markers and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly altered following Pb exposure in young rats (PND 45). These Pb induced changes persisted, though at much lower level in the aged rats. The Pb levels in blood and heart were also significantly higher in PND 45 and remained at detectable levels in older rats. The nutrient metal mixture containing iron, calcium and zinc significantly reversed these changes in all the chosen markers except lipid peroxidation in which the reversal effect was not significant. These data are supportive of age-related cardiac mitochondrial impairments and further provide evidence for the protective efficacy of nutrient metal mixture against Pb-toxicity.

  1. Thermoregulatory response to an organophosphate and carbamate insecticide mixture: testing the assumption of dose-additivity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Herr, David W; Gennings, Chris; Graff, Jaimie E; McMurray, Matthew; Stork, LeAnna; Coffey, Todd; Hamm, Adam; Mack, Cina M

    2006-01-01

    Most toxicity data are based on studies using single compounds. This study assessed if there is an interaction between mixtures of the anticholinesterase insecticides chlorpyrifos (CHP) and carbaryl (CAR) using hypothermia and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition as toxicological endpoints. Core temperature (T(c)) was continuously monitored by radiotelemetry in adult Long-Evans rats administered CHP at doses ranging from 0 to 50mg/kg and CAR doses of 0-150 mg/kg. The temperature index (TI), an integration of the change in T(c) over a 12h period, was quantified. Effects of mixtures of CHP and CAR in 2:1 and 1:1 ratios on the TI were examined and the data analyzed using a statistical model designed to assess significant departures from additivity for chemical mixtures. CHP and CAR elicited a marked hypothermia and dose-related decrease in the TI. The TI response to a 2:1 ratio of CHP:CAR was significantly less than that predicted by additivity. The TI response to a 1:1 ratio of CHP and CAR was not significantly different from the predicted additivity. Plasma and brain ChE activity were measured 4h after dosing with CHP, CAR, and mixtures in separate groups of rats. There was a dose-additive interaction for the inhibition of brain ChE for the 2:1 ratio, but an antagonistic effect for the 1:1 ratio. The 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures had an antagonistic interaction on plasma ChE. Overall, the departures from additivity for the physiological (i.e., temperature) and biochemical (i.e., ChE inhibition) endpoints for the 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures studies did not coincide as expected. An interaction between CHP and CAR appears to depend on the ratio of compounds in the mixture as well as the biological endpoint. PMID:16182429

  2. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  3. Acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of copper, zinc, and nickel to Pimephales promelas: Evidence of more-than-additive effect.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Natalie R; Hoang, Tham C; O'Brien, Timothy E

    2016-02-01

    Metal mixture toxicity has been studied for decades. However, the results are not consistent, and thus ecological risk assessment and regulation of mixtures has been difficult. The objective of the present study was to use a systematic experimental design to characterize the toxicity of binary-metal mixture of Cu, Zn, and Ni to Pimephales promelas, typically to determine whether the effect of these binary-metal mixtures on P. promelas is more-than-additive. Standard 96-h toxicity tests were conducted with larval P. promelas based on US Environmental and Protection Agency methods to determine metal mixture effects. All experiments were conducted in synthetic moderately hard water with no addition of dissolved organic matter. Three different effect analysis approaches, the MixTox model, the Finney model, and the toxic unit method, were used for comparison. The results indicate that the toxicity of Cu+Zn, Cu+Ni, and Zn+Ni mixtures to P. promelas was more-than-additive. Among the 3 mixtures, the effect of the Cu+Ni mixture was the most profound. The results of the present study are useful for applications to models such as the metal mixture biotic ligand model. More research should be conducted to determine the mechanisms of acute and chronic toxicity of metal mixtures.

  4. ACUTE TOXICITY OF FIVE SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED METALS, INDIVIDUALLY AND IN A MIXTURE, TO THE ESTUARINE MEIOBENTHIC HARPACTICOID COPEPOD AMPHIASCUS TENUIREMIS. (R825279)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The acute effects of many individual, seawater-solubilized metals on meiobenthic copepods and nematodes are well known. In sediments, however, metals most often occur as mixtures, and it is not known whether such mixtures exhibit simple additive toxicity to me...

  5. Enhanced rectifying response from metal-insulator-insulator-metal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraghechi, P.; Foroughi-Abari, A.; Cadien, K.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2011-12-01

    We present on a metal-insulator-insulator-metal quantum electronic tunneling devices suitable for high speed rectifiers. Through the introduction of double oxide layer between similar metallic electrodes, a cascaded potential barrier is formed which alters the electron tunneling mechanism at forward versus the reverse bias. The cascaded potential barrier engineering manifests itself in both a highly nonlinear and asymmetric I-V junction characteristic. It is envisioned that high speed rectifiers and mixers having extraordinary nonlinearity can be realized through the incorporation of the cascaded potential barrier architecture and dissimilar metallic electrodes.

  6. Subchronic exposure to a mixture of groundwater-contaminating metals through drinking water induces oxidative stress in male rats.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sachin Hanmantrao; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath; Kataria, Meena; Tripathi, Harish Chandra

    2007-03-01

    The current study examines the oxidative stress-inducing potential of a mixture of metals, representative of groundwater contamination in different areas of India. Male albino rats were exposed to the mixture through drinking water for 90 days at 0, 1, 10 and 100 times the mode concentrations of the metals in contaminated waters and at concentrations equal to their WHO maximum permissible limit (MPL) in drinking water. The endpoints evaluated were lipid peroxidation (LPO), GSH content and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in heart, liver, kidney and brain. MPL and 1× levels did not induce any alterations. The mixture at 10× and 100× doses increased LPO and decreased GSH level and activities of the antioxidases in kidney, liver and brain, but no alterations were observed in heart. An inverse correlation between LPO and GSH or antioxidaes and a positive correlation between GSH and glutathione peroxidase or glutathione reductase were found in the affected organs. The findings suggest that the mixture induces oxidative stress and decreases antioxidant status in 10× and 100× the mode concentrations of the metals in drinking water.

  7. Photochemical products in urban mixtures enhance inflammatory responses in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Kenneth G; Jeffries, Harvey E; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M; Doyle, Melanie; Voicu, Iuliana; Jaspers, Ilona

    2004-01-01

    Complex urban air mixtures that realistically mimic urban smog can be generated for investigating adverse health effects. "Smog chambers" have been used for over 30 yr to conduct experiments for developing and testing photochemical models that predict ambient ozone (O(3)) concentrations and aerosol chemistry. These chambers were used to generate photochemical and nonirradiated systems, which were interfaced with an in vitro exposure system to compare the inflammatory effects of complex air pollutant mixtures with and without sunlight-driven chemistry. These are preliminary experiments in a new project to study the health effects of particulate matter and associated gaseous copollutants. Briefly, two matched outdoor chambers capable of using real sunlight were utilized to generate two test atmospheres for simultaneous exposures to cultured lung cells. One chamber was used to produce a photochemically active system, which ran from sunrise to sunset, producing O(3) and the associated secondary products. A few hours after sunset, NO was added to titrate and remove completely the O(3), forming NO(2). In the second chamber, an equal amount of NO(2) and the same amount of the 55-component hydrocarbon mixture used to setup the photochemical system in the first side were injected. A549 cells, from an alveolar type II-like cell line grown on membranous support, were exposed to the photochemical mixture or the "original" NO(2)/hydrocarbon mixture for 5 h and analyzed for inflammatory response (IL-8 mRNA levels) 4 h postexposure. In addition, a variation of this experiment was conducted to compare the photochemical system producing O(3) and NO(2), with a simple mixture of only the O(3) and NO(2). Our data suggest that the photochemically altered mixtures that produced secondary products induced about two- to threefold more IL-8 mRNA than the mixture of NO(2) and hydrocarbons or O(3). These results indicate that secondary products generated through the photochemical reactions

  8. Fitting a Mixture Item Response Theory Model to Personality Questionnaire Data: Characterizing Latent Classes and Investigating Possibilities for Improving Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maij-de Meij, Annette M.; Kelderman, Henk; van der Flier, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Mixture item response theory (IRT) models aid the interpretation of response behavior on personality tests and may provide possibilities for improving prediction. Heterogeneity in the population is modeled by identifying homogeneous subgroups that conform to different measurement models. In this study, mixture IRT models were applied to the…

  9. Expanding metal mixture toxicity models to natural stream and lake invertebrate communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Keller, William (Bill)

    2015-01-01

    A modeling approach that was used to predict the toxicity of dissolved single and multiple metals to trout is extended to stream benthic macroinvertebrates, freshwater zooplankton, and Daphnia magna. The approach predicts the accumulation of toxicants (H, Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in organisms using 3 equilibrium accumulation models that define interactions between dissolved cations and biological receptors (biotic ligands). These models differ in the structure of the receptors and include a 2-site biotic ligand model, a bidentate biotic ligand or 2-pKa model, and a humic acid model. The predicted accumulation of toxicants is weighted using toxicant-specific coefficients and incorporated into a toxicity function called Tox, which is then related to observed mortality or invertebrate community richness using a logistic equation. All accumulation models provide reasonable fits to metal concentrations in tissue samples of stream invertebrates. Despite the good fits, distinct differences in the magnitude of toxicant accumulation and biotic ligand speciation exist among the models for a given solution composition. However, predicted biological responses are similar among the models because there are interdependencies among model parameters in the accumulation–Tox models. To illustrate potential applications of the approaches, the 3 accumulation–Tox models for natural stream invertebrates are used in Monte Carlo simulations to predict the probability of adverse impacts in catchments of differing geology in central Colorado (USA); to link geology, water chemistry, and biological response; and to demonstrate how this approach can be used to screen for potential risks associated with resource development.

  10. Faster Response for Memory-Metal Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Cooling accelerated by attaching Peltier junction. Electric current carries heat to or from junction between two dissimilar metals, direction of heat flow depending on direction of current and particular metals used. Direction of current is opposite to that of same two metals operating as thermocouple.

  11. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, D.F.

    1992-07-10

    This report presents completed sealed tube stability test results for the following eight refrigerant/lubricant mixtures: R-22/mineral oil; R-124/alkylbenzene; R-134a/pentaerythritol (PE) ester (mixed acid); R- 134a/PE (branched acid); R-134a/ PE (100 cSt viscosity); R- 142b/alkylbenzene; R-143a/ PE (branched acid); R-152a/alkylbenzene. Partial results are shown for an additional eight refrigerant-lubricant mixtures. Though work is in progress, no data are available at this point in time for the five remaining test mixtures. Reported are: visual observations on aged sealed tubes, gas chromatographic analyses on the vapor phase contents of the tubes, chloride ion contents of HCFC containing mixtures or fluoride ion contents of HFC mixtures, and total acid number values and infrared analysis results for mixtures containing ester lubricants.

  12. Fate of heavy metals after application of sewage sludge and wood-ash mixtures to short-rotation willow coppice.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, I; Eriksson, J; Adler, A; Aronsson, P; Verwijst, T

    2006-07-01

    Short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC), grown on farmland in Sweden for energy-biomass production, was fertilised with sewage sludge and wood-ash mixtures on the basis of the permitted annual phosphorus supply. Two identical experiments were conducted in central Sweden, on two newly harvested commercial SRWC fields. The maximum legally permitted amount of the sludge-ash mixture, sludge only, ash only, and twice the maximum permitted sludge-ash amount, were applied. The aim was to assess the effect of pH changes following treatment, on the ability of SRWC to take up large amounts of Cd and other metals. The remediation effect of SRWC was also studied. Under the experimental conditions applied, uptake by SRWC was unaffected by pH changes. The differences between the amounts of metals experimentally applied, less the uptake by SRWC after a potential harvest, were broadly within the permitted limits. For Cd, a reduction of total amounts in soil was observed.

  13. Ab initio interaction potentials and scattering lengths for ultracold mixtures of metastable helium and alkali-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedziera, Dariusz; Mentel, Łukasz; Żuchowski, Piotr S.; Knoop, Steven

    2015-06-01

    We have obtained accurate ab initio +4Σ quartet potentials for the diatomic metastable triplet helium+alkali-metal (Li, Na, K, Rb) systems, using all-electron restricted open-shell coupled cluster singles and doubles with noniterative triples corrections CCSD(T) calculations and accurate calculations of the long-range C6 coefficients. These potentials provide accurate ab initio quartet scattering lengths, which for these many-electron systems is possible, because of the small reduced masses and shallow potentials that result in a small amount of bound states. Our results are relevant for ultracold metastable triplet helium+alkali-metal mixture experiments.

  14. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals in Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae) in synthetic sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrahy, E.A.; Clements, W.H.

    1997-02-01

    This research investigated toxicity and bioaccumulation of a mixture of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in Chironomus tentans in synthetic sediment, and compared predicted to measured steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). In a toxicity test, C. tentans were exposed to various dilutions of a base concentration (1.0 X) of a mixture of the four metals (5 {micro}g/g Cd. 10 {micro}g/g Cu. 70 {micro}g/g Pb, and 300 {micro}g/g Zn) in synthetic sediment. Mortality ranged from 17 to 100%. To measure bioaccumulation of the metals, C. tentans were exposed to 0.35 X the base concentration for a period of up to 14 d in two uptake tests. Bioaccumulation of all four metals increased over the 14-d uptake phases. Concentrations of metals in chironomids were significantly correlated with exposure time in the uptake phases. Only concentrations of copper approached background levels after 7 d depuration. Uptake rate coefficients and elimination rate constants were determined for each metal. Bioaccumulation factors were highest for Cd and lowest for Pb. With the exception of Pb, steady-state BAFs were within a factor of about two of those calculated using the first-order kinetic model. The high BAFs calculated may indicate greater bioavailability in synthetic sediment. Studies comparing toxicity and bioaccumulation of natural and synthetic sediments are necessary before the use of synthetic sediments is widely adopted.

  15. Immunosuppressive effect of subchronic exposure to a mixture of eight heavy metals, found as groundwater contaminants in different areas of India, through drinking water in male rats.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, S H; Sarkar, S N; Ram, G C; Tripathi, H C

    2007-10-01

    Immunotoxicity is an important health hazard of heavy metal exposure. Because the risk of combined exposure in the population cannot be neglected, we examined whether subchronic exposure to a mixture of metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, nickel, manganese, and iron) via drinking water at contemporary Indian groundwater contamination levels and at concentrations equivalent to the WHO maximum permissible limit (MPL) in drinking water can induce immunotoxicity in male rats. Data on groundwater contamination with metals in India were collected from literature and metals were selected on the basis of their frequency of occurrence and contamination level above the MPL. Male albino Wistar rats were exposed to the mixture at 0, 1, 10, and 100 times the mode concentrations (the most frequently occurring concentration) of the individual metals in drinking water for 90 days. In addition, one group was exposed to the mixture at a concentration equal to the MPL of the individual metal and another group was used as positive control for immune response studies. The end points assessed were weights of organs, hematological indices, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and histopathology of skin and spleen. The MPL and 1x doses did not significantly affect any of the parameters and none of the doses induced any significant changes after 30 days of exposure. The mixture at 10x and 100x doses increased the relative weight of the spleen, but that of thymus, adrenals, and popliteal lymphnodes were increased with the 100x dose. After 90 days, 10x and 100x doses decreased serum protein and globulin contents and increased the albumin:globulin ratio; the albumin level was decreased only with the 100x dose. After 60 days, the total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) level, and packed cell volume (PCV) were decreased with the 100x dose, whereas after 90 days, 10x and 100x doses reduced the TEC, total leukocyte count, Hb level, PCV, mean corpuscular volume, and

  16. Behavioral response of juvenile rainbow trout exposed to an herbicide mixture.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Candida; Santos, Miguel Machado; Lek, Sovan; Grenouillet, Gaël

    2015-02-01

    Fish are capable of sensing water-borne chemicals at sub-lethal concentrations. Inadequate behavioral responses to physiological and environmental stimuli owing to adverse effects of aquatic toxicants can have serious implications for survival. In this study we exposed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during 5 days to a low-concentration mixture of three co-occurring herbicides: atrazine, linuron and metolachlor, at maximum concentrations of 4.5, 4.9 and 13.4 μg L(-1), respectively. Our hypothesis was that fish behavior - swimming activity and interactions between individuals - would be modified due to exposure to the mixture. We studied these behaviors by observing fish twice-daily throughout the exposure period at 30-s intervals for 5 min, registering the vertical distribution of fish in the water column and the number of agoniztic acts between all individuals. Fish exposed to the mixture of herbicides were hypoactive and spent more time in the lower parts of the aquaria in comparison to non-exposed controls, reflecting inhibited swimming activity. Average swimming height of exposed fish decreased significantly with the number of agoniztic acts, whilst in control groups there was no significant relationship between the two behaviors. Overall, behavior of fish exposed for a short time to the herbicide mixture was altered in comparison to control-fish behavior. The behavioral endpoints chosen here were easily observed, simple to quantify, and of ecological relevance.

  17. Proteomic analysis in Daphnia magna exposed to As(III), As(V) and Cd heavy metals and their binary mixtures for screening potential biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Le, Thai-Hoang; Lim, Eun-Suk; Hong, Nam-Hui; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Shim, Yon Sik; Hwang, Jin Rae; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the effects of three widespread heavy metals, As(III), As(V) and Cd, and their binary mixtures on the proteomic profile in D. magna were examined to screen novel protein biomarkers using the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis method (2DE). Ten 20d daphnia were exposed to the LC20 concentrations for each of a total of 8 treatments, including the control, As(III), As(V), Cd, [As(III)+As(V)], [As(III)+Cd], [As(V)+Cd], and [As(III), As(V), Cd], for 24h before protein isolation. Three replicates were performed for each treatment. These protein samples were employed for 2DE experiments with a pH gradient gel strip from pH 3 to pH 10. The protein spots were detected by a silver staining process and their intensities were analyzed by Progenesis software to discover the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in response to each heavy metal. A total of 117 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in daphnia responding to the 8 treatments and mapped onto a 2D proteome map, which provides some information of the molecular weight (MW) and pI value for each protein. All of these DEPs are considered as potential candidates for protein biomarkers in D. magna for detecting heavy metals in the aquatic ecosystem. Comparing the proteomic results among these treatments suggested that exposing D. magna to binary mixtures of heavy metals may result in some complex interactive molecular responses within them, rather than just the simple sum of the proteomic profiles of the individual chemicals, (As(III), As(V), and Cd).

  18. Removing lead from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation: factorial design and removal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui

    2013-10-01

    The lead removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation was optimized using experimental design, and a mathematical model was established to elucidate the removal mechanism. The variables studied in lead evaporation consisted of the chamber pressure, heating temperature, heating time, particle size and initial mass. The low-level chamber pressure was fixed at 0.1 Pa as the operation pressure. The application of two-level factorial design generated a first-order polynomial that agreed well with the data for evaporation efficiency of lead. The heating temperature and heating time exhibited significant effects on the efficiency, which was validated by means of the copper-lead mixture experiments. The optimized operating conditions within the region studied were the chamber pressure of 0.1 Pa, heating temperature of 1023 K and heating time of 120 min. After the conditions were employed to remove lead from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards, the efficiency was 99.97%. The mechanism of the effects was elucidated by mathematical modeling that deals with evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, and can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation.

  19. Transcriptional responses indicate attenuated oxidative stress in the springtail Folsomia candida exposed to mixtures of cadmium and phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Muriel E; Ellers, Jacintha; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; den Dunnen, Johan T; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2013-05-01

    Since the 'omics revolution', the assessment of toxic chemical mixtures has incorporated approaches where phenotypic endpoints are connected to a mechanistic understanding of toxicity. In this study we determined the effect of binary mixtures of cadmium and phenanthrene on the reproduction of Folsomia candida and investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this response. Mixture toxicity modeling showed an antagonistic deviation from concentration addition for reproduction effects of the mixtures. Subsequent transcriptional response analysis was done using five mixtures at the modeled 50 % effect level for reproduction. The transcription profiles of 86 high throughput RT-qPCR assays were studied by means of partial least squares regression analysis. The first and second principal components (PCs) were correlated with global responses to cadmium and phenanthrene, while correlations with the mixture treatments were found in the higher PCs. Specifically associated with the mixture treatments were a biotransformation phase II gene, four mitochondrial related genes and a gene involved in the biosynthesis of antioxidant selenoproteins. Membrane integrity related gene inductions were correlated with the single phenanthrene treatment but not with the mixtures. Immune and inflammatory response assays did not correlate with any of the mixtures. These results suggest moderated oxidative stress, a higher mitochondrial maintenance and less compromised membrane function in the mixture exposed samples compared to the separate cadmium or phenanthrene exposures. The antagonism found for inhibition of reproduction may partially originate from these differences. Mechanistic studies on mixture toxicity can ultimately aid risk assessment by defining relevant toxicity pathways in organisms exposed to real-world mixture exposures present in the field. PMID:23483327

  20. Response dynamics of bluff-body stabilized conical premixed turbulent flames with spatial mixture gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Cetegen, Baki M.

    2009-03-15

    Response of bluff-body stabilized conical turbulent premixed flames was experimentally studied for a range of excitation frequencies (10-400 Hz), mean flow velocities (5, 10 and 15 m/s) and three different spatial mixture distributions (uniform, inner and outer enrichment). Upstream excitation was provided by a loudspeaker producing velocity oscillation amplitudes of about 8% of the mean flow velocity. Flame response was detected by a photomultiplier observing the CH{sup *} emission from the flame. The studied turbulent flames exhibited transfer function characteristics of a low-pass filter with a cutoff Strouhal number between 0.08 and 0.12. The amplification factors at low frequencies ranged from 2 to 20 and generally increased for mean flow velocities from 5 to 15 m/s. The highest levels of amplification were found for the outer mixture enrichment followed in decreasing order by uniform and inner mixture gradient cases. The high levels of flame response for the outer enrichment case were attributed to the enhanced flame-vortex interaction in outer jet shear layer. At high excitation levels (u{sup '}/U{sub m}{approx}0.3) for U{sub m}=5 m/ s where non-linear flame response is expected, the flame exhibited a reduced amplitude response in the frequency range between 40 and 100 Hz for the uniform and outer equivalence ratio gradient cases and no discernible effect for the inner equivalence ratio gradient. In all cases, transfer function phase was found to vary linearly with excitation frequency. Finally, a relationship between the amplitude characteristics of the bluff-body wake transfer function and flame blowoff equivalence ratio was presented. (author)

  1. Thermal Hazard Evaluation of Cumene Hydroperoxide-Metal Ion Mixture Using DSC, TAM III, and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    You, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) is widely used in chemical processes, mainly as an initiator for the polymerization of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. It is a typical organic peroxide and an explosive substance. It is susceptible to thermal decomposition and is readily affected by contamination; moreover, it has high thermal sensitivity. The reactor tank, transit storage vessel, and pipeline used for manufacturing and transporting this substance are made of metal. Metal containers used in chemical processes can be damaged through aging, wear, erosion, and corrosion; furthermore, the containers might release metal ions. In a metal pipeline, CHP may cause incompatibility reactions because of catalyzed exothermic reactions. This paper discusses and elucidates the potential thermal hazard of a mixture of CHP and an incompatible material's metal ions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal activity monitor III (TAM III) were employed to preliminarily explore and narrate the thermal hazard at the constant temperature environment. The substance was diluted and analyzed by using a gas chromatography spectrometer (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) to determine the effect of thermal cracking and metal ions of CHP. The thermokinetic parameter values obtained from the experiments are discussed; the results can be used for designing an inherently safer process. As a result, the paper finds that the most hazards are in the reaction of CHP with Fe(2+). When the metal release is exothermic in advance, the system temperature increases, even leading to uncontrollable levels, and the process may slip out of control. PMID:27136518

  2. Thermal Hazard Evaluation of Cumene Hydroperoxide-Metal Ion Mixture Using DSC, TAM III, and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    You, Mei-Li

    2016-04-28

    Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) is widely used in chemical processes, mainly as an initiator for the polymerization of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. It is a typical organic peroxide and an explosive substance. It is susceptible to thermal decomposition and is readily affected by contamination; moreover, it has high thermal sensitivity. The reactor tank, transit storage vessel, and pipeline used for manufacturing and transporting this substance are made of metal. Metal containers used in chemical processes can be damaged through aging, wear, erosion, and corrosion; furthermore, the containers might release metal ions. In a metal pipeline, CHP may cause incompatibility reactions because of catalyzed exothermic reactions. This paper discusses and elucidates the potential thermal hazard of a mixture of CHP and an incompatible material's metal ions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal activity monitor III (TAM III) were employed to preliminarily explore and narrate the thermal hazard at the constant temperature environment. The substance was diluted and analyzed by using a gas chromatography spectrometer (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) to determine the effect of thermal cracking and metal ions of CHP. The thermokinetic parameter values obtained from the experiments are discussed; the results can be used for designing an inherently safer process. As a result, the paper finds that the most hazards are in the reaction of CHP with Fe(2+). When the metal release is exothermic in advance, the system temperature increases, even leading to uncontrollable levels, and the process may slip out of control.

  3. Benthic macroinvertebrate and periphyton community responses to a complex mixture in landfill leachate seep discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, M.A.; Kusnier, J. Jr.; Lowe, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Typically, the composition of sanitary landfill leachate is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic chemicals. The existence of landfill facilities which operated prior to current solid waste disposal regulations, has resulted in the need for evaluation of potential risks/hazards to the environment, due to leaching of this complex mixture of contaminants to surface and/or subsurface media. Evaluation an a chemical specific basis is tedious at best, and gives little information about the effects of the mixture of chemicals present. Therefore, an evaluation of in-situ community response was conducted. This paper focuses on the response of the macroinvertebrate and periphyton communities, in terms of dominant taxa and community structure, in a small pond adjacent to a former sanitary landfill facility, which receives leachate seep discharge via groundwater flow from an unconfined aquifer. The pond, created during use of the landfill, is actually an area where cover material was obtained for landfill construction. Macroinvertebrate and periphyton community structure was assessed at three shallow, sandy locations in the pond, at varying distances from the areas of known leachate seeps. General water quality and laboratory toxicity testing with Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Chironomus tentans was also conducted using ambient water and sediment from the three locations. Differences between locations are distinct in both the periphyton and macroinvertebrate communities, and in the results of the aquatic toxicity testing. No difference between locations was observed, however, in terms of toxicity testing with chironomids.

  4. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-08-01

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the Third Quarter of this project we present our data on trace metal partitioning obtained from combustion of MSS and Gas, MSS and Coal and Coal and Gas alone.

  5. Perturbation theory of structure in classical liquid mixtures: Application to metallic systems near phase separation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The partial structure factors of classical simple liquid mixtures near phase separation are dicussed. The theory is developed for particles interacting through pair potentials, and is thus appropriate both to insulating fluids, and also to metallic systems if these may be described by an effective ion-ion pair interaction. The motivation arose from consideration of metallic liquid mixtures, in which resistive anomalies have been observed near phase separation. A mean field theory correction appropriate to 3 pair potential for the effects of correlated motions in the reference fluid is studied. The work is cast in terms of functions which are closely related to the direct correlation functions of Ornstein and Zernike. The results are qualitatively in accord with physical expectations. Quantitative agreement with experiment seems to turn on the selection of the hard core reference potential in terms of the metallic effective pair potential. It is suggested that the present effective pair potentials are perhaps not properly used to calculate the metallic structure factors at long wavelength.

  6. THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) WAS LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY -PRODUCTS (DBP) W AS LESS THAN ADDITIVE.

    Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may under or over represent the actual biological res...

  7. Empirical evaluation of sufficient similarity in dose-response for environmental risk assessment of a mixture of 11 pyrethroids.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical mixtures in the environment are often the result of a dynamic process. When dose-response data are available on random samples throughout the process, equivalence testing can be used to determine whether the mixtures are sufficiently similar based on a pre-specified biol...

  8. Study of metal transfer in CO2 laser+GMAW-P hybrid welding using argon-helium mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wang; Hua, Xueming; Liao, Wei; Li, Fang; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    The metal transfer in CO2 Laser+GMAW-P hybrid welding by using argon-helium mixtures was investigated and the effect of the laser on the mental transfer is discussed. A 650 nm laser, in conjunction with the shadow graph technique, is used to observe the metal transfer process. In order to analyze the heat input to the droplet and the droplet internal current line distribution. An optical emission spectroscopy system was employed to estimate default parameter and optimized plasma temperature, electron number densities distribution. The results indicate that the CO2 plasma plume have a significant impact to the electrode melting, droplet formation, detachment, impingement onto the workpiece and weld morphology. Since the current distribution direction flow changes to the keyhole, to obtain a metal transfer mode of one droplet per pulse, the welding parameters should be adjusted to a higher pulse time (TP) and a lower voltage.

  9. PROCEDURES FOR DERIVING EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING SEDIMENT BENCHMARKS (ESBS) FOR THE PROTECTION OF BENTHIC ORGANISMS: METALS MIXTURES (CADMIUM, COPPER, LEAD, NICKEL, SILVER, AND ZINC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document describes procedures to derive concentrations of metal mixtures in sediment which are protective of the presence of benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it accounts for t...

  10. EXPRESSION OF RAINBOW TROUT P450 MRNA IN RESPONSE TO MIXTURES OF B[A]P, CADMIUM, AND ESTRADIOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A great deal of uncertainty exists regarding the response of biological indicators of exposure to mixtures of chemical stressors. Enzymatic transformation systems that are exposed to xenobiotic insult may interact unpredictably when more than one stressor is present. In particu...

  11. Metal-binding peptides: Their role in responses to metal stress

    SciTech Connect

    Rauser, W.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Excess metals are one stress that plants may encounter. The metals Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn are considered because of concern for their entry into the foodchain of animals and man. Studies of metal tolerant plants and cell cultures suggest three types of responses: exclusion of metal from protoplasts by binding to cell walls, differential membrane transport reducing metal exposure of enzymes, and intracellular chelation of metal in innocuous forms. One group of compounds involved in the latter response are metal-binding peptides designated phytochelatins. They are a family of small peptides composed of five kinds of amino acids, including 2 to 11 cysteines which provide thiols for selective binding of metal. Metals induce the synthesis of phytochelatins through unknown enzymes involving glutathione. In plant cell cultures the peptides bind about 90% of the intracellular Cd. In roots of young plants up to half of the metal is bound by phytochelatins. Intact plants probably use a combination of responses to deal with excess metals, phytochelatins may dominate in certain cases.

  12. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2003-01-31

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research results have demonstrated that the inhalation of coal/MSS ash particles cause an increase in lung permeability than coal ash particles alone. Elemental analysis of the coal/MSS ash particles showed that Zn was more abundant in these ash particles than the ash particles of coal ash alone.

  13. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-05-04

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end we shall use an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined.

  14. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixture with metal

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, D.F. )

    1992-03-31

    This report presents completed sealed tube stability test results for the R-123/mineral oil mixture and preliminary results for seven of the eighteen contracted refrigerant-lubricant mixtures. The R-123 mixture was tested at 105, 150, and 175{degrees}C. The results obtained indicate that prolonged exposure to temperatures of about 150{degree}C and higher will lead to rapid chemical deterioration of the R-123/mineral oil system. Chlorotrifluoroethane (R-133a) and trifluoroethane (R-143a) have been identified as decomposition products of R-123. Testing at 150 and 175{degrees}C have been completed for the HCFC refrigerants R-22, R-124, and R-142b with either mineral oil or alkylbenzene lubricants. These mixtures were very stable at the indicated temperatures. Testing at a higher temperature level will be necessary to define their upper temperature limits. Similarily, partial test results are available for HFC refrigerants R-32, R-125, R-134a (two esters), and R-143a with pentaerythritol ester lubricants at the 150 and 175{degrees}C temperature levels. Again, all five mixtures were found to be extremely stable at the test temperatures and additional testing will be needed to establish their upper temperature limits.

  15. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-02-05

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the Fifth Quarter of this project we focus on determining whether certain trace metals are associated with certain major species, such as calcium and iron. To this end we present data showing correlations between As, Se,and Sb and major species, such as Ca and Fe. Conversely, lack of correlation between trace metals and elements, such as aluminum can also be used to infer lack of chemical association.

  16. Antioxidant responses to simulated acid rain and heavy metal deposition in birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Koricheva, J; Roy, S; Vranjic, J A; Haukioja, E; Hughes, P R; Hänninen, O

    1997-01-01

    This study measured the responses of different anti-oxidants in 2-year-old birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings subjected to simulated acid rain (pH 4.0) and heavy metals (Cu/Ni), applied alone or in combination for 2 months. The applied concentrations of pollutants did not significantly affect seedling biomass or total glutathione levels. Acid rain alone increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity both in leaves and roots, while heavy metals alone inhibited SOD activity in roots. Both acid rain and heavy metals applied singly increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activities in leaves but decreased activities in roots. In contrast, acid rain and heavy metal treatments increased glutathione reductase (GR) activity in roots but not in leaves. Spraying birch seedlings with a mixture of acid rain and heavy metals increased SOD, APX and GPX activities in leaves and GR activity in roots. However, the effects of mixed pollutants on enzyme activities usually were less than the summed effects of individual pollutants. Enzyme responses also depended on where pollutants were applied: spraying pollutants onto the shoots initiated higher responses in SOD, APX and GPX than did application to the soil surface, while the opposite was true for GR.

  17. Toxicity Induced by a Metal Mixture (Cd, Pb and Zn) in the Yeast Pichia kudriavzevii: The Role of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Vanessa A; Silva, Cristina F; Soares, Eduardo V

    2016-05-01

    The present work aims to contribute for the elucidation of the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity associated with the exposure of Pichia kudriavzevii to multi-metals (Cd, Pb and Zn). Cells of the non-conventional yeast P. kudriavzevii exposed for 6 h to the action of multi-metals accumulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), evaluated through the oxidation of the probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. A progressive loss of membrane integrity (monitored using propidium iodide) was observed in multi-metal-treated cells. The triggering of intracellular ROS accumulation preceded the loss of membrane integrity. These results suggest that the disruption of membrane integrity can be attributed to the oxidative stress. The exposure of yeast cells to single metal showed that, under the concentrations tested, Pb was the metal responsible for the induction of the oxidative stress. Yeast cells coexposed to an antioxidant (ascorbic acid) and multi-metals did not accumulate intracellular ROS, but loss proliferation capacity. Together, the data obtained indicated that intracellular ROS accumulation contributed to metal toxicity, namely for the disruption of membrane integrity of the yeast P. kudriavzevii. It was proposed that Pb toxicity (the metal responsible for the toxic symptoms under the conditions tested) result from the combination of an ionic mechanism and the intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:26781618

  18. Integrated photo-responsive metal oxide semiconductor circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban D. (Inventor); Dargo, David R. (Inventor); Lyons, John C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An infrared photoresponsive element (RD) is monolithically integrated into a source follower circuit of a metal oxide semiconductor device by depositing a layer of a lead chalcogenide as a photoresistive element forming an ohmic bridge between two metallization strips serving as electrodes of the circuit. Voltage from the circuit varies in response to illumination of the layer by infrared radiation.

  19. Acute toxicity and synergism of binary mixtures of antifouling biocides with heavy metals to embryos of sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xue; Wang, Xia; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Wang, Yuan

    2011-08-01

    Acute toxicity and synergism of four antifouling biocides (Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid and Sea-Nine 211) and five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu) are investigated using the sea urchin embryos of Glyptocidaris crenularis (G. crenularis) at six typical developmental stages, that is, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, blastula, gastrula and 4-arm pluteus. Our results show that the toxicity of the four biocides is in an order of Sea-Nine 211 > tolylfluanid > dichlofluanid > Irgarol 1051 and their -log EC(50) values at all stages are strongly linearly correlated with the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P) values (correlation coefficients R > 0.72) indicating the importance of hydrophobicity for the embryonic toxicity. For the five heavy metals, the EC(50) ranges from 0.36 to 30.78 μM and the toxicity follows an order of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cd >Ni. The significant correlation (R > 0.79) between the -log EC50 and the bioconcentration factor (log BCF) values of metals also indicate that the bioaccumulation property of metals contributes to their aquatic toxicity. In addition, the joint effects of the biocides with the heavy metals in embryonic development are assessed by using a concentration addition model. Synergistic effects are observed in almost all 25 mixtures, showing that Cu yields the strongest while Ni the weakest synergistic toxic effects on the embryos development. PMID:20930027

  20. Calcium fluxes in juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, exposed to sublethal waterborne Cd, Cu or mixtures of these metals

    SciTech Connect

    Pelgrom, S.M.G.J.; Lock, R.A.C.; Balm, P.H.M.; Bonga, S.E.W.

    1997-04-01

    In juvenile tilapia the effects of waterborne Cu, Cd, and combinations of these metals on whole-body Ca fluxes were studied, using {sup 45}Ca as tracer. The maintenance of Ca homeostasis in fish is crucial throughout life but is especially important in young fish; Ca is also critical for growth. Single metal exposure had no effect on Ca fluxes after 6 d of exposure. In fish coexposed to 200 {micro}g Cu L{sup {minus}1} + 70 {micro}g Cd L{sup {minus}1} however, Ca influx was significantly decreased, whereas Ca efflux was not affected. As a result, the net flux was decreased. Because the effect on Ca fluxes observed in Cu/Cd-coexposed fish could not have been predicted from the effects of single metal exposures, this study underscores the impact of interactions between toxicants. Because natural freshwaters are commonly polluted by mixtures of metals, interactions between toxicants are important in risk assessment of heavy metals.

  1. Molecular dynamics investigation of separation of hydrogen sulfide from acidic gas mixtures inside metal-doped graphite micropores.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Hsing

    2015-09-21

    The separation of poisonous compounds from various process fluids has long been highly intractable, motivating the present study on the dynamic separation of H2S in acidic-gas-mixture-filled micropores. The molecular dynamics approach, coupled with the isothermal-isochoric ensemble, was used to model the molecular interactions and adsorption of H2S/CO2/CO/H2O mixtures inside metal-doped graphite slits. Due to the difference in the adsorption characteristics between the two distinct adsorbent materials, the metal dopant in the graphitic micropores leads to competitive adsorption, i.e. the Au and graphite walls compete to capture free adsorbates. The effects of competitive adsorption, coupled with changes in the gas temperature, concentration, constituent ratio and slit width on the constituent separation of mixtures were systematically studied. The molecule-wall binding energies calculated in this work (those of H2S, H2O and CO on Au walls and those of H2O, CO and CO2 on graphite walls) show good agreement with those obtained using density functional theory (DFT) and experimental results. The z-directional self-diffusivities (Dz) for adsorbates inside the slit ranged from 10(-9) to 10(-7) m(2) s(-1) as the temperature was increased from 10 to 500 K. The values are comparable with those for a typical microporous fluid (10(-8)-10(-9) m(2) s(-1) in a condensed phase and 10(-6)-10(-7) m(2) s(-1) in the gaseous state). The formation of H-bonding networks and hydrates of H2S is disadvantageous for the separation of mixtures. The results indicate that H2S can be efficiently separated from acidic gas mixtures onto the Au(111) surface by (i) reducing the mole fraction of H2S and H2O in the mixtures, (ii) raising the gas temperature to the high temperature limit (≥400 K), and (iii) lowering the slit width to below the threshold dimension (≤23.26 Å).

  2. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    SciTech Connect

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  3. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  4. Efficient destruction of CF4 through in situ generation of alkali metals from heated alkali halide reducing mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Churl; Choi, Wonyong

    2002-03-15

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the most potent green house gases that are very recalcitrant at destruction. An effective way of converting PFCs using hot solid reagents into safe products has been recently introduced. By investigating the thermal reductive destruction of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) we provided new insight and more physicochemical consideration on this novel process. The complete destruction of CF4was successfully achieved by flowing the gas through a heated reagent bed (400-950 degrees C) that contained powder mixtures of alkali halides, CaO, and Si. The silicon acted as a reducing agent of alkali halides for the in-situ production of alkali metals, and the calcium oxide played the role of a halide ion acceptor. The absence of any single component in this ternary mixture drastically reduced the destruction efficiency of CF4. The CF4 destruction efficiencies with the solid reagent containing the alkali halide, MX, increased in the order of Li approximately Na < K < Cs for alkali cations and I < Br < Cl < F for halide anions. This trend agreed with the endothermicity of the alkali metal generation reaction: the higher the endothermicity, the lower the destruction efficiency. Alkali metal generation was indirectly detected by monitoring H2 production from its reaction with water. The production of alkali metals increased with NaF, KF, and CsF in this order. The CsF/CaO/Si system exhibited the complete destruction of CF4 at as low as 600 degrees C. The solid product analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of CaF2 and the depletion of Si with black carbon particles formed in the solid reagent residue. No CO/CO2 and toxic HF and SiF4 formation were detected in the exhaust gas.

  5. Investigation of paramagnetic response of metallic epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paramagnetic properties of epoxies which were impregnated with metal ions were examined as the primary task in this research. A major conclusion was that the quality control of the epoxies was insufficient to permit reliable evaluation. Subsequently, a new set of specimens is being prepared. As an additional task, a new method is investigated for estimating heats of combustion for saturated hydrocarbons. The results of that investigation have shown that the empirical approach is a promising method for on-line measurements.

  6. Transcriptional responses to environmental metal exposure in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected in lakes with differing environmental metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Ni).

    PubMed

    Pierron, Fabien; Bourret, Vincent; St-Cyr, Jérôme; Campbell, Peter G C; Bernatchez, Louis; Couture, Patrice

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the mechanisms involved in metal stress in wild fish, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were collected in eight lakes of the Rouyn-Noranda and Sudbury regions (Canada). Due to mining and smelting activities, these two regions indeed present a broad contamination gradient in metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni; water, sediment and prey) and offer a unique research opportunity to investigate relationships between metal bioaccumulation and resulting deleterious effects in indigenous biota chronically exposed to metal mixtures. The expression level of genes encoding for proteins involved in metal detoxification (metallothioneins, mts), protein protection (heat shock protein-70, hsp-70), growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, igf-1), aerobic energy metabolism (cytochrome c oxydase, cco-1) and protection against oxidative stress (Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, sod-1) were assessed in fish liver and muscle in association with protein and enzymatic assays for cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). Bioaccumulation of both Cd and Cu increased in response to higher ambient metal concentrations, but the two metals clearly have different modes of action. For Cd, changes in gene expression levels were more marked in the liver than in the dorsal muscle, whereas for Cu the opposite trend was observed. Hepatic Cd accumulation was linked to decreased cco-1 and sod-1 gene expression, whereas Cu accumulation was associated with a decrease in CCO enzymatic activity and an increase in total protein concentration and in cco-1, mts and hsp-70 gene expression levels. For Ni, no significant correlations were observed at the transcriptional level, but increasing hepatic Ni concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with protein concentrations and CCO activity. By coupling gene expression to biochemical and physiological endpoints, this work provides new insights into the mechanisms involved in metal stress and the adaptive response of fish chronically exposed to metal

  7. Transcriptional responses to environmental metal exposure in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected in lakes with differing environmental metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Ni).

    PubMed

    Pierron, Fabien; Bourret, Vincent; St-Cyr, Jérôme; Campbell, Peter G C; Bernatchez, Louis; Couture, Patrice

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the mechanisms involved in metal stress in wild fish, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were collected in eight lakes of the Rouyn-Noranda and Sudbury regions (Canada). Due to mining and smelting activities, these two regions indeed present a broad contamination gradient in metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni; water, sediment and prey) and offer a unique research opportunity to investigate relationships between metal bioaccumulation and resulting deleterious effects in indigenous biota chronically exposed to metal mixtures. The expression level of genes encoding for proteins involved in metal detoxification (metallothioneins, mts), protein protection (heat shock protein-70, hsp-70), growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, igf-1), aerobic energy metabolism (cytochrome c oxydase, cco-1) and protection against oxidative stress (Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, sod-1) were assessed in fish liver and muscle in association with protein and enzymatic assays for cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). Bioaccumulation of both Cd and Cu increased in response to higher ambient metal concentrations, but the two metals clearly have different modes of action. For Cd, changes in gene expression levels were more marked in the liver than in the dorsal muscle, whereas for Cu the opposite trend was observed. Hepatic Cd accumulation was linked to decreased cco-1 and sod-1 gene expression, whereas Cu accumulation was associated with a decrease in CCO enzymatic activity and an increase in total protein concentration and in cco-1, mts and hsp-70 gene expression levels. For Ni, no significant correlations were observed at the transcriptional level, but increasing hepatic Ni concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with protein concentrations and CCO activity. By coupling gene expression to biochemical and physiological endpoints, this work provides new insights into the mechanisms involved in metal stress and the adaptive response of fish chronically exposed to metal

  8. Exposure to Mixtures of Metals and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: A Multidisciplinary Review Using an Adverse Outcome Pathway Framework.

    PubMed

    von Stackelberg, Katherine; Guzy, Elizabeth; Chu, Tian; Claus Henn, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Current risk assessment guidance calls for an individual chemical-by-chemical approach that fails to capture potential interactive effects of exposure to environmental mixtures and genetic variability. We conducted a review of the literature on relationships between prenatal and early life exposure to mixtures of lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) with neurodevelopmental outcomes. We then used an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework to integrate lines of evidence from multiple disciplines based on evolving guidance developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Toxicological evidence suggests a greater than additive effect of combined exposures to As-Pb-Cd and to Mn with any other metal, and several epidemiologic studies also suggest synergistic effects from binary combinations of Pb-As, Pb-Cd, and Pb-Mn. The exposure levels reported in these epidemiologic studies largely fall at the high-end (e.g., 95th percentile) of biomonitoring data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), suggesting a small but significant potential for high-end exposures. This review integrates multiple data sources using an AOP framework and provides an initial application of the OECD guidance in the context of potential neurodevelopmental toxicity of several metals, recognizing the evolving nature of regulatory interpretation and acceptance. PMID:26096925

  9. Electrochemical properties of molybdenum in individual molten alkali metal chlorides and their mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Volkovich, V. A.; Likhachev, P. Yu.; Vladykin, E. N.

    2015-02-01

    The behavior of molybdenum in chloride melts is studied, and the standard potentials of Mo are determined in the melts based on eutectic mixtures LiCl-KCl-CsCl (at 633-1173 K) and NaCl-CsCl (at 793-1023 K), an equimolar NaCl-KCl mixture at 973-1123 K, and individual LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl at 1123 K. The change in the conventional standard Gibbs energy of molybdenum trichloride formation in the NaCl-KCl, NaCl-CsCl, and LiCl-KCl-CsCl melts is calculated. The effect of the cation composition of the salt solvent on the conventional standard electrode potential of molybdenum in the chloride melts is considered. The diffusion coefficients of Mo(III) ions in the LiCl-KCl-CsCl melt are determined.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of the metals Cd, Cr, Pb and their mixture on the filtration and oxygen consumption rates in catarina scallop, Argopecten ventricosus juveniles.

    PubMed

    Sobrino-Figueroa, Alma S; Cáceres-Martinez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of sublethal concentrations ( LC25, LC10 and LC5) of cadmium, chromium, lead, and their mixture on the filtration rate and oxygen consumption rate of Catarina scallop, Argopecten ventricosus (Sowerby, 1842), juveniles, in order to evaluate the use of these biomarkers as a reliable tool in environmental monitoring studies, because these metals have been found at high levels in water and sediments in the Mexican Pacific systems. An inverse dose-response relationship was observed when metal concentration and exposure time increased, the filtration rate and oxygen consumption rate reduced. The physiological responses evaluated in this study were sufficiently sensitive to detect alterations in the organisms at 0.014 mg l(-1) Cd, 0.311 mg l(-1) Cr, 0.125 mg l(-1) Pb and 0.05 mg l(-1) Cd + Cr + Pb at 24 and 72 hrs. Cd showed the most drastic effect. The Catarina scallop juveniles were more sensitive to Cd, Cr and Pb as compared to other bivalves. The biomarkers evaluated are a reliable tool to carry out environmental monitoring studies.

  11. Characterization and Modeling Analysis for Metal-Semiconductor-Metal GaAs Diodes with Pd/SiO2 Mixture Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shih-Wei; Lai, Shih-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Characterization and modeling of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) GaAs diodes using to evaporate SiO2 and Pd simultaneously as a mixture electrode (called M-MSM diodes) compared with similar to evaporate Pd as the electrode (called Pd-MSM diodes) were reported. The barrier height (φb) and the Richardson constant (A*) were carried out for the thermionic-emission process to describe well the current transport for Pd-MSM diodes in the consideration of the carrier over the metal-semiconductor barrier. In addition, in the consideration of the carrier over both the metal-semiconductor barrier and the insulator-semiconductor barrier simultaneously, thus the thermionic-emission process can be used to describe well the current transport for M-MSM diodes. Furthermore, in the higher applied voltage, the carrier recombination will be taken into discussion. Besides, a composite-current (CC) model is developed to evidence the concepts. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones. PMID:23226352

  12. Spectral weight suppression in response functions of ultracold fermion-boson mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Kai; Komnik, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    We study the dynamical response of ultracold fermion-boson mixtures in the Bogoliubov regime, where the interactions between fermionic impurities and bosonic excitations (phonons) are described by an effective Fröhlich model under the Bogoliubov approximation. A characteristic suppression of the single-particle spectral weight is found in the small-momentum region where the impurity band and phonon mode intersect. Using a diagrammatic technique we compute the Bragg spectra as well as the momentum-dependent force-force correlation function. We find that both of them are heavily affected by the spectral weight suppression effect at low impurity densities in both one- and two-dimensional systems. We show that the spectral weight suppression feature in Bragg spectra, which was previously found in quantum Monte Carlo simulations and which cannot be recovered by the random phase approximation, can be accurately reproduced with the help of vertex corrections.

  13. THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE OF TSC2 MUTANT LONG EVANS (EKER) RATS TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS WAS LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer risk assessment methods for chemical mixtures in drinking water are not well defined. Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may not represent the actual biological response. A rodent model of hereditary ...

  14. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-02-05

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Progress in the Sixth Quarter (January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002) was slow because of slagging problems in the combustor. These required the combustor to be rebuilt, a job that is not yet complete. A paper describing our results heretofore has been accepted by the Journal Environmental Science and Technology.

  15. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, Ian W.H.; Bergvall, Christoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Westerholm, Roger; Stenius, Ulla; Dreij, Kristian

    2013-02-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. -- Highlights: ► Benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and air PM PAH extracts were compared. ► Binary mixture of BP and DBP induced a more than additive DNA damage response. ► Air PM PAH extracts were more potent than toxicity equivalency factor estimates. ► Larger PAHs (> 4 rings) contribute more to the genotoxicity of PAHs in air PM. ► Chk1 is a sensitive marker for persistent activation of DNA damage signaling from PAH mixtures.

  16. Deformation Response and Life of Metallic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2005-01-01

    The project was initially funded for one year (for $100,764) to investigate the potential of particulate reinforced metals for aeropropulsion applications and to generate fatigue results that quantify the mean stress effect for a titanium alloy matrix material (TIMETAL 21S). The project was continued for a second year (for $85,000) to more closely investigate cyclic deformation, especially ratcheting, of the titanium alloy matrix at elevated temperature. Equipment was purchased (for $19,000) to make the experimental program feasible; this equipment included an extensometer calibrator and a multi-channel signal conditioning amplifier. The project was continued for a third year ($50,000) to conduct cyclic relaxation experiments aimed at validating the elastic-viscoelastic-viscoplastic model that NASA GRC had developed for the titanium alloy. Finally, a one-year no cost extension was granted to enable continued analysis of the experimental results and model comparisons.

  17. Latent energy storage with salt and metal mixtures for solar dynamic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. A.; Konstantinou, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines three design alternatives for the development of a solar dynamic heat receiver as applied to power systems operating in low earth orbit. These include a base line design used for comparison in ongoing NASA studies, a system incorporating a salt energy storage system with the salt dispersed within a metal mesh and a hybrid system incorporating both a molten salt and molten metal for energy storage. Based on a typical low earth orbit condition, designs are developed and compared to determine the effect of resultant conductivity, heat capacity and heat of fusion on system size, weight, temperature gradients, cycle turbine inlet temperature and material utilization.

  18. A homogeneous transition metal complex for clean hydrogen production from methanol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lugo, Rafael E; Trincado, Mónica; Vogt, Matthias; Tewes, Friederike; Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2013-04-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic process that mimics the enzymatic function of alcohol dehydrogenase is critical for using biomass alcohols for both the production of H2 as a chemical energy carrier and fine chemicals under waste-free conditions. Dehydrogenation of alcohol-water mixtures into their corresponding acids with molecular hydrogen as the sole by-product from the reaction can be catalysed by a ruthenium complex with a chelating bis(olefin) diazadiene ligand. This complex, [K(dme)2][Ru(H)(trop2dad)], stores up to two equivalents of hydrogen intramolecularly, and catalyses the production of H2 from alcohols in the presence of water and a base under homogeneous conditions. The conversion of a MeOH-H2O mixture proceeds selectively to CO2/H2 gas formation under neutral conditions, thereby allowing the use of the entire hydrogen content (12% by weight). Isolation and characterization of the ruthenium complexes from these reactions suggested a mechanistic scenario in which the trop2dad ligand behaves as a chemically 'non-innocent' co-operative ligand.

  19. A homogeneous transition metal complex for clean hydrogen production from methanol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lugo, Rafael E; Trincado, Mónica; Vogt, Matthias; Tewes, Friederike; Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2013-04-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic process that mimics the enzymatic function of alcohol dehydrogenase is critical for using biomass alcohols for both the production of H2 as a chemical energy carrier and fine chemicals under waste-free conditions. Dehydrogenation of alcohol-water mixtures into their corresponding acids with molecular hydrogen as the sole by-product from the reaction can be catalysed by a ruthenium complex with a chelating bis(olefin) diazadiene ligand. This complex, [K(dme)2][Ru(H)(trop2dad)], stores up to two equivalents of hydrogen intramolecularly, and catalyses the production of H2 from alcohols in the presence of water and a base under homogeneous conditions. The conversion of a MeOH-H2O mixture proceeds selectively to CO2/H2 gas formation under neutral conditions, thereby allowing the use of the entire hydrogen content (12% by weight). Isolation and characterization of the ruthenium complexes from these reactions suggested a mechanistic scenario in which the trop2dad ligand behaves as a chemically 'non-innocent' co-operative ligand. PMID:23511424

  20. A homogeneous transition metal complex for clean hydrogen production from methanol-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lugo, Rafael E.; Trincado, Mónica; Vogt, Matthias; Tewes, Friederike; Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2013-04-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic process that mimics the enzymatic function of alcohol dehydrogenase is critical for using biomass alcohols for both the production of H2 as a chemical energy carrier and fine chemicals under waste-free conditions. Dehydrogenation of alcohol-water mixtures into their corresponding acids with molecular hydrogen as the sole by-product from the reaction can be catalysed by a ruthenium complex with a chelating bis(olefin) diazadiene ligand. This complex, [K(dme)2][Ru(H)(trop2dad)], stores up to two equivalents of hydrogen intramolecularly, and catalyses the production of H2 from alcohols in the presence of water and a base under homogeneous conditions. The conversion of a MeOH-H2O mixture proceeds selectively to CO2/H2 gas formation under neutral conditions, thereby allowing the use of the entire hydrogen content (12% by weight). Isolation and characterization of the ruthenium complexes from these reactions suggested a mechanistic scenario in which the trop2dad ligand behaves as a chemically ‘non-innocent’ co-operative ligand.

  1. Testing WHAM-FTOX with laboratory toxicity data for mixtures of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb).

    PubMed

    Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The Windermere humic aqueous model using the toxicity function (WHAM-FTOX ) describes cation toxicity to aquatic organisms in terms of 1) accumulation by the organism of metabolically active protons and metals at reversible binding sites, and 2) differing toxic potencies of the bound cations. Cation accumulation (νi , in mol g(-1) ) is estimated through calculations with the WHAM chemical speciation model by assuming that organism binding sites can be represented by those of humic acid. Toxicity coefficients (αi ) are combined with νi to obtain the variable FTOX (= Σ αi νi ) which, between lower and upper thresholds (FTOX,LT , FTOX,UT ), is linearly related to toxic effect. Values of αi , FTOX,LT , and FTOX,LT are obtained by fitting toxicity data. Reasonable fits (72% of variance in toxic effect explained overall) were obtained for 4 large metal mixture acute toxicity experiments involving daphnids (Cu, Zn, Cd), lettuce (Cu, Zn, Ag), and trout (Zn, Cd, Pb). Strong nonadditive effects, most apparent in results for tests involving Cd, could be explained approximately by purely chemical competition for metal accumulation. Tentative interpretation of parameter values obtained from these and other experimental data suggests the following order of bound cation toxicity: H < Al < (Cu Zn Pb UO2 ) < (Cd Ag). Another trend is a strong increase in Cd toxicity relative to that of Zn as organism complexity increases (from bacteria to fish).

  2. Bioleaching of metals from printed wire boards by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and their mixture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingwei; Bai, Jianfeng; Xu, Jinqiu; Liang, Bo

    2009-12-30

    Bioleaching processes were used to mobilize metals from printed wire boards (PWBs). The bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) isolated from an acidic mine drainage were grown and acclimated in presence of PWBs and then used as bioleaching bacteria to solubilize metals from PWBs. The experimental results demonstrate that all the percentages of copper, lead, zinc solubilized into the leaching solution from actual PWBs basically increased with decrease of sieve fraction of sample and decrease of PWBs concentration. The concentration of PWBs should be controlled under the range from 7.8 to 19.5 g l(-1). Under 7.8 g l(-1) of the concentration of PWBs, the percentages of copper solubilized are 99.0%, 74.9%, 99.9% at 0.5-1.0mm of sieve fraction at 9 d of leaching time by the pure culture of A. ferrooxidans, the pure culture of A. thiooxidans, and mixed culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans, respectively, while the percentages of copper, lead and zinc solubilized are all more than 88.9% at <0.35 mm of the sieve fractions of sample at 5d of leaching time by the above three kinds of cultures. Variation of pH and redox potential of leaching solution with time implied that Fe(3+) oxidized from Fe(2+) in the culture medium in presence of A. ferrooxidans caused the mobilization of metals. It is concluded that A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans were able to grow in the presence of PWBs and the pure culture of A. ferrooxidans, and the mixed culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans can not only efficiently bioleach the main metal copper but also bioleach other minor metals such as lead, zinc as well.

  3. Recovery of metals from a mixture of various spent batteries by a hydrometallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2016-10-01

    Spent batteries contain hazardous materials, including numerous metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, etc.) that are present at high concentrations. Therefore, proper treatment of these wastes is necessary to prevent their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Current recycling processes are mainly applied to treat each type of spent battery separately. In this laboratory study, a hydrometallurgical process has been developed to simultaneously and efficiently solubilize metals from spent batteries. Among the various chemical leaching agents tested, sulfuric acid was found to be the most efficient and cheapest reagent. A Box-Behnken design was used to identify the influence of several parameters (acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, retention time and number of leaching steps) on the removal of metals from spent batteries. According to the results, the solid/liquid ratio and acid concentration seemed to be the main parameters influencing the solubilization of zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium and cobalt from spent batteries. According to the results, the highest metal leaching removals were obtained under the optimal leaching conditions (pulp density = 180 g/L (w/v), [H2SO4] = 1 M, number of leaching step = 3 and leaching time = 30 min). Under such optimum conditions, the removal yields obtained were estimated to be 65% for Mn, 99.9% for Cd, 100% for Zn, 74% for Co and 68% for Ni. Further studies will be performed to improve the solubilization of Mn and to selectively recover the metals. PMID:27318877

  4. Recovery of metals from a mixture of various spent batteries by a hydrometallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2016-10-01

    Spent batteries contain hazardous materials, including numerous metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, etc.) that are present at high concentrations. Therefore, proper treatment of these wastes is necessary to prevent their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Current recycling processes are mainly applied to treat each type of spent battery separately. In this laboratory study, a hydrometallurgical process has been developed to simultaneously and efficiently solubilize metals from spent batteries. Among the various chemical leaching agents tested, sulfuric acid was found to be the most efficient and cheapest reagent. A Box-Behnken design was used to identify the influence of several parameters (acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, retention time and number of leaching steps) on the removal of metals from spent batteries. According to the results, the solid/liquid ratio and acid concentration seemed to be the main parameters influencing the solubilization of zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium and cobalt from spent batteries. According to the results, the highest metal leaching removals were obtained under the optimal leaching conditions (pulp density = 180 g/L (w/v), [H2SO4] = 1 M, number of leaching step = 3 and leaching time = 30 min). Under such optimum conditions, the removal yields obtained were estimated to be 65% for Mn, 99.9% for Cd, 100% for Zn, 74% for Co and 68% for Ni. Further studies will be performed to improve the solubilization of Mn and to selectively recover the metals.

  5. Thioureas as reporting elements for metal-responsive fluorescent chemosensors.

    PubMed

    Vonlanthen, Mireille; Finney, Nathaniel S

    2013-04-19

    Proof that sulfur is a viable reporting element for the development of fluorescent chemosensors for metal ions is presented. To date, the majority of metal-responsive fluorescent chemosensors have relied on metal-nitrogen coordination to provide a fluorescence response, most commonly by suppressing photoinduced electron transfer (PET) quenching. While chemosensors with direct application to biology, medicine, and analytical chemistry have been so developed, reliance on the coordination chemistry of nitrogen remains a practical and conceptual limitation. Building on the fact that thioureas can quench fluorescence emission by PET, it is shown that the quenched emission of thiourea-appended naphthalimides can be restored by metal binding and that metal affinity and selectivity can be controlled through structural modification of the thiourea substituents. Further, such chemosensors can function in aqueous media and, unlike nitrogen-based chemosensors, are unresponsive to increases in [H(+)]. Given that the coordination properties of sulfur are distinct from those of nitrogen, this work lays the foundation for the development of a new class of interesting and useful metal-responsive fluorescent probes. PMID:23470031

  6. Endothelial Cellular Responses to Biodegradable Metal Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable zinc (Zn) metals, a new generation of biomaterials, have attracted much attention due to their excellent biodegradability, bioabsorbability, and adaptability to tissue regeneration. Compared with magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe), Zn exhibits better corrosion and mechanical behaviors in orthopedic and stent applications. After implantation, Zn containing material will slowly degrade, and Zn ions (Zn2+) will be released to the surrounding tissue. For stent applications, the local Zn2+concentration near endothelial tissue/cells could be high. However, it is unclear how endothelia will respond to such high concentrations of Zn2+, which is pivotal to vascular remodeling and regeneration. Here, we evaluated the short-term cellular behaviors of primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCECs) exposed to a concentration gradient (0−140 μM) of extracellular Zn2+. Zn2+ had an interesting biphasic effect on cell viability, proliferation, spreading, and migration. Generally, low concentrations of Zn2+ promoted viability, proliferation, adhesion, and migration, while high concentrations of Zn2+ had opposite effects. For gene expression profiles, the most affected functional genes were related to cell adhesion, cell injury, cell growth, angiogenesis, inflammation, vessel tone, and coagulation. These results provide helpful information and guidance for Zn-based alloy design as well as the controlled release of Zn2+in stent and other related medical applications. PMID:27689136

  7. Endothelial Cellular Responses to Biodegradable Metal Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable zinc (Zn) metals, a new generation of biomaterials, have attracted much attention due to their excellent biodegradability, bioabsorbability, and adaptability to tissue regeneration. Compared with magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe), Zn exhibits better corrosion and mechanical behaviors in orthopedic and stent applications. After implantation, Zn containing material will slowly degrade, and Zn ions (Zn2+) will be released to the surrounding tissue. For stent applications, the local Zn2+concentration near endothelial tissue/cells could be high. However, it is unclear how endothelia will respond to such high concentrations of Zn2+, which is pivotal to vascular remodeling and regeneration. Here, we evaluated the short-term cellular behaviors of primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCECs) exposed to a concentration gradient (0−140 μM) of extracellular Zn2+. Zn2+ had an interesting biphasic effect on cell viability, proliferation, spreading, and migration. Generally, low concentrations of Zn2+ promoted viability, proliferation, adhesion, and migration, while high concentrations of Zn2+ had opposite effects. For gene expression profiles, the most affected functional genes were related to cell adhesion, cell injury, cell growth, angiogenesis, inflammation, vessel tone, and coagulation. These results provide helpful information and guidance for Zn-based alloy design as well as the controlled release of Zn2+in stent and other related medical applications.

  8. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of KNO3-NaNO3 mixtures using a transient hot-wire method with a liquid metal in a capillary probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotani, T.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagashima, A.

    1982-03-01

    The thermal conductivity of KNO3-NaNO3 mixtures was measured by a modified transient hot-wire method using liquid metal in a capillary as a heat source. The method was developed for measurements on electrically conducting liquids at high temperatures. Measurements were performed on pure NaNO3 and its three mixtures with KNO3 in the temperature range from 498 to 593 K.

  9. High responsivity 4H-SiC based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weifeng; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Zhuguang; Lü, Ying; Wu, Zhengyun

    2008-11-01

    4H-SiC based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors with diverse spacing were designed, fabricated, and characterized, in which nickel Schottky contacts were needed. Current-voltage and spectral responsivity measurements were carried out at room temperature. The fabricated 4 μm-spacing device showed a very low dark current (0.25 pA at 5 V bias voltage), a typical responsivity of 0.103 A/W at 20 V, and a peak response wavelength at 290 nm. The fabricated devices held a high DUV to visible rejection ratio of >103.

  10. Metal hydride differential scanning calorimetry as an approach to compositional determination of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues and helium

    DOE PAGES

    Robinson, David B.; Luo, Weifang; Cai, Trevor Y.; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-26

    Gaseous mixtures of diatomic hydrogen isotopologues and helium are often encountered in the nuclear energy industry and in analytical chemistry. Compositions of stored mixtures can vary due to interactions with storage and handling materials. When tritium is present, it decays to form ions and helium-3, both of which can lead to further compositional variation. Monitoring of composition is typically achieved by mass spectrometry, a method that is bulky and energy-intensive. Mass spectrometers disperse sample material through vacuum pumps, which is especially troublesome if tritium is present. Moreover, our ultimate goal is to create a compact, fast, low-power sensor that canmore » determine composition with minimal gas consumption and waste generation, as a complement to mass spectrometry that can be instantiated more widely. We propose calorimetry of metal hydrides as an approach to this, due to the strong isotope effect on gas absorption, and demonstrate the sensitivity of measured heat flow to atomic composition of the gas. Peak shifts are discernible when mole fractions change by at least 1%. A mass flow restriction results in a unique dependence of the measurement on helium concentration. We present a mathematical model as a first step toward prediction of the peak shapes and positions. The model includes a useful method to compute estimates of phase diagrams for palladium in the presence of arbitrary mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. As a result, we expect that this approach can be used to deduce unknown atomic compositions from measured calorimetric data over a useful range of partial pressures of each component.« less

  11. Metal hydride differential scanning calorimetry as an approach to compositional determination of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues and helium

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, David B.; Luo, Weifang; Cai, Trevor Y.; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-26

    Gaseous mixtures of diatomic hydrogen isotopologues and helium are often encountered in the nuclear energy industry and in analytical chemistry. Compositions of stored mixtures can vary due to interactions with storage and handling materials. When tritium is present, it decays to form ions and helium-3, both of which can lead to further compositional variation. Monitoring of composition is typically achieved by mass spectrometry, a method that is bulky and energy-intensive. Mass spectrometers disperse sample material through vacuum pumps, which is especially troublesome if tritium is present. Moreover, our ultimate goal is to create a compact, fast, low-power sensor that can determine composition with minimal gas consumption and waste generation, as a complement to mass spectrometry that can be instantiated more widely. We propose calorimetry of metal hydrides as an approach to this, due to the strong isotope effect on gas absorption, and demonstrate the sensitivity of measured heat flow to atomic composition of the gas. Peak shifts are discernible when mole fractions change by at least 1%. A mass flow restriction results in a unique dependence of the measurement on helium concentration. We present a mathematical model as a first step toward prediction of the peak shapes and positions. The model includes a useful method to compute estimates of phase diagrams for palladium in the presence of arbitrary mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. As a result, we expect that this approach can be used to deduce unknown atomic compositions from measured calorimetric data over a useful range of partial pressures of each component.

  12. Effect of metal mixture (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) on cadmium partitioning in littoral sediments and its accumulation by the freshwater macrophyte Eriocaulon septangulare

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.R.; Malley, D.F.

    1999-03-01

    The effect of a metal mixture (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) on Cd fractionation in sediment and its accumulation by the freshwater macrophyte Eriocaulon septangulare was examined in an in situ experiment in the littoral zone at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Fresh sediment was spiked with Cd alone and together with the metal mixture at three concentration levels. Macrophytes were planted in the spiked sediment and placed at a water depth of 0.5 m. The distribution of Cd among sediment fractions (easily reducible [ER], reducible [R-ER], and organic [ORG]), pore water, and macrophytes was determined every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. Small differences among treatment levels in the recovery of Cd from the geochemical fractions were observed after 2 and 8 weeks but not after 10 weeks. At the highest concentration of the metal mixture, Cd repartitioned from the ER fraction onto the R-ER fraction after 2 weeks in situ. After 10 weeks, Cd was accumulated by the shoots and roots of E. septangulare and had not reached steady state. Significantly higher Cd concentrations were found in the shoots of plants in the treatment with Cd alone and the treatment with the highest concentration of the metal mixture than in treatments with intermediate levels of the mixture. Partitioning of Cd among geochemical fractions in sediment alone did not explain differences in tissue Cd concentrations related to treatment level.

  13. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  14. Raman analysis of complex pigment mixtures in 20th century metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Clara Bratt; Sanyova, Jana; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-11-01

    The pigment composition of six painted metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant dating from the second half of the 20th century belonging to the Danish royal collection were studied using Raman microscopy. By focusing a 785 nm laser with a 50× objective on particles in paint cross sections, it was possible to identify the following 20 compounds: hematite, goethite, chrome red/orange, chrome yellow, zinc chrome yellow, carbon black, toluidine red PR3, chlorinated para red PR4, dinitroaniline orange PO5, phthalocyanine blue PB15, indanthrone blue PB60, ultramarine, Prussian blue, lead white, anatase, rutile, calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, gypsum and dolomite. The components were frequently present in complex pigment mixtures. Additional information was obtained by elemental analysis with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to identify cobalt blue, zinc white and cadmium red, as well as to indicate the presence of zinc white in some pigment mixtures. The study allowed a comparison between the industrially applied preparation layers and the artistic paint layers applied by the heraldic painter. Differences in the choice of paint and pigment types were observed on the earliest knight shields, demonstrating a general delay of industrial materials into artist paints. PMID:26023056

  15. Raman analysis of complex pigment mixtures in 20th century metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Clara Bratt; Sanyova, Jana; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-11-01

    The pigment composition of six painted metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant dating from the second half of the 20th century belonging to the Danish royal collection were studied using Raman microscopy. By focusing a 785 nm laser with a 50× objective on particles in paint cross sections, it was possible to identify the following 20 compounds: hematite, goethite, chrome red/orange, chrome yellow, zinc chrome yellow, carbon black, toluidine red PR3, chlorinated para red PR4, dinitroaniline orange PO5, phthalocyanine blue PB15, indanthrone blue PB60, ultramarine, Prussian blue, lead white, anatase, rutile, calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, gypsum and dolomite. The components were frequently present in complex pigment mixtures. Additional information was obtained by elemental analysis with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to identify cobalt blue, zinc white and cadmium red, as well as to indicate the presence of zinc white in some pigment mixtures. The study allowed a comparison between the industrially applied preparation layers and the artistic paint layers applied by the heraldic painter. Differences in the choice of paint and pigment types were observed on the earliest knight shields, demonstrating a general delay of industrial materials into artist paints.

  16. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    PubMed

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2013-09-15

    The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4-8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC50, one third of the LC01) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC50 by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC50, 13% of the LC01) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC50 by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na(+) followed by K(+) (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na(+) and K(+). Overall, whole body Na(+) loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a variety of toxicants. We theorize that a disruption of ion homeostasis may be a common mechanism underlying the acute additive toxicity of many contaminants in fish.

  17. Calculation of K{sub {infinity}} for homogeneous {sup 235}U metal mixtures: Will the real K{sub {infinity}} please stand up?

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.; Petrie, L.M.; Wright, R.Q.; Parks, C.V.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly analyzes a journal article about calculating k{sub {infinity}} for metals mixed with uranium 235, and compares the article results with other calculation methods. The article suggested that continuous energy cross sections gave more accurate results than groupwise cross sections. The mixtures described in the article were dry, fast systems with several unusual characteristics; however, the majority of multigroup libraries used for analysis were developed for well moderated thermal systems. The results of calculations performed using several different codes and cross sections for three uranium/metal mixtures are presented in this paper. 1 tab.

  18. Perinatal and Childhood Exposure to Cadmium, Manganese, and Metal Mixtures and Effects on Cognition and Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Alison P; Claus Henn, Birgit; Wright, Robert O

    2015-09-01

    Lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) neurotoxicity is well established. In recent years, a growing body of evidence suggests that environmental exposure to other metals including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) and their mixtures also poses public health threats. In this paper, we summarize the recent literature examining the relationship of prenatal and childhood environmental metal exposures with cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children. We conducted a literature search to identify epidemiologic studies that examined the relationship of Cd, Mn, and metal mixtures with children's neurodevelopmental/cognitive and behavioral outcomes. We restricted the search to peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2009 and March 2015. We identified a total of 31 articles of which 16, 17, and 16 studies examined the effects of Cd, Mn, or metal mixtures, respectively. Based on our review, there is suggestive evidence that prenatal/childhood Cd exposure may be associated with poorer cognition, but additional research is clearly needed. We found little evidence of behavioral effects of early life Cd exposure, and no studies found a significant relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Studies of early life Mn exposure consistently reported negative impacts on both cognition and behavior. There is also growing evidence that co-exposure to multiple metals can result in increased neurotoxicity compared to single-metal exposure, in particular during early life. Few studies have evaluated behavioral effects related to metal co-exposure. PMID:26231505

  19. Perinatal and Childhood Exposure to Cadmium, Manganese, and Metal Mixtures and Effects on Cognition and Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Alison P.; Henn, Birgit Claus; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) neurotoxicity is well established. In recent years, a growing body of evidence suggests that environmental exposure to other metals including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and their mixtures also pose public health threats. In this paper we summarize the recent literature examining the relationship of prenatal and childhood environmental metal exposures with cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children. We conducted a literature search to identify epidemiologic studies that examined the relationship of Cd, Mn, and metal mixtures with children’s neurodevelopmental/cognitive and behavioral outcomes. We restricted the search to peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2009 and March 2015. We identified a total of 31 articles of which 16, 17, and 16 studies examined the effects of Cd, Mn, or metal mixtures, respectively. Based on our review, there is suggestive evidence that prenatal/childhood Cd exposure may be associated with poorer cognition, but additional research is clearly needed. We found little evidence of behavioral effects of early life Cd exposure, and no studies found a significant relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Studies of early life Mn exposure consistently reported negative impacts on both cognition and behavior. There is also growing evidence that co-exposure to multiple metals can result in increased neurotoxicity compared to single metal exposures, in particular during early life. Few studies have evaluated behavioral effects related to metal co-exposures. PMID:26231505

  20. Perinatal and Childhood Exposure to Cadmium, Manganese, and Metal Mixtures and Effects on Cognition and Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Alison P; Claus Henn, Birgit; Wright, Robert O

    2015-09-01

    Lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) neurotoxicity is well established. In recent years, a growing body of evidence suggests that environmental exposure to other metals including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) and their mixtures also poses public health threats. In this paper, we summarize the recent literature examining the relationship of prenatal and childhood environmental metal exposures with cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children. We conducted a literature search to identify epidemiologic studies that examined the relationship of Cd, Mn, and metal mixtures with children's neurodevelopmental/cognitive and behavioral outcomes. We restricted the search to peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2009 and March 2015. We identified a total of 31 articles of which 16, 17, and 16 studies examined the effects of Cd, Mn, or metal mixtures, respectively. Based on our review, there is suggestive evidence that prenatal/childhood Cd exposure may be associated with poorer cognition, but additional research is clearly needed. We found little evidence of behavioral effects of early life Cd exposure, and no studies found a significant relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Studies of early life Mn exposure consistently reported negative impacts on both cognition and behavior. There is also growing evidence that co-exposure to multiple metals can result in increased neurotoxicity compared to single-metal exposure, in particular during early life. Few studies have evaluated behavioral effects related to metal co-exposure.

  1. Supercapacitors Based on Metal Electrodes Prepared from Nanoparticle Mixtures at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2010-01-01

    Films comprising Au and Ag nanoparticles are transformed into porous metal electrodes by desorption of weak organic ligands followed by wet chemical etching of silver. Thus prepared electrodes provide the basis for supercapacitors whose specific capacitances approach 70 F/g. Cyclic voltammetry measurement yield “rectangular” I-V curves even at high scan rates, indicating that the supercapacitors have low internal resistance. Owing to this property, the supercapacitors have a high power density ~12 kW/kg, comparable with that of the state-of-the-art carbon-based devices. The entire assembly protocol does not require high-temperature processing or the use of organic binders.

  2. Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  3. Heavy metal stress and some mechanisms of plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  4. Optical responses of a metal with sub-nm gaps

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Tae Yun; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    If the size of a metallic structure is reduced to be comparable to or even smaller than the typical quantum-mechanical lengths such as the Fermi wavelength or Thomas-Fermi wavelength, the electronic structure and optical responses are modulated by quantum effects. Here, we calculate the optical responses of a metal with sub-nm gaps using the eigenstates obtained from an effective-mass quantum theory. According to our simulation, the dielectric responses can be significantly modified by tuning the inter-gap distances. Remarkably, sub-nm gaps occupying a 0.3% volumetric fraction can elongate the penetration depth by an order of magnitude in the terahertz regime. We find that the detailed dependences of electron-photon interaction matrix elements on the involved electronic wavefunctions play an important role in the optical responses. The results draw our attention to these recently fabricated systems. PMID:26964884

  5. Electrochemical response of metal complexes in homogeneous solution under photoirradiation

    PubMed Central

    Fukatsu, Arisa; Kondo, Mio; Okamura, Masaya; Yoshida, Masaki; Masaoka, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical detection of metal complexes in the photoexcited state is important for understanding photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes, which play a central role in photo-energy conversion systems. In general, however, the redox potentials of excited states have been indirectly estimated by a combination of spectroscopic properties and ground-state redox potentials. To establish a simple method for directly determining the redox potentials of the photoexcited states of metal complexes, electrochemical measurements under several conditions were performed. The electrochemical response was largely influenced not only by the generation of photoexcited molecules but also by the convection induced by photoirradiation, even when the global temperature of the sample solution was unchanged. The suppression of these unfavourable electrochemical responses was successfully achieved by adopting well-established electrochemical techniques. Furthermore, as an initial demonstration, the photoexcited state of a Ru-based metal complex was directly detected, and its redox potential was determined using a thin layer electrochemical method. PMID:24937471

  6. Selective Single-Step Separation of a Mixture of Three Metal Ions by a Triphasic Ionic-Liquid-Water-Ionic-Liquid Solvent Extraction System.

    PubMed

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Blockx, Jonas; De Coster, Hendrik; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-08-10

    In a conventional solvent extraction system, metal ions are distributed between two immiscible phases, typically an aqueous and an organic phase. In this paper, the proof-of-principle is given for the distribution of metal ions between three immiscible phases, two ionic liquid phases with an aqueous phase in between them. Three-liquid-phase solvent extraction allows separation of a mixture of three metal ions in a single step, whereas at least two steps are required to separate three metals in the case of two-liquid-phase solvent extraction. In the triphasic system, the lower organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid betainium- or choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, whereas the upper organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The triphasic system was used for the separation of a mixture of tin(II), yttrium(III), and scandium(III) ions. PMID:26178665

  7. Public health response to metallic mercury spills in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Monroe, C T; Pezzino, G; Knoche, L L; Henning, L; Belt, P

    1999-11-01

    Local and state public health officials are called on to respond to environmental public health hazards just as they historically have been called on to respond to communicable disease outbreaks. Recent experience with metallic mercury spills in Kansas suggests that neither the legal authority nor the scientific knowledgebase is as well developed for response to environmental hazards as for communicable disease threats. PMID:10662059

  8. Properties of silicon dioxide layers with embedded metal nanocrystals produced by oxidation of Si:Me mixture.

    PubMed

    Novikau, Andrei; Gaiduk, Peter; Maksimova, Ksenia; Zenkevich, Andrei

    2011-02-16

    A two-dimensional layers of metal (Me) nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 were produced by pulsed laser deposition of uniformly mixed Si:Me film followed by its furnace oxidation and rapid thermal annealing. The kinetics of the film oxidation and the structural properties of the prepared samples were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The electrical properties of the selected SiO2:Me nanocomposite films were evaluated by measuring C-V and I-V characteristics on a metal-oxide-semiconductor stack. It is found that Me segregation induced by Si:Me mixture oxidation results in the formation of a high density of Me and silicide nanocrystals in thin film SiO2 matrix. Strong evidence of oxidation temperature as well as impurity type effect on the charge storage in crystalline Me-nanodot layer is demonstrated by the hysteresis behavior of the high-frequency C-V curves.

  9. Mixture Item Response Theory-MIMIC Model: Simultaneous Estimation of Differential Item Functioning for Manifest Groups and Latent Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilir, Mustafa Kuzey

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new psychometric model (mixture item response theory-MIMIC model) that simultaneously estimates differential item functioning (DIF) across manifest groups and latent classes. Current DIF detection methods investigate DIF from only one side, either across manifest groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, etc.), or across latent classes…

  10. Exposure of humans to a volatile organic mixture. 3. Inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Graham, D.E.; Devlin, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades that has been called the sick building syndrome. These symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. It is likely that the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in synthetic materials used in homes and office buildings contribute to these symptoms. However, there have been very few studies in which humans have been exposed to known amounts of VOCs under carefully controlled conditions. In the study, 14 subjects were exposed to a mixture of VOCs (25 mg/sq meter total hydrocarbon) that is representative of what is found in new homes and office buildings. Because irritations of the nose and throat are symptoms often associated with the upper respiratory tract and may result from an inflammatory response in the upper airways, the authors used nasal lavage to monitor neutrophil (PMN) influx into the nasal passages following exposure to VOCs. There were statistically significant increases in PMNs, both immediately after a 4-h exposure to VOCs and 18 h later.

  11. Transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) liver to a brominated flame retardant mixture.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer M; Gubbins, Matt; Collins, Catherine; Matejusova, Iveta; Kerr, Rose; Chipman, James K; Kuiper, Raoul; Vethaak, A Dick; George, Stephen G

    2013-10-15

    Male European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were exposed to a technical mixture of brominated diphenyl ethers (PDBEs, DE-71, Pentamix) that had been purified to remove contaminating dioxins. Controls were exposed to carrier solvent alone. Fish were exposed to decadally increasing concentrations of Pentamix via both sediment and spiked food. The GENIPOL P. flesus cDNA microarray, differentially expressed gene profiling (DEG) and quantitative PCR were employed to detect hepatic transcriptional differences between exposed fish and controls. Gene transcriptional changes were more sensitive to Pentamix exposure than biomarkers measured previously. Pentamix exposure induced transcripts coding for enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A, aldo-keto reductases) and elicited endocrine disruption (vitellogenin and thyroid hormone receptor alpha), with effects on CYP1A and VTG occurring at the highest exposure. Ontology analysis clearly showed dose-responsive changes indicative of oxidative stress, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to PBDEs in both sediment and food has a significant adverse effect on a broad range of crucial biochemical processes in the livers of this widely distributed estuarine fish species, the flounder. PMID:23948077

  12. Responses of a free-living benthic marine nematode community to bioremediation of a PAH mixture.

    PubMed

    Louati, Hela; Said, Olfa Ben; Soltani, Amel; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert; Aissa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Pringault, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the responses of benthic nematodes to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination and (2) to test bioremediation techniques for their efficiency in PAH degradation and their effects on nematodes. Sediments with their natural nematofauna communities from Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia) were subjected to a PAH mixture (100 ppm) of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene during 30 days. Nematode abundance and diversity significantly decreased, and the taxonomic structure was altered. Results from multivariate analyses of the species abundance data revealed that PAH treatments were significantly different from the control. Spirinia parasitifera became the dominant species (70 % relative abundance) and appeared to be an "opportunistic" species to PAH contamination while Oncholaimus campylocercoides and Neochromadora peocilosoma were strongly inhibited. Biostimulation (addition of mineral salt medium) and bioaugmentation (inoculation of a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium) were used as bioremediation techniques. Bioremediation treatments enhanced degradation of all three PAHs, with up to 96 % degradation for phenanthrene resulting in a significant stimulation of nematode abundance relative to control microcosms. Nevertheless, these treatments, especially the biostimulation provoked a weak impact on the community structure and diversity index relative to the control microcosms suggesting their feasibility in biorestoration of contaminated sediments.

  13. Finite Mixture Dynamic Regression Modeling of Panel Data with Implications for Dynamic Response Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the problem of estimating dynamic linear regression models when the data are generated from finite mixture probability density function where the mixture components are characterized by different dynamic regression model parameters. Specifically, conventional linear models assume that the data are generated by a single…

  14. A theory for the shock-loading response of an alumina-filled epoxy mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumheller, D. S.

    1982-04-01

    Alumina-gilled epoxy is an engineering material which is used as a potting compound in impulsively-loaded ferroelectric power supplies. It is a composite material composed of tightly packed alumina particles (8 μm in diameter) in an epoxy matrix. No voids are present in the composite. Extensive experimental data characterizing the dynamical response of this material is available. These data include ultrasonic shear and longitudinal wave speeds, large-amplitude shock and release wave profiles, and a large-amplitude shear wave profile. From these observations it is clear that contact between neighboring alumina particles significantly influences the behavior of the composite. At low pressures, measured shock velocities are 50 percent greater than predictions which ignore interparticle contact. At high pressures, particle contact results in both large release wave velocities and an enhancement of the effective shear modulus of the composite. The mixture theory of Drumheller and Bedford is used to develop a three-dimensional model for alumina-filled epoxy. Interparticle contact is treated by partitioning the bulk strain of the particles between two effects: that due to the loads imposed by the surrounding epoxy; and that due to the loads imposed by contact with neighboring particles. The portion of the confining pressure which arises from interparticle contact results in an enhancement of the shear modulus of the composite. To account for this effect, the shear modulus is assumed to be a linear function of this portion of the confining pressure. Through careful consideration of thermodynamical principles, it is shown that this assumption results in a kinematical constraint on the material response. The material must dilate during pure shearing motion. Schuler has observed this dilatancy phenomenon in static triaxial tests on this material. The available experimental data is sufficient to allow both a unique evaluation of the model constants and an independent

  15. Entropic separations of mixtures of aromatics by selective face-to-face molecular stacking in one-dimensional channels of metal-organic frameworks and zeolites.

    PubMed

    Torres-Knoop, Ariana; Balestra, Salvador R G; Krishna, Rajamani; Calero, Sofía; Dubbeldam, David

    2015-02-23

    Separation of challenging mixtures using metal-organic frameworks can be achieved by an entropy-driven mechanism, where one of the components can arrange into a "face-to-face" stacking, thus reducing its "footprint" and reaching a higher saturation loading.

  16. Vapors and Droplets Mixture Deposition of Metallic Coatings by Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Bolot, R.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.; Montavon, G.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, the very low pressure plasma-spraying (VLPPS) process has been intensely developed and implemented to manufacture thin, dense and finely structured ceramic coatings for various applications, such as Y2O3 for diffusion barriers, among other examples. This paper aims at presenting developments carried out on metallic coatings. Aluminum was chosen as a demonstrative material due to its "moderate" vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 38.23 KJ cm-3) compared to the one of copper (i.e., 55.33 KJ cm-3), cobalt (i.e., 75.03 KJ cm-3), or even tantalum (i.e., 87.18 KJ cm-3). The objective of this work is primarily to better understand the behavior of a solid precursor injected into the plasma jet leading to the formation of vapors and to better control the factors affecting the coating structure. Nearly dense aluminum coatings were successfully deposited by VLPPS at 100 Pa with an intermediate power plasma torch (i.e., Sulzer Metco F4 type gun with maximum power of 45 kW). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to study and analyze the vapor behavior into the plasma jet. Simplified CFD modeling allowed better understanding of some of the thermo-physical mechanisms. The effect of powder-size distribution, substrate temperature and spray distance were studied. The phase composition and microstructural features of the coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. Moreover, Vickers microhardness measurements were implemented.

  17. Gene Expression Responses in Male Fathead Minnows Exposed to Binary Mixtures of an Estrogen and Antiestrogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic organisms are continuously exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, many of which can interfere with their endocrine system, resulting in impaired reproduction, development or survival, among others. In order to analyze the effects and mechanisms of action of estrogen...

  18. Understanding the biological responses of nanostructured metals and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Terry C.; Reiss, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    Metals produced by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) offer distinct advantages for medical applications such as orthopedic devices, in part because of their nanostructured surfaces. We examine the current theoretical foundations and state of knowledge for nanostructured biomaterials surface optimization within the contexts that apply to bulk nanostructured metals, differentiating how their microstructures impact osteogenesis, in particular, for Ultrafine Grained (UFG) titanium. Then we identify key gaps in the research to date, pointing out areas which merit additional focus within the scientific community. For example, we highlight the potential of next-generation DNA sequencing techniques (NGS) to reveal gene and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression changes induced by nanostructured metals. While our understanding of bio-nano interactions is in its infancy, nanostructured metals are already being marketed or developed for medical devices such as dental implants, spinal devices, and coronary stents. Our ability to characterize and optimize the biological response of cells to SPD metals will have synergistic effects on advances in materials, biological, and medical science.

  19. Immunomodulation by heavy metals tested individually or in mixtures in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Dardon, J.; Voccia, I.; Hontela, A.; Chilmonczyk, S.; Dunier, M.; Boermans, H.; Blakley, B.; Fournier, M.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heavy metals, at environmentally relevant concentrations, on the immune response of rainbow trout. Trout were exposed for 30 d to cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}), or zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) either individually or in combinations: CdCl{sub 2}/HgCl{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}/ZnCl{sub 2}, HgCl{sub 2}/ZnCl{sub 2}, or CdCl{sub 2}/HgCl{sub 2}/ZnCl{sub 2}. Following the 30-d exposure, parameters of the nonspecific cellular immune response (phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and lymphoblastic proliferation) and of the nonspecific humoral immune response (lysozyme activity and the level of immunoglobulin) were measured. The results obtained indicate that individually, all three metals induce significant immunomodulations. However, the toxicity of mercury or cadmium is significantly reduced in fish simultaneously exposed to zinc, indicating that a protection is afforded by zinc against cadmium- and mercury-induced immunotoxicity.

  20. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Regvar, Marjana

    2006-01-01

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. PMID:15998561

  1. Schiff base ligands and their transition metal complexes in the mixtures of ionic liquid + organic solvent: a thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Shekaari, Hemayat; Kazempour, Amir; Khoshalhan, Maryam

    2015-01-21

    Schiff bases and their metal complexes in the mixtures of ionic liquid (IL) + organic solvent have shown great potential in attractive oxidation catalytic processes. The efficiency of such a process is strongly dependent on the various molecular interactions occurring between components. Thermodynamic properties of these systems can provide valuable information about structural interactions. Therefore, in this work, the interactions of the IL 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([HMIm]Cl) with Schiff bases in organic solvents were studied through the measurements of density, viscosity, and electrical conductivity. The effect of solvent on the interactions was examined by the solutions of IL + BPIC Schiff base + solvent (C2H6O-C3H8O-C4H10O). Moreover, the influence of Schiff base ligand and Schiff base complex structures was probed by the solutions of IL + DMA + ligand (salcn/salpr/salen) and IL + DMA + complex (VO(3-OMe-salen)/VO(salophen)/VO(salen)), respectively. Using the experimental data, some important thermodynamic properties, such as standard partial molar volume (V(0)(φ,IL)), experimental slope (Sv), viscosity B-coefficient, solvation number (B/V(0)(φ,IL) and limiting molar conductivity (Λ0) were calculated and discussed in terms of solute-solvent (IL-DMF/alcohol) and solute-cosolute (IL-Schiff base) interactions.

  2. Deterioration of yttria-stabilized zirconia by boron carbide alone or mixed with metallic or oxidized Fe, Cr, Zr mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bremaecker, A.; Ayrault, L.; Clément, B.

    2014-08-01

    In the frame of severe accident conditions (PHEBUS FPT3 test), different experiments were carried out on the interactions of 20% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and 20% ceria-stab zirconia with boron carbide or its oxidation products (B2O3): either tests under steam between 1230° and 1700 °C with B4C alone or B4C mixed with metals, either tests under Ar with boron oxide present in a mixture of iron and chromium oxides. In all cases an interaction was observed with formation of intergranular yttrium borate. At 1700 °C boron oxide is able to “pump out” the Y stabiliser from the YSZ grains but also some trace elements (Ca and Al) and to form a eutectic containing YBO3 and yttrium calcium oxy-borate (YCOB). At the same time a substantial swelling (“bloating”) of the zirconia happens, qualitatively similar to the foaming of irradiated fuel in contact with a Zr-melt. In all samples the lowering of the Y (or Ce)-content in the YSZ grains is so sharp that in the interaction layers zirconia is no longer stabilized. This is important when YSZ is envisaged as simulant of UO2 or as inert matrix for Am-transmutation.

  3. The Effect of Strain-rate and Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of a Metal/Polymer Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, Diana L.; Pritchard, Rob; Davis, Jeffrey J.

    1999-06-01

    Research has been going on in materials that are energetic yet have mechanical properties suitable in structural components. A series of experiments have been performed to determine the mechanical properties of a metal/polymer composite. The high strain-rate mechanical properties were determined using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar at strain rates of 10^3. The high strain-rate work was complemented by investigating the effect of slow strain on the order of .02 inches/minute to 200 inches/minute obtained using an Instron machine. The effect of temperature upon the stress strain curves was also observed. This paper will discuss one of the mixtures investigated containing titanium (35 μm) and Teflon (35μm) in a 80/20 ratio by weight. The low rate strain curves will be compared to the data achieved at higher strain-rates. The mechanical properties obtained in this study as well as others determined in prior work are being used in a modeling effort of this material under deformation.

  4. Reducing the deactivation of Ni-metal during the catalytic partial oxidation of a surrogate diesel fuel mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Daniel J.; Campos, Andrew; Smith, Mark W.; Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Spivey, James J.

    2010-09-01

    Ni catalysts are active and selective for the conversion of hydrocarbon into synthesis gas. However, conventional supported Ni catalysts rapidly deactivate at the high temperatures required for partial oxidation of diesel fuel by sintering and metal vaporization, as well as by carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning. Thus, to reduce deactivation Ni (3 wt%) was substituted into the structures of Ba-hexaaluminate (BNHA) and La–Sr–Zr pyrochlore (LSZN), and their activity was compared to a supported Ni/Al2O3 for the catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) of a surrogate diesel fuel. Characterization by XRD showed a single phase -alumina for the hexaaluminate, while LSZN had a pyrochlore structure with a defect SrZrO3 perovskite phase. Temperature programmed reduction experiments confirmed Ni was reducible in all catalysts. XANES results confirmed that Ni atoms were substituted into the hexaaluminate and pyrochlore structures, as spectra for each catalyst showed different coordination environments for Ni compared to a NiO standard. During CPOX activity tests (T = 900°C and WHSV= 50,000 scc/gcat/h), the LSZN pyrochlore produced stable H2 and CO yields in the presence of 5 wt% 1-methylnaphthalene and 50ppmw dibenzothiophene/n-tetradecane for 2 h, while both Ni/Al2O3 and BNHA catalysts were irreversibly deactivated by this mixture over the same time. Activity loss was strongly linked to carbon formation

  5. Generating a Metal-responsive Transcriptional Regulator to Test What Confers Metal Sensing in Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Deenah; Piergentili, Cecilia; Chen, Junjun; Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya; Foster, Andrew W.; Lurie-Luke, Elena; Huggins, Thomas G.; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    FrmR from Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (a CsoR/RcnR-like transcriptional de-repressor) is shown to repress the frmRA operator-promoter, and repression is alleviated by formaldehyde but not manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, or Zn(II) within cells. In contrast, repression by a mutant FrmRE64H (which gains an RcnR metal ligand) is alleviated by cobalt and Zn(II). Unexpectedly, FrmR was found to already bind Co(II), Zn(II), and Cu(I), and moreover metals, as well as formaldehyde, trigger an allosteric response that weakens DNA affinity. However, the sensory metal sites of the cells' endogenous metal sensors (RcnR, ZntR, Zur, and CueR) are all tighter than FrmR for their cognate metals. Furthermore, the endogenous metal sensors are shown to out-compete FrmR. The metal-sensing FrmRE64H mutant has tighter metal affinities than FrmR by approximately 1 order of magnitude. Gain of cobalt sensing by FrmRE64H remains enigmatic because the cobalt affinity of FrmRE64H is substantially weaker than that of the endogenous cobalt sensor. Cobalt sensing requires glutathione, which may assist cobalt access, conferring a kinetic advantage. For Zn(II), the metal affinity of FrmRE64H approaches the metal affinities of cognate Zn(II) sensors. Counter-intuitively, the allosteric coupling free energy for Zn(II) is smaller in metal-sensing FrmRE64H compared with nonsensing FrmR. By determining the copies of FrmR and FrmRE64H tetramers per cell, then estimating promoter occupancy as a function of intracellular Zn(II) concentration, we show how a modest tightening of Zn(II) affinity, plus weakened DNA affinity of the apoprotein, conspires to make the relative properties of FrmRE64H (compared with ZntR and Zur) sufficient to sense Zn(II) inside cells. PMID:26109070

  6. Application of biotic ligand and toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling to predict the accumulation and toxicity of metal mixtures to zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng; Han, Feng; Zhu, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Predicting the accumulation and toxicity of mixtures of metals to aquatic organisms is a key challenge in ecotoxicological studies. In this study, the accumulation and toxicity of mixed essential (Cu) and nonessential (Cd and Pb) metals in zebrafish larvae exposed to a binary mixture of these elements at environmentally relevant concentrations were predicted using a refined toxicokinetic (TK)-toxicodynamic (TD) model aided with biotic ligand model (BLM) and toxic equivalent factor (TEF) approach. Competitive inhibition and non-competitive interaction/inhibition were observed in bio-uptake. Both Pb and Cd behaved as competitive inhibitors of Cu uptake at high Cu concentrations (>0.1 μM). By contrast, Cu uptake was independent of Cd or Pb when the Cu concentrations were below 10(-7) M. Furthermore, low concentrations of Cu had an adiaphorous effect on Cd or Pb uptake. Cd uptake was inhibited by Pb, and the Pb uptake rates consistently decreased in the presence of Cd. The accumulation processes of Cd-Pb, Cu-Cd, and Cu-Pb were accurately predicted by the BLM-aided TK models. The traditional TD model could successfully predict the toxicity of Cd-Pb mixtures, but not those of Cu-Cd or Cu-Pb mixtures. The revised TD model, which considered the possible different killing rates (Kk) above or below the threshold, offered better prediction for the toxicity of Cu-Cd or Cu-Pb mixtures. The overall findings may be of key significance in understanding and predicting metal uptake, accumulation, and toxicity in binary or multiple metal exposure scenarios. PMID:26874871

  7. Application of biotic ligand and toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling to predict the accumulation and toxicity of metal mixtures to zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng; Han, Feng; Zhu, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Predicting the accumulation and toxicity of mixtures of metals to aquatic organisms is a key challenge in ecotoxicological studies. In this study, the accumulation and toxicity of mixed essential (Cu) and nonessential (Cd and Pb) metals in zebrafish larvae exposed to a binary mixture of these elements at environmentally relevant concentrations were predicted using a refined toxicokinetic (TK)-toxicodynamic (TD) model aided with biotic ligand model (BLM) and toxic equivalent factor (TEF) approach. Competitive inhibition and non-competitive interaction/inhibition were observed in bio-uptake. Both Pb and Cd behaved as competitive inhibitors of Cu uptake at high Cu concentrations (>0.1 μM). By contrast, Cu uptake was independent of Cd or Pb when the Cu concentrations were below 10(-7) M. Furthermore, low concentrations of Cu had an adiaphorous effect on Cd or Pb uptake. Cd uptake was inhibited by Pb, and the Pb uptake rates consistently decreased in the presence of Cd. The accumulation processes of Cd-Pb, Cu-Cd, and Cu-Pb were accurately predicted by the BLM-aided TK models. The traditional TD model could successfully predict the toxicity of Cd-Pb mixtures, but not those of Cu-Cd or Cu-Pb mixtures. The revised TD model, which considered the possible different killing rates (Kk) above or below the threshold, offered better prediction for the toxicity of Cu-Cd or Cu-Pb mixtures. The overall findings may be of key significance in understanding and predicting metal uptake, accumulation, and toxicity in binary or multiple metal exposure scenarios.

  8. Induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of male rats subchronically exposed to a mixture of eight metals found as groundwater contaminants in different parts of India.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, S H; Sarkar, S N; Aggarwal, M; Tripathi, H C

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to different metal components through contaminated drinking water can result in a wide range of adverse clinical conditions. Toxicological consequences arising from the concurrent repeated exposure to multiple metal contaminants are not known. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress-inducing potential of a mixture of eight metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, nickel, manganese, iron), representative of groundwater contamination in different areas of India, in erythrocytes of male rats subchronically exposed to environmentally relevant doses via drinking water. The selection of these metals, as determined by literature survey of groundwater contamination in India, was primarily based on the frequency of their occurrence and contamination level above World Health Organization maximum permissible limit (MPL) in drinking water. Male albino Wistar rats were exposed to the metal mixture at 0, 1, 10, and 100 times the mode concentrations (the most frequently occurring concentration) of the individual metals in drinking water for 90 days. In addition, one group of rats was also exposed to the mixture at a concentration equal to the MPL of individual components. The oxidative stress in erythrocytes was evaluated by assessing the magnitude of malondialdehyde production and reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) after 30, 60, and 90 days of exposure. MPL and 1x dose levels did not cause any changes. The mixture at 10x and 100x doses caused dose- and time-dependent effects. After 30 days, the 10x dose did not cause any changes except increase in SOD activity. The 100x dose increased the activities of SOD, catalase and GR and the GSH level, but caused no alterations in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and GPx activity. After 60 days, the 10x dose did not cause any changes. The 100x dose increased

  9. Response of a salt marsh microbial community to metal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Teixeira, Catarina; Reis, Izabela; Magalhães, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.

    2013-09-01

    Salt marshes are important sinks for contaminants, namely metals that tend to accumulate around plant roots and could eventually be taken up in a process known as phytoremediation. On the other hand, microbial communities display important roles in the salt marsh ecosystems, such as recycling of nutrients and/or degradation of organic contaminants. Thus, plants can benefit from the microbial activity in the phytoremediation process. Nevertheless, above certain levels, metals are known to be toxic to microorganisms, fact that can eventually compromise their ecological functions. In this vein, the aim of present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the effect of selected metals (Cd, Cu and Pb) on the microbial communities associated to the roots of two salt marsh plants. Sediments colonized by Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis were collected in the River Lima estuary (NW Portugal), and spiked with each of the metals at three different Effects Range-Median (ERM) concentrations (1, 10×, 50×), being ERM the sediment quality guideline that indicates the concentration above which adverse biological effects may frequently occur. Spiked sediments were incubated with a nutritive saline solution, being left in the dark under constant agitation for 7 days. The results showed that, despite the initial sediments colonized by J. maritimus and P. australis displayed significant (p < 0.05) differences in terms of microbial community structure (evaluated by ARISA), they presented similar microbial abundances (estimated by DAPI). Also, in terms of microbial abundance, both sediments showed a similar response to metal addition, with a decrease in number of cells only observed for the higher addition of Cu. Nevertheless, both Cu and Pb, at intermediate metals levels promote a shift in the microbial community structure, with possibly effect on the ecological function of these microbial communities in salt marshes. These changes may affect plants phytoremediation

  10. Dose-response relationship of an environmental mixture of pyrethroids following an acute oral administration in the rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose-response relationship of an environmental mixture of pyrethroids following an acute oral administration in the rat M.F. Hughes1, D.G. Ross1, J.M. Starr1, E.J. Scollon1,2, M.J. Wolansky1,3, K.M. Crofton1, M.J. DeVito1,4 1U.S. EPA, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2U.S. EPA,...

  11. Corrosion response of nuclear reactor materials to mixtures of decontamination reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Speranzini, R.A.; Burchart, P.A.; Kanhai, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of the corrosiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA to nuclear reactor materials was undertaken. Specimens of type 304 stainless steel (SS), type 410 SS,c carbon steel (CS) 1018 and A508, and heat treated alloy 600 were suspended in recirculating mixtures of two or more of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA at temperatures of 90{sup 0}C or 117{sup 0}C for 22 h. The results suggest that removal of oxalic acid from decontamination solutions should lower the corrosivity of the solutions to nuclear reactor materials, particularly 304 SS and 410 SS.

  12. Corrosion response of nuclear reactor materials to mixtures of decontamination reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Speranzini, R.A.; Burchart, P.A.; Kanhai, K.A.

    1989-02-01

    An experimental study of the corrosiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA to nuclear reactor materials was undertaken. Specimens of type 304 stainless steel (SS), type 410 SS, carbon steel (CS) 1018 and A508, and heat-treated alloy 600 were suspended in recirculating mixtures of two or more combinations of citric acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA at temperatures of 90 C or 117 C for 22 hours. The results suggest that removal of oxalic acid from decontamination solutions should lower the corrosiveness of the solutions to nuclear reactor materials, particularly types 304 SS and 410 SS.

  13. Delineating ion-ion interactions by electrostatic modeling for predicting rhizotoxicity of metal mixtures to lettuce Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Wang, Peng; Vijver, Martina G; Kinraide, Thomas B; Hendriks, A Jan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2014-09-01

    Effects of ion-ion interactions on metal toxicity to lettuce Lactuca sativa were studied based on the electrical potential at the plasma membrane surface (ψ0 ). Surface interactions at the proximate outside of the membrane influenced ion activities at the plasma membrane surface ({M(n+)}0). At a given free Cu(2+) activity in the bulk medium ({Cu(2+)}b), additions of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) resulted in substantial decreases in {Cu(2+)}0. Additions of Zn(2+) led to declines in {Cu(2+)}0, but Cu(2+) and Ag(+) at the exposure levels tested had negligible effects on the plasma membrane surface activity of each other. Metal toxicity was expressed by the {M(n+)}0 -based strength coefficient, indicating a decrease of toxicity in the order: Ag(+)  > Cu(2+)  > Zn(2+). Adsorbed Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) had significant and dose-dependent effects on Cu(2+) toxicity in terms of osmolarity. Internal interactions between Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) and between Cu(2+) and Ag(+) were modeled by expanding the strength coefficients in concentration addition and response multiplication models. These extended models consistently indicated that Zn(2+) significantly alleviated Cu(2+) toxicity. According to the extended concentration addition model, Ag(+) significantly enhanced Cu(2+) toxicity whereas Cu(2+) reduced Ag(+) toxicity. By contrast, the response multiplication model predicted insignificant effects of adsorbed Cu(2+) and Ag(+) on the toxicity of each other. These interactions were interpreted using ψ0, demonstrating its influence on metal toxicity.

  14. Response of electrochemical oxygen sensors to inert gas-air and carbon dioxide-air mixtures: measurements and mathematical modelling.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P T; Gant, S E; Dowker, K P; Batt, R

    2011-02-15

    Electrochemical oxygen gas sensors are widely used for monitoring the state of inertisation of flammable atmospheres and to warn of asphyxiation risks. It is well established but not widely known by users of such oxygen sensors that the response of the sensor is affected by the nature of the diluent gas responsible for the decrease in ambient oxygen concentration. The present work investigates the response of electrochemical sensors, with either acid or alkaline electrolytes, to gas mixtures comprising air with enhanced levels of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon or helium. The measurements indicate that both types of sensors over-read the oxygen concentrations when atmospheres contain high levels of helium. Sensors with alkaline electrolytes are also shown to underestimate the severity of the hazard in atmospheres containing high levels of carbon dioxide. This deviation is greater for alkaline electrolyte sensors compared to acid electrolyte sensors. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict the response of an alkaline electrolyte, electrochemical gas sensor. Differences between predicted and measured sensor responses are less than 10% in relative terms for nearly all of the gas mixtures tested, and in many cases less than 5%. Extending the model to simulate responses of sensors with acid electrolytes would be straightforward.

  15. Surface derivatization strategy for combinatorial analysis of cell response to mixtures of protein domains.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chunyi; Karuri, Stella W; Kshatriya, Pradnya P; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Schwarzbauer, Jean E; Karuri, Nancy W

    2012-01-10

    We report a robust strategy for conjugating mixtures of two or more protein domains to nonfouling polyurethane surfaces. In our strategy, the carbamate groups of polyurethane are reacted with zirconium alkoxide from the vapor phase to give a surface-bound oxide that serves as a chemical layer that can be used to bond organics to the polymer substrate. A hydroxyalkylphosphonate monolayer was synthesized on this layer, which was then used to covalently bind primary amine groups in protein domains using chloroformate-derived cross-linking. The effectiveness of this synthesis strategy was gauged by using an ELISA to measure competitive, covalent bonding of cell-binding (III(9-10)) and fibronectin-binding (III(1-2)) domains of the cell adhesion protein fibronectin. Cell adhesion, spreading, and fibronectin matrix assembly were examined on surfaces conjugated with single domains, a 1:1 surface mixture of III(1-2) and III(9-10), and a recombinant protein "duplex" containing both domains in one fusion protein. The mixture performed as well as or better than the other surfaces in these assays. Our surface activation strategy is amenable to a wide range of polymer substrates and free amino group-containing protein fragments. As such, this technique may be used to create biologically specific materials through the immobilization of specific protein groups or mixtures thereof on a substrate surface.

  16. PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTS IN URBAN MIXTURES ENHANCE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN LUNG CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complex urban air mixtures that realistically mimic urban smog can be generated for investigating adverse health effects. "Smog chambers" have been used for over 30 yr to conduct experiments for developing and testing photochemical models that predict ambient ozone (O(3)) concent...

  17. Responses of phytoplankton and Hyalella azteca to agrichemical mixtures in a constructed wetland mesocosms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the capability of a constructed wetland to mitigate toxicity of a variety of possible mixtures such as nutrients only (N, P), pesticides only (atrazine, S-metolachlor, permethrin), and nutrients+pesticides on phytoplankton chlorophyll a, 48 h aqueous Hyalella azteca survival, and 10 d se...

  18. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals. Quarterly report, 1 April 1992--30 June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, D.F.

    1992-07-10

    This report presents completed sealed tube stability test results for the following eight refrigerant/lubricant mixtures: R-22/mineral oil; R-124/alkylbenzene; R-134a/pentaerythritol (PE) ester (mixed acid); R- 134a/PE (branched acid); R-134a/ PE (100 cSt viscosity); R- 142b/alkylbenzene; R-143a/ PE (branched acid); R-152a/alkylbenzene. Partial results are shown for an additional eight refrigerant-lubricant mixtures. Though work is in progress, no data are available at this point in time for the five remaining test mixtures. Reported are: visual observations on aged sealed tubes, gas chromatographic analyses on the vapor phase contents of the tubes, chloride ion contents of HCFC containing mixtures or fluoride ion contents of HFC mixtures, and total acid number values and infrared analysis results for mixtures containing ester lubricants.

  19. Variation and distribution of metals and metalloids in soil/ash mixtures from Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Itai, Takaaki; Otsuka, Masanari; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Muto, Mamoru; Opoku-Ankomah, Yaw; Ansa-Asare, Osmund Duodu; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-02-01

    Illegal import and improper recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) are an environmental issue in developing countries around the world. African countries are no exception to this problem and the Agbogbloshie market in Accra, Ghana is a well-known e-waste recycling site. We have studied the levels of metal(loid)s in the mixtures of residual ash, formed by the burning of e-waste, and the cover soil, obtained using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (P-XRF) coupled with determination of the 1M HCl-extractable fraction by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The accuracy and precision of the P-XRF measurements were evaluated by measuring 18 standard reference materials; this indicated the acceptable but limited quality of this method as a screening tool. The HCl-extractable levels of Al, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, In, Sb, Ba, and Pb in 10 soil/ash mixtures varied by more than one order of magnitude. The levels of these metal(loid)s were found to be correlated with the color (i.e., soil/ash ratio), suggesting that they are being released from disposed e-waste via open burning. The source of rare elements could be constrained using correlation to the predominant metals. Human hazard quotient values based on ingestion of soil/ash mixtures exceeded unity for Pb, As, Sb, and Cu in a high-exposure scenario. This study showed that along with common metals, rare metal(loid)s are also enriched in the e-waste burning site. We suggest that risk assessment considering exposure to multiple metal(loid)s should be addressed in studies of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24184547

  20. Treatment of electronic waste to recover metal values using thermal plasma coupled with acid leaching - A response surface modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, Swagat S.; Nayak, Pradeep; Mukherjee, P.S.; Roy Chaudhury, G.; Mishra, B.K.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sentences/phrases were modified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Necessary discussions for different figures were included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More discussion have been included on the flue gas analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Queries to both the reviewers have been given. - Abstract: The global crisis of the hazardous electronic waste (E-waste) is on the rise due to increasing usage and disposal of electronic devices. A process was developed to treat E-waste in an environmentally benign process. The process consisted of thermal plasma treatment followed by recovery of metal values through mineral acid leaching. In the thermal process, the E-waste was melted to recover the metal values as a metallic mixture. The metallic mixture was subjected to acid leaching in presence of depolarizer. The leached liquor mainly contained copper as the other elements like Al and Fe were mostly in alloy form as per the XRD and phase diagram studies. Response surface model was used to optimize the conditions for leaching. More than 90% leaching efficiency at room temperature was observed for Cu, Ni and Co with HCl as the solvent, whereas Fe and Al showed less than 40% efficiency.

  1. Reducing the deactivation of Ni-metal during the catalytic partial oxidation of a surrogate diesel fuel mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Daniel J.; Campos, Andrew; Smith, Mark W.; Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Spivey, James J.

    2010-09-01

    Ni catalysts are active and selective for the conversion of hydrocarbon into synthesis gas. However, conventional supported Ni catalysts rapidly deactivate at the high temperatures required for partial oxidation of diesel fuel by sintering and metal vaporization, as well as by carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning. Thus, to reduce deactivation Ni (3 wt%) was substituted into the structures of Ba-hexaaluminate (BNHA) and La–Sr–Zr pyrochlore (LSZN), and their activity was compared to a supported Ni/Al2O3 for the catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) of a surrogate diesel fuel. Characterization by XRD showed a single phase β-alumina for the hexaaluminate, while LSZN had a pyrochlore structure with a defect SrZrO3 perovskite phase. Temperature programmed reduction experiments confirmed Ni was reducible in all catalysts. XANES results confirmed that Ni atoms were substituted into the hexaaluminate and pyrochlore structures, as spectra for each catalyst showed different coordination environments for Ni compared to a NiO standard. During CPOX activity tests (T = 900 °C and WHSV = 50,000 scc/gcat/h), the LSZN pyrochlore produced stable H2 and CO yields in the presence of 5 wt% 1-methylnaphthalene and 50 ppmw dibenzothiophene/n-tetradecane for 2 h, while both Ni/Al2O3 and BNHA catalysts were irreversibly deactivated by this mixture over the same time. Finally, activity loss was strongly linked to carbon formation.

  2. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E.; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. The approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. In the first two quarters the authors designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, analyzed the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. They retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and required no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample required from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity. This report covers the third quarter of the project. The authors produced the CSS-FBC mixtures, analyzed the soil fertility parameters of the mixtures,, planted the crops, and monitored their growth. All mixtures support at least some plant growth, although some plants did better than others. It is too early to analyze the results statistically. Next quarter the plants will be harvested, yields calculated, mineral uptake evaluated, and a final report will be written on plant response to CSS-FBC mixtures.

  3. APPROXIMATION OF MULTIFLUID MIXTURE RESPONSE FOR SIMULATION OF SHARP AND DIFFUSE MATERIAL INTERFACES ON AN EULERIAN GRID

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, I; Liu, B

    2005-09-29

    Multimaterial Eulerian and Arbitrary Lagragian-Eulerian (ALE) codes usually use volume fractions of materials to track individual components in mixed cells. Material advection usually is calculated either by interface capturing, where a high-order van Leer-like slope reconstruction technique is applied, or interface tracking, where a normal reconstruction technique is applied. The former approach is more appropriate for gas-like substances, and the latter is ideal for solids and liquids, since it does not smear out material interfaces. A wide range of problems involves both diffuse and sharp interfaces between substances and demands a combination of these techniques. It is possible to treat all substances that can diffuse into each other as a single material and only keep mass fractions of the individual components of the mixture. The material response can be determined based on the assumption of pressure and temperature equilibrium between components of the mixture. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to solve the corresponding system of equations. In order to avoid these problems one can introduce an effective gamma and employ the ideal gas approximation to calculate mixture response. This method provides reliable results, is able to compute strong shock waves, and deals with complex equations of state. Results from a number of simulations using this scheme are presented.

  4. Evaluating Whole Chemical Mixtures and Sufficient Similarity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This powerpoint presentation supports apresentation describing dose-response assessment for complex chemical mixtures including deriving reference doses for mixtures evaluating sufficient similarity among chemical mixtures.

  5. Mixture-amount design and response surface modeling to assess the effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on developmental performance of Anastrepha ludens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling were used to study the effects of three flavonoids and two phenolic acids, alone or in mixtures, in an artificial larval diet on the development and survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens [Loew]). Pupal weight, percentage o...

  6. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions.

  7. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

  8. Ultrafast response sensor to formaldehyde gas based on metal oxide.

    PubMed

    Choi, N-J; Lee, H-K; Moon, S E; Kim, J; Yang, W S

    2014-08-01

    Thick film semiconductor gas sensors based on indium oxide were fabricated on Si substrate. The sensing materials on Si substrate were characterized using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and so on. They were very fine and uniform and we found out that particle sizes were about 20~30 nm through XRD analysis. Gas responses of fabricated sensors were measured in a chamber where gas flow was controlled by mass flow controller (MFC). Their resistance changes were monitored in real time by using data acquisition board and personal computer. Gas response characteristics were examined for formaldehyde (HCHO) gas which was known as the cause of sick building syndrome. Particularly, the sensors showed responses to formaldehyde gas at sub ppm (cf, standard of natural environment in building is about 80 ppb by ministry of environment in Korea), as a function of operating temperatures and gas concentrations. Also, we investigated sensitivity, repetition, selectivity, response speed and reproducibility of the sensors. The lowest detection limit is HCHO 25 ppb and sensitivity at 800 ppb is over 25% at 350 °C operating temperature. The response time (8 s) and recovery time (15 s) to HCHO gas at 200 ppb were very fast compared to other commercial products in flow type measurement condition. Repetition measurement was very good with ±3% in full measurement range. The fabricated metal oxide gas sensor showed good performance to HCHO gas and proved that it could be adaptable to indoor environment in building. PMID:25936006

  9. Differential proinflammatory responses induced by diesel exhaust particles with contrasting PAH and metal content.

    PubMed

    Totlandsdal, Annike I; Låg, Marit; Lilleaas, Edel; Cassee, Flemming; Schwarze, Per

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust particles (DEPs), representing a complex and variable mixture of components, has been linked with cellular production and release of several types of mediators related to pulmonary inflammation. A key challenge is to identify the specific components, which may be responsible for these effects. The aim of this study was to compare the proinflammatory potential of two DEP-samples with contrasting contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. The DEP-samples were compared with respect to their ability to induce cytotoxicity, expression and release of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-8), activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and expression of CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. In addition, dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid assays were performed in order to examine the oxidative potential of the PM samples. The DEP-sample with the highest PAH and lowest metal content was more potent with respect to cytotoxicity and expression and release of proinflammatory mediators, CYP1A1 and HO-1 expression and MAPK activation, than the DEP-sample with lower PAH and higher metal content. The DEP-sample with the highest PAH and lowest metal content also possessed a greater oxidative potential. The present results indicate that the content of organic components may be determinant for the proinflammatory effects of DEP. The findings underscore the importance of considering the chemical composition of particulate matter-emissions, when evaluating the potential health impact and implementation of air pollution regulations. PMID:23900936

  10. Differential proinflammatory responses induced by diesel exhaust particles with contrasting PAH and metal content.

    PubMed

    Totlandsdal, Annike I; Låg, Marit; Lilleaas, Edel; Cassee, Flemming; Schwarze, Per

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust particles (DEPs), representing a complex and variable mixture of components, has been linked with cellular production and release of several types of mediators related to pulmonary inflammation. A key challenge is to identify the specific components, which may be responsible for these effects. The aim of this study was to compare the proinflammatory potential of two DEP-samples with contrasting contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. The DEP-samples were compared with respect to their ability to induce cytotoxicity, expression and release of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-8), activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and expression of CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. In addition, dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid assays were performed in order to examine the oxidative potential of the PM samples. The DEP-sample with the highest PAH and lowest metal content was more potent with respect to cytotoxicity and expression and release of proinflammatory mediators, CYP1A1 and HO-1 expression and MAPK activation, than the DEP-sample with lower PAH and higher metal content. The DEP-sample with the highest PAH and lowest metal content also possessed a greater oxidative potential. The present results indicate that the content of organic components may be determinant for the proinflammatory effects of DEP. The findings underscore the importance of considering the chemical composition of particulate matter-emissions, when evaluating the potential health impact and implementation of air pollution regulations.

  11. Investigation of simultaneous biosorption of copper(II) and chromium(VI) on dried Chlorella vulgaris from binary metal mixtures: Application of multicomponent adsorption isotherms

    SciTech Connect

    Aksu, Z.; Acikel, U.; Kutsal, T.

    1999-02-01

    Although the biosorption of single metal ions to various kinds of microorganisms has been extensively studied and the adsorption isotherms have been developed for only the single metal ion situation, very little attention has been given to the bioremoval and expression of adsorption isotherms of multimetal ions systems. In this study the simultaneous biosorption of copper(II) and chromium(VI) to Chlorella vulgaris from a binary metal mixture was studied and compared with the single metal ion situation in a batch stirred system. The effects of pH and single- and dual-metal ion concentrations on the equilibrium uptakes were investigated. In previous studies the optimum biosorption pH had been determined as 4.0 for copper(II) and as 2.0 for chromium(VI). Multimetal ion biosorption studies were performed at these two pH values. It was observed that the equilibrium uptakes of copper(II) or chromium(VI) ions were changed due to the biosorption pH and the presence of other metal ions. Adsorption isotherms were developed for both single- and dual-metal ions systems at these two pH values, and expressed by the mono- and multicomponent Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. Model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. It was seen that the adsorption equilibrium data fitted very well to the competitive Freundlich model in the concentration ranges studied.

  12. Tunable and responsive plasmonic properties of metal oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliron, Delia

    2015-03-01

    Degenerately doped metal oxide semiconductors, like ITO, exhibit plasmonic resonance at near and mid-infrared wavelengths tunable by varying their composition. Nanocrystals of many such materials have now been synthesized and applications are emerging that leverage the responsiveness of their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to electronic charging and discharging. For example, electrochromic glass that can dynamically control heat loads in buildings is under development. In biological systems, plasmonic oxide nanocrystals can act as remote sensors, where changes in their optical absorption indicates biochemical redox has occurred. Nonetheless, significant fundamental questions remain open regarding the nature of the infrared optical response in these doped oxides. Dopant impurities influence the optoelectronic properties beyond simply donating free carriers. For example, the distribution of Sn in ITO was found to dramatically influence the line shape of the LSPR and the effective electron mobility. In addition, by post-synthetically modifying carrier concentrations (through photodoping or electrochemical doping), we have observed that aliovalent doping and electronic doping each modify LSPR spectra, providing access to a broad range of tunable optical properties. Heterogeneous broadening, uncovered by single nanocrystal spectroscopy, also contributes to ensemble line shapes, complicating direct interpretation of LSPR spectra. Finally, the possibility of electric field enhancement by metal oxide LSPRs is critically examined to suggest what future applications might be on the horizon.

  13. Gender-specific proteomic responses in zebrafish liver following exposure to a selected mixture of brominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Kling, P; Norman, A; Andersson, P L; Norrgren, L; Förlin, L

    2008-10-01

    Proteomic effect screening in zebrafish liver was performed to generate hypotheses following exposure (21 days) to a structurally diverse mixture of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Fish were exposed to two doses (10 and 100 nmol/g feed). Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis, image analysis and MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry revealed 13 and 19 significant responses in males and females, respectively. Effects on proteins related to cellular maintenance and stress were observed in both genders. Regulated proteins were gender-specific, but functionally indicated common protective responses (peroxiredoxin 6 and Zgc:92891 in males and transketolase in females) suggesting oxidative stress. Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) was induced in both genders. In addition a female-specific downregulation of ironhomeostatic proteins (iron-regulatory protein 1 and transferrin) were observed. Our proteomic approach revealed novel responses that suggest important gender-specific sensitivity to BFRs that should be considered when interpreting adverse effects of BFRs. PMID:18258299

  14. Transcriptional responses in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to binary mixtures of an estrogen and anti-estrogens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liwei; Shao, Xiaolu; Hu, Xinhua; Chi, Jian; Jin, Yuanxiang; Ye, Weihong; Fu, Zhengwei

    2011-10-01

    Determining ecotoxicological risks of exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) remains a daunting challenge in environmental toxicology. Recently, some studies have illustrated that transcriptional profiling of genes offers the potential to identify the chemical causation of effects that are induced by exposure to complex mixtures. In the present study, the transcriptional responses of a set of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG, or HPG[L]-liver) axis of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were systematically examined after treatment with a combination of an estrogen (17α-ethinylestradiol [EE2], 20 ng/L) and two model anti-estrogens, the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (LET) and the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen (TAM), at three concentrations (30, 100 and 300 μg/L) for 72 h. The data presented demonstrate that although gene transcription analyses increase our mechanistic understanding of the modes of action (MOAs) of EDCs, the characteristic of most genes altered by a certain single chemical exposure may not be useful for diagnostic chemical causation in a mixture exposure situation. For example, the induction of one vitellogenin gene (VTG1) transcription caused by EE2 in male fish was effectively blocked after exposure to a combination of EE2 and LET but not EE2 and TAM. Moreover, the responses in gene transcription to coexposure were elicited partially in a nonmonotonic concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, the application of transcriptional profiling of genes for screening complex environmental samples should be further evaluated until biomarker gene responses are robust and sensitive enough to properly assess the complex interactions.

  15. Association rule mining of cellular responses induced by metal and metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; France, Bryan; George, Saji; Rallo, Robert; Zhang, Haiyuan; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E; Bradley, Kenneth; Cohen, Yoram

    2014-03-01

    Relationships among fourteen different biological responses (including ten signaling pathway activities and four cytotoxicity effects) of murine macrophage (RAW264.7) and bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells exposed to six metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were analyzed using both statistical and data mining approaches. Both the pathway activities and cytotoxicity effects were assessed using high-throughput screening (HTS) over an exposure period of up to 24 h and concentration range of 0.39-200 mg L(-1). HTS data were processed by outlier removal, normalization, and hit-identification (for significantly regulated cellular responses) to arrive at reliable multiparametric bioactivity profiles for the NPs. Association rule mining was then applied to the bioactivity profiles followed by a pruning process to remove redundant rules. The non-redundant association rules indicated that "significant regulation" of one or more cellular responses implies regulation of other (associated) cellular response types. Pairwise correlation analysis (via Pearson's χ(2) test) and self-organizing map clustering of the different cellular response types indicated consistency with the identified non-redundant association rules. Furthermore, in order to explore the potential use of association rules as a tool for data-driven hypothesis generation, specific pathway activity experiments were carried out for ZnO NPs. The experimental results confirmed the association rule identified for the p53 pathway and mitochondrial superoxide levels (via MitoSox reagent) and further revealed that blocking of the transcriptional activity of p53 lowered the MitoSox signal. The present approach of using association rule mining for data-driven hypothesis generation has important implications for streamlining multi-parameter HTS assays, improving the understanding of NP toxicity mechanisms, and selection of endpoints for the development of nanomaterial structure-activity relationships.

  16. Immunosuppression of the Trimellitic Anhydride-Induced Th2 Response by Novel Nonanatural Products Mixture in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Many natural dietary products prevent or cure allergic inflammation; however, the ability of mixtures of these natural medicinals to suppress allergic skin inflammation is unknown. We examined the inhibitory effects of nonanatural products mixture (NPM-9), which provides immunoregulatory activation, on Th2-mediated skin allergic inflammation. Oral administration of NPM-9 in mice reduced ear thickness and specific IgE production in trimellitic anhydride- (TMA-)induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS). NPM-9 also suppressed IL-4 and IL-1β production in splenocytes but prevented only TMA-induced IL-1β production in inflamed ears. To characterize the mechanism of this effect, we examined NPM-9 immunosuppression on an OVA-induced Th2 allergic state. Oral administration of NPM-9 inhibited Th2-mediated serum IgE overproduction. NPM-9 also downregulated the polarized Th2 response, whereas it upregulated Th1 response in splenocytes. These data suggest that NPM-9 may be a useful therapeutic agent for allergic inflammatory diseases through its suppression of the Th2-mediated allergic response. PMID:24348718

  17. Cerebrolysin, a mixture of neurotrophic factors induces marked neuroprotection in spinal cord injury following intoxication of engineered nanoparticles from metals.

    PubMed

    Menon, Preeti Kumaran; Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Sharma, Aruna; Mössler, Herbert; Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2012-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the world's most disastrous disease for which there is no effective treatment till today. Several studies suggest that nanoparticles could adversely influence the pathology of SCI and thereby alter the efficacy of many neuroprotective agents. Thus, there is an urgent need to find suitable therapeutic agents that could minimize cord pathology following trauma upon nanoparticle intoxication. Our laboratory has been engaged for the last 7 years in finding suitable therapeutic strategies that could equally reduce cord pathology in normal and in nanoparticle-treated animal models of SCI. We observed that engineered nanoparticles from metals e.g., aluminum (Al), silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) (50-60 nm) when administered in rats daily for 7 days (50 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in exacerbation of cord pathology after trauma that correlated well with breakdown of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) to serum proteins. The entry of plasma proteins into the cord leads to edema formation and neuronal damage. Thus, future drugs should be designed in such a way to be effective even when the SCI is influenced by nanoparticles. Previous research suggests that a suitable combination of neurotrophic factors could induce marked neuroprotection in SCI in normal animals. Thus, we examined the effects of a new drug; cerebrolysin that is a mixture of different neurotrophic factors e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and other peptide fragments to treat normal or nanoparticle-treated rats after SCI. Our observations showed that cerebrolysin (2.5 ml/kg, i.v.) before SCI resulted in good neuroprotection in normal animals, whereas nanoparticle-treated rats required a higher dose of the drug (5.0 ml/kg, i.v.) to induce comparable neuroprotection in the cord after SCI. Cerebrolysin also reduced spinal cord water content, leakage of plasma proteins

  18. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses. PMID:26070163

  19. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses.

  20. Do persistent organic pollutants interact with the stress response? Individual compounds, and their mixtures, interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Steven; Frizzell, Caroline; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-01-22

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential (UNEP, 2001). The majority of studies on endocrine disruption have focused on interferences on the sexual steroid hormones and so have overlooked disruption to glucocorticoid hormones. Here the endocrine disrupting potential of individual POPs and their mixtures has been investigated in vitro to identify any disruption to glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. POP mixtures were screened for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocation using a GR redistribution assay (RA) on a CellInsight™ NXT high content screening (HCS) platform. A mammalian reporter gene assay (RGA) was then used to assess the individual POPs, and their mixtures, for effects on glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transactivation. POP mixtures did not induce GR translocation in the GR RA or produce an agonist response in the GR RGA. However, in the antagonist test, in the presence of cortisol, an individual POP, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), was found to decrease glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity to 72.5% (in comparison to the positive cortisol control). Enhanced nuclear transcriptional activity, in the presence of cortisol, was evident for the two lowest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFOS) potassium salt (0.0147mg/ml and 0.0294mg/ml), the two highest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (0.0025mg/ml and 0.005mg/ml) and the highest concentration of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) (0.0000858mg/ml). It is important to gain a better understanding of how POPs can interact with GRs as the disruption of glucocorticoid action is thought to contribute to complex diseases. PMID:26599974

  1. Do persistent organic pollutants interact with the stress response? Individual compounds, and their mixtures, interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Steven; Frizzell, Caroline; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-01-22

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential (UNEP, 2001). The majority of studies on endocrine disruption have focused on interferences on the sexual steroid hormones and so have overlooked disruption to glucocorticoid hormones. Here the endocrine disrupting potential of individual POPs and their mixtures has been investigated in vitro to identify any disruption to glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. POP mixtures were screened for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocation using a GR redistribution assay (RA) on a CellInsight™ NXT high content screening (HCS) platform. A mammalian reporter gene assay (RGA) was then used to assess the individual POPs, and their mixtures, for effects on glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transactivation. POP mixtures did not induce GR translocation in the GR RA or produce an agonist response in the GR RGA. However, in the antagonist test, in the presence of cortisol, an individual POP, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), was found to decrease glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity to 72.5% (in comparison to the positive cortisol control). Enhanced nuclear transcriptional activity, in the presence of cortisol, was evident for the two lowest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFOS) potassium salt (0.0147mg/ml and 0.0294mg/ml), the two highest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (0.0025mg/ml and 0.005mg/ml) and the highest concentration of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) (0.0000858mg/ml). It is important to gain a better understanding of how POPs can interact with GRs as the disruption of glucocorticoid action is thought to contribute to complex diseases.

  2. Material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of a coal-oil mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.; Kohl, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Wedge shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900 C and the test duration was about 44 one hour cycles. The alloys tested were the nickel base superalloys, IN-100, U-700 and IN-792, and the cobalt base superalloy, Mar-M509. The deposits on the specimens were analyzed and the extent of corrosion/erosion was measured. The chemical compositions of the deposits were compared with the predictions from an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. The experimental results were in very good agreement with the predictions.

  3. Optical Response of Metal Nanoantennas to Femtosecond Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sushmita; Heberle, Albert

    2007-03-01

    Nanoscale metal antennas are promising devices for focusing light down to dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of light. This focusing can lead to strong optical enhancement of the response of single molecules or quantum dots placed in the antenna gap, as well as strong nonlinearities. The optical response of such antenna, however, is not well understood yet. Here, we will present results of our investigations of the linear and nonlinear optical response of silver nanoscale bowtie antennas to excitation with near-infrared pulses from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. The antennas were fabricated with electron beam lithography and a lift-of process on glass substrates and semiconductor materials. They have lengths of a few hundred nanometers and gaps between 10 and 100 nanometers. We will discuss polarization dependence of the excitation sensitivity, second harmonic generation and other nonlinear effects. References: [1] P. Muhlschlegel et al., Science ,1607(2005). [2] J.N. Farahani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,017402(2005).

  4. Vibrational response of adsorbates to femtosecond metal substrate heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Joseph P.

    This thesis discusses the use of IR spectroscopy to probe the vibrations of adsorbate molecules following impulsive excitation of electrons in underlying metal substrates by femtosecond visible light pulses. In these experiments the dominant spectral changes observed result from temperature dependent shifts of the oscillator complex frequency. Using the Liouville equation, a general description of the optical response is developed and discussed in the context of an impulsive change in frequency. As low frequency adsorbate-like modes become excited via coupling to substrate electrons and phonons, the high frequency modes are observed to experience frequency shifts. These couplings are described in terms of a Brownian oscillator model. Time-resolved measurements of the stretch mode absorption for CO on copper indicate that couplings of a low frequency vibration to both substrate reservoirs are significant. The coupling rates were determined separately as a result of the dramatic differences in the electronic and phonon temperature profiles. The effects of excitation pulse fluence on vibrational energy transfer between the CO low frequency frustrated translation and metal substrate electrons are examined. A temperature dependent coupling rate is extracted from our data using a dynamical charge transfer model.

  5. Dynamic Control of Optical Response in Layered Metal Chalcogenide Nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Tom, Kyle; Wang, Xi; Huang, Chunming; Yuan, Hongtao; Ding, Hong; Ko, Changhyun; Suh, Joonki; Pan, Lawrence; Persson, Kristin A; Yao, Jie

    2016-01-13

    Tunable optical transitions in ultrathin layered 2-dimensional (2D) materials unveil the electronic structures of materials and provide exciting prospects for potential applications in optics and photonics. Here, we present our realization of dynamic optical modulation of layered metal chalcogenide nanoplates using ionic liquid (IL) gating over a wide spectral range. The IL gating significantly increased the tuning range of the Fermi level and, as a result, substantially altered the optical transitions in the nanoplates. Using heavily n-doped Bi2Se3 nanoplates, we substantially modulated the light transmission through the ultrathin layer. A tunable, high-transmission spectral window in the visible to near-infrared region has been observed due to simultaneous shifts of both the plasma edge and absorption edge of the material. On the other hand, optical response of multilayer MoSe2 flakes gated by IL has shown enhanced transmission in both positive and negative biases, which is consistent with their ambipolar electrical behavior. The electrically controlled optical property tuning in metal chalcogenide material systems provides new opportunities for potential applications, such as wide spectral range optical modulators, optical filters, and electrically controlled smart windows with extremely low material consumption.

  6. Dynamic Control of Optical Response in Layered Metal Chalcogenide Nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Tom, Kyle; Wang, Xi; Huang, Chunming; Yuan, Hongtao; Ding, Hong; Ko, Changhyun; Suh, Joonki; Pan, Lawrence; Persson, Kristin A; Yao, Jie

    2016-01-13

    Tunable optical transitions in ultrathin layered 2-dimensional (2D) materials unveil the electronic structures of materials and provide exciting prospects for potential applications in optics and photonics. Here, we present our realization of dynamic optical modulation of layered metal chalcogenide nanoplates using ionic liquid (IL) gating over a wide spectral range. The IL gating significantly increased the tuning range of the Fermi level and, as a result, substantially altered the optical transitions in the nanoplates. Using heavily n-doped Bi2Se3 nanoplates, we substantially modulated the light transmission through the ultrathin layer. A tunable, high-transmission spectral window in the visible to near-infrared region has been observed due to simultaneous shifts of both the plasma edge and absorption edge of the material. On the other hand, optical response of multilayer MoSe2 flakes gated by IL has shown enhanced transmission in both positive and negative biases, which is consistent with their ambipolar electrical behavior. The electrically controlled optical property tuning in metal chalcogenide material systems provides new opportunities for potential applications, such as wide spectral range optical modulators, optical filters, and electrically controlled smart windows with extremely low material consumption. PMID:26599063

  7. The relative toxicity of metal salts to immune hemolysis in a mixture of antibody-secreting spleen cells, sheep red blood cells and complement.

    PubMed

    Seko, Y; Koyama, T; Ichiki, A; Sugamata, M; Miura, T

    1982-05-01

    The relative toxicity of metal salts was examined using a mixture of antibody-secreting spleen cells, sheep red blood cells and complement. The amount of immune hemolysis in the mixture was reduced by mercuric chloride, methylmercuric chloride and nickel chloride at concentrations of 14 microM or more, by sodium selenite and zinc chloride at 140 microM or more, and by sodium selenate, cadmium chloride, cadmium acetate, chromic chloride and beryllium chloride at 1400 microM. On the other hand, the amount of immune hemolysis was increased by both cadmium chloride anc cadmium acetate at concentrations of 14 and 140 microM. Mercuric chloride, methylmercuric chloride and nickel chloride were assumed to inhibit the antibody secretion of antibody-forming spleen cells.

  8. A Cleaner Process for Selective Recovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste of Complex Mixtures of End-of-Life Electronic Products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, recovery of metals from electronic waste within the European Union has become increasingly important due to potential supply risk of strategic raw material and environmental concerns. Electronic waste, especially a mixture of end-of-life electronic products from a variety of sources, is of inherently high complexity in composition, phase, and physiochemical properties. In this research, a closed-loop hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover valuable metals, i.e., copper and precious metals, from an industrially processed information and communication technology waste. A two-stage leaching design of this process was adopted in order to selectively extract copper and enrich precious metals. It was found that the recovery efficiency and extraction selectivity of copper both reached more than 95% by using ammonia-based leaching solutions. A new electrodeposition process has been proven feasible with 90% current efficiency during copper recovery, and the copper purity can reach 99.8 wt %. The residue from the first-stage leaching was screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction was returned to be releached for further copper recovery. The fine fraction was treated in the second-stage leaching using sulfuric acid to further concentrate precious metals, which could achieve a 100% increase in their concentrations in the residue with negligible loss into the leaching solution. By a combination of different leaching steps and proper physical separation of light materials, this process can achieve closed-loop recycling of the waste with significant efficiency.

  9. A Cleaner Process for Selective Recovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste of Complex Mixtures of End-of-Life Electronic Products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, recovery of metals from electronic waste within the European Union has become increasingly important due to potential supply risk of strategic raw material and environmental concerns. Electronic waste, especially a mixture of end-of-life electronic products from a variety of sources, is of inherently high complexity in composition, phase, and physiochemical properties. In this research, a closed-loop hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover valuable metals, i.e., copper and precious metals, from an industrially processed information and communication technology waste. A two-stage leaching design of this process was adopted in order to selectively extract copper and enrich precious metals. It was found that the recovery efficiency and extraction selectivity of copper both reached more than 95% by using ammonia-based leaching solutions. A new electrodeposition process has been proven feasible with 90% current efficiency during copper recovery, and the copper purity can reach 99.8 wt %. The residue from the first-stage leaching was screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction was returned to be releached for further copper recovery. The fine fraction was treated in the second-stage leaching using sulfuric acid to further concentrate precious metals, which could achieve a 100% increase in their concentrations in the residue with negligible loss into the leaching solution. By a combination of different leaching steps and proper physical separation of light materials, this process can achieve closed-loop recycling of the waste with significant efficiency. PMID:26061274

  10. Engineering cellular response using nanopatterned bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Kinser, Emily R; Stalter, Mark A; Duncan-Lewis, Christopher; Balestrini, Jenna L; Sawyer, Andrew J; Schroers, Jan; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2014-05-27

    Nanopatterning of biomaterials is rapidly emerging as a tool to engineer cell function. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a class of biocompatible materials, are uniquely suited to study nanopattern-cell interactions as they allow for versatile fabrication of nanopatterns through thermoplastic forming. Work presented here employs nanopatterned BMG substrates to explore detection of nanopattern feature sizes by various cell types, including cells that are associated with foreign body response, pathology, and tissue repair. Fibroblasts decreased in cell area as the nanopattern feature size increased, and fibroblasts could detect nanopatterns as small as 55 nm in size. Macrophages failed to detect nanopatterns of 150 nm or smaller in size, but responded to a feature size of 200 nm, resulting in larger and more elongated cell morphology. Endothelial cells responded to nanopatterns of 100 nm or larger in size by a significant decrease in cell size and elongation. On the basis of these observations, nondimensional analysis was employed to correlate cellular morphology and substrate nanotopography. Analysis of the molecular pathways that induce cytoskeletal remodeling, in conjunction with quantifying cell traction forces with nanoscale precision using a unique FIB-SEM technique, enabled the characterization of underlying biomechanical cues. Nanopatterns altered serum protein adsorption and effective substrate stiffness, leading to changes in focal adhesion density and compromised activation of Rho-A GTPase in fibroblasts. As a consequence, cells displayed restricted cell spreading and decreased collagen production. These observations suggest that topography on the nanoscale can be designed to engineer cellular responses to biomaterials.

  11. Comparative responses to metal oxide nanoparticles in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Castro-Bugallo, Alexandra; González-Fernández, África; Guisande, Cástor; Barreiro, Aldo

    2014-11-01

    A series of experiments was undertaken on three different marine microalgae to compare the effect of two metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on different physiological responses to stress: zinc oxide (ZnO), a known toxic compound for microalgae, and the never before tested yttrium oxide (Y₂O3). The effect of these potential pollutants was estimated for different physiological variables and temporal scales: Growth, carbon content, carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio, and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated in long-term assays, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated in a short-term assay. Population growth was the most susceptible variable to the acute toxic effects of both NPs as measured in terms of number of cells and of biomass. Although Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Alexandrium minutum were negatively affected by ZnO NPs, this effect was not detected in Tetraselmis suecica, in which cell growth was significantly decreased by Y₂O₃ NPs. Biomass per cell was negatively affected in the most toxic treatments in T. suecica but was positively affected in A. minutum. ZnO treatments induced a sharper decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence and higher ROS than did Y₂O₃ treatments. The pronounced differences observed in the responses between the species and the physiological variables tested highlight the importance of analyzing diverse groups of microalgae and various physiological levels to determine the potential effects of environmental pollutants.

  12. Engineering Cellular Response Using Nanopatterned Bulk Metallic Glass

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanopatterning of biomaterials is rapidly emerging as a tool to engineer cell function. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a class of biocompatible materials, are uniquely suited to study nanopattern–cell interactions as they allow for versatile fabrication of nanopatterns through thermoplastic forming. Work presented here employs nanopatterned BMG substrates to explore detection of nanopattern feature sizes by various cell types, including cells that are associated with foreign body response, pathology, and tissue repair. Fibroblasts decreased in cell area as the nanopattern feature size increased, and fibroblasts could detect nanopatterns as small as 55 nm in size. Macrophages failed to detect nanopatterns of 150 nm or smaller in size, but responded to a feature size of 200 nm, resulting in larger and more elongated cell morphology. Endothelial cells responded to nanopatterns of 100 nm or larger in size by a significant decrease in cell size and elongation. On the basis of these observations, nondimensional analysis was employed to correlate cellular morphology and substrate nanotopography. Analysis of the molecular pathways that induce cytoskeletal remodeling, in conjunction with quantifying cell traction forces with nanoscale precision using a unique FIB-SEM technique, enabled the characterization of underlying biomechanical cues. Nanopatterns altered serum protein adsorption and effective substrate stiffness, leading to changes in focal adhesion density and compromised activation of Rho-A GTPase in fibroblasts. As a consequence, cells displayed restricted cell spreading and decreased collagen production. These observations suggest that topography on the nanoscale can be designed to engineer cellular responses to biomaterials. PMID:24724817

  13. Chemically synthesized metal-oxide-metal segmented nanowires with high ferroelectric response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herderick, Edward D.; Polomoff, Nicholas A.; Huey, Bryan D.; Padture, Nitin P.

    2010-08-01

    A chemical synthesis method is presented for the fabrication of high-definition segmented metal-oxide-metal (MOM) nanowires in two different ferroelectric oxide systems: Au-BaTiO3-Au and Au-PbTiO3-Au. This method entails electrodeposition of segmented nanowires of Au-TiO2-Au inside anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, followed by topotactic hydrothermal conversion of the TiO2 segments into BaTiO3 or PbTiO3 segments. Two-terminal devices from individual MOM nanowires are fabricated, and their ferroelectric properties are measured directly, without the aid of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods. The MOM nanowire architecture provides high-quality end-on electrical contacts to the oxide segments, and allows direct measurement of properties of nanoscale volume, strain-free oxide segments. Unusually high ferroelectric responses, for chemically synthesized oxides, in these MOM nanowires are reported, and are attributed to the lack of residual strain in the oxides. The ability to measure directly the active properties of nanoscale volume, strain-free oxides afforded by the MOM nanowire architecture has important implications for fundamental studies of not only ferroelectric nanostructures but also nanostructures in the emerging field of multiferroics.

  14. Demographic and growth responses of a guerrilla and a phalanx perennial grass in competitive mixtures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphrey, David L.; Pyke, David A.

    1998-01-01

    The advantages of guerrilla and phalanx growth for the guerrilla Elymus lanceolatus ssp. lanceolatus and phalanx E. l. ssp. wawawaiensis were evaluated over 2 years in two taxon mixtures with a range of densities of each subspecies and under two levels of watering. Ramet numbers and biomass of the guerrilla subspecies were higher than those of the phalanx grass in the first year but in the second year declined greatly, while the phalanx grass showed no change in biomass and an increase in ramet numbers. High neighbour densities affected the phalanx subspecies more strongly than the guerrilla subspecies in the first year, but in the second year there were few differences between subspecies. Biomass of the guerrilla grass remained greater than that of the phalanx grass but ramet numbers were similar in the second year. For both subspecies in both years, probability of flowering decreased at higher neighbour densities, indicating adaptation for competitive ability. In the first year, biomass was more strongly reduced by densities than flowering was, but in the second year, when crowding was apparently greater, flowering was more severely affected. Genet survival was high and similar for both subspecies. The presumed advantage of guerrilla subspecies in exploiting open space was supported. The guerrilla grass exploited resources more quickly in the first year by faster growth and greater ramet production, but its biomass, ramet numbers and rhizome growth, and thus its advantage, were reduced in the second year. The phalanx subspecies had slower growth, produced more ramets in later years, and delayed flowering until later years. Although less able to exploit open resources, it appeared adapted to more stressful conditions, and may be able to exploit temporal resource pulses more effectively.

  15. The Quantitative Resolution of a Mixture of Group II Metal Ions by Thermometric Titration with EDTA. An Analytical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Popham, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an experiment in thermometric titration used in an analytic chemistry-chemical instrumentation course, consisting of two titrations, one a mixture of calcium and magnesium, the other of calcium, magnesium, and barium ions. Provides equipment and solutions list/specifications, graphs, and discussion of results. (JM)

  16. Probiotics and herbal mixtures enhance the growth, blood constituents, and nonspecific immune response in Paralichthys olivaceus against Streptococcus parauberis.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-08-01

    The present study was reported the effect of probiotics and herbals mixture supplementation diet on growth, blood constituents, and nonspecific immune response in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus against Streptococcus parauberis on weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 μl of PBS (phosphate buffer saline) containing S. parauberis (2.1 × 10⁷ CFU ml⁻¹). The initial weight did not significantly increased in supplementation diet group from 1 to 4 weeks, whereas it was significantly increased from weeks 6 to 12 as compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) activities significantly increased from weeks 4 to 12 in infected fish fed with supplementation diet compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. However, the total protein (TP) and glucose (GLU) levels were significantly increased in infected fish fed with supplementation diet after 6 weeks. The phagocytic, respiratory burst, complement, and lysozyme activities significantly enhanced in infected fish fed with supplementation diet from weeks 4 to 12 as compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. These results suggested that different probiotics and herbals mixture supplementation diet enhanced the growth, blood biochemical constituents, and nonspecific immunity in olive flounder against S. parauberis.

  17. Effect of microemulsions on transdermal delivery of citalopram: optimization studies using mixture design and response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Te; Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Fu, Yaw-Sya; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of microemulsions as a drug vehicle for transdermal delivery of citalopram. A computerized statistical technique of response surface methodology with mixture design was used to investigate and optimize the influence of the formulation compositions including a mixture of Brij 30/Brij 35 surfactants (at a ratio of 4:1, 20%–30%), isopropyl alcohol (20%–30%), and distilled water (40%–50%) on the properties of the drug-loaded microemulsions, including permeation rate (flux) and lag time. When microemulsions were used as a vehicle, the drug permeation rate increased significantly and the lag time shortened significantly when compared with the aqueous control of 40% isopropyl alcohol solution containing 3% citalopram, demonstrating that microemulsions are a promising vehicle for transdermal application. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters of citalopram, the flux required for the transdermal delivery system was about 1280 μg per hour. The microemulsions loaded with citalopram 3% and 10% showed respective flux rates of 179.6 μg/cm2 and 513.8 μg/cm2 per hour, indicating that the study formulation could provide effective therapeutic concentrations over a practical application area. The animal study showed that the optimized formulation (F15) containing 3% citalopram with an application area of 3.46 cm2 is able to reach a minimum effective therapeutic concentration with no erythematous reaction. PMID:23919086

  18. Probiotics and herbal mixtures enhance the growth, blood constituents, and nonspecific immune response in Paralichthys olivaceus against Streptococcus parauberis.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-08-01

    The present study was reported the effect of probiotics and herbals mixture supplementation diet on growth, blood constituents, and nonspecific immune response in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus against Streptococcus parauberis on weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 μl of PBS (phosphate buffer saline) containing S. parauberis (2.1 × 10⁷ CFU ml⁻¹). The initial weight did not significantly increased in supplementation diet group from 1 to 4 weeks, whereas it was significantly increased from weeks 6 to 12 as compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) activities significantly increased from weeks 4 to 12 in infected fish fed with supplementation diet compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. However, the total protein (TP) and glucose (GLU) levels were significantly increased in infected fish fed with supplementation diet after 6 weeks. The phagocytic, respiratory burst, complement, and lysozyme activities significantly enhanced in infected fish fed with supplementation diet from weeks 4 to 12 as compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. These results suggested that different probiotics and herbals mixture supplementation diet enhanced the growth, blood biochemical constituents, and nonspecific immunity in olive flounder against S. parauberis. PMID:21669289

  19. Metal mixtures in urban and rural populations in the US: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Strong Heart Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuanjie; Peng, Roger D.; Jones, Miranda R.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Best, Lyle G.; Guallar, Eliseo; Post, Wendy S.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Background Natural and anthropogenic sources of metal exposure differ for urban and rural residents. We searched to identify patterns of metal mixtures which could suggest common environmental sources and/or metabolic pathways of different urinary metals, and compared metal-mixtures in two population-based studies from urban/sub-urban and rural/town areas in the US: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Methods We studied a random sample of 308 White, Black, Chinese-American, and Hispanic participants in MESA (2000–2002) and 277 American Indian participants in SHS (1998–2003). We used principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to evaluate nine urinary metals (antimony [Sb], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], molybdenum [Mo], selenium [Se], tungsten [W], uranium [U] and zinc [Zn]). For arsenic, we used the sum of inorganic and methylated species (∑As). Results All nine urinary metals were higher in SHS compared to MESA participants. PCA and CA revealed the same patterns in SHS, suggesting 4 distinct principal components (PC) or clusters (∑As-U-W, Pb-Sb, Cd-Zn, Mo-Se). In MESA, CA showed 2 large clusters (∑As-Mo-Sb-U-W, Cd-Pb-Se-Zn), while PCA showed 4 PCs (Sb-U-W, Pb-Se-Zn, Cd-Mo, ∑As). LDA indicated that ∑As, U, W, and Zn were the most discriminant variables distinguishing MESA and SHS participants. Conclusions In SHS, the ∑As-U-W cluster and PC might reflect groundwater contamination in rural areas, and the Cd-Zn cluster and PC could reflect common sources from meat products or metabolic interactions. Among the metals assayed, ∑As, U, W and Zn differed the most between MESA and SHS, possibly reflecting disproportionate exposure from drinking water and perhaps food in rural Native communities compared to urban communities around the US. PMID:26945432

  20. Subtleties of human exposure and response to chemical mixtures from spills.

    PubMed

    Phetxumphou, Katherine; Dietrich, Andrea M; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, chemical spills degrade drinking water quality and threaten human health through ingestion and inhalation. Spills are often mixtures of chemicals; thus, understanding the interaction of chemical and biological properties of the major and minor components is critical to assessing human exposure. The crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) spill provides an opportunity to assess such subtleties. This research determined the relative amounts, volatilization, and biological odor properties of minor components cis- and trans-methyl-4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate (MMCHC) isomers and major components cis- and trans-4-MCHM, then compared properties and human exposure differences among them. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and chromatography revealed that the minor MMCHC isomers were about 1% of the major MCHM isomers. At typical showering temperature of 40 °C, Henry's law constants were 1.50 × 10(-2) and 2.23 × 10(-2) for cis- and trans-MMCHC, respectively, which is 20-50 fold higher than for 4-MCHM isomers. The odor thresholds were 1.83 and 0.02 ppb-v air for cis- and trans-MMCHC, which were both described as predominantly sweet. These data are compared to the higher 120 ppb-v air and 0.06 ppb-v odor thresholds for cis- and trans-4-MCHM, for which the trans-isomer had a dominant licorice descriptor. Application of a shower model demonstrated that while MMCHC isomers are only about 1% of the MCHM isomers, during showering, the MMCHC isomers are 13.8% by volume (16.3% by mass) because of their higher volatility. Trans-4-MCHM contributed about 82% of the odor because of higher volatility and lower odor threshold, trans-MMCHC, which represents 0.3% of the mass, contributed 18% of the odor. This study, with its unique human sensory component to assess exposure, reaffirmed that hazard assessment must not be based solely on relative concentration, but also consider the chemical fate, transport, and biological properties to determine the actual levels of

  1. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated SRM exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from SRM fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The possible biologic effects of exhaust products from solid rocket motor (SRM) burns associated with the space shuttle are examined. The major components of the exhaust that might have an adverse effect on vegetation, HCl and Al2O3 are studied. Dose response curves for native and cultivated plants and selected insects exposed to simulated exhaust and component chemicals from SRM exhaust are presented. A system for dispensing and monitoring component chemicals of SRM exhaust (HCl and Al2O3) and a system for exposing test plants to simulated SRM exhaust (controlled fuel burns) are described. The effects of HCl, Al2O3, and mixtures of the two on the honeybee, the corn earworm, and the common lacewing and the effects of simulated exhaust on the honeybee are discussed.

  2. Acute toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph S; Ranville, James F; Pontasch, Mandee; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Adams, William J

    2015-04-01

    Standard static-exposure acute lethality tests were conducted with Daphnia magna neonates exposed to binary or ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn in moderately hard reconstituted water that contained 3 mg dissolved organic carbon/L added as Suwannee River fulvic acid. These experiments were conducted to test for additive toxicity (i.e., the response to the mixture can be predicted by combining the responses obtained in single-metal toxicity tests) or nonadditive toxicity (i.e., the response is less than or greater than additive). Based on total metal concentrations (>90% dissolved) the toxicity of the tested metal mixtures could be categorized into all 3 possible additivity categories: less-than-additive toxicity (e.g., Cd-Zn and Cd-Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cu was titrated into Cd-containing waters), additive toxicity (e.g., some Cu-Zn mixtures), or more-than-additive toxicity (some Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cd was titrated into Cu-containing waters). Exposing the organisms to a range of sublethal to supralethal concentrations of the titrated metal was especially helpful in identifying nonadditive interactions. Geochemical processes (e.g., metal-metal competition for binding to dissolved organic matter and/or the biotic ligand, and possibly supersaturation of exposure waters with the metals in some high-concentration exposures) can explain much of the observed metal-metal interactions. Therefore, bioavailability models that incorporate those geochemical (and possibly some physiological) processes might be able to predict metal mixture toxicity accurately.

  3. Progressive thermal desorption of vapor mixtures from a preconcentrator with a porous metal foam internal architecture and variable thermal ramp rates.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Anheier, Norman C; Baldwin, David L

    2005-03-15

    A vapor preconcentrator has been designed with the porous polymer (Tenax) packed into a highly porous metal foam to facilitate thermal conductivity and temperature uniformity throughout the bed of the preconcentrator during heating. Vapors were desorbed using linear temperature programming from room temperature to a maximum temperature of 170 or 200 degrees C; the programmed duration of the thermal ramp was varied from 10 to 180 s. The partial separation of vapor mixtures that are thermally desorbed from the preconcentrator has been examined in terms of a metric for resolution, using methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and dimethyl methylphosphonate as a test mixture. Vapors desorbed as a sequence of partially separated overlapping peaks, as observed with a polymer-coated flexural plate wave sensor. It was shown that vapor mixture resolution improved as the total time of the thermal ramp was extended from 30 to 120 s. In this way, the preconcentrator serves to act as a preseparator in addition to its usual functions for sampling, signal modulation, and improving sensitivity. Overlapping peaks were modeled, and peak areas were extracted using an exponentially modified Gaussian model. Peak areas were independent of the thermal ramp rate. Uses of such preconcentrators with multivariate detectors, such as sensor arrays, are discussed.

  4. Progressive Thermal Desorption of Vapor Mixtures from a Preconcentrator with a Porous Metal Foam Internal Architecture and Variable Thermal Ramp Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Anheier, Norman C.; Baldwin, David L.

    2005-03-15

    A vapor preconcentrator has been designed with the porous polymer (Tenax) packed into a highly porous metal foam to facilitate thermal conductivity and temperature uniformity throughout the bed of the preconcentrator during heating. Vapors were desorbed using linear temperature programming from room temperature to a maximum temperature of 170ºC or 200ºC; the programmed duration of the thermal ramp was varied from 10 to 180 seconds. The thermal desorption of vapor mixtures captured on the preconcentrator has been examined in detail, using methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and dimethyl methylphosphonate as a test mixture. Vapors desorbed as a sequence of partially separated overlapping peaks as observed with a polymer-coated flexural plate wave sensor. It was shown that vapor mixture resolution improved as the total time of the thermal ramp was extended from 30 seconds to 120 seconds. In this way the preconcentrator serves to act as a preseparator in addition to its usual functions for sampling, signal modulation, and improving sensitivity. Overlapping peaks were modeled and peak areas were extracted using an exponentially modified Gaussian model. Peak areas were independent of the thermal ramp rate. Uses of such preconcentrators with multivariate detectors such as sensor arrays are discussed.

  5. Progressive thermal desorption of vapor mixtures from a preconcentrator with a porous metal foam internal architecture and variable thermal ramp rates.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Anheier, Norman C; Baldwin, David L

    2005-03-15

    A vapor preconcentrator has been designed with the porous polymer (Tenax) packed into a highly porous metal foam to facilitate thermal conductivity and temperature uniformity throughout the bed of the preconcentrator during heating. Vapors were desorbed using linear temperature programming from room temperature to a maximum temperature of 170 or 200 degrees C; the programmed duration of the thermal ramp was varied from 10 to 180 s. The partial separation of vapor mixtures that are thermally desorbed from the preconcentrator has been examined in terms of a metric for resolution, using methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and dimethyl methylphosphonate as a test mixture. Vapors desorbed as a sequence of partially separated overlapping peaks, as observed with a polymer-coated flexural plate wave sensor. It was shown that vapor mixture resolution improved as the total time of the thermal ramp was extended from 30 to 120 s. In this way, the preconcentrator serves to act as a preseparator in addition to its usual functions for sampling, signal modulation, and improving sensitivity. Overlapping peaks were modeled, and peak areas were extracted using an exponentially modified Gaussian model. Peak areas were independent of the thermal ramp rate. Uses of such preconcentrators with multivariate detectors, such as sensor arrays, are discussed. PMID:15762598

  6. Magnetic response measurements of mesoscopic superconducting and normal metal rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluhm, Hendrik

    The main part of this thesis reports three experiments on the magnetic response of mesoscopic superconducting and normal metal rings using a scanning SQUID microscope. The first experiment explores the magnetic response and fluxoid transitions of superconducting, mesoscopic bilayer aluminum rings in the presence of two coupled order parameters arising from the layered structure. For intermediate couplings, metastable states that have different phase winding numbers around the ring in each of the two order parameters were observed. Larger coupling locks the relative phase, so that the two order parameters are only manifest in the temperature dependence of the response. With increasing proximitization, this signature gradually disappears. The data can be described with a two-order-parameter Ginzburg-Landau theory. The second experiment concentrates on fluxoid transitions in similar, but single-layer rings. Near the critical temperature, the transitions, which are induced by applying a flux to the ring, only admit a single fluxoid at a time. At lower temperatures, several fluxoids enter or leave at once, and the final state approaches the ground state. Currently available theoretical frameworks cannot quantitatively explain the data. Heating and quasiparticle diffusion are likely important for a quantitative understanding of this experiment, which could provide a model system for studying the nonlinear dynamics of superconductors far from equilibrium. The third and most important scanning SQUID study concerns 33 individual mesoscopic gold rings. All measured rings show a paramagnetic linear susceptibility and a poorly understood anomaly around zero field, both of which are likely due to unpaired defect spins. The response of sufficiently small rings also has a component that is periodic in the flux through the ring, with a period close to h/e. Its amplitude varies in sign and magnitude from ring to ring, and its typical value and temperature dependence agree with

  7. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z.H.I.; Xiao, Y.; Sietsma, J.; Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G.; Yang, Y.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  8. A preliminary study for removal of heavy metals from acidic synthetic wastewater by using pressmud-rice husk mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Ee, C. J.; Baharudin, N. S.

    2016-06-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of combining pressmud and rice husk in the removal efficiencies of heavy metals in acidic synthetic wastewater. The ratios of pressmud to rice husk were varied at different percentages of weight ratio (0%, 20%, 40%, 60% 80% and 100%) and removal of heavy metals concentrations was observed. The result showed that the removal efficiency was increased with the addition of pressmud by up to almost 100%. Pressmud alone was able to remove 95% to 100% of heavy metals while rice husk alone managed to remove only 10% to 20% of heavy metals. The study also demonstrated that pressmud behaved as a natural acid neutralizer. Hence, the initial pH of the synthetically prepared acidic wastewater which was below 2 also was increased to pH ranging from 6 to 8.

  9. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures Dedicated to Macro and Micro powder Injection Moulding : Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J. P.; Cheng, Z. Q.; Liu, B. S.

    2007-05-17

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components. These research tasks are completed with the simulations of injection and sintering for solid state diffusion for to validate the mumerical models.

  10. Utilization of a Response-Surface Technique in the Study of Plant Responses to Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide Mixtures 1

    PubMed Central

    Ormrod, Douglas P.; Tingey, David T.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Olszyk, David M.

    1984-01-01

    A second order rotatable design was used to obtain polynomial equations describing the effects of combinations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) on foliar injury and plant growth. The response surfaces derived from these equations were displayed as contour or isometric (3-dimensional) plots. The contour plots aided in the interpretation of the pollutant interactions and were judged easier to use than the isometric plots. Plants of `Grand Rapids' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), `Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and `Alsweet' pea (Pisum sativum L.) were grown in a controlled environment chamber and exposed to seven combinations of SO2 and O3. Injury was evaluated based on visible chlorosis and necrosis and growth was evaluated as leaf area and dry weight. Covariate measurements were used to increase precision. Radish and pea had greater injury, in general, that did lettuce; all three species were sensitive to O3, and pea was most sensitive and radish least sensitive to SO2. Leaf injury responses were relatively more affected by the pollutants than were plant growth responses in radish and pea but not in lettuce. In radish, hypocotyl growth was more sensitive to the pollutants than was leaf growth. PMID:16663598

  11. A multivariate assessment of innate immune-related gene expressions due to exposure to low concentration individual and mixtures of four kinds of heavy metals on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Cobbina, Samuel Jerry; Xu, Hai; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wu, Xueshan; Liu, Hongyang; Zou, Yanmin; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2015-12-01

    Concerns over the potential health effects of mixtures of low concentration heavy metals on living organisms keep growing by the day. However, the toxicity of low concentration metal mixtures on the immune system of fish species has rarely been investigated. In this study, the zebrafish model was employed to investigate the effect on innate immune and antioxidant-related gene expressions, on exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of individual and mixtures of Pb (0.01 mg/L), Hg (0.001 mg/L), As (0.01 mg/L) and Cd (0.005 mg/L). Messenger-RNA (mRNA) levels of IL1β, TNF-α, IFNγ, Mx, Lyz, C3B and CXCL-Clc which are closely associated with the innate immune system were affected after exposing zebrafish embryos to metals for 120 h post fertilization (hpf). Individual and mixtures of metals exhibited different potentials to modulate innate-immune gene transcription. IL1β genes were significantly up regulated on exposure to Pb + As (2.01-fold) and inhibited on exposure to Pb + Hg + Cd (0.13-fold). TNF-α was significantly inhibited on exposure to As (0.40-fold) and Pb + As (0.32-fold) compared to control. Metal mixtures generally up regulated IFNγ compared to individual metals. Additionally, antioxidant genes were affected, as CAT and GPx gene expressions generally increased, whiles Mn-SOD and Zn/Cu-SOD reduced. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to individual metals greatly influenced modulation of innate immune genes; whiles metal mixtures influenced antioxidant gene expressions. This suggests that beside oxidative stress, there may be other pathways influencing gene expressions of innate immune and antioxidant-related genes. Low concentration heavy metals also affect expression of development-related (wnt8a and vegf) genes. Altogether, the results of this study clearly demonstrate that low concentration individual and mixtures of metals in aquatic systems will greatly influence the immune system. It is indicative that mechanisms associated with

  12. A multivariate assessment of innate immune-related gene expressions due to exposure to low concentration individual and mixtures of four kinds of heavy metals on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Cobbina, Samuel Jerry; Xu, Hai; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wu, Xueshan; Liu, Hongyang; Zou, Yanmin; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2015-12-01

    Concerns over the potential health effects of mixtures of low concentration heavy metals on living organisms keep growing by the day. However, the toxicity of low concentration metal mixtures on the immune system of fish species has rarely been investigated. In this study, the zebrafish model was employed to investigate the effect on innate immune and antioxidant-related gene expressions, on exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of individual and mixtures of Pb (0.01 mg/L), Hg (0.001 mg/L), As (0.01 mg/L) and Cd (0.005 mg/L). Messenger-RNA (mRNA) levels of IL1β, TNF-α, IFNγ, Mx, Lyz, C3B and CXCL-Clc which are closely associated with the innate immune system were affected after exposing zebrafish embryos to metals for 120 h post fertilization (hpf). Individual and mixtures of metals exhibited different potentials to modulate innate-immune gene transcription. IL1β genes were significantly up regulated on exposure to Pb + As (2.01-fold) and inhibited on exposure to Pb + Hg + Cd (0.13-fold). TNF-α was significantly inhibited on exposure to As (0.40-fold) and Pb + As (0.32-fold) compared to control. Metal mixtures generally up regulated IFNγ compared to individual metals. Additionally, antioxidant genes were affected, as CAT and GPx gene expressions generally increased, whiles Mn-SOD and Zn/Cu-SOD reduced. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to individual metals greatly influenced modulation of innate immune genes; whiles metal mixtures influenced antioxidant gene expressions. This suggests that beside oxidative stress, there may be other pathways influencing gene expressions of innate immune and antioxidant-related genes. Low concentration heavy metals also affect expression of development-related (wnt8a and vegf) genes. Altogether, the results of this study clearly demonstrate that low concentration individual and mixtures of metals in aquatic systems will greatly influence the immune system. It is indicative that mechanisms associated with

  13. Influence of Conductivity and Dielectric Constant of Water–Dioxane Mixtures on the Electrical Response of SiNW-Based FETs

    PubMed Central

    Mescher, Marleen; Brinkman, Aldo G.M.; Bosma, Duco; Klootwijk, Johan H.; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R.; de Smet, Louis C.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report on the electrical response of top-down, p-type silicon nanowire field-effect transistors exposed to water and mixtures of water and dioxane. First, the capacitive coupling of the back gate and the liquid gate via an Ag/AgCl electrode were compared in water. It was found that for liquid gating smaller potentials are needed to obtain similar responses of the nanowire compared to back gating. In the case of back gating, the applied potential couples through the buried oxide layer, indicating that the associated capacitance dominates all other capacitances involved during this mode of operation. Next, the devices were exposed to mixtures of water and dioxane to study the effect of these mixtures on the device characteristics, including the threshold voltage (VT). The VT dependency on the mixture composition was found to be related to the decreased dissociation of the surface silanol groups and the conductivity of the mixture used. This latter was confirmed by experiments with constant conductivity and varying water–dioxane mixtures. PMID:24481233

  14. Influence of conductivity and dielectric constant of water-dioxane mixtures on the electrical response of SiNW-based FETs.

    PubMed

    Mescher, Marleen; Brinkman, Aldo G M; Bosma, Duco; Klootwijk, Johan H; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; de Smet, Louis C P M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report on the electrical response of top-down, p-type silicon nanowire field-effect transistors exposed to water and mixtures of water and dioxane. First, the capacitive coupling of the back gate and the liquid gate via an Ag/AgCl electrode were compared in water. It was found that for liquid gating smaller potentials are needed to obtain similar responses of the nanowire compared to back gating. In the case of back gating, the applied potential couples through the buried oxide layer, indicating that the associated capacitance dominates all other capacitances involved during this mode of operation. Next, the devices were exposed to mixtures of water and dioxane to study the effect of these mixtures on the device characteristics, including the threshold voltage (V(T)). The V(T) dependency on the mixture composition was found to be related to the decreased dissociation of the surface silanol groups and the conductivity of the mixture used. This latter was confirmed by experiments with constant conductivity and varying water-dioxane mixtures.

  15. Responses of legume and non-legume crop species to heavy metals in soils with multiple metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Ren; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Cui, Yan-Shan; Dong, Yi-Ting; Christie, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Field and glasshouse investigations were conducted on the responses of two legumes (field pea and fodder vetch) and three non-leguminous crops (maize, wheat and rapeseed) to the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu and Mn in soil with multiple metal contamination. In general, the results indicate that the two legumes and wheat were more susceptible to soil metals than were rapeseed and maize. The dry matter yields of field pea, wheat, fodder vetch, rapeseed and maize decreased by up to 169, 123, 113, 93 and 68%, respectively, in metal-contaminated soil. Among the crops, maize had the highest concentrations of Mn, Zn and Cd, rapeseed had the highest concentrations of Cr, the concentration of Cu was highest in fodder vetch, and wheat was the highest accumulator of Pb. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of the metals decreased as the soil metal loading rates increased except for Cr in fodder vetch and Cd in wheat, whose BCF increased as the metal loading rate increased. Significant linear correlations were found between plant and soil metal concentrations. Patterns of metal distribution in plant parts varied with different crops and metals, with more Cd and Cu accumulating in the grain of wheat than of maize, suggesting that growing wheat would represent a higher risk of food contamination than growing maize in Cd- or Cu-contaminated soil. The results suggest that on sites with multiple metal contamination, growing maize and rapeseed would be safer than growing wheat or legumes. However, maize could perhaps be used for phytoremediation of lightly contaminated soils, providing that the crop residues were safely disposed of.

  16. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Visser, G; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  17. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Visser, G; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process. PMID:25445262

  18. Cytotoxicity of binary mixtures of human pharmaceuticals in a fish cell line: approaches for non-monotonic concentration-response relationships.

    PubMed

    Bain, Peter A; Kumar, Anupama

    2014-08-01

    Predicting the effects of mixtures of environmental micropollutants is a priority research area. In this study, the cytotoxicity of ten pharmaceuticals to the rainbow trout cell line RTG-2 was determined using the neutral red uptake assay. Fluoxetine (FL), propranolol (PPN), and diclofenac (DCF) were selected for further study as binary mixtures. Biphasic concentration-response relationships were observed in cells exposed to FL and PPN. In the case of PPN, microscopic examination revealed lysosomal swelling indicative of direct uptake and accumulation of the compound. Three equations describing non-monotonic concentration-response relationships were evaluated and one was found to consistently provide more accurate estimates of the median and 10% effect concentrations compared with a sigmoidal concentration-response model. Predictive modeling of the effects of binary mixtures of FL, PPN, and DCF was undertaken using an implementation of the concentration addition (CA) conceptual model incorporating non-monotonic concentration-response relationships. The cytotoxicity of the all three binary combinations could be adequately predicted using CA, suggesting that the toxic mode of action in RTG-2 cells is unrelated to the therapeutic mode of action of these compounds. The approach presented here is widely applicable to the study of mixture toxicity in cases where non-monotonic concentration-response relationships are observed. PMID:24582036

  19. The delayed lung responses to single and repeated intratracheal administration of pure cobalt and hard metal powder in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lasfargues, G.; Lardot, C.; Lauwerys, R.; Lison, D.

    1995-05-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that inhalation of cobalt metal dust (Co) mixed with tungsten carbide particles (WC), but not of cobalt dust alone, may cause interstitial pulmonary lesions (hard metal disease). In previous studies in the rat, we have demonstrated the greater acute pulmonary toxicity of a WC-Co mixture was greater compared to Co or WC alone. The present study compares the delayed lung response after intratracheal administration of Co or WC-Co particles. The responses were also compared with those obtained after treatment with arsenic trioxide and crystalline silica used as reference materials producing an acute toxic insult and progressive fibrogenic response, respectively. Cellular and biochemical parameters were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid following single and repeated intratracheal instillations. The results indicate the delayed lung response observed after WC-Co is different from that after cobalt metal alone. A single intratracheal dose of WC-Co (1, 5, or 10 mg/100 g body wt) induced an acute alveolitis which persisted for at least 1 month. Four months after a single instillation of WC-Co, no clear histological lung fibrosis could however be evidenced, indicating a reversibility of the lesions. The effects of cobalt (0.06, 0.3, or 0.6 mg/100 g body wt) were very modest, if any. Following repeated intratracheal instillations, increased lung hydroxyproline content and histopathological evidence of interstitial fibrosis were observed after WC-Co (4x1 mg/100 g body wt), but not after administration of each component separately, i.e., Co (4x0.06 mg/100 g body wt) or WC (4x1 mg/100 g body wt). The mechanism of the fibrotic reaction induced by WC-Co seems different from the progressive inflammatory reaction induced by crystalline silica. We suggest that it might result from a scarring reaction elicited by repeated acute insults as observed after repeated administration of arsenic trioxide. 34 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Multi-responsive metal-organic lantern cages in solution.

    PubMed

    Brega, Valentina; Zeller, Matthias; He, Yufan; Lu, H Peter; Klosterman, Jeremy K

    2015-03-25

    Soluble copper-based M4L4 lantern-type metal-organic cages bearing internal amines were synthesized. The solution state integrity of the paramagnetic metal-organic cages was demonstrated using NMR, DLS, MS, and AFM spectroscopy. 1D supramolecular pillars of pre-formed cages or covalent host-guest complexes selectively formed upon treatment with 4,4'-bipyridine and acetic anhydride, respectively.

  1. Recent developments in the application of proteomics to the analysis of plant responses to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Nagib; Renaut, Jenny; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2009-05-01

    Pollution of soils by heavy metals is an ever-growing problem throughout the world, and is the result of human activities as well as geochemical weathering of rocks and other environmental causes such as volcanic eruptions, acid rain and continental dusts. Plants everywhere are continuously exposed to metal-contaminated soils. The uptake of heavy metals not only constrains crop yields, but can also be a major hazard to the health of humans and to the entire ecosystem. Although analysis of gene expression at the mRNA level has enhanced our understanding of the response of plants to heavy metals, many questions regarding the functional translated portions of plant genomes under metal stress remain unanswered. Proteomics offers a new platform for studying complex biological functions involving large numbers and networks of proteins, and can serve as a key tool for revealing the molecular mechanisms that are involved in interactions between toxic metals and plant species. This review focuses on recent developments in the applications of proteomics to the analysis of the responses of plants to heavy metals; such studies provide a deeper understanding of protein responses and the interactions among the possible pathways that are involved in detoxification of toxic metals in plant cells. In addition, the challenges faced by proteomics in understanding the responses of plants to toxic metal are discussed, and some possible future strategies for meeting these challenges are proposed.

  2. Apparatus for measurements of PVT properties and their derivatives for fluids and fluid mixtures with a metal bellows as a variable-volume vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, T.; Iso, A.; Higashi, Y.; Uematsu, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1989-09-01

    A new apparatus for measurements of PVT properties and their derivatives with a metal bellows was designed for fluids and fluid mixtures of a fixed composition for pressures up to 20 MPa in the range of temperatures from room-temperature condition to 473 K. The apparatus, procedures, and results of calibrations are described. The capabilities of the apparatus are illustrated by means of the vapor-pressure measurements for chlorodifluoromethane and the PVT measurements of sulfur hexafluoride. Temperatures were set and kept constant at the values desired within ±3 mK and pressures within ±2 kPa. It was shown that density derivatives with respect to pressure at constant temperature and those with respect to temperature at constant pressure may both obtain from the experimental results.

  3. High-speed response time of LC mixtures containing fluoro-isothiocyanato liquid crystal compounds for LCD monitor and TV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong B.; Huh, Il K.

    2002-05-01

    A most important parameter for TV application of LCD is a fast switching time for displaying of moving image. To achieve the requirement of faster switching times, the novel LC single materials with large dielectric anisotropies (16~20), high clearing temperatures (195.5 ~ 237.4 degree(s)C), broad nematic ranges (up to 169.9 degree(s)C) and high birefringence (0.220 ~ 0.254) were developed. KUR-series LC mixtures blended these single materials have significantly higher clearing temperatures and dielectric anisotropy values compared with conventional LC mixture. Especially, clearing temperatures of them are 10~30 degree(s)C higher than their host mixture. These LC mixtures showing about 10ms of high-speed response time in TV/Monitor of TFT LCD, which are shorter enough to be addressed in one frame time of 60Hz (16.7ms). The threshold voltage Vth was low enough to operate at a driving voltage of 5V. The VHR values were found to high enough for TFT-LCD in wide temperature range. Our novel LC mixtures are suitable materials for inclusion in LC mixtures for TV application of TN-LCD.

  4. Effects of Monotypic and Binary Mixtures of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Microbial Growth in Sandy Soil Collected from Artificial Recharge Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Ha, Kyoochul; Kong, In Chul

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of monotypic and binary metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs, ZnO, NiO, Co3O4 and TiO2) on microbial growth were evaluated in sandy soil collected from artificial recharge sites. Microbial growth was assessed based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and viable cell counts (VCC). Microbial growth based on ATP content and VCC showed considerable differences depending on NP type and concentration, whereas DHA did not significantly change. In general, ZnO NPs showed the strongest effect on microbial growth in all measurements, showing an EC50 value of 10.9 mg/L for ATP content. The ranking (EC50) of NPs based on their effect on microbial growth assessed by ATP content and VCC was ZnO > Co3O4 > NiO > TiO2. Upon exposure to binary NP mixtures, synergistic and additive modes of action were observed for ATP content and VCC, respectively. The ranges of observed (P(O)) and expected (P(E)) activity were 83%–92% and 78%–82% of the control (p-value 0.0010) based on ATP content and 78%–95% and 72%–94% of the control (p-value 0.8813) based on VCC under the tested conditions, respectively. The results indicate that the effects of NP mixtures on microbial growth in the sandy soil matrix were as great, or greater, than those of single NPs. Therefore, understanding the effects of single NPs and NP mixtures is essential for proper ecological risk assessment. Additionally, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of NP effects may be profoundly influenced by the method of microbial growth measurement. PMID:26610489

  5. Effects of Monotypic and Binary Mixtures of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Microbial Growth in Sandy Soil Collected from Artificial Recharge Sites.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Ha, Kyoochul; Kong, In Chul

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of monotypic and binary metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs, ZnO, NiO, Co₃O₄ and TiO₂) on microbial growth were evaluated in sandy soil collected from artificial recharge sites. Microbial growth was assessed based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and viable cell counts (VCC). Microbial growth based on ATP content and VCC showed considerable differences depending on NP type and concentration, whereas DHA did not significantly change. In general, ZnO NPs showed the strongest effect on microbial growth in all measurements, showing an EC50 value of 10.9 mg/L for ATP content. The ranking (EC50) of NPs based on their effect on microbial growth assessed by ATP content and VCC was ZnO > Co₃O₄ > NiO > TiO₂. Upon exposure to binary NP mixtures, synergistic and additive modes of action were observed for ATP content and VCC, respectively. The ranges of observed (P(O)) and expected (P(E)) activity were 83%-92% and 78%-82% of the control (p-value 0.0010) based on ATP content and 78%-95% and 72%-94% of the control (p-value 0.8813) based on VCC under the tested conditions, respectively. The results indicate that the effects of NP mixtures on microbial growth in the sandy soil matrix were as great, or greater, than those of single NPs. Therefore, understanding the effects of single NPs and NP mixtures is essential for proper ecological risk assessment. Additionally, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of NP effects may be profoundly influenced by the method of microbial growth measurement. PMID:26610489

  6. Biosynthesis of metal-binding polypeptides and their precursors in response to cadmium in Datura innoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Kuske, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Metal-tolerant Datura innoxia cells synthesize large amounts of a class of metal-binding polypeptides, poly({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl) glycines (({gamma}-EC){sub n}G, n=2-5), when exposed to Cd. These polypeptides have a high affinity for Cd (2) and certain other metal ions and are thought to play a role in metal tolerance in higher plants. ({gamma}-EC){sub n}G is biosynthetically derived from glutathione. Therefore, the response of Datura cells to Cd must include an increase in production of glutathione and its precursors, since cells rapidly accumulate very high concentrations of these metal-binding polypeptides. The biosynthesis of ({gamma}-EC){sub n}Gs, glutathione, and cysteine in response to Cd exposure is described. The physiological significance of the synthesis of these polypeptides and their precursors and its relevance to Cd tolerance and metal homeostasis are discussed. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effects of extrusion cooking on some functional properties of soy-sweet potato mixtures--a response surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Iwe, M O

    2000-01-01

    Mixtures of defatted soy flour and sweet potatoes were extruded at 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0 ratios in an Insta-Pro 600 single screw extruder operated at 180, 200, 220 rpm. Oil (3-5%) was added into the mix before extrusion. A 5 x 32 fractional factorial central composite response surface design was adopted for investigating the variables: feed composition, % oil, and screw rotation speed (RPM). Percent oil and screw speed were randomly investigated at three levels, while feed composition was randomly investigated at five levels. Effect of extrusion cooking on functional properties: bulk density, expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility indices and trypsin inhibitor were assessed. Results showed that feed composition and screw speed had strong influences on the process. The effect of adding oil, into defatted soybean significantly (p < 0.05) affected only trypsin inhibitor content. High extrusion temperature (> 130 degrees C), and accompanying high shear, were the result of the non-pasting nature of the extrudate. Therefore the products may have limited uses.

  8. Modes of metal toxicity and impaired branchial ionoregulation in rainbow trout exposed to mixtures of Pb and Cd in soft water.

    PubMed

    Birceanu, Oana; Chowdhury, M Jasim; Gillis, Patricia L; McGeer, James C; Wood, Chris M; Wilkie, Michael P

    2008-09-29

    Models such as the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) predict how natural organic matter (NOM) and competing ions (e.g., Ca(2+), H(+) and Na(+)) affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic organisms. However, such models focus upon individual metals, not metal mixtures. This study determined whether Pb and Cd interact at the gill of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) when trout were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of these metals (Cd<100 nmol L(-1); Pb<500 nmol L(-1)) in soft (<100 micromol Ca(2+)L(-1)), moderately acidic (pH 6.0) water. The 96-h LC50 for Pb was 482 nmol L(-1), indicating that Pb was one-order of magnitude more toxic in soft, acidic water than in harder, circumneutral pH waters. The LC50 for Cd alone was also low, 6.7 nmol L(-1). Surprisingly, fish acclimated to soft water had multiple populations of Pb-gill and Cd-gill binding sites. A low capacity, high affinity population of Pb-gill binding sites had a B(max) of 18.2 nmol g(-1) wet weight (ww) and apparent K(Pb-gill)=7.05, but a second low affinity population could not be saturated up to free Pb concentrations approaching 4000 nmol L(-1). Two populations of Cd-gill binding sites were characterized: a high affinity, low capacity population with an apparent K(Cd-gill)=7.33 and B(max)=1.73 nmol g(-1) ww, and a low affinity, high capacity population with an apparent K(Cd-gill)=5.86, and B(max)=13.7 nmol g(-1) ww. At low concentrations, Cd plus Pb accumulation was less than additive because Cd out-competed Pb for gill binding sites, which were likely apical Ca(2+)-channels. While disturbances to Ca(2+) influx were caused by Cd alone, Pb alone had no effect. However, Pb exacerbated Cd-induced disturbances to Ca(2+) influx demonstrating that, although Pb- plus Cd-gill binding was less than additive due to competition, the effects (ionic disturbances) were more than additive (synergistic). Pb was also likely binding to intracellular targets, such as branchial carbonic anhydrase

  9. Modes of metal toxicity and impaired branchial ionoregulation in rainbow trout exposed to mixtures of Pb and Cd in soft water.

    PubMed

    Birceanu, Oana; Chowdhury, M Jasim; Gillis, Patricia L; McGeer, James C; Wood, Chris M; Wilkie, Michael P

    2008-09-29

    Models such as the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) predict how natural organic matter (NOM) and competing ions (e.g., Ca(2+), H(+) and Na(+)) affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic organisms. However, such models focus upon individual metals, not metal mixtures. This study determined whether Pb and Cd interact at the gill of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) when trout were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of these metals (Cd<100 nmol L(-1); Pb<500 nmol L(-1)) in soft (<100 micromol Ca(2+)L(-1)), moderately acidic (pH 6.0) water. The 96-h LC50 for Pb was 482 nmol L(-1), indicating that Pb was one-order of magnitude more toxic in soft, acidic water than in harder, circumneutral pH waters. The LC50 for Cd alone was also low, 6.7 nmol L(-1). Surprisingly, fish acclimated to soft water had multiple populations of Pb-gill and Cd-gill binding sites. A low capacity, high affinity population of Pb-gill binding sites had a B(max) of 18.2 nmol g(-1) wet weight (ww) and apparent K(Pb-gill)=7.05, but a second low affinity population could not be saturated up to free Pb concentrations approaching 4000 nmol L(-1). Two populations of Cd-gill binding sites were characterized: a high affinity, low capacity population with an apparent K(Cd-gill)=7.33 and B(max)=1.73 nmol g(-1) ww, and a low affinity, high capacity population with an apparent K(Cd-gill)=5.86, and B(max)=13.7 nmol g(-1) ww. At low concentrations, Cd plus Pb accumulation was less than additive because Cd out-competed Pb for gill binding sites, which were likely apical Ca(2+)-channels. While disturbances to Ca(2+) influx were caused by Cd alone, Pb alone had no effect. However, Pb exacerbated Cd-induced disturbances to Ca(2+) influx demonstrating that, although Pb- plus Cd-gill binding was less than additive due to competition, the effects (ionic disturbances) were more than additive (synergistic). Pb was also likely binding to intracellular targets, such as branchial carbonic anhydrase

  10. Toxicological responses in SW mice exposed to inhaled pyrolysates of polymer/tobacco mixtures and blended tobacco.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; Lee, K Monika; Lemus-Olalde, Ranulfo

    2009-12-01

    Modern cigarette manufacturing is highly automated and produces millions of cigarettes per day. The potential for small inclusions of non-cigarette materials such as wood, cardboard packaging, plastic, and other materials exists as a result of bulk handling and high-speed processing of tobacco. Many non-tobacco inclusions such as wood, paper, and cardboard would be expected to yield similar pyrolysis products as a burning cigarette. The aircraft industry has developed an extensive literature on the pyrolysis products of plastics, however, that have been reported to yield toxic by-products upon burning, by-products that have been lethal in animals and humans upon acute exposure under some exposure conditions. Some of these smoke constituents have also been reported in cigarette smoke. Five synthetic polymers, nylon 6, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), nylon 12, nylon 6,6, and acrylonitrile-butadiene (AB), and the natural polymer wool were evaluated by adding them to tobacco at a 3, 10, and 30% inclusion level and then pyrolyzing the mixture. The validated smoke generation and exposure system have been described previously. We used the DIN 53-436 tube furnace and nose-only exposure chamber in combination to conduct exposures in Swiss-Webster mice. Potentially useful biological endpoints for predicting hazards in humans included sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation, respiratory function, clinical signs, body weights, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, carboxyhemoglogin, blood cyanide concentrations, and histopathology of the respiratory tract. Chemical analysis of selected smoke constituents in the test atmosphere was also performed in order to compare the toxicological responses with exposure to the test atmospheres. Under the conditions of these studies, biological responses considered relevant and useful for prediction of effects in humans were found for sensory irritation, body weights, BAL fluid analysis, and histopathology of the nose

  11. Toxicological responses in SW mice exposed to inhaled pyrolysates of polymer/tobacco mixtures and blended tobacco.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; Lee, K Monika; Lemus-Olalde, Ranulfo

    2009-12-01

    Modern cigarette manufacturing is highly automated and produces millions of cigarettes per day. The potential for small inclusions of non-cigarette materials such as wood, cardboard packaging, plastic, and other materials exists as a result of bulk handling and high-speed processing of tobacco. Many non-tobacco inclusions such as wood, paper, and cardboard would be expected to yield similar pyrolysis products as a burning cigarette. The aircraft industry has developed an extensive literature on the pyrolysis products of plastics, however, that have been reported to yield toxic by-products upon burning, by-products that have been lethal in animals and humans upon acute exposure under some exposure conditions. Some of these smoke constituents have also been reported in cigarette smoke. Five synthetic polymers, nylon 6, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), nylon 12, nylon 6,6, and acrylonitrile-butadiene (AB), and the natural polymer wool were evaluated by adding them to tobacco at a 3, 10, and 30% inclusion level and then pyrolyzing the mixture. The validated smoke generation and exposure system have been described previously. We used the DIN 53-436 tube furnace and nose-only exposure chamber in combination to conduct exposures in Swiss-Webster mice. Potentially useful biological endpoints for predicting hazards in humans included sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation, respiratory function, clinical signs, body weights, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, carboxyhemoglogin, blood cyanide concentrations, and histopathology of the respiratory tract. Chemical analysis of selected smoke constituents in the test atmosphere was also performed in order to compare the toxicological responses with exposure to the test atmospheres. Under the conditions of these studies, biological responses considered relevant and useful for prediction of effects in humans were found for sensory irritation, body weights, BAL fluid analysis, and histopathology of the nose

  12. Brassinosteroids and Response of Plants to Heavy Metals Action

    PubMed Central

    Rajewska, Iwona; Talarek, Marta; Bajguz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a widespread group of plant hormones. These phytohormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development of various plant species, and they demonstrate high biological activity. BRs are considered to demonstrate protective activity in the plants exposed to various stresses. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals have become one of the most important plant stressors. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond the critical levels leads to oxidative stress. However, BRs may inhibit the degradation of lipids, resulted from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species under stress conditions, and increase the activity of antioxidants. They also have the ability to promote phytochelatins synthesis. PMID:27242833

  13. Brassinosteroids and Response of Plants to Heavy Metals Action.

    PubMed

    Rajewska, Iwona; Talarek, Marta; Bajguz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a widespread group of plant hormones. These phytohormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development of various plant species, and they demonstrate high biological activity. BRs are considered to demonstrate protective activity in the plants exposed to various stresses. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals have become one of the most important plant stressors. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond the critical levels leads to oxidative stress. However, BRs may inhibit the degradation of lipids, resulted from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species under stress conditions, and increase the activity of antioxidants. They also have the ability to promote phytochelatins synthesis. PMID:27242833

  14. Brassinosteroids and Response of Plants to Heavy Metals Action.

    PubMed

    Rajewska, Iwona; Talarek, Marta; Bajguz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a widespread group of plant hormones. These phytohormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development of various plant species, and they demonstrate high biological activity. BRs are considered to demonstrate protective activity in the plants exposed to various stresses. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals have become one of the most important plant stressors. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond the critical levels leads to oxidative stress. However, BRs may inhibit the degradation of lipids, resulted from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species under stress conditions, and increase the activity of antioxidants. They also have the ability to promote phytochelatins synthesis.

  15. Fano response induced by the interference between localized plasmons and interface reflections in metal-insulator-metal waveguide structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Ju; Wang, Ling-Ling; Zhai, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The original Fano response induced by the interference between the localized plasmons and interface-reflected surface plasmon polaritons in a single metal-insulator-metal waveguide with two parallel separated metal strips is predicted theoretically through the coupled mode theory combined with the Fano function. The prominent asymmetric line shape resulting from the coupling between the discrete dipole resonance formed between metal strips and an interface-reflected-induced continuum is confirmed by the performed numerical simulations. The novel Fano spectrum is tuned easily by varying the length and coupling distance of metal strips. By introducing another separated metal strip, the outstanding double Fano behavior is obtained, and the corresponding underlying physics is illustrated. In particular, based on the performed refractive index sensing spectra, the high sensitivity of 855 nm/RIU and figure of merit up to 30 are achieved via the double Fano resonance. Undoubtedly, such ingenious structure may benefit the fabrications of nano-integrated plasmonic devices for optical switching and sensing.

  16. Response of bean to some heavy metals in sewage water.

    PubMed

    Zeid, I M; el-Ghate, H M Abou

    2007-03-15

    Seed germination and early growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings were significantly reduced when irrigated with a mixture of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb at concentrations of sewage water. Leaf content of photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and total nitrogen also decreased. Cd and Pb significantly inhibited the activity of alpha and beta-amylases and protease enzymes during germination. Treatment of the mixture solution by precipitation, rice residue or EDTA decreased its retarding effect. The effect of precipitation was more pronounced. Whilst the lower concentration of Cu and Zn stimulated germination, growth and metabolism of bean seedling, the higher concentrations showed inhibitory effects. Even at very low concentrations of Cd and Pb germination, growth and metabolism of bean significantly decreased. Precipitation treatment alleviated the adverse effects of higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb. Whilst rice residue and EDTA treatments slightly enhanced germination of seeds treated with high concentrations of Zn and Cu, they did not affect germination of seeds treated with Cd or Pb.

  17. A mixture of peptides and sugars derived from plant cell walls increases plant defense responses to stress and attenuates ageing-associated molecular changes in cultured skin cells.

    PubMed

    Apone, Fabio; Tito, Annalisa; Carola, Antonietta; Arciello, Stefania; Tortora, Assunta; Filippini, Lucio; Monoli, Irene; Cucchiara, Mirna; Gibertoni, Simone; Chrispeels, Maarten J; Colucci, Gabriella

    2010-02-15

    Small peptides and aminoacid derivatives have been extensively studied for their effect of inducing plant defense responses, and thus increasing plant tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses. Similarly to plants, these compounds can activate different signaling pathways in mammalian skin cells as well, leading to the up-regulation of anti-aging specific genes. This suggests the existence of analogous defense response mechanisms, well conserved both in plants and animal cells. In this article, we describe the preparation of a new mixture of peptides and sugars derived from the chemical and enzymatic digestion of plant cell wall glycoproteins. We investigate the multiple roles of this product as potential "biostimulator" to protect plants from abiotic stresses, and also as potential cosmeceutical. In particular, the molecular effects of the peptide/sugar mixture of inducing plant defense responsive genes and protecting cultured skin cells from oxidative burst damages were deeply evaluated.

  18. Microbial community potentially responsible for acid and metal release from an Ostrobothnian acid sulfate soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofen; Lim Wong, Zhen; Sten, Pekka; Engblom, Sten; Österholm, Peter; Dopson, Mark; Nakatsu, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Soils containing an approximately equal mixture of metastable iron sulfides and pyrite occur in the boreal Ostrobothnian coastal region of Finland, termed ‘potential acid sulfate soil materials’. If the iron sulfides are exposed to air, oxidation reactions result in acid and metal release to the environment that can cause severe damage. Despite that acidophilic microorganisms catalyze acid and metal release from sulfide minerals, the microbiology of acid sulfate soil (ASS) materials has been neglected. The molecular phylogeny of a depth profile through the plough and oxidized ASS layers identified several known acidophilic microorganisms and environmental clones previously identified from acid- and metal-contaminated environments. In addition, several of the 16S rRNA gene sequences were more similar to sequences previously identified from cold environments. Leaching of the metastable iron sulfides and pyrite with an ASS microbial enrichment culture incubated at low pH accelerated metal release, suggesting microorganisms capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation were present. The 16S rRNA gene analysis showed the presence of species similar to Acidocella sp. and other clones identified from acid mine environments. These data support that acid and metal release from ASSs was catalyzed by indigenous microorganisms adapted to low pH. PMID:23369102

  19. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by purified iridoid mixture that inhibits penetration of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae upon topical treatment of mice tails.

    PubMed

    Bahgat, Mahmoud; Shalaby, Nagwa M M; Ruppel, Andreas; Maghraby, Amany S

    2005-08-01

    When tested for possible blocking effect on the cercarial, serine proteinase, elastase (CE) activity, an iridoid mixture extracted from leaves of Citharexylum quadrangular abolished 31% of the enzyme activity at final concentration 15 microg. When formulated in jojoba oil and applied to mice tails followed by infection with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, the iridoid mixture blocked cercarial penetration and caused significant reducetion (94%; P < 0.05) in worm burden in treated mice in comparison to controls. Also, immunomodulatory effects of iridoid mixture, iridoid-treated S. mansoni worm homogenate on mice were studied by measuring IgG and IgM levels against E. coli lysates (ECL), solube S. mansoni worm antigenic preparation (SWAP) and cancer bladder homogenates (CBH) as antigens by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were studied by calculating mean percent of CD4+, CD8(+)-T, B-mesenteric lymph node cells (MLNC) and CD4+, CD8(+)-T thymocytes by direct immunofluorescence staining in treated mice as compared to untreated homogenate given mice or untreated mice. Injecting mice with serial dilutions of iridoid mixture resulted in fluctuation, peaks and troughs, in both IgG and IgM responses against the above mentioned antigens. 1st and 2nd immunizations with iridoid mixture treated homogenate resulted in significantly elevated (P < 0.05). IgM and IgG levels against the 3 used antigens in comparison with sera from control mice. Immunized mice with homogenate treated with iridoid mixture showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CD4+T thymocytes, a non significant increase in CD8+T thymocytes, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CD4+T lymphocytes (MLNC) and a non significant increase in CD8+ T- and B-lymphocytes (MLNC) compared with mice immunized with untreated homogenate or non-injected normal mice.

  20. Boosting Responsivity of Organic-Metal Oxynitride Hybrid Heterointerface Phototransistor.

    PubMed

    Rim, You Seung; Ok, Kyung-Chul; Yang, Yang Michael; Chen, Huajun; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Wang, Chen; Huang, Yu; Park, Jin-Seong; Yang, Yang

    2016-06-15

    Amorphous metal oxides are attractive materials for various sensor applications, because of high electrical performance and easy processing. However, low absorption coefficient, slow photoresponse, and persistent photoconductivity of amorphous metal oxide films from the origin of deep-level defects are obstacles to their use as photonic applications. Here, we demonstrate ultrahigh photoresponsivity of organic-inorganic hybrid phototransistors featuring bulk heterojunction polymers and low-bandgap zinc oxynitride. Spontaneous formation of ultrathin zinc oxide on the surface of zinc oxynitride films could make an effective band-alignment for electron transfer from the dissociation of excitons in the bulk heterojunction, while holes were blocked by the deep highest occupied molecular orbital level of zinc oxide. These hybrid structure-based phototransistors are ultrasensitive to broad-bandwidth photons in ultraviolet to near-infrared regions. The detectivity and a linear dynamic range exceeded 10(12) Jones and 122.3 dB, respectively. PMID:27193237

  1. Responses of biofilms to combined nutrient and metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Ivorra, Núria; Hetrelaar, Jenny; Kraak, Michiel H S; Sabater, Sergi; Admiraal, Wim

    2002-03-01

    Numerous studies have reported marked sensitivities of diatom species to phosphate and organic pollution but have ignored interactions with other common contaminants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the single and joint effects of increased phosphate and metal (cadmium, zinc) concentrations on benthic diatom communities. Microalgal biofilms from a relatively unpolluted stream were exposed in the laboratory to Zn, Cd, and P, separately and in combination, in concentrations found at a polluted stream in the same catchment. The Zn concentration reduced algal growth in biofilms more than the Cd concentration. Phosphate compensated for the single effect of each metal but not for their combined effects. Diatom community changes were evaluated using water quality indices based on the empirical sensitivities of taxa to nutrients (TDI) and organic pollution (%PTV). Phosphate exposure resulted in an increase of the eutrophy rank and presumed pollution-tolerant taxa. In contrast, exposure to Zn, Zn+Cd, and Zn+Cd+P caused a marked reduction of the TDI and %PTV community values. The successional trends in the laboratory matched the observed differences in microphyte communities in the reference and polluted river stations. However, the autoecology of the species present also revealed that the resulting composition of diatom communities cannot be attributed solely to the direct toxic effects of metal and nutrients and their interaction. Observed changes in the relative abundance of species are also determined by their growth form and microdistribution in biofilms. PMID:11883416

  2. A new route to generation of CO with a redox system of mixture of metal oxide and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Mimori, K.; Hasegawa, N.; Tsuji, M.; Tamaura, Y.

    1994-12-31

    An endothermic chemical system composed of pulverized iron-based oxide and carbon powder has been investigated by using the temperature swing method (TSM) at 700 to 800 C. Ferrite of Mn and Zn, and magnetite were studied. The later material showed the most promising result. In the TSM, magnetite as the working material was reduced to wustite and carbon was concurrently oxidized to CO in a flow of N{sub 2} gas at 800 C (the activation step of the metal oxide). In the reverse process, in a flow of CO{sub 2} the wustite was oxidized to magnetite and injected CO{sub 2} was reduced to CO at 700 C (the reduction step of CO{sub 2} to CO). Following the reduction step, the chemical composition of the magnetite phase was restored to that existing prior to the activation step. The total amount of oxygen donated to carbon during the activation step was the same as that take from the magnetite during the reduction step. In this system, the following net reaction can be realized at temperatures of 700 to 800 C: C + CO{sub 2} yields 2CO. The process will therefore serve for the utilization of coal and other carbonaceous compounds in much lower temperatures than are employed in the traditional water gas and producer gas reactions.

  3. Air pollution-related metals induce differential cytokine responses in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Låg, M; Øvrevik, J; Totlandsdal, A I; Lilleaas, E M; Thormodsæter, A; Holme, J A; Schwarze, P E; Refsnes, M

    2016-10-01

    Different transition metals have been shown to induce inflammatory responses in lung. We have compared eight different metal ions with regard to cytokine responses, cytotoxicity and signalling mechanisms in a human lung epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B). Among the metal ions tested, there were large differences with respect to pro-inflammatory potential. Exposure to Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and As(3+) induced CXCL8 and IL-6 release at concentrations below 100μM, and Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) at concentrations above 200μM. In contrast, VO4(3-), Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) did not induce any significant increase of these cytokines. An expression array of 20 inflammatory relevant genes also showed a marked up-regulation of CXCL10, IL-10, IL-13 and CSF2 by one or more of the metal ions. The most potent metals, Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and As(3+) induced highest levels of oxidative activity, and ROS appeared to be central in their CXCL8 and IL-6 responses. Activation of the MAPK p38 seemed to be a critical mediator. However, the NF-κB pathway appeared predominately to be involved only in Zn(2+)- and As(3+)-induced CXCL8 and IL-6 responses. Thus, the most potent metals Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and As(3+) seemed to induce a similar pattern for the cytokine responses, and with some exceptions, via similar signalling mechanisms.

  4. Optical response of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass

    SciTech Connect

    Burchianti, A; Marinelli, C; Mariotti, E; Bogi, A; Marmugi, L; Giomi, S; Maccari, M; Veronesi, S; Moi, L

    2014-03-28

    We study the influence of optical radiation on adsorption and desorption processes of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass matrices. Exposure of the sample to near-IR or visible light changes the atomic distribution inside the glass nanopores, forcing the entire system to evolve towards a different state. This effect, due to both atomic photodesorption and confinement, causes the growth and evaporation of metastable nanoparticles. It is shown that, by a proper choice of light characteristics and pore size, these processes can be controlled and tailored, thus opening new perspectives for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces. (nanoobjects)

  5. METALert - an emergency response system for China for heavy metals in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joris, Ingeborg; Seuntjens, Piet; Dams, Jef; Desmet, Nele; Van Looy, Stijn; Raymaekers, Jens; Decorte, Lieve; Raben, Ingrid; Thijssen, Chris; Zhang, Hongzhen; Dong, Jingqi; Zhang, Qianwen

    2016-04-01

    The rapid industrialisation and economic growth of China has resulted in a mirrored increase of environmental issues and threats, which make the updating of the current environmental emergency response protocols very important. Heavy metal pollution accidents with high environmental risks are happening more frequently than ever in recent years. Despite efforts made by the authorites in respect to the formulation of sound policy, efficient technical methods and regulations for dealing with appropriate responses to emergency environmental incidents related to heavy metal pollution are still lacking. METALert is a generic Emergency Response System (ERS) for accidental pollution incidents caused by key heavy metal related industries in China and developed to support China in achieving its environmental targets. The METALert tool is based on environmental models for forecasting, simulation and visualisation of dispersion of heavy metal pollution in water, air and soil. The tool contains a generic database with scenarios for accidental release of metals in typical accidents related to the five key heavy metal industries in China. The tool can calculate the impact of an accident in water, air and soil and is evaluated and demonstrated for a river basin in the Chenzhou area, an important heavy metal mining area in China. The setup of the tool, the background models and the application in Chenzhou will be presented.

  6. Metal dealing at the origin of the Chordata phylum: the metallothionein system and metal overload response in amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Guirola, Maria; Pérez-Rafael, Sílvia; Capdevila, Mercè; Palacios, Oscar; Atrian, Sílvia

    2012-01-01

    Non-vertebrate chordates, specifically amphioxus, are considered of the utmost interest for gaining insight into the evolutionary trends, i.e. differentiation and specialization, of gene/protein systems. In this work, MTs (metallothioneins), the most important metal binding proteins, are characterized for the first time in the cephalochordate subphylum at both gene and protein level, together with the main features defining the amphioxus response to cadmium and copper overload. Two MT genes (BfMT1 and BfMT2) have been identified in a contiguous region of the genome, as well as several ARE (antioxidant response element) and MRE (metal response element) located upstream the transcribed region. Their corresponding cDNAs exhibit identical sequence in the two lancelet species (B. floridae and B. lanceolatum), BfMT2 cDNA resulting from an alternative splicing event. BfMT1 is a polyvalent metal binding peptide that coordinates any of the studied metal ions (Zn, Cd or Cu) rendering complexes stable enough to last in physiological environments, which is fully concordant with the constitutive expression of its gene, and therefore, with a metal homeostasis housekeeping role. On the contrary, BfMT2 exhibits a clear ability to coordinate Cd(II) ions, while it is absolutely unable to fold into stable Cu (I) complexes, even as mixed species. This identifies it as an essential detoxification agent, which is consequently only induced in emergency situations. The cephalochordate MTs are not directly related to vertebrate MTs, neither by gene structure, protein similarity nor metal-binding behavior of the encoded peptides. The closest relative is the echinoderm MT, which confirm proposed phylogenetic relationships between these two groups. The current findings support the existence in most organisms of two types of MTs as for their metal binding preferences, devoted to different biological functions: multivalent MTs for housekeeping roles, and specialized MTs that evolve either as Cd

  7. Metal Dealing at the Origin of the Chordata Phylum: The Metallothionein System and Metal Overload Response in Amphioxus

    PubMed Central

    Capdevila, Mercè; Palacios, Òscar; Atrian, Sílvia

    2012-01-01

    Non-vertebrate chordates, specifically amphioxus, are considered of the utmost interest for gaining insight into the evolutionary trends, i.e. differentiation and specialization, of gene/protein systems. In this work, MTs (metallothioneins), the most important metal binding proteins, are characterized for the first time in the cephalochordate subphylum at both gene and protein level, together with the main features defining the amphioxus response to cadmium and copper overload. Two MT genes (BfMT1 and BfMT2) have been identified in a contiguous region of the genome, as well as several ARE (antioxidant response element) and MRE (metal response element) located upstream the transcribed region. Their corresponding cDNAs exhibit identical sequence in the two lancelet species (B. floridae and B. lanceolatum), BfMT2 cDNA resulting from an alternative splicing event. BfMT1 is a polyvalent metal binding peptide that coordinates any of the studied metal ions (Zn, Cd or Cu) rendering complexes stable enough to last in physiological environments, which is fully concordant with the constitutive expression of its gene, and therefore, with a metal homeostasis housekeeping role. On the contrary, BfMT2 exhibits a clear ability to coordinate Cd(II) ions, while it is absolutely unable to fold into stable Cu (I) complexes, even as mixed species. This identifies it as an essential detoxification agent, which is consequently only induced in emergency situations. The cephalochordate MTs are not directly related to vertebrate MTs, neither by gene structure, protein similarity nor metal-binding behavior of the encoded peptides. The closest relative is the echinoderm MT, which confirm proposed phylogenetic relationships between these two groups. The current findings support the existence in most organisms of two types of MTs as for their metal binding preferences, devoted to different biological functions: multivalent MTs for housekeeping roles, and specialized MTs that evolve either as Cd

  8. Metal dealing at the origin of the Chordata phylum: the metallothionein system and metal overload response in amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Guirola, Maria; Pérez-Rafael, Sílvia; Capdevila, Mercè; Palacios, Oscar; Atrian, Sílvia

    2012-01-01

    Non-vertebrate chordates, specifically amphioxus, are considered of the utmost interest for gaining insight into the evolutionary trends, i.e. differentiation and specialization, of gene/protein systems. In this work, MTs (metallothioneins), the most important metal binding proteins, are characterized for the first time in the cephalochordate subphylum at both gene and protein level, together with the main features defining the amphioxus response to cadmium and copper overload. Two MT genes (BfMT1 and BfMT2) have been identified in a contiguous region of the genome, as well as several ARE (antioxidant response element) and MRE (metal response element) located upstream the transcribed region. Their corresponding cDNAs exhibit identical sequence in the two lancelet species (B. floridae and B. lanceolatum), BfMT2 cDNA resulting from an alternative splicing event. BfMT1 is a polyvalent metal binding peptide that coordinates any of the studied metal ions (Zn, Cd or Cu) rendering complexes stable enough to last in physiological environments, which is fully concordant with the constitutive expression of its gene, and therefore, with a metal homeostasis housekeeping role. On the contrary, BfMT2 exhibits a clear ability to coordinate Cd(II) ions, while it is absolutely unable to fold into stable Cu (I) complexes, even as mixed species. This identifies it as an essential detoxification agent, which is consequently only induced in emergency situations. The cephalochordate MTs are not directly related to vertebrate MTs, neither by gene structure, protein similarity nor metal-binding behavior of the encoded peptides. The closest relative is the echinoderm MT, which confirm proposed phylogenetic relationships between these two groups. The current findings support the existence in most organisms of two types of MTs as for their metal binding preferences, devoted to different biological functions: multivalent MTs for housekeeping roles, and specialized MTs that evolve either as Cd

  9. Oxidative stress and reduced responsiveness of challenged circulating leukocytes following pulmonary instillation of metal-rich particulate matter in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Welding fume is an exposure that consists of a mixture of metal-rich particulate matter with gases (ozone, carbon monoxide) and/or vapors (VOCs). Data suggests that welders are immune compromised. Given the inability of pulmonary leukocytes to properly respond to a secondary infection in animal models, the question arose whether the dysfunction persisted systemically. Our aim was to evaluate the circulating leukocyte population in terms of cellular activation, presence of oxidative stress, and functionality after a secondary challenge, following welding fume exposure. Rats were intratracheally instilled (ITI) with PBS or 2 mg of welding fume collected from a stainless steel weld. Rats were sacrificed 4 and 24 h post-exposure and whole blood was collected. Whole blood was used for cellular differential counts, RNA isolation with subsequent microarray and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and secondary stimulation with LPS utilizing TruCulture technology. In addition, mononuclear cells were isolated 24 h post-exposure to measure oxidative stress by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Welding fume exposure had rapid effects on the circulating leukocyte population as identified by relative mRNA expression changes. Instillation of welding fume reduced inflammatory protein production of circulating leukocytes when challenged with the secondary stimulus LPS. The effects were not related to transcription, but were observed in conjunction with oxidative stress. These findings support previous studies of an inadequate pulmonary immune response following a metal-rich exposure and extend those findings showing leukocyte dysfunction occurs systemically. PMID:25123171

  10. Community response patterns: evaluating benthic invertebrate composition in metal-polluted streams.

    PubMed

    Pollard, A I; Yuan, L

    2006-04-01

    Human activities are modifying the condition and character of ecosystems at a rapid rate. Because of these rapid changes, questions concerning how ecosystems and their assemblages respond to anthropogenic stressors have been of general interest. Accurate prediction of assemblage composition in ecosystems with anthropogenic degradation requires that we assess both how assemblages respond to stressors and the generality of the responses. We ask whether assemblage composition among stream sites becomes more similar after exposure to a common stressor. Using data from biological monitoring programs in the southern Rocky Mountain ecoregion of Colorado and in West Virginia, we compare benthic invertebrate similarity and assemblage composition among sites having different levels (background, low, medium, and high) of heavy-metal pollution. Invertebrate assemblages were most similar within the background metal category, and similarity was progressively lower in low, medium, and high metal categories. An analysis of the frequency of occurrence of genera within metal categories reveals taxonomic shifts that conform to expectations based on metal tolerance of benthic invertebrates. However, different metal-tolerant genera were found at different metal-impacted sites, suggesting that local abiotic and biotic processes may influence the identity of the metal-tolerant genera that become established in polluted sites. Low community similarity in the medium and high-metal categories suggests that accurate prediction of assemblage composition at impacted sites may be challenging. PMID:16711051

  11. Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Mortality in Export Bale Compressors and Response to a Hydrogen Phosphide and Carbon Dioxide Gas Mixture.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Cambron, Sue E; Muhareb, Jeannette

    2015-02-01

    Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), puparial mortality was evaluated in three modern hay compressors that produce compressed standard and large-size bales for export to Asia-Pacific countries. Pressure on bales ranged from 93.4 to 139.4 kg/cm2, causing 90.0-99.9% mortality of 10,891-23,164 puparia. Puparial response to a cylinderized hydrogen phosphide (1.8-2%) and carbon dioxide (97.8-98%) gas mixture was evaluated as a potential quarantine treatment using 2-4 d-exposures to low, medium, and high doses of 0.73-0.86, 1.05-1.26, and 1.39-1.56 mg/liter, and temperatures of 5.87±1.14, 9.84±0.05, 16.14±0.14, and 20.35±0.11°C. Accumulative concentration multiplied by time products (mg h/liter) at all fumigation temperatures for low, medium, and high fumigant doses were 34.9-37.7, 52.2-54.3, and 67.9-73.1 for 2 d; 52.7-60.6, 77.9-89.2, and 102.1-110.7 for 3 d; and 69.9-82.0, 99.4-118.2, and 132.3-146.8 for 4 d, respectively. An increase in mortality was significantly related to an increase in fumigation duration at 5, 10, and 15°C, and an increase in fumigant dose at 10 and 15°C. Puparial mortality ranged from 97.2 to 100% at all doses and durations at 20°C with no survivors at the highest dose for 3 d and the mid- and highest dose for 4 d. Bale compression is currently used in the first phase of a multiple quarantine treatment to control potential Hessian fly contaminants in exported hay. The novel fumigant may have application as a single quarantine treatment for noncompressed, standard exported bales.

  12. Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Mortality in Export Bale Compressors and Response to a Hydrogen Phosphide and Carbon Dioxide Gas Mixture.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Cambron, Sue E; Muhareb, Jeannette

    2015-02-01

    Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), puparial mortality was evaluated in three modern hay compressors that produce compressed standard and large-size bales for export to Asia-Pacific countries. Pressure on bales ranged from 93.4 to 139.4 kg/cm2, causing 90.0-99.9% mortality of 10,891-23,164 puparia. Puparial response to a cylinderized hydrogen phosphide (1.8-2%) and carbon dioxide (97.8-98%) gas mixture was evaluated as a potential quarantine treatment using 2-4 d-exposures to low, medium, and high doses of 0.73-0.86, 1.05-1.26, and 1.39-1.56 mg/liter, and temperatures of 5.87±1.14, 9.84±0.05, 16.14±0.14, and 20.35±0.11°C. Accumulative concentration multiplied by time products (mg h/liter) at all fumigation temperatures for low, medium, and high fumigant doses were 34.9-37.7, 52.2-54.3, and 67.9-73.1 for 2 d; 52.7-60.6, 77.9-89.2, and 102.1-110.7 for 3 d; and 69.9-82.0, 99.4-118.2, and 132.3-146.8 for 4 d, respectively. An increase in mortality was significantly related to an increase in fumigation duration at 5, 10, and 15°C, and an increase in fumigant dose at 10 and 15°C. Puparial mortality ranged from 97.2 to 100% at all doses and durations at 20°C with no survivors at the highest dose for 3 d and the mid- and highest dose for 4 d. Bale compression is currently used in the first phase of a multiple quarantine treatment to control potential Hessian fly contaminants in exported hay. The novel fumigant may have application as a single quarantine treatment for noncompressed, standard exported bales. PMID:26470109

  13. Caging Metal Ions with Visible Light-Responsive Nanopolymersomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polymersomes are bilayer vesicles that self-assemble from amphiphilic diblock copolymers, and provide an attractive system for the delivery of biological and nonbiological molecules due to their environmental compatibility, mechanical stability, synthetic tunability, large aqueous core, and hyperthick hydrophobic membrane. Herein, we report a nanoscale photoresponsive polymersome system featuring a meso-to-meso ethyne-bridged bis[(porphinato)zinc] (PZn2) fluorophore hydrophobic membrane solute and dextran in the aqueous core. Upon 488 nm irradiation in solution or in microinjected zebrafish embryos, the polymersomes underwent deformation, as monitored by a characteristic red-shifted PZn2 emission spectrum and confirmed by cryo-TEM. The versatility of this system was demonstrated through the encapsulation and photorelease of a fluorophore (FITC), as well as two different metal ions, Zn2+ and Ca2+. PMID:25518002

  14. Caging metal ions with visible light-responsive nanopolymersomes.

    PubMed

    Griepenburg, Julianne C; Sood, Nimil; Vargo, Kevin B; Williams, Dewight; Rawson, Jeff; Therien, Michael J; Hammer, Daniel A; Dmochowski, Ivan J

    2015-01-20

    Polymersomes are bilayer vesicles that self-assemble from amphiphilic diblock copolymers, and provide an attractive system for the delivery of biological and nonbiological molecules due to their environmental compatibility, mechanical stability, synthetic tunability, large aqueous core, and hyperthick hydrophobic membrane. Herein, we report a nanoscale photoresponsive polymersome system featuring a meso-to-meso ethyne-bridged bis[(porphinato)zinc] (PZn2) fluorophore hydrophobic membrane solute and dextran in the aqueous core. Upon 488 nm irradiation in solution or in microinjected zebrafish embryos, the polymersomes underwent deformation, as monitored by a characteristic red-shifted PZn2 emission spectrum and confirmed by cryo-TEM. The versatility of this system was demonstrated through the encapsulation and photorelease of a fluorophore (FITC), as well as two different metal ions, Zn(2+) and Ca(2+).

  15. Planarians in toxicology. Responses of asexual Dugesia dorotocephala to selected metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kapu, M.M.; Schaeffer, D.J. )

    1991-08-01

    The planarian Dugesia dorotocephala is a freshwater invertebrate found in unpolluted flowing surface waters. Planarians have a sensitive nervous system with synapses and true brain and evidence these in a variety of social and response behaviors. The inclusion of planarians in a screening battery would provide improved sensitivity in detecting toxicity because planarians commonly respond to lower levels of contamination than do other species. Numerous toxicity test have been conducted to determine the acute and chronic effects of toxicants to provide data necessary for the development of water quality criteria. The appropriateness of Illinois water quality standards for metals was investigated using a 1-hr behavioral test based on the responses of the planarian D. dorotocephala. One possible difficulty with water quality standards for metals is that the standard for each metal is usually established without regard to the effects of other metals present in the receiving water.

  16. Study of the interactions between sucrose and metal ions (Mg2+ and K+) and their simultaneous quantification in ternary mixture by mid-infrared and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Philippe; Jhurry, Dhanjay; Sers, Sandrine; Cadet, Frédéric

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, a ternary aqueous mixture of sucrose and two metal ions (Mg(2+) and K(+)) has been examined by mid-infrared spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least-squares regression method (PLS). PCA was first used for the description of Fourier transform mid-infrared (mid-FTIR) spectral data of the complex samples. The resulting factorial map, set up with the two most influential component axes, features distinct concentration distribution specific to each component. Prediction equations that linked sucrose, magnesium, and potassium concentrations to the spectral data were established by the partial least-squares regression method. A quite good correlation was obtained between the first 5 axes and the concentration variables, with coefficient values ranging from 0.984 to 0.997. It was thus possible to predict specifically both metal ion concentrations in the ternary mixture with relatively good accuracy. The ternary mixtures of sucrose, Mg(2+), and K(+) were also subjected to (13)C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis. From the relative displacements of chemical shifts of the carbon atoms of sucrose, it was possible to determine the influence of each metal ion present in the mixture. PMID:15282047

  17. Generalized Redox-Responsive Assembly of Carbon-Sheathed Metallic and Semiconducting Nanowire Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sinho; Kim, Jieun; Hwang, Dae Yeon; Park, Hyungmin; Ryu, Jaegeon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Park, Soojin

    2016-02-10

    One-dimensional metallic/semiconducting materials have demonstrated as building blocks for various potential applications. Here, we report on a unique synthesis technique for redox-responsive assembled carbon-sheathed metal/semiconducting nanowire heterostructures that does not require a metal catalyst. In our approach, germanium nanowires are grown by the reduction of germanium oxide particles and subsequent self-catalytic growth during the thermal decomposition of natural gas, and simultaneously, carbon sheath layers are uniformly coated on the nanowire surface. This process is a simple, reproducible, size-controllable, and cost-effective process whereby most metal oxides can be transformed into metallic/semiconducting nanowires. Furthermore, the germanium nanowires exhibit stable chemical/thermal stability and outstanding electrochemical performance including a capacity retention of ∼96% after 1200 cycles at the 0.5-1C rate as lithium-ion battery anode. PMID:26784743

  18. Protein-responsive assemblies from catechol-metal ion supramolecular coordination.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C; Chen, J; Yu, S; Chang, Y; Mao, J; Xu, Y; Luo, W; Zeng, B; Dai, L

    2015-03-21

    Supramolecular self-assembly driven by catechol-metal ion coordination has gained great success in the fabrication of functional materials including adhesives, capsules, coatings and hydrogels. However, this route has encountered a great challenge in the construction of nanoarchitectures in the absence of removable templates, because of the uncontrollable crosslinking of catechol-metal ion coordination. Herein, we show that a supramolecular approach, combining both catechol-metal ion coordination and polymer self-assembly together, can organize polymers into hybrid nanoassemblies ranging from solid particles, homogeneous vesicles to Janus vesicles. Without the introduction of a specific binding ligand or complicated molecular design, these assemblies can totally disassemble in response to proteins. UV/vis absorption, fluorescence quenching and recovery investigations have confirmed that proteins can seize metal ions from the hybrid nanoassemblies, thus causing the degradation of catechol-metal ion coordination networks.

  19. Oxidative stress responses in the animal model, Daphnia pulex exposed to a natural bloom extract versus artificial cyanotoxin mixtures.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; von Schnehen, Marie; Kühn, Sandra; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    In the natural environment, Daphnia spp. are constantly exposed to a complex matrix of biomolecules, especially during cyanobacterial bloom events. When cyanobacterial cells decay, not only are toxic secondary metabolites known as cyanotoxins released, but also multiple other secondary metabolites, some of which act as enzyme inhibitors. The present study examined the effects of such a natural toxin matrix (crude extract from a bloom) versus artificial toxin mixtures in terms of oxidative stress in Daphnia pulex. The results indicate that there is no significant effect on the survival of D. pulex. However, exposure to the bloom extract resulted in increased lipid peroxidation over a shorter exposure period and reduced antioxidative enzyme activities when compared to the artificial mixtures. The daphnids also needed a longer recovery time to reduce the increased cellular hydrogen peroxide concentration associated with the exposure to the crude extract than with the artificial mixtures. The results indicate a significant difference between the bloom crude extract and the two synthetic mixtures for all stress markers tested, indicating enhanced toxicity of the bloom extract. PMID:27614285

  20. Oxidative stress responses in the animal model, Daphnia pulex exposed to a natural bloom extract versus artificial cyanotoxin mixtures.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; von Schnehen, Marie; Kühn, Sandra; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    In the natural environment, Daphnia spp. are constantly exposed to a complex matrix of biomolecules, especially during cyanobacterial bloom events. When cyanobacterial cells decay, not only are toxic secondary metabolites known as cyanotoxins released, but also multiple other secondary metabolites, some of which act as enzyme inhibitors. The present study examined the effects of such a natural toxin matrix (crude extract from a bloom) versus artificial toxin mixtures in terms of oxidative stress in Daphnia pulex. The results indicate that there is no significant effect on the survival of D. pulex. However, exposure to the bloom extract resulted in increased lipid peroxidation over a shorter exposure period and reduced antioxidative enzyme activities when compared to the artificial mixtures. The daphnids also needed a longer recovery time to reduce the increased cellular hydrogen peroxide concentration associated with the exposure to the crude extract than with the artificial mixtures. The results indicate a significant difference between the bloom crude extract and the two synthetic mixtures for all stress markers tested, indicating enhanced toxicity of the bloom extract.

  1. Biochemical responses of the aquatic higher plant Lemna gibba to a mixture of copper and 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone: synergistic toxicity via reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Babu, T Sudhakar; Tripuranthakam, Sridevi; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2005-12-01

    Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be toxic to plants. Because metals and PAHs often are cocontaminants in the environment, plants can be subjected to damage caused by their combined effects. We recently found that copper and an oxygenated PAH (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone [1,2-dhATQ]) synergistically are toxic to plants. This synergistic toxicity was linked indirectly to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, plant growth, chlorophyll pigments, protein accumulation, and ROS production were chosen as endpoints to assess the mechanism of toxicity of copper and 1,2-dhATQ to Lemna gibba in more detail. Because copper and PAHs can generate ROS, we assayed for specific antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Copper treatment at a concentration that did not cause growth inhibition resulted in upregulation of Mn SOD, Cu-Zn SOD, and APX. At a level that moderately was toxic to plants, 1,2-dhATQ did not alter significantly the levels of these antioxidant enzymes. However, a synergistically toxic mixture of copper plus 1,2-dhATQ upregulated Cu-Zn SOD, Mn SOD, and GR, although APX activity was downregulated. When plants were treated with the ROS scavenger dimethyl thiourea (DMTU), enhanced toxicity and formation of ROS caused by the mixture both were diminished substantially. However, 1,2-dhATQ toxicity was not affected significantly by DMTU. Based on this study, the toxicity caused by the mixture of copper plus 1,2-dhATQ directly can be connected to elevated levels of ROS. PMID:16445081

  2. Time changes in biomarker responses in two species of oyster transplanted into a metal contaminated estuary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-02-15

    The Jiulong Estuary in Southern China suffers from serious metal pollution, leading to the appearance of 'colored' oysters in this estuary. In this study, two species of oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis and Crassostrea angulata were transplanted to three sites in the Jiulong Estuary over a two-month period. The time-series changes of various biomarkers were measured, coupled with simultaneous quantification of metal bioaccumulation (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn). Cu and Zn accumulation increased linearly and reached up to 2% and 1.5% dry tissue weight by the end of exposure. Negative correlations between the tissue Cu or Zn accumulation and catalase or superoxide dismutase activities strongly indicated that Cu and Zn in 'colored' oysters induced the adjustments of oyster antioxidant systems. Metallothionein (MT) detoxification was insufficient for sequestering all the absorbed metals and its concentrations in the oysters were suppressed following an initial increase, primarily due to the high metal accumulation in the tissues. Interestingly, gradual recoveries of lysosomal membrane stability after the initial strong inhibitions were observed in both oysters. We also documented an increasing 'watering' of oyster tissues presumably as a result of rupturing of tissue cells under metal stress. This study demonstrated the complexity of biomarker responses under field condition, therefore the time changes of biomarker responses to metals need to be considered in evaluating the biological impacts of metal pollution on estuarine organisms.

  3. Stimuli-Responsive Metal Organic Frameworks: Stimuli-Responsive Metal Organic Frameworks for Energy-Efficient Post Combustion Capture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: A team led by three professors at Texas A&M is developing a subset of metal organic frameworks that respond to stimuli such as small changes in temperature to trap CO2 and then release it for storage. These frameworks are a promising class of materials for carbon capture applications because their structure and chemistry can be controlled with great precision. Because the changes in temperature required to trap and release CO2 in Texas A&M’s frameworks are much smaller than in other carbon capture approaches, the amount of energy or stimulus that has to be diverted from coal-fired power plants to accomplish this is greatly reduced. The team is working to alter the materials so they bind only with CO2, and are stable enough to withstand the high temperatures found in the chimneys of coal-fired power plants.

  4. Bioaccumulation and metabolomics responses in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis impacted by different levels of metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-09-01

    Jiulong River Estuary, located in southern China, was heavily contaminated by metal pollution. In this study, the estuarine oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis were transplanted to two sites with similar hydrological conditions but different levels of metal pollution in Jiulong River Estuary over a six-month period. We characterized the time-series change of metal bioaccumulation and final metabolomics responses of oysters. Following transplantation, all metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the oyster digestive glands had elevated concentrations over time. By the end of six-month exposure, Cu, Zn and Cd were the main metals significantly differentiating the two sites. Using (1)H NMR metabolite approach, we further demonstrated the disturbance in osmotic regulation, energy metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism induced by metal contaminations. Six months later, the oysters transplanted in the two sites showed a similar metabolite variation pattern when compared with the initial oysters regardless of different metal levels in the tissues. Interestingly, by comparing the oysters from two sites, the more severely polluted oysters accumulated significantly higher amounts of osmolytes (betaine and homarine) and lower energy storage compounds (glycogen) than the less polluted oysters; these changes could be the potential biomarkers for different levels of metal pollution. Our study demonstrated the complexity of biological effects under field conditions, and NMR metabolomics provides an important approach to detect sensitive variation of oyster inner status. PMID:27262129

  5. Responses of mixtures of polyhalogenated aromatic compounds or single compounds in the CALUX-assay a novel species-specific bioassay for Ah-receptor active compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Murk, A.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Jonas, A.; Brouwer, A.; Denison, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) elicit a number of common toxic responses, including reproductive toxicity, teratogenicity, impairment of immune responses, alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone metabolism and carcinogenesis. The toxic effects however are highly dependent on the animal species used, The most toxic PHAHs are approximate isostereomeres of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and share a common mechanism of action mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Based on the common receptor mediated mechanism, the toxic equivalency factor concept was developed, in which the potency of each individual congener is expressed relative to TCDD, thus allowing hazard and risk assessment for mixtures of PHAHs. A number of recombinant cell lines were developed, including hepalclc7 mouse and H4IIE rat hepatoma cell lines, with AhR-mediated firefly (Photinus pyralis) luciferase gene expression. The response in this so-called CALUX (chemical activated luciferase expression) assay is additive for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCDDS, but for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both synergistic and antagonistic interactions have been demonstrated, which are partially species-dependent. Also some structurally related compounds, like polybrominated diphenyl ether, pentachlorinated phenol, benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, tetrachlorobenzyltoluene (Ugilec 141) and mixtures of polychlorinated terphenyls have been tested in the CALUX assay. The responses of these compounds were sometimes agonistic, but also antagonistic and synergistic effects on the TCDO response were observed.

  6. High responsivity A-plane GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors for polarization-sensitive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, A.; Rivera, C.; Pereiro, J.; Munoz, E.; Imer, B.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.

    2009-05-25

    The fabrication and characterization of metal-semiconductor-metal polarization-sensitive photodetectors based on A-plane GaN grown on R-plane sapphire substrates is reported. These photodetectors take advantage of the in-plane crystal anisotropy, which results in linear dichroism near the band gap energy. The high resistivity of the A-plane GaN material leads to extremely low dark currents. For an optimized finger spacing of 1 {mu}m, dark current density and responsivity at 30 V are 0.3 nA/mm{sup 2} and 2 A/W, respectively. A maximum polarization sensitivity ratio of 1.8 was determined. In a differential configuration, the full width at half maximum of the polarization-sensitive region is 8.5 nm.

  7. Metal-responsive promoter DNA compaction by the ferric uptake regulator.

    PubMed

    Roncarati, Davide; Pelliciari, Simone; Doniselli, Nicola; Maggi, Stefano; Vannini, Andrea; Valzania, Luca; Mazzei, Luca; Zambelli, Barbara; Rivetti, Claudio; Danielli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Short-range DNA looping has been proposed to affect promoter activity in many bacterial species and operator configurations, but only few examples have been experimentally investigated in molecular detail. Here we present evidence for a metal-responsive DNA condensation mechanism controlled by the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an orthologue of the widespread Fur family of prokaryotic metal-dependent regulators. H. pylori Fur represses the transcription of the essential arsRS acid acclimation operon through iron-responsive oligomerization and DNA compaction, encasing the arsR transcriptional start site in a repressive macromolecular complex. A second metal-dependent regulator NikR functions as nickel-dependent anti-repressor at this promoter, antagonizing the binding of Fur to the operator elements responsible for the DNA condensation. The results allow unifying H. pylori metal ion homeostasis and acid acclimation in a mechanistically coherent model, and demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of a selective metal-responsive DNA compaction mechanism controlling bacterial transcriptional regulation. PMID:27558202

  8. Effect of metal coordination on photocurrent response properties of a tetrathiafulvalene organogel film.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shu-Fang; Sun, Yong-Gang; Huo, Peng; Shen, Wei-Chun; Huang, Yu-De; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Organic low molecular weight gelators with a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit have received considerable attention because the formed gels usually exhibit redox active response and conducting or semiconducting properties. However, to our knowledge, metal coordination systems have not been reported for TTF-derived gels up to date. We have designed and synthesized a series of TTF derivatives with a diamide-diamino moiety that can coordinate to specific metal ions with square coordination geometry. Gelation properties and morphologies of the films prepared by the gelators in different hydrophobic solvents are characterized. The TTF derivative with a dodecyl group shows effective gelation properties, and electrodes with the organogel films are prepared. The effect of the Ni(II) and Cu(II) coordination on the photocurrent response property of the electrodes is examined. The metal square coordination significantly increases the photocurrent response. This gel system is the first metal coordination related TTF-gel-based photoelectric material. The mechanism of the metal coordination-improved photocurrent response property is discussed based on the crystal structural analysis and theoretical calculations.

  9. Metal-responsive promoter DNA compaction by the ferric uptake regulator

    PubMed Central

    Roncarati, Davide; Pelliciari, Simone; Doniselli, Nicola; Maggi, Stefano; Vannini, Andrea; Valzania, Luca; Mazzei, Luca; Zambelli, Barbara; Rivetti, Claudio; Danielli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Short-range DNA looping has been proposed to affect promoter activity in many bacterial species and operator configurations, but only few examples have been experimentally investigated in molecular detail. Here we present evidence for a metal-responsive DNA condensation mechanism controlled by the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an orthologue of the widespread Fur family of prokaryotic metal-dependent regulators. H. pylori Fur represses the transcription of the essential arsRS acid acclimation operon through iron-responsive oligomerization and DNA compaction, encasing the arsR transcriptional start site in a repressive macromolecular complex. A second metal-dependent regulator NikR functions as nickel-dependent anti-repressor at this promoter, antagonizing the binding of Fur to the operator elements responsible for the DNA condensation. The results allow unifying H. pylori metal ion homeostasis and acid acclimation in a mechanistically coherent model, and demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of a selective metal-responsive DNA compaction mechanism controlling bacterial transcriptional regulation. PMID:27558202

  10. Fibroblast Response to Lanthanoid Metal Ion Stimulation: Potential Contribution to Fibrotic Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, William; Perone, Patricia; Walker, Kyle; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; DaSilva, Marissa; Dame, Michael K.; Varani, James

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare each of the 14 naturally occurring lanthanoid metal ions for ability to stimulate pro-fibrotic responses in human dermal fibroblasts. When fibroblasts were exposed to individual lanthanoids over the concentration range of 1–100 μM, increased proliferation was observed with each of the agents as compared with control cells that were already proliferating rapidly in a growth factor-enriched culture medium. Dose-response differences were observed among the individual metal ions. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels were also increased in response to lanthanoid exposure but type I procollagen production was not. A dose–response relationship between induction of proliferation and increased MMP-1 was observed. Non-lanthanoid transition metal ions (aluminum, copper, cobalt, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and zinc) were examined in the same assays; there was little stimulation with any of these metals. When epidermal keratinocytes were examined in place of dermal fibroblasts, there was no growth stimulation with any of the lanthanoids. Several of the lanthanoid metals inhibited keratinocyte proliferation at higher concentrations (50–100 μM). PMID:21484406

  11. Foliar responses of five plant species to ozone and a sulphur dioxide/ozone mixture after a sulphur dioxide pre-exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstra, G.; Beckerson, D. W.

    Plants that were pretreated with 0.15 ppm SO 2 for either 2 or 3 d before an intermittent O 3 or SO 2/O 3 exposure exhibited differences in per cent visible foliar injury that often varied significantly from plants that received no SO 2 pretreatment. Differences that were observed could not be explained on the basis of leaf diffusive resistance alone. The SO 2 pretreatment for 2 d caused a decrease in visible O 3 injury in white bean, an increase in visible O 3 injury in cucumber and radish, and had no effect on soybean and tomato. The same pretreatment caused an increase in visible injury from the SO 2/O 3 mixture in white bean, a decrease in visible injury for cucumber and tomato, and had no effect on soybean and radish. However, these same trends did not occur when the SO 2 pretreatment was increased to 3 d. Pretreatment with sub-acute levels of SO 2 can significantly alter a plant's response to O 3 or a mixture of SO 2/O 3, the change in response being sensitive to the pretreatment SO 2 dosage. The nature of the visible injury symptoms from O 3 or the pollutant mixture were not altered for any of the plant species regardless of the length of time of the SO 2 pretreatment and, generally, the onset of visible injury was not greatly altered.

  12. The delayed lung responses to single and repeated intratracheal administration of pure cobalt and hard metal powder in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lasfargues, G; Lardot, C; Delos, M; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D

    1995-05-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that inhalation of cobalt metal dust (Co) mixed with tungsten carbide particles (WC), but not of cobalt dust alone, may cause interstitial pulmonary lesions (hard metal disease). In previous experimental studies in the rat, we have demonstrated the greater acute pulmonary toxicity of a WC-Co mixture compared to Co or WC alone. The present study was undertaken to compare in the same animal model the delayed lung response after intratracheal administration of Co or WC-Co particles (cobalt particle 6.3 wt%). The responses were also compared with those obtained after treatment with arsenic trioxide and crystalline silica used a reference materials producing an acute toxic insult and a progressive fibrogenic response, respectively. Cellular (total and differential counts) and biochemical parameters (LDH, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, total protein, albumin, fibronectin, and hyaluronic acid) were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid following single and repeated intratracheal instillations. The results indicate that the delayed lung response observed after WC-Co is different from that after cobalt metal alone. A single intratracheal dose of WC-Co (1, 5, or 10 mg/100 g body wt) induced an acute alveolitis which persisted for at least 1 month. Four months after a single instillation of WC-Co, no clear histological lung fibrosis could however be evidenced, indicating a reversibility of the lesions. The effects of cobalt (0.06, 0.3, or 0.6 mg/100 g body wt) or tungsten carbide alone (1, 5, 10 mg/ 100 g body wt) were very modest, if any. Following repeated intratracheal instillations (four administrations at 1-month interval), increased lung hydroxyproline content and histopathological evidence of interstitial fibrosis were observed after WC-Co (4 x 1 mg/100 g body wt), but not after administration of each component separately, i.e., Co (4 x 0.06 mg/100 g body wt) or WC (4 x 1 mg/100 g body wt). The mechanism of the fibrotic

  13. Analysis of nonlinear dynamic response for delaminated fiber-metal laminated beam under unsteady temperature field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yiming; Chen, Yang; Zhong, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The nonlinear dynamic response problems of fiber-metal laminated beams with delamination are studied in this paper. Basing on the Timoshenko beam theory, and considering geometric nonlinearity, transverse shear deformation, temperature effect and contact effect, the nonlinear governing equations of motion for fiber-metal laminated beams under unsteady temperature field are established, which are solved by the differential quadrature method, Nermark-β method and iterative method. In numerical examples, the effects of delamination length, delamination depth, temperature field, geometric nonlinearity and transverse shear deformation on the nonlinear dynamic response of the glass reinforced aluminum laminated beam with delamination are discussed in details.

  14. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Katherine R M; Buck, Kristen N; Casey, John R; Cid, Abigail; Lomas, Michael W; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Paytan, Adina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in the incubation water. Over the 3-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived Co, Mn, and Ni were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu(2+) concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1) atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2) these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3) growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite their relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic similarity.

  15. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Katherine R M; Buck, Kristen N; Casey, John R; Cid, Abigail; Lomas, Michael W; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Paytan, Adina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in the incubation water. Over the 3-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived Co, Mn, and Ni were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu(2+) concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1) atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2) these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3) growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite their relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic similarity

  16. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Katherine R. M.; Buck, Kristen N.; Casey, John R.; Cid, Abigail; Lomas, Michael W.; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Paytan, Adina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in the incubation water. Over the 3-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived Co, Mn, and Ni were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu2+ concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1) atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2) these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3) growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite their relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic similarity. PMID

  17. Inelastic response of metal matrix composites under biaxial loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, C. J.; Mirzadeh, F.; Pindera, M.-J.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical predictions and experimental results were obtained for inelastic response of unidirectional and angle ply composite tubes subjected to axial and torsional loading. The composite material consist of silicon carbide fibers in a titanium alloy matrix. This material is known to be susceptible to fiber matrix interfacial damage. A method to distinguish between matrix yielding and fiber matrix interfacial damage is suggested. Biaxial tests were conducted on the two different layup configurations using an MTS Axial/Torsional load frame with a PC based data acquisition system. The experimentally determined elastic moduli of the SiC/Ti system are compared with those predicted by a micromechanics model. The test results indicate that fiber matrix interfacial damage occurs at relatively low load levels and is a local phenomenon. The micromechanics model used is the method of cells originally proposed by Aboudi. Finite element models using the ABACUS finite element program were used to study end effects and fixture specimen interactions. The results to date have shown good correlation between theory and experiment for response prior to damage initiation.

  18. Phenotypic plasticity in Scenedesmus incrassatulus (Chlorophyceae) in response to heavy metals stress.

    PubMed

    Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Esparza-García, Fernando; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2004-12-01

    The microalgae genus Scenedesmus is commonly found in freshwater bodies, wastewater facilities and water polluted with heavy metals. Phenotypic plasticity in Scenedesmus has been documented in response to a wide variety of conditions; however, heavy metals have not been comprehensively documented as phenotypic plasticity inducers. In this study, we report the phenotypic plasticity of Scenedesmus incrassatulus (a non-spiny, four-cell coenobium forming species) in response to EC(50) value of copper, cadmium and hexavalent chromium. S. incrassatulus was grown in batch cultures in the presence of each metal. Chlorophyll-a content, cell size, parameters derived from the schematic energy-flux model for photosystem II, and morphotype expressions were recorded. Divalent cation metals induced unicellular forms, and hexavalent chromium produced out-of-shape coenobia corresponding to various stages of autospore formation. The changes induced by divalent metals were interpreted as phenotypic plasticity, because they were always associated to population doublings and were reversible when toxicant pressure was removed (only for Cu). Copper was the best inductor of unicellular forms and also affected significantly all the photosynthetic parameters measured. The developed morphotypes could confer ecological advantages to S. incrassatulus in metal stressed environments.

  19. Phenotypic plasticity in Scenedesmus incrassatulus (Chlorophyceae) in response to heavy metals stress.

    PubMed

    Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Esparza-García, Fernando; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2004-12-01

    The microalgae genus Scenedesmus is commonly found in freshwater bodies, wastewater facilities and water polluted with heavy metals. Phenotypic plasticity in Scenedesmus has been documented in response to a wide variety of conditions; however, heavy metals have not been comprehensively documented as phenotypic plasticity inducers. In this study, we report the phenotypic plasticity of Scenedesmus incrassatulus (a non-spiny, four-cell coenobium forming species) in response to EC(50) value of copper, cadmium and hexavalent chromium. S. incrassatulus was grown in batch cultures in the presence of each metal. Chlorophyll-a content, cell size, parameters derived from the schematic energy-flux model for photosystem II, and morphotype expressions were recorded. Divalent cation metals induced unicellular forms, and hexavalent chromium produced out-of-shape coenobia corresponding to various stages of autospore formation. The changes induced by divalent metals were interpreted as phenotypic plasticity, because they were always associated to population doublings and were reversible when toxicant pressure was removed (only for Cu). Copper was the best inductor of unicellular forms and also affected significantly all the photosynthetic parameters measured. The developed morphotypes could confer ecological advantages to S. incrassatulus in metal stressed environments. PMID:15519408

  20. Carcinogenic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Krewski, D; Thomas, R D

    1992-03-01

    Human populations are generally exposed simultaneously to a number of toxicants present in the environment, including complex mixtures of unknown and variable origin. While scientific methods for evaluating the potential carcinogenic risks of pure compounds are relatively well established, methods for assessing the risks of complex mixtures are somewhat less developed. This article provides a report of a recent workshop on carcinogenic mixtures sponsored by the Committee on Toxicology of the U.S. National Research Council, in which toxicological, epidemiological, and statistical approaches to carcinogenic risk assessment for mixtures were discussed. Complex mixtures, such as diesel emissions and tobacco smoke, have been shown to have carcinogenic potential. Bioassay-directed fractionation based on short-term screening test for genotoxicity has also been used in identifying carcinogenic components of mixtures. Both toxicological and epidemiological studies have identified clear interactions between chemical carcinogens, including synergistic effects at moderate to high doses. To date, laboratory studies have demonstrated over 900 interactions involving nearly 200 chemical carcinogens. At lower doses, theoretical arguments suggest that risks may be near additive. Thus, additivity at low doses has been invoked as as a working hypothesis by regulatory authorities in the absence of evidence to the contrary. Future studies of the joint effects of carcinogenic agents may serve to elucidate the mechanisms by which interactions occur at higher doses.

  1. Photoluminescence response of colloidal quantum dots on VO2 film across metal to insulator transition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We have proposed a method to probe metal to insulator transition in VO2 measuring photoluminescence response of colloidal quantum dots deposited on the VO2 film. In addition to linear luminescence intensity decrease with temperature that is well known for quantum dots, temperature ranges with enhanced photoluminescence changes have been found during phase transition in the oxide. Corresponding temperature derived from luminescence dependence on temperature closely correlates with that from resistance measurement during heating. The supporting reflectance data point out that photoluminescence response mimics a reflectance change in VO2 across metal to insulator transition. Time-resolved photoluminescence study did not reveal any significant change of luminescence lifetime of deposited quantum dots under metal to insulator transition. It is a strong argument in favor of the proposed explanation based on the reflectance data. PACS 71.30. + h; 73.21.La; 78.47.jd PMID:25404877

  2. Long-term environmental exposure to metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) activates the immune cell stress response in the common European sea star (Asterias rubens).

    PubMed

    Matranga, V; Pinsino, A; Randazzo, D; Giallongo, A; Dubois, P

    2012-05-01

    The common sea star Asterias rubens represents a key-species of the North-Eastern Atlantic macro benthic community. The cells of their immune system, known as coelomocytes, are the first line of defence against environmental hazards. Here, we report the results of investigations on the immune cells response of sea stars exposed to marine environmental pollution for long periods. We show that levels of the heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) in coelomocytes from A. rubens, which were collected during a field study in the Sǿrfjord (North Sea, SW coast of Norway) along a contamination gradient, are directly associated with the long-term accumulation of Cd, Cu heavy metals exclusively in the tegument. Conversely, Pb and Zn accumulation in the tegument did not relate to HSC70 levels and none of the metals were found accumulated in the pyloric coeca. In addition the coelomocytes from A. rubens, collected in high and low metal impacted stations were examined by a proteomic approach using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). By comparison of the proteomic maps, we observed that 31 protein spots differed in their relative abundance, indicating a gene expression response to the metal mixture exposure. All together, our results confirm that the echinoderm immune cells are a suitable model for the assessment of long-term exposure to environmental pollution, moreover that the increased level of HSC70 can be considered a signal of an acquired tolerance within a large spectrum of protein profile changes occurring in response to metal contamination.

  3. Effects of a mixture of two insecticides in freshwater microcosms: I. Fate of chlorpyrifos and lindane and responses of macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Cuppen, Jan G M; Crum, Steven J H; Van den Heuvel, Harry H; Smidt, Rob A; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2002-06-01

    Effects of chronic application of a mixture of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and lindane were studied in indoor freshwater microcosms. The exposure concentrations (based on 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 times the LC50 of the most sensitive standard test organism for each compound) were kept at a constant level for four weeks. The calculated mean concentrations for chlorpyrifos were found to be almost at their corresponding nominal level during the treatment period. The mean calculated lindane concentrations, however, were found to be 15-40% higher than intended. In the post treatment period both insecticides dissipated fast (t 1/2: chlorpyrifos 9 days, lindane 22 days) from the water phase. The concentrations of the mixture at the highest treatment level corresponded to 0.53 toxic units (TU) for Daphnia magna and 0.61 TU for the most sensitive fish. The decomposition of Populus leaves in litter bags was significantly lower at the three highest insecticide concentrations. The macroinvertebrate community was seriously affected at the three highest treatment levels, with Crustacea and the Chironomidae Corynoneura proving to be the most sensitive groups. Gastropoda and Oligochaeta were relatively insensitive and some taxa (e.g. Valvata piscinalis, juvenile Physa fontinalis, Nemertea and Stylaria lacustris) increased in numbers. The observed effects could be explained from the individual toxicity of the insecticides to the invertebrates, and did not indicate synergistic effects. A second paper (Van den Brink et al., 2002) addresses the effects on other endpoints, as well as the overall risk assessment of the insecticide mixture.

  4. A DOSE-RESPONSE STUDY OF THE TOXICITY OF A MIXTURE OF 7N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES IN ADULT, MALE RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is scarce knowledge regarding the toxicity of pesticide mixtures, especially mixtures of the anticholinesterase N-methyl carbamates. A mixture study was conducted using 7 N-methyl carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate HCl, methiocarb, methomyl, oxamyl, and propoxur...

  5. Transcriptional response of yellow perch to changes in ambient metal concentrations-A reciprocal field transplantation experiment.

    PubMed

    Bougas, Bérénice; Normandeau, Eric; Grasset, Julie; Defo, Michel A; Campbell, Peter G C; Couture, Patrice; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-04-01

    Recent local adaptation to pollution has been evidenced in several organisms inhabiting environments heavily contaminated by metals. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to high metal concentrations are poorly understood, especially in fishes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations from lakes in the mining area of Rouyn-Noranda (QC, Canada) have been faced with metal contamination for about 90 years. Here, we examine gene transcription patterns of fish reciprocally transplanted between a reference and a metal-contaminated lake and also fish caged in their native lake. After four weeks, 111 genes were differentially transcribed in metal-naïve fish transferred to the metal-contaminated lake, revealing a plastic response to metal exposure. Genes involved in the citric cycle and beta-oxidation pathways were under-transcribed, suggesting a potential strategy to mitigate the effects of metal stress by reducing energy turnover. However, metal-contaminated fish transplanted to the reference lake did not show any transcriptomic response, indicating a reduced plastic response capability to sudden reduction in metal concentrations. Moreover, the transcription of other genes, especially ones involved in energy metabolism, was affected by caging. Overall, our results highlight environmental stress response mechanisms in yellow perch at the transcriptomic level and support a rapid adaptive response to metal exposure through genetic assimilation. PMID:26867186

  6. Transcriptional response of yellow perch to changes in ambient metal concentrations-A reciprocal field transplantation experiment.

    PubMed

    Bougas, Bérénice; Normandeau, Eric; Grasset, Julie; Defo, Michel A; Campbell, Peter G C; Couture, Patrice; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-04-01

    Recent local adaptation to pollution has been evidenced in several organisms inhabiting environments heavily contaminated by metals. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to high metal concentrations are poorly understood, especially in fishes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations from lakes in the mining area of Rouyn-Noranda (QC, Canada) have been faced with metal contamination for about 90 years. Here, we examine gene transcription patterns of fish reciprocally transplanted between a reference and a metal-contaminated lake and also fish caged in their native lake. After four weeks, 111 genes were differentially transcribed in metal-naïve fish transferred to the metal-contaminated lake, revealing a plastic response to metal exposure. Genes involved in the citric cycle and beta-oxidation pathways were under-transcribed, suggesting a potential strategy to mitigate the effects of metal stress by reducing energy turnover. However, metal-contaminated fish transplanted to the reference lake did not show any transcriptomic response, indicating a reduced plastic response capability to sudden reduction in metal concentrations. Moreover, the transcription of other genes, especially ones involved in energy metabolism, was affected by caging. Overall, our results highlight environmental stress response mechanisms in yellow perch at the transcriptomic level and support a rapid adaptive response to metal exposure through genetic assimilation.

  7. Toxic responses and antioxidative enzymes activity of Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to fenhexamid and atrazine, alone and in mixture.

    PubMed

    Mofeed, Jelan; Mosleh, Yahia Y

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of different concentrations of fenhexamid and atrazine (25, 50 and 100 µg L(-1)) on growth and oxidative stress on Scenedesmus obliquus (microalgae) after exposure for 24, 48, and 96 h. In addition, residues of fenhexamid and atrazine were determined in the culture medium after 96 h; 52%, 44% and 43% of fenhexamid remained in the medium for the lowest, middle and highest concentrations, respectively. Atrazine concentration decreased significantly in the medium with time. The reduction was faster with the lowest concentration (-53%), than in the highest concentration (-46%), while it was intermediate with 50 µg L(-1) (-47%). The antioxidative enzyme activities were used as biomarkers to evaluate the toxic effects of fenhexamid and atrazine on the microalgae. Enzymatic activities were measured in the presence of each compound alone after 24, 48 and 96 h and also in mixture after 24h exposure. The results showed that fenhexamid and atrazine induced antioxidative enzyme activities (GST, CAT and GR) at different concentrations. Catalase activities (CAT) in both pesticides treated-algae were significantly increased. Additionally, an increase in gulathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in algae after 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure to both fenhexamid and atrazine. Antioxidative enzymes in fenhexamid and atrazine mixture treatment showed an antagonistic interaction after 24h of exposure in algae.

  8. Quantitative proteomics of heavy metal stress responses in Sydney rock oysters.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Sridevi; Thompson, Emma; Raftos, David; Birch, Gavin; Haynes, Paul A

    2012-03-01

    Currently, there are few predictive biomarkers in key biomonitoring species, such as oysters, that can detect heavy metal pollution in coastal waterways. Several attributes make oysters superior to other organisms for positive biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution. In particular, they are filter feeders with a high capacity for bioaccumulation. In this study, we used two proteomics approaches, namely label-free shotgun proteomics based on SDS-PAGE gel separation and gas phase fractionation, to investigate the heavy metal stress responses of Sydney rock oysters. Protein samples were prepared from haemolymph of oysters exposed to 100 μg/L of PbCl(2), CuCl(2), or ZnCl(2) for 4 days in closed aquaria. Peptides were identified using a Bivalvia protein sequence database, due to the unavailability of a complete oyster genome sequence. Statistical analysis revealed 56 potential biomarker proteins, as well as several protein biosynthetic pathways to be greatly impacted by metal stress. These have the potential to be incorporated into bioassays for prevention and monitoring of heavy metal pollution in Australian oyster beds. The study confirms that proteomic analysis of biomonitoring species is a promising approach for assessing the effects of environmental pollution, and our experiments have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying oyster stress responses. PMID:22539440

  9. Contribution of proteomic studies towards understanding plant heavy metal stress response

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Zahed; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Modulation of plant proteome composition is an inevitable process to cope with the environmental challenges including heavy metal (HM) stress. Soil and water contaminated with hazardous metals not only cause permanent and irreversible health problems, but also result substantial reduction in crop yields. In course of time, plants have evolved complex mechanisms to regulate the uptake, mobilization, and intracellular concentration of metal ions to alleviate the stress damages. Since, the functional translated portion of the genome plays an essential role in plant stress response, proteomic studies provide us a finer picture of protein networks and metabolic pathways primarily involved in cellular detoxification and tolerance mechanism. In the present review, an attempt is made to present the state of the art of recent development in proteomic techniques and significant contributions made so far for better understanding the complex mechanism of plant metal stress acclimation. Role of metal stress-related proteins involved in antioxidant defense system and primary metabolism is critically reviewed to get a bird’s-eye view on the different strategies of plants to detoxify HMs. In addition to the advantages and disadvantages of different proteomic methodologies, future applications of proteome study of subcellular organelles are also discussed to get the new insights into the plant cell response to HMs. PMID:23355841

  10. Physiological responses of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) to organic and inorganic amended heavy-metal contaminated chat tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Youngman, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    Study plots established at the Galena subsite of the Cherokee County Superfund Site in Southeastern Kansas by the US Bureau of Mines in 1990 were examined during the summer of 1996 to determine whether physiological criteria could be used to determine suitability of switchgrass for remediation of heavy-metal contaminated substrates. Switchgrass was chosen because it was the most frequently encountered species on these plots. Treatment plots included a treatment control, an organic residue treatment of 89.6 Mg Ha{sup {minus}1} composted cattle manure, and two inorganic fertilizer treatments recommended for either native grass or grass/legume mixtures. Plant response variables were photosynthetic rate, leaf conductance to water vapor, internal concentration of carbon dioxide in leaves, foliar transpiration rate, leaf water-use-efficiency, predawn leaf xylem water potential, and midday leaf xylem water potential. Predawn and midday xylem water potentials were higher for grass/legume inorganic treatment than for the other inorganic treatments. Leaf conductances were lower for organically treated plots than those plots not organically amended and both photosynthesis and transpiration were lower for organically treated plots. Leaf conductances and transpiration were higher for grass/legume treated plots than for plots lacking inorganic treatment. Water-use-efficiency was higher for native grass inorganically treated plots than for other inorganic treatments.

  11. Composite metal membrane

    DOEpatents

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  12. Composite metal membrane

    DOEpatents

    Peachey, Nathaniel M.; Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.; Birdsell, Stephan A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  13. Studies on the optimum conditions using acid-washed zero-valent iron/aluminum mixtures in permeable reactive barriers for the removal of different heavy metal ions from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Weijiang; Fu, Fenglian; Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing; Wu, Shijiao

    2016-01-25

    The method of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) is considered as one of the most practicable approaches in treating heavy metals contaminated surface and groundwater. The mixture of acid-washed zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) as reactive medium in PRBs to treat heavy metal wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) was investigated. The performance of column filled with the mixture of acid-washed ZVI and ZVAl was much better than the column filled with ZVI or ZVAl alone. At initial pH 5.4 and flow rates of 1.0 mL/min, the time that the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) were all above 99.5% can keep about 300 h using 80 g/40 g acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl when treating wastewater containing each heavy metal ions (Cr(VI), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) concentration of 20.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize ZVI/ZVAl before and after reaction and the reaction mechanism of the heavy metal ions with ZVI/ZVAl was discussed.

  14. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E.; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the first quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected and dried the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample appears to have a higher pyrite content than the other.

  15. Response Characteristics of Bisphenols on a Metal-Organic Framework-Based Tyrosinase Nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xianbo; Wang, Xue; Wu, Lidong; Wu, Lingxia; Dhanjai; Fu, Lei; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Jiping

    2016-06-29

    Bisphenols (BPs), which have more than ten kinds of structural analogues, are emerging as the most important endocrine disrupting chemicals that adversely affect human health and aquatic life. A tyrosinase nanosensor based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and chitosan was developed to investigate the electrochemical response characteristics and mechanisms of nine kinds of BPs for the first time. The developed tyrosinase nanosensor showed a sensitive response to bisphenol A, bisphenol F, bisphenol E, bisphenol B, and bisphenol Z, and the responsive sensitivities were highly dependent on their respective log Kow values. However, the nanosensor showed no response to bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol AP (BPAP), bisphenol AF (BPAF), or tetrabromobisphenol A, although BPS, BPAP, and BPAF have structures similar to those of the responsive BPs. The obtained results reveal that the electrochemical response of different BPs is affected not only by the molecular structure, especially the available ortho positions of phenolic hydroxyl groups, but also by the substituent group properties (electron acceptor or electron donor) on the bisphenol framework. The electronic cloud distribution of the phenolic hydroxyl groups, which is affected by the substituent group, determines whether the available ortho positions of phenolic hydroxyl groups can be oxidized by the tyrosinase biosensor. These response mechanisms are very significant as they can be used for predicting the response characteristics of many BPs and their various derivatives and metabolites on biosensors. The unexpected anti-interference ability of the biosensor to nine heavy metal ions was also discovered and discussed. The MOF-chitosan nanocomposite proves to be a promising sensing platform for the construction of diverse biosensors for selective detection of targets even in the presence of a high concentration of heavy metal ions.

  16. Differential response of marine organisms to certain metal and agrichemical pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.H.; Xu, C.H.

    1984-10-01

    Oocyte maturation of the starfish, fertilization and embryogenesis of sea urchins, and the development of amphioxus and brine shrimps were used to assay the effects of several common metals and agrichemicals frequently found in marine environments. While brine shrimp embryos were tolerant to metals and agrichemicals used here, sea urchins and amphioxus showed a differential response to the common metal pollutants. Starfish oocyte maturation process was affected by agrichemicals. The results show that no one single organism, or its embryonic form, or a particular stage of development, can be used as the indicator for a particular pollutant. However, the use of lower forms of marine organisms can be useful collectively for environmental investigations and the management of waste disposal.

  17. Surface anchored metal-organic frameworks as stimulus responsive antifouling coatings.

    PubMed

    Sancet, Maria Pilar Arpa; Hanke, Maximilian; Wang, Zhengbang; Bauer, Stella; Azucena, Carlos; Arslan, Hasan K; Heinle, Marita; Gliemann, Hartmut; Wöll, Christof; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2013-12-01

    Surface-anchored, crystalline and oriented metal organic frameworks (SURMOFs) have huge potential for biological applications due to their well-defined and highly-porous structure. In this work we describe a MOF-based, fully autonomous system, which combines sensing, a specific response, and the release of an antimicrobial agent. The Cu-containing SURMOF, Cu-SURMOF 2, is stable in artificial seawater and shows stimulus-responsive anti-fouling properties against marine bacteria. When Cobetia marina adheres on the SURMOF, the framework's response is lethal to the adhering microorganism. A thorough analysis reveals that this response is induced by agents secreted from the microbes after adhesion to the substrate, and includes a release of Cu ions resulting from a degradation of the SURMOF. The stimulus-responsive antifouling effect of Cu-SURMOF 2 demonstrates the first application of Cu-SURMOF 2 as autonomous system with great potential for further microbiological and cell culture applications.

  18. Early and late response of Nematostella vectensis transcriptome to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Elran, Ron; Raam, Maayan; Kraus, Roey; Brekhman, Vera; Sher, Noa; Plaschkes, Inbar; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-10-01

    Environmental contamination from heavy metals poses a global concern for the marine environment, as heavy metals are passed up the food chain and persist in the environment long after the pollution source is contained. Cnidarians play an important role in shaping marine ecosystems, but environmental pollution profoundly affects their vitality. Among the cnidarians, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is an advantageous model for addressing questions in molecular ecology and toxicology as it tolerates extreme environments and its genome has been published. Here, we employed a transcriptome-wide RNA-Seq approach to analyse N. vectensis molecular defence mechanisms against four heavy metals: Hg, Cu, Cd and Zn. Altogether, more than 4800 transcripts showed significant changes in gene expression. Hg had the greatest impact on up-regulating transcripts, followed by Cu, Zn and Cd. We identified, for the first time in Cnidaria, co-up-regulation of immediate-early transcription factors such as Egr1, AP1 and NF-κB. Time-course analysis of these genes revealed their early expression as rapidly as one hour after exposure to heavy metals, suggesting that they may complement or substitute for the roles of the metal-mediating Mtf1 transcription factor. We further characterized the regulation of a large array of stress-response gene families, including Hsp, ABC, CYP members and phytochelatin synthase, that may regulate synthesis of the metal-binding phytochelatins instead of the metallothioneins that are absent from Cnidaria genome. This study provides mechanistic insight into heavy metal toxicity in N. vectensis and sheds light on ancestral stress adaptations.

  19. Early and late response of Nematostella vectensis transcriptome to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Elran, Ron; Raam, Maayan; Kraus, Roey; Brekhman, Vera; Sher, Noa; Plaschkes, Inbar; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-10-01

    Environmental contamination from heavy metals poses a global concern for the marine environment, as heavy metals are passed up the food chain and persist in the environment long after the pollution source is contained. Cnidarians play an important role in shaping marine ecosystems, but environmental pollution profoundly affects their vitality. Among the cnidarians, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is an advantageous model for addressing questions in molecular ecology and toxicology as it tolerates extreme environments and its genome has been published. Here, we employed a transcriptome-wide RNA-Seq approach to analyse N. vectensis molecular defence mechanisms against four heavy metals: Hg, Cu, Cd and Zn. Altogether, more than 4800 transcripts showed significant changes in gene expression. Hg had the greatest impact on up-regulating transcripts, followed by Cu, Zn and Cd. We identified, for the first time in Cnidaria, co-up-regulation of immediate-early transcription factors such as Egr1, AP1 and NF-κB. Time-course analysis of these genes revealed their early expression as rapidly as one hour after exposure to heavy metals, suggesting that they may complement or substitute for the roles of the metal-mediating Mtf1 transcription factor. We further characterized the regulation of a large array of stress-response gene families, including Hsp, ABC, CYP members and phytochelatin synthase, that may regulate synthesis of the metal-binding phytochelatins instead of the metallothioneins that are absent from Cnidaria genome. This study provides mechanistic insight into heavy metal toxicity in N. vectensis and sheds light on ancestral stress adaptations. PMID:25145541

  20. An integrated insight into the response of sedimentary microbial communities to heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huaqun; Niu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Youhua; Cong, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Fan, Fenliang; Xiao, Yunhua; Zhang, Xian; Deng, Jie; Xie, Ming; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-01-01

    Response of biological communities to environmental stresses is a critical issue in ecology, but how microbial communities shift across heavy metal gradients remain unclear. To explore the microbial response to heavy metal contamination (e.g., Cr, Mn, Zn), the composition, structure and functional potential of sedimentary microbial community were investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and a functional gene microarray. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the composition and structure of sedimentary microbial communities changed significantly across a gradient of heavy metal contamination, and the relative abundances were higher for Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Crenarchaeota, but lower for Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in highly contaminated samples. Also, molecular ecological network analysis of sequencing data indicated that their possible interactions might be enhanced in highly contaminated communities. Correspondently, key functional genes involved in metal homeostasis (e.g., chrR, metC, merB), carbon metabolism, and organic remediation showed a higher abundance in highly contaminated samples, indicating that bacterial communities in contaminated areas may modulate their energy consumption and organic remediation ability. This study indicated that the sedimentary indigenous microbial community may shift the composition and structure as well as function priority and interaction network to increase their adaptability and/or resistance to environmental contamination. PMID:26391875

  1. An integrated insight into the response of sedimentary microbial communities to heavy metal contamination

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huaqun; Niu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Youhua; Cong, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Fan, Fenliang; Xiao, Yunhua; Zhang, Xian; Deng, Jie; Xie, Ming; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-01-01

    Response of biological communities to environmental stresses is a critical issue in ecology, but how microbial communities shift across heavy metal gradients remain unclear. To explore the microbial response to heavy metal contamination (e.g., Cr, Mn, Zn), the composition, structure and functional potential of sedimentary microbial community were investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and a functional gene microarray. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the composition and structure of sedimentary microbial communities changed significantly across a gradient of heavy metal contamination, and the relative abundances were higher for Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Crenarchaeota, but lower for Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in highly contaminated samples. Also, molecular ecological network analysis of sequencing data indicated that their possible interactions might be enhanced in highly contaminated communities. Correspondently, key functional genes involved in metal homeostasis (e.g., chrR, metC, merB), carbon metabolism, and organic remediation showed a higher abundance in highly contaminated samples, indicating that bacterial communities in contaminated areas may modulate their energy consumption and organic remediation ability. This study indicated that the sedimentary indigenous microbial community may shift the composition and structure as well as function priority and interaction network to increase their adaptability and/or resistance to environmental contamination. PMID:26391875

  2. An integrated insight into the response of sedimentary microbial communities to heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huaqun; Niu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Youhua; Cong, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Fan, Fenliang; Xiao, Yunhua; Zhang, Xian; Deng, Jie; Xie, Ming; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-01-01

    Response of biological communities to environmental stresses is a critical issue in ecology, but how microbial communities shift across heavy metal gradients remain unclear. To explore the microbial response to heavy metal contamination (e.g., Cr, Mn, Zn), the composition, structure and functional potential of sedimentary microbial community were investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and a functional gene microarray. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the composition and structure of sedimentary microbial communities changed significantly across a gradient of heavy metal contamination, and the relative abundances were higher for Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Crenarchaeota, but lower for Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in highly contaminated samples. Also, molecular ecological network analysis of sequencing data indicated that their possible interactions might be enhanced in highly contaminated communities. Correspondently, key functional genes involved in metal homeostasis (e.g., chrR, metC, merB), carbon metabolism, and organic remediation showed a higher abundance in highly contaminated samples, indicating that bacterial communities in contaminated areas may modulate their energy consumption and organic remediation ability. This study indicated that the sedimentary indigenous microbial community may shift the composition and structure as well as function priority and interaction network to increase their adaptability and/or resistance to environmental contamination.

  3. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P < 0.05), which suggested that magnetic parameters of urban park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic. PMID:27011970

  4. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P < 0.05), which suggested that magnetic parameters of urban park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic.

  5. Feeding and growth responses of the snail Theba pisana to dietary metal exposure.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, K S; Radwan, M A; Gad, A F

    2011-02-01

    The effects of dietary exposure to copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) on feeding activities, growth response, and mortality of Theba pisana snails were studied in 5-week feeding tests. Snails were fed on an artificial diet containing the following Cu, Pb, or Zn concentrations: 0, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 μg/g dry food. At the end of 5 weeks, the food consumption rate was decreased with increasinges in both metal concentrations and time of exposure. The estimated concentrations of metals that reduces food consumption to 50% (EC₅₀) after 5 weeks were 56, 118, and 18 μg/g dry food for Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively. All tested metals in the diet were found to inhibit growth of the snails in a dose-dependent manner. The toxic effect on growth of the tested metals could be arranged in the order Cu > Zn > Pb. The cumulative percentage mortality among snails fed a Cu- or Zn-contaminated diet was 73.3% and the respective value for a Pb-contaminated diet was 13.3%. There was a positive correlation between growth coefficient and food consumption for all tested metals.

  6. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by probiotic mixture is mediated by a shift in T helper cell immune response.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Gi-Cheon; Kim, Young; Hwang, Won; Jash, Arijita; Sahoo, Anupama; Kim, Jung-Eun; Nam, Jong Hee; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2013-03-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of probiotics has been shown mainly in gastro-intestinal immune disorders and little information is available on the inflammation of central nervous system. Recently we reported that IRT5 probiotics, a mixture of 5 probiotics, could suppress diverse experimental inflammatory disorders. In this study, we evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of IRT5 probiotics in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a T cell mediated inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Pretreatment of IRT5 probiotics before disease induction significantly suppressed EAE development. In addition, treatment with IRT5 probiotics to the ongoing EAE delayed the disease onset. Administration of IRT5 probiotics inhibited the pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 polarization, while inducing IL10(+) producing or/and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, both in the peripheral immune system and at the site of inflammation. Collectively, our data suggest that IRT5 probiotics could be applicable to modulate T cell mediated neuronal autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis.

  7. Correlation between the fluorescent response of microfluidity probes and the water content and viscosity of ionic liquid and water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Siddharth; Fletcher, Kristin A; Baker, Sheila N; Baker, Gary A

    2004-07-01

    Accurate data on transport properties such as viscosity are essential in plant and process design involving ionic liquids. In this study, we determined the absolute viscosity of the ionic liquid + water system at water mole fractions from 0 to 0.25 for three 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide. In each case, the excimer to monomer ratio for 1,m-bis(1-pyrenyl)alkanes (m= 3 or 10) was found to increase linearly with the mole fraction of water. Of the probes studied only PRODAN and rhodamine 6G, both of which have the ability to participate in hydrogen bonding, exhibited Perrin hydrodynamic behavior in the lower viscosity bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imides. As a result, these probes allow for the extrapolation of the absolute viscosity of the ionic liquid mixture from the experimental fluorescence steady-state polarization values.

  8. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E.; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the second quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, and are analyzing the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and will require no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample will require from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity.

  9. Response of human ciliated respiratory cells to a mixture of menthol, eucalyptus oil and pine needle oil.

    PubMed

    Riechelmann, H; Brommer, C; Hinni, M; Martin, C

    1997-09-01

    Nasal respiratory cells were harvested from 45 healthy individuals using a microcurette technique. Following harvest, cells were placed on microporous polycarbonate membranes and exposed for 30 min using a gas/liquid interface technique to a mixture of menthol, eucalyptus oil and pine needle oil (MEP), eucalyptus oil alone (ECO), and pine needle oil alone (PNO) at concentrations ranging between 0.2 and 11 g/m3. Ambient air served as control. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was assessed before and after exposure using video-interference-contrast microscopy. Control exposure to air (n = 10) did not alter CBF (7.1 +/- 0.9 Hz before and 7.0 +/- 0.9 Hz after exposure, -1.3% decrease), whereas a dose dependent decrease of CBF following exposure to MEP (max. decrease -22.6% at a concentration of 10 g/m3, p < 0.01), ECO (max. decrease -32.5% at a concentration of 7.5 g/m3, p < 0.01) and PNO (max. decrease -56.1% at a concentration of 9.4 g/m3, p < 0.01) was observed. The data show that essential oils in high concentrations can reduce in-vitro ciliary activity of human respiratory cells not protected by a mucus layer. These effects have to be verified by in vivo investigations. PMID:9342418

  10. The Response of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) to Heavy Metals in Pure Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yihui; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Xu, Zhouying; Zhang, Haihan; Yang, Yurong

    2012-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) occur widely in association with plants exposed to heavy metal stress. However, little is known about the response of DSE exposed to heavy metals. In this study, five DSE were isolated from the roots of Astragalus adsurgens Pall. seedlings growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in China. Based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analyses, the isolates were identified as Gaeumannomyces cylindrosporus, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora mustea, Exophiala salmonis, and Cladosporium cladosporioides. G. cylindrosporus was selected to explore responses to Pb stress. Scanning electron microscopic observations of G. cylindrosporus grown on solid medium revealed curling of hyphae and formation of hyphal coils in response to Pb. In contrast, in liquid medium, hyphae became thick and swollen with an increase in Pb (II) concentration. We interpret that these changes are related to the variation in cell wall components. We also demonstrated that fungal melanin content increased with the addition of Pb(II). Melanin, as an important component in the cell wall, is known to be an essential antioxidant responsible for decreasing heavy metal toxicity. We also measured the total soluble protein content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in G. cylindrosporus and found that they initially increased and then decreased with the increase of Pb(II) concentrations. The antioxidant enzyme activities were also examined, and the results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly positively correlated with Pb(II) concentrations (r = 0.957, P<0.001). Collectively, our observations indicate that the intracellular antioxidant systems, especially fungal melanin, play an important role in abating the hazards of heavy metals. PMID:23118914

  11. Analysis of ultrafast electronic and magnetic response of ferromagnetic transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorren, R.; Bennemann, K. H.

    We study the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic transition metals after optical excitation. The time scales are given by the fast electronic response leading to thermalization of the electronic distribution and consequently also of the magnetization. We propose a theoretical model describing thermalization of nonequilibrium electrons and calculate the time evolution of the temperature and the magnetization-dependent second-harmonic generation. We compare our theoretical analysis with experimental results on Ni.

  12. Effects of the aquatic contaminant human pharmaceuticals and their mixtures on the proliferation and migratory responses of the bioindicator freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Láng, Júlia; Kőhidai, László

    2012-10-01

    An increasing attention is paid to the potential harmful effects of aquatic contaminant pharmaceuticals exerted on both biosystems and humans. In the present work the effects of 14 pharmaceuticals including NSAIDs, antibiotics, β-blockers and a frequently used X-ray contrast media on the proliferation and migratory behavior of the freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis was investigated. Moreover, the mixture toxicity of four selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and propranolol) was evaluated in binary mixtures using full factorial experimental design. Our results showed that the sensitivity of Tetrahymena to NSAIDs and β-blockers (EC(50) ranged from 4.8 mg L(-1) to 308.1 mg L(-1)) was comparable to that of algal or Daphnia bioassays. Based on these elevated EC(50) values acute toxic effects of these pharmaceuticals to T. pyriformis are unlikely. Antibiotics and the contrast agent sodium-diatrizoate had no proliferation inhibiting effect. Chemotactic response of Tetrahymena was more sensible than proliferation as significant chemorepellent action was observed in the environmentally realistic concentration range for acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, fenoprofen, paracetamol, metoprolol, propranolol, timolol and trimethoprim (Chemotaxis Index ranged from 63% to 88%). Mixture toxicity experiments resulted in a complex, concentration dependent interaction type pattern with antagonism being the predominant interaction type (59%) followed by additivity (37%) and synergism (4%). Hence the concept of concentration addition validated for NSAIDs in other organisms cannot be adopted for this ciliate. In summary authors suggest Tetrahymena as a sensible model of testing aquatic contaminants as well as underline the significance using more specific endpoints to understand the complex mechanisms investigated.

  13. Toxicology studies of a chemical mixture of 25 groundwater contaminants: hepatic and renal assessment, response to carbon tetrachloride challenge, and influence of treatment-induced water restriction.

    PubMed

    Simmons, J E; Yang, R S; Svendsgaard, D J; Thompson, M B; Seely, J C; McDonald, A

    1994-11-01

    Because groundwater contamination is an important environmental concern, we examined the hepatic and renal effects of repeated exposure to a mixture of 25 chemicals frequently found in groundwater near hazardous-waste disposal sites and the effect of such exposure on carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) toxicity. Adult male F-344 rats received ad libitum deionized water and feed (Ad Lib Water) or ad libitum 10% MIX (referring to 10% of a technically achievable stock mixture) and feed for 14 d. Because exposure to the 25-chemical mixture via the drinking water resulted in decreased water and feed consumption, restricted deionized water and feed controls (Restricted Water) were included. On d 14, rats were gavaged with 0, 0.0375, 0.05, 0.075 or 0.15 ml CCl4/kg, and hepatic and renal toxicity assessed 24 h later. Little or no hepatic and renal toxicity was observed in rats exposed to 10% MIX alone. No hepatic or renal lesions occurred that could be attributed to 10% MIX alone. Slight but statistically significant alterations, of uncertain biological significance, resulted from the water treatments: 10% MIX increased alanine aminotransferase, urea nitrogen (BUN), and BUN/creatinine ratio; Restricted Water increased 5'-nucleotidase and decreased alkaline phosphatase. Relative kidney weight was increased by both 10% MIX and Restricted Water. CCI4 resulted in significant dosage-dependent hepatotoxicity in all three water treatment groups but had little or no effect on renal indicators of toxicity. Relative to Ad Lib Water, significantly greater hepatotoxicity occurred in both 10% MIX and Restricted Water rats. The response to CCI4 in the Restricted Water rats was similar to that of 10% MIX rats, indicating that a substantial portion of the effect of 10% MIX on CCI4 hepatotoxicity is due to decreased water and feed intake.

  14. Nonlocal response of metallic nanospheres probed by light, electrons, and atoms.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Thomas; Yan, Wei; Raza, Søren; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2014-02-25

    Inspired by recent measurements on individual metallic nanospheres that cannot be explained with traditional classical electrodynamics, we theoretically investigate the effects of nonlocal response by metallic nanospheres in three distinct settings: atomic spontaneous emission, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and light scattering. These constitute two near-field and one far-field measurements, with zero-, one-, and two-dimensional excitation sources, respectively. We search for the clearest signatures of hydrodynamic pressure waves in nanospheres. We employ a linearized hydrodynamic model, and Mie-Lorenz theory is applied for each case. Nonlocal response shows its mark in all three configurations, but for the two near-field measurements, we predict especially pronounced nonlocal effects that are not exhibited in far-field measurements. Associated with every multipole order is not only a single blueshifted surface plasmon but also an infinite series of bulk plasmons that have no counterpart in a local-response approximation. We show that these increasingly blueshifted multipole plasmons become spectrally more prominent at shorter probe-to-surface separations and for decreasing nanosphere radii. For selected metals, we predict hydrodynamic multipolar plasmons to be measurable on single nanospheres.

  15. Nonlinear response of metal nanoparticles: Double plasmon excitation and electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiwu

    2015-06-21

    We investigate the dynamical response of a metal nanoparticle and the electron transfer to a molecule near its surface using time-dependent density functional theory. In addition to the linear response of the Mie resonance, double plasmon excitations and a low-frequency charge transfer band emerge and become prominent at high laser intensities. Both modes are nonlinear processes, which are derived from the re-excitation and decay of the primary plasmon mode, respectively. Our results shed light on the localised characters of the plasmon-molecule coupling and hot electron distributions. These findings have general implications to photoinduced phenomena in nanosystems. PMID:26093567

  16. Nonlinear response of metal nanoparticles: Double plasmon excitation and electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shiwu

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the dynamical response of a metal nanoparticle and the electron transfer to a molecule near its surface using time-dependent density functional theory. In addition to the linear response of the Mie resonance, double plasmon excitations and a low-frequency charge transfer band emerge and become prominent at high laser intensities. Both modes are nonlinear processes, which are derived from the re-excitation and decay of the primary plasmon mode, respectively. Our results shed light on the localised characters of the plasmon-molecule coupling and hot electron distributions. These findings have general implications to photoinduced phenomena in nanosystems.

  17. Nonlinear response of metal nanoparticles: Double plasmon excitation and electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Shiwu

    2015-06-21

    We investigate the dynamical response of a metal nanoparticle and the electron transfer to a molecule near its surface using time-dependent density functional theory. In addition to the linear response of the Mie resonance, double plasmon excitations and a low-frequency charge transfer band emerge and become prominent at high laser intensities. Both modes are nonlinear processes, which are derived from the re-excitation and decay of the primary plasmon mode, respectively. Our results shed light on the localised characters of the plasmon-molecule coupling and hot electron distributions. These findings have general implications to photoinduced phenomena in nanosystems.

  18. Influence of fiber architecture on the elastic an d inelastic response of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Wilt, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    This three part paper focuses on the effect of fiber architecture (i.e., shape and distribution) on the elastic and inelastic response of metal matrix composites. The first part provides an annotative survey of the literature, presented as a historical perspective, dealing with the effects of fiber shape and distribution on the response of advanced polymeric matrix and metal matrix composites. Previous investigations dealing with both continuously and discontinuously reinforced composites are included. A summary of the state-of-the-art will assist in defining new directions in this quickly reviving area of research. The second part outlines a recently developed analytical micromechanics model that is particularly well suited for studying the influence of these effects on the response of metal matrix composites. This micromechanics model, referred to as the generalized method of cells (GMC), is capable of predicting the overall, inelastic behavior of unidirectional, multi-phased composites given the properties of the constituents. In particular, the model is sufficiently general to predict the response of unidirectional composites reinforced by either continuous or discontinuous fibers with different inclusion shapes and spatial arrangements in the presence of either perfect or imperfect interfaces and/or interfacial layers. Recent developments regarding this promising model, as well as directions for future enhancements of the model's predictive capability, are included. Finally, the third pan provides qualitative results generated using GMC for a representative titanium matix composite system, SCS-6/TlMETAL 21S. Results are presented that correctly demonstrate the relative effects of fiber arrangement and shape on the longitudinal and transverse stress-strain and creep response, with both strong and weak fiber/matrix interfacial bonds. The fiber arrangements include square, square diagonal, hexagonal and rectangular periodic arrays, as well as a random array. The

  19. Responses of the biogas process to pulses of oleate in reactors treating mixtures of cattle and pig manure.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrik Bangsø; Ahring, Birgitte Kiaer

    2006-09-01

    The effect of oleate on the anaerobic digestion process was investigated. Two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were fed with mixtures of cattle and pig manure with different total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) content. The reactors were subjected to increasing pulses of oleate. Following pulses of 0.5 and 1.0 g oleate/L, the most distinct increase in volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were observed in the reactor with the lowest TS/VS content. This suggests a higher adsorption of oleate on the surfaces of biofibers in the reactor with the highest TS/VS and a less pronounced inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. On the other hand, addition of 2.0 g oleate/L severely inhibited the process in both reactors, and a significant increase in all VFA concentrations combined with an immediate drop in methane production was noticed. However, 20 days after the reactors had been exposed to oleate both reactors showed a lower VFA concentration along with a higher methane production than before the pulses. This indicates that oleate had a stimulating effect on the overall process. The improved acetogenic and methanogenic activity in the reactors was confirmed in batch activity tests. In addition to this, toxicity tests revealed that the oleate pulses induced an increase in the tolerance level of acetotrophic methanogens towards oleate. When evaluating the usability of different process parameters (i.e., VFA and methane production) as indicators of process recovery, following the inhibition by oleate, propionate was found to be most suitable.

  20. Physical response of backfill materials to mineralogical changes in a basalt environment. [Sand-clay mixture containing 25% bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, R.A.; Seitz, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Backfill materials surrounding waste canisters in a high-level nuclear waste repository are capable of ensuring very slow flow of groundwater past the canisters, and thereby increase the safety of the repository. However, in the design of a repository it will be necessary to allow for possible changes in the backfill. In this experimental program, changes in permeability, swelling behavior, and plastic behavior of the backfill at the temperatures, pressures, and radiation levels expected in a repository are investigated. The emphasis is on investigation of relevant phenomena and evaluation of experimental procedures for use in licensing procedures. The permeability of a slightly compacted sand-clay mixture containing 25% bentonite, with a dry bulk density of 1.59 g/cm/sup 3/, was determined to be 0.9 x 10/sup -18/ m/sup 2/ in liquid water at 25 and 200/sup 0/C, respectively. This is sufficiently low to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of proposed materials. In practice, fractures in the host rock may form short circuits around the backfill, so an even lower flow rate is probable. However, alteration by any of several mechanisms is expected to change the properties of the backfill. Crushed basalt plus bentonite is a leading candidate backfill for a basalt repository. Experiments show that basalt reacts with groundwater vapor or with liquid groundwater producing smectites, zeolites, silica, and other products that may be either beneficial or detrimental to the long-term performance of the backfill. Concentration of groundwater salts in the backfill by evaporation would cause immediate, but possibly reversible, reduction of the swelling abaility of bentonite. Moreover, under some circumstances, gamma radiolysis of moist air in the backfill could produce up to 0.5 mole of nitric acid or ammonia per liter of pore space. 27 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) leaf-proteome profiles after exposure to cylindrospermopsin and a microcystin-LR/cylindrospermopsin mixture: a concentration-dependent response.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Marisa; Campos, Alexandre; Azevedo, Joana; Barreiro, Aldo; Planchon, Sébastien; Renaut, Jenny; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-02-01

    The intensification of agricultural productivity is an important challenge worldwide. However, environmental stressors can provide challenges to this intensification. The progressive occurrence of the cyanotoxins cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) as a potential consequence of eutrophication and climate change is of increasing concern in the agricultural sector because it has been reported that these cyanotoxins exert harmful effects in crop plants. A proteomic-based approach has been shown to be a suitable tool for the detection and identification of the primary responses of organisms exposed to cyanotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare the leaf-proteome profiles of lettuce plants exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture. Lettuce plants were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 μg/l CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture for five days. The proteins of lettuce leaves were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and those that were differentially abundant were then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The biological functions of the proteins that were most represented in both experiments were photosynthesis and carbon metabolism and stress/defense response. Proteins involved in protein synthesis and signal transduction were also highly observed in the MC-LR/CYN experiment. Although distinct protein abundance patterns were observed in both experiments, the effects appear to be concentration-dependent, and the effects of the mixture were clearly stronger than those of CYN alone. The obtained results highlight the putative tolerance of lettuce to CYN at concentrations up to 100 μg/l. Furthermore, the combination of CYN with MC-LR at low concentrations (1 μg/l) stimulated a significant increase in the fresh weight (fr. wt) of lettuce leaves and at the proteomic level resulted in the increase in abundance of a high number of proteins. In

  2. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) supplementation through leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, humoral [Immunoglobulin G (IgG)], cell mediated immune response (CMI) and faecal egg counts in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen sheep were randomly divided into three groups (negative control-NC, infected control-C and Infected treatment-T) of six animals in each group in a completely randomized block design for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortus infected adult sheep were allocated into two equal groups C and T, supplemented with 0 and 1.5 % of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep of similar age and body weight of NC group were included in this study to compare their immune response with H. contortus C and CT supplemented T groups. Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g day(-1) and % live weight) was statistically similar (P < 0.05) among the three groups. The anti-Haemonchus IgG and CMI response was higher in T group as compared to C group. The mean faecal egg counts was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in C group as compared to T group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT (1.5 %) through LMM improved humoral and CMI immune response and decreased worm load in H. contortus infected sheep.

  3. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) supplementation through leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, humoral [Immunoglobulin G (IgG)], cell mediated immune response (CMI) and faecal egg counts in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen sheep were randomly divided into three groups (negative control-NC, infected control-C and Infected treatment-T) of six animals in each group in a completely randomized block design for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortus infected adult sheep were allocated into two equal groups C and T, supplemented with 0 and 1.5 % of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep of similar age and body weight of NC group were included in this study to compare their immune response with H. contortus C and CT supplemented T groups. Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g day(-1) and % live weight) was statistically similar (P < 0.05) among the three groups. The anti-Haemonchus IgG and CMI response was higher in T group as compared to C group. The mean faecal egg counts was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in C group as compared to T group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT (1.5 %) through LMM improved humoral and CMI immune response and decreased worm load in H. contortus infected sheep. PMID:27065606

  4. Innate immune responses and efficacy of using mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) on orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Huang, Shih-Ling; Chen, Sherwin; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2013-07-01

    This study attempts to describe the effects of innate immunity responses and field application of mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) in cultured orange-sported grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Chemical analysis for MBG showed that the mixture contains 34.06% of macro-molecular polymers with bio-active linkage such as 3-; 3,4- and 4,6-glucopyranosyl and 6-linked galactopyranosyl residues. Study performed on the innate immunity showed that oral ingestion of MBG at 1.0 g and 2.0 g per kilogram of feed levels may significantly enhance the lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity, phagocytic activity and respiration burst of the experimental groupers. Observation on the experimental challenge of pathogen showed that uses of MBG at 0.1% and 0.2% levels in feed might significantly enhance the protection of grouper against Vibrio alginolyticus. Field trials performed on short and long-term culture showed that feeding of diet containing 0.1% or 0.2% of MBG may significantly enhance the survival of cultured groupers up to 16% when compared with those obtained from controls. PMID:23603237

  5. Innate immune responses and efficacy of using mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) on orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Huang, Shih-Ling; Chen, Sherwin; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2013-07-01

    This study attempts to describe the effects of innate immunity responses and field application of mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) in cultured orange-sported grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Chemical analysis for MBG showed that the mixture contains 34.06% of macro-molecular polymers with bio-active linkage such as 3-; 3,4- and 4,6-glucopyranosyl and 6-linked galactopyranosyl residues. Study performed on the innate immunity showed that oral ingestion of MBG at 1.0 g and 2.0 g per kilogram of feed levels may significantly enhance the lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity, phagocytic activity and respiration burst of the experimental groupers. Observation on the experimental challenge of pathogen showed that uses of MBG at 0.1% and 0.2% levels in feed might significantly enhance the protection of grouper against Vibrio alginolyticus. Field trials performed on short and long-term culture showed that feeding of diet containing 0.1% or 0.2% of MBG may significantly enhance the survival of cultured groupers up to 16% when compared with those obtained from controls.

  6. Investigation of the soluble metals in tissue as biological response pattern to environmental pollutants (Gammarus fossarum example).

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Dragun, Zrinka; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Matoničkin Kepčija, Renata; Gulin, Vesna; Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Erk, Marijana

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, Gammarus fossarum was used to investigate the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of aquatic pollutants in the real environmental conditions. The novelty of the study is the evaluation of soluble tissue metal concentrations in gammarids as indicators in early assessment of metal exposure. In the Sutla River, industrially/rurally/agriculturally influenced catchment in North-Western Croatia, physico-chemical water properties pointed to disturbed ecological status, which was reflected on population scale as more than 50 times lower gammarid density compared to the reference location, Črnomerec Stream. Significantly higher levels of soluble toxic metals (Al, As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr) were observed in gammarids from the Sutla River compared to the reference site and reflected the data on higher total dissolved metal levels in the river water at that site. The soluble metal estimates were supplemented with the common multibiomarker approach, which showed significant biological responses for decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased total soluble protein concentrations, confirming stressed environmental conditions for biota in the Sutla River. Biomarker of metal exposure, metallothionein, was not induced and therefore, toxic effect of metals was not confirmed on molecular level. Comparable between-site pattern of soluble toxic metals in gammarids and total dissolved metal levels in water suggests that prior to biomarker response and observed toxic impact, soluble metals in tissue might be used as early warning signs of metal impact in the aquatic environment and improve the assessment of water quality.

  7. Investigation of the soluble metals in tissue as biological response pattern to environmental pollutants (Gammarus fossarum example).

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Dragun, Zrinka; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Matoničkin Kepčija, Renata; Gulin, Vesna; Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Erk, Marijana

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, Gammarus fossarum was used to investigate the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of aquatic pollutants in the real environmental conditions. The novelty of the study is the evaluation of soluble tissue metal concentrations in gammarids as indicators in early assessment of metal exposure. In the Sutla River, industrially/rurally/agriculturally influenced catchment in North-Western Croatia, physico-chemical water properties pointed to disturbed ecological status, which was reflected on population scale as more than 50 times lower gammarid density compared to the reference location, Črnomerec Stream. Significantly higher levels of soluble toxic metals (Al, As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr) were observed in gammarids from the Sutla River compared to the reference site and reflected the data on higher total dissolved metal levels in the river water at that site. The soluble metal estimates were supplemented with the common multibiomarker approach, which showed significant biological responses for decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased total soluble protein concentrations, confirming stressed environmental conditions for biota in the Sutla River. Biomarker of metal exposure, metallothionein, was not induced and therefore, toxic effect of metals was not confirmed on molecular level. Comparable between-site pattern of soluble toxic metals in gammarids and total dissolved metal levels in water suggests that prior to biomarker response and observed toxic impact, soluble metals in tissue might be used as early warning signs of metal impact in the aquatic environment and improve the assessment of water quality. PMID:27060638

  8. Uncertainty in Mixtures and Cumulative Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans and environmental species are rarely exposed to single chemicals. These chemicals typically affect multiple tissues through multiple modes of action, which may depend on the dose. Mixtures risk assessment may employ dose response information from the mixture of interest,...

  9. Extraordinary Separation of Acetylene-Containing Mixtures with Microporous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open O Donor Sites and Tunable Robustness through Control of the Helical Chain Secondary Building Units.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zizhu; Zhang, Zhangjing; Liu, Lizhen; Li, Ziyin; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Chen, Banglin; Krishna, Rajamani; Xiang, Shengchang

    2016-04-11

    Acetylene separation is a very important but challenging industrial separation task. Here, through the solvothermal reaction of CuI and 5-triazole isophthalic acid in different solvents, two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, FJU-21 and FJU-22) with open O donor sites and controllable robustness have been obtained for acetylene separation. They contain the same paddle-wheel {Cu2(COO2)4} nodes and metal-ligand connection modes, but with different helical chains as secondary building units (SBUs), leading to different structural robustness for the MOFs. FJU-21 and FJU-22 are the first examples in which the MOFs' robustness is controlled by adjusting the helical chain SBUs. Good robustness gives the activated FJU-22 a, which has higher surface area and gas uptakes than the flexible FJU-21 a. Importantly, FJU-22 a shows extraordinary separation of acetylene mixtures under ambient conditions. The separation capacity of FJU-22 a for 50:50 C2H2/CO2 mixtures is about twice that of the high-capacity HOF-3, and its actual separation selectivity for C2H2/C2H4 mixtures containing 1% acetylene is the highest among reported porous materials. Based on first-principles calculations, the extraordinary separation performance of C2H2 for FJU-22 a was attributed to hydrogen-bonding interactions between the C2H2 molecules with the open O donors on the wall, which provide better recognition ability for C2H2 than other functional sites, including open metal sites and amino groups.

  10. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated solid rocket exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from solid rocket fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W. W.; Knott, W. M.; Stahel, E. P.; Ambrose, J. T.; Mccrimmon, J. N.; Engle, M.; Romanow, L. A.; Sawyer, A. G.; Tyson, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of solid rocket fuel (SRF) exhaust on selected plant and and insect species in the Merritt Island, Florida area was investigated in order to determine if the exhaust clouds generated by shuttle launches would adversely affect the native, plants of the Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, the citrus production, or the beekeeping industry of the island. Conditions were simulated in greenhouse exposure chambers and field chambers constructed to model the ideal continuous stirred tank reactor. A plant exposure system was developed for dispensing and monitoring the two major chemicals in SRF exhaust, HCl and Al203, and for dispensing and monitoring SRF exhaust (controlled fuel burns). Plants native to Merritt Island, Florida were grown and used as test species. Dose-response relationships were determined for short term exposure of selected plant species to HCl, Al203, and mixtures of the two to SRF exhaust.

  11. Ab initio phonon coupling and optical response of hot electrons in plasmonic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ana M.; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Goddard, William A.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-08-01

    Ultrafast laser measurements probe the nonequilibrium dynamics of excited electrons in metals with increasing temporal resolution. Electronic structure calculations can provide a detailed microscopic understanding of hot electron dynamics, but a parameter-free description of pump-probe measurements has not yet been possible, despite intensive research, because of the phenomenological treatment of electron-phonon interactions. We present ab initio predictions of the electron-temperature dependent heat capacities and electron-phonon coupling coefficients of plasmonic metals. We find substantial differences from free-electron and semiempirical estimates, especially in noble metals above transient electron temperatures of 2000 K, because of the previously neglected strong dependence of electron-phonon matrix elements on electron energy. We also present first-principles calculations of the electron-temperature dependent dielectric response of hot electrons in plasmonic metals, including direct interband and phonon-assisted intraband transitions, facilitating complete theoretical predictions of the time-resolved optical probe signatures in ultrafast laser experiments.

  12. Evaluation of the wear properties of a metal-on-metal total joint replacement system and in vitro macrophage response to resultant wear particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. John, Kenneth Raymond

    The wear of the polyethylene in total joint prostheses has been a source of morbidity and early device failure which has been extensively reported in the last ten to twelve years. While research continues to attempt to reduce the wear of polyethylene joint bearing surfaces by modifications in polymer processing, there is a renewed interest in the use of metal-on-metal bearing couples for hip replacement devices. This study investigated the in vitro wear resistance of two cobalt/chromium/molybdenum alloys, which differed primarily in the carbon content, as potential alloys for use in such a metal-on-metal hip bearing couple. The results showed that the alloy with the higher (0.25%) carbon content was more wear resistant and this alloy was chosen for testing in a hip simulator system which modeled the loads and motions which might be exerted on a clinically implanted hip replacement. Comparison of the results of metal-on-polyethylene specimens to metal-on-metal specimens showed that the volumetric wear of the metal-on-polyethylene bearing couple over 5,000,000 cycles was 110--180 times as great as that for the metal bearing couple. Polyethylene and metal particles retrieved from either pin-on-disk testing lubricant or hip simulator testing lubricant were cleaned and examined for consistency with the particles reported by other laboratories for particles from periprosthetic tissues and found to be similar. The particles were then added to macrophage (J774a) cell cultures and the release of Prostaglandin E2, Interleukin-6, and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha measured for each experiment in response to the particles. The cell mediators released by the cells was found to correlate with the dosage of particles and the chemical identity of the particles. Most of the cellular response to the polyethylene particles seemed to be as a result of phagocytosis of the particles while most of the response to metal particles seemed to be related to cytotoxicity of the particles. Based

  13. Colorimetric Fluorescent Nanosensor Based on Hexamethylene Diisocyanate for Fluorescent Responses and Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaohui; Zhou, Yang; Li, Ruixing

    2016-03-01

    An inorganic-organic hybrid material based on magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles was synthesized for fluorescent responses and removal of heavy metal ions, in which superparamagnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles were firstly prepared and modified with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) instead of 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane (IPTES) as the organic coupling agent, and then a rhodamine derivative with spirolactam structure (Rho-en) was conjugated on the HDI functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles through isocyanate groups. Both of functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles based on IPTES and HDI were characterized by FT-IR and XPS, and the results indicated that HDI was a good alternative as chemical bridge for surface modification on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles. The inorganic-organic hybrid composites synthesized based HDI showed naked-eye color changes and fluorescent responses towards Zn2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Hg2+ and Fe3+, which could serve as the available proofs for the qualitative analysis. Moreover, the as-obtained composites not only had excellent adsorption capability for Pb2+ and Hg2+, but also showed strong magnetic sensitivity, which could help to the removal and separation of functionalized magnetic nanocomposites after capturing the heavy metal ions. In addition, the plausible interaction mode of functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles with heavy metal ions was discussed. PMID:27455720

  14. Integrated biomarker responses of an estuarine invertebrate to high abiotic stress and decreased metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Aurélie Pinto; Oliva-Teles, Teresa; Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Guimarães, Laura

    2014-10-01

    An integrated chemical-biological effects monitoring was performed in 2010 and 2012 in two NW Iberian estuaries under different anthropogenic pressure. One is low impacted and the other is contaminated by metals. The aim was to verify the usefulness of a multibiomarker approach, using Carcinus maenas as bioindicator species, to reflect diminishing environmental contamination and improved health status under abiotic variation. Sampling sites were assessed for metal levels in sediments and C. maenas, water abiotic factors and biomarkers (neurotoxicity, energy metabolism, biotransformation, anti-oxidant defences, oxidative damage). High inter-annual and seasonal abiotic variation was observed. Metal levels in sediments and crab tissues were markedly higher in 2010 than in 2012 in the contaminated estuary. Biomarkers indicated differences between the study sites and seasons and an improvement of effects measured in C. maenas from the polluted estuary in 2012. Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR) index depicted sites with higher stress levels whereas Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed associations between biomarker responses and environmental variables. The multibiomarker approach and integrated assessments proved to be useful to the early diagnosis of remediation measures in impacted sites. PMID:25314018

  15. Behavioral avoidance: Possible mechanism for explaining abundanc and distribution of trout species in a metal-impacted river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, James A.; Woodward, Daniel F.; Little, Edward E.; DeLonay, Aaron J.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral avoidance of metal mixtures by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in the laboratory under water quality conditions that simulated the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA. A metal mixture with a fixed ratio of observed ambient metal concentrations (12 μg/L Cu:1.1 μg/L Cd:3.2 μg/L Pb:50 μg/L Zn) was used to determine avoidance in a countercurrent avoidance chamber. Rainbow trout avoided all metal concentrations tested from 10 to 1,000% of the simulated ambient metal mixture. The behavioral response of rainbow trout to the metal mixture was more sensitive than the response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) previously reported from the same laboratory under the same experimental conditions. Additionally, rainbow trout that were acclimated to the simulated ambient metal mixture for 45 d preferred clean water and avoided higher metal concentrations. Therefore, our laboratory experiments on the behavioral avoidance responses of rainbow trout, as well as previously reported experiments on brown trout, show that both species will avoid typical metal concentrations observed on the Clark Fork River. And the greater sensitivity of rainbow trout to the metal mixture may explain, in part, why rainbow trout populations appear to be more severely affected, compared to brown trout populations, in the upper Clark Fork River.

  16. Behavioral avoidance: Possible mechanism for explaining abundance and distribution of trout species in a metal-impacted river

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.A.; Bergman, H.L.; Woodward, D.F.; Little, E.E.; DeLonay, A.J.

    1999-02-01

    Behavioral avoidance of metal mixtures by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in the laboratory under water quality conditions that simulated the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA. A metal mixture with a fixed ratio of observed ambient metal concentrations (12 {micro}g/L Cu:1.1 {micro}g/L Cd:3.2 {micro}g/L Pb:50 {micro}g/L Zn) was used to determine avoidance in a countercurrent avoidance chamber. Rainbow trout avoided all metal concentrations tested from 10 to 1,000% of the simulated ambient metal mixture. The behavioral response of rainbow trout to the metal mixture was more sensitive than the response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) previously reported from the same laboratory under the same experimental conditions. Additionally, rainbow trout that were acclimated to the simulated ambient metal mixture for 45 d preferred clean water and avoided higher metal concentrations. Therefore, laboratory experiments on the behavioral avoidance responses of rainbow trout, as well as previously reported experiments on brown trout, show that both species will avoid typical metal concentrations observed on the Clark Fork River. And the greater sensitivity of rainbow trout to the metal mixture may explain, in part, why rainbow trout populations appear to be more severely affected, compared to brown trout populations, in the upper Clark Fork River.

  17. Application of a generalized linear mixed model to analyze mixture toxicity: survival of brown trout affected by copper and zinc.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    Increased concerns about the toxicity of chemical mixtures have led to greater emphasis on analyzing the interactions among the mixture components based on observed effects. The authors applied a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze survival of brown trout (Salmo trutta) acutely exposed to metal mixtures that contained copper and zinc. Compared with dominant conventional approaches based on an assumption of concentration addition and the concentration of a chemical that causes x% effect (ECx), the GLMM approach has 2 major advantages. First, binary response variables such as survival can be modeled without any transformations, and thus sample size can be taken into consideration. Second, the importance of the chemical interaction can be tested in a simple statistical manner. Through this application, the authors investigated whether the estimated concentration of the 2 metals binding to humic acid, which is assumed to be a proxy of nonspecific biotic ligand sites, provided a better prediction of survival effects than dissolved and free-ion concentrations of metals. The results suggest that the estimated concentration of metals binding to humic acid is a better predictor of survival effects, and thus the metal competition at the ligands could be an important mechanism responsible for effects of metal mixtures. Application of the GLMM (and the generalized linear model) presents an alternative or complementary approach to analyzing mixture toxicity. PMID:25524054

  18. Third-order terahertz response of gapped, nearly-metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yichao; Andersen, David R.

    2016-11-01

    We use time dependent perturbation theory to study the terahertz nonlinear response of gapped intrinsic and extrinsic nearly-metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons of finite length under an applied electric field. Generally, the nonlinear conductances exhibit contributions due to single-photon, two-photon, and three-photon processes. The interference between each of these processes results in remarkably complex behavior for the third-order conductances, including quantum dot signatures that should be measurable with a relatively simple experimental configuration. Notably, we observe sharp resonances in the isotropic third-order response due to the Van Hove singularities in the density of states at one-, two-, and three-photon resonances. However, these resonances are absent in the anisotropic third-order response; a result of the overall symmetry of the system.

  19. Third-order terahertz response of gapped, nearly-metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yichao; Andersen, David R

    2016-11-30

    We use time dependent perturbation theory to study the terahertz nonlinear response of gapped intrinsic and extrinsic nearly-metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons of finite length under an applied electric field. Generally, the nonlinear conductances exhibit contributions due to single-photon, two-photon, and three-photon processes. The interference between each of these processes results in remarkably complex behavior for the third-order conductances, including quantum dot signatures that should be measurable with a relatively simple experimental configuration. Notably, we observe sharp resonances in the isotropic third-order response due to the Van Hove singularities in the density of states at one-, two-, and three-photon resonances. However, these resonances are absent in the anisotropic third-order response; a result of the overall symmetry of the system. PMID:27633050

  20. Spirulina-templated metal microcoils with controlled helical structures for THz electromagnetic responses.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Kaori; Piao, Zhenzi; Suzuki, Soichiro; Fujimori, Takahiro; Tajiri, Wataru; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Yamada, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiaki; Ishiwara, Mitsuteru; Horaguchi, Satoshi; Belay, Amha; Tanaka, Takuo; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori

    2014-05-12

    Microstructures in nature are ultrafine and ordered in biological roles, which have attracted material scientists. Spirulina forms three-dimensional helical microstructure, one of remarkable features in nature beyond our current processing technology such as lithography in terms of mass-productivity and structural multiplicity. Spirulina varies its diameter, helical pitch, and/or length against growing environment. This unique helix is suggestive of a tiny electromagnetic coil, if composed of electro-conductive metal, which brought us main concept of this work. Here, we describe the biotemplating process onto Spirulina surface to fabricate metal microcoils. Structural parameters of the microcoil can be controlled by the cultivation conditions of Spirulina template and also purely one-handed microcoil can be fabricated. A microcoil dispersion sheet exhibited optically active response attributed to structural resonance in terahertz-wave region.

  1. In vitro biocompatibility response of Ti-Zr-Si thin film metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, J. L.; Huang, C. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Tsai, W. Y.; Wei, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the bio-electrochemical response of the Ti-Zr-Si thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs) in simulated body fluid with different contents of titanium is measured via potentiostat. According to the results of bio-corrosion potential and current, as well as the polarization resistance, it is concluded that the Ti66Zr25Si9 TFMGs possess the highest bio-electrochemical resistance. With increasing content of titanium, the corrosion resistance becomes progressively higher. The passive current results reveal that amorphous alloys can form a more protective and denser passive film on the metallic glass surface than the crystalline materials. In addition, the mechanical performance of the Ti-Zr-Si TFMGs is better than the crystalline counterparts. As a result, the Ti-based TFMGs are considered to be potential materials for bio-coating applications.

  2. Relationships among observed metal concentrations, criteria, and benthic community structural responses in 15 streams

    SciTech Connect

    LaPoint, T.W.; Melancon, S.M.; Morris, M.K.

    1984-09-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected summer and fall, 1980, from 15 river systems impacted by publicly owned treatment works. Elevated metal concentrations in these polluted streams were compared to federally recommended aquatic life criteria and to resident macro-invertebrate communities above and below pollutant sources. In those rivers limited to metal problems benthic invertebrate fauna were predictable indicators of pollution impact. In more complicated systems subject to influence from complex organic effluents or with variable substrate characteristics, community structural responses were less readily predictable. In these cases, particularly in rivers with low hardness, recommended criteria had limited utility for predictions of biological community health. Use of seasonal sampling to establish critical flow periods and the value of supplemental on-site toxicity bioassays using resident taxa and effluent waters are also discussed. 55 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  3. Polarization field gradient effects in inhomogeneous metal-ferroelectric bilayers: Optical response and band gap tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas C., H.; Vargas-Hernández, C.

    2012-06-01

    Optical constants, reflectivity response and direct band gap energy (Egd) were calculated and simulated by developing an electrodynamic-based model for a three medium system, namely vacuum/ferroelectric film/metallic substrate. Depolarization effects due to the contact between the metallic substrate and the FE film, as well as the spatially dependent profile of the dielectric susceptibility ε(z) enter into the formalism by adapting the phenomenological Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory (LGD). Absorption coefficient is obtained from the Lambert-Beer-Bouguer (LBB) approximation and the direct band gap energy as a function of the characteristic length is calculated by using the general Tauc power law. Numerical simulations lead to range of values for tunable Egd from 2.6 to 2.8 eV for characteristic lengths up to 30% the thickness of the film, in concordance with recent reports.

  4. Spirulina-Templated Metal Microcoils with Controlled Helical Structures for THz Electromagnetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, Kaori; Piao, Zhenzi; Suzuki, Soichiro; Fujimori, Takahiro; Tajiri, Wataru; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Yamada, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiaki; Ishiwara, Mitsuteru; Horaguchi, Satoshi; Belay, Amha; Tanaka, Takuo; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Microstructures in nature are ultrafine and ordered in biological roles, which have attracted material scientists. Spirulina forms three-dimensional helical microstructure, one of remarkable features in nature beyond our current processing technology such as lithography in terms of mass-productivity and structural multiplicity. Spirulina varies its diameter, helical pitch, and/or length against growing environment. This unique helix is suggestive of a tiny electromagnetic coil, if composed of electro-conductive metal, which brought us main concept of this work. Here, we describe the biotemplating process onto Spirulina surface to fabricate metal microcoils. Structural parameters of the microcoil can be controlled by the cultivation conditions of Spirulina template and also purely one-handed microcoil can be fabricated. A microcoil dispersion sheet exhibited optically active response attributed to structural resonance in terahertz-wave region. PMID:24815190

  5. Propensity to metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses of two benthic species (Cerastoderma edule and Nephtys hombergii): are tolerance processes limiting their responsiveness?

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana; Piló, David; Araújo, Olinda; Pereira, Fábio; Guilherme, Sofia; Carvalho, Susana; Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-05-01

    The chronic exposure of benthic organisms to metals in sediments can lead to the development of tolerance mechanisms, thus diminishing their responsiveness. This study aims to evaluate the accumulation profiles of V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg and antioxidant system responses of two benthic organisms (Cerastoderma edule, Bivalvia; Nephtys hombergii, Polychaeta). This approach will provide clarifications about the ability of each species to signalise metal contamination. Organisms of both species were collected at the Tagus estuary, in two sites with distinct contamination degrees (ALC, slightly contaminated; BAR, highly contaminated). Accordingly, C. edule accumulated higher concentrations of As, Pb and Hg at BAR compared to ALC. However, antioxidant responses of C. edule were almost unaltered at BAR and no peroxidative damage occurred, suggesting adjustment mechanisms to the presence of metals. In contrast, N. hombergii showed a minor propensity to metal accumulation, only signalising spatial differences for As and Pb and accumulating lower concentrations of metals than C. edule. The differences in metal accumulation observed between species might be due to their distinctive foraging behaviour and/or the ability of N. hombergii to minimise the metal uptake. Despite that, the accumulation of As and Pb was on the basis of the polychaete antioxidant defences inhibition at BAR, including CAT, SOD, GR and GPx. The integrated biomarker response index (IBRv2) confirmed that N. hombergii was more affected by metal exposure than C. edule. In the light of current findings, in field-based studies, the information of C. edule as a bioindicator should be complemented by that provided by another benthic species, since tolerance mechanisms to metals can hinder a correct diagnosis of sediment contamination and of the system's health. Overall, the present study contributed to improve the lack of fundamental knowledge of two widespread and common estuarine species, providing

  6. Optimization of polyphenol extraction from red grape pomace using aqueous glycerol/tartaric acid mixtures and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Makris, Dimitris P; Passalidi, Vassiliki; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Mourtzinos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Grape pomace is a food industry waste containing a high burden of antioxidant polyphenols and several methodologies have been developed for their efficient extraction. However, a sustainable and environmentally friendly process should involve recovery means composed of benign, non-toxic solvents, such as tartaric acid and glycerol, which are natural food constituents. In this line, this study examined the extraction of polyphenols using aqueous tartaric acid/glycerol solutions. The aim was to assess the role of acid and glycerol concentration in the extraction yield, employing a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The results showed that solutions containing only glycerol (20%, w/v) are more suitable for retrieving polyphenols, flavonoids, and pigments from grape pomace, while tartaric acid exerted a negative effect in this regard, when tested at concentrations up to 2% (w/v).

  7. A rigorous two-dimensional model for the stripline ferromagnetic resonance response of metallic ferromagnetic films

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Z.; Kostylev, M.

    2015-02-07

    In this work, we constructed a two-dimensional numerical model for calculation of the stripline ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) response of metallic ferromagnetic films. We also conducted numerical calculations by using this software. The calculations demonstrated that the eddy current contribution to the FMR response decreases with a decrease in the stripline width. The most important manifestations of the conductivity (eddy current) effect are excitation of the higher-order standing spin waves across the film thickness in the materials for which the standing spin wave peaks would be absent in cavity FMR measurements and strong dependence of the off-resonance series conductance of the stripline on the stripline width. Whereas the contribution of the eddy currents to the stripline FMR response can be very significant, because wide striplines (100 μm+) are conventionally used for the FMR measurements, it is negligible in the case of excitation of spin waves, just because very narrow stripline transducers (0.5–5 μm wide) are required in order to excite spin waves in metallic ferromagnetic films in a noticeable frequency/applied field range.

  8. Prospective Study of Metal Fume-Induced Responses of Global Gene Expression Profiling in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Neuberg, Donna; Su, Li; Kim, Jee Young; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Metal particulate inhalation causes pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous results showed that systemic responses to short-term occupational welding-fume exposure could be assessed by microarray analyses in whole-blood total RNA sampled before and after exposure. To expand our understanding of the duration of particulate-induced gene expression changes, we conducted a study using a similar population 1 yr after the original study and extended our observations in the postexposure period. We recruited 15 individuals with welding fume exposure and 7 nonexposed individuals. Thirteen of the 22 individuals (9 in exposed group and 4 in nonexposed group) had been monitored in the previous study. Whole-blood total RNA was analyzed at 3 time points, including baseline, immediately following exposure (approximately 5 h after baseline), and 24 h after baseline, using cDNA microarray technology. We replicated the patterns of Gene Ontology (GO) terms associated with response to stimulus, cell death, phosphorus metabolism, localization, and regulation of biological processes significantly enriched with altered genes in the nonsmoking exposed group. Most of the identified genes had opposite expression changes between the exposure and postexposure periods in nonsmoking welders. In addition, we found dose-dependent patterns that were affected by smoking status. In conclusion, short-term occupational exposure to metal particulates causes systemic responses in the peripheral blood. Furthermore, the acute particulate-induced effects on gene expression profiling were transient in nonsmoking welders, with most effects diminishing within 19 h following exposure. PMID:18951227

  9. Bone response to a titanium aluminium nitride coating on metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C O; Brook, I M

    2006-05-01

    The design, surface characteristics and strength of metallic implants are dependant on their intended use and clinical application. Surface modifications of materials may enable reduction of the time taken for osseointegration and improve the biological response of bio-mechanically favourable metals and alloys. The influence of a titanium aluminium nitride (TAN) coating on the response of bone to commercially pure titanium and austenitic 18/8 stainless steel wire is reported. TAN coated and plain rods of stainless steel and commercially pure titanium were implanted into the mid-shaft of the femur of Wistar rats. The femurs were harvested at four weeks and processed for scanning electron and light microscopy. All implants exhibited a favourable response in bone with no evidence of fibrous encapsulation. There was no significant difference in the amount of new bone formed around the different rods (osseoconduction), however, there was a greater degree of shrinkage separation of bone from the coated rods than from the plain rods (p = 0.017 stainless steel and p = 0.0085 titanium). TAN coating may result in reduced osseointegration between bone and implant.

  10. Effects of defined mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on multiple cellular responses in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, using high content analysis screening.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Frizzell, Caroline; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential. Most studies focus on single compound effects, however as humans are exposed to several POPs simultaneously, investigating exposure effects of real life POP mixtures on human health is necessary. A defined mixture of POPs was used, where the compound concentration reflected its contribution to the levels seen in Scandinavian human serum (total mix). Several sub mixtures representing different classes of POPs were also constructed. The perfluorinated (PFC) mixture contained six perfluorinated compounds, brominated (Br) mixture contained seven brominated compounds, chlorinated (Cl) mixture contained polychlorinated biphenyls and also p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, three chlordanes, three hexachlorocyclohexanes and dieldrin. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells were used for 2h and 48h exposures to the seven mixtures and analysis on a CellInsight™ NXT High Content Screening platform. Multiple cytotoxic endpoints were investigated: cell number, nuclear intensity and area, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both the Br and Cl mixtures induced ROS production but did not lead to apoptosis. The PFC mixture induced ROS production and likely induced cell apoptosis accompanied by the dissipation of MMP. Synergistic effects were evident for ROS induction when cells were exposed to the PFC+Br mixture in comparison to the effects of the individual mixtures. No significant effects were detected in the Br+Cl, PFC+Cl or total mixtures, which contain the same concentrations of chlorinated compounds as the Cl mixture plus additional compounds; highlighting the need for further exploration of POP mixtures in risk assessment.

  11. Mixture design and multivariate analysis in mixture research.

    PubMed Central

    Eide, I; Johnsen, H G

    1998-01-01

    Mixture design has been used to identify possible interactions between mutagens in a mixture. In this paper the use of mixture design in multidimensional isobolographic studies is introduced. Mutagenicity of individual nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was evaluated is an organic extract of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). The particles were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM). After replacing DCM with dimethyl sulfoxide, the extract was spiked with three individual nitro-PAH: 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, and 1,8-dinitropyrene. The nitro-PAH were added separately and in various combinations to the extract to determine the effects of each variable and to identify possible interactions between the individual nitro-PAH and between the nitro-PAH and the extract. The composition of the mixtures was determined by mixture design (linear axial normal) with four variables (the DEP extract and the three nitro-PAH, giving 8 different mixtures plus a triplicate centerpoint, i.e., a total of 11. The design supports a model with linear and interaction (product) terms. Two different approaches were used: traditional mixture design within a well-defined range on the linear part of the dose-response curves and an isobolographic mixture design with equipotent doses of each variable. The mixtures were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames assay using the TA98 strain of Salmonella typhimurium. The data were analyzed with projections to latent structures (PLS). The three individual nitro-PAH and the DEP extract acted additively in the Ames test. The use of mixture design either within a well-defined range of the linear part on the dose-response curve or with equipotent doses saves experiments and reduces the possibility of false interaction terms in situations with dose additivity or response additivity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9860895

  12. Mixture design and multivariate analysis in mixture research.

    PubMed

    Eide, I; Johnsen, H G

    1998-12-01

    Mixture design has been used to identify possible interactions between mutagens in a mixture. In this paper the use of mixture design in multidimensional isobolographic studies is introduced. Mutagenicity of individual nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was evaluated is an organic extract of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). The particles were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM). After replacing DCM with dimethyl sulfoxide, the extract was spiked with three individual nitro-PAH: 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, and 1,8-dinitropyrene. The nitro-PAH were added separately and in various combinations to the extract to determine the effects of each variable and to identify possible interactions between the individual nitro-PAH and between the nitro-PAH and the extract. The composition of the mixtures was determined by mixture design (linear axial normal) with four variables (the DEP extract and the three nitro-PAH, giving 8 different mixtures plus a triplicate centerpoint, i.e., a total of 11. The design supports a model with linear and interaction (product) terms. Two different approaches were used: traditional mixture design within a well-defined range on the linear part of the dose-response curves and an isobolographic mixture design with equipotent doses of each variable. The mixtures were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames assay using the TA98 strain of Salmonella typhimurium. The data were analyzed with projections to latent structures (PLS). The three individual nitro-PAH and the DEP extract acted additively in the Ames test. The use of mixture design either within a well-defined range of the linear part on the dose-response curve or with equipotent doses saves experiments and reduces the possibility of false interaction terms in situations with dose additivity or response additivity. PMID:9860895

  13. Metal ion, light, and redox responsive interaction of vesicles by a supramolecular switch.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Avik; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2014-04-22

    Chemical, photochemical and electrical stimuli are versatile possibilities to exert external control on self-assembled materials. Here, a trifunctional molecule that switches between an "adhesive" and a "non-adhesive" state in response to metal ions, or light, or oxidation is presented. To this end, an azobenzene-ferrocene conjugate with a flexible N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylenediamine spacer was designed as a multistimuli-responsive guest molecule that can form inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. In the absence of any stimulus the guest molecule induces reversible aggregation of host vesicles composed of amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin due to the formation of intervesicular inclusion complexes. In this case, the guest molecule operates as a noncovalent cross-linker for the host vesicles. In response to any of three external stimuli (metal ions, UV irradiation, or oxidation), the conformation of the guest molecule changes and its affinity for the host vesicles is strongly reduced, which results in the dissociation of intervesicular complexes. Upon elimination or reversal of the stimuli (sequestration of metal ion, visible irradiation, or reduction) the affinity of the guest molecules for the host vesicles is restored. The reversible cross-linking and aggregation of the cyclodextrin vesicles in dilute aqueous solution was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), optical density measurements at 600 nm (OD600 ), dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ-potential measurements and cyclic voltammetry (CV). To the best of our knowledge, a dynamic supramolecular system based on a molecular switch that responds orthogonally to three different stimuli is unprecedented.

  14. Metal ion, light, and redox responsive interaction of vesicles by a supramolecular switch.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Avik; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2014-04-22

    Chemical, photochemical and electrical stimuli are versatile possibilities to exert external control on self-assembled materials. Here, a trifunctional molecule that switches between an "adhesive" and a "non-adhesive" state in response to metal ions, or light, or oxidation is presented. To this end, an azobenzene-ferrocene conjugate with a flexible N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylenediamine spacer was designed as a multistimuli-responsive guest molecule that can form inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. In the absence of any stimulus the guest molecule induces reversible aggregation of host vesicles composed of amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin due to the formation of intervesicular inclusion complexes. In this case, the guest molecule operates as a noncovalent cross-linker for the host vesicles. In response to any of three external stimuli (metal ions, UV irradiation, or oxidation), the conformation of the guest molecule changes and its affinity for the host vesicles is strongly reduced, which results in the dissociation of intervesicular complexes. Upon elimination or reversal of the stimuli (sequestration of metal ion, visible irradiation, or reduction) the affinity of the guest molecules for the host vesicles is restored. The reversible cross-linking and aggregation of the cyclodextrin vesicles in dilute aqueous solution was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), optical density measurements at 600 nm (OD600 ), dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ-potential measurements and cyclic voltammetry (CV). To the best of our knowledge, a dynamic supramolecular system based on a molecular switch that responds orthogonally to three different stimuli is unprecedented. PMID:24643990

  15. Detection and aggregation of the antitumoral drug parietin in ethanol/water mixture and on plasmonic metal nanoparticles studied by surface-enhanced optical spectroscopy: Effect of pH and ethanol concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Tobar, Eduardo; Verebova, Valeria; Blascakova, Ludmila; Jancura, Daniel; Fabriciova, Gabriela; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated the effect of ethanol in aqueous media, the pH and the presence of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the aggregation processes of the antitumoral anthraquinone parietin in aqueous media and on the metal surface. UV-visible absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectra of parietin were used for such purpose. The present study provides information about the deprotonation and molecular aggregation processes occurring in parietin under different environments: ethanol/water mixture and when adsorbed onto Ag nanoparticles. The effect of ethanol on the optical properties of parietin in alcohol-water mixtures was also investigated at different ethanol concentrations with the time. For the case of the adsorption and organization of parietin molecules on the surface of Ag NPs, special attention was paid to the use of surface-enhanced optical techniques, SEF (surface-enhanced fluorescence) and SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering), for the characterization of the parietin aggregates and the ionization of the molecule on the surface. In particular, we have studied the variation of the SEF signal with the pH, which depends on the molecular organization of the molecule on the surface. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the SERS spectra at different pH was accomplished and the main Raman bands of the protonated, mono-deprotonated and di-deprotonated parietin were identified. Finally, the second ionization pK of parietin on metal NPs was deduced from the SERS spectra.

  16. Detection and aggregation of the antitumoral drug parietin in ethanol/water mixture and on plasmonic metal nanoparticles studied by surface-enhanced optical spectroscopy: Effect of pH and ethanol concentration.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Tobar, Eduardo; Verebova, Valeria; Blascakova, Ludmila; Jancura, Daniel; Fabriciova, Gabriela; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago

    2016-04-15

    In the present paper, we have investigated the effect of ethanol in aqueous media, the pH and the presence of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the aggregation processes of the antitumoral anthraquinone parietin in aqueous media and on the metal surface. UV-visible absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectra of parietin were used for such purpose. The present study provides information about the deprotonation and molecular aggregation processes occurring in parietin under different environments: ethanol/water mixture and when adsorbed onto Ag nanoparticles. The effect of ethanol on the optical properties of parietin in alcohol-water mixtures was also investigated at different ethanol concentrations with the time. For the case of the adsorption and organization of parietin molecules on the surface of Ag NPs, special attention was paid to the use of surface-enhanced optical techniques, SEF (surface-enhanced fluorescence) and SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering), for the characterization of the parietin aggregates and the ionization of the molecule on the surface. In particular, we have studied the variation of the SEF signal with the pH, which depends on the molecular organization of the molecule on the surface. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the SERS spectra at different pH was accomplished and the main Raman bands of the protonated, mono-deprotonated and di-deprotonated parietin were identified. Finally, the second ionization pK of parietin on metal NPs was deduced from the SERS spectra.

  17. A porphyrin-based metal-organic framework as a pH-responsive drug carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenxin; Hu, Quan; Jiang, Ke; Yang, Yanyu; Yang, Yu; Cui, Yuanjing; Qian, Guodong

    2016-05-01

    A low cytotoxic porphyrin-based metal-organic framework (MOF) PCN-221, which exhibited high PC12 cell viability via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, was selected as an oral drug carrier. Methotrexate (MTX) was chosen as the model drug molecule which was absorbed into inner pores and channels of MOFs by diffusion. PCN-221 showed high drug loading and sustained release behavior under physiological environment without "burst effect". The controlled pH-responsive release of drugs by PCN-221 revealed its promising application in oral drug delivery.

  18. Trajectories of Microbial Community Function in Response to Accelerated Remediation of Subsurface Metal Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Mary

    2015-01-14

    Objectives of proposed research were to; Determine if the trajectories of microbial community composition and function following organic carbon amendment can be related to, and predicted by, key environmental determinants; Assess the relative importance of the characteristics of the indigenous microbial community, sediment, groundwater, and concentration of organic carbon amendment as the major determinants of microbial community functional response and bioremediation capacity; and Provide a fundamental understanding of the microbial community ecology underlying subsurface metal remediation requisite to successful application of accelerated remediation and long-term stewardship of DOE-IFC sites.

  19. Toxic responses of medaka, d-rR strain, to polychlorinated naphthalene mixtures after embryonic exposure by in ovo nanoinjection: A partial life- cycle assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villalobos, Sergio A.; Papoulias, D.M.; Meadows, J.; Blankenship, Alan L.; Pastva, Stephanie D.; Kannan, K.; Hinton, D.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Giesy, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are organic compounds with some chemical properties and uses similar to polychlorinated biphenyls. Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been detected in biota from certain aquatic environments. The toxicities of several PCN technical mixtures (Halowax) to medaka (Oryzias latipes) were determined by use of an embryo nanoinjection method. Medaka eggs (early gastrula) were injected with 0.5 nl of triolein (vehicle control) or 0.5 nl of four to five graded doses (0.3-30 ng/egg) of Halowax 1014, Halowax 1013, or Halowax 1051 in triolein. Following exposure, embryos developed, and fry were reared to sexual maturity (4 months), at which time they were euthanized. Responses were evaluated as early life stage (ELS) and early adult life stage (EALS) assessments. For ELS, lethality and sublethal alterations in embryos and larvae (<16 d old), such as craniofacial, cardiovascular, and myoskeletal deformities and abnormal or delayed hatch, were monitored for the first 9 d, and a dose severity index was computed. The EALS assessment examined the survival of 16-d-old larvae until early adulthood (123 ?? 3 d old), including gonadosomatic index (GSI) and morphometry. Halowax 1014 was found to be the most toxic mixture (LD50 4.2 ng/egg), whereas Halowax 1013 and 1051 were significantly less toxic (LD50s could not be determined). The gonadosomatic index of females was significantly less in fish dosed with Halowax 1014 or 1051. The LD50 for medaka embryos nanoinjected with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is about 0.75 pg/egg. Thus, Halowax 1014 was 5,585-fold less potent than TCDD. For Halowax 1014, ELS assessments accurately predicted the results of EALS assessments.

  20. Transcriptome response to heavy metal stress in Drosophila reveals a new zinc transporter that confers resistance to zinc

    PubMed Central

    Yepiskoposyan, Hasmik; Egli, Dieter; Fergestad, Tim; Selvaraj, Anand; Treiber, Carina; Multhaup, Gerd; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    All organisms are confronted with external variations in trace element abundance. To elucidate the mechanisms that maintain metal homeostasis and protect against heavy metal stress, we have determined the transcriptome responses in Drosophila to sublethal doses of cadmium, zinc, copper, as well as to copper depletion. Furthermore, we analyzed the transcriptome of a metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) null mutant. The gene family encoding metallothioneins, and the ABC transporter CG10505 that encodes a homolog of ‘yeast cadmium factor’ were induced by all three metals. Zinc and cadmium responses have similar features: genes upregulated by both metals include those for glutathione S-transferases GstD2 and GstD5, and for zinc transporter-like proteins designated ZnT35C and ZnT63C. Several of the metal-induced genes that emerged in our study are regulated by the transcription factor MTF-1. mRNA studies in MTF-1 overexpressing or null mutant flies and in silico search for metal response elements (binding sites for MTF-1) confirmed novel MTF-1 regulated genes such as ferritins, the ABC transporter CG10505 and the zinc transporter ZnT35C. The latter was analyzed in most detail; biochemical and genetic approaches, including targeted mutation, indicate that ZnT35C is involved in cellular and organismal zinc efflux and plays a major role in zinc detoxification. PMID:16973896

  1. Multi-trophic level response to extreme metal contamination from gold mining in a subarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Joshua R; Korosi, Jennifer B; Hargan, Kathryn E; Williams, Trisha; Eickmeyer, David C; Kimpe, Linda E; Palmer, Michael J; Smol, John P; Blais, Jules M

    2016-08-17

    Giant Mine, located in the city of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), is a dramatic example of subarctic legacy contamination from mining activities, with remediation costs projected to exceed $1 billion. Operational between 1948 and 2004, gold extraction at Giant Mine released large quantities of arsenic and metals from the roasting of arsenopyrite ore. We examined the long-term ecological effects of roaster emissions on Pocket Lake, a small lake at the edge of the Giant Mine lease boundary, using a spectrum of palaeoenvironmental approaches. A dated sedimentary profile tracked striking increases (approx. 1700%) in arsenic concentrations coeval with the initiation of Giant Mine operations. Large increases in mercury, antimony and lead also occurred. Synchronous changes in biological indicator assemblages from multiple aquatic trophic levels, in both benthic and pelagic habitats, indicate dramatic ecological responses to extreme metal(loid) contamination. At the peak of contamination, all Cladocera, a keystone group of primary consumers, as well as all planktonic diatoms, were functionally lost from the sediment record. No biological recovery has been inferred, despite the fact that the bulk of metal(loid) emissions occurred more than 50 years ago, and the cessation of all ore-roasting activities in Yellowknife in 1999. PMID:27534958

  2. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-11-15

    The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 μM) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd+Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd+Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd+Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 μg g(-1) DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended. PMID:22989857

  3. The Professional Context as a Predictor for Response Distortion in the Adaption-Innovation Inventory--An Investigation Using Mixture Distribution Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Sebastian; Freund, Philipp Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Adaption-Innovation Inventory (AII), originally developed by Kirton (1976), is a widely used self-report instrument for measuring problem-solving styles at work. The present study investigates how scores on the AII are affected by different response styles. Data are collected from a combined sample (N = 738) of students, employees, and…

  4. Pulmonary function responses of young and older adults to mixtures of O sub 3 , NO sub 2 and PAN

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsler-Parks, D.M.; Bedi, J.F.; Horvath, S.M. )

    1989-05-01

    The pulmonary function of 32 nonsmokers (eight men and eight women, 18-26 years of age; eight men and eight women, 51-76 years of age) was measured before and after two-hour exposures to (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (3) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). Subjects alternated 20-minute periods of rest and exercise (ventilation = 25 L/min). Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured pre-exposure and five-minutes after each exercise period. Forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1.0) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 percent of FVC (FEF25-75%) were calculated from the FVC tests. Data were analyzed by 4-factor analysis of variance (sex, age, time period, exposure). The responses of men and women were similar. FA exposure induced no effects. The young subjects' decrements in FVC, FEV1.0 and FEF25-75% became significant (P less than 0.01) after the second exercise period of the O3, NO2/O3 and PAN/NO2/O3 exposures, while the PAN/O3 decrements were significant (P less than 0.01) after the first exercise period. Although PAN/O3 induced significant decrements earlier than the other conditions including O3, the mean pre- to post-exposure decrements for the four conditions including O3 were similar. In contrast, the older subjects had smaller and fewer significant decrements in pulmonary functions. They had significant mean decrements in FVC following the third exercise period of the NO2/O3 and PAN/NO2/O3 exposures, in FEV1.0 after the third exercise period of the PAN/O3 and NO2/O3 exposures, and in FEF 25-75% beginning after the second exercise period of the NO2/O3 exposure.

  5. Chromatic Mechanical Response in 2-D Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenide (TMDs) based Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahneshin, Vahid; Khosravi, Farhad; Ziolkowska, Dominika A.; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2016-10-01

    The ability to convert photons of different wavelengths directly into mechanical motion is of significant interest in many energy conversion and reconfigurable technologies. Here, using few layer 2H-MoS2 nanosheets, layer by layer process of nanocomposite fabrication, and strain engineering, we demonstrate a reversible and chromatic mechanical response in MoS2-nanocomposites between 405 nm to 808 nm with large stress release. The chromatic mechanical response originates from the d orbitals and is related to the strength of the direct exciton resonance A and B of the few layer 2H-MoS2 affecting optical absorption and subsequent mechanical response of the nanocomposite. Applying uniaxial tensile strains to the semiconducting few-layer 2H-MoS2 crystals in the nanocomposite resulted in spatially varying energy levels inside the nanocomposite that enhanced the broadband optical absorption up to 2.3 eV and subsequent mechanical response. The unique photomechanical response in 2H-MoS2 based nanocomposites is a result of the rich d electron physics not available to nanocomposites based on sp bonded graphene and carbon nanotubes, as well as nanocomposite based on metallic nanoparticles. The reversible strain dependent optical absorption suggest applications in broad range of energy conversion technologies that is not achievable using conventional thin film semiconductors.

  6. Chromatic Mechanical Response in 2-D Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenide (TMDs) based Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Rahneshin, Vahid; Khosravi, Farhad; Ziolkowska, Dominika A.; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    The ability to convert photons of different wavelengths directly into mechanical motion is of significant interest in many energy conversion and reconfigurable technologies. Here, using few layer 2H-MoS2 nanosheets, layer by layer process of nanocomposite fabrication, and strain engineering, we demonstrate a reversible and chromatic mechanical response in MoS2-nanocomposites between 405 nm to 808 nm with large stress release. The chromatic mechanical response originates from the d orbitals and is related to the strength of the direct exciton resonance A and B of the few layer 2H-MoS2 affecting optical absorption and subsequent mechanical response of the nanocomposite. Applying uniaxial tensile strains to the semiconducting few-layer 2H-MoS2 crystals in the nanocomposite resulted in spatially varying energy levels inside the nanocomposite that enhanced the broadband optical absorption up to 2.3 eV and subsequent mechanical response. The unique photomechanical response in 2H-MoS2 based nanocomposites is a result of the rich d electron physics not available to nanocomposites based on sp bonded graphene and carbon nanotubes, as well as nanocomposite based on metallic nanoparticles. The reversible strain dependent optical absorption suggest applications in broad range of energy conversion technologies that is not achievable using conventional thin film semiconductors. PMID:27713550

  7. Biochemical responses of the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) in a eutrophic and metal-contaminated coastal system (Obidos lagoon, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Dulce Subida, Maria; Vale, Carlos; Pacheco, Mário

    2009-07-01

    A eutrophic and metal-contaminated coastal system (Obidos lagoon, Portugal) was monitored combining water/sediment quality parameters and Carcinus maenas biomarkers (accumulated metals, oxidative stress and biotransformation responses). Two confined branches (Barrosa and Bom-Sucesso) were surveyed and compared with a reference area. Both crab genders from Barrosa exhibited activation of hepatopancreas CAT, GPx and GST, pointing out this area as the major impacted in the lagoon. Females captured at Barrosa were more vulnerable to peroxidative damage while only males showed decreased EROD activity, reinforcing gender specificities. In general, responses were not directly attributed to metals in hepatopancreas, as supported by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). However, higher metals (Ni, Cu, Cd) and nutrients levels registered in Barrosa water were associated with the observed oxidative stress responses by PCA. Despite the difficulty to establish cause-effect relationships due to the co-occurrence of various stressors and their interactions, the adopted integrated monitoring strategy appears to be promising. PMID:19187961

  8. Enhanced electromechanical response of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) actuators by various Nafion roughening levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Jiayu; Chen, Hualing

    2016-04-01

    Recently, Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), becoming an increasingly popular material, are used as soft actuators for its inherent properties of light weight, flexibility, softness, especial efficient transformation from electrical energy to mechanical energy with large bending strain response to low activation voltage. This paper mainly focuses on the suitable conditions for surface-roughening of Nafion 117 membrane. The surfaces of Nafion membrane were pretreated and optimized by sandblasting, mainly considering the change of sandblasting time and powder size. The modified surfaces are characterized in terms of their topography from the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and SEM. Then, the detailed change in surface and interfacial electrodes and performances for IPMC actuators prepared by the roughened membranes, were measured and discussed. The results show that an optimized roughening condition with large interface area (capacitance) can effectively increases the electromechanical responses of IPMC.

  9. Three novel superoxide dismutase genes identified in the marine polychaete Perinereis nuntia and their differential responses to single and combined metal exposures.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Ra, Kongtae; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Young-Mi

    2014-09-01

    To identify superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes and evaluate their usefulness as potential markers for monitoring metal toxicity in aquatic environment, we cloned, sequenced, and characterized 3 SOD genes (Cu/Zn-SOD1, Cu/Zn-SOD2, and Mn-SOD) from the marine polychaete Perinereis nuntia. The accumulated metal contents and expressions of 3 SOD genes were compared after exposure to single and combinations of heavy metals, As, Ni, and Pb. The deduced amino acid sequences of the 3 SODs had evolutionary conserved domains, such as metal binding sites, and signature sequences. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cu/Zn-SOD1, Cu/Zn-SOD2, and Mn-SOD were clustered with extracellular Cu/Zn-SOD, intracellular Cu/Zn-SOD and mitochondrial Mn-SOD, respectively, of other species. The accumulated contents of Ni and Pb increased significantly in a time - dependent manner after exposure to both single and combination of the metals. However, the concentration of As did not change significantly in the exposure test. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array showed that the 3 SOD genes had differential expression patterns depending on the exposure condition. The expression of all SODs mRNAs was significantly elevated in response to Pb alone and in combination with As. The mRNA level of Cu/Zn-SOD1 was the highest after exposure to Pb alone, while that of Mn-SOD was remarkably enhanced after exposure to a combination of As and Pb. Exposure to Ni alone rapidly elevated the expression of Cu/Zn-SOD1 and Mn-SOD mRNA, which then gradually decreased. Exposure to As had no significant effect on the modulation of any of the SOD genes of P. nuntia. These results suggest that all SOD genes might play important roles in cellular protection as antioxidant enzymes against heavy metal toxicity via different modes of action in P. nuntia and might have the potential to act as indicators in an environment containing a mixture of metals.

  10. Ph responsive capsules containing composite coatings for corrosion inhibition in metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, Kiran Bhat

    Hexavalent chromes have been used as effective corrosion inhibitors due to their high inhibitor efficiency and low cost for the protection of several metal alloys. However, owing to their toxicity federal legislations restrict the use and distribution of these highly toxic materials. The need for an environmentally friendly yet effective alternative to the chrome based corrosion inhibitors has led to the investigation of rare earth metals as potential candidates. Cerium is one such rare earth metal that has received considerable attention as an alternative to hexavalent chromes. However, the high water solubility of some of the cerium salts makes it difficult for the incorporation of such salts in coatings. In this work, pH responsive microcapsules containing cerium salts were synthesized using an internally phase separated emulsion polymerization technique. Core shell microcapsule consisting of a water core containing dissolved cerium salts were synthesized. The synthesized capsules were characterized using characterization techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The structure and morphology of the capsules were studied using electron microscopy techniques. The synthesized capsules were dispersed in 2K epoxy coatings and applied on aluminum alloy 2024 T-3 and cold rolled steel substrates. These coatings were exposed to salt spray (ASTM B117) and electrochemically evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentio-dynamic(PD) polarization, cyclic voltammetry(CV), open circuit potential(OCP) measurements. Localized corrosion assessment was also performed on the coated metal alloys using Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to understand the mechanism of corrosion inhibition using cerium encapsulated microcapsules.

  11. The development dynamics of the maize root transcriptome responsive to heavy metal Pb pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Zhang, Yongzhong; Lu, Chaolong; Peng, Hua; Luo, Mao; Li, Gaoke; Shen, Yaou; Ding, Haiping; Zhang, Zhiming; Pan, Guangtang; Lin, Haijian

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb), as a heavy metal element, has become the most important metal pollutant of the environment. With allocating a relatively higher proportion of its biomass in roots, maize could be a potential important model to study the phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated soil. Here we analyzed the maize root transcriptome of inbred lines 9782 under heavy metal lead (Pb) pollution, which was identified as a non-hyperaccumulator for Pb in roots. In the present study, more than 98 millions reads were mapped to define gene structure and detect polymorphism, thereby to qualify transcript abundance along roots development under Pb treatment. A total of 17,707, 17,440, 16,998 and 16,586 genes were identified in maize roots at four developmental stages (0, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h) respectively and 2,825, 2,626, 2161 and 2260 stage-specifically expressed genes were also identified respectively. In addition, based on our RNA-Seq data, transcriptomic changes during maize root development responsive to Pb were investigated. A total of 384 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (log2Ratio ≥ 1, FDR ≤ 0.001) were identified, of which, 36 genes with significant alteration in expression were detected in four developmental stages; 12 DEGs were randomly selected and successful validated by qRT-PCR. Additionally, many transcription factor families might act as the important regulators at different developmental stages, such as bZIP, ERF and GARP et al. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in maize root development and provide a foundation for future study on root development in maize under heavy metal pollution and other cereal crops.

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of Cadmium Stress Response in the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoe; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd), as well as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≧2.0) and down-regulated (Fold Change ≦0.5) by chronic Cd treatment in S. alfredii Hance (HE) at q-value cutoff of 0.005, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR was employed to compare gene expression patterns between S. alfredii Hance (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. PMID:23755133

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of cadmium stress response in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Sun, Ling; Yang, Xiaoe; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd), as well as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≥ 2.0) and down-regulated (Fold Change metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. PMID:23755133

  14. Responsive nanoporous metals: recoverable modulations on strength and shape by watering.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing-Long; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jin, Hai-Jun

    2016-08-12

    Many biological materials can readily modulate their mechanical properties and shape by interacting with water in the surrounding environment, which is essential to their high performance in application. In contrast, typical inorganic materials (such as the metals) cannot change their strength and shape without involving thermal/mechanical treatments. By introducing nano-scale porous structure and exploiting a simple physical concept-the water-capillarity in nanopores, here we report that a 'dead' metal can be transformed into a 'smart' material with water-responsive properties. We demonstrate that the apparent strength, volume and shape of nanoporous Au and Au(Pt) can be modulated in situ, dramatically and recoverably, in response to water-dipping and partial-drying. The amplitude of strength-modulation reaches 20 MPa, which is nearly 50% of the yield strength at initial state. This approach also leads to reversible length change up to 1.3% in nanoporous Au and a large reversible bending motion of a bi-layer strip with tip displacement of ∼20 mm, which may be used for actuation. This method is simple and effective, occurring in situ under ambient conditions and requiring no external power, analogous to biological materials. The findings may open up novel applications in many areas such as micro-robotics and bio-medical devices. PMID:27347850

  15. Responsive nanoporous metals: recoverable modulations on strength and shape by watering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xing-Long; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jin, Hai-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Many biological materials can readily modulate their mechanical properties and shape by interacting with water in the surrounding environment, which is essential to their high performance in application. In contrast, typical inorganic materials (such as the metals) cannot change their strength and shape without involving thermal/mechanical treatments. By introducing nano-scale porous structure and exploiting a simple physical concept—the water-capillarity in nanopores, here we report that a ‘dead’ metal can be transformed into a ‘smart’ material with water-responsive properties. We demonstrate that the apparent strength, volume and shape of nanoporous Au and Au(Pt) can be modulated in situ, dramatically and recoverably, in response to water-dipping and partial-drying. The amplitude of strength-modulation reaches 20 MPa, which is nearly 50% of the yield strength at initial state. This approach also leads to reversible length change up to 1.3% in nanoporous Au and a large reversible bending motion of a bi-layer strip with tip displacement of ∼20 mm, which may be used for actuation. This method is simple and effective, occurring in situ under ambient conditions and requiring no external power, analogous to biological materials. The findings may open up novel applications in many areas such as micro-robotics and bio-medical devices.

  16. Thermoelastic response of metal matrix composites with large-diameter fibers subjected to thermal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    A new micromechanical theory is presented for the response of heterogeneous metal matrix composites subjected to thermal gradients. In contrast to existing micromechanical theories that utilize classical homogenization schemes in the course of calculating microscopic and macroscopic field quantities, in the present approach the actual microstructural details are explicitly coupled with the macrostructure of the composite. Examples are offered that illustrate limitations of the classical homogenization approach in predicting the response of thin-walled metal matrix composites with large-diameter fibers when subjected to thermal gradients. These examples include composites with a finite number of fibers in the thickness direction that may be uniformly or nonuniformly spaced, thus admitting so-called functionally gradient composites. The results illustrate that the classical approach of decoupling micromechanical and macromechanical analyses in the presence of a finite number of large-diameter fibers, finite dimensions of the composite, and temperature gradient may produce excessively conservative estimates for macroscopic field quantities, while both underestimating and overestimating the local fluctuations of the microscopic quantities in different regions of the composite. Also demonstrated is the usefulness of the present approach in generating favorable stress distributions in the presence of thermal gradients by appropriately tailoring the internal microstructure details of the composite.

  17. Metal dusting of nickel-containing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.

    1998-12-31

    Metal dusting is a catastrophic form of carburization which leads to pitting and grooves as the affected metal disintegrates into a mixture of powdery carbon, metallic particles, and possibly oxides and carbides. This high temperature carburization mode is not yet well understood and while relatively infrequent, can be economically disastrous when it does occur in large and complex chemical and petrochemical process streams. References in the literature show that all classes of heat resistant alloys are prone to metal dusting, given the necessary and specific environmental conditions. These same references describe the environments that plague nickel-containing alloys and are used as the basis for postulation on the probable corrosion mechanisms responsible for metal dusting. Using alloy 800 and other nickel-containing alloys and metal dusting atmospheres, an effort is made to examine the steps in the metal dusting process and the temperature ranges over which metal dusting occurs.

  18. Structurally Well-Defined Sigmoidal Gold Clusters: Probing the Correlation between Metal Atom Arrangement and Chiroptical Response.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Wang, Yuechao; Jiang, Hong; Zhao, Liang

    2016-05-01

    Asymmetric arrangement of metal atoms is crucial for understanding the chirality origin of chiral metal nanoclusters and facilitating the design and development of new chiral catalysts and chiroptical devices. Here, we describe the construction of four asymmetric gold and gold-silver clusters by chirality transfer from diimido ligands. The acquired metal clusters show strong circular dichroism (CD) response with large anisotropy factors of up to 6 × 10(-3), larger than the values of most reported chiral gold nanoclusters. Regardless of the same absolute configuration of the applied three diimido ligands, sigmoidal and reverse-sigmoidal arrangements of gold atoms both can be achieved, which resultantly produce an opposite Cotton effect within a specific absorption range. On the basis of the detailed structural characterization via X-ray crystallography and contrast experiments, the chirality contribution of the imido ligand, the asymmetrically arranged metal cluster, and the chiral arrangement of aromatic rings of phosphine ligands have been qualitatively evaluated. Time-dependent DFT calculations reveal that the chiroptical property of the acquired metal clusters is mainly influenced by the asymmetrically arranged metal atoms. Correlation of asymmetric arrangements of metal atoms in clusters with their chiroptical response provides a viable means of fabricating a designable chiral surface of metal nanoclusters and opens a broader prospect for chiral cluster application.

  19. Oxidoreductases provide a more generic response to metallic stressors (Cu and Cd) than hydrolases in soil fungi: new ecotoxicological insights.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Jérémie D; Demont-Caulet, Nathalie; Cheviron, Nathalie; Laval, Karine; Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Isabelle; Mougin, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of metals on the secretion of enzymes from 12 fungal strains maintained in liquid cultures. Hydrolases (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase) and ligninolytic oxidoreductases (laccase, Mn, and lignin peroxidases) activities, as well as biomass production, were measured in culture fluids from fungi exposed to Cu or Cd. Our results showed that all fungi secreted most of the selected hydrolases and that about 50% of them produced a partial oxidative system in the absence of metals. Then, exposure of fungi to metals led to the decrease in biomass production. At the enzymatic level, Cu and Cd modified the secretion profiles of soil fungi. The response of hydrolases to metals was contrasted and complex and depended on metal, enzyme, and fungal strain considered. By contrast, the metals always stimulated the activity of ligninolytic oxidoreductases in fungal strains. In some of them, oxidoreductases were specifically produced following metal exposure. Fungal oxidoreductases provide a more generic response than hydrolases, constituting thus a physiological basis for their use as biomarkers of metal exposure in soils.

  20. Toxicity of a hazardous chemical mixture in the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, H.S.; Matthews, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    The responses of the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala to toxic chemical mixtures representative of water contaminants associated with hazardous waste sites have been studied in laboratory experiments. These free-living flatworms are readily maintained under laboratory conditions and are a useful invertebrate model for toxicology studies. Their widespread occurrence also makes them potentially useful for environmental studies. Mature asexual Dugesia dorotocephala were exposed for 14 days to mixtures of seven contaminants frequently detected in water at hazardous waste sites. The complete 1X mixture contained both metals (As, 3.1 ppm; Cr, 0.7 ppm; Pb, 3.7 ppm) and organics (chloroform, 1.5 ppm; benzene, 5.0 ppm; phenol, 3.4 ppm; trichloroethylene, 3.8 ppm). Groups of planaria were treated with the complete mixture at 0.1X, 1X and 10X concentrations. Additional groups were exposed to the metals-only or organics-only submixtures, also at 0.1X, 1X and 10X concentrations. Treatment solutions were renewed daily. Suppression of fissioning was observed in all of the 1X and 10X treatment groups. Significant mortality occurred only in the 10X complete and 1 0X metals-only treatments. It appears that the toxic effects of the complete mixture are primarily associated with the metal components.

  1. Separation and Identification of a Mixture of Group 6 Transition-Metal Carbonyl Compounds Using GC-MS in the General Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Lawrence K.

    2004-01-01

    Students in the general chemistry course are advised to scrutinize data obtained by gas chromatograph (GC) for segregation, and mass spectroscopy (MS) for recognizing combination of group 6 transition-metal carbonyl compounds. The GC-MS method arouses students' interest, as it can be applied to real-world situations, such as the routine…

  2. Studies of metal/gallium nitride gas sensors: Sensing response, morphology and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Barrett Kai-Bong

    Reliable gas sensors with excellent sensitivity and robustness are important for the development of advanced technological applications while ensuring a safe environment in both industrial and household security. The chemically and mechanically robust gallium nitride (GaN) is a promising semiconductor for these important applications, especially for use at high temperatures and in extreme environments. When a metal is in contact with a semiconductor surface, a space charge region and Schottky barrier are formed on the semiconductor side. In this thesis, the sensing response of Pt and GaN to gaseous H2 and CO and the dependence of the response on Pt and GaN surface morphologies are explored. The sensing opportunities are expanded when GaN is decorated with Ag and the structure is used for small molecule analysis using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Combining the high surface area of nanoporous GaN with Pt nanoparticles deposited by electroless chemical deposition, the sensing performance of the well-known H-mediated Schottky barrier based on the Pt/GaN sensor is studied. The H2 sensing performance of, as defined by the limit of detection (LOD), Pt-decorated porous GaN measured by AC four-point probe resistance measurements is more than an order of magnitude better than planar GaN sensors based on the same Pt/GaN Schottky barrier height concept. The potential utility of high surface area porous GaN was realized by decorating the confined nanopores with metal (Pt), thus increasing the surface area available for sensing and lowering the LOD. Pt/GaN structures can also be used to detect CO at high temperature. The CO sensing response is also dependent on the Pt morphology. For continuous films, CO signal increases as the thickness of the metal film decreases. In discontinuous Pt films, increasing Pt surface area also increases the CO signal when the Pt/GaN interfacial area remains constant. A model is proposed, in which the influence of the adsorbed CO on Pt

  3. Colloidal stability and thermo-responsive properties of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polymers: advantages of Pluronic® F68-PEG mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiper, Manuela; Hervé Aubert, Katel; Augé, Amélie; Fouquenet, Jean-François; Soucé, Martin; Chourpa, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are recognized to be an attractive platform for developing novel drug delivery approaches and thus several types of functionalized magnetic nanocarriers based on SPIONs have been synthesized and studied. The coating of the metal oxide surface was achieved in a one-pot synthesis with biocompatible polyethylene glycol (PEG) and thermo-responsive modified Pluronic® F68. The resulting thermo-responsive magnetic nanocarriers can incorporate water insoluble drugs into their hydrophobic compartment and later release them in a temperature dependent manner. Here we report novel magnetic nanocarriers with significant improvements regarding the colloidal stability and critical temperature obtained by mixing various molar ratios of hydrophilic PEG with thermo-responsive Pluronic® F68 bearing different end group functionalities. Various methods have been employed to characterize the magnetic nanocarriers, such as photon correlation spectroscopy (DLS), atomic absorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The transition temperature that determines changes in the conformation of the block copolymer chain was studied by DLS as a function of temperature. Moreover, the drug loading properties of SPION-(F68-OMe)-(F68-FA) and SPION-PEG-F68-FA were analyzed with a hydrophobic fluorescent dye, DID oil. The behavior of the encapsulated DID into the nanocarrier shell was studied as a function of temperature via fluorescence spectroscopy. These results offer original insights into the enhanced colloidal stability and thermo-sensitive properties of the novel synthesized magnetic nanocarriers.

  4. Colloidal stability and thermo-responsive properties of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polymers: advantages of Pluronic® F68-PEG mixture.

    PubMed

    Chiper, Manuela; Hervé Aubert, Katel; Augé, Amélie; Fouquenet, Jean-François; Soucé, Martin; Chourpa, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are recognized to be an attractive platform for developing novel drug delivery approaches and thus several types of functionalized magnetic nanocarriers based on SPIONs have been synthesized and studied. The coating of the metal oxide surface was achieved in a one-pot synthesis with biocompatible polyethylene glycol (PEG) and thermo-responsive modified Pluronic® F68. The resulting thermo-responsive magnetic nanocarriers can incorporate water insoluble drugs into their hydrophobic compartment and later release them in a temperature dependent manner. Here we report novel magnetic nanocarriers with significant improvements regarding the colloidal stability and critical temperature obtained by mixing various molar ratios of hydrophilic PEG with thermo-responsive Pluronic® F68 bearing different end group functionalities. Various methods have been employed to characterize the magnetic nanocarriers, such as photon correlation spectroscopy (DLS), atomic absorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The transition temperature that determines changes in the conformation of the block copolymer chain was studied by DLS as a function of temperature. Moreover, the drug loading properties of SPION-(F68-OMe)-(F68-FA) and SPION-PEG-F68-FA were analyzed with a hydrophobic fluorescent dye, DID oil. The behavior of the encapsulated DID into the nanocarrier shell was studied as a function of temperature via fluorescence spectroscopy. These results offer original insights into the enhanced colloidal stability and thermo-sensitive properties of the novel synthesized magnetic nanocarriers. PMID:24013614

  5. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Khanolkar, Gauri R.; Rauls, Michael B.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Hodge, Andrea M.; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding. PMID:26932846

  6. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanolkar, Gauri R.; Rauls, Michael B.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Hodge, Andrea M.; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding.

  7. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites.

    PubMed

    Khanolkar, Gauri R; Rauls, Michael B; Kelly, James P; Graeve, Olivia A; Hodge, Andrea M; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity mea