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Sample records for metal particle size

  1. Phase-transfer based size refining of metal nanoparticles from arbitrary particle size distributions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Qu, Jianglan; Ye, Feng; Wang, Caixia; Yang, Jun

    2013-02-01

    The size-dependent phase-transfer property of metal nanoparticles is used to develop a simple experimental procedure that can effectively refine the particle size from colloidal solutions prepared by wet-chemistry. The protocol calls for firstly the mixing of the metal hydrosol with an ethanol solution of dodecylamine, and then the extraction of the dodecylamine-stabilized metal nanoparticles into toluene. This method offers an effective approach to prepare metal nanoparticles with narrow size distribution from an arbitrary particle size distribution.

  2. Depositing nanometer-sized particles of metals onto carbon allotropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Fallbach, Michael J. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Delozier, Donavon M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for depositing nanometer-sized metal particles onto a substrate in the absence of aqueous solvents, organic solvents, and reducing agents, and without any required pre-treatment of the substrate, includes preparing an admixture of a metal compound and a substrate by dry mixing a chosen amount of the metal compound with a chosen amount of the substrate; and supplying energy to the admixture in an amount sufficient to deposit zero valance metal particles onto the substrate. This process gives rise to a number of deposited metallic particle sizes which may be controlled. The compositions prepared by this process are used to produce polymer composites by combining them with readily available commodity and engineering plastics. The polymer composites are used as coatings, or they are used to fabricate articles, such as free-standing films, fibers, fabrics, foams, molded and laminated articles, tubes, adhesives, and fiber reinforced articles. These articles are well-suited for many applications requiring thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, antibacterial activity, catalytic activity, and combinations thereof.

  3. Endotoxin in Size-Separated Metal Working Fluid Aerosol Particles.

    PubMed

    Dahlman-Höglund, Anna; Lindgren, Åsa; Mattsby-Baltzer, Inger

    2016-08-01

    Patients with airway symptoms working in metal working industries are increasing, despite efforts to improve the environmental air surrounding the machines. Our aim was to analyse the amount of endotoxin in size-separated airborne particles of metal working fluid (MWF) aerosol, by using the personal sampler Sioutas cascade impactor, to compare filter types, and to compare the concentration of airborne endotoxin to that of the corresponding MWFs. In a pilot field study, aerosols were collected in two separate machine halls on totally 10 occasions, using glass fibre and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters in parallel at each station. Airborne endotoxin was distributed over all size fractions. While a major part was found in the largest size fraction (72%, 2.5-10 µm), up to 8% of the airborne endotoxin was detected in the smallest size fraction (<0.25 µm). Comparing the efficiency of the filter types, a significantly higher median endotoxin level was found with glass fibres filters collecting the largest particle-size fraction (1.2-fold) and with PTFE filters collecting the smallest ones (5-fold). The levels of endotoxin in the size-separated airborne particle fractions correlated to those of the MWFs supporting the aerosol-generating machines. Our study indicates that a significant part of inhalable aerosols of MWFs consists of endotoxin-containing particles below the size of intact bacteria, and thus small enough to readily reach the deepest part of the lung. Combined with other chemical irritants of the MWF, exposure to MWF aerosols containing endotoxin pose a risk to respiratory health problems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Ejected Particle Size Distributions from Shocked Metal Surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Schauer, M. M.; Buttler, W. T.; Frayer, D. K.; ...

    2017-04-12

    Here, we present size distributions for particles ejected from features machined onto the surface of shocked Sn targets. The functional form of the size distributions is assumed to be log-normal, and the characteristic parameters of the distribution are extracted from the measured angular distribution of light scattered from a laser beam incident on the ejected particles. We also found strong evidence for a bimodal distribution of particle sizes with smaller particles evolved from features machined into the target surface and larger particles being produced at the edges of these features.

  5. Particle size distribution and metal content in street sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Viklander, M.

    1998-08-01

    Sediments that had accumulated during the winter season, and which were left at the surface when the snow had melted, were studied with regard to physical and chemical characteristics. The investigation was carried out in the city of Luleaa, which is located in northern Sweden. Sediment samples were collected in the city center and in a housing area at streets with different traffic loads. The results showed that the amount of the sediments at a street surface was evidently affected by the presence of a sidewalk. The street with a sidewalk accumulated much more sediment than the street without a sidewalk. Both of these streets had approximately the same traffic load. The sidewalk also affected the particle size distribution. The content of heavy metals in the sediments varied with the traffic load and the area type. The highest concentration of cadmium, lead, and zinc was found in the street with the highest traffic load.

  6. Particle size effect for metal pollution analysis of atmospherically deposited dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rajhi, M. A.; Al-Shayeb, S. M.; Seaward, M. R. D.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    The metallic compositions of 231 atmospherically deposited dust samples obtained from widely-differing environments in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, have been investigated in relation to the particle size distributions. Sample data are presented which show that particle size classification is very important when analysing dust samples for atmospheric metal pollution studies. By cross-correlation and comparison, it was found that the best way to express the results of the metal concentration trend was as an average of particle ratios. Correlations between the six metals studied, namely Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Li, were found for every particle size (eight categories) and reveal that the metal concentrations increased as the particle size decreased. On the basis of this work, it is strongly recommended that future international standards for metal pollutants in atmospherically deposited dusts should be based on particle size fractions.

  7. [Migration and transformation of heavy metals in street dusts with different particle sizes during urban runoff].

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Hong-Tao; Li, Xu-Yong; Lian, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2012-03-01

    The heavy metal pollution in runoff caused by street dust washoff has been an increasingly prominent problem in the context of rapid urbanization in China. Based on measurement of heavy metal contents in street dusts with different particle sizes and an experiment of street dust washoff using simulated rainfall, we analyzed the role of particle size of street dust in heavy metal pollution, and the variation in geometrical forms of heavy metals during street dust washoff. Our results showed that the heavy metal concentration decreased from "static" street dust to "dynamic" runoff particulate in the same diameter particles. Heavy metals in street dust were dissolved and extracted during washoff. The average loss proportion of the five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were 24.3%, 56.8%, 34.3%, 22.8%, 27.3%, respectively. The loss proportion increased with the decrease of the particle size of street dust. Proportion of extracted form dust was higher in street than that in washoff samples, which suggested some dissolved loss in water. In washoff samples, dissolved metals of waterphase did not have significant changes; however, heavy metals with particle state in waterphase reduced rapidly during runoff. Meanwhile, heavy metals of solid-phase particle reduced during runoff. Street dust with small particle size had higher loss rate during runoff. The variation rate of street dust loss among different particle sizes varied from 4.6% to 62.1%. Street dust with smaller particle size had higher migration ability in runoff, which was more risky to urban water pollution.

  8. Metal uptake by corn grown on media treated with particle-size fractionated biosolids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Yongsong

    2008-03-15

    Particle-size of biosolids may affect plant uptake of heavy metals when the biosolids are land applied. In this study, corn (Zea mays L.) was grown on sand media treated with biosolids to study how particle-size of biosolids affected the plant uptake of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Two biosolids, the Nu-Earth biosolids and the Los Angeles biosolids, of dissimilar surface morphology were utilized. The former exhibited a porous and spongy structure and had considerably greater specific surface area than that of the latter, which was granular and blocky. The specific surface area of the Los Angeles biosolids was inversely proportional to its particle-size, while that of Nu-Earth biosolids did not change significantly with particle-size. For each biosolid, the metal concentrations were not affected by particle sizes. The biomass yields of plants grown on the treated media increased as the biosolid particle-size decreased, indicating that plant uptake of nutrients from biosolids was dependent on interactions at the root-biosolids interface. The effect of particle-size on a metal's availability to plants was element-specific. The uptake rate of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni was correlated with the surface area of the particles, i.e., smaller particles having higher specific area provided greater root-biosolids contact and resulted in enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn and slightly less increased uptake of Cu and Ni. The particle morphology of biosolids had limited influence on the plant tissue concentrations of Cr and Pb. For both types of biosolids, total metal uptake increased as biosolid particle-size decreased. Our research indicates that biosolid particle-size distribution plays a deciding role in plant uptake of heavy metals when they are land applied.

  9. Electromechanical characterization of individual micron-sized metal coated polymer particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bazilchuk, Molly; Kristiansen, Helge; Pettersen, Sigurd Rolland; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying

    2016-06-28

    Micron-sized polymer particles with nanoscale metal coatings are essential in conductive adhesives for electronics assembly. The particles function in a compressed state in the adhesives. The link between mechanical properties and electrical conductivity is thus of the utmost importance in the formation of good electrical contact. A custom flat punch set-up based on nanoindentation has been developed to simultaneously deform and electrically probe individual particles. The set-up has a sufficiently low internal resistance to allow the measurement of sub-Ohm contact resistances. Additionally, the set-up can capture mechanical failure of the particles. Combining this data yields a fundamental understanding of contact behavior. We demonstrate that this method can clearly distinguish between particles of different sizes, with different thicknesses of metal coating, and different metallization schemes. The technique provides good repeatability and physical insight into the behavior of these particles that can guide adhesive design and the optimization of bonding processes.

  10. Electromechanical characterization of individual micron-sized metal coated polymer particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilchuk, Molly; Pettersen, Sigurd Rolland; Kristiansen, Helge; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying

    2016-06-01

    Micron-sized polymer particles with nanoscale metal coatings are essential in conductive adhesives for electronics assembly. The particles function in a compressed state in the adhesives. The link between mechanical properties and electrical conductivity is thus of the utmost importance in the formation of good electrical contact. A custom flat punch set-up based on nanoindentation has been developed to simultaneously deform and electrically probe individual particles. The set-up has a sufficiently low internal resistance to allow the measurement of sub-Ohm contact resistances. Additionally, the set-up can capture mechanical failure of the particles. Combining this data yields a fundamental understanding of contact behavior. We demonstrate that this method can clearly distinguish between particles of different sizes, with different thicknesses of metal coating, and different metallization schemes. The technique provides good repeatability and physical insight into the behavior of these particles that can guide adhesive design and the optimization of bonding processes.

  11. Size of metallic and polyethylene debris particles in failed cemented total hip replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.; Salvati, E. A.; Betts, F.; DiCarlo, E. F.; Doty, S. B.; Bullough, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    Reports of differing failure rates of total hip prostheses made of various metals prompted us to measure the size of metallic and polyethylene particulate debris around failed cemented arthroplasties. We used an isolation method, in which metallic debris was extracted from the tissues, and a non-isolation method of routine preparation for light and electron microscopy. Specimens were taken from 30 cases in which the femoral component was of titanium alloy (10), cobalt-chrome alloy (10), or stainless steel (10). The mean size of metallic particles with the isolation method was 0.8 to 1.0 microns by 1.5 to 1.8 microns. The non-isolation method gave a significantly smaller mean size of 0.3 to 0.4 microns by 0.6 to 0.7 microns. For each technique the particle sizes of the three metals were similar. The mean size of polyethylene particles was 2 to 4 microns by 8 to 13 microns. They were larger in tissue retrieved from failed titanium-alloy implants than from cobalt-chrome and stainless-steel implants. Our results suggest that factors other than the size of the metal particles, such as the constituents of the alloy, and the amount and speed of generation of debris, may be more important in the failure of hip replacements.

  12. Size of metallic and polyethylene debris particles in failed cemented total hip replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.; Salvati, E. A.; Betts, F.; DiCarlo, E. F.; Doty, S. B.; Bullough, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    Reports of differing failure rates of total hip prostheses made of various metals prompted us to measure the size of metallic and polyethylene particulate debris around failed cemented arthroplasties. We used an isolation method, in which metallic debris was extracted from the tissues, and a non-isolation method of routine preparation for light and electron microscopy. Specimens were taken from 30 cases in which the femoral component was of titanium alloy (10), cobalt-chrome alloy (10), or stainless steel (10). The mean size of metallic particles with the isolation method was 0.8 to 1.0 microns by 1.5 to 1.8 microns. The non-isolation method gave a significantly smaller mean size of 0.3 to 0.4 microns by 0.6 to 0.7 microns. For each technique the particle sizes of the three metals were similar. The mean size of polyethylene particles was 2 to 4 microns by 8 to 13 microns. They were larger in tissue retrieved from failed titanium-alloy implants than from cobalt-chrome and stainless-steel implants. Our results suggest that factors other than the size of the metal particles, such as the constituents of the alloy, and the amount and speed of generation of debris, may be more important in the failure of hip replacements.

  13. Bioleaching of metals from spent refinery petroleum catalyst using moderately thermophilic bacteria: effect of particle size.

    PubMed

    Srichandan, Haragobinda; Singh, Sradhanjali; Pathak, Ashish; Kim, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seoung-Won; Heyes, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the leaching potential of moderately thermophilic bacteria in the recovery of metals from spent petroleum catalyst of varying particle sizes. The batch bioleaching experiments were conducted by employing a mixed consortium of moderate thermophilic bacteria at 45°C and by using five different particle sizes (from 45 to >2000 μm) of acetone-washed spent catalyst. The elemental mapping by FESEM confirmed the presence of Al, Ni, V and Mo along with sulfur in the spent catalyst. During bioleaching, Ni (92-97%) and V (81-91%) were leached in higher concentrations, whereas leaching yields of Al (23-38%) were found to be lowest in all particle sizes investigated. Decreasing the particle size from >2000 μm to 45-106 μm caused an increase in leaching yields of metals during initial hours. However, the final metals leaching yields were almost independent of particle sizes of catalyst. Leaching kinetics was observed to follow the diffusion-controlled model showing the linearity more close than the chemical control. The results of the present study suggested that bioleaching using moderate thermophilic bacteria was highly effective in removing the metals from spent catalyst. Moreover, bioleaching can be conducted using spent catalyst of higher particle size (>2000 μm), thus saving the grinding cost and making process attractive for larger scale application.

  14. The adsorption characteristics of heavy metals by various particle sizes of MSWI bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Shim, Young-Sook; Kim, Young-Keun; Kong, Sung-Ho; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun

    2003-01-01

    The incineration rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been increased because of difficulty in securing a proper disposal site for MSW in Korea. The advantage of incineration is reduction of the volume of waste; however, significant amounts of bottom ash and fly ash were generated in the incineration process. Their treatment has attracted growing interest because of the potential toxicity of hazardous heavy metals. Generally, heavy metals are less released from bottom ash than from fly ash. In this study the adsorption characteristics of heavy metals were investigated using various particle sizes of MSWI bottom ash. Since bottom ash has a broad particle size distribution, it was sieved to size classes of +20, -20, -48, -80, -100 mesh. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) was analyzed by the ammonium acetate method to evaluate the potential as an adsorbent. The CEC values and surface areas increase as the range of particle size becomes finer. The adsorption experiment was conducted using synthetic (Cu and Ni) and plating rinse water as a function of reaction time (10-180 min), liquid/solid ratio (2-100) and particle size (+20 to -100 mesh), respectively. The adsorption rate increased with decreasing particle size and with increasing liquid/solid ratio; however, the removal efficiency of Cu was higher than that of Ni. In the case of plating rinse water, the adsorption rate decreased sharply at high liquid/solid ratio, and it showed over 80% of adsorption rates for Cu and Ni at an initial pH of 3.

  15. Particle size distribution of aerosols and associated heavy metals in kitchen environments.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep; Srivastava, Arun; Jain, V K

    2008-07-01

    Mass size distributions of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) was measured from Sep 2002 to April 2003 in indoor kitchen environments of five locations in Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, with the help of a high volume cascade impactor. Particulate matters were separated in five different size ranges, i.e. >10.9 microm, 10.9-5.4 microm, 5.4-1.6 microm, 1.6-0.7 microm and <0.7 microm. The particle size distribution at various sites appears to follow uni-modal trend corresponding to fine particles i.e. size range <0.7 microm. The contributions of fine particles are estimated to be approximately 50% of TSPM and PM10.9, while PM10.9 comprises 80% of TSPM. Good correlations were observed between various size fractions. Regression results reveal that TSPM can adequately act as a surrogate for PM10.9 and fine particles, while PM10.9 can also act as surrogate for fine particles. The concentrations of heavy metals are found to be dominantly associated with fine particles. However, the concentration of some metals and their size distribution, to some extent is also site specific (fuel type used).

  16. Role of particle size and composition in metal adsorption by solids deposited on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-01-01

    Despite common knowledge that the metal content adsorbed by fine particles is relatively higher compared to coarser particles, the reasons for this phenomenon have gained little research attention. The research study discussed in the paper investigated the variations in metal content for different particle sizes of solids associated with pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces. Data analysis confirmed that parameters favourable for metal adsorption to solids such as specific surface area, organic carbon content, effective cation exchange capacity and clay forming minerals content decrease with the increase in particle size. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of solids was found to be the governing factor influencing the specific surface area and effective cation exchange capacity. There is high quartz content in particles >150 μm compared to particles <150 μm. As particle size reduces below 150 μm, the clay forming minerals content increases, providing favourable physical and chemical properties that influence adsorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Digital image processing of nanometer-size metal particles on amorphous substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soria, F.; Artal, P.; Bescos, J.; Heinemann, K.

    1989-01-01

    The task of differentiating very small metal aggregates supported on amorphous films from the phase contrast image features inherently stemming from the support is extremely difficult in the nanometer particle size range. Digital image processing was employed to overcome some of the ambiguities in evaluating such micrographs. It was demonstrated that such processing allowed positive particle detection and a limited degree of statistical size analysis even for micrographs where by bare eye examination the distribution between particles and erroneous substrate features would seem highly ambiguous. The smallest size class detected for Pd/C samples peaks at 0.8 nm. This size class was found in various samples prepared under different evaporation conditions and it is concluded that these particles consist of 'a magic number' of 13 atoms and have cubooctahedral or icosahedral crystal structure.

  18. Digital image processing of nanometer-size metal particles on amorphous substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soria, F.; Artal, P.; Bescos, J.; Heinemann, K.

    1989-01-01

    The task of differentiating very small metal aggregates supported on amorphous films from the phase contrast image features inherently stemming from the support is extremely difficult in the nanometer particle size range. Digital image processing was employed to overcome some of the ambiguities in evaluating such micrographs. It was demonstrated that such processing allowed positive particle detection and a limited degree of statistical size analysis even for micrographs where by bare eye examination the distribution between particles and erroneous substrate features would seem highly ambiguous. The smallest size class detected for Pd/C samples peaks at 0.8 nm. This size class was found in various samples prepared under different evaporation conditions and it is concluded that these particles consist of 'a magic number' of 13 atoms and have cubooctahedral or icosahedral crystal structure.

  19. Size-dependent structures and properties of metallic particles and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyuan

    Fundamental aspects of metallic nanoparticles, especially size-dependent properties and their interaction with their surrounding have been investigated. Several conclusions were reached as follows, (1) Au and Pt particles form dense SAMs on glass. Interparticle resonance is absent for 15 nm Au particles, but present for 30 nm ones. A new strategy was developed to deposit silica insulation layers in between Au particle monolayers. (2) Au particles, 1.5--20 nm in size, were encapsulated in silica shells. Their melting point was determined and we show that it decreases significantly as particle size decreases, leading to increased self-diffusion coefficient of the Au atoms. (3) Au core particles of different sizes were synthesized and Ag shells of different thickness were deposited on them. XAFS measurements show that Au/Ag alloy is spontaneously formed for the particles with small core size (2.5 nm). The alloy formation is size-dependent and molecular dynamics calculations demonstrate that vacancies at the bimetallic boundary dramatically enhance the rate of mixing. (4) EPR spectroscopy was used to study the interactions between stable free radicals and gold nanoparticles. The EPR signal is reduced upon adsorption of the radicals onto Au particle surface. We propose that the reduction in signal intensity arises from exchange interactions between the unpaired electrons of the adsorbed radicals and conduction-band electrons of the metallic particles. Catalytic autoxidation of TEMPAMINE to TEMPO was also observed and a mechanism for this unexpected reaction is proposed. (5) Redox/galvanic exchange reactions between Au and Pt nanoparticles and Ag(CN)2- were investigated. For Au particles, the exchange reaction is size dependent. 2.5 nm Au particles form an alloy with Ag and the extinction coefficient of the alloy particle linearly depends on the Au/Ag mole fraction. The full exchange for both 2 and 8 nm Pt particles indicates that the atom diffusion rate within particles

  20. Metals and bacteria partitioning to various size particles in Ballona Creek storm water runoff.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeffrey S; Stein, Eric D; Ackerman, Drew; Dorsey, John H; Lyon, Jessica; Carter, Patrick M

    2013-02-01

    Many storm water best management practice (BMP) devices function primarily by capturing particulate matter to take advantage of the well-documented association between storm water particles and pollutants. The hydrodynamic separation or settling methods used by most BMP devices are most effective at capturing medium to large particles; however, these may not be the most predominant particles associated with urban runoff. The present study examined particle size distribution in storm water runoff from an urban watershed in southern California and investigated the pollutant-particle associations of metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn) and bacteria (enterococci and Escherichia coli). During small storm events (≤0.7 cm rain), the highest concentration of pollutants were associated with a <6-µm filter fraction, which accounted for 70% of the per storm contaminant mass but made up more than 20% of the total particle mass. The pollutant-particle association changed with storm size. Most pollutant mass was associated with >35 µm size particles during a 5-cm rain event. These results suggest that much of the contaminant load in storm water runoff will not be captured by the most commonly used BMP devices, because most of these devices (e.g., hydrodynamic separators) are unable to capture particles smaller than 75 µm. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. Effect of grain size and heavy metals on As immobilization by marble particles.

    PubMed

    Simón, M; García, I; González, V; Romero, A; Martín, F

    2015-05-01

    The effect of grain size and the interaction of heavy metals on As sorption by marble waste with different particle sizes was investigated. Acidic solutions containing only arsenic and a mixture of arsenic, lead, zinc, and cadmium were put in contact with the marble waste. The amount of metal(loid)s that were immobilized was calculated using the difference between the concentration in the acidic solution and in the liquid phase of the suspensions. Approximately 420 μg As m(-2) was sorbed onto the marble grains, both nonspecifically and specifically, where ≥ 80 % of the total arsenic in the acidic solution remained soluble, which suggests that this amendment is not effective to immobilize arsenic. However, in mixed contamination, relatively stable Pb-Ca arsenates were formed on the surface of the marble particles, and the soluble arsenic was reduced by 95 %, which indicates that marble particles can effectively immobilize arsenic and lead when both appear together.

  2. Particle size and metals concentrations of dust from a paint manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siew Lai; Yin, Chun-Yang; Yap, Siaw Yang

    2010-02-15

    In this study, the particle size distribution and concentration of metallic elements of solvent- and water-based paint dust from bulk dust collected from dust-collecting hoppers were determined. The mean particle size diameter over a 12-week sampling period was determined using a particle size analyzer. The metals composition and concentration of the dust were determined via acid digestion technique followed by concentration analysis using inductively coupled plasma. The volume weighted mean particle diameters were found to be 0.941+/-0.016 and 8.185+/-0.201 microm for solvent- and water-based paint dust, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in solvent-based paint dust were found to be 100+/-20.00 microg/g (arsenic), 1550+/-550.00 microg/g (copper), 15,680+/-11,780.00 microg/g (lead) and 30,460+/-10,580.00 microg/g (zinc) while the mean concentrations of metals in water-based paint dust were found to be 20.65+/-6.11 microg/g (arsenic), 9.14+/-14.65 microg/g (copper), 57.46+/-22.42 microg/g (lead) and 1660+/-1260 microg/g (zinc). Both paint dust types could be considered as hazardous since almost all of the dust particles were smaller than 10 microm. Particular emphasis on containment of solvent-based paint dust particles should be given since it was shown that they were very fine in size (<1 microm) and had high lead and zinc concentrations.

  3. Leaching of metals from sewage sludge during one year and their relationship to particle size.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, G; Gustafsson, O; Wedel, P

    2006-11-01

    Leaching of metals from sewage sludge can lead to their accumulation in topsoil and can also contaminate groundwater. Our objectives were to document the metal leachates and the size distribution of leached particles from sewage sludge and to identify possible correlations with physical factors. Results from monthly lysimeter sampling showed an initial release followed by decline for most metals. Cadmium, Ca, Sr, Li, Mn, Ni and Zn showed a "cyclic" behaviour. Filtration revealed that this "cyclicity" had no correlation to the size of released particles, but Al, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ag and Pb were clearly related to release of coarser particles most of the year. Total metal amounts leached during one year, relative to original sludge content, had the order Na>Ca=Mg>Mn>Sr>Zn>K>Li=Ni>Cd>Co>Rb>Ag>Cr>Ba=Cu>Ga>Al=Pb=Fe. There were no simple correlations between monthly measured leachate concentrations and precipitation, temperature or pH of precipitation. Occasional leachate sampling might give misleading values for metals with "cyclic" behaviour.

  4. Exploring methods for compositional and particle size analysis of noble metal nanoparticles in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Krystek, Petra; Brandsma, Sicco; Leonards, Pim; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-01-15

    The identification and quantification of the bioaccumulation of noble metal engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) by aquatic organisms is of great relevance to understand the exposure and potential toxicity mechanisms of nanoscale materials. Four analytical scenarios were investigated in relation to various sized and composed noble metal (gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and silver (Ag)) ENPs during acute, short-term exposure of Daphnia (D.) magna. Next to the total elemental quantification of absorbed ENPs by D. magna, especially information on the size and particle distribution of ENPs in D. magna is of relevance. Dissolution of the exposed biological material prior to measurement by asymmetric flow field flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (AF4-ICPMS) is challenging because the ENPs must stay stable regarding to particle size and composition. Next to dissolution of exposed D. magna by tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH), a new enzymatic dissolution approach was explored by using trypsin. The presence of various sized and composed ENPs has been confirmed by AF4-ICPMS but the chosen dissolution medium was crucial for the results. TMAH and trypsin led to comparable results for medium-sized (50nm) noble metals ENPs in exposed D. magna. But it was also shown that the dissolution of biological materials with smaller (<5nm) ENPs led to different results in particle size and elemental concentration depending on the selected dissolution medium. A significant uptake of Au and Pt ENPs by D. magna or adsorption to particles occurred because only 1-5% of the exposed ENPs remained in the exposure medium.

  5. Behavior of suspended particles in the Changjiang Estuary: Size distribution and trace metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingzhen; Wang, Xiaojing; Jian, Huimin; Chen, Hongtao; Yu, Zhigang

    2016-02-15

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples were collected along a salinity gradient in the Changjiang Estuary in June 2011. A custom-built water elutriation apparatus was used to separate the suspended sediments into five size fractions. The results indicated that Cr and Pb originated from natural weathering processes, whereas Cu, Zn, and Cd originated from other sources. The distribution of most trace metals in different particle sizes increased with decreasing particle size. The contents of Fe/Mn and organic matter were confirmed to play an important role in increasing the level of heavy metal contents. The Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd contents varied significantly with increasing salinity in the medium-low salinity region, thus indicating the release of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd particles. Thus, the transfer of polluted fine particles into the open sea is probably accompanied by release of pollutants into the dissolved compartment, thereby amplifying the potential harmful effects to marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Influence of the Particle Size on the Adhesion Between Ceramic Particles and Metal Matrix in MMC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzabek, Dariusz M.; Chmielewski, Marcin; Dulnik, Judyta; Strojny-Nedza, Agata

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of the particle size on the adhesion force between ceramic particles and metal matrix in ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites. The Cu-Al2O3 composites with 5 vol.% of ceramic phase were prepared by a powder metallurgy process. Alumina oxide powder as an electrocorundum (Al2O3) powder with different particle sizes, i.e., fine powder <3 µm and coarse powder of 180 µm was used as a reinforcement. Microstructural investigations included analyses using scanning electron microscopy with an integrated EDS microanalysis system and transmission microscopy. In order to measure the adhesion force (interface strength), we prepared the microwires made of the investigated materials and carried out the experiments with the use of the self-made tensile tester. We have observed that the interface strength is higher for the sample with coarse particles and is equal to 74 ± 4 MPa and it is equal to 68 ± 3 MPa for the sample with fine ceramic particles.

  7. Ejecta particle size distributions for shock loaded Sn and Al metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, D. S.; Minich, R. W.; Romero, J. L.; Tunnell, T. W.; Malone, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    When a shock wave interacts at the surface of a metal sample 'ejected matter' (ejecta) can be emitted from the surface. The mass, size, shape, and velocity of the ejecta varies depending on the initial shock conditions and the material properties of the target. To understand this phenomena, experiments have been conducted at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility (PPPF) located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The facility is used to implode cylinders to velocities of many mm/{micro}sec. The driving cylinder impacts a smaller target cylinder where shock waves of a few hundreds of kilobars can be reached and ejecta formation proceeds. The ejecta particle sizes are measured for shock loaded Sn and Al metal samples using an in-line Fraunhofer holography technique. The distributions will be compared to calculations from 3 and 2 dimensional percolation theory.

  8. Preparation and formation mechanisms of metallic particles with controlled size, shape, structure and surface functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lu

    Due to their excellent conductivity and chemical stability, particles of silver (Ag), gold (Au), copper (Cu) and their alloys are widely used in the electronic industry. Other unique properties extend their uses to the biomedical, optical and catalysis fields. All of these applications rely on particles with well controlled size, morphology, structure, and surface properties. Chemical precipitation from homogeneous solutions was selected as the synthetic route for the investigations described in this work. Based on the evaluation of key process parameters (temperature, reactant concentrations, reactant addition rate, mixing, etc.) the general formation mechanisms of metallic particles in various selected precipitation systems were investigated and elucidated. Five different systems for preparing particles with controlled size, morphology, structure and surface functionality are discussed. The first system involves the precipitation of Ag nanoparticles with spherical and anisotropic (platy or fiber-like) morphology. It will be shown that the formation of a stable Ag/Daxad complex has a significant impact on the reaction kinetics, and that the chromonic properties of Daxad molecules are responsible for the particle anisotropy. In the second system, Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solution by a two-step precipitation process. The optical properties of these particles can be tailored by varying the thickness of the Ag shell. It was also determined that the stability of the bimetallic metallic sols depends on the Cl-ion concentration in solution. The third system discussed deals with preparation by the polyol process of well dispersed Cu nanospheres with high crystallinity and excellent oxidation resistance. We show that the heterogeneous nucleation (seeding) approach has significant merit in controlling particle size and uniformity. The functionalization of Au nanoparticle surfaces with glutathione molecules is discussed in the next section. The

  9. Differences in metal concentration by particle size in house dust and soil.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Elish, Christina A; Roe, Denise J; Loh, Miranda M; Layton, David W

    2012-03-01

    The majority of particles that adhere to hands are <63 μm in diameter yet risk assessments for soil remediation are typically based on soil samples sieved to <250 μm. The objective of our study was to determine if there is a significant difference in metal concentration by particle size in both house dust and soil. We obtained indoor dust and yard soil samples from 10 houses in Tucson, Arizona. All samples were sieved to <63 μm and 63 to <150 μm and analyzed for 30 elements via ICP-MS following nitric acid digestion. We conducted t-tests of the log-transformed data to assess for significant differences that were adjusted with a Bonferroni correction to account for multiple comparisons. In house dust, significant differences in concentration were observed for Be, Al, and Mo between particles sizes, with a higher concentration observed in the smaller particle sizes. Significant differences were also determined for Mg, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Ge, Zr, Ag, Ba, and Pb concentration in yard soil samples, with the higher concentration observed in the smaller particles size for each element. The results of this exploratory study indicate that current risk assessment practices for soil remediation may under estimate non-dietary ingestion exposure. This is of particular concern for young children who are more vulnerable to this exposure route due to their high hand mouthing frequencies. Additional studies with a greater number of samples and wider geographic distribution with different climates and soil types should be completed to determine the most relevant sampling practices for risk assessment.

  10. Differences in Metal Concentration by Particle Size in House Dust and Soil

    PubMed Central

    Elish, Christina A.; Roe, Denise J.; Loh, Miranda; Layton, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of particles that adhere to hands are <63 μm in diameter yet risk assessments for soil remediation are typically based on soil samples sieved to <250 μm. The objective of our study was to determine if there is a significant difference in metal concentration by particle size in both house dust and soil. We obtained indoor dust and yard soil samples from 10 houses in Tucson, Arizona. All samples were sieved to <63 μm and 63 to <150 μm and analyzed for 30 elements via ICP-MS following nitric acid digestion. We conducted t-tests of the log-transformed data to assess for significant differences that were adjusted with a Bonferroni correction to account for multiple comparisons. In house dust significant differences in concentration were observed for Be, Al, and Mo between particles sizes, with a higher concentration observed in the smaller particles size. Significant differences were also determined for Mg, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Ge, Zr, Ag, Ba, and Pb concentration in yard soil samples, with the higher concentration observed in the smaller particles size for each element. The results of this exploratory study indicate that current risk assessment practices for soil remediation may under estimate non-dietary ingestion exposure. This is of particular concern for young children who are more vulnerable to this exposure route due to their high hand mouthing frequencies. Additional studies with a greater number of samples and wider geographic distribution with different climates and soil types should be completed to determine the most relevant sampling practices for risk assessment. PMID:22245917

  11. Distribution, bioavailability, and leachability of heavy metals in soil particle size fractions of urban soils (northeastern China).

    PubMed

    Yutong, Zong; Qing, Xiao; Shenggao, Lu

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the distribution, mobility, and potential environmental risks of heavy metals in various particle size fractions of urban soils. Representative urban topsoils (ten) collected from Anshan, Liaoning (northeastern China), were separated into six particle size fractions and their heavy metal contents (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) were determined. The bioaccessibility and leachability of heavy metals in particle size fractions were evaluated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction, respectively. The results indicated that the contents of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the size fractions increased with the decrease of particle size. The clay fraction of <2 μm had the highest content of heavy metals, indicating that the clay fraction was polluted by heavy metals more seriously than the other size fractions in urban topsoils. Cr also concentrated in the coarse fraction of 2000-1000 μm, indicating a lithogenic contribution. However, the dominant size fraction responsible for heavy metal accumulation appeared to belong to particle fraction of 50-2 μm. The lowest distribution factors (DFs) of heavy metals were recorded in the 2000- to 1000-μm size fraction, while the highest in the clay fraction. The DFs of heavy metals in the clay fraction followed Zn (3.22) > Cu (2.84) > Pb (2.61) > Cr (2.19) > Cd (2.05). The enrichment factor suggested that the enrichment degree of heavy metal increased with the decrease of the particle size, especially for Cd and Zn. The TCLP- and EDTA-extractable concentrations of heavy metals in the clay fraction were relatively higher than those in coarse particles. Cd bioavailability was higher in the clay fraction than in other fractions or whole soils. In contrast, Cr exhibits similar bioaccessibilities in the six size fractions of soils. The results suggested that fine particles were the main sources of potentially toxic

  12. Complexation- and ligand-induced metal release from 316L particles: importance of particle size and crystallographic structure.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Hedberg, Jonas; Liu, Yi; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2011-12-01

    Iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese released from gas-atomized AISI 316L stainless steel powders (sized <45 and <4 μm) were investigated in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF, pH 4.5) and in solutions of its individual inorganic and organic components to determine its most aggressive component, elucidate synergistic effects, and assess release mechanisms, in dependence of surface changes using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Raman, XPS, and voltammetry. Complexation is the main reason for metal release from 316L particles immersed in ALF. Iron was mainly released, while manganese was preferentially released as a consequence of the reduction of manganese oxide on the surface. These processes resulted in highly complexing media in a partial oxidation of trivalent chromium to hexavalent chromium on the surface. The extent of metal release was partially controlled by surface properties (e.g., availability of elements on the surface and structure of the outermost surface) and partially by the complexation capacity of the different metals with the complexing agents of the different media. In general, compared to the coarse powder (<45 μm), the fine (<4 μm) powder displayed significantly higher released amounts of metals per surface area, increased with increased solution complexation capacity, while less amounts of metals were released into non-complexing solutions. Due to the ferritic structure of lower solubility for nickel of the fine powder, more nickel was released into all solutions compared with the coarser powder.

  13. Complexation of trace metals in size-segregated aerosol particles at nine sites in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinhardt, Sebastian; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-08-01

    The complexation of trace metal ions (TMI) was studied in size-segregated ambient aerosol particles collected at nine sites in Germany (urban, rural and coastal). Samples were analysed in terms of TMI (Fe, Mn, Cu), potential inorganic and organic ligands and pH. Using a thermodynamic model (E-AIM III), the concentrations of these compounds in the particle liquid phase were estimated. The resulting liquid phase concentrations were then used as input parameters for a speciation model (Visual MINTEQ) and the equilibrium complexation was calculated under realistic conditions. The complexation was found to be controlled by the availability of strong organic ligands, especially oxalate, whose occurrence in turn was governed by the formation of insoluble Ca-oxalate. Likewise, the pH influenced oxalate availability because it alters the concentrations of the chelating mono- and dianions. As a qualitative result, Fe3+ was found to be mainly complexed by oxalate, while Fe2+ and Mn2+ were rather associated with nitrate. Cu2+ showed mixed organic and nitrate complexation. Complexation by HULIS was only significant for Fe3+ and Cu2+ and was generally less important than other ligands like oxalate and nitrate. Oxalate was found to exist mainly in the solid phase while higher dicarboxylic acids mostly did not form complexes due to protonation. Complexation was shown to be influenced by season, air mass origin, particle size and sampling site.

  14. Heavy meals in urban roadside soils, part 1: effect of particle size fractions on heavy metals partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Song; Qin, Yong; Chen, Yong-Kang

    2006-08-01

    Urban roadside soils are important environmental media for assessing heavy metal concentrations in urban environment. However, among other things, heavy metal concentrations are controlled by soil particle grain size fractions. In this study, two roadside sites were chosen within the city of Xuzhou (China) to reflect differences in land use. Bulk soil samples were collected and then divided by particle diameter into five physical size fractions, 500-250, 250-125, 125-74, 74-45, < 45 μm. Concentrations of metals (Ti, Cr, Al, Ga, Pb, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, Mo, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Bi, Ag) were determined for each individual fraction. These metals could be roughly classified into two groups: anthropogenic element (Pb, Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Bi, Ag) and lithophile element (Ti, Cr, Al, Ga, Co, Mn, Ni, V) in terms of values of enrichment factor. As expected, higher concentrations of anthropogenic heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Hg, Bi, Ag) are observed in the finest particle grain size fraction (i.e. < 45 μm). However, heavy metals Se, Sb and Ba behave independently of selected grain size fractions. From the viewpoint of mass loading, more than 30% of the concentrations for all anthropogenic heavy metals are contributed by the particle grain size fractions of 45-74 μm at site 1 and more than 70% of the concentrations for all heavy metals are contributed by the particle grain size fractions of 45-74 and 74-125 μm at site 2. These results are important for transport of soil-bound heavy metals and pollution control by various remedial options.

  15. Electrical four-point probing of spherical metallic thin films coated onto micron sized polymer particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersen, Sigurd R. E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no; Stokkeland, August Emil; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no; Kristiansen, Helge; Njagi, John; Goia, Dan V.; Redford, Keith

    2016-07-25

    Micron-sized metal-coated polymer spheres are frequently used as filler particles in conductive composites for electronic interconnects. However, the intrinsic electrical resistivity of the spherical thin films has not been attainable due to deficiency in methods that eliminate the effect of contact resistance. In this work, a four-point probing method using vacuum compatible piezo-actuated micro robots was developed to directly investigate the electric properties of individual silver-coated spheres under real-time observation in a scanning electron microscope. Poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres with a diameter of 30 μm and four different film thicknesses (270 nm, 150 nm, 100 nm, and 60 nm) were investigated. By multiplying the experimental results with geometrical correction factors obtained using finite element models, the resistivities of the thin films were estimated for the four thicknesses. These were higher than the resistivity of bulk silver.

  16. Particle-size dependence on metal(loid) distributions in mine wastes: Implications for water contamination and human exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Wilson, K.M.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The mining and processing of metal-bearing ores has resulted in contamination issues where waste materials from abandoned mines remain in piles of untreated and unconsolidated material, posing the potential for waterborne and airborne transport of toxic elements. This study presents a systematic method of particle size separation, mass distribution, and bulk chemical analysis for mine tailings and adjacent background soil samples from the Rand historic mining district, California, in order to assess particle size distribution and related trends in metal(loid) concentration as a function of particle size. Mine tailings produced through stamp milling and leaching processes were found to have both a narrower and finer particle size distribution than background samples, with significant fractions of particles available in a size range (???250 ??m) that could be incidentally ingested. In both tailings and background samples, the majority of trace metal(loid)s display an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size, resulting in higher proportions of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in finer-sized fractions which are more susceptible to both water- and wind-borne transport as well as ingestion and/or inhalation. Established regulatory screening levels for such elements may, therefore, significantly underestimate potential exposure risk if relying solely on bulk sample concentrations to guide remediation decisions. Correlations in elemental concentration trends (such as between As and Fe) indicate relationships between elements that may be relevant to their chemical speciation. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Origins and size distribution of metallic iron particles in the lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    The metallic iron concentration has been measured in three ranges of metal particle diameters for 79 lunar soils by a combination of static magnetic and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. Based on these measurements, a model has been developed which apportions the total metallic iron content of lunar soils between three components: (1) metallic iron particles produced from the exposure-induced reduction of ferrous iron; they range from 40 to 330 A in diameter and are predominantly associated with agglutinate glass; (2) metallic iron particles derived from the metallic phases of the micrometeorites involved in the formation of agglutinate glass; these particles are mostly greater than 300 A in diameter; and (3) metallic iron particles in the source materials such as bedrock and breccias; these are usually greater than 330 A in diameter. The maximum concentration of metallic iron in lunar regolith is estimated at about 0.7 equiv. wt% in highland regions (approximately 5.0 wt% FeO) and about 1.0 equiv. wt% in mare regions (approximately 15.0 wt% FeO).

  18. Particle size studies to reveal crystallization mechanisms of the metal organic framework HKUST-1 during sonochemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Mitchell R; Senthilnathan, Sethuraman; Balzer, Christopher J; Shan, Bohan; Chen, Liang; Mu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Systematic studies of key operating parameters for the sonochemical synthesis of the metal organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1(also called CuBTC) were performed including reaction time, reactor volume, sonication amplitude, sonication tip size, solvent composition, and reactant concentrations analyzed through SEM particle size analysis. Trends in the particle size and size distributions show reproducible control of average particle sizes between 1 and 4μm. These results along with complementary studies in sonofragmentation and temperature control were conducted to compare these results to kinetic crystal growth models found in literature to develop a plausible hypothetical mechanism for ultrasound-assisted growth of metal-organic-frameworks composed of a competitive mechanism including constructive solid-on-solid (SOS) crystal growth and a deconstructive sonofragmentation.

  19. Nanoscale size dependence on pulsed laser sintering of hydroxyapatite/titanium particles on metal implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Martin Yi; Cheng, Gary J.

    2010-12-01

    Nanoscale size effects on pulsed laser coating of hydroxyapatite/titanium nanoparticles (nanoTi) on metal substrate is discussed in this article. Laser coating method has recently been developed to coat bioceramics material on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Laser-coated bioceramics implants have several advantages due to the use of nanosized materials: strong interfacial bonding strength, good biocompatibility and potentially longer lifetime cycle. These advantages benefit from intrinsic properties of nanoparticles. Size effects on melting point, heat capacity, thermal, and electrical conductivities have been discussed. Multiphysics model is built to reveal the mechanism of laser coating process. Two submodules are included in the model: electromagnetic module to represent the laser-nanoparticle interactions and heat transfer module to simulate the heat conduction. Both simulation and experimental results showed that nanoTi, functioning as nanoheaters, effectively enhances the laser coating sinterability. For large nanoTi (>100 nm), sinterability enhancement mainly attributes to the stronger laser-particle interactions due to higher plasmon resonance; for small nanoparticles (<100 nm), not only stronger laser-nanoparticle interactions, reduction on melting point also contributes to sinterability enhancement.

  20. Behaviour and fate of urban particles in coastal waters: Settling rate, size distribution and metals contamination characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oursel, B.; Garnier, C.; Pairaud, I.; Omanović, D.; Durrieu, G.; Syakti, A. D.; Le Poupon, C.; Thouvenin, B.; Lucas, Y.

    2014-02-01

    The evaluation of contaminant net fluxes from the coast to the open sea requires the study of terrigeneous particles behaviour and fate. We studied the particles issued from two small coastal rivers whose waters are mixed with treated wastewater (TWW) coming from the Marseille wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) just before discharge to the Mediterranean Sea. An experimental device was developed and used to investigate particles settling rates, size distribution and metallic contamination when mixing with seawater. The particles were sampled in flood deposits of rivers and outlets during rainy periods and in the outlet water during dry periods. The flood deposits were mainly composed of 50-200 μm-sized particles, higher metals content being observed in the finest fractions. Dry period particles showed the stronger influence of wastewater inputs. Al, Ca, Cs, Li, Rb, Ti, and Tl were mainly of terrigeneous origin, whereas Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, POC, Sb, Sn and Zn were of anthropogenic origin, issued from non-treated sewage, TWW or industrial waste. In seafloor sediments, all metals exhibited a continuous increase of concentration from the outlet to, at least, 800 m offshore. Implementation of settling particles characteristics in a 3D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model reproduced well the observed deposition of polluted particles in the coastal zone and indicated a non-negligible offshore export of the finest particles and their accompanying pollutants.

  1. Radiative transfer modeling for quantifying lunar surface minerals, particle size, and submicroscopic metallic Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuai; Li, Lin

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to quantify lunar surface minerals (agglutinate, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite, and volcanic glass), particle sizes, and the abundance of submicroscopic metallic Fe (SMFe) from the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) data set with Hapke's radiative transfer theory. The mode is implemented for both forward and inverse modeling. We implement Hapke's radiative transfer theory in the inverse mode in which, instead of commonly used look-up tables, Newton's method and least squares are jointly used to solve nonlinear questions. Although the effects of temperature and surface roughness are incorporated into the implementation to improve the model performance for application of lunar spacecraft data, these effects cannot be extensively addressed in the current work because of the use of lab-measured reflectance data. Our forward radiative transfer model results show that the correlation coefficients between modeled and measured spectra are over 0.99. For the inverse model, the distribution of the particle sizes is all within their measured range. The range of modeled SMFe for highland samples is 0.01%-0.5%, and for mare samples it is 0.03%-1%. The linear trend between SMFe and ferromagnetic resonance (Is) for all the LSCC samples is consistent with laboratory measurements. For quantifying lunar mineral abundances, the results show that the R squared for the training samples (Is/FeO ≤ 65) are over 0.65 with plagioclase having highest correlation (0.94) and pyroxene having the lowest correlation (0.68). In future work, the model needs to be improved for handling more mature lunar soil samples.

  2. Characterization of the Particle Size Fraction associated with Heavy Metals in Suspended Sediments of the Yellow River

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qingzhen; Wang, Xiaojing; Jian, Huimin; Chen, Hongtao; Yu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the concentrations of particulate heavy metals and fluxes into the sea in the Yellow River were examined based on observational and measured data from January 2009 to December 2010. A custom-built water elutriation apparatus was used to separate suspended sediments into five size fractions. Clay and very fine silt is the dominant fraction in most of the suspended sediments, accounting for >40% of the samples. Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Fe and Mn are slightly affected by anthropogenic activities, while Cd is moderate affected. The concentrations of heavy metals increased with decrease in particle size. For suspended sediments in the Yellow River, on average 78%–82% of the total heavy metal loading accumulated in the <16 μm fraction. About 43% and 53% of heavy metal in 2009 and 2010 respectively, were readily transported to the Bohai Sea with “truly suspended” particles, which have potentially harmful effects on marine organisms. PMID:26083999

  3. Using electroless deposition for the preparation of micron sized polymer/metal core/shell particles and hollow metal spheres.

    PubMed

    Tierno, Pietro; Goedel, Werner A

    2006-02-23

    Uniform and stable core-shell microspheres composed of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) core and a thin metallic shell of nickel-phosphorus, cobalt-phosphorus, or mixed metal alloys (CoNiP, NiFeP, CoFeP) were prepared by dispersion polymerization of methyl methacrylate followed by electroless plating. The presence of the metallic shell around the particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy images of the cross-section of individual particles show that the thickness of the metal/alloy can be precisely tuned by adjusting the immersion time of the microspheres in the electroless bath. Depending on the deposited metallic material, various magnetic properties, from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic, are achieved. Finally, uniform hollow metallic spheres composed of nickel, cobalt, or nickel-cobalt alloy are obtained by dissolving the polymer core.

  4. Particle size distribution and characteristics of heavy metals in road-deposited sediments from Beijing Olympic Park.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Shi, Anbang; Zhang, Xiaoran

    2015-06-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, heavy metals in road-deposited sediments (RDSs) of parks are emitted into the terrestrial, atmospheric, and water environment, and have a severe impact on residents' and tourists' health. To identify the distribution and characteristic of heavy metals in RDS and to assess the road environmental quality in Chinese parks, samples were collected from Beijing Olympic Park in the present study. The results indicated that particles with small grain size (<150 μm) were the dominant fraction. The length of dry period was one of the main factors affecting the particle size distribution, as indicated by the variation of size fraction with the increase of dry days. The amount of heavy metal (i.e., Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) content was the largest in particles with small size (<150 μm) among all samples. Specifically, the percentage of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in these particles was 74.7%, 55.5%, 56.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Heavy metals adsorbed in sediments may mainly be contributed by road traffic emissions. The contamination levels of Pb and Cd were higher than Cu and Zn on the basis of the mean heavy metal contents. Specifically, the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) decreased in the order: Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn. This study analyzed the mobility of heavy metals in sediments using partial sequential extraction with the Tessier procedure. The results revealed that the apparent mobility and potential metal bioavailability of heavy metals in the sediments, based on the exchangeable and carbonate fractions, decreased in the order: Cd>Zn≈Pb>Cu.

  5. Source apportionment and water solubility of metals in size segregated particles in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sabrina Yanan; Kaul, Daya S; Yang, Fenhuan; Sun, Li; Ning, Zhi

    2015-11-15

    Metals in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have been associated with various adverse health effects. Different factors contributing to the characterization and distribution of atmospheric metals in urban environments lead to uncertainty of the understanding of their impact on public health. However, few studies have provided a comprehensive picture of the spatial and seasonal variability of metal concentration, solubility and size distribution, all of which have important roles in their contribution to health effects. This study presents an experimental investigation on the characteristics of metals in PM2.5 and coarse PM in two seasons from four urban sites in Hong Kong. The PM samples were extracted separately with aqua regia and water, and a total of sixteen elements were analyzed using ICP-MS and ICP-OES to determine the size segregated concentration and solubility of metals. The concentrations of major metals were distributed in similar patterns with the same order of magnitude among different urban sites. Source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) indicated that three sources namely road dust, vehicular exhaust and ship emission are major contributors to the urban atmospheric metal concentrations in Hong Kong with distinctly different profiles between coarse PM and PM2.5 fractions. The individual metals were assigned to different sources, consistent with literature documentation, except potassium emerging with substantial contribution from vehicle exhaust emission. Literature data from past studies on both local and other cities were compared to the results from the present study to investigate the impact of different emission sources and control policies on metal distribution in urban atmosphere. A large variation of solubility among the metals reflected that the majority of metals in PM2.5 were more soluble than those in coarse PM indicating size dependent chemical states of metals. The data from this study provides a rich dataset of

  6. Image processing enhancement of high-resolution TEM micrographs of nanometer-size metal particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artal, P.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Soria, F.; Poppa, H.; Heinemann, K.

    1989-01-01

    The high-resolution TEM detectability of lattice fringes from metal particles supported on substrates is impeded by the substrate itself. Single value decomposition (SVD) and Fourier filtering (FFT) methods were applied to standard high resolution micrographs to enhance lattice resolution from particles as well as from crystalline substrates. SVD produced good results for one direction of fringes, and it can be implemented as a real-time process. Fourier methods are independent of azimuthal directions and allow separation of particle lattice planes from those pertaining to the substrate, which makes it feasible to detect possible substrate distortions produced by the supported particle. This method, on the other hand, is more elaborate, requires more computer time than SVD and is, therefore, less likely to be used in real-time image processing applications.

  7. Image processing enhancement of high-resolution TEM micrographs of nanometer-size metal particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artal, P.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Soria, F.; Poppa, H.; Heinemann, K.

    1989-01-01

    The high-resolution TEM detectability of lattice fringes from metal particles supported on substrates is impeded by the substrate itself. Single value decomposition (SVD) and Fourier filtering (FFT) methods were applied to standard high resolution micrographs to enhance lattice resolution from particles as well as from crystalline substrates. SVD produced good results for one direction of fringes, and it can be implemented as a real-time process. Fourier methods are independent of azimuthal directions and allow separation of particle lattice planes from those pertaining to the substrate, which makes it feasible to detect possible substrate distortions produced by the supported particle. This method, on the other hand, is more elaborate, requires more computer time than SVD and is, therefore, less likely to be used in real-time image processing applications.

  8. [Particle Size Distribution, Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Human Exposure Assessment of Heavy Metals in Typical Settled Dust from Beijing].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi-guo; Yu, Gang; Lü, Xiang-ying; Wang, Meng-lei; Li, Qi-lu; Feng, Jing-lan; Yan, Guang-xuan; Yu, Hao; Sun, Jian-hui

    2016-04-15

    Four types of dust from dormitories, offices, hotels and roads in Beijing were collected and fractionated into 9 fractions, respectively. Totally 36 samples were obtained and analyzed for heavy metals including Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd and Ni. Particle size distributions of those heavy metals in these four types of dust were investigated and the influencing mechanisms were discussed. Distribution patterns of the same heavy metal in different types of dust showed various characteristics. Also different metals in the same type of dust represented different distribution patterns. Heavy metals in road dust tended to concentrate in finer particles. Two offices from the same building, located in Beijing, China, were selected to study the seasonality of heavy metals in dust. Dust sampling from Office A was conducted at weekly intervals between March 2012 and August 2012, while dust from Office B was sampled fortnightly from March 2012 to December 2012. Generally, levels of all heavy metals remained stable among different seasons, however, Cr and Pb represented more significant fluctuations than other four heavy metals. Based on the geo-accumulation index method, the pollution of Zn, Cu and Pb was more serious in the investigated samples, and dust from offices and hotels were moderately polluted by Zn. According to the risk assessment results, the carcinogenic health risks of the six heavy metals in the four types of dust were negligible.

  9. Method of producing non-agglomerating submicron size particles

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Roy S.; Eichman, Clarence C.; Welbon, William W.

    1989-01-01

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in "metallic inks".

  10. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  11. Sources and the distribution of heavy metals in the particle size of soil polluted by gold mining upstream of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing: implications for assessing the potential risks.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Ji, Hongbing; Qin, Fei; Tang, Lei; Guo, Xinyue; Feng, Jinguo

    2014-10-01

    Mining has been carried out upstream of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, for several decades, and has caused metal emissions to the environment, threatening human health. We conducted a soil survey to assess metal contamination in this area and to determine distribution of heavy metals in the particle size. We attempted to determine the possible sources of the metals and the significance of metals in the fine particle fractions to soil risk assessments. Thirty-four soil samples were collected, and eight samples were partitioned into seven size fractions. Most of the metal concentrations in the soils were higher than the background levels in Beijing, and the metal concentrations and total organic matter (TOC) contents generally increased as the particle size decreased. Each metal except Hg significantly positively correlated with the TOC. The metals in the coarse-grained soils were mainly derived from parent materials, but the metals in the fine fractions were mostly anthropogenic. Statistical analyses showed that there were three metal sources: Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn had anthropogenic sources; Co, Cr, Ni, and V had mixed anthropogenic and natural sources; and As and Be had natural sources. The trace metals were primarily in the clay and fine silt fractions, and they might pose health risks through the inhalation of resuspended soil particles (PM10 and PM2.5). The elevated accumulation factors, enrichment factors, and ecological risk indices for the metals in the fine fractions suggest that risk assessments should be based on the fine particle size.

  12. Characteristics of trace metals in traffic-derived particles in Hsuehshan Tunnel, Taiwan: size distribution, fingerprinting metal ratio, and emission factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-C.; Tsai, C.-J.; Wu, Y.-C.; Zhang, R.; Chi, K.-H.; Huang, Y.-T.; Lin, S.-H.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2014-05-01

    Traffic emissions are a significant source of airborne particulate matter (PM) in ambient environments. These emissions contain high abundance of toxic metals and thus pose adverse effects on human health. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected from May to September 2013 by using micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI). Sample collection was conducted simultaneously at the inlet and outlet sites of Hsuehshan Tunnel in northern Taiwan, which is the second longest freeway tunnel (12.9 km) in Asia. Such endeavor aims to characterize the chemical constituents, size distributions, and fingerprinting ratios, as well as the emission factors of particulate metals emitted by vehicle fleets. A total of 36 metals in size-resolved aerosols were determined through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Three major groups, namely, tailpipe emissions (Zn, Pb, and V), wear debris (Cu, Cd, Fe, Ga, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Sn), and resuspended dust (Ca, Mg, K, and Rb), of airborne PM metals were categorized on the basis of the results of enrichment factor, correlation matrix, and principal component analysis. Size distributions of wear-originated metals resembled the pattern of crustal elements, which were predominated by super-micron particulates (PM1-10). By contrast, tailpipe exhaust elements such as Zn, Pb, and V were distributed mainly in submicron particles. By employing Cu as a tracer of wear abrasion, several inter-metal ratios, including Fe/Cu (14), Ba/Cu (1.05), Sb/Cu (0.16), Sn/Cu (0.10), and Ga/Cu (0.03), served as fingerprints for wear debris. Emission factor of PM10 mass was estimated to be 7.7 mg vkm-1. The metal emissions were mostly predominated in super-micron particles (PM1-10). Finally, factors that possibly affect particulate metal emissions inside Hsuehshan Tunnel are discussed.

  13. Particle Size Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Howard G.; Sun, Shao-Tang

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of research focusing on scattering, elution techniques, electrozone sensing, filtration, centrifugation, comparison of techniques, data analysis, and particle size standards. The review covers the period 1986-1988. (MVL)

  14. Particle Size Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Howard G.; Sun, Shao-Tang

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of research focusing on scattering, elution techniques, electrozone sensing, filtration, centrifugation, comparison of techniques, data analysis, and particle size standards. The review covers the period 1986-1988. (MVL)

  15. Shapes, Sizes, and Faceting of Nanoscale Metal Particles for Applications in Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, M. B.; Leong, G. J.; Dinh, H. N.; Richards, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the world's dependence on fossil fuels, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are commonly considered as a prime candidate for alternative energy sources. The efficiency of fuel cells is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which is driven by platinum based catalysts. Numerous methods have been developed to synthesize particles which contain more active surfaces by tuning shapes, sizes and facets. Here, we will present a study of a well known wet chemical reduction method targeting specific morphologies and the resulting electrochemical activity. Studying the relationship between Pt facets at the bulk phase single crystal level versus the nanoscale correlates the effects of faceting on activities. Studying the formation of crystals during the course of the synthesis via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) provides mechanistic insight on growth, while electrochemical studies correlate physical properties to performance.

  16. Particle-Size Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W. ); Or, Dani; J.H. Dane and G.C. Topp

    2002-11-01

    Book Chapter describing methods of particle-size analysis for soils. Includes a variety of classification schemes. Standard methods for size distributions using pipet and hydrometer techniques are described. New laser-light scattering and related techniques are discussed. Complete with updated references.

  17. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions.

  18. Spatial variations in selected metal contents and particle size distribution in an urban and rural atmosphere of Islamabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, N; Jaffar, M; Khalique, A; Tariq, Saadia R; Manzoor, S

    2006-01-01

    Spatial variations in total suspended particulate matter (TSP) were investigated for distribution of metals and particle size fractions in the urban and rural atmosphere of Islamabad, Pakistan. The metals Na, K, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Ni and Co, and the particle fractions <2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100 and >100 microm were included in the study. TSP samples were trapped on glass fibre filters using high volume samplers and quantification of metals was done using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry employing HNO(3) based wet digestion. At the urban site, Na was dominant at 2.384 microg/m(3) followed by K, Fe and Zn with 0.778, 0.667 and 0.567 microg/m(3) as mean concentrations, respectively. The metal levels for the rural site ranged from 0.002 microg/m(3) for Cd to 1.077 microg/m(3) for Na. However, compared with the urban site, mean Pb concentration showed an almost two-fold enhancement, i.e., 0.163 Vs. 0.327 microg/m(3). Metals and particle size source identification was done using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis. Five sources were traced out for the urban site: industrial, soil, automobile emissions, metallurgical industries and excavation activities. For the rural site, four sources were recorded: agricultural, automotive emissions, excavation activities and metallurgical units. Collectively, for both the sites, PM(10-100) emerged as a major contributor to TSP, followed by PM(2.5-10), PM(<2.5) and PM(>100) in that order. The metals showed in general positive relationship with fine particulate fractions (PM(2.5-10), PM(<2.5)), and negative correlation with coarse fractions (PM(10-100), PM(>100)). Comparison with the corresponding data from various Asian sites revealed that the levels of Na, K, Fe, Mn, Co and Ni for the present study were lower than those reported for grossly polluted cities of the world.

  19. Effects of metals and sediment particle size on the species composition of the epifauna of Pinna bicolor near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Trevor J.; Young, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Pinna bicolor (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) were transplanted between four sites near a lead smelter. The species composition of their epifauna (sessile and mobile) was examined in relation to characteristics of both sediments and seston at the sites. Seventy-two taxa were distinguished in the epifaunal community. Substantial differences were found in the short-term sensitivity of some of the species to concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in sediments and to sediment particle size. The short-term sensitivity of many species to metals or sediment particle size explained their long-term distribution pattern. Twenty-three taxa were identified as significantly characterizing the faunal differences. Of these, eleven (four molluscs, four bryozoans, two barnacles and one ascidian) were affected by both sediment metal concentration and particle size, and eight (four molluscs, one bryozoan, one polychaete, one hydroid and one barnacle) were affected by metal contamination but not particle size. Of all fauna examined, the Bryozoa were the most metal-sensitive. Four species, Smittina raigii (Bryozoa), Galeolaria sp. 1 (Polychaeta), Epopella simplex (Cirripedia) and Monia ione (Pelecypoda) were identified by their short- and long-term sensitivity to metal contamination, and absence of sensitivity to sediment particle size, as suitable species for monitoring the effects of metal contamination on the epifauna. The implications of the results for toxicity-testing are discussed.

  20. Characteristics of trace metals in traffic-derived particles in Hsuehshan Tunnel, Taiwan: size distribution, potential source, and fingerprinting metal ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-C.; Tsai, C.-J.; Wu, Y.-C.; Zhang, R.; Chi, K.-H.; Huang, Y.-T.; Lin, S.-H.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2015-04-01

    Traffic emissions are a significant source of airborne particulate matter (PM) in ambient environments. These emissions contain an abundance of toxic metals and thus pose adverse effects on human health. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected from May to September 2013 by using micro-orifice uniform deposited impactors (MOUDIs). Sample collection was conducted simultaneously at the inlet and outlet sites of Hsuehshan Tunnel in northern Taiwan, which is the second-longest freeway tunnel (12.9 km) in Asia. This endeavor aims to characterize the chemical constituents and size distributions, as well as fingerprinting ratios of particulate metals emitted by vehicle fleets. A total of 36 metals in size-resolved aerosols were determined through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Three major groups - namely, tailpipe emissions (Zn, Pb, and V in fine mode), wear debris (Cu, Cd, Fe, Ga, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Sn), and resuspended dust (Ca, Mg, K, and Rb) - of airborne PM metals were categorized on the basis of the results of enrichment factor, correlation matrix, and principal component analysis. Size distributions of wear-originated metals resembled the pattern of crustal elements, which were predominated by super-micron particulates (PM1-10). By contrast, tailpipe exhaust elements such as Zn, Pb, and V were distributed mainly in submicron particles. By employing Cu as a tracer of wear abrasion, several inter-metal ratios - including Fe / Cu (14), Ba / Cu (1.05), Sb / Cu (0.16), Sn / Cu (0.10), and Ga / Cu (0.03) - served as fingerprints for wear debris. However, the data set collected in this work is useful for further studies on traffic emission inventory and human health effects of traffic-related PM.

  1. Interaction of Burning Metal Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Hoffmann, Vern K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical characteristics of the combustion of metal particle groups have been addressed in this research. The combustion behavior and interaction effects of multiple metal particles has been studied using a microgravity environment, which presents a unique opportunity to create an "aerosol" consisting of relatively large particles, i.e., 50-300 m diameter. Combustion behavior of such an aerosol could be examined using methods adopted from well-developed single particle combustion research. The experiment included fluidizing relatively large (order of 100 m diameter) uniform metal particles under microgravity and igniting such an "aerosol" using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of individual particle combustion and particle interaction have been studied using a high speed movie and video-imaging with cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Interference filters were used to separate characteristic metal and metal oxide radiation bands from the thermal black body radiation. Recorded flame images were digitized and various image processing techniques including flame position tracking, color separation, and pixel by pixel image comparison were employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosol. The development of individual particle flames, merging or separation, and extinguishment as well as induced particle motion have been analyzed to identify the mechanisms governing these processes. Size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of combustion products were characterized and used to link the observed in this project aerosol combustion phenomena with the recently expanded mechanism of single metal particle combustion.

  2. Interaction of Burning Metal Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Hoffmann, Vern K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical characteristics of the combustion of metal particle groups have been addressed in this research. The combustion behavior and interaction effects of multiple metal particles has been studied using a microgravity environment, which presents a unique opportunity to create an "aerosol" consisting of relatively large particles, i.e., 50-300 micrometer diameter. Combustion behavior of such an aerosol could be examined using methods adopted from well-developed single particle combustion research. The experiment included fluidizing relatively large (order of 100 micrometer diameter) uniform metal particles under microgravity and igniting such an "aerosol" using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of individual particle combustion and particle interaction have been studied using a high speed movie and video-imaging with cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Interference filters were used to separate characteristic metal and metal oxide radiation bands form the thermal black body radiation. Recorded flame images were digitized and employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosol. The development of individual particle flames, merging or separation, and extinguishing as well as induced particle motion have been analyzed to identify the mechanisms governing these processes. Size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of combustion products were characterized and used to link the observed in this project aerosol combustion phenomena with the recently expanded mechanism of single metal particle combustion.

  3. Clustering of metal atoms in organic media. 9. High-activity Ni/MgO catalysts prepared by metal vapor methods. Surface area and particle size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, K.; Klabunde, K.J.

    1982-02-01

    A metal vapor method was employed to prepare highly dispersed Ni metal catalysts (solvated metal atom dispersed = SMAD catalyst) supported on MgO. Compared with conventional Ni/MgO compositions, the SMAD catalysts showed much greater activities for all reactions studied (hydrogenolysis of methylcyclopentane, MCP; hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis of toluene, TOL; methanation of carbon monoxide, CO; dehydration of isopropyl alcohol, IPA). These high activities for the SMAD catalysts are attributed to the high surface area of Ni on MgO and the high percentage of this Ni in a zero-valent state (reduction degree). Conventional methods for preparing Ni/MgO catalysts did not yield nearly such favorable surface areas or reduction degrees. Nickel particle size effects were observed during hydrogenolysis studies of MCP and hydrogenation studies of TOL. These phenomena are explained by assuming the size of an active Ni particle to be largest for hydrogenolysis of MCP > hydrogenation of TOL > methanation of CO approx. = dehydrogenation of IPA. 8 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Synthesis of gadolinium nanoscale metal-organic framework with hydrotropes: manipulation of particle size and magnetic resonance imaging capability.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Wilasinee; Sanchez, Talia J; Rowe, Misty D; Serkova, Natalie J; Liberatore, Matthew W; Boyes, Stephen G

    2011-05-01

    Gadolinium metal-organic framework (Gd MOF) nanoparticles are an interesting and novel class of nanomaterials that are being studied as a potential replacement for small molecule positive contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Despite the tremendous interest in these nanoscale imaging constructs, there are limitations, particularly with respect to controlling the particle size, which need to be overcome before these nanoparticles can be integrated into in vivo applications. In an effort to control the size, shape, and size distribution of Gd MOF nanoparticles, hydrotropes were incorporated into the reverse microemulsion synthesis used to produce these nanoparticles. A study of how hydrotropes influenced the mechanism of formation of reverse micelles offered a great deal of information with respect to the physical properties of the Gd MOF nanoparticles formed. Specifically, this study incorporated the hydrotropes, sodium salicylate (NaSal), 5-methyl salicylic acid, and salicylic acid into the reverse microemulsion. Results demonstrated that addition of each of the hydrotropes into the synthesis of Gd MOFs provided a simple route to control the nanoparticle size as a function of hydrotrope concentration. Specifically, Gd MOF nanoparticles synthesized with NaSal showed the best reduction in size distributions in both length and width with percent relative standard deviations being nearly 50% less than nanoparticles produced via the standard route from the literature. Finally, the effect of the size of the Gd MOF nanoparticles with respect to their MRI relaxation properties was evaluated. Initial results indicated a positive correlation between the surface areas of the Gd MOF nanoparticles with the longitudinal relaxivity in MRI. In particular, Gd MOF nanoparticles with an average size of 82 nm with the addition of NaSal, yielded a longitudinal relaxivity value of 83.9 mM⁻¹ [Gd³⁺] sec⁻¹, one of the highest reported values compared to other Gd

  5. Damping-induced size effect in surface plasmon resonance in metallic nano-particles: Comparison of RPA microscopic model with numerical finite element simulation (COMSOL) and Mie approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluczyk, K.; Jacak, W.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate metal nano-particle size influence on plasmon resonance within theoretical and numerical approaches and compare results with available experimental data in order to improve resolution of optical identification of metallic nano-particle size and shape. The developed microscopic approach is the quantum random phase approximation model of plasmons in metallic nano-particles including plasmon damping by electron scattering and by radiative losses (i.e., by the so-called Lorentz friction). The numerical approach is by the finite element method solution of Maxwell equations for incident planar wave in spherical (also nano-rod, spheroid) geometry upon the system COMSOL and Mie treatment, supplemented with phenomenologically modeled dielectric function of metallic nano-particle. Comparison with experimental data for light extinction in Au and Ag nano-particle colloidal solutions with different particle sizes is presented. The crucial role of the Lorentz friction in the size effect of plasmon resonance in large (e.g., 20-60 nm for Au in vacuum) metallic nanoparticles is evidenced.

  6. Controlling the motion and placement of micrometer-sized metal particles using patterned polymer brush surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dunderdale, Gary J; Howse, Jonathan R; Fairclough, J Patrick A

    2011-10-04

    In this paper, we show that silicon surfaces patterned with poly(methacrylic acid) brushes are able to control the Brownian motion of 2-3 μm iron particles, which sediment onto the surface in aqueous solution and experience differences in repulsive force depending upon their position. Differences in repulsion lead to different gravitational potential energies across the surface, which gives bias to the Brownian motion taking place. Three regimes have been identified depending upon the brush height: (i) no control of Brownian motion when the brush height is small, (ii) Brownian motion that is influenced by the polymer brush when the brush 17 height is intermediate, (iii) Brownian motion that is confined by polymer brush barriers when the brush height is greatest. The height of brush found necessary to significantly influence iron particle motion was small at 39 nm or 2% of the particle diameter.

  7. Thermal annealing behavior of nano-size metal-oxide particles synthesized by ion implantation in Fe-Cr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, C.; Gentils, A.; Ribis, J.; Borodin, V. A.; Descoins, M.; Mangelinck, D.; Dalle, F.; Arnal, B.; Delauche, L.

    2017-05-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are promising structural materials for the next generation nuclear reactors, as well as fusion facilities. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides during ODS steel production would strongly contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties and the optimization of manufacturing of ODS steels, with a potentially strong economic impact for their industrialization. A useful tool for the experimental study of nano-oxide precipitation is ion implantation, a technique that is widely used to synthesize precipitate nanostructures in well-controlled conditions. Earlier, we have demonstrated the feasibility of synthesizing aluminum-oxide particles in the high purity Fe-10Cr alloy by consecutive implantation with Al and O ions at room temperature. This paper describes the effects of high-temperature annealing after the ion implantation stage on the development of the aluminum based oxide nanoparticle system. Using transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography experiments, we demonstrate that post-implantation heat treatment induces the growth of the nano-sized oxides in the implanted region and nucleation of new oxide precipitates behind the implantation zone as a result of the diffusion driven broadening of implant profiles. A tentative scenario for the development of metal-oxide nano-particles at both ion implantation and heat treatment stages is suggested based on the experimental observations.

  8. Particle size distribution and morphological changes in activated carbon-metal oxide hybrid catalysts prepared under different heating conditions.

    PubMed

    Barroso-Bogeat, A; Alexandre-Franco, M; Fernández-González, C; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2016-03-01

    In catalysis processes, activated carbon (AC) and metal oxides (MOs) are widely used either as catalysts or as catalyst supports because of their unique properties. A combination of AC and a MO in a single hybrid material entails changes not only in the composition, microstructure and texture but also in the morphology, which may largely influence the catalytic behaviour of the resulting product. This work is aimed at investigating the modifications in the morphology and particle size distribution (PSD) for AC-MO hybrid catalysts as a result of their preparation under markedly different heating conditions. From a commercial AC and six MO (Al2O3, Fe2O3, ZnO, SnO2, TiO2 and WO3) precursors, two series of such catalysts are prepared by wet impregnation, oven-drying at 120 ºC, and subsequent heat treatment at 200 ºC or 850 ºC in inert atmosphere. The resulting samples are characterized in terms of their morphology and PSD by scanning electron microscopy and ImageJ processing program. Obtained results indicate that the morphology, PSD and degree of dispersion of the supported catalysts are strongly dependent both on the MO precursor and the heat treatment temperature. With the temperature rise, trends are towards the improvement of crystallinity, the broadening of the PSD and the increase in the average particle size, thus suggesting the involvement of sintering mechanisms. Such effects are more pronounced for the Fe, Sn and W catalysts due to the reduction of the corresponding MOs by AC during the heat treatment at 850 ºC. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. Particle size distributions of metal and non-metal elements in an urban near-highway environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of the size-resolved elemental composition of near-highway particulate matter (PM) is important due to the health and environmental risks it poses. In the current study, twelve 24 h PM samples were collected (in July-August 2006) using a low-pressure impactor positi...

  10. Particle size distributions of metal and non-metal elements in an urban near-highway environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of the size-resolved elemental composition of near-highway particulate matter (PM) is important due to the health and environmental risks it poses. In the current study, twelve 24 h PM samples were collected (in July-August 2006) using a low-pressure impactor positi...

  11. Size-distributed metallic elements in submicronic and ultrafine atmospheric particles from urban and industrial areas in northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbengue, Saliou; Alleman, Laurent Y.; Flament, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    To determine the size distribution of potentially toxic trace metals (TM) in atmospheric particulate matter (PM), sampling experiments were performed in the urban-industrial area of Dunkirk (North of France) during winter 2012. Total mass concentrations are in accordance with typical values obtained at European urban background sites but lower than the concentrations reported for some Asian industrial countries. Considering the local wind directions, mass concentrations are higher downwind of urban influences than downwind of industrial emissions. The mean PM10 mass concentration (25-30 μg/m3) is less than the European Union and US EPA limit values (40-50 μg/m3) but greater than the WHO guidelines (20 μg/m3). The calculated TM crustal enrichment factors (EFCrust) suggest the anthropogenic origins of most of the studied TM (Sb, Cd, As, Mo, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn and V). The highest TM concentrations were obtained for Zn and Mn (> 50 ng/m3) under industrial influence, but the finest particle (< 0.29 μm) concentrations were higher for the urban sector than for the industrial sector. This enrichment may be attributed to local urban traffic. In contrast, trace metals are more abundant in the coarser fraction (> 0.29 μm) downwind of industrial emissions. Moreover, mechanical operations associated with industrial processes (excavating, crushing, and sintering), as well as the resuspension of industrial soils, likely represent some significant TM source-terms in the supermicronic fraction. The EFCrust comparison between the two prevailing sectors demonstrates the importance of steelworks and smelting emissions in the abundance of some TM (As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb and Zn). In contrast, the Cr and Co concentrations seem to be more related to coal combustion emissions, Cu and Sb to automotive traffic, and V, La and Ni to petrochemical activities.

  12. Size dependent cytotoxicity of fly ash particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.K.; Tam, J.S.K.; Wong, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Fly ash samples were collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a coal-fired power plant in Hong Kong. The particles of the respirable range (smaller than 10 {mu}m) were divided into 4 groups according to their particle size (mass median aerodynamic diameters). The surface morphology and the metal contents (Fe, Mn, Al and Zn) of fly ash particles were examined by a scanning electron microscopy and an inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer, respectively. The particles were very heterogeneous in size and shape as well as the concentration of metals. The cytotoxicity of these four groups of fly ash particles were evaluated using an in vitro rat alveolar macrophages culture assay. The viability of alveolar macrophages was lower when incubated with smaller size particles. This relationship was also reflected by the damage of the surface morphology of the cells and the release of cytoplasmic (lactate dehydrogenase) and lysosomal (acid phosphatase and {beta}-glucuronidase) marker enzymes into the culture media.

  13. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of the Origins of Anomalous Particle Size Distributions in Supported Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Benavidez, Angelica D.; Kovarik, Libor; Genc, Arda; Agrawal, Nitin; Larsson, Elin M.; Hansen, Thomas W.; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2012-10-31

    In this Environmental TEM (ETEM) study of supported Pt and Pd model catalysts, individual nanoparticles were tracked during heat treatments at temperatures up to 600°C in H2, O2, and vacuum. We found anomalous growth of nanoparticles occurred during the early stages of catalyst sintering wherein some particles started to grow significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a broadening of the particle size distribution. We can rule out sample non-uniformity as a cause for the growth of these large particles, since images were recorded prior to heat treatments. The anomalous growth of these particles may help explain particle size distributions in heterogeneous catalysts which often show particles that are significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a long tail to the right. It has been suggested that particle migration and coalescence could be the likely cause for the broad size distributions. This study shows that anomalous growth of nanoparticles can occur under conditions where Ostwald ripening is the primary sintering mechanism.

  14. The heavy metal partition in size-fractions of the fine particles in agricultural soils contaminated by waste water and smelter dust.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Makino, Tomoyuki; Wu, Longhua; Nanzyo, Masami

    2013-03-15

    The partitioning of pollutant in the size-fractions of fine particles is particularly important to its migration and bioavailability in soil environment. However, the impact of pollution sources on the partitioning was seldom addressed in the previous studies. In this study, the method of continuous flow ultra-centrifugation was developed to separate three size fractions (<1 μm, <0.6 μm and <0.2 μm) of the submicron particles from the soil polluted by wastewater and smelter dust respectively. The mineralogy and physicochemical properties of each size-fraction were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope etc. Total content of the polluted metals and their chemical speciation were measured. A higher enrichment factor of the metals in the fractions of <1 μm or less were observed in the soil contaminated by wastewater than by smelter dust. The organic substance in the wastewater and calcite from lime application were assumed to play an important role in the metal accumulation in the fine particles of the wastewater polluted soil. While the metal accumulation in the fine particles of the smelter dust polluted soil is mainly associated with Mn oxides. Cadmium speciation in both soils is dominated by dilute acid soluble form and lead speciation in the smelter dust polluted soil is dominated by reducible form in all particles. This implied that the polluted soils might be a high risk to human health and ecosystem due to the high bioaccessibility of the metals as well as the mobility of the fine particles in soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. BRL Particle Sizing Interferometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    and m" is the index of refraction. Thus, the same visibility function as for Class I particles still applies. However, the fringe period is scaled ...amplitudes of the probability density plot are relative. The largest amplitude is chosen to fit a convenient scale on the paper. The first column indicates...the numerical integration,it is difficult to discern or physically visualize the scaling laws which relate visibility to particle index-of-refraction

  16. The inverse problem of the kinetics of redox sorption taking into account the size of ultradisperse metal particles in an electron-ion exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konev, D. V.; Fertikov, V. V.; Kravchenko, T. A.; Kalinichev, A. I.

    2008-08-01

    The inverse kinetic problem of reducing sorption of molecular oxygen by a copper-containing electron-ion exchanger was formulated and solved taking into account the influence of the size of ultradisperse metal particles on the total rate of the process. These results were used to determine the inside diffusion coefficient of oxygen and rate constants for its interaction with disperse copper from the experimental kinetic curves. The diffusion coefficient obtained was compared with the result of an independent experiment. The kinetic parameters found were used to perform a theoretical analysis of the contributions of various factors influencing the rate of the process under consideration. The reason for the experimentally observed acceleration of the reducing sorption of oxygen by a high-dispersity electron-ion exchanger sample was shown to be an increase in the surface area of metal because of a decrease in the size of its particles and a comparatively high copper content in the surface layer of grains.

  17. A new strategy for pressed powder eye shadow analysis: allergenic metal ion content and particle size distribution.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Pagnoni, Antonella

    2012-08-15

    Nine cheap eye shadow products were analyzed through graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) to quantify their Cr, Co and Ni contents, all known to be skin sensitizers. In many cases, the concentrations were higher than 1 or 5 ppm (μg/g), i.e. the limits recommended in the scientific literature to minimize the risk of reaction in particularly sensitive subjects. In most cases, the concentration of Cr was higher than that of Ni and Co, up to a limit case of 150 mg/g. In this particular sample, the potential amount of Cr that could be released in ionic form was determined in sweat simulating solutions by GF-AAS and confirmed through a specific spectrofluorimetric method; the results indicated the presence of approximately 80-90 ppb (ng/g) of Cr(3+). The water dispersible particles were isolated from the eye shadow powders through a simple solvent extraction procedure. The aqueous suspensions were then sorted through sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF) and the particles sizes were calculated from experimental fractograms using theory. For the most part, the computed sizes were in the micron range, as confirmed by some SEM photographs taken on fractions collected during the separations. The SdFFF coupled off-line with the GFAAS enabled elemental characterization of pigment particles as a function of size. This finding reduces the concern that the ingredients of such makeup formulations may contain nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioaccessibility of micron-sized powder particles of molybdenum metal, iron metal, molybdenum oxides and ferromolybdenum--Importance of surface oxides.

    PubMed

    Mörsdorf, Alexander; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2015-08-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, that are manufactured, imported or used in different products (substances or articles) are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Metals and alloys need hence to be investigated on their extent of released metals (bioaccessibility) in biologically relevant environments. Read-across from available studies may be used for similar materials. This study investigates the release of molybdenum and iron from powder particles of molybdenum metal (Mo), a ferromolybdenum alloy (FeMo), an iron metal powder (Fe), MoO2, and MoO3 in different synthetic body fluids of pH ranging from 1.5 to 7.4 and of different composition. Spectroscopic tools and cyclic voltammetry have been employed to characterize surface oxides, microscopy, light scattering and nitrogen absorption for particle characterization, and atomic absorption spectroscopy to quantify released amounts of metals. The release of molybdenum from the Mo powder generally increased with pH and was influenced by the fluid composition. The mixed iron and molybdenum surface oxide of the FeMo powder acted as a barrier both at acidic and weakly alkaline conditions. These findings underline the importance of the surface oxide characteristics for the bioaccessibility of metal alloys.

  19. Prediction of size-fractionated airborne particle-bound metals using MLR, BP-ANN and SVM analyses.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiang'zi; Wang, Jinhua; Ji, Haibo; Wang, Qin'geng; Li, Huiming; Qian, Xin; Li, Fengying; Yang, Meng

    2017-08-01

    Size-fractionated heavy metal concentrations were observed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 2014 to 2015 (spanning all four seasons) from suburban (Xianlin) and industrial (Pukou) areas in Nanjing, a megacity of southeast China. Rapid prediction models of size-fractionated metals were established based on multiple linear regression (MLR), back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) by using meteorological factors and PM concentrations as input parameters. About 38% and 77% of PM2.5 concentrations in Xianlin and Pukou, respectively, were beyond the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard limit of 75 μg/m(3). Nearly all elements had higher concentrations in industrial areas, and in winter among the four seasons. Anthropogenic elements such as Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu showed larger percentages in the fine fraction (ø≤2.5 μm), whereas the crustal elements including Al, Ba, Fe, Ni, Sr and Ti showed larger percentages in the coarse fraction (ø > 2.5 μm). SVM showed a higher training correlation coefficient (R), and lower mean absolute error (MAE) as well as lower root mean square error (RMSE), than MLR and BP-ANN for most metals. All the three methods showed better prediction results for Ni, Al, V, Cd and As, whereas relatively poor for Cr and Fe. The daily airborne metal concentrations in 2015 were then predicted by the fully trained SVM models and the results showed the heaviest pollution of airborne heavy metals occurred in December and January, whereas the lightest pollution occurred in June and July. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of particle size and forming pressure on pore properties of Fe-Cr-Al porous metal by pressureless sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon-Uk; Yi, Yujeong; Lee, Minjeong; Kim, Byoung-Kee

    2017-03-01

    With increased hydrogen consumption in ammonia production, refining and synthesis, fuel cells and vehicle industries, development of the material components related to hydrogen production is becoming an important factor in industry growth. Porous metals for fabrication of hydrogen are commonly known for their relative excellence in terms of large area, lightness, lower heat capacity, high toughness, and permeability. Fe-Cr-Al alloys not only have high corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and chemical stability but also ductility, excellent mechanical properties. In order to control powder size and sintering temperature effects of Fe-Cr-Al porous metal fabrication, Fe-Cr-Al powder was classified into 25-35 μm, 35-45 μm, 45-75 μm using an auto shaking sieve machine and then classified Fe-Cr-Al powders were pressed into disk shapes using a uniaxial press machine and CIP. The pelletized Fe-Cr-Al specimens were sintered at various temperatures in high vacuum. Properties such as pore size, porosity, and air permeability were evaluated using perm-porosimetry. Microstructure and phase changes were observed with SEM and XRD. Porosity and relative density were proportionated to increasing sintering temperature. With sufficient sintering at increasing temperatures, the pore size is expected to be gradually reduced. Porosity decreased with increasing sintering temperature and gradually increased necking of the powder.

  1. Potential health risk for residents around a typical e-waste recycling zone via inhalation of size-fractionated particle-bound heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Luo, Pei; Wang, Zhao-Yi; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-11-05

    Health risk of residents dwelling around e-waste recycling zones has been a global concern, but has not been adequately examined. The present study was intended to evaluate the potential health risk of residents through inhalation exposure to size-fractionated particle-bound heavy metals in a typical e-waste recycling zone, South China. Anthropogenic metals (Zn, Se, Pb, Sb, As, and Cd) were predominantly enriched in fine particles (Dp<1.8μm), whereas the crustal elements (Ti, Fe, and Co) tended to accumulate in coarse particles (Dp>1.8μm). Although the daily inhalation intakes of the target metals were significantly lower than those through food consumption and ingestion of house dust, the hazard quotients of total metals for adults (95% CI: 1.0-5.5) and children (95% CI: 3.0-17) were greater than 1. Moreover, the incremental lifetime cancer risks of five carcinogenic metals (Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd) for adults and children were 1.3×10(-3) (95% CI: 4.1×10(-4)-3.0×10(-3)) and 3.9×10(-3) (95% CI: 1.3×10(-3)-8.6×10(-3)), respectively, substantially higher than the acceptable cancer risk range of 10(-6)-10(-4). All these findings suggested that health risks were high for local residents dwelling around the e-waste recycling zone through inhalation exposure to particle-bound heavy metals, for both adults and children.

  2. Effect of pH, ionic strength, dissolved organic carbon, time, and particle size on metals release from mine drainage impacted streambed sediments.

    PubMed

    Butler, Barbara A

    2009-03-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) input to a stream typically results in the stream having a reduced pH, increased concentrations of metals and salts, and decreased biological productivity. Removal and/or treatment of these AMD sources is desired to return the impacted stream(s) to initial conditions, or at least to conditions suitable for restoration of the aquatic ecosystem. Some expected changes in the water chemistry of the stream following removal of AMD input include an increase in pH, a decrease in ionic strength, and an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations from increased biological activity in the absence of toxic metals concentrations. These changes in water chemistry may cause the existing contaminated bed sediments to become a source of metals to the stream water. Streambed sediments, collected from North Fork Clear Creek (NFCC), Colorado, currently impacted by AMD, were assessed for the effects of pH, ionic strength, DOC concentration, time, and particle size on metals release using a factorial design. The design included two levels for each chemical parameter (ionic strength = 40 and 80% lower than ambient; pH = 6 and 8; and DOC = 1 and 3 mg/l higher than ambient), ten sampling times (from zero to 48 h), and two size fractions of sediments (63 microm < or = x < 2 mm and < 63 microm). Greater concentrations of metals were released from the smaller sized sediments compared with the larger, with the exception of Cu. A mild acid digestion (0.6M HCl) evaluated the amount of each metal that could be removed easily from each of the sediment size fractions. Release of all metals over all time points, treatments, and from both sediment sizes was less than 1% of the extractable concentrations, with the exception of Mn, which ranged from 4 to 7% from the smaller sized sediment. Greater percentages of the 0.6M HCl-extractable concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Zn were released from the larger sized sediment, while this was true for release of Cd and Mn from

  3. The importance of particle-support interaction on particle size determination by gas chemisorption.

    PubMed

    Torrente-Murciano, L

    The interaction of the metal-support and particle shape has a key role on the determination of the particle size by gas chemisorption. This paper demonstrates mathematically that, assuming metal particles with hemispherical shapes (a common assumption in this type of characterisation) can provide misleading results of up to one order of magnitude. Thus, the metal particle sizes are underestimated when the metal strongly interacts with the support and overestimated when there is a weak metal-support interaction. Additionally, we also demonstrate that although the assumption of spherical shapes always underestimates the size of particles, this error is considerably lower with regular geometries than that associated to the effect of the metal-support interaction due to their effect on the particle shape. Herein, it is demonstrated the importance of introducing the particle-support interaction factor in the chemisorption particle size determination.

  4. Metallic nano-particles for trapping light.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongan; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2013-02-07

    We study metallic nano-particles for light trapping by investigating the optical absorption efficiency of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film with and without metallic nano-particles on its top. The size and shape of these nano-particles are investigated as to their roles of light trapping: scattering light to the absorption medium and converting light to surface plasmons. The optical absorption enhancement in the red light region (e.g., 650nm) due to the light trapping of the metallic nano-particles is observed when a layer of metallic nano-particle array has certain structures. The investigation of the light with incident angles shows the importance of the coupling efficiency of light to surface plasmons in the metallic nano-particle light trapping. PACS: 73.20.Mf, 42.25.s, 88.40.hj.

  5. Liquid metal particle popping: Nanoscale to macroscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lear, Trevor R.

    Liquid metal nanoparticles can be used to produce stretchable electronic devices. Understanding the mechanical properties of liquid metal nanoparticles is crucial to optimizing their use in various applications, especially printing of flexible, stretchable electronics. Smaller nanoparticles are desired for high-resolution printing and compatibility with existing scalable manufacturing methods; however, they contain less liquid metal and are more difficult to rupture than larger particles, making them less desirable for post-processing functionality. This study investigates the mechanics of liquid metal particle rupture as a function of particle size. We employ compression of particle films to characterize the composition of the particle core and derive a minimum particle size required to achieve sintering and subsequent conductance. We further derive the force required to rupture a single particle and validate the results by rupturing individual nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy. In addition, we relate the liquid metal nanoparticles to isotropically-elastic thin-shell microspheres to approximate the particle shell stiffness. Using the results from this study, spray printing has been used as a scalable process that permits the printing of larger particles in high resolution patterns. Furthermore, existent sintering methods are developed, specifically using laser systems, high voltage generators, and exposure to extreme temperatures. An increased understanding of the behavior of liquid metal nanoparticles during rupture reveals limitations of current manufacturing processes and paves the way for the next generation of scalable mass-producible soft electronics using additive manufacturing technologies.

  6. Focused plasmonic trapping of metallic particles

    PubMed Central

    Min, Changjun; Shen, Zhe; Shen, Junfeng; Zhang, Yuquan; Fang, Hui; Yuan, Guanghui; Du, Luping; Zhu, Siwei; Lei, Ting; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2013-01-01

    Scattering forces in focused light beams push away metallic particles. Thus, trapping metallic particles with conventional optical tweezers, especially those of Mie particle size, is difficult. Here we investigate a mechanism by which metallic particles are attracted and trapped by plasmonic tweezers when surface plasmons are excited and focused by a radially polarized beam in a high-numerical-aperture microscopic configuration. This contrasts the repulsion exerted in optical tweezers with the same configuration. We believe that different types of forces exerted on particles are responsible for this contrary trapping behaviour. Further, trapping with plasmonic tweezers is found not to be due to a gradient force balancing an opposing scattering force but results from the sum of both gradient and scattering forces acting in the same direction established by the strong coupling between the metallic particle and the highly focused plasmonic field. Theoretical analysis and simulations yield good agreement with experimental results. PMID:24305554

  7. Volatilization and sorption of dissolved mercury by metallic iron of different particle sizes: implications for treatment of mercury contaminated water effluents.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Julianne D; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2014-07-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the interactions between metallic iron particles and mercury (Hg) dissolved in aqueous solutions. The effect of bulk zero valent iron (ZVI) particles was tested by use of (i) granular iron and (ii) iron particles with diameters in the nano-size range and referred to herein as nZVI. The results show that the interactions between Hg(n+) and Fe(0) are dominated by Hg volatilization and Hg adsorption; with Hg adsorption being the main pathway for Hg removal from solution. Hg adsorption kinetic studies using ZVI and nZVI resulted in higher rate constants (k) for nZVI when k values were expressed as a function of mass of iron used (day(-1)g(-1)). In contrast, ZVI showed higher rates of Hg removal from solution when k values were expressed as a function iron particles' specific surface area (gm(-2)day(-1)). Overall, nZVI particles had a higher maximum sorption capacity for Hg than ZVI, and appeared to be an efficient adsorbent for Hg dissolved in aqueous solutions.

  8. Leaching of metal(loid)s from a construction material: influence of the particle size, specific surface area and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Schmukat, A; Duester, L; Ecker, D; Schmid, H; Heil, C; Heininger, P; Ternes, T A

    2012-08-15

    Construction materials are tested worldwide for a potential release of dangerous substances to prevent adverse effects on humans and biota. It is crucial to identify and understand the processes which are decisive for the release of hazardous substances. The current study compares the results of different test methods. Taking copper slag as model material, the influence of material particle size, eluant composition and ionic strength was tested. Ionic strength and salinity significantly influenced the release of metal(loid)s in the water phase. Furthermore, it was elucidated that colloids can cause methodological artefacts. The available specific surface area exhibited a positive correlation with the release of hazardous substances. The specific surface areas of materials were determined by the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller model (BET) and four other methods. The aluminium foil method showed the best results with regard to the statistical uncertainty, compared to a 3D laser scanning method. With help of the roughness factor λ it is possible to compare the results from surface area measurements with different material particle sizes (0-250 mm). This comparability offers the potential to match the release of metal(loid)s from laboratory studies with field applications and catchment area calculations/modelling, based on the release per m(2). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution of metals in various particle-size fractions in topsoils of a small dry valley system (European Russia, forest zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samonova, Olga; Aseyeva, Elena

    2017-04-01

    A detailed study of heavy metals distribution in various soil grain-size fractions helps to increase the knowledge about the complex nature of metals' occurrence and their distribution pathways in the environment. On the basis of particle size fractionation of topsoil horizons we examined the specific behavior of heavy metals in a small erosional landform located in the humid temperate zone of the Russian Plain. The object of the study is a 400 m small U-shaped dry valley (balka in Russian) with a catchment area of 32.8 ha located in the central part of the Protva river basin, 100 km southwest of Moscow. The uppermost parts of the landform are incised in Late Pleistocene loessial loams, which cover significant portions of interfluve area in the region, while the middle and the lower parts cut through Middle Pleistocene glacial sediments. A total of 50 samples were collected from topsoil horizons of different landform geomorphic units along three cross-sections as well as along the bottom of the landform and its detrital fan. Samples were analyzed for Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ti, Zr, and Fe content. Eleven samples were chosen for physical fractionation into 5 grain-size fractions (1-0.25 mm, 0.25-0.05 mm, 0.05-0.01 mm, 0.01-0.001 mm and <0.001 mm) and further analysis for fractionized metal contents. Across the grain-size fractions the maximum Zr content was observed in the coarse silt fraction and Ti - in the medium and fine silt fraction, while other metals, such as Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Zn revealed their highest concentrations in the clay fraction. For Fe, Mn, Co and Ni a second concentration peak was observed in the coarse and medium sand fraction. Due to probably eolian genesis and (or) transformation during weathering, the coarse silt fraction in comparison to other fractions showed a depletion of the majority of metals while the minimum concentrations of Ti, Zr and Cr were limited to the coarse and medium sand. Statistical analysis showed that the

  10. Diurnal concentrations variations, size distributions for ambient air particles and metallic pollutants (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Pb) during summer season at a traffic area.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Kuo, Yu-Chen; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    This study characterized and discussed particulate ambient air particulate concentrations and seasonal variations for PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 during June 2013-July 2013 at this traffic sampling site. In addition, this study also characterized the ambient air particulates size distributions by using MOUDI-100S4 sampler to collect 1-day the ambient suspended particles (PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) at this sampling site. In addition, the study also showed that the main pollutants contributions were from traffic and residual areas. As for the pollutants seasonal concentrations variations, the results indicated that the average particle concentrations orders were all displayed as daytime > nighttime for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at this characteristic sampling site. The results further indicated that the mean highest of metal concentrations in this study indicated that the average metal concentration were all displayed as Mn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 on daytime and nighttime at this characteristic sampling site.

  11. Small-particle-size cement

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, D.P.; Almond, S.W.; Blerhaus, W.M. II )

    1991-05-01

    Successful remedial cementing has historically been difficult in wells with large-interval, multizone, gravel-packed completions. The reason is the inability of conventional oilfield cements to penetrate gravel packs adequately. Small-particle-size cement (SPSC) was developed to penetrate gravel packs and to provide the zonal isolation required. This paper details the laboratory work, job design, and field implementation of this new cement.

  12. Effect of tungsten metal particle sizes on the solubility of molten alloy melt: Experimental observation of Gibbs-Thomson effect in nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Das, J.; Sordelet, D. J.; Eckert, J.; Hurd, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effect of tungsten particle sizes on the thermal stability and reactivity of uniformly dispersed W particles in molten Hf-based alloy melt at elevated temperature (1673 K). The solubility of particles less than 100 nm in radius is significantly enhanced. In case of fine W particles with 20 nm diameter, their solubility increases remarkably around 700% compared to that of coarse micrometer-scale particles. The mechanisms and kinetics of this dynamic growth of particle are discussed as well as techniques developed to obtain frozen microstructure of particle-reinforced composites by rapid solidification.

  13. Natural Attenuation of Metals from Acid Drainage in Surface Waters: Effects of Organic Matter in the Association of Arsenic to Hydrous Al and Fe Oxyhydroxides and Their Particle Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, G. J.; Pasten, P.; Coquery, M.; Abarca, M. I.; Montecinos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The presence of toxic metals in watersheds affected by acid drainage (AD) imposes a challenge for sustainable supply of water for cities, agriculture and industry. The formation and settling of metal-rich HFO (hydrous ferric oxides) and HAO (hydrous aluminum oxides) is a relevant mechanism for the attenuation of dissolved metals from AD, particularly for arsenic. Organic matter is known to alter the chemical speciation and key physical properties like particle size distribution (PSD) and settling velocity of HFO and HAO particle suspensions. However, available experimental studies focus either on chemical or physical properties. We used a suite of analytical techniques to probe the effects of organic matter on particle suspensions formed in natural waters and in laboratory model systems. Dissolved organic matter was added at different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 mg C/L) to synthetic AD before neutralization with alkaline solutions. PSD and average particle size were measured with laser scattering transmissometry (LISST), while organic matter was characterized by total organic carbon (TOC) and UV-VIS spectrometry. Larger concentrations of organic matter lead to the formation of particle suspensions with larger particle volume and size. When 1.5 mg C/L were added, the total particle volume concentration increased from 0.67 to 23.74 μL/L, while the mean particle size increased from 102 to 176 μm. These results suggests that organic matter influences the fate of metals from AD. Undergoing measurements include total and dissolved metal analyses with total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and ICP-OES to confirm increased removal of dissolved arsenic. The results from this research are necessary to understand the processes governing natural attenuation of metal contamination in fluvial systems affected by AD and to serve as the basis for enhanced natural attenuation schemes. The authors acknowledge funding from Fondecyt 1130936.

  14. Recent trends in particle size analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances and developments in the particle-sizing technologies are briefly reviewed in accordance with three operating principles including particle size and shape descriptions. Significant trends of the particle size analysing equipment recently developed show that compact electronic circuitry and rapid data processing systems were mainly adopted in the instrument design. Some newly developed techniques characterizing the particulate system were also introduced.

  15. Fragmentation of metal particles during heterogeneous explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, R. C.; Donahue, L.; Zhang, F.

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneous explosives contain a mixture of standard explosive material and reactive metal particles. The inclusion of metal particles alters the energy density and energy release timescales involved in the blast event. Available experimental evidence indicates that metal particles may be damaged or fragmented during heterogeneous blast, altering the distribution of particle sizes from their initial state. This paper discusses adaptation and application of fragmentation theory and physical models for particle damage during condensed matter detonation, aerodynamic breakup of molten particles, and particle impact fragmentation with nearby structures. The shock compression and impact fragmentation models are based on the energy methods for dynamic fragmentation by Grady and Kipp, while aerodynamic breakup is treated according to Weber number stability criteria for droplets. These particle fragmentation models are validated against fundamental test cases from the literature. The models are then applied to heterogeneous blast scenarios including free field and wall reflection in a semi-confined urban street. Comparison with experimental records of pressure shows good agreement despite challenges inherent in the complexity of heterogeneous blast measurement and multiphase simulation.

  16. Online sizing of pneumatically conveyed particles by acoustic emission method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yonghui; Qian, Xiangchen; Huang, Xiaobin; Gao, Lingjun; Yan, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Accurate determination of particle size distribution is critical to achieving optimal combustion efficiency and minimum pollutant emissions in both biomass and biomass/coal fired power plants. This paper presents an instrumentation system for online continuous measurement of particle size distribution based on acoustic emission (AE) method. Impulsive AE signals arising from impacts of particles with a metallic waveguide protruding into the flow carry information about the particle size. With detailed information about the generation, propagation and detection of impact AE signals, the particle size can be quantitatively characterized. Experimental results obtained with glass beads demonstrate the capability of the system to discriminate particles of different sizes from the recorded AE signals. The system has several appealing features such as online measurement, high sensitivity, simple structure, minimum invasiveness and low cost, which make it well suited for industrial applications.

  17. A relationship between maximum packing of particles and particle size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedors, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that the volume fraction of particles in a packed bed (i.e. maximum packing) depends on particle size. One explanation for this is based on the idea that particle adhesion is the primary factor. In this paper, however, it is shown that entrainment and immobilization of liquid by the particles can also account for the facts.

  18. Intracrystalline diffusion in metal organic framework during heterogeneous catalysis: influence of particle size on the activity of MIL-100 (Fe) for oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Alvaro, Mercedes; Hwang, Young Kyu; Seo, You-Kyong; Corma, Avelino; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2011-10-28

    Three MIL-100 (Fe) samples differing in average crystal size (from 60-70 to >400 nm) have been synthesized by microwave heating using three HF/Fe(3+) ratios. Oxidation of diphenylmethane with tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) and thiophenol with oxygen are catalyzed by three MIL-100 (Fe) samples with similar reaction rates regardless of its average particle size. In contrast, the activity of the three MIL-100 (Fe) samples for the oxidation of bulky triphenylmethane by TBHP largely depends on the average crystal size of the sample: the smaller the average particle size, the larger the initial reaction rate of triphenylmethane oxidation. These results show that diffusion limitation takes place on MOF catalysis depending on the substrate size and provides indirect evidence that these reactions take place inside the intracrystalline space of the porous catalysts.

  19. Micromechanical Origin of Particle Size Segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, L.; Kwok, C. Y.; Leung, Y. F.

    2017-03-01

    We computationally study the micromechanics of shear-induced size segregation and propose distinct migration mechanisms for individual large and small particles. While small particles percolate through voids without enduring contacts, large particles climb under shear through their crowded neighborhoods with anisotropic contact network. Particle rotation associated with shear is necessary for the upward migration of large particles. Segregation of large particles can be suppressed with inadequate friction, or with no rotation; increasing interparticle friction promotes the migration of large particles, but has little effect on the percolation of small particles.

  20. Introduction of Electrostatically Charged Particles into Metal Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Olga; Vorozhtsov, Sergey; Stepkina, Maria; Khrustalev, Anton

    2017-09-01

    One of the possible methods to produce composite alloys with improved mechanical characteristics is the modification of metal melts using submicron- or nanosized particles. Different methods, like ultrasonic or vibration processing, have been used to introduce these particles into the metal melt. The introduction of particles into a metal melt is prevented by the poor wettability of the liquid metal. The present study explores the use of electrostatic charge for increasing the wettability of the particles and preventing their agglomeration. The wettability of electrostatically charged particles by the metal melt under the impact of ultrasound has been studied. The relationships between the impact time and the physical and chemical properties of the particles and the melt along with the characteristics of the acoustic radiation have been studied. It was experimentally demonstrated that the introduction of electrostatically charged particles into the metal melt reduces the porosity and the crystal grain size.

  1. Three-dimensional optical confinement of micron-sized metal particles and the decoupling of the spin and orbital angular momentum within an optical spanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, Anna T.; Padgett, Miles J.

    2000-11-01

    We report a new mechanism for trapping metallic particles in inverted optical tweezers. The particles are loosely confined, in three dimensions, to an annular region just below the beam waist where gravity is counterbalanced by the scattering force. When using a Laguerre-Gaussian mode the trapping efficiency is improved and additionally we are able to observe an off-axis rotation of the particles around the beam circumference which is induced by the orbital angular momentum of the beam. Since there is no mechanism by which the spin angular momentum can contribute to the scattering force the spin and orbital angular momentum terms are decoupled and therefore the polarisation state does not influence the motion of the particles.

  2. Particle size distributions of several commonly used seeding aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswy, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    During the course of experimentation, no solid particle powder could be found which produced an aerosol with a narrow particle size distribution when fluidization was the only flow process used in producing the aerosol. The complication of adding particle size fractionation processes to the aerosol generation effort appears to be avoidable. In this regard, a simple sonic orifice is found to be effective in reducing the percentage of agglomerates in the several metal oxide powders tested. Marginally beneficial results are obtained for a 0.5/99.5 percent by weight mixture of the flow agent and metal oxide powder. However, agglomeration is observed to be enhanced when the flow agent percentage is increased to 5 percent. Liquid atomization using the Collison nebulizer as well as a version of the Laskin nozzle resulted in polydispersed aerosols with particle size distributions heavily weighted by the small particle end of the size spectrum. The aerosol particle size distributions produced by the vaporization/condensation seeder are closer to the ideal monodispersed aerosol than any of the other aerosols tested. In addition, this seeding approach affords a measure of control over particle size and particle production rate.

  3. Cumulative frequency fit for particle size distribution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhuyun; Gautam, Mridul; Mehta, Sandeep

    2002-08-01

    A cumulative frequency distribution fit method is presented for analyzing particle size distributions by minimizing the summation of the square of cumulative frequency errors. Compared to the frequency fit method, the cumulative frequency fit method yields a more accurate solution. Based upon this, a spreadsheet was developed for analyzing multi-modal particle size distribution. The motivation for the work presented in this article was the current interest in ultra-fine and nano-sized particle exhaust emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. The new spreadsheet provides a quick and convenient way to conduct particle size distribution analysis.

  4. Online particle size distribution estimation of a mixture of similar sized particles with acoustic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsugbe, Ejay; Starr, Andrew; Jennions, Ian; Ruiz Carcel, Cristobal

    2017-08-01

    Particle processing plants regard the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) as a key quality factor as it influences the bulk and flow properties of the particles. In this work, Acoustic Emission (AE) is used to estimate the PSD of a mixture that comprise of similar sized particles. The experiments involved the use of regular sized particles (glass beads) and with the aid of a time domain based threshold analysis of the particle impacts the PSD of the mixtures could be estimated.

  5. Characterisation of wear particles produced by metal on metal and ceramic on metal hip prostheses under standard and microseparation simulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2007-05-01

    The failure of metal on polyethylene total hip replacements due to wear particle induced osteolysis and late aseptic loosening has focused interest upon alternative bearings, such as metal on metal implants. A recent advance in this field has been the development of a novel ceramic on metal implant. The characteristics of the wear particles generated in this low-wearing bearing have not been previously determined. The aims of this study were to characterise metal wear particles from metal on metal and ceramic on metal hips under standard and adverse (microseparation) wear conditions. Accurate characterisation of cobalt-chrome wear particles is difficult since the reactive nature of the particles prevents them from being isolated using acids and bases. A method was developed to isolate the metal wear particles using enzymes to digest serum containing lubricants from metal on metal and ceramic on metal hip simulations. High resolution scanning electron microscopy was then used to characterise the wear particles generated by both metal on metal and ceramic on metal implants under standard and microseparation wear conditions. The wear particles isolated from all simulations had a mean size of less than 50 nm with a rounded and irregular morphology. No significant difference was found between the size of wear particles generated under any conditions.

  6. Method for producing size selected particles

    DOEpatents

    Krumdick, Gregory K.; Shin, Young Ho; Takeya, Kaname

    2016-09-20

    The invention provides a system for preparing specific sized particles, the system comprising a continuous stir tank reactor adapted to receive reactants; a centrifugal dispenser positioned downstream from the reactor and in fluid communication with the reactor; a particle separator positioned downstream of the dispenser; and a solution stream return conduit positioned between the separator and the reactor. Also provided is a method for preparing specific sized particles, the method comprising introducing reagent into a continuous stir reaction tank and allowing the reagents to react to produce product liquor containing particles; contacting the liquor particles with a centrifugal force for a time sufficient to generate particles of a predetermined size and morphology; and returning unused reagents and particles of a non-predetermined size to the tank.

  7. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND DIURNAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICLE-BOUND METALS IN SOURCE AND RECEPTOR SITES OF THE LOS ANGELES BASIN. (R827352C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of daily size-fractionated ambient PM10 mass, metals, inorganic ions (nitrate and sulfate) and elemental and organic carbon were conducted at source (Downey) and receptor (Riverside) sites within the Los Angeles Basin. In addition to 24-h concentration m...

  8. Industrial Particle Size Measurement Using Light Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muly, E. C.; Frock, H. N.

    1980-12-01

    The precise knowledge of particle size and particle size distribution is fundamental to the control of a wide variety of industrial processes. Processing steps as diverse as crystallization, grinding, emulsification, and atomization, produce particles in the size range .1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. While the object of some processes may be the production of particles of specified sizes, e.g., abrasives and glass beads, other processes may require particle size control for process efficiency, e.g., crystallization, and still others for control of final product quality, e.g., minerals, cement, and ceramics. In many processes more than one of these reasons may be important. A line of instruments has been developed using light scattering to measure various parameters of particulate distributions. These instruments employ laser illumination of a flowing stream of particles, producing Fraunhofer diffraction patterns which are processed both optically and electronically with unique, proprietary techniques. Various parameters of the particle size distribution are measured. The measurement is both rapid and precise. This paper will cover the importance of particle size measurements in various processes, different types of measurement methods, and the application of light scattering technology to size determinations in wet slurries and dry powders. A number of specific applications will be discussed encompassing minerals grinding, Portland cement, and rolling mill emulsions. Some references will be made to energy savings through automation.

  9. Photobiomolecular metallic particles and films

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2003-05-06

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  10. Size Dependent Elemental Composition of Road-Associated Particles

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Wong, Carol M.; Green, Peter G.; Kayhanian, Masoud; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Stormwater particles often provide transport for metals and other contaminants, however only larger particles are effectively removed by typical best management practices. Fine particles and their associated constituents are more likely to reach receiving waters; this merits further investigation regarding the metal contribution of fine (dp<10 μm) and very fine (dp <1.5 μm) particles. Road associated particles were collected by vacuuming a road surface and by collecting highway stormwater runoff. A cell sorter was employed to sort road associated particles into four size ranges: 0.1–0.3, 0.3–0.5, 0.5–1.0, and 1.0–1.5 μm. These very fine particles, along with six particle size ranges (total range <2–63 μm) separated using a settling column, were analyzed for Al, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Enrichment factors (EFs), calculated using Al as a basis to represent crustal contributions, were similar for the vacuumed road dust and the stormwater runoff. Fe and Mn were minimally depleted (0.1x) or near unity for all size ranges (Fe EF range 0.01–3.7; Mn EF range 0.02–10.6). Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb were moderately (10x) to considerably (>100x) enriched for most size ranges; these metals were most enriched in the very fine fractions (max EF~4900 in Zn, 0.1–0.3 μm). Based on this preliminary study, a cell sorter is an acceptable means of fractionating aqueous particles of diameter 0.1–1.5 μm. In spite of their minimal relative mass contribution, the very fine particles are environmentally relevant due to their mobility and enrichment in potentially toxic metals.. PMID:18433840

  11. Particles size distribution in diluted magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerin, Constantine V.

    2017-06-01

    Changes in particles and aggregates size distribution in diluted kerosene based magnetic fluids is studied by dynamic light scattering method. It has been found that immediately after dilution in magnetic fluids the system of aggregates with sizes ranging from 100 to 250-1000 nm is formed. In 50-100 h after dilution large aggregates are peptized and in the sample stationary particles and aggregates size distribution is fixed.

  12. Quantification of particle sizes with metal replication under standard freeze-etching conditions: a gold ball standard for calibrating shadow widths was used to measure freeze-etched globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruben, G C

    1995-11-01

    The real size of platinum-carbon (Pt-C) replicated particles is not directly equivalent to either its metal-coated diameter or its shadow width. This paper describes two indirect methods, shadow widths and coated particle diameters, for determining a particle's actual size beneath a Pt-C replication film. Both produce equivalent measurements using the same standardized conditions: 2.3 nm Pt-C films deposited at a 45 degree angle on an approximately -100 degrees C surface in a 10(-6) torr vacuum. For the first method, gold balls nucleated in a partial pressure of helium and deposited on flat indirect carbon films (root mean square roughness of 0.8 nm) on 400 mesh grids were used as test particles for calibrating shadow widths as a function of particle size. The gold ball test specimens were replicated, and a distribution of Pt-C shadow widths orthogonal to the Pt-C deposition direction was measured and averaged for gold balls 1.5 +/- 0.25 nm, 2.0 +/- 0.25 nm, etc. The diameter of each gold ball was measured within the Pt-C film along with its shadow width because the Pt-C did not obscure or adhere well to the gold. The shadow width distributions for each gold size do not differ significantly from log normal. Two proteins, the lactose repressor and the mitochondrial ATPase, F1, were also used as replication test objects. Negative staining of both proteins was conducted to measure their average diameters. In the second method, a distribution of Pt-C-coated lac repressor diameters perpendicular to the shadow direction was measured. The Pt-C film thickness measured on the quartz crystal monitor was subtracted from the average metal-coated protein diameter to obtain the lac repressor's diameter. The Pt-C-coated particle diameter distributions also did not differ significantly from log normal. While doing this work it was discovered that outgassing the Pt-C electron gun greatly affected Pt-C film granularity: 19 sec produced a high contrast, granular Pt-C film, whereas

  13. Variations in the composition of house dust by particle size.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2017-07-03

    In this study, the distribution of heavy metals and other components in the various size fractions of house dust is investigated. A house dust sample collected from a vacuum cleaner was separated into size fractions by sieving and air classification. The analysis of the size fractions showed that the heavy metals and other components are not uniformly distributed in the various size fractions. The highest total carbon concentrations were found in the size fractions with a mass median diameter of 18-95 µm, while in the coarser size fractions and in the finest size fraction, the total carbon concentration was lower. In contrast, for many heavy metals and other metals (Al, Fe, Ca, S, Mn, Ti, Ba, Sr, As, Co, and V), the maximum concentrations were found in the finest size fraction. With increasing size of the dust fractions, the concentrations decreased. For several of these components, the dependence of the concentration on the particle size can be approximately assessed well using a power function. The distribution of Zn, Cu, Mg and Na was different. While the concentration of Na and Mg was higher in the coarser size fractions, no distinct trend was found for the concentrations of Cu and Zn.

  14. Particle size concentration and meteorological parameter dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggleby, Andrew; Regens, James; Ball, Kenneth

    2007-11-01

    A proper orthogonal decomposition of particle size concentration and meteorological parameter dynamics is performed on data collected from 12:45 pm CDT on 18 July 2004 until 1:00 pm CDT on 22 July 2004 using an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer spectrometer and a modular weather station. The sampling station was located at 60 feet above ground level on the roof of the College of Health Building on the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center campus in Oklahoma City, and it sampled data every 15 minutes. The effect of the meteorological conditions of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed, and wind direction on particle concentration dynamics is examined. Most of the dynamical fluctuations occur at particle sizes below 1 micron, temperature and humidity have the most effect on the dynamics, and the wind speed and direction have a smaller effect. Discussions will include the potential effects of rush-hour traffic and diurnal meteorological patterns on the particle size distributions.

  15. APSAS; an Automated Particle Size Analysis System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; Eliason, A.H.; Fredericks, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Automated Particle Size Analysis System integrates a settling tube and an electroresistance multichannel particle-size analyzer (Coulter Counter) with a Pro-Comp/gg microcomputer and a Hewlett Packard 2100 MX(HP 2100 MX) minicomputer. This system and its associated software digitize the raw sediment grain-size data, combine the coarse- and fine-fraction data into complete grain-size distributions, perform method of moments and inclusive graphics statistics, verbally classify the sediment, generate histogram and cumulative frequency plots, and transfer the results into a data-retrieval system. This system saves time and labor and affords greater reliability, resolution, and reproducibility than conventional methods do.

  16. Size distributions of solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E.; Reames, D.; Kahler, S.; Cane, H.

    1991-01-01

    NASA particle detectors on the IMP-8 are employed to determine the size distributions of the peak fluxes of events related to solar-energetic particles including protons and electrons. The energetic proton events show a flatter size distribution which suggests that not all flares are proton flares. Both the electron and proton events are classified as either 'impulsive' or 'gradual', and the impulsive events tend to have a steeper power-law distribution.

  17. Investigation of plasma particle interactions with variable particle sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    In dusty plasmas, the dust particles are subjected to many forces of different origins. Both the gas and plasma directly affect the dust particles through electric fields, neutral drag, ion drag and thermophoretic forces, while the particles themselves interact with one another through a screened coulomb potential, which can be influenced by flowing ions. Recently, micron sized particles have been used as probes to analyze the electric fields in the plasma directly. A proper analysis of the resulting data requires a full understanding of the manner in which these forces couple to the dust particles. In most cases each of the forces exhibit unique characteristics, many of which are partially dependent on the particle size. In this study, five different particle sizes are used to investigate the forces resident in the sheath above the lower electrode of a GEC RF reference cell. The particles are tracked using a high-speed camera, yielding two-dimensional force maps allowing the force on the particles to be described as a polynomial series. It will be shown that the data collected can be analyzed to reveal information about the origins of the various forces. Support from the NSF and the DOE (award numbers PHY-1262031 and PHY-1414523) is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  19. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  20. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  1. Sheathless Size-Based Acoustic Particle Separation

    PubMed Central

    Guldiken, Rasim; Jo, Myeong Chan; Gallant, Nathan D.; Demirci, Utkan; Zhe, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Particle separation is of great interest in many biological and biomedical applications. Flow-based methods have been used to sort particles and cells. However, the main challenge with flow based particle separation systems is the need for a sheath flow for successful operation. Existence of the sheath liquid dilutes the analyte, necessitates precise flow control between sample and sheath flow, requires a complicated design to create sheath flow and separation efficiency depends on the sheath liquid composition. In this paper, we present a microfluidic platform for sheathless particle separation using standing surface acoustic waves. In this platform, particles are first lined up at the center of the channel without introducing any external sheath flow. The particles are then entered into the second stage where particles are driven towards the off-center pressure nodes for size based separation. The larger particles are exposed to more lateral displacement in the channel due to the acoustic force differences. Consequently, different-size particles are separated into multiple collection outlets. The prominent feature of the present microfluidic platform is that the device does not require the use of the sheath flow for positioning and aligning of particles. Instead, the sheathless flow focusing and separation are integrated within a single microfluidic device and accomplished simultaneously. In this paper, we demonstrated two different particle size-resolution separations; (1) 3 μm and 10 μm and (2) 3 μm and 5 μm. Also, the effects of the input power, the flow rate, and particle concentration on the separation efficiency were investigated. These technologies have potential to impact broadly various areas including the essential microfluidic components for lab-on-a-chip system and integrated biological and biomedical applications. PMID:22368502

  2. Impact electrochemistry: colloidal metal sulfide detection by cathodic particle coulometry.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chee Shan; Pumera, Martin

    2015-10-28

    The determination of the size and concentration of colloidal nano and microparticles is of paramount importance to modern nanoscience. Application of the particle collision technique on metal and metal oxide nanoparticles has been intensively explored over the past decade owing to its ability to determine the particle size and concentration via reactions including the inherent oxidation or the reduction of nanoparticles as well as surface reactions catalysed by the nanoparticles. Transition metal dichalcogenide particles were previously quantified using the anodic (oxidative) particle coulometry method. Here we show that cathodic (reductive) particle coulometry can be favorably used for the detection of metal sulfide colloidal particles. The detection of sulfides of cobalt and lead was performed using the particle collision technique in this work. The presence of spikes confirmed the viability of detecting new and larger particles from compounds using reductive (cathodic) potentials. Such an expansion of the impact particle coulometry method will be useful and applicable to the determination of concentration and size of colloidal metal sulfide nanoparticles in general.

  3. The techniques of holographic particle sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Depending on the mechanism of particle production, the resultant particle size and velocity distribution may range over several orders of magnitude. In general, if particle size information is desired from a given type generator, one must resort to some form of experimental determination of the distribution. If the source of particle production is a dynamic one involving a reasonable volume, holography provides a tailor-made particle size and velocity distribution detector. This is evidenced by the fact that holography allows the entire volume to be recorded on one exposure without any interference with the volume of interest. Herein lies a very important characteristic of the holographic particle detection technique: It provides a holographic nondestructive testing technique in the fullest sense of the definition of nondestructive testing. This report provides a description of three different systems useful in this technique and includes the experimental results from one of the holographic systems which was used to detect particle size and velocity distribution from the Skylab waste tank.

  4. Particle sizes in slash fire smoke.

    Treesearch

    David V. Sandberg; Robert E. Martin

    1975-01-01

    Particulate emissions are the most objectionable atmospheric contaminant from forest burning. Little is known of the particulate sizes, and this research was done under laboratory conditions to obtain particle size information. Comments are made concerning techniques for future work in this field.

  5. Particle size distribution and particle size-related crystalline silica content in granite quarry dust.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Greg; Hosgood, Howard Dean; Slade, Martin D; Borak, Jonathan

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that the relationship between empirically derived particle counts, particle mass determinations, and particle size-related silica content are not constant within mines or across mine work tasks. To better understand the variability of particle size distributions and variations in silica content by particle size in a granite quarry, exposure surveys were conducted with side-by-side arrays of four closed face cassettes, four cyclones, four personal environmental monitors, and a real-time particle counter. In general, the proportion of silica increased as collected particulate size increased, but samples varied in an inconstant way. Significant differences in particle size distributions were seen depending on the extent of ventilation and the nature and activity of work performed. Such variability raises concerns about the adequacy of silica exposure assessments based on only limited numbers of samples or short-term samples.

  6. Temperature and size-dependent Hamaker constants for metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, K.; Pinchuk, P.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical values of the Hamaker constant have been calculated for metal nanoparticles using Lifshitz theory. The theory describes the Hamaker constant in terms of the permittivity of the interacting bodies. Metal nanoparticles exhibit an internal size effect that alters the dielectric permittivity of the particle when its size falls below the mean free path of the conducting electrons. This size dependence of the permittivity leads to size-dependence of the Hamaker constant for metal nanoparticles. Additionally, the electron damping and the plasma frequency used to model the permittivity of the particle exhibit temperature-dependence, which lead to temperature dependence of the Hamaker constant. In this work, both the size and temperature dependence for gold, silver, copper, and aluminum nanoparticles is demonstrated. The results of this study might be of interest for studying the colloidal stability of nanoparticles in solution.

  7. Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, K.B.

    1990-10-24

    As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Guest Editorial Particle Sizing And Spray Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigier, Norman; Stewart, Gerald

    1984-10-01

    The measurement of particle size and velocity in particle laden flows is a subject of interest in a variety of industrial applications. In combustion systems for electricity generation, industrial processes and heating, and transportation, where liquid and solid fuels are injected into air streams for burning in furnaces, boilers, and gas turbine and diesel engines, the initial size and velocity distributions of particles are determining factors in the overall combustion efficiency and the emission of pollutants and particulates. In the design of injectors and burners for the atomization of liquid fuels, a great deal of attention is being focused on developing instrumentation for the accurate measurement of size and velocity distributions in sprays as a function of space and time. Most recent advances in optical engineering techniques using lasers for particle measurement have focused on detailed spray characterization, where there is a major concern with spherical liquid droplets within the size range of 1 to 500 μm in diameter, with droplet velocities within the range of 1 to 100 m/s, and the requirement for making in situ measurements of moving particles by nonintrusive optical probes. The instruments being developed for spray analysis have much wider applications. These include measurement in particle laden flows encountered in a variety of industrial processes with solid particles in gas and liquid streams and liquid particles in gas streams. Sprays used in agriculture, drying, food processing, coating of materials, chemical processing, clean rooms, pharmaceuticals, plasma spraying, and icing wind tunnels are examples of systems for which information is being sought on particle and fluid dynamic interactions in which there is heat, mass, and momentum transfer in turbulent reacting flows.

  9. Ignition of metals and alloys by high-velocity particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, F. J.; Williams, R. E.; Armstrong, D.

    1986-01-01

    The ignition of metals and alloys by impacting high-velocity particles in gaseous oxygen was investigated. A convergent/divergent nozzle was used to accelerate the flowing oxygen, which in turn accelerated the particles to velocities greater than 305 m/s (1000 ft/s). The test sample (target) was placed at the end of the chamber in the flow path. Aluminum 6061, type 316 stainless steel, type 304 stainless steel, and Inconel 718 were ignited with 1600-micron aluminum 2017 particles at elevated temperatures and pressures whereas Monel 400 could not be ignited. The ignition susceptibility of metals and alloys appeared to increase as the inlet pressure, sample temperature, and particle size were increased. Type 304 stainless steel particles required more extreme conditions for ignition of materials than similar sized aluminum particles. The results indicated that ignition and subsequent burning of the particles were required for ignition of the target materials with the possible exception of aluminum 6061.

  10. Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, S.; Müller, T.; Weinhold, K.; Zikova, N.; Santos, S.; Marinoni, A.; Bischof, O. F.; Kykal, C.; Ries, L.; Meinhardt, F.; Aalto, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic particle size spectrometers are a well-established method to measure number size distributions of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere. Quality assurance is essential for atmospheric observational aerosol networks to obtain comparable results with known uncertainties. In a laboratory study within the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates accuracy, particle sizing, and unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small (within a few percent), while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex (PSL) reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was within 10-20 % for particles in the range of 0.9 up to 3 μm, which is acceptable for atmospheric measurements. For particles smaller than that, the variability increased up to 60 %, probably caused by differences in the counting efficiencies of individual units. Number size distribution data for particles smaller than 0.9 μm in aerodynamic diameter should be only used with caution. For particles larger than 3 μm, the unit-to-unit variability increased as well. A possible reason is an insufficient sizing accuracy in combination with a steeply sloping particle number size distribution and the increasing uncertainty due to decreasing counting. This uncertainty of the particle number size distribution has especially to be considered if higher moments of the size distribution such as the particle volume or mass are calculated, which require the conversion of the aerodynamic diameter measured to a volume equivalent diameter. In order to perform a quantitative quality assurance, a traceable reference method for the particle number concentration in the size range 0.5-3

  11. Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Sascha; Müller, Thomas; Weinhold, Kay; Zikova, Nadezda; Martins dos Santos, Sebastiao; Marinoni, Angela; Bischof, Oliver F.; Kykal, Carsten; Ries, Ludwig; Meinhardt, Frank; Aalto, Pasi; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic particle size spectrometers are a well-established method to measure number size distributions of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere. Quality assurance is essential for atmospheric observational aerosol networks to obtain comparable results with known uncertainties. In a laboratory study within the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates, particle sizing, and the unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small (within a few percent), while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex (PSL) reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was within 10 % to 20 % for particles in the range of 0.9 up to 3 µm, which is acceptable for atmospheric measurements. For particles smaller than that, the variability increased up to 60 %, probably caused by differences in the counting efficiencies of individual units. Number size distribution data for particles smaller than 0.9 µm in aerodynamic diameter should only be used with caution. For particles larger than 3 µm, the unit-to-unit variability increased as well. A possible reason is an insufficient sizing accuracy in combination with a steeply sloping particle number size distribution and the increasing uncertainty due to decreasing counting. Particularly this uncertainty of the particle number size distribution must be considered if higher moments of the size distribution such as the particle volume or mass are calculated, which require the conversion of the aerodynamic diameter measured to a volume equivalent diameter. In order to perform a quantitative quality assurance, a traceable reference method for the particle number concentration in the size range 0.5-3 µm

  12. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA

  13. Particle size distribution from a GTL engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinling; Huang, Zhen; Wang, Jiasong; Zhang, Wugao

    2007-09-01

    Measurements of exhaust particle number concentration and size distribution from an engine fueled with GTL at different engine loads and speeds were carried out by using a two-stage dilution system. The results for GTL were compared with those from the original engine fueled with diesel. The fuel composition and engine operation condition had significant effects on the exhaust particle size distribution, the total exhaust particle number and volume concentrations. For both fuels, the load had no significant influence on the total exhaust particle number concentration at middle speed, while the total exhaust particle number concentration increased with the increase of the load at high speed. At 1400 rpm and 2200 rpm, the total exhaust particle volume concentration increased as the load increased for both fuels. GTL was found to be a "cleaner" fuel. Compared with diesel, under the same operation conditions, the total exhaust particle number concentrations decreased 18-92%, and the total exhaust particle volume concentrations for GTL decreased 21-59%.

  14. Particle Size Variations in Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Jerousek, R. G.; Becker, T. M.; Eckert, S.; Cooney, J. H.; Esposito, L. W.

    2016-12-01

    We utilize the high spatial resolution of the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) High Speed Photometer (HSP) stellar occultation data of Saturn's rings to study the clumping and sizes of particles in Saturn's rings in perturbed and quiescent regions of the rings. We use the variance of the data to measure the autocorrelation length of the rings, an idea developed by Showalter and Nicholson (1990, Icarus 87, 285-306) using Voyager data. Here we take advantage of the higher resolution of the Cassini HSP data and also the multitude of observations (>100) made at different viewing geometries to study variations in particle size and clumping characteristics across the rings, vertically within the rings, and the orientation of clumps within the rings. We also use the occultation data in combination with a shape model of the self-gravity wakes in the rings (Colwell et al, 2006, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07201) to study variations in the populations of sub-cm particles across the ring system and how these correlate with strongly-perturbed regions in the rings (Jerousek et al. 2015, Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.04.039). Diffraction signals at the sharp edges of some rings also show the population of sub-cm particles varying across the rings and in some case azimuthally (Becker et al. 2015, Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.11.001). We find a population of sub-cm particles at the outer edge of the B ring, similar to that at the outer edge of the A ring, but particles in the Huygens and "Strange" ringlets in the Cassini Division appear to be larger. While the size of the smallest particles decreases toward the outer edge of the A ring where density waves are more closely packed, there is no observed dip in the smallest particle size in the vicinity around the strongest density waves in the A ring, though self-gravity wakes are less-well-organized there. In the C ring, where the surface mass density is too low for self-gravity wakes to form, we find from the

  15. Chromate content versus particle size for aircraft paints.

    PubMed

    LaPuma, Peter T; Rhodes, Brian S

    2002-12-01

    Many industries rely on the corrosion inhibiting properties of chromate-containing primer paints to protect metal from oxidation. However, chromate contains hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)), a known human carcinogen. The concentration of Cr(6+) as a function of paint particle size has important implications to worker health and environmental release from paint facilities. This research examines Cr(6+) content as a function of particle size for three types of aircraft primer paints: solvent-based epoxy-polyamide, water-based epoxy-polyamide, and solvent-based polyurethane. Cascade impactors were used to collect and separate paint particles based on their aerodynamic diameter, from 0.7 to 34.1 microm. The mass of the dry paint collected at each stage was determined and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used to analyze for Cr(6+) content. For all three paints, particles less than 7.0 microm contained disproportionately less Cr(6+) per mass of dry paint than larger particles, and the Cr(6+)concentration decreased substantially as particle size decreased. The smallest particles, 0.7 to 1.0 microm, contained approximately 10% of the Cr(6+) content, per mass of dry paint, compared to particles larger than 7.0 microm. The paint gun settings of air to paint ratio was found to have no influence on the Cr(6+) bias.

  16. Calibration of optical particle-size analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Pechin, William H.; Thacker, Louis H.; Turner, Lloyd J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for the calibration of an optical particle-size analyzer of the light-intercepting type for spherical particles, wherein a rotary wheel or disc is provided with radially-extending wires of differing diameters, each wire corresponding to a particular equivalent spherical particle diameter. These wires are passed at an appropriate frequency between the light source and the light detector of the analyzer. The reduction of light as received at the detector is a measure of the size of the wire, and the electronic signal may then be adjusted to provide the desired signal for corresponding spherical particles. This calibrator may be operated at any time without interrupting other processing.

  17. Preparing oxidizer coated metal fuel particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Simmons, G. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A solid propellant composition of improved efficiency is described which includes an oxidizer containing ammonium perchlorate, and a powered metal fuel, preferably aluminum or beryllium, in the form of a composite. The metal fuel is contained in the crystalline lattice framework of the oxidizer, as well as within the oxidizer particles, and is disposed in the interstices between the oxidizer particles of the composition. The propellant composition is produced by a process comprising the crystallization of ammonium perchlorate in water, in the presence of finely divided aluminum or beryllium. A suitable binder is incorporated in the propellant composition to bind the individual particles of metal with the particles of oxidizer containing occluded metal.

  18. Particle Size Distributions in Atmospheric Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paoli, Roberto; Shariff, Karim

    2003-01-01

    In this note, we derive a transport equation for a spatially integrated distribution function of particles size that is suitable for sparse particle systems, such as in atmospheric clouds. This is done by integrating a Boltzmann equation for a (local) distribution function over an arbitrary but finite volume. A methodology for evolving the moments of the integrated distribution is presented. These moments can be either tracked for a finite number of discrete populations ('clusters') or treated as continuum variables.

  19. Particle Size Distribution in Aluminum Manufacturing Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sa; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Eisen, Ellen A.; Cullen, Mark R.; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2015-01-01

    As part of exposure assessment for an ongoing epidemiologic study of heart disease and fine particle exposures in aluminum industry, area particle samples were collected in production facilities to assess instrument reliability and particle size distribution at different process areas. Personal modular impactors (PMI) and Minimicro-orifice uniform deposition impactors (MiniMOUDI) were used. The coefficient of variation (CV) of co-located samples was used to evaluate the reproducibility of the samplers. PM2.5 measured by PMI was compared to PM2.5 calculated from MiniMOUDI data. Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and concentrations of sub-micrometer (PM1.0) and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.56) particles were evaluated to characterize particle size distribution. Most of CVs were less than 30%. The slope of the linear regression of PMI_PM2.5 versus MiniMOUDI_PM2.5 was 1.03 mg/m3 per mg/m3 (± 0.05), with correlation coefficient of 0.97 (± 0.01). Particle size distribution varied substantively in smelters, whereas it was less variable in fabrication units with significantly smaller MMADs (arithmetic mean of MMADs: 2.59 μm in smelters vs. 1.31 μm in fabrication units, p = 0.001). Although the total particle concentration was more than two times higher in the smelters than in the fabrication units, the fraction of PM10 which was PM1.0 or PM0.56 was significantly lower in the smelters than in the fabrication units (p < 0.001). Consequently, the concentrations of sub-micrometer and quasi-ultrafine particles were similar in these two types of facilities. It would appear, studies evaluating ultrafine particle exposure in aluminum industry should focus on not only the smelters, but also the fabrication facilities. PMID:26478760

  20. Particle Size Distribution in Aluminum Manufacturing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sa; Noth, Elizabeth M; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Eisen, Ellen A; Cullen, Mark R; Hammond, S Katharine

    2014-10-01

    As part of exposure assessment for an ongoing epidemiologic study of heart disease and fine particle exposures in aluminum industry, area particle samples were collected in production facilities to assess instrument reliability and particle size distribution at different process areas. Personal modular impactors (PMI) and Minimicro-orifice uniform deposition impactors (MiniMOUDI) were used. The coefficient of variation (CV) of co-located samples was used to evaluate the reproducibility of the samplers. PM2.5 measured by PMI was compared to PM2.5 calculated from MiniMOUDI data. Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and concentrations of sub-micrometer (PM1.0) and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.56) particles were evaluated to characterize particle size distribution. Most of CVs were less than 30%. The slope of the linear regression of PMI_PM2.5 versus MiniMOUDI_PM2.5 was 1.03 mg/m(3) per mg/m(3) (± 0.05), with correlation coefficient of 0.97 (± 0.01). Particle size distribution varied substantively in smelters, whereas it was less variable in fabrication units with significantly smaller MMADs (arithmetic mean of MMADs: 2.59 μm in smelters vs. 1.31 μm in fabrication units, p = 0.001). Although the total particle concentration was more than two times higher in the smelters than in the fabrication units, the fraction of PM10 which was PM1.0 or PM0.56 was significantly lower in the smelters than in the fabrication units (p < 0.001). Consequently, the concentrations of sub-micrometer and quasi-ultrafine particles were similar in these two types of facilities. It would appear, studies evaluating ultrafine particle exposure in aluminum industry should focus on not only the smelters, but also the fabrication facilities.

  1. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L

    2012-12-01

    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution.

  2. Underlying Asymmetry with Particle-Size Segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, Parmesh; van der Vaart, Kasper; Epely-Chauvin, Gael; Andreini, Nicolas; Gray, Nico; Ancey, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Granular media have a natural tendency to self-organise when sheared, with different sized constituents counter-intuitively separating from each other. Not only does the segregation produce a rich diversity of beautiful patterns, but it can also have serious implications in both industrial and geophysical environments. Despite the universal importance, the individual particle dynamics during segregation are still poorly understand, with such an analysis proving to be difficult with conventional techniques such as binning and sidewall observation. This talk will present results of recent experiments that studied particle scale segregation dynamics during oscillatory shear. Refractive index matched scanning allowed examination of the interior of the flow, where it was observed that large and small particles have an underlying asymmetry that is dependant on the local particle concentration. Small particles were seen to segregate faster through regions of many large particles, whilst large particles rise slower through regions of many small particles. The asymmetry is quantified on both bulk and particle length scales, and is shown to have good agreement with a continuum model that uses a cubic segregation flux.

  3. Cataclasis and processes of particle size reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, Tom G.

    1991-05-01

    The particle size distribution (P.S.D.) of fragmented geological materials is affected by the fragmentation process, initial size distribution, number of fracturing events, energy input, strain, and confining pressure. A summary of literature shows that the fractal dimension ( D) of the P.S.D. is increased by the number of fracturing events, energy input, strain, and confining pressure. Cenozoic cataclasis of granite, granodiorites, gneisses and arkose seen in cores from the Cajon Pass drillhole, southern California, produced P.S.D.s with values of D that varied from 1.88 to 3.08. Each rock type has a characteristic and more limited range of D. Areas of dilatant texture and mode I fracture-fillings have low average values (2.32 and 2.37) compared to an average value of 2.67 in shear fracture-fillings D has a good inverse correlation with average particle size. Data from fault rocks in the San Gabriel fault zone, southern California ( Anderson et al., 1983) have been reanalyzed to show that values of D are higher (2.10 5.52) and average particle size is lower than the Cajon Pass samples, but the ranges of values overlap, and the inverse correlation between D and average particle size is extended. Microstructural observations combined with these results suggest that three processes contributed to particle size reduction during cataclasis. The first process of feldspar alteration, which leads to low values of D, has not been previously recognized. The second process is probably constrained comminution ( Sammis et al., 1987), since the average D in shear fracture-fillings is close to the value of 2.58 predicted by this theory. A further stage of particle size reduction is demonstrated by an increase of D with cataclasis. This third process is selective fracture of larger particles, which may also operate during localization and the cataclastic flow-to-faulting transition as observed in experiments. A transition from constrained comminution to selective fracture of

  4. Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J.

    1995-05-01

    Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

  5. Distribution of heavy metals and metalloids in bulk and particle size fractions of soils from coal-mine brownfield and implications on human health.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Ji, Hongbing; Shi, Chunjing; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Xiangyu; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Xing, Yuxin

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) and metalloids migrate into their surroundings, thus increasing environmental risks and threatening human health. Current studies on coal-mine brownfields, however, have not thoroughly investigated soil-associated HMs and metalloids produced by coal mining. Therefore, this study explored the spatial and particle fraction distribution and human health implications of HMs and metalloids. The soil-associated HMs and metalloids are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Scandium (Sc), Titanium (Ti) and Zinc (Zn). Results showed that Cd, Cu, Pb, and Ni were enriched in bulk soils. Cadmium, Cu and Pb from anthropogenic source were mainly found at entrance roadsides and in sites closest to coal mines. HMs and metalloids primarily accumulated in fine fractions (<1, 1-5, and 5-10 μm). Moreover, HM and metalloid loadings substantially accumulated in the 75-250 μm and 250-1000 μm fractions. Most fine soil fractions showed moderate to strong potential ecological risks, whereas all the coarse particle fractions (50-75, 75-250, and 250-1000 μm) presented slight potential ecological risk. Exposure to soil-associated HMs and metalloids mainly occurred via ingestion. The total non-carcinogenic risks to children and adults fell below the safe level of 1, whereas the total carcinogenic risks to these individuals were higher than that of the maximum acceptable level set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1 × 10 (-4)). The total carcinogenic risk was mainly contributed by Cd and Ni through ingestion and dermal access. Therefore, hygiene and food security in areas should be emphasized.

  6. Molecular Level Coating of Metal Oxide Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patricia R. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Polymer encapsulated metal oxide particles are prepared by combining a polyamide acid in a polar osmotic solvent with a metal alkoxide solution. The polymer was imidized and the metal oxide formed simultaneously in a refluxing organic solvent. The resulting polymer-metal oxide is an intimately mixed commingled blend, possessing, synergistic properties of both the polymer and preceramic metal oxide. The encapsulated metal oxide particles have multiple uses including, being useful in the production of skin lubricating creams, weather resistant paints, as a filler for paper. making ultraviolet light stable filled printing ink, being extruded into fibers or ribbons, and coatings for fibers used in the production of composite structural panels.

  7. Molecular Level Coating for Metal Oxide Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patricia R. (Inventor); Saint Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Polymer encapsulated metal oxide particles are prepared by combining a polyamide acid in a polar aprotic solvent with a metal alkoxide solution. The polymer was imidized and the metal oxide formed simultaneously in a refluxing organic solvent. The resulting polymer-metal oxide is an intimately mixed commingled blend, possessing synergistic properties of both the polymer and preceramic metal oxide. The encapsulated metal oxide particles have multiple uses including, being useful in the production of skin lubricating creams, weather resistant paints, as a filler for paper, making ultraviolet light stable filled printing ink, being extruded into fibers or ribbons, and coatings for fibers used in the production of composite structural panels.

  8. Molecular Level Coating of Metal Oxide Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patricia R. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Polymer encapsulated metal oxide particles are prepared by combining a polyamide acid in a polar osmotic solvent with a metal alkoxide solution. The polymer was imidized and the metal oxide formed simultaneously in a refluxing organic solvent. The resulting polymer-metal oxide is an intimately mixed commingled blend, possessing, synergistic properties of both the polymer and preceramic metal oxide. The encapsulated metal oxide particles have multiple uses including, being useful in the production of skin lubricating creams, weather resistant paints, as a filler for paper. making ultraviolet light stable filled printing ink, being extruded into fibers or ribbons, and coatings for fibers used in the production of composite structural panels.

  9. Rock sampling. [apparatus for controlling particle size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, P. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    An apparatus for sampling rock and other brittle materials and for controlling resultant particle sizes is described. The device includes grinding means for cutting grooves in the rock surface and to provide a grouping of thin, shallow, parallel ridges and cutter means to reduce these ridges to a powder specimen. Collection means is provided for the powder. The invention relates to rock grinding and particularly to the sampling of rock specimens with good size control.

  10. Analysis and evaluation of diesel particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, H.U.; Klingenberg, H.

    1995-12-31

    The results of the investigations were presented at the 4th International Aerosol Conference in September 1994. These investigations are currently being carried out further. At this conference, it was reported that the particle size and its distribution increases while traveling through the exhaust system. Particularly, a larger increase was observed for particles passing through the catalytic converter. The goals of the continued work are: (1) to investigate the cause for the increase of the particle size in the catalytic converter and the influence of sulfur compounds, (2) to develop a method to determine the three - dimensional shape of the particles quantitatively, and (3) to look for methods to increase the particle diameter above the 10 {mu}m limit where they are not breathed into the lungs For these investigations a fourth sampling position behind the exhaust system was defined. Measurement was carried out by again using impactors a new computer controlled transmission electron microscope, and a new REM and a TM x 2000. A determination of the definite x, y, z values for the particles by a photogrametric evaluation of the electron microscope pictures taken from different angles. This allows the construction of the three - dimensional shapes. All the results will be reported.

  11. [Particle size reduction using acoustic cavitation].

    PubMed

    Bartos, Csilla; Ambrus, Rita; Szabóné, Révész Piroska

    2014-01-01

    Different pharmaceutical technological processes have been used for modification of the physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties of drugs. Changes of crystal size, distribution and morphology can open up new, alternative administration routes, e.g. intranasally and the pulmonary route, where the particle size is a determining factor. A wet grinding method based on acoustic cavitation (the collapse of bubbles or voids formed by sound waves) is a novel possibility for modification of the properties of particles. During our work this wet grinding technique was studied. The effect of this method was investigated on particle size reduction. The samples were treated with extreme sonication parameters. The effect of the concentration of the polymer was examined on the particle size reduction. Meloxicam was chosen as a model crystalline drug because of its poor aqueous solubility. The structural characterization and the morphological analysis of the dried products were carried out by DSC, XRPD and SEM. It was found that the acoustic cavitation resulted in crystalline micronized product.

  12. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR AN OFFICE AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses an evaluation of the effect of percent outdoor air supplied and occupation level on the particle size distributions and mass concentrations for a typical office building. (NOTE: As attention has become focused on indoor air pollution control, it has become i...

  13. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR AN OFFICE AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses an evaluation of the effect of percent outdoor air supplied and occupation level on the particle size distributions and mass concentrations for a typical office building. (NOTE: As attention has become focused on indoor air pollution control, it has become i...

  14. Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2001-03-01

    In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  15. Photographic techniques for characterizing streambed particle sizes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, M.S.; Moran, E.H.; Ourso, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    We developed photographic techniques to characterize coarse (>2-mm) and fine (???2-mm) streambed particle sizes in 12 streams in Anchorage, Alaska. Results were compared with current sampling techniques to assess which provided greater sampling efficiency and accuracy. The streams sampled were wade-able and contained gravel - cobble streambeds. Gradients ranged from about 5% at the upstream sites to about 0.25% at the downstream sites. Mean particle sizes and size-frequency distributions resulting from digitized photographs differed significantly from those resulting from Wolman pebble counts for five sites in the analysis. Wolman counts were biased toward selecting larger particles. Photographic analysis also yielded a greater number of measured particles (mean = 989) than did the Wolman counts (mean = 328). Stream embeddedness ratings assigned from field and photographic observations were significantly different at 5 of the 12 sites, although both types of ratings showed a positive relationship with digitized surface fines. Visual estimates of embeddedness and digitized surface fines may both be useful indicators of benthic conditions, but digitizing surface fines produces quantitative rather than qualitative data. Benefits of the photographic techniques include reduced field time, minimal streambed disturbance, convenience of postfield processing, easy sample archiving, and improved accuracy and replication potential.

  16. Size consistency in smoothed dissipative particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Faure, Gérôme; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Roussel, Julien; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) is a mesoscopic method that allows one to select the level of resolution at which a fluid is simulated. In this work, we study the consistency of the resulting thermodynamic properties as a function of the size of the mesoparticles, both at equilibrium and out of equilibrium. We also propose a reformulation of the SDPD equations in terms of energy variables. This increases the similarities with dissipative particle dynamics with energy conservation and opens the way for a coupling between the two methods. Finally, we present a numerical scheme for SDPD that ensures the conservation of the invariants of the dynamics. Numerical simulations illustrate this approach.

  17. Particle size and shape of calcium hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Komabayashi, Takashi; D’souza, Rena N; Dechow, Paul C; Safavi, Kamran E.; Spångberg, Larz S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the particle length, width, perimeter, and aspect ratio of calcium hydroxide powder using a flow particle image analyzer (FPIA). Five sample groups each with 10mg calcium hydroxide were mixed with 15mL of alcohol and sonicated. Digital images of the particle samples were taken using the FPIA and analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. The overall averages±S.D. among the five groups for particle length (μm), width (μm), perimeter (μm), and aspect ratio were 2.255±1.994, 1.620±1.464, 6.699±5.598, and 0.737±0.149, respectively. No statistical significance was observed among the groups for all parameters. When the total of 46,818 particles from all five groups were classified into the five length categories of 0.5μm increments, there were significant differences in width, perimeter, and aspect ratio (all p-values<0.0001). In conclusion, calcium hydroxide particles have a size and shape that may allow direct penetration into open dentin tubules. PMID:19166791

  18. Growth of single-crystalline particles of metallic copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinlei; Shen, Shaobo; Zhao, Yingshi; Wang, Fuming

    2016-10-01

    Most of ultrafine particles of metallic copper reported so far were of polycrystalline structures. Here, some ultrafine particles of metallic copper of single-crystalline structure were synthesized in gas phase. Some mixtures of a raw copper powder (about 79 μm) and sodium chloride powder were used as the precursor materials. The materials were chlorinated by dry chlorine at 400 °C. Some anhydrous eutectics composed of copper chlorides and sodium chloride were thus obtained. The eutectics were first heated in situ up to 900 °C and then carried to a gas space by evaporation using a flowing Argon, where they met H2 and were reduced to metallic copper particles. It was found that all these copper particles prepared were of single-crystalline structure irrespective of the molar ratio of raw copper and sodium chloride. When the molar ratio of NaCl to Cu in the precursor materials was 1 to 3, some dispersed octahedral particles of single-crystalline copper with an average size of 776 nm were prepared. However, when the ratio was increased to 4 to 1, some dispersed spherical particles of single-crystalline copper with a size of 92 nm were obtained. No impurities from the two shapes of copper particles were detected. The mechanisms involved in controlling the shape and size of copper particles were proposed.

  19. Particle size statistics in dynamic fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E. )

    1990-12-15

    Condensed matter, when subjected to intense disrupting forces through impact or radiation deposition, will break up into a randomly distributed array of fragments. An earlier analysis of random fragmentation is extended to account for fragmentation in bodies which are finite in extent and for bodies within which the minimum fragment size is bounded. The statistical fragment size relations are compared with molecular dynamic simulations of dynamic fragmentation, with fragmentation caused by the high-energy collision of nuclear particles, and with the distribution of galaxies in the universe which are assumed to be fragment debris from the primordial Big Bang.

  20. Colloid particle size-dependent dispersivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysikopoulos, C. V.; Katzourakis, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that dispersion coefficients evaluated by fitting advection-dispersion transport models to nonreactive tracer breakthrough curves do not adequately describe colloid transport under the same flow field conditions. Here an extensive laboratory study was undertaken to assess whether the dispersivity, which traditionally has been considered to be a property of the porous medium, is dependent on colloid particle size and interstitial velocity. A total of 49 colloid transport experiments were performed in columns packed with glass beads under chemically unfavorable colloid attachment conditions. Nine different colloid diameters, and various flow velocities were examined. The breakthrough curves were successfully simulated with a mathematical model describing colloid transport in homogeneous, water saturated porous media. The results demonstrated that the dispersivity is positively correlated with colloid particle size, and increases with increasing velocity.

  1. Synthesis and magnetorheology of suspensions of submicron-sized cobalt particles with tunable particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-López, M. T.; Kuzhir, P.; Meunier, A.; Bossis, G.

    2010-08-01

    Different samples of cobalt powder were synthesized. Particle size and shape were characterized using electron microscopy and light scattering. These measurements showed that the synthesized powders consisted of monodisperse spheres with average diameters ranging between 63 and 760 nm. These powders were used for the preparation of magnetorheological (MR) fluids by dispersing them in silicone oil. The MR properties of these MR fluids were investigated. It was found that particle size did not have much influence on the MR response of MR fluids, for average particle diameters larger than 100 nm. On the other hand, the MR response decreased appreciably when the average particle diameter was diminished below 100 nm a theory based on the change of the shape of the aggregates with the size of the particles could explain these observations.

  2. Optically controlled grippers for manipulating micron-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Graham; Barron, Louise; Beck, Fiona; Whyte, Graeme; Padgett, Miles

    2007-01-01

    We report the development of a joystick controlled gripper for the real-time manipulation of micron-sized objects, driven using holographic optical tweezers (HOTs). The gripper consists of an arrangement of four silica beads, located in optical traps, which can be positioned and scaled in order to trap an object indirectly. The joystick can be used to grasp, move (lateral or axial), and change the orientation of the target object. The ability to trap objects indirectly allows us to demonstrate the manipulation of a strongly scattering micron-sized metallic particle.

  3. Particle Size Distributions in Atmospheric Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Center for Turbulence Research 39 Annual Research Briefs 2003 Particle size distributions in atmospheric clouds By Roberto Paoli & Karim...atmospheric turbulence is an important, though complex, problem in cloud physics ( Shaw 2003). From a computational point of view, two major factors...contribute to this complexity. First is the very high turbulence Reynolds number and the large range of spatial scales (Vaillancourt & Yau 2000; Shaw 2003

  4. Influence of particle size in silo discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gella, Diego; Maza, Diego; Zuriguel, Iker

    2017-06-01

    Recently Janda et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 248001 (2012)] reported an experimental study where it was measured the velocity and volume fraction fields of 1 mm diameter stainless steel beads in the exit of a two-dimensional silo. In that work, they proposed a new expression to predict the flow of granular media in silos which does not explicitly include the particle size as a parameter. Here, we study if effectively, there is not such influence of the particle size in the flux equations as well as investigate any possible effect in the velocity and volume fraction fields. To this end, we have performed high speed motion measurements of these magnitudes in a two-dimensional silo filled with 4 mm diameter beads of stainless steel, the same material than the previous works. A developed tracking program has been implemented to obtain at the same time both, the velocity and volume fraction. The final objective of this work has been to extend and generalize the theoretical framework of Janda et al. for all sizes of particles. We have found that the obtained functionalities are the same than in the 1 mm case, but the exponents and other fitting parameters are different.

  5. Modelling complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of particle-size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberson, Sam; Weltje, Gert Jan

    2014-05-01

    Estimates of particle-size made by operators in the field and laboratory represent a vast and relatively untapped data archive. The wide spatial distribution of particle-size estimates makes them ideal for constructing geological models and soil maps. This study uses a large data set from the Netherlands (n = 4837) containing both operator estimates of particle size and complete particle-size distributions measured by laser granulometry. This study introduces a logit-based constrained-cubic-spline (CCS) algorithm to interpolate complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates. The CCS model is compared to four other models: (i) a linear interpolation; (ii) a log-hyperbolic interpolation; (iii) an empirical logistic function; and (iv) an empirical arctan function. Operator estimates were found to be both inaccurate and imprecise; only 14% of samples were successfully classified using the Dutch classification scheme for fine sediment. Operator estimates of sediment particle-size encompass the same range of values as particle-size distributions measured by laser analysis. However, the distributions measured by laser analysis show that most of the sand percentage values lie between zero and one, so the majority of the variability in the data is lost because operator estimates are made to the nearest 1% at best, and more frequently to the nearest 5%. A method for constructing complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of sediment texture using a logit constrained cubit spline (CCS) interpolation algorithm is presented. This model and four other previously published methods are compared to establish the best approach to modelling particle-size distributions. The logit-CCS model is the most accurate method, although both logit-linear and log-linear interpolation models provide reasonable alternatives. Models based on empirical distribution functions are less accurate than interpolation algorithms for modelling particle-size distributions in

  6. Size dependent fluorescence tuning of naturally occurring betacyanin with silver nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Thankappan, Aparna; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2014-10-01

    Light absorption and scattering of metal nano partilces occur in very narrow range of wavelengths. This is also dependent on the geometry and shape of metal nano particles. It is also known that scattering is related to (volume)2 and absorption is related to the volume of the spherical metal nano particles. In our work we show that using this principle metal nano particles enable fluorescence tuning of dyes. In our experiment we show such tuning in naturally occurring betacyanin extracted from red beetroot. We also show that such tuning is dependent on the size variation of the silver nano particles.

  7. Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, Vincent J.

    1997-12-01

    A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data.

  8. Method for determining aerosol particle size device for determining aerosol particle size

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Vincent J.

    1998-01-01

    A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data.

  9. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  10. Initial size distributions and hygroscopicity of indoor combustion aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Hopke, P.K.

    1993-10-01

    Cigarette smoke, incense smoke, natural gas flames, propane fuel flames, and candle flames are contributors of indoor aerosol particles. To provide a quantitative basis for the modeling of inhaled aerosol deposition pattern, the hygroscopic growth of particles from these five sources as well as the source size distributions were measured. Because the experiments were performed on the bases of particles of single size, it provided not only the averaged particle`s hygroscopic growth of each source, but also the detailed size change for particles of different sizes within the whole size spectrum. The source particle size distribution measurements found that cigarette smoke and incense smoke contained particles in the size range of 100-700 nm, while the natural gas, propane, and candle flames generated particles between 10 and 100 nm. The hygroscopic growth experiments showed that these combustion aerosol particles could grow 10% to 120%, depending on the particle sizes and origins. 18 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Chaotic mixing of finite-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omurtag, Ahmet Can

    1997-10-01

    Dynamical systems concepts have been used to analyze the behavior of rigid spherical finite-sized particles in chaotic flows in the eccentric annular system. If the particles are sufficiently small they follow the fluid streamlines. Then the dynamical system is Hamiltonian as a result of the presence of a streamfunction for the two- dimensional incompressible flow. The Stokes number characterizes the significance of particle inertia. It is shown that the bifurcations of the dynamical system can be harnessed for separating particles with different physical properties. These results are numerically obtained for finite-sized particles in Stokes flows. Departure from Stokes flow toward higher Reynolds numbers results in longer transients in the fluid velocity field. It also changes the steady state pattern of the streamlines. Mixing under chaotic stirring procedures with up to Re=100 indicates a general tendency toward poorer mixing per cycle. Results obtained by the numerically generated fluid velocity field demonstrated good agreement with experimental results. The extent and shape of the chaotic regions are not, in general, radically modified as the Reynolds number increases. It was shown that the unstable manifolds of the underlying mapping based on Stokes flow provides a template for deformations in the flow even beyond the Stokes regime as well as with particle inertia and q/not=1. It was also shown that the stable and unstable manifolds can be located by calculating the finite-time Lyapunov exponents of a very large number of trajectories in the domain. Mixing in the eccentric annulus is applied to the problem of collecting fetal cells from maternal circulation of blood. Fetal cells were modeled as small spherical particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid filling the gap in a small eccentric annular mixing device. Two separate model collecting devices are used. The first model utilizes vertically placed and antibody coated fibers that adhere to fetal cells on

  12. Shape, size, and distribution of magnetic particles in Bjurbole chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, David F.

    1994-01-01

    Chondrules from the Bjurbole chondritic meteorite (L4) exhibit saturation remanence magnetization (SIRM) values which vary over three orders of magnitude. REM values (Natural Remanence Magnetization/SIRM) for Allende (C3V) and Chainpur (LL3) are less than 0.01 but in Bjurbole some chondrules were found to have REM values greater than 0.1 with several greater than 0.2. REM values greater than 0.1 are abnormal and cannot be acquired during weak field cooling. If exposure to a strong field (whatever the source) during the chondrules' history is responsible for the high REM values, was such history associated with a different processing which might have resulted in different shape, size, and distribution of metal particles compared to chondrules having REM values of less than 0.01? Furthermore, magnetic hysteresis results show a broad range of magnetic hardness and other intrinsic magnetic properties. These features must be related to (1) size and amount of metal; and (2) properties of, and amount of, tetrataenite in the chondrules (all chondrules thus far subjected to thermomagnetic analysis show the presence of tetrataenite). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study is underway to determine the relationship between the shape, size, and distribution of metal particles within individual chondrules and the magnetic properties of these chondrules. Results from the SEM study in conjunction with magnetic property data may also help to discern effects from possible lightning strikes in the nebula prior to incorporation of the chondrules into the parent body.

  13. Number size distribution of fine and ultrafine fume particles from various welding processes.

    PubMed

    Brand, Peter; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Studies in the field of environmental epidemiology indicate that for the adverse effect of inhaled particles not only particle mass is crucial but also particle size is. Ultrafine particles with diameters below 100 nm are of special interest since these particles have high surface area to mass ratio and have properties which differ from those of larger particles. In this paper, particle size distributions of various welding and joining techniques were measured close to the welding process using a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). It turned out that welding processes with high mass emission rates (manual metal arc welding, metal active gas welding, metal inert gas welding, metal inert gas soldering, and laser welding) show mainly agglomerated particles with diameters above 100 nm and only few particles in the size range below 50 nm (10 to 15%). Welding processes with low mass emission rates (tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding) emit predominantly ultrafine particles with diameters well below 100 nm. This finding can be explained by considerably faster agglomeration processes in welding processes with high mass emission rates. Although mass emission is low for tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding, due to the low particle size of the fume, these processes cannot be labeled as toxicologically irrelevant and should be further investigated.

  14. Interferometric particle sizing with overlapping images despite Moiré

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, Mohamed; Brunel, Marc

    2017-10-01

    Interferometric particle imaging is investigated in the case of overlapping images and sub-sampling conditions. It is shown that particle size estimation of a pair of particles remains possible despite Moiré. Particle sizing can be achieved although the determination of the separation between both particles is no longer possible.

  15. Particle-size analysis of pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Beaubien, L J; Vanderwielen, A J

    1980-06-01

    An automated electrolytic sensing zone (electrozone) method was developed to determine the particle-size distribution of milled and micronized pharmaceutical powders. The powdered drugs obeyed log-normal statistics, and the distributions were well defined by thier geometric volume mean diameter and the geometric standard deviation. The results show that accurate data can be obtained between 2 and 80 micron with a precision of approximately 0.5 micron. Pulse-width analyses were performed to determine the feasibility of using a pulse-width discrimination program. However, in this case, the program discriminates against real particles and, therefore, its usefulness is limited. Milled and micronized materials are described adequately by a spherical diameter, and the automated electrozone system described is an excellent method for quality control purposes.

  16. Spatial Variability of CCN Sized Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, A.; Väänänen, R.

    2014-12-01

    The computational limitations restrict the grid size used in GCM models, and for many cloud types they are too large when compared to the scale of the cloud formation processes. Several parameterizations for e.g. convective cloud formation exist, but information on spatial subgrid variation of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs) sized aerosol concentration is not known. We quantify this variation as a function of the spatial scale by using datasets from airborne aerosol measurement campaigns around the world including EUCAARI LONGREX, ATAR, INCA, INDOEX, CLAIRE, PEGASOS and several regional airborne campaigns in Finland. The typical shapes of the distributions are analyzed. When possible, we use information obtained by CCN counters. In some other cases, we use particle size distribution measured by for example SMPS to get approximated CCN concentration. Other instruments used include optical particle counters or condensational particle counters. When using the GCM models, the CCN concentration used for each the grid-box is often considered to be either flat, or as an arithmetic mean of the concentration inside the grid-box. However, the aircraft data shows that the concentration values are often lognormal distributed. This, combined with the subgrid variations in the land use and atmospheric properties, might cause that the aerosol-cloud interactions calculated by using mean values to vary significantly from the true effects both temporary and spatially. This, in turn, can cause non-linear bias into the GCMs. We calculate the CCN aerosol concentration distribution as a function of different spatial scales. The measurements allow us to study the variation of these distributions within from hundreds of meters up to hundreds of kilometers. This is used to quantify the potential error when mean values are used in GCMs.

  17. Size Resolved High Temperature Oxidation Kinetics of Nano-Sized Titanium and Zirconium Particles.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yichen; Jacob, Rohit J; Li, Shuiqing; Zachariah, Michael R

    2015-06-18

    While ultrafine metal particles offer the possibility of very high energy density fuels, there is considerable uncertainty in the mechanism by which metal nanoparticles burn, and few studies that have examined the size dependence to their kinetics at the nanoscale. In this work we quantify the size dependence to the burning rate of titanium and zirconium nanoparticles. Nanoparticles in the range of 20-150 nm were produced via pulsed laser ablation, and then in-flight size-selected using differential electrical mobility. The size-selected oxide free metal particles were directly injected into the post flame region of a laminar flame to create a high temperature (1700-2500 K) oxidizing environment. The reaction was monitored using high-speed videography by tracking the emission from individual nanoparticles. We find that sintering occurs prior to significant reaction, and that once sintering is accounted for, the rate of combustion follows a near nearly (diameter)(1) power-law dependence. Additionally, Arrhenius parameters for the combustion of these nanoparticles were evaluated by measuring the burn times at different ambient temperatures. The optical emission from combustion was also used to model the oxidation process, which we find can be reasonably described with a kinetically controlled shrinking core model.

  18. Particle size distribution control of Pt particles used for particle gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiji, M.; Akiba, H.; Nagao, H.; Hirasawa, I.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is particle size distribution (PSD) control of submicron sized Pt particles used for particle gun. In this report, simple reaction crystallization is conducted by mixing H2PtCl6 and ascorbic acid. Without the additive, obtained Pt particles have broad PSD and reproducibility of experiment is low. With seeding, Pt particles have narrow PSD and reproducibility improved. Additionally, mean particle diameter of 100-700 nm is controlled by changing seeding amount. Obtained particles are successfully characterized as Pt by XRD results. Moreover, XRD spectra indicate that obtained particles are polycrystals. These experimental results suggest that seeding consumed nucleation, as most nuclei attached on the seed surface. This mechanism virtually restricted nucleation to have narrow PSD can be obtained.

  19. Comparative measurements using different particle size instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the measurement and comparison of particle size and velocity measurements in sprays. The general nature of sprays and the development of standard, consistent research sprays are described. The instruments considered in this paper are: pulsed laser photography, holography, television, and cinematography; laser anemometry and interferometry using visibility, peak amplitude, and intensity ratioing; and laser diffraction. Calibration is by graticule, reticle, powders with known size distributions in liquid cells, monosize sprays, and, eventually, standard sprays. Statistical analyses including spatial and temporal long-time averaging as well as high-frequency response time histories with conditional sampling are examined. Previous attempts at comparing instruments, the making of simultaneous or consecutive measurements with similar types and different types of imaging, interferometric, and diffraction instruments are reviewed. A program of calibration and experiments for comparing and assessing different instruments is presented.

  20. Adhesion as an interplay between particle size and surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Katainen, J; Paajanen, M; Ahtola, E; Pore, V; Lahtinen, J

    2006-12-15

    Surface roughness plays an important role in the adhesion of small particles. In this paper we have investigated adhesion as a geometrical effect taking into account both the particle size and the size of the surface features. Adhesion is studied using blunt model particles on surfaces up to 10 nm root-mean-square (RMS) roughness. Measurements with particles both smaller and larger than surface features are presented. Results indicate different behavior in these areas. Adhesion of particles smaller than or similar in size to the asperities depend mainly on the size and shape of the asperities and only weakly on the size of the particle. For large particles also the particle size has a significant effect on the adhesion. A new model, which takes the relative size of particles and asperities into account, is also derived and compared to the experimental data. The proposed model predicts adhesion well over a wide range of particle/asperity length scales.

  1. EFFECT OF pH, IONIC STRENGTH, DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON, TIME, AND PARTICLE SIZE ON METALS RELEASE FROM MINE DRAINAGE IMPACTED STREAMBED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) input to a stream typically results in the stream having a reduced pH, increased concentrations of metals and salts, and decreased biological productivity. Removal and/or treatment of these AMD sources is desired to return the impacted stream(s) to initi...

  2. EFFECT OF pH, IONIC STRENGTH, DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON, TIME, AND PARTICLE SIZE ON METALS RELEASE FROM MINE DRAINAGE IMPACTED STREAMBED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) input to a stream typically results in the stream having a reduced pH, increased concentrations of metals and salts, and decreased biological productivity. Removal and/or treatment of these AMD sources is desired to return the impacted stream(s) to initi...

  3. Quantum particle interacting with a metallic particle: Spectra from quantum Langevin theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, W. M. Edmund; Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a nearby metallic particle on the quantum optical properties of a quantum particle in the four-level double Raman configuration is studied using the quantum Langevin approach. We obtain analytical expressions for the correlated quantum fields of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons emitted from the system and perform analysis on how the interparticle distance, the direction of observation or detection, the strengths of controllable laser fields, the presence of surface plasmon resonance, and the number density of the quantum particle affect the quantum spectra of the Stokes and anti-Stokes fields. We explore the physics behind the quantum-particle-metallic-nanoparticle interaction within the dipole approximation, that is, when the interparticle distance is much larger than the sizes of the particles. Our results show the dependence of the spectra on the interparticle distance in the form of oscillatory behavior with damping as the interparticle distance increases. At weaker laser fields the enhancement of quantum fields which manifests itself in the form of a Fano dip in the central peak of the spectra becomes significant. Also, the quantum-particle-metallic-nanoparticle coupling, which is affected by the size of the metallic nanoparticle and the number density of the quantum particle, changes the angular dependence of the spectra by breaking the angular rotational symmetry. In the presence of surface plasmon resonance the oscillatory dependence of the spectra on the interparticle distance and angles of observation becomes even stronger due to the plasmonic enhancement effect.

  4. Modeling of dielectrophoretic particle motion: Point particle versus finite-sized particle.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Barbaros; Öner, S Doğan; Baranoğlu, Besim

    2017-06-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a very popular technique for microfluidic bio-particle manipulation. For the design of a DEP-based microfluidic device, simulation of the particle trajectory within the microchannel network is crucial. There are basically two approaches: (i) point-particle approach and (ii) finite-sized particle approach. In this study, many aspects of both approaches are discussed for the simulation of direct current DEP, alternating current DEP, and traveling-wave DEP applications. Point-particle approach is implemented using Lagrangian tracking method, and finite-sized particle is implemented using boundary element method. The comparison of the point-particle approach and finite-sized particle approach is presented for different DEP applications. Moreover, the effect of particle-particle interaction is explored by simulating the motion of closely packed multiple particles for the same applications, and anomalous-DEP, which is a result of particle-wall interaction at the close vicinity of electrode surface, is illustrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Microstructure and Thermal History of Metal Particles in CH Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Jones, R. H.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    Fe-Ni metal particles with smooth Ni, Co, and Cr zoning patterns, 8-13 wt.% Ni in the center of the particle to 3-5 wt% Ni at the rim, have been identified in several CR-clan (CH, Bencubbinlike, and CR) chondrites. These zoning patterns are broadly consistent with an origin by gas-solid condensation in the solar nebula at temperatures between approximately 1500 to 1300 K and fast cooling rates, 2 to 25 K/day. Apparently, this condensate metal was not melted during chondrule formation or affected significantly in the solid-state by alteration during parent body processing. Consideration of diffusional redistribution of Ni, Co, Cr and siderophile elements have further constrained the calculated condensation temperatures and cooling rates of the zoned condensates. These condensate metals have irregular shapes and vary in size from 50 to 350 m as revealed in some detail by optical and SEM techniques. In addition to zoned condensate particles, other types of metal particles have been observed. These include zoned condensates with exsolution-precipitates, unzoned homogeneous metal with no exsolution precipitates, unzoned metal exhibiting exsolution precipitates and high Ni metal grains.

  6. Detection of nano- and micro-sized particles in routine biopsy material - pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dvorackova, Jana; Bielnikova, Hana; Kukutschova, Jana; Peikertova, Pavlina; Filip, Peter; Zelenik, Karol; Kominek, Pavel; Uvirova, Magdalena; Pradna, Jana; Cermakova, Zuzana; Dvoracek, Igor

    2015-03-01

    Nanotechnology is receiving enormous funding. Very little however is known about the health dangers of this technology so far. Chronic tonsillitis is one of a number of diseases called idiopathic. Among other factors, the tonsils are exposed to suspended particles in inhaled air including nano particles. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate metallic particles in human tonsil tissue diagnosed with chronic tonsillitis and in amniotic fluid as a comparison. . Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used for identification of solid particles in a total of 64 samples of routinely analyzed biopsy and cytologic material. Almost all samples were found to contain solid particles of various metals. The most frequent, regardless of diagnosis, were iron, chromium, nickel and aluminium. The size, determined using SEM, varied from around 500 nm to 25 µm. The majority formed aggregates of several micrometers in size but there were a significant number of smaller (sub-micrometer or nano-sized) particles present. The incidence of metallic particles was similar in child and adult tissues. The difference was in composition: the presence of several metals in adults was due to occupational exposure. The presence of metallic particles in pathologically altered tissues may signal an alternative causation of some diseases. The ethiopathogenic explanation of these diseases associated with the presence of nano-sized particles in the organism has emerged into a new field of pathology, nanopathology.

  7. Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size

    DOEpatents

    Novick, V.J.

    1998-10-06

    A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data. 2 figs.

  8. An optical trapped nanohand for manipulating micron-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Graham; Barron, Louise; Beck, Fiona; Whyte, Graeme; Padgett, Miles

    2006-08-01

    Optical tweezers use the electric-field gradient-force associated with tightly focused laser beams to trap micron-sized objects at the beam focus. Over the last few years optical tweezers have been revolutionized by the addition of spatial light modulators to split the laser beam into many traps that can be individually controlled; a technique called holographic optical tweezers. However, the reliance of optical tweezers on the gradient-force largely restricts their application to transparent objects that are not unduly sensitive to the effects of the laser light. Consequently, the manipulation of metallic particles or sensitive biomaterials can be problematic. In this work we use a holographic tweezers to position multiple silica beads acting as an optical gripper to lift, rotate and move micron-sized objects that otherwise do not lend themselves to tweezers control. We illustrate the use of the optical gripper under real-time joystick control to manipulate micron-sized metallic particles with nano-scale precision.

  9. Large size metallic glass gratings by embossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Yi, J.; Zhao, D. Q.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.

    2012-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses have excellent thermoforming ability in their wide supercooled liquid region. We show that large-size metallic glass grating (˜8 × 8 mm2) with fine periodicity and ultra smooth surface feature can be readily fabricated by hot embossing. The method for fabrication of gratings is proved to be much cheaper, and requires low pressure and short time (less than 30 s). The metallic glass gratings exhibit comparable optical properties such as rainbow-like spectrum when shone by fluorescent lamp light.

  10. Stability of metal particle and metal particulate media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kazuhiro

    1992-01-01

    Metal particulate (MP) video tape was launched for 8 mm video tape in 1985. Since then MP tapes have been applied to several consumer formats and instrumental formats because of its superior electrical performance. Recently data storage media, such as DDS and D-8, have started employing MP tape. However, there are serious concerns with archival stability of MP tape particularly in the case of data storage use, as metal particles essentially have problems with chemical instability and are susceptible to oxidation and corrosion. Although there were some studies about the archival stability of metal particles or MP tapes, a clear understanding has yet to be reached. In this paper, we report the stability of magnetic properties of current metal particles, and then discuss the new technologies to improve the stability further.

  11. The determination and optimization of (rutile) pigment particle size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A light scattering particle size test which can be used with materials having a broad particle size distribution is described. This test is useful for pigments. The relation between the particle size distribution of a rutile pigment and its optical performance in a gray tint test at low pigment concentration is calculated and compared with experimental data.

  12. The determination and optimization of (rutile) pigment particle size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A light scattering particle size test which can be used with materials having a broad particle size distribution is described. This test is useful for pigments. The relation between the particle size distribution of a rutile pigment and its optical performance in a gray tint test at low pigment concentration is calculated and compared with experimental data.

  13. Generation of size-monodisperse metal nanoparticles by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2003-10-01

    Size-monodisperse pure copper metal particles were formed from metal salt precursors in a spray pyrolysis process that uses ethanol as a co-solvent, thus avoiding the addition of hydrogen or other reducing gases. In addition, the uniform-size particles were classified using a droplet impactor plate, which eliminates larger droplets at the atomizer prior to entering the reactor furnace. To investigate the role of ethanol co-solvent for the formation of phase pure metal particles in the spray pyrolysis process, the generation of phase pure copper and nickel particles from aqueous solutions of copper acetate, copper nitrate, and nickel nitrates over the temperature range of 450°C to 1000°C was demonstrated. Addition of ethanol as a co-solvent played a crucial role in producing phase pure metal powders. Results of a modeling study of ethanol decomposition kinetics suggested that co-solvent decomposition created a strong reducing atmosphere during spray pyrolysis via in-situ production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. With the size-classified copper spheres as well as monodisperse polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres, the polarization and intensity of light scattered by those spheres, having diameters ranging from 92 nm to 218 nm, deposited on silicon substrates were measured using 442 nm, 532 nm, and 633 nm light. The results showed that accurate calculation of the scattering of light by a metal sphere requires that the near-field interaction between the sphere and its image is included in a complete manner. The normal incidence approximation did not suffice for this interaction, and the existence of any thin oxide layer on the substrate must be included in the calculation. In order to further examine the effects of light scattering by particles on a silicon substrate having an oxide coating, the polarization and intensity of light scattered by 101 nm polystyrene latex (PSL) and 100 nm copper spheres, deposited on silicon substrates containing various thickness of oxide

  14. Small particle melting of pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. L.; Bayles, R. A.; Gile, W. W.; Jesser, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    Submicron-sized crystallites of lead, tin, indium and bismuth were melted in situ in the modified specimen chamber of a Siemens transmission e lectron microscope. Melting point and size determinations were made directly from the dark field images of the crystallites. Particles exhibited melting points that decreased with decreasing particle size. A near-linear relationship was observed for the melting point as a function of the reciprocal of the radius. Thermodynamnic expressions based on the significant contributions of the surface energy to the free energy of the system also suggest a linear relation. Other factors, such as shape and surface contamination, were also observed to affect the size-dependent melting of particles. Crystallites of extended platelet shape did not exhibit a significant depression in melting point. Elevated residual gas pressures were found to lessen the melting point depression of spherical particles.

  15. Small particle melting of pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. L.; Bayles, R. A.; Gile, W. W.; Jesser, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    Submicron-sized crystallites of lead, tin, indium and bismuth were melted in situ in the modified specimen chamber of a Siemens transmission e lectron microscope. Melting point and size determinations were made directly from the dark field images of the crystallites. Particles exhibited melting points that decreased with decreasing particle size. A near-linear relationship was observed for the melting point as a function of the reciprocal of the radius. Thermodynamnic expressions based on the significant contributions of the surface energy to the free energy of the system also suggest a linear relation. Other factors, such as shape and surface contamination, were also observed to affect the size-dependent melting of particles. Crystallites of extended platelet shape did not exhibit a significant depression in melting point. Elevated residual gas pressures were found to lessen the melting point depression of spherical particles.

  16. Laser dispersion and ignition of metal fuel particles.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, Ahmed A; Brodt, Matthew W; Carney, Joel R; Lightstone, James M

    2011-06-01

    The development of a laser-shock technique for dispersing Al metal fuel particles at velocities approaching those expected in a detonating explosive is discussed. The technique is described in detail by quantifying how air drag affects the temporal variation of the velocity of the dispersed particle plume. The effect of particle size is incorporated by examining various poly-dispersed commercial Al powders at different dispersion velocities (390-630 m/s). The technique is finally tested within a preliminary study of particle ignition delay and burn time, where the effect of velocity is highlighted for different particle sizes. It was found that plume velocity exhibits a modified exponential temporal profile, where smaller particles are more susceptible to air drag than larger ones. Moreover, larger particles exhibit longer ignition delays and burn times than smaller ones. The velocity of a particle was found to significantly affect its ignition delay, burn time, and combustion temperature, especially for particles in the diffusion-controlled regime. Shorter ignition delays and burn times and lower temperatures were observed at higher particle velocities. The utility of this technique as a combustion screening test for future, novel fuels is discussed.

  17. Metallic adhesion in atomic-size junctions.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Bollinger, G; Joyez, P; Agraït, N

    2004-09-10

    We report high resolution simultaneous measurements of electrical conductance and force gradient between two sharp gold tips as their separation is varied from the tunneling distance to atomic-size contact. The use of atomically sharp tips minimizes van der Waals interaction, making it possible to identify the short-range metallic adhesion contribution to the total force.

  18. In vitro macrophage response to nanometer-size particles from materials used in hip implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanOs, Robilyn

    Wear particle-induced inflammation leading to periprosthetic osteolysis remains a major cause of hip implant failure. As polyethylene particles from conventional metal-on-polyethylene implants have been associated with these failures, an interest in lower wear metal-on-metal (MM) bearings has emerged. However, the biological effects of nanometer-size chromium oxide particles, predominant type of wear particles produced by MM implants, remain mostly unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the cytotoxicity of nanometer-size Cr2O3 particles on macrophages in vitro, by analyzing their effects on cell mortality and cytokine release and comparing them with those of similarly-sized alumina (Al2O3) particles (known to be relatively bioinert). Results showed that at high concentrations, nanometer-size Cr2O3 particles can be cytotoxic to macrophages, inducing significant decreases in total cell numbers and increases in necrosis. Results also showed that, at high concentrations, the cytotoxicity of Cr 2O3 particles was overall higher than that of Al2O 3 particles, even though Cr2O3 and Al2O 3 are both stable forms of ceramic materials. However, it appeared to be lower than that of previously reported conventional polyethylene and CoCrMo particles. Therefore, chromium oxide particles may not be the main culprit in initiating the inflammatory reaction in MM periprosthetic tissues.

  19. An alternative method for determining particle-size distribution of forest road aggregate and soil with large-sized particles

    Treesearch

    Hakjun Rhee; Randy B. Foltz; James L. Fridley; Finn Krogstad; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of particle-size distribution (PSD) of soil with large-sized particles (e.g., 25.4 mm diameter) requires a large sample and numerous particle-size analyses (PSAs). A new method is needed that would reduce time, effort, and cost for PSAs of the soil and aggregate material with large-sized particles. We evaluated a nested method for sampling and PSA by...

  20. Effect of Friction Testing of Metals on Particle Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouam, J.; Songmene, V.; Djebara, A.; Khettabi, R.

    2012-06-01

    Metallic particles emitted during manufacturing processes can represent a serious danger for occupational safety. The mechanisms responsible for these particle emissions include two- and three-body frictions; Moreover, such particles can also be emitted during several other processes, including mechanical braking. To be in a position to devise ways to reduce these particle emissions at the source, it is important to know their size, quantity, and distribution, as well as the relationships between operating conditions and particle emissions. This article investigates nanoparticle and microparticle emissions during two friction tests: one (setup 1: pin in rotation only) simulates the friction occurring during mechanical braking actions, and another (setup 2: pin in rotation and translation) simulates the friction taking place at the tool-workpiece interface during metal cutting processes. The materials tested were aluminum alloys (6061-T6 and 7075-T6), and the pin used was a carbide cylinder. Particle emission was monitored using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) for nanoparticles, and the Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS) for microparticles. It was found that friction produces more nanoparticles than microparticles, and that total particle emission can be reduced by operating at low or at high sliding speeds.

  1. Disposition of disodium cromoglycate administered in three particle sizes.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, S H; Taylor, A J; Evans, S; Godfrey, S; Zeidifard, E

    1975-01-01

    1 Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) was administered in three particle sizes to five human subjects. 2 Urinary excretion of DSCG, as a proportion of the dose, was highest following small particles; the lower values recorded following intermediate-sized and large particles were similar. 3 DSCG deposited in the mouth was highest following large particles; the lower values recorded following intermediate-sized and small particles were similar. 4 The data were examined in relation to the recent observation that the protective effect of small particles of DSCG is dramatically superior to that of large particles. PMID:825134

  2. Size control of noble metal clusters and metallic heterostructures through the reduction kinetics of metal precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevonkaev, Igor V.; Herein, Daniel; Jeske, Gerald; Goia, Dan V.

    2014-07-01

    Eight precious metal salts/complexes were reduced in propylene glycol at temperatures ranging between 110 and 170 °C. We found that the reduction temperature and the size of precipitated metallic nanoparticles formed were significantly affected by the structure and reactivity of the metal precursors. The choice of noble metal precursor offers flexibility for designing, fabricating and controlling the size of metallic heterostructures with tunable properties.Eight precious metal salts/complexes were reduced in propylene glycol at temperatures ranging between 110 and 170 °C. We found that the reduction temperature and the size of precipitated metallic nanoparticles formed were significantly affected by the structure and reactivity of the metal precursors. The choice of noble metal precursor offers flexibility for designing, fabricating and controlling the size of metallic heterostructures with tunable properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03045a

  3. Monodisperse Block Copolymer Particles with Controllable Size, Shape, and Nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Man; Kim, Yongjoo; Kim, Bumjoon; PNEL Team

    Shape-anisotropic particles are important class of novel colloidal building block for their functionality is more strongly governed by their shape, size and nanostructure compared to conventional spherical particles. Recently, facile strategy for producing non-spherical polymeric particles by interfacial engineering received significant attention. However, achieving uniform size distribution of particles together with controlled shape and nanostructure has not been achieved. Here, we introduce versatile system for producing monodisperse BCP particles with controlled size, shape and morphology. Polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) self-assembled to either onion-like or striped ellipsoid particle, where final structure is governed by amount of adsorbed sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant at the particle/surrounding interface. Further control of molecular weight and particle size enabled fine-tuning of aspect ratio of ellipsoid particle. Underlying physics of free energy for morphology formation and entropic penalty associated with bending BCP chains strongly affects particle structure and specification.

  4. Disintegration and size reduction of slags and metals after melt refining of contaminated metallic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    Melting under an oxidizing slag is an attractive method of decontaminating and reducing the volume of radioactively contaminated metal scrap. The contaminants are concentrated in a relatively small volume of slag, which leaves the metal essentially clean. A potential method of permanently disposing of the resulting slags (and metals if necessary) is emplacing them into deep shale by grout hydrofracture. Suspension in grout mixtures requires that the slag and metal be granular. The feasibility of size-reducing slags and disintegrating metals and subsequently incorporating both into grout mixtures was demonstrated. Various types of slags were crushed with a small jaw crusher into particles smaller than 3 mm. Several metals were also melted and water-blasted into coarse metal powder or shot ranging in size from 0.05 to 3 mm. A simple low-pressure water atomizer having a multiple nozzle with a converging-line jet stream was developed and used for this purpose. No significant slag dust and steam were generated during slag crushing and liquid-metal water-blasting tests, indicating that contamination can be well contained within the system. The crushed slags and the coarse metal powders were suspendable in group fluids, which indicates probable disposability by shale hydrofracture. The granulation of slags and metals facilitates their containment, transport, and storage.

  5. Identifying airborne metal particles sources near an optoelectronic and semiconductor industrial park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chen, Wei-Yea; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Lin, Yu-Hao

    2016-06-01

    The recently developed Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) in central Taiwan is home to an optoelectronic and semiconductor industrial cluster. Therefore, exploring the elemental compositions and size distributions of airborne particles emitted from the CTSP would help to prevent pollution. This study analyzed size-fractionated metal-rich particle samples collected in upwind and downwind areas of CTSP during Jan. and Oct. 2013 by using micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI). Correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and particle mass-size distribution analysis are performed to identify the source of metal-rich particle near the CTSP. Analyses of elemental compositions and particle size distributions emitted from the CTSP revealed that the CTSP emits some metals (V, As, In Ga, Cd and Cu) in the ultrafine particles (< 1 μm). The statistical analysis combines with the particle mass-size distribution analysis could provide useful source identification information. In airborne particles with the size of 0.32 μm, Ga could be a useful pollution index for optoelectronic and semiconductor emission in the CTSP. Meanwhile, the ratios of As/Ga concentration at the particle size of 0.32 μm demonstrates that humans near the CTSP would be potentially exposed to GaAs ultrafine particles. That is, metals such as Ga and As and other metals that are not regulated in Taiwan are potentially harmful to human health.

  6. The particle size magnifier closing the gap between measurement of molecules, molecular clusters and aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkilä, Jyri; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Sipilä, Mikko; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas; Petäjä, Tuukka

    2013-05-01

    The Particle Size Magnifier lowers the cut-off size of a Condensation Particle Counter even down to about 1 nm in mobility diameter. By scanning the supersaturation also size information of the particles can be gained. We demonstrated that the PSM can detect particles starting from molecular sizes. By combining the data with newly developed mass spectrometric methods particle formation and growth can be followed molecule by molecule.

  7. Size characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles in commercial sunscreen products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Lim, Jin-Hee; Fong, Andrew; Linder, Sean W.

    2017-07-01

    There is an increase in the usage of engineered metal oxide (TiO2 and ZnO) nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens due to their pleasing esthetics and greater sun protection efficiency. A number of studies have been done concerning the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreen products. In order to do the safety assessment, it is pertinent to develop novel analytical techniques to analyze these nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. This study is focused on developing analytical techniques that can efficiently determine particle size of metal oxides present in the commercial sunscreens. To isolate the mineral UV filters from the organic matrices, specific procedures such as solvent extraction were identified. In addition, several solvents (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, and tetrahydrofuran) have been investigated. The solvent extraction using tetrahydrofuran worked well for all the samples investigated. The isolated nanoparticles were characterized by using several different techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugal sedimentation, and x-ray diffraction. Elemental analysis mapping studies were performed to obtain individual chemical and morphological identities of the nanoparticles. Results from the electron microscopy techniques were compared against the bulk particle sizing techniques. All of the sunscreen products tested in this study were found to contain nanosized (≤100 nm) metal oxide particles with varied shapes and aspect ratios, and four among the 11 products were showed to have anatase TiO2.

  8. Permeability of packed coal beds: The effect of particle size distribution, particle size and coal type

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, S.C.; Slaghuis, J.H.; Walt, T.J. van der

    1998-12-31

    Sasol operates 97 Lurgi type gasifiers for the production of syngas using lump coal obtained from 7 captive coal mines. Permeability of packed coal beds of the coal has been identified as one of the major variables affecting stable operation which in turn affects maximum coal throughput and gas production. A tenth scale instrumented cold perspex model simulating a gasifier was constructed in which the pressure drop per unit bed length for a given gas flow could be measured. The effect of particle size distribution, particle size and coal type on the pressure drop (and hence permeability) was measured. The results were augmented by measuring void fractions as well as shape factors for the different coal types. The effect of size segregation during filling of the scale model was also investigated. Results have shown that bed permeability is strongly affected by the 3 variables investigated. The change in void fraction was found to be very small and could not be linked to the change in permeability. Size segregation resulted in a difference in gas flow rate between the center of the coal bed and against the wall of the model. The significance of the observations are discussed in terms of gasifier stability, optimum pressure drop and the effect of thermal size stability of coal upon entering the gasifier.

  9. Sources of metals and bromine-containing particles in Milwaukee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Alison M.; Thompson, Samantha L.; de Foy, Benjamin; Olson, Michael R.; Sager, Nicholas; McGinnis, Jerome; Schauer, James J.; Gross, Deborah S.

    2013-07-01

    An Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed in summer 2010 in central Milwaukee as part of a study to understand the sources of primary and secondary aerosol in the non-attainment area of Southeast Wisconsin. Measurements were made continually from mid-July to mid-August, collecting time, size, and chemical composition data on aerosol particles. Trace metals including Se, Cd, Mo, and Sb were detected in the particles. These metals were found to be related and provided information on source types in Milwaukee, generally located southwest of the sampling site, from plumes that appear to originate from point sources. Additionally, Br was detected in individual particle mass spectra during this study, the first such observation at an inland site. Particles that contained Br were found in two different size modes, each of which had a different representative chemical composition. In combination with an analysis of wind direction, the data suggest that the two different size modes of Br-containing particles originate from chemically distinct sources.

  10. Knife mill operating factors effect on switchgrass particle size distributions.

    PubMed

    Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Yang, Yuechuan T; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2009-11-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) particle size distributions created by a knife mill were determined for integral classifying screen sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates from 2 to 11 kg/min. Particle distributions were classified with standardized sieves for forage analysis that included horizontal sieving motion with machined-aluminum sieves of thickness proportional to sieve opening dimensions. Then, a wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Correlation coefficient of geometric mean length with knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.872, 0.349, and 0.037, respectively. Hence, knife mill screen size largely determined particle size of switchgrass chop. Feed rate had an unexpected influence on particle size, though to a lesser degree than screen size. The Rosin-Rammler function fit the chopped switchgrass size distribution data with an R(2)>0.982. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Uniformity coefficient was more than 4.0, which indicated a large assortment of particles and also represented a well-graded particle size distribution. Knife mill chopping of switchgrass produced 'strongly fine skewed mesokurtic' particles with 12.7-25.4 mm screens and 'fine skewed mesokurtic' particles with 50.8 mm screen. Results of this extensive analysis of particle sizes can be applied to selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of switchgrass chop, and will serve as a guide for relations among the various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

  11. Knife mill operating factors effect on switchgrass particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Yang, Y.T.; Igathinathane, C.; Miu, P.I; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-06-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) particle size distributions created by a knife mill were determined for integral classifying screen sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates from 2 to 11 kg/min. Particle distributions were classified with standardized sieves for forage analysis that included horizontal sieving motion with machined-aluminum sieves of thickness proportional to sieve opening dimensions. Then, a wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Correlation coefficient of geometric mean length with knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.872, 0.349, and 0.037, respectively. Hence, knife mill screen size largely determined particle size of switchgrass chop. Feed rate had an unexpected influence on particle size, though to a lesser degree than screen size. The Rosin Rammler function fit the chopped switchgrass size distribution data with an R2 > 0.982. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Uniformity coefficient was more than 4.0, which indicated a large assortment of particles and also represented a well-graded particle size distribution. Knife mill chopping of switchgrass produced strongly fine skewed mesokurtic particles with 12.7 25.4 mm screens and fine skewed mesokurtic particles with 50.8 mm screen. Results of this extensive analysis of particle sizes can be applied to selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of switchgrass chop, and will serve as a guide for relations among the various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

  12. Monitoring the particle size in CFB using fuzzy neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.; Chen, H.; Tian, Z.; He, W.

    1999-07-01

    The particle size and particle size distributions (PSDs) affect the performance of a circulating fluidized (CFB) boiler. For improving the efficiency of analysis of particle size to monitor the particle size and particle size distribution, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) model is presented. Because the pressure fluctuant frequency and particle size have some non-linear relationship, the FNN models the relationship between the pressure fluctuant frequencies along CFB boiler height and particle size sampled from CFB boiler by neural network training. A hybrid fuzzy neural network parameter training method is presented to identify the model parameters, which combine the gradient back propagation (BP) algorithm and least square estimation (LSE) algorithm to estimate unknown non-linear parameter and linear parameter respectively. When the FNN training procedure converges, the parameters, which reflect the non-linear relationship between frequency and particle, are determined for a given operational condition of CFB boiler. In operating CFB boilers, the coal particle size at high temperature changes with combustion and its values are unknown, however, pressure fluctuation frequency can be obtained easily. In this case, FNN can predict the particle size and PSDs along the CFB boiler height according to the pressure fluctuation frequency. To validate the FNN model effect of analyzing the particle size, data from experiment are used with fluidized gas velocity equal to 41.82 cm/s. The predictive error of FNN model is 3.839%. It is proved that the model not only identifies the non-linear relationship between particle size and pressure fluctuation frequency with high precision but also can adaptively learn the data information without expert knowledge by adjusting its own parameters. It operates quickly and can satisfy the real-time request of monitoring the particle size and its distribution in CFB boilers.

  13. Introducing asymmetric functionality into MOFs via the generation of metallic Janus MOF particles.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Abraham; Carbonell, Carlos; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

    2016-04-14

    Herein we report a versatile methodology for engineering metallic Janus MOF particles based on desymmetrization at interfaces, whereby each MOF particle is partially coated with a desired metal. We demonstrate that it enables the fabrication of homogeneous Janus MOF particles according to the MOF (ZIF-8, UiO-66 or UiO-66-SH), the metal (Au, Co or Pt), the MOF particle size (from the micrometer to the submicrometer regime) and the metal-film thickness (from 5 nm to 50 nm) employed. We anticipate that our strategy could be applied to impart new functionalities to MOFs, including asymmetric functionalization, magnetic-guidance and motorization.

  14. Process for preparation of large-particle-size monodisperse latexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Kornfeld, D. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Monodisperse latexes having a particle size in the range of 2 to 40 microns are prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization in microgravity. A reaction mixture containing smaller monodisperse latex seed particles, predetermined amounts of monomer, emulsifier, initiator, inhibitor and water is placed in a microgravity environment, and polymerization is initiated by heating. The reaction is allowed to continue until the seed particles grow to a predetermined size, and the resulting enlarged particles are then recovered. A plurality of particle-growing steps can be used to reach larger sizes within the stated range, with enlarge particles from the previous steps being used as seed particles for the succeeding steps. Microgravity enables preparation of particles in the stated size range by avoiding gravity related problems of creaming and settling, and flocculation induced by mechanical shear that have precluded their preparation in a normal gravity environment.

  15. Evaluation of process for sludge particle size reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Precechtel, D.R.; Packer, M.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-18

    This document evaluates the available technology for K Basin sludge particle size. The results can be used to demonstrate the sensitivity or lack thereof, of K Basin sludge to available reduction processes and TWRS proposed particle acceptance criteria.

  16. Computer measurement of particle sizes in electron microscope images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. L.; Thompson, W. B.; Varsi, G.; Gauldin, R.

    1976-01-01

    Computer image processing techniques have been applied to particle counting and sizing in electron microscope images. Distributions of particle sizes were computed for several images and compared to manually computed distributions. The results of these experiments indicate that automatic particle counting within a reasonable error and computer processing time is feasible. The significance of the results is that the tedious task of manually counting a large number of particles can be eliminated while still providing the scientist with accurate results.

  17. Single Metal Particles Nanoscale Friction and Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Xing; Kappl, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The sliding behavior between single pairs of gold and carbonyl iron particles with diameters of 5-10 μm were studied by Friction Force Microscopy. Normal load between the particles during friction was varied in the range of 0-3 μN. For the gold particles, two different wear regimes could be observed. At lower loads, only mild wear was observed, probably due to the typical organic contamination layer. At higher loads, strong wear of the gold surface was observed due to direct metallic contact. For the sliding between CIP, only mild wear was observed possibly due to the protective oxide layers which prevented the formaton of direct metallic contacts. The evolution of friction between the sliding particles was quantitively examined by use of inverse cumulative distribution functions, which allowed to correlate the increase in friction with the change in surface topography. During mild wear, the friction in the sliding area was found to change with the local radius of curvature and to increase nearly linear with increasing load. Within this regime, the dependence of friction F on load W followed the relation F = μW+F0. The values μ and F0 obtained from different combinations of particles were 0.42±0.26 and 106±104 nN for gold and 0.36±0.16 and 43±41 nN for iron respectively.

  18. Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2005-02-08

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  19. Brazil-nut effect: Size separation of granular particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möbius, Matthias E.; Lauderdale, Benjamin E.; Nagel, Sidney R.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2001-11-01

    Granular media differ from other materials in their response to stirring or jostling - unlike two-fluid systems, bi-disperse granular mixtures will separate according to particle size when shaken, with large particles rising, a phenomenon termed the 'Brazil-nut effect'. Mounting evidence indicates that differences in particle density affect size separation in mixtures of granular particles. We show here that this density dependence does not follow a steady trend but is non-monotonic and sensitive to background air pressure. Our results indicate that particle density and interstitial air must both be considered in size segregation.

  20. Dependence of strength on particle size in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, E.P.; Kennedy, C.R.

    1980-06-08

    The strength to particle size relationship for specially fabricated graphites has been demonstrated and rationalized using fracture mechanics. In the past, similar studies have yielded empirical data using only commercially available material. Thus, experimental verification of these relationships has been difficult. However, the graphites of this study were fabricated by controlling the particle size ranges for a series of isotropic graphites. All graphites that were evaluated had a constant 1.85 g/cm/sup 3/ density. Thus, particle size was the only variable. This study also considered the particle size effect on other physical properties; coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), electrical resistivity, fracture strain, and Young's modulus.

  1. Simulation of impulse effects from explosive charges containing metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, K.; Nance, D. V.; Menon, S.

    2010-06-01

    The propagation of an explosive blast wave containing inert metal particles is investigated numerically using a robust two-phase methodology with appropriate models to account for real gas behavior, inter-phase interactions, and inter-particle collisions to study the problem of interest. A new two-phase Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation is proposed that can handle the dense nature of the flow-field. The velocity and momentum profiles of the gas and particle phases are analyzed and used to elucidate the inter-phase momentum transfer, and its effect on the impulsive aspects of heterogeneous explosive charges. The particles are found to pick up significant amounts of momentum and kinetic energy from the gas, and by virtue of their inertia, are observed to sustain it for a longer time. The impulse characteristics of heterogeneous explosives are compared with a homogeneous explosive containing the same amount of high explosive, and it is observed that the addition of solid particles augments the impulsive loading significantly in the near-field, and to a smaller extent in the far-field. The total impulsive loading is found to be insensitive to the particle size added to the explosive charge above a certain cut-off radius, but the individual impulse components are found to be sensitive, and particles smaller than this cut-off size deliver about 8% higher total impulse than the larger ones. Overall, this study provides crucial insights to understand the impulsive loading characteristics of heterogeneous explosives.

  2. The biological response to nanometre-sized polymer particles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aiqin; Richards, Laura; Bladen, Catherine L.; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John; Tipper, Joanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, nanometre-sized UHMWPE particles generated from hip and knee replacements have been identified in vitro and in vivo. UHMWPE particles in the 0.1–1.0 μm size range have been shown to be more biologically active than larger particles, provoking an inflammatory response implicated in late aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. The biological activity of nanometre-sized particles has not previously been studied. The biological response to clinically-relevant UHMWPE wear particles including nanometre-sized and micrometre-sized, along with polystyrene particles (FluoSpheres 20 nm, 60 nm, 200 nm and 1.0 μm), and nanometre-sized model polyethylene particles (Ceridust 3615®), was determined in terms of osteolytic cytokine release from primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). Nanometre-sized UHMWPE wear particles, nanometre-sized Ceridust 3615® and 20 nm FluoSpheres had no significant effect on TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 release from PBMNCs at a concentration of 100 μm3 particles per cell after 12 and 24 h. The micrometre-size UHMWPE wear particles (0.1–1.0 μm) and 60 nm, 200 nm and 1.0 μm FluoSpheres caused significantly elevated osteolytic cytokine release from PBMNCs. These results indicated that particles below circa 50 nm fail to activate PBMNCs and that particle size, composition and morphology played a crucial role in cytokine release by particle stimulated macrophages. PMID:26004221

  3. Particle size dependent chemistry from laser ablation of brass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyi; Mao, Xianglei; Mao, Sam S; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E

    2005-10-15

    The proportion of zinc and copper in particles formed by laser ablation of brass was found to vary with the particle diameter. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis showed that smaller particles were zinc enhanced while larger particles were composed mostly of copper. A model based on condensation of vapor onto large droplets ejected from a melted liquid layer is proposed to describe the change in particle composition versus size.

  4. Seed particle response and size characterization in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudoff, Roger C.; Bachalo, William D.

    1991-01-01

    The response of seed particles ranging between 0.7 and 8.7 micron is determined using a phase Doppler particle analyzer which simultaneously measures particle size and velocity. The stagnant seed particles are entrained into a high speed free jet at velocities ranging from 40 to 300 m/s. The size-mean axial velocity correlation and size-rms velocity correlations are used to determine the particle response to the sudden acceleration. It was determined that at the lower speeds, seed particles up to approximately 5 microns are adequate, but as velocities approach 300 m/s only particles on the order of one micron are suitable. The ability to determine size and velocity simultaneously is essential if seeding with polydispersions is used since it allows the rejection of data which will not accurately represent the flow field.

  5. Seed particle response and size characterization in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudoff, Roger C.; Bachalo, William D.

    1991-01-01

    The response of seed particles ranging between 0.7 and 8.7 micron is determined using a phase Doppler particle analyzer which simultaneously measures particle size and velocity. The stagnant seed particles are entrained into a high speed free jet at velocities ranging from 40 to 300 m/s. The size-mean axial velocity correlation and size-rms velocity correlations are used to determine the particle response to the sudden acceleration. It was determined that at the lower speeds, seed particles up to approximately 5 microns are adequate, but as velocities approach 300 m/s only particles on the order of one micron are suitable. The ability to determine size and velocity simultaneously is essential if seeding with polydispersions is used since it allows the rejection of data which will not accurately represent the flow field.

  6. Selective follicular targeting by modification of the particle sizes.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Knorr, Fanny; Schäfer, Ulrich; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Dähne, Lars; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2011-02-28

    Hair follicles represent interesting target sites for topically applied substances such as topical vaccinations or agents used in the field of regenerative medicine. In recent years, it could be shown that particles penetrate very effectively into the hair follicles. In the present study, the influence of particle size on the follicular penetration depths was examined. The penetration depths of two different types of particles sized 122 to 1000 nm were determined in vitro on porcine skin. The results revealed that the particles of medium size (643 and 646 nm, respectively) penetrated deeper into the porcine hair follicles than smaller or larger particles. It was concluded that by varying the particle size, different sites within the porcine hair follicle can be targeted selectively. For the human terminal hair follicle, the situation can be expected to be similar due to a similar size ratio of the hair follicles.

  7. Effects of surface charge, micro-bubble size and particle size on removal efficiency of electro-flotation.

    PubMed

    Han, M Y; Kim, M K; Ahn, H J

    2006-01-01

    Flotation is a water treatment alternative to sedimentation, and uses small bubbles to remove low-density particles from potable water and wastewater. The effect of zeta potential, bubble size and particle size on removal efficiency of the electro-flotation process was investigated because previous model-simulations indicated that these attributes are critical for high collision efficiency between micro-bubbles and particles. Solutions containing Al3+ as the metal ion were subjected to various conditions. The zeta potentials of bubbles and particles were similar under identical conditions, and their charges were influenced by metal ion concentration and pH. Maximum removal efficiency was 98 and 12% in the presence and absence of flocculation, respectively. Removal efficiency was higher when particle size was similar to bubble size. These results agree with modelling simulations and indicate that collision efficiency is greater when the zeta potential of one is negative and that of the other is positive and when their sizes are similar.

  8. Artificial neural network based particle size prediction of polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Youshia, John; Ali, Mohamed Ehab; Lamprecht, Alf

    2017-10-01

    Particle size of nanoparticles and the respective polydispersity are key factors influencing their biopharmaceutical behavior in a large variety of therapeutic applications. Predicting these attributes would skip many preliminary studies usually required to optimize formulations. The aim was to build a mathematical model capable of predicting the particle size of polymeric nanoparticles produced by a pharmaceutical polymer of choice. Polymer properties controlling the particle size were identified as molecular weight, hydrophobicity and surface activity, and were quantified by measuring polymer viscosity, contact angle and interfacial tension, respectively. A model was built using artificial neural network including these properties as input with particle size and polydispersity index as output. The established model successfully predicted particle size of nanoparticles covering a range of 70-400nm prepared from other polymers. The percentage bias for particle prediction was 2%, 4% and 6%, for the training, validation and testing data, respectively. Polymer surface activity was found to have the highest impact on the particle size followed by viscosity and finally hydrophobicity. Results of this study successfully highlighted polymer properties affecting particle size and confirmed the usefulness of artificial neural networks in predicting the particle size and polydispersity of polymeric nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulation of Particle Size Effect on Dynamic Properties and Fracture of PTFE-W-Al Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbold, E. B.; Cai, J.; Benson, D. J.; Nesterenko, V. F.

    2007-12-01

    Recent investigations of the dynamic compressive strength of cold isostatically pressed composites of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), tungsten (W) and aluminum (Al) powders show significant differences depending on the size of metallic particles. The addition of W increases the density and changes the overall strength of the sample depending on the size of W particles. To investigate relatively large deformations, multi-material Eulerian and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian methods, which have the ability to efficiently handle the formation of free surfaces, were used. The calculations indicate that the increased sample strength with fine metallic particles is due to the dynamic formation of force chains. This phenomenon occurs for samples with a higher porosity of the PTFE matrix compared to samples with larger particle size of W and a higher density PTFE matrix.

  10. Toxicity of nano- and micro-sized ZnO particles in human lung epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weisheng; Xu, Yi; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Ma, Yinfa; Shannon, Katie B.; Chen, Da-Ren; Huang, Yue-Wern

    2009-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate the cytotoxicity, biochemical mechanisms of toxicity, and oxidative DNA damage caused by exposing human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived cells (A549) to 70 and 420 nm ZnO particles. Particles of either size significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner within a rather narrow dosage range. Particle mass-based dosimetry and particle-specific surface area-based dosimetry yielded two distinct patterns of cytotoxicity in both 70 and 420 nm ZnO particles. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulted in intracellular oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cell membrane leakage, and oxidative DNA damage. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on ZnO-induced cytotoxicity further implicated oxidative stress in the cytotoxicity. Free Zn2+ and metal impurities were not major contributors of ROS induction as indicated by limited free Zn2+ cytotoxicity, extent of Zn2+ dissociation in the cell culture medium, and inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry metal analysis. We conclude that (1) exposure to both sizes of ZnO particles leads to dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity reflected in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cell membrane damage, and oxidative DNA damage, (2) ZnO particles exhibit a much steeper dose-response pattern unseen in other metal oxides, and (3) neither free Zn2+ nor metal impurity in the ZnO particle samples is the cause of cytotoxicity.

  11. Planar particle/droplet size measurement technique using digital particle image velocimetry image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P. (Inventor); Mielke, Amy F. (Inventor); Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method for determining a mass flux of an entrained phase in a planar two-phase flow records images of particles in the two-phase flow. Respective sizes of the particles (the entrained phase) are determined as a function of a separation between spots identified on the particle images. Respective velocities of the particles are determined. The mass flux of the entrained phase is determined as a function of the size and velocity of the particles.

  12. Effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Particle size reduction is a crucial factor in transportation logistics as well as cellulosic conversion. The effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus x giganteus was determined. Miscanthus was ground using a hammer mill equipped with screens having 0.08, 2.0 or 6.0...

  13. Hydrodynamic model for particle size segregation in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2003-12-01

    We present a hydrodynamic theoretical model for “Brazil nut” size segregation in granular materials. We give analytical solutions for the rise velocity of a large intruder particle immersed in a medium of monodisperse fluidized small particles. We propose a new mechanism for this particle size-segregation due to buoyant forces caused by density variations which come from differences in the local “granular temperature”. The mobility of the particles is modified by the energy dissipation due to inelastic collisions and this leads to a different behavior from what one would expect for an elastic system. Using our model we can explain the size ratio dependence of the upward velocity.

  14. Particle Size Influences Fibronectin Internalization and Degradation by Fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozavikov, Peter

    Particle size is a crucial factor that influences the fate and biological impact of particles and their surface proteins upon internalization. Here, using fibronectin-coated polystyrene nanoparticles and microparticles we examined the effect of particle size on degradation of fibronectin. Microparticle uptake depended primarily on beta1 integrins and actin filaments, while nanoparticle uptake relied mainly on lipid rafts and specifically on clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Further, biotinylated fibronectin when coated on microparticles underwent more intracellular processing than fibronectin coated on to nanoparticles. Thus, particle size affects actin and clathrin- dependent internalization, which in turn regulates intracellular fibronectin degradation.

  15. A hybrid mathematical model for controlling particle size, particle size distribution, and color properties of toner particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataeefard, Maryam; Shadman, Alireza; Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Yousef

    2016-08-01

    A mathematical modeling approach was proposed combining the capabilities of response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF) and implemented successfully in production of printing toner particles. Toner powders were systematically synthesized through suspension copolymerization process. Applying RSM, a series of experiments were designed and toner particles were prepared and the effects of monomer ratio, colorant and surfactant content on the particle size (PS), particle size distribution (PSD), thermal and colorimetric properties (∆ E) of the resulting toner were monitored and discussed. The second-order models corresponding to each target characteristic, i.e., PS, PSD, and ∆ E of different types of toner powders, were obtained by individual optimization to express variation of each property in terms of polymerization parameters. Applying statistical calculations, the best reduced models were identified to be fed in the second step of optimization. Since toners with appropriate PS, PSD, and CP were needed, we applied multi-objective optimization based on DF approach. The results show that exact tuning of toner properties is closely possible with the aid of hybrid mathematical model developed in this work. Noticeably, desirabilities are very close to 100 %.

  16. Stability and size of particle pairs in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.; Ivlev, A. V.; Kompaneets, R.; Morfill, G.

    2014-11-15

    Particle pairing in a complex plasma was experimentally studied with the emphasis on pair spatial extent and stability. Micron-size particles were suspended in the (pre)sheath area above the lower electrode in a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge in argon. They formed vertical pairs due to the ion wakes created by the flow of ions past particles. We discuss the confinement mechanism for the lower particle, resulting from a combination of the wake field and the field of non-uniform sheath. A model of particle pairs is proposed, which provides good description for the dependence of pair size and stability on experimental parameters.

  17. PARTICLE CLUMPING AND PLANETESIMAL FORMATION DEPEND STRONGLY ON METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, Anders; Youdin, Andrew; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2009-10-20

    We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of particle clumping and planetesimal formation in protoplanetary disks with varying amounts of solid material. As centimeter-size pebbles settle to the mid-plane, turbulence develops through vertical shearing and streaming instabilities. We find that when the pebble-to-gas column density ratio is 0.01, corresponding roughly to solar metallicity, clumping is weak, so the pebble density rarely exceeds the gas density. Doubling the column density ratio leads to a dramatic increase in clumping, with characteristic particle densities more than 10 times the gas density and maximum densities reaching several thousand times the gas density. This is consistent with unstratified simulations of the streaming instability that show strong clumping in particle-dominated flows. The clumps readily contract gravitationally into interacting planetesimals on the order of 100 km in radius. Our results suggest that the correlation between host star metallicity and exoplanets may reflect the early stages of planet formation. We further speculate that initially low-metallicity disks can be particle enriched during the gas dispersal phase, leading to a late burst of planetesimal formation.

  18. FDTD approach to optical forces of tightly focused vector beams on metal particles.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-Qi; Wang, Xi-Lin; Jia, Ding; Chen, Jing; Fan, Ya-Xian; Ding, Jianping; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2009-05-11

    We propose an improved FDTD method to calculate the optical forces of tightly focused beams on microscopic metal particles. Comparison study on different kinds of tightly focused beams indicates that trapping efficiency can be altered by adjusting the polarization of the incident field. The results also show the size-dependence of trapping forces exerted on metal particles. Transverse tapping forces produced by different illumination wavelengths are also evaluated. The numeric simulation demonstrates the possibility of trapping moderate-sized metal particles whose radii are comparable to wavelength.

  19. Heterogeneity of a metal particle enriched with refractory elements in the CAI Efremovka CV chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Ignatenko, K. I.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the morphology and mineral composition of a macroscopic-size (about 0.5 mm) metallic particle found in a type-B1 CAI fragment from the Efremovka chondrite. Results of mineralographic and chemical analyses showed that the particle consists of two different metallic particles. One of these (EM1A), which is of a hypidiomorphic shape, is composed mainly of taenite and kamacite and contains micron-size inclusions of vanadium oxide. The other particle (EM1) is of ellipsoidal form and, besides taenite and kamacite, is enriched by phosphides; it also contains inclusions of vanadium sulfide and oxide. The EM particle is surrounded by a border of opaque minerals including kulsonite, chromite, and Ca phosphate. The characteristics of this particle have no analogs among the known metal particles in CAI or other carbonaceous chondrites.

  20. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo; Parker, Alan; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Larsen, Rasmus

    2016-05-10

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed, but their low spatial resolution limits their validity ranges for the coefficients. To cover a wider range of coefficients, we use camera-based spectroscopic oblique incidence reflectometry. We develop a noninvasive technique for acquisition of apparent particle size distributions based on this approach. Our technique is validated using stable oil-in-water emulsions with a wide range of known particle size distributions. We also measure the apparent particle size distributions of complex dairy products. These results show that our tool, in contrast to those based on fiber probes, can deal with a range of optical properties wide enough to track apparent particle size distributions in a typical industrial process.

  1. Laser Doppler spectrometer method of particle sizing. [for air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. N.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrometer for the detection of airborne particulate pollution in the submicron size range is described. In this device, airborne particles are accelerated through a supersonic nozzle, with different sizes achieving different velocities in the gas flow. Information about the velocities of the accelerated particles is obtained with a laser-heterodyne optical system through the Doppler shift of light scattered from the particles. Detection is accomplished by means of a photomultiplier. Nozzle design and signal processing techniques are also discussed.

  2. Particle size dependence of biogenic secondary organic aerosol molecular composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Peijun; Johnston, Murray V.

    2017-06-01

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is initiated by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase whose products subsequently partition to the particle phase. Non-volatile molecules have a negligible evaporation rate and grow particles at their condensation rate. Semi-volatile molecules have a significant evaporation rate and grow particles at a much slower rate than their condensation rate. Particle phase chemistry may enhance particle growth if it transforms partitioned semi-volatile molecules into non-volatile products. In principle, changes in molecular composition as a function of particle size allow non-volatile molecules that have condensed from the gas phase (a surface-limited process) to be distinguished from those produced by particle phase reaction (a volume-limited process). In this work, SOA was produced by β-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor. Aerosol exiting the reactor was size-selected with a differential mobility analyzer, and individual particle sizes between 35 and 110 nm in diameter were characterized by on- and offline mass spectrometry. Both the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratio and carbon oxidation state (OSc) were found to decrease with increasing particle size, while the relative signal intensity of oligomers increased with increasing particle size. These results are consistent with oligomer formation primarily in the particle phase (accretion reactions, which become more favored as the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the particle increases). Analysis of a series of polydisperse SOA samples showed similar dependencies: as the mass loading increased (and average volume-to-surface-area ratio increased), the average O / C ratio and OSc decreased, while the relative intensity of oligomer ions increased. The results illustrate the potential impact that particle phase chemistry can have on biogenic SOA formation and the particle size range where this chemistry becomes important.

  3. Particle size and particle-particle interactions on tensile properties and reinforcement of corn flour particles in natural rubber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Renewable corn flour has a significant reinforcement effect in natural rubber. The corn flour was hydrolyzed and microfluidized to reduce its particle size. Greater than 90% of the hydrolyzed corn flour had an average size of ~300 nm, a reduction of 33 times compared to unhydrolyzed corn flour. Comp...

  4. Machine vision based particle size and size distribution determination of airborne dust particles of wood and bark pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C; Pordesimo, L.O.

    2009-08-01

    Dust management strategies in industrial environment, especially of airborne dust, require quantification and measurement of size and size distribution of the particles. Advanced specialized instruments that measure airborne particle size and size distribution apply indirect methods that involve light scattering, acoustic spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. In this research, we propose a simple and direct method of airborne dust particle dimensional measurement and size distribution analysis using machine vision. The method involves development of a user-coded ImageJ plugin that measures particle length and width and analyzes size distribution of particles based on particle length from high-resolution scan images. Test materials were airborne dust from soft pine wood sawdust pellets and ground pine tree bark pellets. Subsamples prepared by dividing the actual dust using 230 mesh (63 m) sieve were analyzed as well. A flatbed document scanner acquired the digital images of the dust particles. Proper sampling, layout of dust particles in singulated arrangement, good contrast smooth background, high resolution images, and accurate algorithm are essential for reliable analysis. A halo effect around grey-scale images ensured correct threshold limits. The measurement algorithm used Feret s diameter for particle length and pixel-march technique for particle width. Particle size distribution was analyzed in a sieveless manner after grouping particles according to their distinct lengths, and several significant dimensions and parameters of particle size distribution were evaluated. Results of the measurement and analysis were presented in textual and graphical formats. The developed plugin was evaluated to have a dimension measurement accuracy in excess of 98.9% and a computer speed of analysis of <8 s/image. Arithmetic mean length of actual wood and bark pellets airborne dust particles were 0.1138 0.0123 and 0.1181 0.0149 mm, respectively. The airborne dust particles of

  5. Reduction of glycine particle size by impinging jet crystallization.

    PubMed

    Tari, Tímea; Fekete, Zoltán; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Aigner, Zoltán

    2015-01-15

    The parameters of crystallization processes determine the habit and particle size distribution of the products. A narrow particle size distribution and a small average particle size are crucial for the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble pharmacons. Thus, particle size reduction is often required during crystallization processes. Impinging jet crystallization is a method that results in a product with a reduced particle size due to the homogeneous and high degree of supersaturation at the impingement point. In this work, the applicability of the impinging jet technique as a new approach in crystallization was investigated for the antisolvent crystallization of glycine. A factorial design was applied to choose the relevant crystallization factors. The results were analysed by means of a statistical program. The particle size distribution of the crystallized products was investigated with a laser diffraction particle size analyser. The roundness and morphology were determined with the use of a light microscopic image analysis system and a scanning electron microscope. Polymorphism was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Headspace gas chromatography was utilized to determine the residual solvent content. Impinging jet crystallization proved to reduce the particle size of glycine. The particle size distribution was appropriate, and the average particle size was an order of magnitude smaller (d(0.5)=8-35 μm) than that achieved with conventional crystallization (d(0.5)=82-680 μm). The polymorphic forms of the products were influenced by the solvent ratio. The quantity of residual solvent in the crystallized products was in compliance with the requirements of the International Conference on Harmonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Particle size effect on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-x particles.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gutiérrez, V; Torralvo-Fernández, M J; Alario-Franco, M Á

    2017-09-12

    YBCO samples with different microstructures were prepared after the thermal treatment of a precursor previously obtained by autocombustion. A drastic influence of the particle size on the magnetic behavior of the samples was observed. Thus, particles smaller than 110 nm do not exhibit superconducting properties and for those ranging around 200 nm the diamagnetic signal characteristic of the superconductivity at low temperature disappears in a large applied magnetic field. Particles larger than 300 nm do not exhibit the particle size effect. Accompanying such a phenomenon, an increase of the superconducting critical temperature is observed with the augmentation of the particle size, the lowest value being 18 K which corresponds to 110 nm particles.

  7. The Size of Gelatin Sponge Particles: Differences with Preparation Method

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumori, Tetsuya Kasahara, Toshiyuki

    2006-12-15

    Purpose. To assess whether the size distribution of gelatin sponge particles differed according to the method used to make them and the type of original sheet. Methods. Gelatin sponge particles of approximately 1-1.5 x 1-1.5 x 2 mm were made from either Spongel or Gelfoam sheets by cutting with a scalpel and scissors. Particles were also made of either Spongel or Gelfoam sheets by pumping with two syringes and a three-way stopcock. The size distribution of the particles in saline was compared among the groups. Results. (1) Cutting versus pumping: When Spongel was used, cutting produced lower rates of smaller particles {<=}500 {mu}m and larger particles >2000 {mu}m compared with pumping back and forth 30 times (1.1% vs 37.6%, p < 0.0001; 2.2% vs 14.4%, p = 0.008). When Gelfoam was used, cutting produced lower rates of smaller and larger particles compared with pumping (8.5% vs 20.4%, p = 0.1809; 0% vs 48.1%, p < 0.0001). (2) Spongel versus Gelfoam: There was no significant difference in the size distribution of the particles between Spongel and Gelfoam (p = 0.2002) when cutting was used. Conclusion. The size distribution of gelatin sponge particles differed according to the method used to make them. More uniform particle sizes can be achieved by cutting than by pumping.

  8. Colloid Science of Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts in 2D and 3D Structures. Challenges of Nucleation, Growth, Composition, Particle Shape, Size Control and their Influence on Activity and Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-02-13

    Recent breakthroughs in synthesis in nanosciences have achieved control of size and shapes of nanoparticles that are relevant for catalyst design. In this article, we review the advance of synthesis of nanoparticles, fabrication of two and three dimensional model catalyst system, characterization, and studies of activity and selectivity. The ability to synthesize monodispersed platinum and rhodium nanoparticles in the 1-10 nm range permitted us to study the influence of composition, structure, and dynamic properties of monodispersed metal nanoparticle on chemical reactivity and selectivity. We review the importance of size and shape of nanoparticles to determine the reaction selectivity in multi-path reactions. The influence of metal-support interaction has been studied by probing the hot electron flows through the metal-oxide interface in catalytic nanodiodes. Novel designs of nanoparticle catalytic systems are discussed.

  9. Decomposition of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function by Particle Size and Morphology via Single Particle Scattering Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.; Martin, S.; Fernandez, E.; Chang, R.; Pinnick, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon an experimental approach that provides insight into how particle size and shape affect the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles. Central to our approach is the design of an apparatus that measures the forward and backward scattering hemispheres (scattering patterns) of individual atmospheric aerosol particles in the coarse mode range. The size and shape of each particle is discerned from the corresponding scattering pattern. In particular, autocorrelation analysis is used to differentiate between spherical and non-spherical particles, the calculated asphericity factor is used to characterize the morphology of non-spherical particles, and the integrated irradiance is used for particle sizing. We found the fraction of spherical particles decays exponentially with particle size, decreasing from 11% for particles on the order of 1 micrometer to less than 1% for particles over 5 micrometer. The average phase functions of subpopulations of particles, grouped by size and morphology, are determined by averaging their corresponding scattering patterns. The phase functions of spherical and non-spherical atmospheric particles are shown to diverge with increasing size. In addition, the phase function of non-spherical particles is found to vary little as a function of the asphericity factor.

  10. Size limit for particle-stabilized emulsion droplets under gravity.

    PubMed

    Tavacoli, J W; Katgert, G; Kim, E G; Cates, M E; Clegg, P S

    2012-06-29

    We demonstrate that emulsion droplets stabilized by interfacial particles become unstable beyond a size threshold set by gravity. This holds not only for colloids but also for supracolloidal glass beads, using which we directly observe the ejection of particles near the droplet base. The number of particles acting together in these ejection events decreases with time until a stable acornlike configuration is reached. Stability occurs when the weight of all remaining particles is less than the interfacial binding force of one particle. We also show the importance of the curvature of the droplet surface in promoting particle ejection.

  11. Synthesis of Supported Ultrafine Non-noble Subnanometer-Scale Metal Particles Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly Efficient Heterogeneous Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xinchen; Liu, Huizhen; Hou, Minqiang; Sun, Xiaofu; Han, Hongling; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Zhaofu; Han, Buxing

    2016-01-18

    The properties of supported non-noble metal particles with a size of less than 1 nm are unknown because their synthesis is a challenge. A strategy has now been created to immobilize ultrafine non-noble metal particles on supports using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as metal precursors. Ni/SiO2 and Co/SiO2 catalysts were synthesized with an average metal particle size of 0.9 nm. The metal nanoparticles were immobilized uniformly on the support with a metal loading of about 20 wt%. Interestingly, the ultrafine non-noble metal particles exhibited very high activity for liquid-phase hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane even at 80 °C, while Ni/SiO2 with larger Ni particles fabricated by a conventional method was not active under the same conditions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effects of particle size distribution in thick film conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of particle size distribution in thick film conductors are discussed. The distribution of particle sizes does have an effect on fired film density but the effect is not always positive. A proper distribution of sizes is necessary, and while the theoretical models can serve as guides to selecting this proper distribution, improved densities can be achieved by empirical variations from the predictions of the models.

  13. Submicron Aerosol Particle Losses in Metalized Bags.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecinski, Alice

    1980-07-01

    Two new types of conducting bags were tested for aerosol particle storage and sampling, a 3M Company Velostat bag and a bag constructed from 3M Type 2100 Static Shielding Film. The half-lives of unipolar, unit-charged 0.025 m, 0.050 m and 0.090 m sized aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag and the film bag were 130, 190 and 270 min and 40, 70 and 180 min, respectively. These results depend upon the history of bag filling. The values given here apply to bags which had not previously been filled on the day of experimentation. The lifetimes exhibited by the aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag are the longest found to data.

  14. Feasibility of sizing metallic nanoparticles in concentrated suspensions from effective optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Luna, G.; Márquez-Islas, R.; Vázquez-Estrada, O.; Contreras-Tello, H.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2015-08-01

    We explore using measurements of the effective refractive index of a metallic nanofluid to estimate the size of the particles in it. We assume the nanofluid consists of spherical metallic nanoparticles suspended in a transparent base liquid and discuss a way of measuring the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index for concentrated nanofluids to about 1% in particles' volume concentration. Specifically, we consider the case of copper nanoparticles suspended in water. We propose an unambiguous effective optical parameter as a candidate to evidence the particle size, potentially in real time. Limitations due to dependent scattering effects in concentrated nanofluids are briefly stated.

  15. Filtration of ultrafine metallic particles in industry.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Morele, Y; Régnier, R

    2015-01-01

    Thermal metal spraying, metal cutting and arc welding processes generate large quantities of ultrafine particles that cause the irreversible clogging of industrial filters. The aim of the study performed was to identify the causes of the clogging of cartridge filters and investigate other paths for cleaning them. This study required the development of a test bench capable of reproducing a thermal spraying process to test the performances of different filtration techniques. This test instrument first, permitted the precise characterization of the aerosol generated by the process and, second, defined the clogging and cleaning conditions for filters. Several parameters were tested: the type of filter, online and off-line cleaning, pre-coating, cleaning by jets of high-speed compressed air via a probe.

  16. Sonochemical synthesis of silica particles and their size control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Bonghwan

    2016-09-01

    Using an ultrasound-assisted sol-gel method, we successfully synthesized very uniformly shaped, monodisperse, and size-controlled spherical silica particles from a mixture of ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate in the presence of ammonia as catalyst, at room temperature. The diameters of the silica particles were distributed in the range from 40 to 400 nm; their morphology was well characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The silica particle size could be adjusted by choosing suitable concentrations of ammonium hydroxide and water, which in turn determined the nucleation and growth rates of the particles during the reaction. This sonochemical-based silica synthesis offers an alternative way to produce spherical silica particles in a relatively short reaction time. Thus, we suggest that this simple, low-cost, and efficient method of preparing uniform silica particles of various sizes will have practical and wide-ranging industrial applicability.

  17. Particle size- and concentration-dependent separation of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Kerstin; Müller, Knut; Grüttner, Cordula; Westphal, Fritz; Johansson, Christer

    2017-04-01

    Small magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution are of great interest for several biomedical applications. When the size of the particles decreases, the magnetic moment of the particles decreases. This leads to a significant increase in the separation time by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, in the present study the separation processes of bionized nanoferrites (BNF) with different sizes and concentrations were investigated with the commercial Sepmag Q system. It was found that an increasing initial particle concentration leads to a reduction of the separation time for large nanoparticles due to the higher probability of building chains. Small nanoparticles showed exactly the opposite behavior with rising particle concentration up to 0.1 mg(Fe)/ml. For higher iron concentrations the separation time remains constant and the measured Z-average decreases in the supernatant at same time intervals. At half separation time a high yield with decreasing hydrodynamic diameter of particles can be obtained using higher initial particle concentrations.

  18. Packing fraction of particles with lognormal size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses the packing and void fraction of polydisperse particles with a lognormal size distribution. It is demonstrated that a binomial particle size distribution can be transformed into a continuous particle-size distribution of the lognormal type. Furthermore, an original and exact expression is derived that predicts the packing fraction of mixtures of particles with a lognormal distribution, which is governed by the standard deviation, mode of packing, and particle shape only. For a number of particle shapes and their packing modes (close, loose) the applicable values are given. This closed-form analytical expression governing the packing fraction is thoroughly compared with empirical and computational data reported in the literature, and good agreement is found.

  19. Particle size and shape distributions of hammer milled pine

    SciTech Connect

    Westover, Tyler Lott; Matthews, Austin Colter; Williams, Christopher Luke; Ryan, John Chadron Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Particle size and shape distributions impact particle heating rates and diffusion of volatized gases out of particles during fast pyrolysis conversion, and consequently must be modeled accurately in order for computational pyrolysis models to produce reliable results for bulk solid materials. For this milestone, lodge pole pine chips were ground using a Thomas-Wiley #4 mill using two screen sizes in order to produce two representative materials that are suitable for fast pyrolysis. For the first material, a 6 mm screen was employed in the mill and for the second material, a 3 mm screen was employed in the mill. Both materials were subjected to RoTap sieve analysis, and the distributions of the particle sizes and shapes were determined using digital image analysis. The results of the physical analysis will be fed into computational pyrolysis simulations to create models of materials with realistic particle size and shape distributions. This milestone was met on schedule.

  20. Image processing applied to measurement of particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Fabio; Lasso, Willian; Torres, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Five different types of aggregates have been analyzed, and the size of particles on samples immersed in distilled water as silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, styrenes and crushed silica particles is made; an attempt at applying the digital image processing (DIP) technique to analyze the particle size, we developed a system of measures microparticles using a microscope, a CCD camera and acquisition software and video processing developed in MATLAB. These studies are combined with laser light using measurements by diffractometry and obtain calibration in the system implemented, in this work we achievement measurement particle size on the order of 4 to 6 micrometers. The study demonstrates that DIP is a fast, convenient, versatile, and accurate technique for particle size analysis; the limitations of implemented setup too will be discussed.

  1. Particle size characterization by quadruple-detector hydrodynamic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Amandaa K; Striegel, André M

    2009-01-01

    Particle size and shape and their distribution directly influence a variety of end-use material properties related to packing, mixing, and transport of powders, solutions, and suspensions. Many of the techniques currently employed for particle size characterization have found limited applicability for broadly polydisperse and/or nonspherical particles. Here, we introduce a quadruple-detector hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) method utilizing static multiangle light scattering (MALS), quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), differential viscometry (VISC), and differential refractometry (DRI), and apply the technique to characterizing a series of solid and hollow polystyrene latexes with diameters in the approximate range of 40-400 nm. Using HDC/MALS/QELS/VISC/DRI, we were able to determine a multiplicity of size parameters and their polydispersity and to monitor the size of the particles across the elution profile of each sample. Using self-similarity scaling relationships between the molar mass and the various particle radii, we were also able to ascertain the shape of the latexes and the shape constancy as a function of particle size. The particle shape for each latex was confirmed by the dimensionless ratio rho identical with R (G,z )/R (H,z ) which, in addition, provided information on the structure (compactness) of the latexes as a function of particle size. Solid and hollow polystyrene latex samples were also differentiable using these methods. Extension of this method to nonspherical, fractal objects should be possible.

  2. Backscattering measurements of micron-sized spherical particles.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Brendan M; Heinson, Yuli W; Maughan, Justin B; Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Sorensen, Christopher M

    2016-04-20

    An apparatus was designed and assembled to measure scattered light in the range of 180°±6° where enhanced backscattering, the cause of a glory, occurs. The apparatus was calibrated and tested using Fraunhofer circular aperture diffraction, angle of incidence correction, and a diffuse reflector. Theory indicates that backscattering is strongly dependent on particle size, refractive index, and shape. Experimental measurements from polystyrene latex spheres of two sizes and water droplets showed good agreement with Mie theory, but also indicated the extreme sensitivity of the backscattering to particle parameters. The results presented should have use in the fields of particle scattering, particle metrology, and LIDAR.

  3. Sizing fine particles with the phase Doppler interferometric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, S. V.; Weber, B. J.; Kamemoto, D. Y.; Bachalo, W. D.

    1991-11-01

    A systematic theoretical and experimental study was carried out to investigate the response characteristics of a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The theoretical analysis used a model based on the Lorenz-Mie theory; in the experiments the PDPA was used to size fine polystyrene latex particles dispersed in water and in air. The experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that the magnitude of oscillations in the phase vs size calibration curves of the PDPA can be decreased by a proper choice of the optical configuration. Sizing of small particles (less than 10 microns) with a resolution of +/-0.3 to +/-0.4 micron is shown to be possible.

  4. Metal particles in a ceramic matrix--scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy characterization.

    PubMed

    Konopka, K

    2006-09-01

    This paper is concerned with ceramic matrix (Al(2)O(3)) composites with introduced metal particles (Ni, Fe). The composites were obtained via sintering of powders under very high pressure (2.5 GPa). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were chosen as the tools for the identification and description of the shape, size and distribution of the metal particles. The Al(2)O(3)-Ni composite contained agglomerates of the Ni particles surrounded by ceramic grains and nanometre-size Ni particles located inside the ceramic grains and at the ceramic grain boundaries. In the Al(2)O(3)-Fe composite, the Fe particles were mostly surrounded by ceramic grains. Moreover, holes left by the Fe particles were found. The high pressure used in the fabrication of the composites changed the shape of the metal and ceramic powder grains via plastic deformation.

  5. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from

  6. Particle Sizing in Solid Rocket Motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    were used to approximate a Rosin - Rammler size distribution. The data sheet for the reticle used is included as Appendix D. [Ref. 18] Since the...calibration reticle which was available contained a Rosin - Rammler distribution, the Rosin - Rammler model was selected in the Malvern 2600c software in order to...mode to characterize properly a known Rosin - Rammler distribution, the same raw data collected by the ten calibrations readings were reprocessed using

  7. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2015-10-01

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  8. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2015-10-15

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  9. Size and temperature dependent plasmons of quantum particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Mufei; Rakov, Nikifor

    2015-08-01

    This work reports on the influences of temperature changes on plasmons of metallic particles that are so small that electric carriers in the conduction band are forced to be at discrete sub-bands due to quantum confinement. In the framework of the electron-in-a-box model and with an every-electron-count computational scheme, the spatial electric distribution inside the particle is calculated. In the calculations, the intra-subband fluctuations are taken into account. The numerical results have shown that the small-particle plasmon frequency shifts with the temperature. The findings suggest that it would be possible to control the plasmons of quantum particles externally.

  10. Particle size distribution: a key factor in estimating powder dustiness.

    PubMed

    López-Lilao, Ana; Sanfélix, Forner Vicenta; Mallol, Gasch Gustavo; Monfort, Gimeno Eliseo

    2017-08-01

    ASTRACT A wide variety of raw materials, involving more than twenty samples of quartzes, feldspars, nephelines, carbonates, dolomites, sands, zircons, and alumina, were selected and characterised. Dustiness, i.e. a materials' tendency to generate dust on handling, was determined using the continuous drop method. These raw materials were selected to encompass a wide range of particle sizes (1.6-294 µm) and true densities (2650-4680 kg/m(3)). The dustiness of the raw materials, i.e. their tendency to generate dust on handling, was determined using the continuous drop method. The influence of some key material parameters (particle size distribution, flowability and specific surface area) on dustiness was assessed. In this regard, dustiness was found to be significantly affected by particle size distribution. Data analysis enabled development of a model for predicting the dustiness of the studied materials, assuming that dustiness depended on the particle fraction susceptible to emission and on the bulk material's susceptibility to release these particles. On the one hand, the developed model allows the dustiness mechanisms to be better understood. In this regard, it may be noted that relative emission increased with mean particle size. However, this did not necessarily imply that dustiness did, because dustiness also depended on the fraction of particles susceptible to be emitted. On the other hand, the developed model enables dustiness to be estimated using just the particle size distribution data. The quality of the fits was quite good and the fact that only particle size distribution data are needed facilitates industrial application, since these data are usually known by raw materials managers, thus making additional tests unnecessary. This model may therefore be deemed a key tool in drawing up efficient preventive and/or corrective measures to reduce dust emissions during bulk powder processing, both inside and outside industrial facilities. It is recommended

  11. Evaluation of the Malvern optical particle monitor. [Volumetric size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R. J.; Johnson, E.

    1983-07-01

    The Malvern 2200/3300 Particle Sizer is a laser-based optical particle sizing device which utilizes the principle of Fraunhofer Diffraction as the means of particle size measurement. The instrument is designed to analyze particle sizes in the range of 1 to 1800 microns diameter through a selection of lenses for the receiving optics. It is not a single-particle counter but rather an ensemble averager over the distribution of particles present in the measuring volume. Through appropriate measurement techniques, the instrument can measure the volumetric size distribution of: solids in gas or liquid suspension; liquid droplets in gas or other immiscible liquids; and, gas bubbles in liquid. (Malvern Handbook, Version 1.5). This report details a limited laboratory evaluation of the Malvern system to determine its operational characteristics, limitations, and accuracy. This investigation focused on relatively small particles in the range of 5 to 150 microns. Primarily, well characterized particles of coal in a coal and water mixture were utilized, but a selection of naturally occurring, industrially generated, and standard samples (i.e., glass beads) wer also tested. The characteristic size parameter from the Malvern system for each of these samples was compared with the results of a Coulter particle counter (Model TA II) analysis to determine the size measurement accuracy. Most of the particulate samples were suspended in a liquid media (water or isoton, plus a dispersant) for the size characterization. Specifically, the investigations contained in this report fall into four categories: (a) Sample-to-lense distance and sample concentration studies, (b) studies testing the applicability to aerosols, (c) tests of the manufacturer supplied software, and (d) size measurement comparisons with the results of Coulter analysis. 5 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Method of making metal oxide ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes is composed of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  13. Laser velocimeter seed particle sizing by the whisker particle collector and laser aerosol spectrometer methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosswy, F. L.; Kingery, M. K.; Schaefer, H. J.; Pfeifer, H. J.

    1989-07-01

    Two different aerosol particle sizing systems, the Whisker Particle Collector (WPC) and the Laser Aerosol Spectrometer (LAS), were evaluated for sizing aerosol particles in the size range of 0.1 to 3.0 micrometers. The evaluation tests were conducted using an aerosol of alumina (Al2O3) particles, an aerosol commonly used to provide light scattering particles for laser velocimeter measurements in high temperature flows. The LAS and WPC measurements were then compared for samples taken from the alumina particle aerosols. Some difficulty was encountered in directly comparing these measurements. Other operational aspects of the two systems were also compared including on-line/off-line data presentation capabilities, field portability and measurement limitations at the small particle end of the size range of interest.

  14. [The fractal characteristics of particle size distribution and conservation relationship].

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng-kang; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2004-01-01

    Using a microscopic technique, the characteristics of particle size distribution of Al-humic flocs were studied. The results showed that Al-humic floc size followed a lognormal distribution. By introducing the lognormal distribution and fractal dimension into the fundamental kinetic equation of flocculation, a conservation relationship was obtained between the total number of particles, average floc volume and standard deviation of floc size distribution. Significance of the relation can greatly simplify the complicated procedure of kinetic analysis and enable a more accurate evaluation of floc size distribution.

  15. Appendix B: Summary of TEM Particle Size Distribution Datasets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As discussed in the main text (see Section 5.3.2), calculation of the concentration of asbestos fibers in each of the bins of potential interest requires particle size distribution data derived using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  16. Effect of Cobalt Particle Size on Acetone Steam Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Zhang, He; Yu, Ning; Davidson, Stephen; Wang, Yong

    2015-06-11

    Carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles with different particle sizes were synthesized and characterized by complementary characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, N-2 sorption, acetone temperature-programmed desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and CO chemisorption. Using acetone steam reforming reaction as a probe reaction, we revealed a volcano-shape curve of the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency of acetone) and the CO2 selectivity as a function of the cobalt particle size with the highest activity and selectivity observed at a particle size of approximately 12.8nm. Our results indicate that the overall performance of acetone steam reforming is related to a combination of particle-size-dependent acetone decomposition, water dissociation, and the oxidation state of the cobalt nanoparticles.

  17. WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS: PARTICLE SIZE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes wood stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. [NOTE: In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces, accounted for a significant fraction of national particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter...

  18. Further observations on HMX particle size and buildup to detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Bernecker, R.R.; Simpson, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Shock loading data for various particle sizes of HMX in unreactive (water) and reactive (FEFO) binder systems [1] have been re-analyzed. Traditional distance-to-detonation (x{sup {asterisk}}) values have been obtained for comparison to other wedge test data for systems using various particle sizes of HMX and RDX. In the log x{sup {asterisk}}{minus}log P plane, the slope is nearly identical for 5 {mu}m HMX/water and 5 {mu}m HMX/FEFO samples, supporting the proposition that the slope in the log-log plane is constant for fine particle sizes of HMX. Analyses of predetonation distance-time ({ital x,t}) paths show similarities for a given particle size of HMX at various input pressures, suggestive of a common-curve buildup process. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Relationship Between Cirrus Particle Size and Cloud Top Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Qingyuan; Chou, Joyce; Welch, Ronald M.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between cirrus particle size and cloud top temperature is surveyed on a near-global scale. The cirrus particle size is retrieved assuming ice crystals are hexagonal columns and the cloud top temperature and the radiances in channel 1 and 3 of AVHRR used to retrieve ice particle sizes are from ISCCP product. The results show that for thick clouds over North America, the relation between particle size and cloud top temperature is consistent with a summary of this relationship based on aircraft measurement over that region for thick clouds. However, this relationship is not universal for other regions especially for for tropical zone, which has been found by other in situ measurements.

  20. Adequacy of laser diffraction for soil particle size analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Peter; Aumann, Colin; Chia, Kohleth; O'Halloran, Nick; Chandra, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentation has been a standard methodology for particle size analysis since the early 1900s. In recent years laser diffraction is beginning to replace sedimentation as the prefered technique in some industries, such as marine sediment analysis. However, for the particle size analysis of soils, which have a diverse range of both particle size and shape, laser diffraction still requires evaluation of its reliability. In this study, the sedimentation based sieve plummet balance method and the laser diffraction method were used to measure the particle size distribution of 22 soil samples representing four contrasting Australian Soil Orders. Initially, a precise wet riffling methodology was developed capable of obtaining representative samples within the recommended obscuration range for laser diffraction. It was found that repeatable results were obtained even if measurements were made at the extreme ends of the manufacturer's recommended obscuration range. Results from statistical analysis suggested that the use of sample pretreatment to remove soil organic carbon (and possible traces of calcium-carbonate content) made minor differences to the laser diffraction particle size distributions compared to no pretreatment. These differences were found to be marginally statistically significant in the Podosol topsoil and Vertosol subsoil. There are well known reasons why sedimentation methods may be considered to 'overestimate' plate-like clay particles, while laser diffraction will 'underestimate' the proportion of clay particles. In this study we used Lin's concordance correlation coefficient to determine the equivalence of laser diffraction and sieve plummet balance results. The results suggested that the laser diffraction equivalent thresholds corresponding to the sieve plummet balance cumulative particle sizes of < 2 μm, < 20 μm, and < 200 μm, were < 9 μm, < 26 μm, < 275 μm respectively. The many advantages of laser diffraction for soil particle size analysis

  1. Particle size effects in particle-particle triboelectric charging studied with an integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system

    SciTech Connect

    Bilici, Mihai A.; Toth, Joseph R.; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Lacks, Daniel J.

    2014-10-15

    Fundamental studies of triboelectric charging of granular materials via particle-particle contact are challenging to control and interpret because of foreign material surfaces that are difficult to avoid during contacting and measurement. The measurement of particle charge itself can also induce charging, altering results. Here, we introduce a completely integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system that charges particles solely by interparticle interactions and characterizes their charge on line. Particles are contacted in a free-surface fluidized bed (no reactor walls) with a well-controlled fountain-like flow to regulate particle-particle contact. The charged particles in the fountain are transferred by a pulsed jet of air to the top of a vertically-oriented electrostatic separator consisting of two electrodes at oppositely biased high voltage. The free-falling particles migrate towards the electrodes of opposite charge and are collected by an array of cups where their charge and size can be determined. We carried out experiments on a bidisperse size mixture of soda lime glass particles with systematically varying ratios of concentration. Results show that larger particles fall close to the negative electrode and smaller particles fall close to the positive electrode, consistent with theory and prior experiments that larger particles charge positively and smaller particles charge negatively. The segregation of particles by charge for one of the size components is strongest when its collisions are mostly with particles of the other size component; thus, small particles segregate most strongly to the negative sample when their concentration in the mixture is small (and analogous results occur for the large particles). Furthermore, we find additional size segregation due to granular flow, whereby the fountain becomes enriched in larger particles as the smaller particles are preferentially expelled from the fountain.

  2. Particle size effects in particle-particle triboelectric charging studied with an integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilici, Mihai A.; Toth, Joseph R.; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Lacks, Daniel J.

    2014-10-01

    Fundamental studies of triboelectric charging of granular materials via particle-particle contact are challenging to control and interpret because of foreign material surfaces that are difficult to avoid during contacting and measurement. The measurement of particle charge itself can also induce charging, altering results. Here, we introduce a completely integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system that charges particles solely by interparticle interactions and characterizes their charge on line. Particles are contacted in a free-surface fluidized bed (no reactor walls) with a well-controlled fountain-like flow to regulate particle-particle contact. The charged particles in the fountain are transferred by a pulsed jet of air to the top of a vertically-oriented electrostatic separator consisting of two electrodes at oppositely biased high voltage. The free-falling particles migrate towards the electrodes of opposite charge and are collected by an array of cups where their charge and size can be determined. We carried out experiments on a bidisperse size mixture of soda lime glass particles with systematically varying ratios of concentration. Results show that larger particles fall close to the negative electrode and smaller particles fall close to the positive electrode, consistent with theory and prior experiments that larger particles charge positively and smaller particles charge negatively. The segregation of particles by charge for one of the size components is strongest when its collisions are mostly with particles of the other size component; thus, small particles segregate most strongly to the negative sample when their concentration in the mixture is small (and analogous results occur for the large particles). Furthermore, we find additional size segregation due to granular flow, whereby the fountain becomes enriched in larger particles as the smaller particles are preferentially expelled from the fountain.

  3. Effect of particle size on the alcohol yield from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, R.E.; Hegg, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size on the conversion of corn to ethanol. Standard analytical procedures were used to measure carbohydrates, sugar, and alcohol. The highest yield obtained was 2.4 gal/bu with the average being 1.8 gal/bu. The results showed that particle size has little effect on alcohol yield. 7 refs.

  4. Environmental DNA particle size distribution from Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Treesearch

    Taylor M. Wilcox; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Winsor H. Lowe; Michael K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has become a widespread approach for detecting aquatic animals with high potential for improving conservation biology. However, little research has been done to determine the size of particles targeted by eDNA surveys. In this study, we conduct particle distribution analysis of eDNA from a captive Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in...

  5. Sizing particles used in the leather industry by light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffardi, Lucia B.; Tocho, Jorge O.; Yebrin, Luis L.; Cantera, Carlos S.

    1996-01-01

    Three optical methods for sizing polymer particles are instrumented to be used in the leather industry. One method is based on the measurement of the light scattered intensity for several angles, and the other two are monochromatic or spectral extinction methods. Uniform latex particles and two commercial products used in leather finishing are measured. Advantages compared with electronic microscopy are discussed.

  6. Effect of sonication on the particle size of montmorillonite clays.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandra L; Batista, Tatiana; Schmitt, Carla C; Gessner, Fergus; Neumann, Miguel G

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports on the effect of sonication on SAz-1 and SWy-1 montmorillonite suspensions. Changes in the size of the particles of these materials and modifications of their properties have been investigated. The variation of the particle size has been analyzed by DLS (dynamic light scattering). In all cases the clay particles show a bimodal distribution. Sonication resulted in a decrease of the larger modal diameter, as well as a reduction of its volume percentage. Simultaneously, the proportion of the smallest particles increases. After 60 min of sonication, SAz-1 presented a very broad particle size distribution with a modal diameter of 283 nm. On the other hand, the SWy-1 sonicated for 60 min presents a bimodal distribution of particles at 140 and 454 nm. Changes in the properties of the clay suspensions due to sonication were evaluated spectroscopically from dye-clay interactions, using Methylene Blue. The acidic sites present in the interlamellar region, which are responsible for dye protonation, disappeared after sonication of the clay. The changes in the size of the scattering particles and the lack of acidic sites after sonication suggest that sonication induces delamination of the clay particles.

  7. Soil signature simulation of complex mixtures and particle size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Tyler; Bachmann, Charles M.; Salvaggio, Carl

    2015-09-01

    Soil reflectance signatures were modeled using the digital imaging and remote sensing image generation model and Blender three-dimensional (3-D) graphic design software. Using these tools, the geometry, radiometry, and chemistry of quartz and magnetite were exploited to model the presence of particle size and porosity effects in the visible and the shortwave infrared spectrum. Using the physics engines within the Blender 3-D graphic design software, physical representations of granular soil scenes were created. Each scene characterized a specific particle distribution and density. Chemical and optical properties of pure quartz and magnetite were assigned to particles in the scene based on particle size. This work presents a model to describe an observed phase-angle dependence of beach sand density. Bidirectional reflectance signatures were simulated for targets of varying size distribution and density. This model provides validation for a phenomenological trade space between density and particle size distribution in complex, heterogeneous soil mixtures. It also confirms the suggestion that directional reflectance signatures can be defined by intimate mixtures that depend on pore spacing. The study demonstrated that by combining realistic target geometry and spectral measurements of pure quartz and magnetite, effects of soil particle size and density could be modeled without functional data fitting or rigorous analysis of material dynamics. This research does not use traditional function-based models for simulation. The combination of realistic geometry, physically viable particle structure, and first-principles ray-tracing enables the ability to represent signature changes that have been observed in experimental observations.

  8. A novel method for size uniform 200nm particles: multimetallic particles and in vitro gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, Lamar; Ford, Kris; Superfine, Richard

    2008-10-01

    We report on the fabrication of arrays of mono- and multimetallic particles via metal evaporation onto lithographically patterned posts. Metal particles evaporated on cylindrical structures 0.20μm in diameter and 0.33μm tall are released via photoresist dissolution, resulting in freely suspended, shape defined particles. These Post-Particles have highly tunable composition, as demonstrated by our deposition of five different multimetallic particle blends. We calculate the susceptibility and magnetization of 200nm Fe particles in an applied 0.081T magnetic field. In order to evaluate their usefulness as magnetofection agents an antisense oligonucleotide designed to correct the aberrant splicing of enhanced green fluorescent protein mRNA was successfully attached to Fe Post-Particles via a polyethyleneimine linker and transfected into a modified HeLa cell line.

  9. Effect of particle size on the chemisorption and decomposition of carbon monoxide by palladium and nickel clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doering, D. L.; Poppa, H.; Dickinson, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    The chemisorption of gases on well-defined, supported metal particles is a model for basic processes in heterogeneous catalysis. In this study, the chemisorption and decomposition of carbon monoxide on palladium and nickel particles was examined as a function of particle size. Particulate films with average particle sizes ranging from 1 to 10 nm were grown by vapor deposition on UHV-cleaved mica. Successive CO adsorption-desorption cycles resulted in the accumulation of carbon on the particles, which suppressed CO adsorption. The rate of carbon accumulation was strongly dependent on particle size and was higher for Ni than for Pd over the same size range. Carbon was removed from both metals by oxygen treatments at elevated temperatures. However, a mixture of CO and O2 was effective for monitoring the removal of carbon from palladium.

  10. Effect of particle size on the chemisorption and decomposition of carbon monoxide by palladium and nickel clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doering, D. L.; Poppa, H.; Dickinson, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    The chemisorption of gases on well-defined, supported metal particles is a model for basic processes in heterogeneous catalysis. In this study, the chemisorption and decomposition of carbon monoxide on palladium and nickel particles was examined as a function of particle size. Particulate films with average particle sizes ranging from 1 to 10 nm were grown by vapor deposition on UHV-cleaved mica. Successive CO adsorption-desorption cycles resulted in the accumulation of carbon on the particles, which suppressed CO adsorption. The rate of carbon accumulation was strongly dependent on particle size and was higher for Ni than for Pd over the same size range. Carbon was removed from both metals by oxygen treatments at elevated temperatures. However, a mixture of CO and O2 was effective for monitoring the removal of carbon from palladium.

  11. TASEP of interacting particles of arbitrary size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, S. L.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2017-10-01

    A mean-field description of the stationary state behaviour of interacting k-mers performing totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEP) on an open lattice segment is presented employing the discrete Takahashi formalism. It is shown how the maximal current and the phase diagram, including triple-points, depend on the strength of repulsive and attractive interactions. We compare the mean-field results with Monte Carlo simulation of three types interacting k-mers: monomers, dimers and trimers. (a) We find that the Takahashi estimates of the maximal current agree quantitatively with those of the Monte Carlo simulation in the absence of interaction as well as in both the the attractive and the strongly repulsive regimes. However, theory and Monte Carlo results disagree in the range of weak repulsion, where the Takahashi estimates of the maximal current show a monotonic behaviour, whereas the Monte Carlo data show a peaking behaviour. It is argued that the peaking of the maximal current is due to a correlated motion of the particles. In the limit of very strong repulsion the theory predicts a universal behavior: th maximal currents of k-mers correspond to that of non-interacting (k+1) -mers; (b) Monte Carlo estimates of the triple-points for monomers, dimers and trimers show an interesting general behaviour : (i) the phase boundaries α * and β* for entry and exit current, respectively, as function of interaction strengths show maxima for α* whereas β * exhibit minima at the same strength; (ii) in the attractive regime, however, the trend is reversed (β * > α * ). The Takahashi estimates of the triple-point for monomers show a similar trend as the Monte Carlo data except for the peaking of α * ; for dimers and trimers, however, the Takahashi estimates show an opposite trend as compared to the Monte Carlo data.

  12. Deformation Behavior of Sub-micron and Micron Sized Alumina Particles in Compression.

    SciTech Connect

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay; Mook, William; Boyce, Brad; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Hall, Aaron Christopher.

    2014-09-01

    The ability to integrate ceramics with other materials has been limited due to high temperature (>800degC) ceramic processing. Recently, researchers demonstrated a novel process , aerosol deposition (AD), to fabricate ceramic films at room temperature (RT). In this process, sub - micro n sized ceramic particles are accelerated by pressurized gas, impacted on the substrate, plastically deformed, and form a dense film under vacuum. This AD process eliminates high temperature processing thereby enabling new coatings and device integration, in which ceramics can be deposited on metals, plastics, and glass. However, k nowledge in fundamental mechanisms for ceramic particle s to deform and form a dense ceramic film is still needed and is essential in advancing this novel RT technology. In this wo rk, a combination of experimentation and atomistic simulation was used to determine the deformation behavior of sub - micron sized ceramic particle s ; this is the first fundamental step needed to explain coating formation in the AD process . High purity, singl e crystal, alpha alumina particles with nominal size s of 0.3 um and 3.0 um were examined. Particle characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM ), showed that the 0.3 u m particles were relatively defect - free single crystals whereas 3.0 u m p articles were highly defective single crystals or particles contained low angle grain boundaries. Sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited ductile failure in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 0.3um particles deformed plastically, fractured, and became polycrystalline. Moreover, dislocation activit y was observed within the se particles during compression . These sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited large accum ulated strain (2 - 3 times those of micron - sized particles) before first fracture. I n agreement with the findings from experimentation , a tomistic simulation s of nano - Al 2 O 3 particles showed dislocation slip and

  13. A comparative study of submicron particle sizing platforms: accuracy, precision and resolution analysis of polydisperse particle size distributions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Will; Kozak, Darby; Coleman, Victoria A; Jämting, Åsa K; Trau, Matt

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution (PSD) of a polydisperse or multimodal system can often be difficult to obtain due to the inherent limitations in established measurement techniques. For this reason, the resolution, accuracy and precision of three new and one established, commercially available and fundamentally different particle size analysis platforms were compared by measuring both individual and a mixed sample of monodisperse, sub-micron (220, 330, and 410 nm - nominal modal size) polystyrene particles. The platforms compared were the qNano Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensor, Nanosight LM10 Particle Tracking Analysis System, the CPS Instruments's UHR24000 Disc Centrifuge, and the routinely used Malvern Zetasizer Nano ZS Dynamic Light Scattering system. All measurements were subjected to a peak detection algorithm so that the detected particle populations could be compared to 'reference' Transmission Electron Microscope measurements of the individual particle samples. Only the Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensor and Disc Centrifuge platforms provided the resolution required to resolve all three particle populations present in the mixed 'multimodal' particle sample. In contrast, the light scattering based Particle Tracking Analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering platforms were only able to detect a single population of particles corresponding to either the largest (410 nm) or smallest (220 nm) particles in the multimodal sample, respectively. When the particle sets were measured separately (monomodal) each platform was able to resolve and accurately obtain a mean particle size within 10% of the Transmission Electron Microscope reference values. However, the broadness of the PSD measured in the monomodal samples deviated greatly, with coefficients of variation being ~2-6-fold larger than the TEM measurements across all four platforms. The large variation in the PSDs obtained from these four, fundamentally different platforms, indicates that great care must still be taken in

  14. Particle size determination of a three-component suspension using a laser-scattering particle size distribution analyzer.

    PubMed

    Toongsuwan, S; Chang, H C; Li, L C; Stephens, D; Plichta-Mahmoud, H

    2000-08-01

    In this study, a rapid and accurate particle size determination method using a light-scattering particle size analyzer was developed to measure the particle size and size distribution of a suspension containing three solid components: clotrimazole, triamcinolone, and sarafloxacin, which have different refractive indices. To ensure that data represent the size distribution of the primary particles of the suspension, the optimal sonication prior to and during measurement was determined. It was found that the results obtained using the average relative refractive index (RRI) of the three components agreed with the results obtained using three individual RRIs. In addition, the results from two analysts demonstrated good reproducibility of this method. The size distribution data of the suspension were also compared to those of the bulk drugs. The results showed that the median particle size of this three-component suspension is relatively close to that of clotrimazole, which accounts for 80% of solid particles in the suspension. Furthermore, the results obtained using the light-scattering technique were comparable to those obtained using a polarized light microscope equipped with an image analyzer, indicating acceptable accuracy of this technique.

  15. Saturn's Rings II. Particle Sizes Inferred from Stellar Occultation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Richard G.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2000-06-01

    We derive power-law particle size distributions for each of Saturn's main ring regions, using observations of the 3 July 1989 stellar occultation of 28 Sgr from Palomar, McDonald, and Lick observatories. We use the Voyager PPS δ Sco optical depth profile to estimate and then remove the directly transmitted signal from the 28 Sgr observations, leaving high SNR scattered light profiles at wavelengths of 3.9, 2.1, and 0.9 μm. The angular distribution of this diffracted signal depends on the ring particle size distribution: the sharpness of the forward lobe is set by the largest particles, while the overall breadth and amplitude of the scattered signal reflect the abundance of smaller, cm-sized particles. From a simple one-dimensional scattering model, we estimate characteristic particle sizes in the A, B, and C rings, and obtain a good match to the detailed structure of the observed scattered light profiles. To accommodate more realistic particle size distributions and to take proper account of the geometry of the occultation, we then develop a two-dimensional forward-scattering model. We assume for simplicity a single power law particle size distribution for each major ring region, and we determine the index q and lower and upper size cutoffs amin and amax that provide the best match to all three data sets in each region. Our results in the A and C rings are fairly consistent with values of q and amax derived from Voyager radio occultation (RSS) measurements (Zebker et al. 1985). We extend their results by determining lower limits to the particle size distributions and by probing the B Ring. We find a rather flat ( q=2.75) and narrow size distribution for both the inner A Ring and the B Ring, with a surprisingly large amin=30 cm. From the detailed shape of the scattered signal in the A and B rings, we find amax=20 m, a factor of two larger than the RSS result. The fraction of cm-sized particles increases between the inner and outer A Ring and is greatest in the C

  16. Size distributions of manure particles released under simulated rainfall.

    PubMed

    Pachepsky, Yakov A; Guber, Andrey K; Shelton, Daniel R; McCarty, Gregory W

    2009-03-01

    Manure and animal waste deposited on cropland and grazing lands serve as a source of microorganisms, some of which may be pathogenic. These microorganisms are released along with particles of dissolved manure during rainfall events. Relatively little if anything is known about the amounts and sizes of manure particles released during rainfall, that subsequently may serve as carriers, abode, and nutritional source for microorganisms. The objective of this work was to obtain and present the first experimental data on sizes of bovine manure particles released to runoff during simulated rainfall and leached through soil during subsequent infiltration. Experiments were conducted using 200 cm long boxes containing turfgrass soil sod; the boxes were designed so that rates of manure dissolution and subsequent infiltration and runoff could be monitored independently. Dairy manure was applied on the upper portion of boxes. Simulated rainfall (ca. 32.4 mm h(-1)) was applied for 90 min on boxes with stands of either live or dead grass. Electrical conductivity, turbidity, and particle size distributions obtained from laser diffractometry were determined in manure runoff and soil leachate samples. Turbidity of leachates and manure runoff samples decreased exponentially. Turbidity of manure runoff samples was on average 20% less than turbidity of soil leachate samples. Turbidity of leachate samples from boxes with dead grass was on average 30% less than from boxes with live grass. Particle size distributions in manure runoff and leachate suspensions remained remarkably stable after 15 min of runoff initiation, although the turbidity continued to decrease. Particles had the median diameter of 3.8 microm, and 90% of particles were between 0.6 and 17.8 microm. The particle size distributions were not affected by the grass status. Because manure particles are known to affect transport and retention of microbial pathogens in soil, more information needs to be collected about the

  17. Modeling photoacoustic spectral features of micron-sized particles.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Eric M; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael C

    2014-10-07

    The photoacoustic signal generated from particles when irradiated by light is determined by attributes of the particle such as the size, speed of sound, morphology and the optical absorption coefficient. Unique features such as periodically varying minima and maxima are observed throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum, where the periodicity depends on these physical attributes. The frequency content of the photoacoustic signals can be used to obtain the physical attributes of unknown particles by comparison to analytical solutions of homogeneous symmetric geometric structures, such as spheres. However, analytical solutions do not exist for irregularly shaped particles, inhomogeneous particles or particles near structures. A finite element model (FEM) was used to simulate photoacoustic wave propagation from four different particle configurations: a homogeneous particle suspended in water, a homogeneous particle on a reflecting boundary, an inhomogeneous particle with an absorbing shell and non-absorbing core, and an irregularly shaped particle such as a red blood cell. Biocompatible perfluorocarbon droplets, 3-5 μm in diameter containing optically absorbing nanoparticles were used as the representative ideal particles, as they are spherical, homogeneous, optically translucent, and have known physical properties. The photoacoustic spectrum of micron-sized single droplets in suspension and on a reflecting boundary were measured over the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and compared directly to analytical models and the FEM. Good agreement between the analytical model, FEM and measured values were observed for a droplet in suspension, where the spectral minima agreed to within a 3.3 MHz standard deviation. For a droplet on a reflecting boundary, spectral features were correctly reproduced using the FEM but not the analytical model. The photoacoustic spectra from other common particle configurations such as particle with an absorbing shell and a

  18. Modeling photoacoustic spectral features of micron-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohm, Eric M.; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-10-01

    The photoacoustic signal generated from particles when irradiated by light is determined by attributes of the particle such as the size, speed of sound, morphology and the optical absorption coefficient. Unique features such as periodically varying minima and maxima are observed throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum, where the periodicity depends on these physical attributes. The frequency content of the photoacoustic signals can be used to obtain the physical attributes of unknown particles by comparison to analytical solutions of homogeneous symmetric geometric structures, such as spheres. However, analytical solutions do not exist for irregularly shaped particles, inhomogeneous particles or particles near structures. A finite element model (FEM) was used to simulate photoacoustic wave propagation from four different particle configurations: a homogeneous particle suspended in water, a homogeneous particle on a reflecting boundary, an inhomogeneous particle with an absorbing shell and non-absorbing core, and an irregularly shaped particle such as a red blood cell. Biocompatible perfluorocarbon droplets, 3-5 μm in diameter containing optically absorbing nanoparticles were used as the representative ideal particles, as they are spherical, homogeneous, optically translucent, and have known physical properties. The photoacoustic spectrum of micron-sized single droplets in suspension and on a reflecting boundary were measured over the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and compared directly to analytical models and the FEM. Good agreement between the analytical model, FEM and measured values were observed for a droplet in suspension, where the spectral minima agreed to within a 3.3 MHz standard deviation. For a droplet on a reflecting boundary, spectral features were correctly reproduced using the FEM but not the analytical model. The photoacoustic spectra from other common particle configurations such as particle with an absorbing shell and a

  19. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by {sup 222}Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It`s major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented.

  20. Comparison of optical particle sizing and cascade impaction for measuring the particle size of a suspension metered dose inhaler.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yu; Kline, Lukeysha C; Khawaja, Nazia; Van Liew, Melissa; Berry, Julianne

    2015-05-01

    Optical techniques for the particle size characterization of metered dose inhaler (MDI) suspensions have been developed as an alternative to the labor-intensive and time-consuming impaction method. In this study, a laser diffraction (LD) apparatus with a liquid cell ("wet cell" method) and a "time-of-flight" apparatus named aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were utilized to assess MDI suspensions with varied formulation compositions and storage conditions. The results were compared with the conventional Anderson cascade impaction (ACI) data. The two optical methods were able to detect the changes in particle size distributions between formulations, yet to a lesser extent than those observed using the cascade impaction methodology. The median aerodynamic particle size measured by the APS method and the median geometric particle size obtained from the LD method were linearly correlated with the corresponding ACI results in the range of 2-5 µm. It was also found that the APS measurement was biased towards the finer particle size region and resulted in overestimated fine particle fraction (FPF) values which were 2-3 times folds of the ACI results. In conclusion, the optical particle sizing techniques may, under some circumstances, be viable techniques for the rapid assessment of MDI suspensions. The "wet cell" LD method, in particular, is found to be a valuable means of detecting active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particle size changes in an MDI suspension. Using both the LD and the APS methods in early formulation screening followed by a final assessment with cascade impaction analysis can improve the efficiency of MDI formulation development.

  1. On the origin of the cobalt particle size effects in Fischer-Tropsch catalysis.

    PubMed

    den Breejen, J P; Radstake, P B; Bezemer, G L; Bitter, J H; Frøseth, V; Holmen, A; de Jong, K P

    2009-05-27

    The effects of metal particle size in catalysis are of prime scientific and industrial importance and call for a better understanding. In this paper the origin of the cobalt particle size effects in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysis was studied. Steady-State Isotopic Transient Kinetic Analysis (SSITKA) was applied to provide surface residence times and coverages of reaction intermediates as a function of Co particle size (2.6-16 nm). For carbon nanofiber supported cobalt catalysts at 210 degrees C and H(2)/CO = 10 v/v, it appeared that the surface residence times of reversibly bonded CH(x) and OH(x) intermediates increased, whereas that of CO decreased for small (<6 nm) Co particles. A higher coverage of irreversibly bonded CO was found for small Co particles that was ascribed to a larger fraction of low-coordinated surface sites. The coverages and residence times obtained from SSITKA were used to describe the surface-specific activity (TOF) quantitatively and the CH(4) selectivity qualitatively as a function of Co particle size for the FT reaction (220 degrees C, H(2)/CO = 2). The lower TOF of Co particles <6 nm is caused by both blocking of edge/corner sites and a lower intrinsic activity at the small terraces. The higher methane selectivity of small Co particles is mainly brought about by their higher hydrogen coverages.

  2. Water and acid soluble trace metals in atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Harriss, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Continental aerosols are collected above a deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee and subjected to selective extractions to determine the water-soluble and acid-leachable concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The combined contributions of these metals to the total aerosol mass is 0.5 percent, with approximately 70 percent of this attributable to Pb alone. A substantial fraction (approximately 50 percent or more) of the acid-leachable metals is soluble in distilled water. In general, this water-soluble fraction increases with decreasing particle size and with increasing frequency of atmospheric water vapor saturation during the sampling period. The pattern of relative solubilities (Zn being greater than Mn, which is approximately equal to Cd, which is greater than Pb) is found to be similar to the general order of the thermodynamic solubilities of the most probable salts of these elements in continental aerosols with mixed fossil fuel and soil sources.

  3. Water and acid soluble trace metals in atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Harriss, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Continental aerosols are collected above a deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee and subjected to selective extractions to determine the water-soluble and acid-leachable concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The combined contributions of these metals to the total aerosol mass is 0.5 percent, with approximately 70 percent of this attributable to Pb alone. A substantial fraction (approximately 50 percent or more) of the acid-leachable metals is soluble in distilled water. In general, this water-soluble fraction increases with decreasing particle size and with increasing frequency of atmospheric water vapor saturation during the sampling period. The pattern of relative solubilities (Zn being greater than Mn, which is approximately equal to Cd, which is greater than Pb) is found to be similar to the general order of the thermodynamic solubilities of the most probable salts of these elements in continental aerosols with mixed fossil fuel and soil sources.

  4. Formation of Splats from Suspension Particles with Solid Inclusions Finely Dispersed in a Melted Metal Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solonenko, O. P.

    2012-12-01

    A theoretical model has been developed to describe the splats formation from composite particles of several tens of micrometers in size whose liquid metal binder contains a high volume concentration of ultra-fine refractory solid inclusions uniformly distributed in the binder. A theoretical solution was derived, enabling evaluation of splat thickness and diameter, and also the contact temperature at the particle-substrate interface, under complete control of key physical parameters (KPPs) of the spray process (impact velocity, temperature, and size of the particle, and substrate temperature) versus the concentration of solid inclusions suspended in the metal-binder melt. Using the solution obtained, the calculations performed demonstrate the possibility of formulating adequate requirements on the KPPs of particle-substrate interaction providing a deposition of ceramic-metal coatings with predictable splat thickness and degree of particle flattening on the substrate, and also with desired contact temperature during the formation of the first coating monolayer.

  5. The effect of particle shape and size on cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Zheng, M; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Particle shape and size have been well-recognized to exhibit important effect on drug delivery and as an excellent candidate for drug delivery applications. The recent advances in the "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches make it possible to develop different shaped and sized polymeric nanostructures, which provide a chance to tailor the shape of the nanostructures as a drug carrier. Presently, a large amount of cellular uptake data is available for particle shape and size effect on drug delivery. However, the effect has not been well formulated or described quantitatively. In the present paper, the dynamic process of the effects of particle shape and size on cellular uptake is analyzed, quantitative expression for the influence of particle shape and size on cellular uptake is proposed on the basis of local geometric feature of particle shape and diffusion approach of a particle in a medium rationally, and the relevant parameters in the formulation are determined by the available test data. The results indicate the validity of the present formulations.

  6. Recovering 3D particle size distributions from 2D sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Olson, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss different ways to convert observed, apparent particle size distributions from 2D sections (thin sections, SEM maps on planar surfaces, etc.) into true 3D particle size distributions. We give a simple, flexible, and practical method to do this; show which of these techniques gives the most faithful conversions; and provide (online) short computer codes to calculate both 2D-3D recoveries and simulations of 2D observations by random sectioning. The most important systematic bias of 2D sectioning, from the standpoint of most chondrite studies, is an overestimate of the abundance of the larger particles. We show that fairly good recoveries can be achieved from observed size distributions containing 100-300 individual measurements of apparent particle diameter.

  7. Universal interrelation between measures of particle and polymer size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Lara, Fernando; Mansfield, Marc L.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2017-07-01

    The characterization of many objects involves the determination of a basic set of particle size measures derived mainly from scattering and transport property measurements. For polymers, these basic properties include the radius of gyration Rg, hydrodynamic radius Rh, intrinsic viscosity [η ] , and sedimentation coefficient S, and for conductive particles, the electric polarizability tensor αE and self-capacity C. It is often found that hydrodynamic measurements of size deviate from each other and from geometric estimates of particle size when the particle or polymer shape is complex, a phenomenon that greatly complicates both nanoparticle and polymer characterizations. The present work explores a general quantitative relation between αE, C, and Rg for nanoparticles and polymers of general shape and the corresponding properties [η ], Rh, and Rg using a hydrodynamic-electrostatic property interrelation.

  8. Measurement of the (212)Pb particle size distribution indoors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Guo, Q; Zhuo, W

    2010-10-01

    A new device has been developed for the measurement of the (212)Pb particle size distribution indoors. This device consists of two wire screens and a back-up filter with a diameter of 2.0 cm. The sampling flow rate is typically 3.0 l min(-1). After 3-h sampling time and 6-h waiting time, a CR-39 detector is used for the registration of the alpha particles from the (212)Pb, deposited on the wire screens and the filter, respectively. It appears clear from field measurements that there are no appreciable differences among the particle size distributions from different dwellings within the same location and under the same climate conditions. However, the (212)Pb particle size distributions from the countryside dwellings have different results from those of the city dwellings.

  9. Distribution of toxic chemicals in particles of various sizes from mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Li, Xiang; Guo, Junwei; Peng, Bin; Cui, Huapeng; Liu, Kejian; Wang, Sheng; Qin, Yaqiong; Sun, Peijian; Zhao, Le; Xie, Fuwei; Liu, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    To accurately estimate the risk of inhaling cigarette smoke containing toxic chemicals, it is important that the distribution of these chemicals is accurately measured in cigarette smoke aerosol particles of various sizes. In this study, a single-channel smoking machine was directly coupled to an electrical low-pressure impactor. The particles of mainstream cigarette smoke were collected using 12 polyester films, and the particulate matter (PM) was characterized. Nicotine, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs, including NNN, NAT, NAB, and NNK), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(a)anthracene, and chrysene), and heavy metals (including Cr, As, Cd, and Pb) present in the particles of different sizes were analyzed by GC, HPLC-MS/MS, GC/MS, or ICP-MS, respectively. The results demonstrated that the nicotine, TSNAs, PAHs, and heavy metals in mainstream cigarette smoke were dispersed over a particle size ranging from 0.1 μm to 2.0 μm, and the concentration of these toxic chemicals initially increased and then decreased the particle size grew. The distribution of nicotine was uniform for the PM in the size ranges of less than 0.1 μm, 0.1-1.0 μm, and 1.0-2.0 μm, TSNAs and heavy metals in particles of less 0.1 μm were more abundant, and PAHs in fine particles were also more abundant.

  10. Novel magnetic Fe onion-like fullerene micrometer-sized particles of narrow size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snovski, Ron; Grinblat, Judith; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic polydivinylbenzene (PDVB)/magnetite micrometer-sized particles of narrow size distribution were prepared by entrapping Fe(CO)5 within the pores of uniform porous PDVB particles, followed by the thermal decomposition of the encapsulated Fe(CO)5 at 300 °C in a sealed cell under inert atmosphere. Magnetic Fe onion-like fullerene micrometer-sized particles of narrow size distribution have been prepared by the thermal decomposition of the PDVB/magnetite magnetic microspheres at 1100 °C under inert atmosphere. The graphitic coating protects the elemental iron particles from oxidation and thereby preserves their very high magnetic moment for at least a year. Characterization of these unique magnetic carbon graphitic particles was also performed.

  11. Small-size dust particles near Halley's Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdeev, R. Z.; Evlanov, E. N.; Fomenkova, M. N.; Prilutskii, O. F.; Zubkov, B. V.

    Dust-impact PUMA mass-analyzers aboard the spacecrafts VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 allow to conduct the first direct measurements of mass-spectra of comet Halley's dust envelope particles with masses higher than 10 to the -17th g. The analysis of spectra measured by the PUMA instruments showed that unindentified peaks in this spectra could be associated with very small particles. Detection of small-size particles in the dust envelope of comet Halley agrees with the idea that the comet's nucleus is an interstellar dust aggregate which contains very small particles.

  12. Domain and droplet sizes in emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frijters, Stefan; Günther, Florian; Harting, Jens

    2014-10-01

    Particle-stabilized emulsions are commonly used in various industrial applications. These emulsions can present in different forms, such as Pickering emulsions or bijels, which can be distinguished by their different topologies and rheology. We numerically investigate the effect of the volume fraction and the uniform wettability of the stabilizing spherical particles in mixtures of two fluids. For this, we use the well-established three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method, extended to allow for the added colloidal particles with non-neutral wetting properties. We obtain data on the domain sizes in the emulsions by using both structure functions and the Hoshen-Kopelman (HK) algorithm, and we demonstrate that both methods have their own (dis)advantages. We confirm an inverse dependence between the concentration of particles and the average radius of the stabilized droplets. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effect of particles detaching from interfaces on the emulsion properties and domain-size measurements.

  13. Dust generation in powders: Effect of particle size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Somik; Le Bihan, Olivier; Fischer, Marc; Morgeneyer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between the bulk and grain-scale properties of powders and dust generation. A vortex shaker dustiness tester was used to evaluate 8 calcium carbonate test powders with median particle sizes ranging from 2μm to 136μm. Respirable aerosols released from the powder samples were characterised by their particle number and mass concentrations. All the powder samples were found to release respirable fractions of dust particles which end up decreasing with time. The variation of powder dustiness as a function of the particle size distribution was analysed for the powders, which were classified into three groups based on the fraction of particles within the respirable range. The trends we observe might be due to the interplay of several mechanisms like de-agglomeration and attrition and their relative importance.

  14. Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium metal particles

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Yuan, Shengwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-05-12

    An electroactive composition includes an anodic material; a poly(arylene oxide); and stabilized lithium metal particles; where the stabilized lithium metal particles have a size less than about 200 .mu.m in diameter, are coated with a lithium salt, are present in an amount of about 0.1 wt % to about 5 wt %, and are dispersed throughout the composition. Lithium secondary batteries including the electroactive composition along with methods of making the electroactive composition are also discussed.

  15. Simulation of Particle Size Effect on Dynamic Properties and Fracture of PTFE-W-Al Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbold, Eric; Cai, Jing; Benson, David; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2007-06-01

    Recent investigations of the dynamic compressive strength of cold isostatically pressed (CIP) composites of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), tungsten and aluminum powders show significant differences depending on the size of metallic particles. PTFE and aluminum mixtures are known to be energetic under dynamic and thermal loading. The addition of tungsten increases density and overall strength of the sample. Multi-material Eulerian and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian methods were used for the investigation due to the complexity of the microstructure, relatively large deformations and the ability to handle the formation of free surfaces in a natural manner. The calculations indicate that the observed dependence of sample strength on particle size is due to the formation of force chains under dynamic loading in samples with small particle sizes even at larger porosity in comparison with samples with large grain size and larger density.

  16. Use of elemental size distributions in identifying particle formation modes

    SciTech Connect

    Dunxi Yu; Minghou Xu; Hong Yao; Jiancai Sui; Xiaowei Liu; Yun Yu; Qian Cao

    2007-07-01

    The chemical composition of particles generated during pulverized coal combustion is the consequence of their formation processes. This work aims to use the size resolved elemental composition of coal-derived particles to identify their formation modes. A size-classified bituminous coal is burnt in a laboratory drop tube furnace at 1150, 1250, and 1350{sup o}C, respectively. The elemental composition of the size-segregated particles from coal combustion is analyzed and the total mass fraction size distributions of Si and Al are obtained. Three particle formation modes are observed in these distribution profiles. The coarse mode has the highest value of the total mass fraction of Si and Al while the ultrafine mode has the lowest one. The total mass fraction of Si and Al in these two modes is nearly independent of particle size. It is believed that the coarse mode is formed by the mineral coalescence mechanism and the ultrafine mode by the vaporization-condensation mechanism. The difference in the total mass fraction of Si and Al between the central mode and the other two indicates that the central mode is formed by different mechanisms. Based on the observation that the total mass fraction of Si and Al in this mode increases with increasing particle size, heterogeneous condensation of vaporized species on existing fine residual ash particles is proposed to account for the formation of these particles. The study of the elemental composition of the three modes represented in five categories verifies the proposed formation mechanisms for them to some extent. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Particle size changes in unsealed mineral trioxide aggregate powder.

    PubMed

    Ha, William N; Kahler, Bill; Walsh, Laurence James

    2014-03-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is commonly supplied in 1-g packages of powder that are used by some clinicians across several treatments against the manufacturer's instructions. ProRoot MTA cannot be resealed after opening, whereas MTA Angelus has a resealable lid. This study assessed changes in particle size distribution once the packaging had been opened. Fresh ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus powder were analyzed by using laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and compared with powder from packages that had been opened once and kept in storage for 2 years. The ProRoot packet was folded over, whereas the MTA Angelus jar had the lid twisted back to its original position. After 2 years, ProRoot MTA powder showed a 6-fold increase in particle size (lower 10% from 1.13 to 4.37 μm, median particle size from 1.99 to 12.87 μm, and upper 10% from 4.30 to 34.67 μm), with an accompanying 50-fold change in particle surface area. MTA Angelus showed only a 2-fold increase in particle size (4.15 to 8.32 μm, 12.72 to 23.79 μm, and 42.66 to 47.91 μm, respectively) and a 2-fold change in particle size surface area. MTA reacts with atmospheric moisture, causing an increase in particle size that may adversely affect the properties and shelf life of the material. Smaller particles have a greater predisposition to absorb moisture. Single-use systems are advised. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of bag sampling technique for particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, M; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2009-11-01

    Bag sampling techniques can be used to temporarily store the aerosol and therefore provide sufficient time to utilize sensitive but slow instrumental techniques for recording detailed particle size distributions. Laboratory based assessment of the method was conducted to examine size dependant deposition loss coefficients for aerosols held in Velostat bags conforming to a horizontal cylindrical geometry. Deposition losses of NaCl particles in the range of 10 nm to 160 nm were analysed in relation to the bag size, storage time, and sampling flow rate. Results of this study suggest that the bag sampling method is most useful for moderately short sampling periods of about 5 minutes.

  19. Observations of particles at their formation sizes in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaratne, Rohan; Pushpawela, Buddhi; He, Congrong; Li, Hui; Gao, Jian; Chai, Fahe; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-07-01

    New particle formation (NPF) has been observed in many highly polluted environments of South East Asia, including Beijing, where the extent of its contribution to intense haze events is still an open question. Estimated characteristics of NPF events, such as their starting times and formation and growth rates of particles, are more accurate when the detection range of particles extends to smaller sizes. In order to understand the very first steps of particle formation, we used a neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) to investigate particle characteristics at sizes exactly at which atmospheric nucleation and cluster activity occurs. Observations over a continuous 3-month period in Beijing showed 26 NPF events. These events generally coincided with periods with relatively clean air when the wind direction was from the less industrialised north. No NPF events were observed when the daily mean PM2. 5 concentration exceeded 43 µg m-3, which was the upper threshold for particle formation in Beijing. The fraction of particles that are charged in the size range 2-42 nm was normally about 15 %. However, this fraction increased to 20-30 % during haze events and decreased to below 10 % during NPF events. With the NAIS, we very precisely determined the starting times of NPF to a greater accuracy than has been possible in Beijing before and provided a temporal distribution of NPF events with a maximum at about 08:30 LT. Particle formation rates varied between 12 and 38 cm-3 s-1. Particle growth rates were estimated to be in the range of 0.5-9.0 nm h-1. These results are more reliable than previous studies in Beijing as the measurements were conducted for the first time at the exact sizes at which clusters form into particles and provide useful insight into the formation of haze events.

  20. Size segregated ring pattern formation in particle impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J. R.; Fredericks, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    Typical particle impactors consist of a nozzle that directs a particle laden flow onto a plate, and is designed to capture particles greater than a cutoff diameter. Connected in series as a cascade, with each impactor designed to have a progressively smaller cutoff diameter, the particle size distribution can be measured. Typical impactors utilize a nozzle-to-plate distance S that is on the order of one nozzle diameter W, S / W 1 , and give a nominally Gaussian particle deposition pattern on the plate. We explored conditions where S / W < < 1 and observed deposition patterns consisting of very fine rings. Moreover, we found that the ring diameter increased with decreasing particle diameter and the ring thickness increased with particle diameter. These results suggest a potential method for sizing particles by using the mature technology of impactors in a different way. Potential mechanisms for how these ring patterns are formed will be discussed. We note that prior studies have observed conditions where particle deposition patterns exhibited "halos". These halos appear less distinct than the rings we have observed, and it is unclear whether they are related.

  1. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  2. Laser anemometer signals: visibility characteristics and application to particle sizing.

    PubMed

    Adrian, R J; Orloff, K L

    1977-03-01

    The signal visibility characteristics of a dual beam laser anemometer operated in a backscatter mode have been investigated both experimentally and analytically. The analysis is based on Mie's electromagnetic scattering theory for spherical particles and is exact within the limitations of the scattering theory. It is shown that the signal visibility is a function of the ratio of the particle diameter to the fringe spacing in a certain, restricted case; but more generally it also depends on the Mie scattering size parameter, refractive index, the illuminating beam polarization, and the size, shape, and location of the light collecting aperture. The character of backscatter signal visibility differs significantly from the forward scatter case, and it is concluded that backscatter measurements of particle diameters using the visibility sizing technique may not always be possible. Restrictions on the forward scatter application of the visibility sizing method are also discussed.

  3. Sizing of sand and ash particles using their speckle pattern: influence of particle opacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Sara González; van Beeck, Jeroen

    2017-08-01

    A speckle pattern is an interference pattern produced by coherent light scattered from an irregular particle. This pattern is observed in the out-of-focus plane of the particle and it can be used to obtain information about the particle size. When the particle is observed in focus, several bright spots known as glare points are observed on its surface. They correspond to the points from which the light is scattered in the direction of observation. Previous studies using the speckle pattern to obtain the size of irregular particles are based on the hypothesis that the glare points are distributed homogeneously over the whole surface of the particle. The research presented in this paper shows that in the case of opaque particles (such as ash particles), only the areas illuminated by the laser light are covered with glare points. This results in an underestimation of the particle size when characterizing opaque particles using their speckle pattern. In this paper, the speckle pattern is used to perform sizing measurements of translucent and opaque particles, and the results are compared with the ones obtained by image processing of their in-focus images.

  4. Catalyst nano-particle size dependence of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction.

    PubMed

    van Santen, Rutger A; Markvoor, Albert J

    2013-01-01

    Computational catalytic studies indicate that the elementary reactions that constitute the Fischer-Tropsch reaction strongly dependent on the structure of the catalyst reaction center. Recent experimental evidence is available that, for metallic Fischer-Tropsch catalysts such as Co or Ru, the very small metallic particles show altered catalytic performance. To distinguish between changes in the relative concentration of reaction centres, changes in chemical reactivity, or rate controlling steps, transient SSITKA data are extremely useful. Here, we present kinetics simulations to extract molecular kinetic information from SSITKA data. We have applied such simulations to interpret published experimental SSITKA data on nano-particle size dependent Fischer-Tropsch (FT) kinetics. The FT catalytic cycle consists of four essential reaction steps. Their relative size determines activity as well as selectivity. The simulated SSITKA indicate three different regimes with different kinetic behaviour, where the two fundamental regimes to distinguish are the monomer-formation-limited and the chain-growth-limited regime. Particle size changes shift kinetics from one to the other regime. We note different effects of supports and choice of metal composition on changes in elementary rates or the relative number of reactive centres when the particle size is decreased in the nanometre regime.

  5. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for

  6. Microstructure and thermal history of metal particles in CH chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Jones, R. H.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.

    2007-06-01

    We have studied metal microstructures in four CH chondrites, Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546, Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, Acfer 214, and Northwest Africa (NWA) 739, to examine details of the thermal histories of individual particles. Four types of metal particles are common in all of these chondrites. Zoned and unzoned particles probably formed as condensates from a gas of chondritic composition in a monotonic cooling regime, as has been shown previously. We have demonstrated that these particles were cooled rapidly to temperatures below 500 K after they formed, and that condensation effectively closed around 700 K. Zoned and unzoned particles with exsolution precipitates, predominantly high-Ni taenite, have considerably more complex thermal histories. Precipitates grew in reheating episodes, but the details of the heating events vary among individual grains. Reheating temperatures are typically in the range 800-1000 K. Reheating could have been the result of impact events on the CH parent body. Some particles with precipitates may have been incorporated into chondrules, with further brief heating episodes taking place during chondrule formation. In addition to the four dominant types of metal particles, rare Ni-rich metal particles and Si-rich metal particles indicate that the metal assemblage in CH chondrites was a mixture of material that formed at different redox conditions. Metal in CH chondrites consists of a mechanical mixture of particles that underwent a variety of thermal histories prior to being assembled into the existing brecciated meteorites.

  7. Quantifying Grain-Size Variability of Metal Pollutants in Road-Deposited Sediments Using the Coefficient of Variation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Li, Xuyong

    2017-01-01

    Particle grain size is an important indicator for the variability in physical characteristics and pollutants composition of road-deposited sediments (RDS). Quantitative assessment of the grain-size variability in RDS amount, metal concentration, metal load and GSFLoad is essential to elimination of the uncertainty it causes in estimation of RDS emission load and formulation of control strategies. In this study, grain-size variability was explored and quantified using the coefficient of variation (Cv) of the particle size compositions, metal concentrations, metal loads, and GSFLoad values in RDS. Several trends in grain-size variability of RDS were identified: (i) the medium class (105–450 µm) variability in terms of particle size composition, metal loads, and GSFLoad values in RDS was smaller than the fine (<105 µm) and coarse (450–2000 µm) class; (ii) The grain-size variability in terms of metal concentrations increased as the particle size increased, while the metal concentrations decreased; (iii) When compared to the Lorenz coefficient (Lc), the Cv was similarly effective at describing the grain-size variability, whereas it is simpler to calculate because it did not require the data to be pre-processed. The results of this study will facilitate identification of the uncertainty in modelling RDS caused by grain-size class variability. PMID:28788078

  8. Quantifying Grain-Size Variability of Metal Pollutants in Road-Deposited Sediments Using the Coefficient of Variation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaoxue; Li, Xuyong

    2017-07-28

    Particle grain size is an important indicator for the variability in physical characteristics and pollutants composition of road-deposited sediments (RDS). Quantitative assessment of the grain-size variability in RDS amount, metal concentration, metal load and GSFLoad is essential to elimination of the uncertainty it causes in estimation of RDS emission load and formulation of control strategies. In this study, grain-size variability was explored and quantified using the coefficient of variation (Cv) of the particle size compositions, metal concentrations, metal loads, and GSFLoad values in RDS. Several trends in grain-size variability of RDS were identified: (i) the medium class (105-450 µm) variability in terms of particle size composition, metal loads, and GSFLoad values in RDS was smaller than the fine (<105 µm) and coarse (450-2000 µm) class; (ii) The grain-size variability in terms of metal concentrations increased as the particle size increased, while the metal concentrations decreased; (iii) When compared to the Lorenz coefficient (Lc), the Cv was similarly effective at describing the grain-size variability, whereas it is simpler to calculate because it did not require the data to be pre-processed. The results of this study will facilitate identification of the uncertainty in modelling RDS caused by grain-size class variability.

  9. Diffusion of micrometer-sized soft particles in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Benjamin; Aptowicz, Kevin

    We investigate the diffusion of micrometer sized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) gel particles in confinement. The influence of confinement on the transport of small particles is becoming increasingly important for microfluidics and bio-fluidics. Analytical solutions to this problem are limited to very unique geometries or gross approximations. Computational methods have provided more insight into the problem as well as experimental investigations. However, most research has focused on the hard-sphere problem. In this work, we will explore the diffusion of soft particles in confinement. The dynamics of the particles confined between two parallel walls is captured with video-microscopy. In addition, we use a recently developed technique to measurement confinement of particles in-situ with a precision of 1%. This poster will present some preliminary results of how confinement affects the diffusion of these soft particles. We acknowledge support from Grant DMR-1206231.

  10. A simple way to measure particle size in fluegases

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, J.F.P.

    1998-03-01

    The size range of particles found in fluegases from stationary emission sources, such as combustion stacks, is an important process parameter. Particle-size range not only affects plume opacity and dispersion modeling, but it is a key factor in the selection and design of air-pollution-control equipment, such as cyclones, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. The particle-size distribution of a fluegas stream is also a useful parameter for analyzing the performance efficiency of combustion equipment and particulate-removal systems. While several laboratories use costly, laser-beam techniques to carry out this task, no standard method to date has been developed to determine the size range of particles in stationary sources. This article discusses a method (described in US EPA Method 5) in which particles in gases circulating in a stack are collected isokinetically in a filter. Once collected, the particles are measured using an optical microscope. Despite some limitations, this relatively inexpensive method gives reproducible results in many applications. Several are described.

  11. Rheology of PVC Plastisol: Particle Size Distribution and Viscoelastic Properties.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, N.; Harrell, E. R.

    2001-06-01

    Plastisols of poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, are suspensions of fine particles in plasticizer with about 50% resin volume fraction. Typically, the gross particle size ranges from 15 to 0.2 &mgr;m and smaller, where the common practice of spray-drying these resins and subsequent grinding of larger particles dictate the size ranges including agglomerates as well as the primary particles. The plastisol is a pastelike liquid, which may be spread to coat substrates. The coated substrates are heated in an oven to gel and fuse the material for producing uniform, rubbery products. Because the first step of processing is spreading the plastisol on a substrate, rheology at room temperature is obviously important. The material is thixotropic under very low stress. The flow behavior is pseudoplastic and exhibits dilatancy and fracture at high shear rate. This work is concerned with the pseudoplastic behavior but the dynamic mechanical measurements are employed instead of the usual steady-state shear flow measurements. This is because the steady shear may break up agglomerates. The dynamic measurements with small strain-amplitude avoid the break-up of the agglomerates. This is important, because this work is concerned with the effects of the particle size distribution on the material behavior. The frequency dependence of both viscous and elastic behavior is recorded and presented with samples varying in particle size distribution. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Indetermination of particle sizing by laser diffraction in the anomalous size ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Linchao; Ge, Baozhen; Zhang, Fugen

    2017-09-01

    The laser diffraction method is widely used to measure particle size distributions. It is generally accepted that the scattering angle becomes smaller and the angles to the location of the main peak of scattered energy distributions in laser diffraction instruments shift to smaller values with increasing particle size. This specific principle forms the foundation of the laser diffraction method. However, this principle is not entirely correct for non-absorbing particles in certain size ranges and these particle size ranges are called anomalous size ranges. Here, we derive the analytical formulae for the bounds of the anomalous size ranges and discuss the influence of the width of the size segments on the signature of the Mie scattering kernel. This anomalous signature of the Mie scattering kernel will result in an indetermination of the particle size distribution when measured by laser diffraction instruments in the anomalous size ranges. By using the singular-value decomposition method we interpret the mechanism of occurrence of this indetermination in detail and then validate its existence by using inversion simulations.

  13. Airborne particle sizes and sources found in indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, M. K.; Ensor, D. S.; Sparks, L. E.

    As concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, understanding indoor aerosols has become increasingly important so that control techniques may be implemented to reduce damaging health effects and soiling problems. This paper begins with a brief look at the mechanics of deposition in the lungs and the aerosol dynamics that influence particles at all times. This discussion shows that the particle diameters must be known to predict dose or soiling and to determine efficient mitigation techniques. The particle sizes produced by the various indoor sources, as well as unusual aspects of each type of source, must be known so that this process may begin. This paper summarizes the results of a literature search into the sources, sizes and concentrations of indoor particles. There are several types of indoor particles: plant and animal bioaerosols and mineral, combustion and home/personal care aerosols. These types may be produced indoors or outdoors, entering through building openings. The sources may be short term, seasonal or continuous. Particle sizes produced vary from submicrometer to larger than 10 μm. The particles may be toxic or allergenic. This information is presented in a summary table and is discussed in the text.

  14. Distribution of the concentration of heavy metals associated with the sediment particles accumulated on road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zafra, C A; Temprano, J; Tejero, I

    2011-07-01

    The heavy metal pollution caused by road run-off water constitutes a problem in urban areas. The metallic load associated with road sediment must be determined in order to study its impact in drainage systems and receiving waters, and to perfect the design of prevention systems. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on road surfaces in the city of Torrelavega (northern Spain) during a period of 65 days (132 samples). Two sample types were collected: vacuum-dried samples and those swept up following vacuuming. The sediment loading (g m(-2)), particle size distribution (63-2800 microm) and heavy metal concentrations were determined. The data showed that the concentration of heavy metals tends to increase with the reduction in the particle diameter (exponential tendency). The concentrations ofPb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Fe, Mn and Co in the size fraction <63 microm were 350, 630, 124, 57, 56, 38, 3231, 374 and 51 mg kg(-1), respectively (average traffic density: 3800 vehicles day(-1)). By increasing the residence time of the sediment, the concentration increases, whereas the ratio of the concentration between the different size fractions decreases. The concentration across the road diminishes when the distance between the roadway and the sampling siteincreases; when the distance increases, the ratio between size fractions for heavy metal concentrations increases. Finally, the main sources of heavy metals are the particles detached by braking (brake pads) and tyre wear (rubber), and are associated with particle sizes <125 microm.

  15. [Theory and practice of electrospray crystallization in particle size reduction].

    PubMed

    Szunyogh, Tímea; Ambrus, Rita; Szabóné Révész, Piroska

    2015-01-01

    Nowdays, one of the most challenges for the researchers is the formulation of poorly water soluble drugs. Reduction of particle size of active agents to submicron range could result in a faster dissolution rate and higher bioavailability. Integration as crystallization process is an often used particle size decreasing technique. The aim of this study was to show the theoretical background and practical application of the electros pray crystallization as an innovative particle size decreasing technique. Our model drug was the niflumic acid (NIF), which belongs to the BCS Class II. After the optimization of the process parameters, the physico-chemical properties of the samples were characterized. Particle size and shape were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Crystalline state of NIF and the samples were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction. Physico-chemical properties were determined using dissolution test from simulated media. The electrospray crytallization resulted in particle size reduction but the aggregation of nanonized NIF crystals (NIF-nano) could not avoid without excipient. Aggregates with poor secondary forces are suitable for production of the interactive physical mixture. It was found that NIF-nano could be well distributed on the surface of the mannitol as carrier and the Poloxamer R protected the NIF-nano crystals (320 nm)from aggregation. Consequently, the physical mixture resulted in product with higher polarity, better wettability and faster dissolution rate of NIF as raw NIF or NIF-nano.

  16. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% < V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Sr ≤ 50%; others ≤20%. Most metals, water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO42- , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals

  17. Nano-sized and micro-sized polystyrene particles affect phagocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Prietl, B.; Meindl, C.; Roblegg, E.; Pieber, T. R.; Lanzer, G.; Fröhlich, E.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse effect of nanoparticles may include impairment of phagocyte function. To identify the effect of nanoparticle size on uptake, cytotoxicity, chemotaxis, cytokine secretion, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, nitric oxide production and myeloperoxidase release, leukocytes isolated from human peripheral blood, monocytes and macrophages were studied. Carboxyl polystyrene (CPS) particles in sizes between 20 and 1,000 nm served as model particles. Twenty nanometers CPS particles were taken up passively, while larger CPS particles entered cells actively and passively. Twenty nanometers CPS were cytotoxic to all phagocytes, ≥500 nm CPS particles only to macrophages. Twenty nanometers CPS particles stimulated IL-8 secretion in human monocytes and induced oxidative burst in monocytes. Five hundred nanometers and 1,000 nm CPS particles stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in monocytes and macrophages, chemotaxis towards a chemotactic stimulus of monocytes and phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages and provoked an oxidative burst of granulocytes. At very high concentrations, CPS particles of 20 and 500 nm stimulated myeloperoxidase release of granulocytes and nitric oxide generation in macrophages. Cytotoxic effect could contribute to some of the observed effects. In the absence of cytotoxicity, 500 and 1,000 nm CPS particles appear to influence phagocyte function to a greater extent than particles in other sizes. PMID:24292270

  18. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type

  19. Size-dependent collection of micrometer-sized particles using nylon mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Kumagai, Kazukiyo; Fujii, Minoru; Shendell, Derek G.; Endo, Osamu; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    Our study explored the size-dependent collection characteristics for micron-sized particles using several kinds of commercially available woven nylon net filters. The particle concentrations with and without the filter were compared to determine the filtration characteristics. The theoretical efficiencies based on a single-fiber theory and a hole model were also computed. Although the theoretical efficiencies were generally consistent with the experimental results, the non-uniformity of air velocity profile within a mesh hole, and a particle's detachment from or bounce off the filters, should be further investigated in future research. Overall, the present study revealed the size-fractionation capability of the nylon wire mesh filters for micron-sized particles from experimental and theoretical points of view. Unlike impactors, the size-fractionation characteristics of the nylon wire mesh filter were determined by particle size, mesh fiber diameter, and a combination of different particle collection mechanisms including impaction, interception, and gravitational settling. Each mechanical process appears interdependently governed in part by the filter dimensions such as filter mesh size (diameter of opening) as well as related variables such as packing density and fiber diameter.

  20. Particle-Size-Distribution of Nevada Test Site Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G; Ray-Maitra, A

    2007-09-17

    The amount of each size particle in a given soil is called the particle-size distribution (PSD), and the way it feels to the touch is called the soil texture. Sand, silt, and clay are the three particle sizes of mineral material found in soils. Sand is the largest sized particle and it feels gritty; silt is medium sized and it feels floury; and clay is the smallest and if feels sticky. Knowing the particle-size distribution of a soil sample helps to understand many soil properties such as how much water, heat, and nutrients the soil will hold, how fast water and heat will move through the soil, and what kind of structure, bulk density and consistence the soil will have. Furthermore, the native particle-size distribution of the soil in the vicinity of ground zero of a nuclear detonation plays a major role in nuclear fallout. For soils that have a high-sand content, the near-range fallout will be relatively high and the far-range fallout will be relatively light. Whereas, for soils that have a high-silt and high-clay content, the near-range fallout will be significantly lower and the far-range fallout will be significantly higher. As part of a program funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has recently measured the PSDs from the various major areas at the Nevada Test Site where atmospheric detonations and/or nuclear weapon safety tests were performed back in the 50s and 60s. The purpose of this report is to document those results.

  1. Transport of finite size particles in confined narrow channels: Diffusion, coherence, and particle separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Bao-Quan; Wu, Jian-Chun

    2013-07-01

    Transport of the finite size spherical Brownian particles is investigated in confined narrow channels with varying cross-section width. Applying the Fick-Jacobs approximation, we obtain the expressions of the particle current, the effective diffusion coefficient, and the coherence level of Brownian transport (the Péclet number). For the case of the biased constant force, the dependencies of the nonlinear mobility, the effective diffusion coefficient, and the Péclet number on the particle size exhibit striking behaviors. The Péclet number decreases with increasing the radius of the particle which shows that the big sizes of the particles reduce the coherence level of Brownian transport. There exists an optimized value of the radius at which the effective diffusion coefficient is maximal. For the case of the asymmetric unbiased force, due to the competition between the spatial asymmetry and the temporal asymmetry, the transport directions of the particles depend very sensitively on the size of the particle. Particles larger than a given threshold radius move to the left, whereas particles smaller than that move to the right. Therefore, one can separate particles of different radii and make them move towards opposite directions.

  2. Interaction mechanisms between ceramic particles and atomized metallic droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    1992-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide insight into the dynamic interactions that occur when ceramic particles are placed in intimate contact with a metallic matrix undergoing a phase change. To that effect, Al-4 wt pct Si/SiCp composite droplets were synthesized using a spray atomization and coinjection approach, and their solidification microstructures were studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present results show that SiC particles (SiCp) were incor- porated into the matrix and that the extent of incorporation depends on the solidification con- dition of the droplets at the moment of SiC particle injection. Two factors were found to affect the distribution and volume fraction of SiC particles in droplets: the penetration of particles into droplets and the entrapment and/or rejection of particles by the solidification front. First, during coinjection, particles collide with the atomized droplets with three possible results: they may penetrate the droplets, adhere to the droplet surface, or bounce back after impact. The extent of penetration of SiC particles into droplets was noted to depend on the kinetic energy of the particles and the magnitude of the surface energy change in the droplets that occurs upon impact. In liquid droplets, the extent of penetration of SiC particles was shown to depend on the changes in surface energy, ΔEs, experienced by the droplets. Accordingly, large SiC particles encoun- tered more resistance to penetration relative to small ones. In solid droplets, the penetration of SiC particles was correlated with the dynamic pressure exerted by the SiC particles on the droplets during impact and the depth of the ensuing crater. The results showed that no pene- tration was possible in such droplets. Second, once SiC particles have penetrated droplets, their final location in the microstructure is governed by their interactions with the solidification front. As a result of these interactions, both entrapment and rejection of

  3. HDL particle number and size as predictors of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kontush, Anatol

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that reduced concentrations of circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles can be superior to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. Measurements of HDL particle numbers, therefore, bear a potential for the improved assessment of cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, such measurement can be relevant for the evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches targeting HDL. Modern in-depth analyses of HDL particle profile may further improve evaluation of cardiovascular risk. Although clinical relevance of circulating concentrations of HDL subpopulations to cardiovascular disease remains controversial, the negative relationship between the number of large HDL particles and cardiovascular disease suggests that assessment of HDL particle profile can be clinically useful. Reduced mean HDL size is equally associated with cardiovascular disease in large-scale clinical studies. Since HDL-C is primarily carried in the circulation by large, lipid-rich HDL particles, the inverse relationship between HDL size and cardiovascular risk can be secondary to those established for plasma levels of HDL particles, HDL-C, and large HDL. The epidemiological data thereby suggest that HDL particle number may represent a more relevant therapeutic target as compared to HDL-C.

  4. Channeled particle acceleration by plasma waves in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Noble, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal is presented. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible. Particle dechanneling due to electron multiple scattering can be eliminated with a sufficiently high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed.

  5. The effect of crystal tilt on high resolution micrographs of small metal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, J.O.; O`Keefe, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of small (1.5-5 nm) metal particles has been studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. For particles of this size, it is not possible to use tilting techniques (selected area diffraction), which means that the microscopist has to rely on the image when deciding in which direction the particle is viewed. This work points out some of the problems of intuitive determination of the viewing direction. (DLC)

  6. Determining Sizes of Particles in a Flow from DPIV Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, M. P.; Mielke, A.; Cadambi, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed method of measuring the size of particles entrained in a flow of a liquid or gas would involve utilization of data from digital particle-image velocimetry (DPIV) of the flow. That is to say, with proper design and operation of a DPIV system, the DPIV data could be processed according to the proposed method to obtain particle sizes in addition to particle velocities. As an additional benefit, one could then compute the mass flux of the entrained particles from the particle sizes and velocities. As in DPIV as practiced heretofore, a pulsed laser beam would be formed into a thin sheet to illuminate a plane of interest in a flow field and the illuminated plane would be observed by means of a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera aimed along a line perpendicular to the illuminated plane. Unlike in DPIV as practiced heretofore, care would be taken to polarize the laser beam so that its electric field would lie in the illuminated plane, for the reason explained in the next paragraph. The proposed method applies, more specifically, to transparent or semitransparent spherical particles that have an index of refraction different from that of the fluid in which they are entrained. The method is based on the established Mie theory, which describes the scattering of light by diffraction, refraction, and specular reflection of light by such particles. In the case of a particle illuminated by polarized light and observed in the arrangement described in the preceding paragraph, the Mie theory shows that the image of the particle on the focal plane of the CCD camera includes two glare spots: one attributable to light reflected toward the camera and one attributable to light refracted toward the camera. The distance between the glare spots is a known function of the size of the particle, the indices of refraction of the particle material, and design parameters of the camera optics. Hence, the size of a particle can be determined from the distance between the glare spots. The

  7. The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-13

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  8. Production of metal particles and clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of producing novel metals or metal clusters in a low gravity environment was studied. The production of coordinately unsaturated metal carbonyls by thermolysis or photolysis of stable metal carbonyls has the potential to generate novel catalysts by this technique. Laser irradiation of available metal carbonyls was investigated. It is found that laser induced decomposition of metal carbonyls is feasible for producing a variety of coordinately unsaturated species. Formation of clustered species does occur but is hampered by weak metal-metal bonds.

  9. Investigation of particles size effects in Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) modelling of colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai-Duy, N.; Phan-Thien, N.; Khoo, B. C.

    2015-04-01

    In the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation of suspension, the fluid (solvent) and colloidal particles are replaced by a set of DPD particles and therefore their relative sizes (as measured by their exclusion zones) can affect the maximal packing fraction of the colloidal particles. In this study, we investigate roles of the conservative, dissipative and random forces in this relative size ratio (colloidal/solvent). We propose a mechanism of adjusting the DPD parameters to properly model the solvent phase (the solvent here is supposed to have the same isothermal compressibility to that of water).

  10. Inherent size effects on XANES of nanometer metal clusters: Size-selected platinum clusters on silica

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Yang; Gorey, Timothy J.; Anderson, Scott L.; Lee, Sungsik; Lee, Sungwon; Seifert, Soenke; Winans, Randall E.

    2016-12-12

    X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) is commonly used to probe the oxidation state of metal-containing nanomaterials, however, as the particle size in the material drops below a few nanometers, it becomes important to consider inherent size effects on the electronic structure of the materials. In this paper, we analyze a series of size-selected Ptn/SiO2 samples, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering, and XANES. The oxidation state and morphology are characterized both as-deposited in UHV, and after air/O2 exposure and annealing in H2. Here, the clusters are found to be stable during deposition and upon air exposure, but sinter if heated above ~150 °C. XANES shows shifts in the Pt L3 edge, relative to bulk Pt, that increase with decreasing cluster size, and the cluster samples show high white line intensity. Reference to bulk standards would suggest that the clusters are oxidized, however, XPS shows that they are not. Instead, the XANES effects are attributable to development of a band gap and localization of empty state wavefunctions in small clusters.

  11. Inherent size effects on XANES of nanometer metal clusters: Size-selected platinum clusters on silica

    DOE PAGES

    Dai, Yang; Gorey, Timothy J.; Anderson, Scott L.; ...

    2016-12-12

    X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) is commonly used to probe the oxidation state of metal-containing nanomaterials, however, as the particle size in the material drops below a few nanometers, it becomes important to consider inherent size effects on the electronic structure of the materials. In this paper, we analyze a series of size-selected Ptn/SiO2 samples, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering, and XANES. The oxidation state and morphology are characterized both as-deposited in UHV, and after air/O2 exposure and annealing in H2. Here, the clusters are found to be stable during depositionmore » and upon air exposure, but sinter if heated above ~150 °C. XANES shows shifts in the Pt L3 edge, relative to bulk Pt, that increase with decreasing cluster size, and the cluster samples show high white line intensity. Reference to bulk standards would suggest that the clusters are oxidized, however, XPS shows that they are not. Instead, the XANES effects are attributable to development of a band gap and localization of empty state wavefunctions in small clusters.« less

  12. New cooling-rate indicator for metal particles in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. W.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1994-07-01

    It has been proposed that the size variation of the constituents of the cloudy zone in metal particles can be used to estimate the low-temperature cooling rate of the host meteorite. The cloudy zone ion the retained taenite of meteoritic metal is mainly composed of two phases, the high-Ni island phase and the low-Ni honeycomb phase. The width of the island phase is governed by the cooling rate and Ni concentration. Since the Ni concentration is almost constant at the outermost region of the cloudy zone, only the cooling rate controls the size of the island phase. The purpose of this study is to further develop the relationship between the size of the island phase of the cloudy zone and the cooling rate of meteorites. The cloudy zone microstructure was studied using a JEOL 6300F high-resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM). The island phase size variation was measured using a Micro-Plan II image analysis system. In this study, 21 meteorites including 6 mesosiderites, 4 pallasites, 8 iron meteorites, and 3 chondrites were investigated. The size variation of the island phase at the outermost region of the cloudy zone vs. the cooling rate of meteorites is presented. The size of the biggest island phase clearly decreases with increasing cooling rate without regard to whether the host is an iron, stony-iron, or stony meteorite. Those meteorites that have cooled extremely fast (the IVA irons) have a very fine microstructure, which cannot be easily resolved even by employing a HRSEM. The metallographic cooling rates of the meteorites that we studied were taken from previous measurements Saikumar and Goldstein have evaluated the methods to determine the cooling rates of iron meteorites considering impingement effects.

  13. Medical Modeling of Particle Size Effects for CB Inhalation Hazards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    can contain no organisms. As the particle size decreases toward that of an organism (~1 micron for F. tularensis bacteria ), some particles may...set of lung morphologies is also available. The model can calculate deposition in three regions, extrathoracic (ET), tracheobroncial (TB) and...the former type (Day and Berendt, 1972) and spores of B. anthracis are of the latter type (Druett et al., 1953). Bacteria are fairly large, on the

  14. Advanced analysis of polymer emulsions: Particle size and particle size distribution by field-flow fractionation and dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Makan, Ashwell C; Spallek, Markus J; du Toit, Madeleine; Klein, Thorsten; Pasch, Harald

    2016-04-15

    Field flow fractionation (FFF) is an advanced fractionation technique for the analyses of very sensitive particles. In this study, different FFF techniques were used for the fractionation and analysis of polymer emulsions/latexes. As model systems, a pure acrylic emulsion and emulsions containing titanium dioxide were prepared and analyzed. An acrylic emulsion polymerization was conducted, continuously sampled from the reactor and subsequently analyzed to determine the particle size, radius of gyration in specific, of the latex particles throughout the polymerization reaction. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF), coupled to a multidetector system, multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), ultraviolet (UV) and refractive index (RI), respectively, were used to investigate the evolution of particle sizes and particle size distributions (PSDs) as the polymerization progressed. The obtained particle sizes were compared against batch-mode dynamic light scattering (DLS). Results indicated differences between AF4 and DLS results due to DLS taking hydration layers into account, whereas both AF4 and SdFFF were coupled to MALLS detection, hence not taking the hydration layer into account for size determination. SdFFF has additional separation capabilities with a much higher resolution compared to AF4. The calculated radii values were 5 nm larger for SdFFF measurements for each analyzed sample against the corresponding AF4 values. Additionally a low particle size shoulder was observed for SdFFF indicating bimodality in the reactor very early during the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, different emulsions were mixed with inorganic species used as additives in cosmetics and coatings such as TiO2. These complex mixtures of species were analyzed to investigate the retention and particle interaction behavior under different AF4 experimental conditions, such as the mobile phase. The AF4 system was coupled online

  15. STREAMBED PARTICLE SIZE FROM PEBBLE COUNTS USING VISUALLY ESTIMATED SIZE CLSASES: JUNK OR USEFUL DATA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In large-scale studies, it is often neither feasible nor necessary to obtain the large samples of 400 particles advocated by many geomorphologists to adequately quantify streambed surface particle-size distributions. Synoptic surveys such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

  16. STREAMBED PARTICLE SIZE FROM PEBBLE COUNTS USING VISUALLY ESTIMATED SIZE CLSASES: JUNK OR USEFUL DATA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In large-scale studies, it is often neither feasible nor necessary to obtain the large samples of 400 particles advocated by many geomorphologists to adequately quantify streambed surface particle-size distributions. Synoptic surveys such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

  17. Size-Dependent Particle Dynamics in Entangled Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-12-22

    Polymer-grafted nanoparticles with diameter d homogeneously dispersed in entangled polymer melts with varying random coil radius R0, but fixed entanglement mesh size ae, are used to study particle motions in entangled polymers. We focus on materials in the transition region between the continuum regime (d > R0), where the classical Stokes-Einstein (S-E) equation is known to describe polymer drag on particles, and the non-continuum regime (d < ae), in which several recent studies report faster diffusion of particles than expected from continuum S-E analysis, based on the bulk polymer viscosity. Specifically, we consider dynamics of particles with sizes d ≥ ae in entangled polymers with varying molecular weight Mw in order to investigate how the transition from non-continuum to continuum dynamics occur. We take advantage of favorable enthalpic interactions between SiO2 nanoparticles tethered with PEO molecules and entangled PMMA host polymers to create model nanoparticle-polymer composites, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in entangled polymers. Investigation of the particle dynamics via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy measurements reveal a transition from fast to slow particle motion as the PMMA molecular weight is increased beyond the entanglement threshold, with a much weaker Mw dependence for Mw>Me than expected from S-E analysis based on bulk viscosity of entangled PMMA melts. We rationalize these observations using a simple force balance analysis around particles and find that nanoparticle motion in entangled melts can be described using a variant of the S-E analysis in which motion of particles is assumed to only disturb sub-chain entangled host segments with sizes comparable to the particle diameter.

  18. Adequacy of laser diffraction for soil particle size analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Peter; Aumann, Colin; Chia, Kohleth; O'Halloran, Nick; Chandra, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentation has been a standard methodology for particle size analysis since the early 1900s. In recent years laser diffraction is beginning to replace sedimentation as the prefered technique in some industries, such as marine sediment analysis. However, for the particle size analysis of soils, which have a diverse range of both particle size and shape, laser diffraction still requires evaluation of its reliability. In this study, the sedimentation based sieve plummet balance method and the laser diffraction method were used to measure the particle size distribution of 22 soil samples representing four contrasting Australian Soil Orders. Initially, a precise wet riffling methodology was developed capable of obtaining representative samples within the recommended obscuration range for laser diffraction. It was found that repeatable results were obtained even if measurements were made at the extreme ends of the manufacturer’s recommended obscuration range. Results from statistical analysis suggested that the use of sample pretreatment to remove soil organic carbon (and possible traces of calcium-carbonate content) made minor differences to the laser diffraction particle size distributions compared to no pretreatment. These differences were found to be marginally statistically significant in the Podosol topsoil and Vertosol subsoil. There are well known reasons why sedimentation methods may be considered to ‘overestimate’ plate-like clay particles, while laser diffraction will ‘underestimate’ the proportion of clay particles. In this study we used Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient to determine the equivalence of laser diffraction and sieve plummet balance results. The results suggested that the laser diffraction equivalent thresholds corresponding to the sieve plummet balance cumulative particle sizes of < 2 μm, < 20 μm, and < 200 μm, were < 9 μm, < 26 μm, < 275 μm respectively. The many advantages of laser diffraction for soil particle

  19. Influence of particle size and reactive oxygen species on cobalt chrome nanoparticle-mediated genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Devey, Michael; Hawkins, Sue; Hails, Lauren; Davis, Sean A; Mann, Stephen; Chang, Isaac T; Ingham, Eileen; Malhas, Ashraf; Vaux, David J; Lane, Jon D; Case, Charles P

    2013-05-01

    Patients with cobalt chrome (CoCr) metal-on-metal (MOM) implants may be exposed to a wide size range of metallic nanoparticles as a result of wear. In this study we have characterised the biological responses of human fibroblasts to two types of synthetically derived CoCr particles [(a) from a tribometer (30 nm) and (b) thermal plasma technology (20, 35, and 80 nm)] in vitro, testing their dependence on nanoparticle size or the generation of oxygen free radicals, or both. Metal ions were released from the surface of nanoparticles, particularly from larger (80 nm) particles generated by thermal plasma technology. Exposure of fibroblasts to these nanoparticles triggered rapid (2 h) generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that could be eliminated by inhibition of NADPH oxidase, suggesting that it was mediated by phagocytosis of the particles. The exposure also caused a more prolonged, MitoQ sensitive production of ROS (24 h), suggesting involvement of mitochondria. Consequently, we recorded elevated levels of aneuploidy, chromosome clumping, fragmentation of mitochondria and damage to the cytoskeleton particularly to the microtubule network. Exposure to the nanoparticles resulted in misshapen nuclei, disruption of mature lamin B1 and increased nucleoplasmic bridges, which could be prevented by MitoQ. In addition, increased numbers of micronuclei were observed and these were only partly prevented by MitoQ, and the incidence of micronuclei and ion release from the nanoparticles were positively correlated with nanoparticle size, although the cytogenetic changes, modifications in nuclear shape and the amount of ROS were not. These results suggest that cells exhibit diverse mitochondrial ROS-dependent and independent responses to CoCr particles, and that nanoparticle size and the amount of metal ion released are influential. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of cascade impactors in size determination of diesel particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Tai L.; Lawson, Douglas R.

    Cascade impactors of various designs have been used extensively in air sampling and inhalation toxicology to determine the size distribution of airborne aerosols. In this study, the internal losses of diesel exhaust particles in a multijet Mercer impactor, a low pressure Battelle impactor, and an Anderson impactor were determined by scintillation counting of gamma tagged diesel particles. Total interstage losses were 8-33%. However, losses in the three impactors were comparable on stages where most of the mass was found, ranging from 17 to 25%. Apiezon and Vaseline coated impaction surfaces reduced the internal losses of diesel particles and yielded larger mass median aerodynamic diameters compared to the uncoated impactors.

  1. Critical Bottleneck Size for Jamless Particle Flows in Two Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Takumi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    We propose a simple microscopic model for arching phenomena at bottlenecks. The dynamics of particles in front of a bottleneck is described by a one-dimensional stochastic cellular automaton on a semicircular geometry. The model reproduces oscillation phenomena due to the formation and collapsing of arches. It predicts the existence of a critical bottleneck size for continuous particle flows. The dependence of the jamming probability on the system size is approximated by the Gompertz function. The analytical results are in good agreement with simulations.

  2. Particle sizing in rocket motor studies utilizing hologram image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, David; Powers, John

    1987-01-01

    A technique of obtaining particle size information from holograms of combustion products is described. The holograms are obtained with a pulsed ruby laser through windows in a combustion chamber. The reconstruction is done with a krypton laser with the real image being viewed through a microscope. The particle size information is measured with a Quantimet 720 image processing system which can discriminate various features and perform measurements of the portions of interest in the image. Various problems that arise in the technique are discussed, especially those that are a consequence of the speckle due to the diffuse illumination used in the recording process.

  3. Sizing fine particles with the phase Doppler interferometric technique.

    PubMed

    Sankar, S V; Weber, B J; Kamemoto, D Y; Bachalo, W D

    1991-11-20

    A theoretical model based on the Lorenz-Mie theory was used to study the response characteristics of the Aerometrics phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The validity of the model was verified experimentally, and its suitability for calculating measurement uncertainties was established. The theoretical and experimental results suggest that size resolutions of the order of +/-0.3 microm are possible when the PDPA is used to measure small spherical particles (< 10 microm). We show that the optical configuration of the PDPA plays an important role in establishing the sizing uncertainty of the instrument.

  4. Rock sampling. [method for controlling particle size distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, P. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A method for sampling rock and other brittle materials and for controlling resultant particle sizes is described. The method involves cutting grooves in the rock surface to provide a grouping of parallel ridges and subsequently machining the ridges to provide a powder specimen. The machining step may comprise milling, drilling, lathe cutting or the like; but a planing step is advantageous. Control of the particle size distribution is effected primarily by changing the height and width of these ridges. This control exceeds that obtainable by conventional grinding.

  5. High throughput inclusion body sizing: Nano particle tracking analysis.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Wieland N; Kaineder, Andreas; Brillmann, Markus; Neutsch, Lukas; Taschauer, Alexander; Lohninger, Hans; Herwig, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    The expression of pharmaceutical relevant proteins in Escherichia coli frequently triggers inclusion body (IB) formation caused by protein aggregation. In the scientific literature, substantial effort has been devoted to the quantification of IB size. However, particle-based methods used up to this point to analyze the physical properties of representative numbers of IBs lack sensitivity and/or orthogonal verification. Using high pressure freezing and automated freeze substitution for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the cytosolic inclusion body structure was preserved within the cells. TEM imaging in combination with manual grey scale image segmentation allowed the quantification of relative areas covered by the inclusion body within the cytosol. As a high throughput method nano particle tracking analysis (NTA) enables one to derive the diameter of inclusion bodies in cell homogenate based on a measurement of the Brownian motion. The NTA analysis of fixated (glutaraldehyde) and non-fixated IBs suggests that high pressure homogenization annihilates the native physiological shape of IBs. Nevertheless, the ratio of particle counts of non-fixated and fixated samples could potentially serve as factor for particle stickiness. In this contribution, we establish image segmentation of TEM pictures as an orthogonal method to size biologic particles in the cytosol of cells. More importantly, NTA has been established as a particle-based, fast and high throughput method (1000-3000 particles), thus constituting a much more accurate and representative analysis than currently available methods. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Particles and associated metals in road runoff during snowmelt and rainfall.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Camilla; Viklander, Maria

    2006-06-01

    This study analysed road runoff in northern Sweden with respect to the concentrations of and the loads of particles in different size fractions (4-6, 6-9, 9-15, 15-25, 25-40, and 40-120 mum) between a snowmelt period and a rainfall period, as well as during events within each period. There are also comparisons of the transport of different particle sizes between the two periods and during events within the periods and discussions on how different metals are associated with the varying particle sizes. The results showed, on average, eight times higher concentrations and five times higher loads of particles during the snowmelt period compared to the rain period for all particle size intervals. Using a t-test with 14 degrees of freedom, at a 90% and 95% confidence level, the mean- and the event mean concentrations of all particle size intervals were higher during the melt period compared to the rain period. Also, the particle concentrations for both periods decrease as the particle size increases. During the snowmelt and rainfall period, important factors influencing the concentrations and loads were the availability of material, the intensity of the lateral flow for the transport of the particles, and, additionally, for the rain period, the length of dry weather in between events. During the melt period, investigated particle sizes and TSS were highly correlated with total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. During the rain period, the correlations between total metal concentrations and the different particle sizes were not as significant.

  7. Optical trapping performance of dielectric-metallic patchy particles

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Joseph L.; Jenness, Nathan J.; Clark, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a series of simulation experiments examining the optical trapping behavior of composite micro-particles consisting of a small metallic patch on a spherical dielectric bead. A full parameter space of patch shapes, based on current state of the art manufacturing techniques, and optical properties of the metallic film stack is examined. Stable trapping locations and optical trap stiffness of these particles are determined based on the particle design and potential particle design optimizations are discussed. A final test is performed examining the ability to incorporate these composite particles with standard optical trap metrology technologies. PMID:26832054

  8. Metal particle manipulation by laser irradiation in borosilicate glass.

    PubMed

    Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamazaki, Takato; Itoh, Sho; Hiromatsu, Kuniaki; Tokura, Hitoshi

    2010-09-13

    We propose a new technique of manipulating a metal particle in borosilicate glass. A metal particle that is heated by laser illumination heats the surrounding glass by radiation and conduction. A softened glass enabled metal particle migration. A 1-µm-thick platinum film was deposited on the back surface of a glass plate and irradiated with a green CW laser beam through the glass. As a result, the platinum film was melted and implanted into the glass as a particle. Platinum particles with diameters of 3 to 50 μm migrated at speeds up to 10 mm/s. In addition to platinum particles, nickel and austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) particles can be implanted.

  9. Size and shape of uniform particles precipitated in homogeneous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevonkaev, Igor V.

    The assembly of nanosize crystals into larger uniform colloids is a fundamental process that plays a critical role in the formation of a very broad range of fine-particles used in numerous applications in technology, medicine, and national security. It is widely accepted that, along with size, in most of these applications the shape of the particles represents a critical factor. In the current research, we investigate the size and shape control of uniform particles prepared by precipitation in homogeneous solutions. In the first---theoretical---part a combinational mechanism of the shape control during particle growth was proposed and analyzed numerically. The main finding of our simulation is that a proper balance of two processes, preferential attachment of transported monomers at the protruding features of the growing cluster and monomer rearrangement at the cluster surface, can yield a well-defined particle shape that persist for sizes much larger than the original seed over a large interval of time. In the experimental part, three chemically simple systems were selected MgF2, NaMgF3, and PbS for defining and evaluating the key parameters of the shape and size control of the precipitates. Thus, uniform dispersions of particles of different morphologies (spherical, cubic, platelet, and prismatic) were prepared by precipitation in aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of the formation of the resulting particles of different shapes are explained by the role of the pH, temperature, solubility, and ionic strength. Stages of particles growth were evaluated on short and long time scales, winch allowed to propose multistage mechanisms of NaMgF3 growth and estimate induction time and critical nuclei size for MgF2. In addition, for prospective numerical modeling the surface tensions of spherical and platelet particles of MgF2 were evaluated from the X-ray data by a lattice parameter change method. Also, a new method for the evaluation of the variation in the density

  10. Particle size-dependent radical generation from wildland fire smoke.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephen S; Castranova, Vince; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Hoover, Mark; Piacitelli, Chris; Gaughan, Denise M

    2007-07-01

    Firefighting, along with construction, mining and agriculture, ranks among the most dangerous occupations. In addition, the work environment of firefighters is unlike that of any other occupation, not only because of the obvious physical hazards but also due to the respiratory and systemic health hazards of smoke inhalation resulting from combustion. A significant amount of research has been devoted to studying municipal firefighters; however, these studies may not be useful in wildland firefighter exposures, because the two work environments are so different. Not only are wildland firefighters exposed to different combustion products, but their exposure profiles are different. The combustion products wildland firefighters are exposed to can vary greatly in characteristics due to the type and amount of material being burned, soil conditions, temperature and exposure time. Smoke inhalation is one of the greatest concerns for firefighter health and it has been shown that the smoke consists of a large number of particles. These smoke particles contain intermediates of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen free radicals, which may pose a potential health risk. Our investigation looked into the involvement of free radicals in smoke toxicity and the relationship between particle size and radical generation. Samples were collected in discrete aerodynamic particle sizes from a wildfire in Alaska, preserved and then shipped to our laboratory for analysis. Electron spin resonance was used to measure carbon-centered as well as hydroxyl radicals produced by a Fenton-like reaction with wildfire smoke. Further study of reactive oxygen species was conducted using analysis of cellular H(2)O(2) generation, lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes and DNA damage. Results demonstrate that coarse size-range particles contained more carbon radicals per unit mass than the ultrafine particles; however, the ultrafine particles generated more *OH radicals in the acellular Fenton-like reaction. The

  11. A new nanomaterial synthesized from size-selected, ligand-free metal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wepasnick, K.; Tang, X.; Fairbrother, D. H.; Bowen, K. H.; Dollinger, A.; Strobel, C. H.; Huber, J.; Mangler, T.; Luo, Y.; Proch, S.; Gantefoer, G.

    2014-03-01

    Thins films are synthesized by deposition of size-selected Mon- cluster anions on an inert substrate. Scanning tunneling microscopy pictures indicate that the deposited material consists of individual particles with diameters corresponding to the size of the preformed clusters from the gas phase. Previous attempts to manufacture cluster materials from metals failed since these clusters coalesced at room temperature. Our data suggest the possibility to synthesize new nanomaterials from clusters of high fusing metals. This may prove to be the key to harness size-dependent and tuneable properties of clusters for creating novel classes of functional tailor-made materials.

  12. Particle size, magnetic field, and blood velocity effects on particle retention in magnetic drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Erica M; Maxim, Peter G; Eaton, John K

    2010-01-01

    A physics-based model of a general magnetic drug targeting (MDT) system was developed with the goal of realizing the practical limitations of MDT when electromagnets are the source of the magnetic field. The simulation tracks magnetic particles subject to gravity, drag force, magnetic force, and hydrodynamic lift in specified flow fields and external magnetic field distributions. A model problem was analyzed to determine the effect of drug particle size, blood flow velocity, and magnetic field gradient strength on efficiency in holding particles stationary in a laminar Poiseuille flow modeling blood flow in a medium-sized artery. It was found that particle retention rate increased with increasing particle diameter and magnetic field gradient strength and decreased with increasing bulk flow velocity. The results suggest that MDT systems with electromagnets are unsuitable for use in small arteries because it is difficult to control particles smaller than about 20 microm in diameter.

  13. General synthesis of uniform metal sulfide colloidal particles via autocatalytic surface growth: a self-correcting system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Hao; Li, Hong-Bin; Li, Guo-Dong; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2009-04-06

    After decomposition of thiourea (TU) in the presence of various metal cations to form metal sulfide nanoclusters, an autocatalytic reaction between TU and the surface of the as-formed metal sulfide dominates the further growth of these metal sulfide nanoclusters. This autocatalytic surface growth is self-correcting, leading to formation of uniform metal sulfide colloidal particles. The size (from nanometer to micrometer) and shape of the particles are able to be tuned simply by varying the reactant concentration, reaction time, and temperature. More complex anisotropic particles can also be prepared in the autocatalytic surface growth system.

  14. Particle Size Distribution in Saturn’s Ring C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marouf, Essam A.; Wong, K.; French, R.; Rappaport, N.

    2012-10-01

    Information about particle sizes in Saturn’s rings is provided by two complementary types of Cassini radio occultation measurements. The first is differential extinction of three coherent sinusoidal signals transmitted by Cassini through the rings back to Earth (wavelength = 0.94, 3.6, and 13 cm, respectively). The differential measurements strongly constraint three parameters of an assumed power-law size distribution n(a) = n0 (a/a0)q, amin ≤ a ≤ amax: namely, the power law index q, the minimum radius amin, and reference abundance n0 at reference radius a0. The differential measurements are particularly sensitive to radii in the range 0.1 mm < a < 1 m. Complementing this capability, is a second type of measurements that is particularly sensitive to the larger radii 1 m < a < 20 m and their abundance. Signature of the collective near-forward scattering by these particles is captured in power spectrum measurements as broadened component of width, shape, and strength that depend on ring particle sizes, their spatial distribution, and observation geometry. Contributions of ring features of width as small several hundred kilometers can be identified and isolated in the measured spectra for a small subset of Cassini orbits of favorable geometry. We use three inverse scattering algorithms (Bayes, constrained linear inversion, generalized singular-value-decomposition) to recover the size distribution of particles of resolved ring features over the size range 1 m < a < 20 m without assuming an explicit size distribution model. We also investigate consistency of the results with a single power-law model extending over 0.1 mm < a < 20 m and implications to the spatial distribution of ring particles normal to the ring plane (vertical ring thickness). We present example results for selected features across Saturn’s Ring C where little evidence for gravitational wakes is present, hence the approaches above are applicable.

  15. Metrological assessment of a portable analyzer for monitoring the particle size distribution of ultrafine particles.

    PubMed

    Stabile, Luca; Cauda, Emanuele; Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    Adverse health effects caused by worker exposure to ultrafine particles have been detected in recent years. The scientific community focuses on the assessment of ultrafine aerosols in different microenvironments in order to determine the related worker exposure/dose levels. To this end, particle size distribution measurements have to be taken along with total particle number concentrations. The latter are obtainable through hand-held monitors. A portable particle size distribution analyzer (Nanoscan SMPS 3910, TSI Inc.) was recently commercialized, but so far no metrological assessment has been performed to characterize its performance with respect to well-established laboratory-based instruments such as the scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) spectrometer. The present paper compares the aerosol monitoring capability of the Nanoscan SMPS to the laboratory SMPS in order to evaluate whether the Nanoscan SMPS is suitable for field experiments designed to characterize particle exposure in different microenvironments. Tests were performed both in a Marple calm air chamber, where fresh diesel particulate matter and atomized dioctyl phthalate particles were monitored, and in microenvironments, where outdoor, urban, indoor aged, and indoor fresh aerosols were measured. Results show that the Nanoscan SMPS is able to properly measure the particle size distribution for each type of aerosol investigated, but it overestimates the total particle number concentration in the case of fresh aerosols. In particular, the test performed in the Marple chamber showed total concentrations up to twice those measured by the laboratory SMPS-likely because of the inability of the Nanoscan SMPS unipolar charger to properly charge aerosols made up of aggregated particles. Based on these findings, when field test exposure studies are conducted, the Nanoscan SMPS should be used in tandem with a condensation particle counter in order to verify and correct the particle size distribution data

  16. Characterisation of nano-particles in colloids: relationship between particle size and electrical impedance spectra.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanlin; Wang, Mi; Hammond, Robert B

    2013-02-01

    The nano-particles in colloidal dispersions usually carry an electrical charge and have an electrical double layer associated with their surfaces, however, while remaining electrically neutral overall. Under the effect of an external electric field, the electrical double layer is deformed or in other words, the suspension is polarized. The mechanism of electrochemical polarization is partially dependent on the surface charge and the size of particles. It is known that properties of nano-particles in suspensions may affect the colloids' electrical-impedance spectroscopic properties, e.g., the complex impedance, complex permittivity, complex conductivity, relaxation frequency, and phase angle. However, reports on colloids' electrical-impedance spectroscopic properties are very limited in the current literature. In this paper a simple system, aqueous silica suspensions, was studied using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A series of experiments were designed to reveal the effect of particle size on the electrical impedance spectra of silica suspensions. The size effect was studied on silica suspensions with the same concentration (10.0 wt%) but different principle particle size (12 nm, 35 nm, 70 nm, 90 nm and 220 nm). The EIS results show that the relaxation frequency decreased with increasing of particle size. This tendency is explained by the polarization effect of electrical double layer and two dispersion mechanisms were analysed in this study. The results provide supportive information for on-line characterisation of nano-particles using electrical impedance spectroscopy.

  17. Separating and recycling metals from mixed metallic particles of crushed electronic wastes by vacuum metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-09-15

    During the treatment of electronic wastes, a crushing process is usually used to strip metals from various base plates. Several methods have been applied to separate metals from nonmetals. However, mixed metallic particles obtained from these processes are still a mixture of various metals, including some toxic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. With emphasis on recovering copper and other precious metals, there have hitherto been no satisfactory methods to recover these toxic metals. In this paper, the criterion of separating metals from mixed metallic particles by vacuum metallurgy is built. The results show that the metals with high vapor pressure have been almost recovered completely, leading to a considerable reduction of environmental pollution. In addition, the purity of copper in mixed particles has been improved from about 80 wt % to over 98 wt %.

  18. Influence of head size on the development of metallic wear and on the characteristics of carbon layers in metal-on-metal hip joints

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Christoph M; Wimmer, Markus A; Milz, Stefan; Taeger, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Particles originating from the articulating surfaces of hip endoprostheses often induce an inflammatory response, which can be related to implant failure. We therefore analyzed the metal content in capsular tissue from 44 McKee-Farrar metal-on-metal hip prostheses (with 3 different head sizes) and we also analyzed the morphological structure of layers located on articulating surfaces. Methods Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to analyze the metal content in capsular tissue. Visually detectable carbon layers located on the articulating surfaces were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive Xray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results Metallic debris was detected in all capsular tissue samples but no statistically significant differences in metal content were found in relation to implant head size. The morphological characteristics of the different layer zones allowed an exact analysis of contact and non-contact areas. Furthermore, surface layers appear to have a protective function because they can prevent sharp-edged particles from damaging the prostheses surface. Interpretation The implant head size does not appear to influence the amount of metallic debris. The layers obviously act like a lubricating agent because the protection function does not occur in regions without layers where the metal surface often shows numerous scratches. As layers are not generated immediately after the implantation of hip prostheses, these findings may at least partially explain the high amount of wear early after implantation. PMID:19421914

  19. Particle size effects on bioaccessible amounts of ingestible soil-borne toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Qin, Junhao; Nworie, Obinna Elijah; Lin, Chuxia

    2016-09-01

    The unified BARGE method was used to examine the effects of soil particle size on the bioaccessible amounts of potentially toxic elements in multi-contaminated soils from a closed landfill site. The results show that bioaccessible As, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn increased with decreasing soil particle size and the <0.002 mm soil fraction contained much greater amounts of the bioaccessible elements, as compared to other soil fractions (0.002-0.063 mm, 0.063-0.125 mm, and 0.125-0.250 mm). As, Al and Cr had much lower bioaccessibility, as compared to the six cationic heavy metals. In contrast with other elements, As bioaccessibility tended to be higher in the gastrointestinal phase than in the gastric phase. There was a significant soil particle size effect on bioaccessibility of As and Al in the gastrointestinal phase: As bioaccessibility decreased with decreasing particle size, and the finer soil fractions tended to have a higher Al bioaccessibility, as compared to the coarser soil fractions. The research findings prompt the need for further division of soil particle size fractions in order to more accurately assess the bioaccessible amounts of soil-borne potentially toxic elements in contaminated lands.

  20. Effects of Size Polydispersity on Pharmaceutical Particle Packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Hancock, Bruno; Bentham, Craig; Elliott, James

    2005-03-01

    Pharmaceutical powder blends are multicomponent mixtures of excipients and the drug powder particles which have irregular shapes with equivalent diameters typically ranging from 40 microns to 300 microns. We consider idealizations of such systems with emphasis on the size dispersity in a pure excipient powder comprised of spherical particles. We study the characteristics of the particle packings generated through gravitational compaction followed by uniaxial compaction via Discrete Element Method simulations (Dutt et al., 2004 to be published). We present results for two common excipients: microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and sucrose. For each excipient, we vary the degree of dispersity in the diameters of the particles. For insight into the geometrical characteristics of the particle packings, we calculate the coordination number, packing fraction, radial distribution functions and contact angle distributions for the various mixtures. The evolution of the force and stress distributions along with the stress-strain relations are calculated for each system. We discuss comparisons of these quantities for systems with different size dispersity and material properties. For MCC and sucrose mixtures with narrow size distributions (195-225 microns, 170-260 microns), the average packing fraction and coordination number prior to and after uniaxial compaction decreases with interparticle friction, in agreement with results for monodisperse spheres (Silbert et al., Phys. Rev. E (2002)).

  1. Experimental Effects on IR Reflectance Spectra: Particle Size and Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Beiswenger, Toya N.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Smith, Milton; Lanker, Cory

    2016-05-23

    For geologic and extraterrestrial samples it is known that both particle size and morphology can have strong effects on the species’ infrared reflectance spectra. Due to such effects, the reflectance spectra cannot be predicted from the absorption coefficients alone. This is because reflectance is both a surface as well as a bulk phenomenon, incorporating both dispersion as well as absorption effects. The same spectral features can even be observed as either a maximum or minimum. The complex effects depend on particle size and preparation, as well as the relative amplitudes of the optical constants n and k, i.e. the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index. While somewhat oversimplified, upward-going amplitude in the reflectance spectrum usually result from surface scattering, i.e. rays that have been reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. While the effects are well known, we report seminal measurements of reflectance along with quantified particle size of the samples, the sizing obtained from optical microscopy measurements. The size measurements are correlated with the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. We report results for both sodium sulfate Na2SO4 as well as ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4; the optical constants have been measured for (NH4)2SO4. To go a step further from the field to the laboratory we explore our understanding of particle size effects on reflectance spectra in the field using standoff detection. This has helped identify weaknesses and strengths in detection using standoff distances of up 160 meters away from the Target. The studies have

  2. Experimental effects on IR reflectance spectra: particle size and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiswenger, Toya N.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Smith, Milton O.; Lanker, Cory L.

    2016-05-01

    For geologic and extraterrestrial samples it is known that both particle size and morphology can have strong effects on a species' infrared reflectance spectra. Due to such effects, the reflectance spectra cannot be predicted from the absorption coefficients alone. This is because reflectance is both a surface as well as a bulk phenomenon, incorporating both dispersion as well as absorption effects. The same spectral feature can even be observed as either a maximum or minimum. The complex effects depend on particle size and preparation, as well as the relative amplitudes of the optical constants n and k, i.e. the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index. While somewhat oversimplified, upward-going amplitude in the reflectance spectrum usually results from surface scattering, i.e. rays that have been reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. While the effects are known, we report seminal measurements of reflectance along with quantified particle size of the samples, the sizing obtained from optical microscopy measurements. The size measurements are correlated with the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 - 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size. We report results for both anhydrous sodium sulfate Na2SO4 as well as ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4; the optical constants have been measured for (NH4)2SO4. To go a step further from the laboratory and into the field we explore our understanding of particle size effects on reflectance spectra using standoff detection at distances of up to 160 meters in a field experiment. The studies have shown that particle size has a strong influence on the measured reflectance spectra of such

  3. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes.

    PubMed

    Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Taffarel, Silvio R; de Brum, Irineu A S; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in

  4. Ham particle size influences saltiness perception in flans.

    PubMed

    Emorine, M; Septier, C; Thomas-Danguin, T; Salles, C

    2014-04-01

    One major issue of the food industry is reducing sodium content while maintaining food acceptability and liking. Despite extensive research in this field, little has been published on real complex food products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the size of particles, a parameter easily adjusted in food processing, could influence the salty taste of low-salt food product. We thus evaluated the effect of ham particle sizes (4 levels, including a zero level) on salt perception and the consumer liking of flans varying in their overall salt concentrations (low- and high-salt content). Two consumer panels, composed of 107 and 77 subjects, rated, respectively, the saltiness of and liking for the developed flans (8 samples). The outcomes of this study indicated first, that the addition of ham to flans increased the salty taste perception and second, that a decrease in ham particle size (ground ham) increased the perceived saltiness. Moreover, low- and high-salt flans were equally liked, demonstrating that food manufacturers could reduce the salt contents (here, by over 15%) while maintaining consumer acceptability through the manipulation of the size of the salt-providing particles.

  5. Tracing Particle Size Distribution Curves Using an Analogue Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisschop, F. De; Segaert, O.

    1986-01-01

    Proposes an analog circuit for use in sedimentation analysis of finely divided solid materials. Discusses a method of particle size distribution analysis and provides schematics of the circuit with list of components as well as a discussion about the operation of the circuit. (JM)

  6. Particle size distributions in and exhausted from a poultry house

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we describe a study looking at the full particulate size range of particles in a poultry house. Agricultural particulates are typically thought of as coarse mode dust. But recent emphasis of PM2.5 regulations on pre-cursors such as ammonia and volatile organic compounds increasingly makes it ne...

  7. Effective particle sizes of cohesive sediment in north Mississippi streams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of the size of cohesive sediment particles transported in streams is important information for predicting how the sediment and contaminants the sediment may be carrying will be transported by the flow. Cohesive sediments (less than 0.062 mm in diameter) generally are not transported in th...

  8. Vacuum probe sampler removes micron-sized particles from surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitfield, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Vacuum probe sampler removes micron-sized particles from sensitive surfaces, without damage to the surface. The probe has a critical orifice to ensure an optimum airflow rate that disturbs the boundary layer of air and raises bacteria from the surface into the probe with the moving air stream.

  9. AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZES AND SOURCES FOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes results of a literature search into the sources, sizes, and concentrations of particles in indoor air, including the various types: plant, animal, mineral, combustion, home/personal care, and radioactive aerosols. This information, presented in a summary figu...

  10. AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZES AND SOURCES FOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes results of a literature search into the sources, sizes, and concentrations of particles in indoor air, including the various types: plant, animal, mineral, combustion, home/personal care, and radioactive aerosols. This information, presented in a summary figu...

  11. Tracing Particle Size Distribution Curves Using an Analogue Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisschop, F. De; Segaert, O.

    1986-01-01

    Proposes an analog circuit for use in sedimentation analysis of finely divided solid materials. Discusses a method of particle size distribution analysis and provides schematics of the circuit with list of components as well as a discussion about the operation of the circuit. (JM)

  12. Online submicron particle sizing by dynamic light scattering using autodilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoli, David F.; Elings, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient production of a wide range of commercial products based on submicron colloidal dispersions would benefit from instrumentation for online particle sizing, permitting real time monitoring and control of the particle size distribution. Recent advances in the technology of dynamic light scattering (DLS), especially improvements in algorithms for inversion of the intensity autocorrelation function, have made it ideally suited to the measurement of simple particle size distributions in the difficult submicron region. Crucial to the success of an online DSL based instrument is a simple mechanism for automatically sampling and diluting the starting concentrated sample suspension, yielding a final concentration which is optimal for the light scattering measurement. A proprietary method and apparatus was developed for performing this function, designed to be used with a DLS based particle sizing instrument. A PC/AT computer is used as a smart controller for the valves in the sampler diluter, as well as an input-output communicator, video display and data storage device. Quantitative results are presented for a latex suspension and an oil-in-water emulsion.

  13. Online submicron particle sizing by dynamic light scattering using autodilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoli, David F.; Elings, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient production of a wide range of commercial products based on submicron colloidal dispersions would benefit from instrumentation for online particle sizing, permitting real time monitoring and control of the particle size distribution. Recent advances in the technology of dynamic light scattering (DLS), especially improvements in algorithms for inversion of the intensity autocorrelation function, have made it ideally suited to the measurement of simple particle size distributions in the difficult submicron region. Crucial to the success of an online DSL based instrument is a simple mechanism for automatically sampling and diluting the starting concentrated sample suspension, yielding a final concentration which is optimal for the light scattering measurement. A proprietary method and apparatus was developed for performing this function, designed to be used with a DLS based particle sizing instrument. A PC/AT computer is used as a smart controller for the valves in the sampler diluter, as well as an input-output communicator, video display and data storage device. Quantitative results are presented for a latex suspension and an oil-in-water emulsion.

  14. Particle size related bacterial recovery in immunomagnetic separation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have demonstrated superior capture efficiencies in small molecule targets during immunomagnetic separation (IMS), but the potentials of MNPs in bacterial isolation have not been verified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of magnetic particle size o...

  15. Comparison of ice particle size variations across Ganymede and Callisto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Katrin; Hoffmann, Harald; Hibbitts, Karl; Wagner, Roland; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Ratios of band depths of different H2O ice absorptions as measured by the Near Infrared Spectrometer NIMS onboard the Galileo spacecraft [1] have been found to be semi-quantitative indicator of changes in the particle size of ice across the surfaces of the Jovian satellite Ganymede [2]. This method is now applied to Ganymede's neighboring satellite Callisto. On Ganymede, sizes reach from 1 μm near the poles to 1 mm near the equator [2]. Smallest particles occur at latitudes higher than ±30° where the closed magnetic field lines of Ganymede's magnetic field change into open ones and Ganymede's polar caps become apparent. Thus, the formation of these polar caps has often been attributed to brightening effects due to plasma bombardment of the surface [3,4]. Callisto, which does not exhibit an intrinsic magnetic field, however, also shows the same trend as observed on Ganymede with slightly larger particle sizes on Callisto than on Ganymede at low and mid latitude but similar particle sizes in the polar regions. Similar trends in the particle size variations on Callisto and on Ganymede imply that these variations are caused by similar surface processes. Our measurements rather point to a continuous decreasing of ice particle sizes toward the poles on both satellites related to changes of the surface temperatures [5]. Maximum temperatures during the day reach 150 K and 165 K near the equator of Ganymede and Callisto [6, 7], respectively and sublimation of ice particles and crystal growth [8] is expected to be the dominant surface process in these regions. In contrast, polar temperatures do not exceed 80 ± 5 K [5]. Larger particles in the equatorial region of Callisto than on Ganymede could be explained due to the slight higher maximum temperature but also a longer Callistoan day (Callisto: ~ 17 Earth days; Ganymede: ~ 7 Earth days). References: [1] Carlson et al.. (1999) Science 274, 385-388, 1996; [2] Stephan et al., 2009, EPSC, Abstract #EPSC2009-633; [3] Johnson

  16. Evolution of Particle Size Distributions in Fragmentation Over Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new model of fragmentation based on a probabilistic calculation of the repeated fracture of a particle population. The resulting continuous solution, which is in closed form, gives the evolution of fragmentation products from an initial block, through a scale-invariant power-law relationship to a final comminuted powder. Models for the fragmentation of particles have been developed separately in mainly two different disciplines: the continuous integro-differential equations of batch mineral grinding (Reid, 1965) and the fractal analysis of geophysics (Turcotte, 1986) based on a discrete model with a single probability of fracture. The first gives a time-dependent development of the particle-size distribution, but has resisted a closed-form solution, while the latter leads to the scale-invariant power laws, but with no time dependence. Bird (2009) recently introduced a bridge between these two approaches with a step-wise iterative calculation of the fragmentation products. The development of the particle-size distribution occurs with discrete steps: during each fragmentation event, the particles will repeatedly fracture probabilistically, cascading down the length scales to a final size distribution reached after all particles have failed to further fragment. We have identified this process as the equivalent to a sequence of trials for each particle with a fixed probability of fragmentation. Although the resulting distribution is discrete, it can be reformulated as a continuous distribution in maturity over time and particle size. In our model, Turcotte's power-law distribution emerges at a unique maturation index that defines a regime boundary. Up to this index, the fragmentation is in an erosional regime with the initial particle size setting the scaling. Fragmentation beyond this index is in a regime of comminution with rebreakage of the particles down to the size limit of fracture. The maturation index can increment continuously, for example under

  17. Entropic control of particle sizes during viral self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelnovo, M.; Muriaux, D.; Faivre-Moskalenko, C.

    2013-03-01

    Morphologic diversity is observed across all families of viruses. However, these supra-molecular assemblies are produced most of the time in a spontaneous way through complex molecular self-assembly scenarios. The modeling of these phenomena remains a challenging problem within the emerging field of physical virology. We present in this work a theoretical analysis aiming at highlighting the particular role of configuration entropy in the control of viral particle size distribution. Specializing this model to retroviruses such as HIV-1, we predict a new mechanism of entropic control of both RNA uptake into the viral particle and of the particle's size distribution. Evidence of this peculiar behavior has recently been reported experimentally.

  18. The relationship between lunar metal particles and phosphate minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friel, J. J.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Phosphorus is often present in lunar rocks and soils in bulk concentrations in excess of 0.5 wt % P205. The minerals apatite and whitlockite account for most of the phosphorus. However, it may also be present in metal grains. The relations between metal particles and the phosphates commonly found adjacent to these particles are investigated, taking into account studies involving three Apollo 17 rocks. It appears that phosphorus in lunar metal particles is related to the phosphate minerals by a redox reaction. The independent phosphates probably formed over much of the cooling period of the rock. While the rock was at high temperature, however, phosphorus was free to diffuse and dissolve in the metal droplets providing conditions were sufficiently reducing. If the rock was partially molten, this process would take less than 1 hr. If cooling occurred slowly under less reducing conditions, some of the phosphorus in the metal particles would be oxidized to form whitlockite.

  19. Size-resolved particle emission factors for individual ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, Åsa M.; Westerlund, Jonathan; Hallquist, Mattias

    2011-07-01

    In these experiments size-resolved emission factors for particle number (EFPN) and mass (EFPM) have been determined for 734 individual ship passages for real-world dilution. The method used is an extractive sampling method of the passing ship plumes where particle number/mass and CO2 were measured with high time resolution (1 Hz). The measurements were conducted on a small island located in the entrance to the port of Gothenburg (N57.6849, E11.838), the largest harbor in Scandinavia. This is an emission control area (ECA) and in close vicinity to populated areas. The average EFPN and EFPM were 2.55 ± 0.11 × 1016 (kg fuel)-1 and 2050 ± 110 mg (kg fuel)-1, respectively. The determined EF for ships with multiple passages showed a great reproducibility. Size-resolved EFPN were peaking at small particle sizes ˜35 nm. Smaller particle sizes and hence less mass were observed by a gas turbine equipped ship compared to diesel engine equipped ships. On average 36 to 46% of the emitted particles by number were non-volatile and 24% by mass (EFPN 1.16 ± 0.19 × 1016 [kg fuel]-1 and EFPM 488 ± 73 mg [kg fuel]-1, respectively). This study shows a great potential to gain large data-sets regarding ship emission determining parameters that can improve current dispersion modeling for health assessments on local and regional scales. The global contributions of total and non-volatile particle mass from shipping using this extensive data-set from an ECA were estimated to be at least 0.80 Tgy-1 and 0.19 Tgy-1.

  20. Factors controlling particle number concentration and size at metro stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reche, C.; Moreno, T.; Martins, V.; Minguillón, M. C.; Jones, T.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.; Centelles, S.; Querol, X.

    2017-05-01

    An extensive air quality campaign was performed at differently designed station platforms in the Barcelona metro system, aiming to investigate the factors governing airborne particle number (N) concentrations and their size distributions. The study of the daily trends of N concentrations by different size ranges shows that concentrations of N0.3-10 are closely related with the schedule of the metro service. Conversely, the hourly variation of N0.007-10 (mainly composed of ultrafine particles) could be partly governed by the entrance of particles from outdoor emissions through mechanical ventilation. Measurements under different ventilation settings at three metro platforms reveal that the effect on air quality linked to changes in the tunnel ventilation depends on the station design. Night-time maintenance works in tunnels are frequent activities in the metro system; and after intense prolonged works, these can result in higher N concentrations at platforms during the following metro operating hours (by up to 30%), this being especially evident for N1-10. Due to the complex mixture of factors controlling N, together with the differences in trends recorded for particles within different size ranges, developing an air quality strategy at metro systems is a great challenge. When compared to street-level urban particles concentrations, the priority in metro air quality should be dealing with particles coarser than 0.3 μm. In fact, the results suggest that at narrow platforms served by single-track tunnels the current forced tunnel ventilation during operating hours is less efficient in reducing coarse particles compared to fine.

  1. Particle size effect of redox reactions for Co species supported on silica

    SciTech Connect

    Chotiwan, Siwaruk; Tomiga, Hiroki; Katagiri, Masaki; Yamamoto, Yusaku; Yamashita, Shohei; Katayama, Misaki; Inada, Yasuhiro

    2016-09-15

    Conversions of chemical states during redox reactions of two silica-supported Co catalysts, which were prepared by the impregnation method, were evaluated by using an in situ XAFS technique. The addition of citric acid into the precursor solution led to the formation on silica of more homogeneous and smaller Co particles, with an average diameter of 4 nm. The supported Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} species were reduced to metallic Co via the divalent CoO species during a temperature-programmed reduction process. The reduced Co species were quantitatively oxidized with a temperature-programmed oxidation process. The higher observed reduction temperature of the smaller CoO particles and the lower observed oxidation temperature of the smaller metallic Co particles were induced by the higher dispersion of the Co oxide species, which apparently led to a stronger interaction with supporting silica. The redox temperature between CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was found to be independent of the particle size. - Graphical abstract: Chemical state conversions of SiO{sub 2}-supported Co species and the particle size effect have been analyzed by means of in situ XAFS technique. The small CoO particles have endurance against the reduction and exist in a wide temperature range. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The conversions of the chemical state of supported Co species during redox reaction are evaluated. • In operando XAFS technique were applied to measure redox properties of small Co particles. • A small particle size affects to the redox temperatures of cobalt catalysts.

  2. Diffusion of finite-size particles in confined geometries.

    PubMed

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    The diffusion of finite-size hard-core interacting particles in two- or three-dimensional confined domains is considered in the limit that the confinement dimensions become comparable to the particle's dimensions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle probability density function, with an overall collective diffusion that depends on both the excluded-volume and the narrow confinement. By including both these effects, the equation is able to interpolate between severe confinement (for example, single-file diffusion) and unconfined diffusion. Numerical solutions of both the effective nonlinear diffusion equation and the stochastic particle system are presented and compared. As an application, the case of diffusion under a ratchet potential is considered, and the change in transport properties due to excluded-volume and confinement effects is examined.

  3. Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1999-05-01

    The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. {bold 51}, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Particle migration and gap healing around trabecular metal implants

    PubMed Central

    Kold, S.; Zippor, B.; Overgaard, S.; Søballe, K.

    2005-01-01

    Bone on-growth and peri-implant migration of polyethylene particles were studied in an experimental setting using trabecular metal and solid metal implants. Cylindrical implants of trabecular tantalum metal and solid titanium alloy implants with a glass bead blasted surface were inserted either in an exact surgical fit or with a peri-implant gap into a canine knee joint. We used a randomised paired design. Polyethylene particles were injected into the knee joint. In both types of surgical fit we found that the trabecular metal implants had superior bone ongrowth in comparison with solid metal implants (exact fit: 23% vs. 7% [p=0.02], peri-implant gap: 13% vs. 0% [p=0.02]. The number of peri-implant polyethylene particles was significantly reduced around the trabecular metal implants with a peri-implant gap compared with solid implants. PMID:16132987

  5. A simultaneous charge and size measurement method for individual airborne particles using digital holographic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Adam; Dou, Zhongwang; Liang, Zach; Meng, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, significant inquiry to understand the effects of particle charge on particle laden flow have been made, particularly in the study of Lagrangian particle-pair statistics. Quantification of individual particle charge allows relation of inter-particle electric forces and turbulence-induced forces. Here we offer a simultaneous, individual particle charge and size measurement technique utilizing in-line digital holographic Particle Tracking Velocimetry (hPTV). The method measures particle electric mobility through its velocity response within a uniform electric field using a sequence of holograms, next the particle diameter is measured with the same holograms using a matched-filter developed by Lu et al. (2012) as an input for calculation of charge. Consequently, a benefit of this method is that particle charge is calculated on the individual level, versus a mean charge calculated from a group of particles, offering improved estimations of charge distributions for studies of particle laden flow. This work was supported by NSF CBET-0967407 and CBET-0967349.

  6. Ultrasonic cavitation for obtainment of nanometric sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Guzmán, R.; Espinosa, J.; Estrada, J.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to determine the possibility of obtaining nanometric size particles of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) from commercial micron-sized powders, through the physical principle of ultrasonic cavitation, in order to be used as supply material in coatings made through a process of thermal spray by flame. The tests are performed on a Hielscher UIP 1000hd Ultrasonics equipment, in a 20 micron wave amplitude and in times of 6, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours. The determination of the particle size is done through image processing using ImageJ software, obtained by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM); while the elemental composition of the processed samples is analyzed through the technique of energy dispersing spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that Al2O3 and TiO2 have a reduction behaviour of the particles size after being subjected to ultrasonic cavitation, however is only reached the nanometric size in the TiO2 samples.

  7. Determination of atmospheric particle size distribution from forward scattering data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Description of an analytic method of reconstructing the particle size distribution of atmospheric aerosols when no a priori information is available regarding the refractive index of the particles, the analytic form of the distribution, the size range, and the size extremal values. The method applies in principle to angle-dependent scattering data at a fixed wave number, or to wave-number-dependent scattering data at a fixed angle, or to a combination of the two. Some results of an angular scan study of the aureole are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. In conclusion, an analysis is made of the efficiency and accuracy of the method, the uniqueness of the inverse solutions, and the stability of the method relative to experimental noise.

  8. Counting particles emitted by stratospheric aircraft and measuring size of particles emitted by stratospheric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1994-01-01

    The ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) has been modified to reduce the diffusive losses of particles within the instrument. These changes have been successful in improving the counting efficiency of small particles at low pressures. Two techniques for measuring the size distributions of particles with diameters less than 0.17 micrometers have been evaluated. Both of these methods, the differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and the diffusion battery, have fundamental problems that limit their usefulness for stratospheric applications. We cannot recommend either for this application. Newly developed, alternative methods for measuring small particles include inertial separation with a low-loss critical orifice and thin-plate impactor device. This technique is now used to collect particles in the multisample aerosol collector housed in the ER-2 CNC-2, and shows some promise for particle size measurements when coupled with a CNC as a counting device. The modified focused-cavity aerosol spectrometer (FCAS) can determine the size distribution of particles with ambient diameters as small as about 0.07 micrometers. Data from this instrument indicates the presence of a nuclei mode when CNC-2 indicates high concentrations of particles, but cannot resolve important parameters of the distribution.

  9. Relationship between regolith particle size and porosity on small bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, M.; Nakamura, A.

    2014-07-01

    Small planetary bodies are covered by a particle layer called the regolith. The particle size and porosity of the regolith surface of the small bodies are important physical properties. The responses of the surface to solar irradiation depend on the particle size and porosity. The particle size and porosity have influences on the dynamic responses of the surface, such as cratering efficiency. In previous studies, these two quantities were measured or estimated by various methods. Here we propose a semi-empirical relationship between the particle size and porosity for small bodies' surfaces. An empirical relationship between the porosity of granular materials in loose packing state under 1G and the ratio of the magnitudes of the interparticle force and gravity which act on a particle was presented in a previous study [1]. In this study, we assume that the van der Waals force F_{V} is predominant in the interparticle forces and adopt a model formula [2] which is different from that adopted in the previous study [1]: F_{V} = {AS^{2}}/{48Ω ^{2}}r, where A is the Hamaker constant, r is the particle radius, Ω is the diameter of an O^{-2} ion, and S is the cleanliness ratio which shows the smallness of a number of the adsorbate molecules [2]. It was shown that the cleanliness ratio S is approximately 0.1 on the Earth, and is almost unity in the interplanetary space. In addition to the data of the several previous studies, our own measurement result for micron-sized fly-ash particles in atmospheric conditions is used in the present analysis. We calculate F_{V} using Eq. (1), and obtain a relationship between porosity and the ratio R_{F} = F_{V}/F_{g}, where F_{g} is gravity. An empirical formula used in the previous study [1], p = p_{0}+(1-p_{0})exp(-m{R_{F}}^{-n}), is applied to fit the data, where p is the porosity and p_{0}, m and n are constants. We assume that p_{0} is 0.36. By substituting Eq. (1) to Eq. 2, we obtain p = p_{0}+(1-p_{0})exp {-m({AS^{2}}/{64πΩ ^{2

  10. The small volume particle microsampler (SVPM): a new approach to particle size distribution and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Marie-Claude; Grant, Jon; Hatcher, Annamarie

    2001-10-01

    The characterization of trophically and geochemically important suspended particulate matter (SPM) has traditionally relied on bottle sampling and subsequent analysis with Coulter Multisizers and other instruments, which are not sufficient in preserving the in situ size, shape and composition of aggregated particles. The small volume particle microsampler (SVPM) is a sampling device that captures individual particles on filters with minimal disturbance for microscope image analysis of size distribution and composition. Sand grains, microalga ( Dunaliella tertiolecta) and laboratory cultivated flocs were used to test the SVPM's ability to determine particle size. For statistical analysis of the SVPM's capabilities, sand grain and algal size distribution, calculated as equivalent spherical diameter (ESD), were compared to Multisizer data while video images provided a comparison for the flocs. Non-aggregated sand particles sampled by the SVPM showed a size distribution that was similar to that of the Multisizer. Aggregated D. tertiolecta flocs were broken up by the Multisizer, and SVPM data indicated a significantly greater mean ESD. The SVPM showed significantly smaller mean ESDs than the video images because of the higher resolution of the sampler for small particles. In terms of particle concentration, the microsampler measured values similar to those of the Multisizer and video camera. The most important feature of the SVPM is its ability to capture aggregates for the analysis of composition, by histological stains or other means. The SVPM is an alternative method of sampling that is more effective in preserving aggregates for laboratory analyses and is less complicated and expensive than in situ optical sampling techniques, especially in documenting the lower end of the particle size spectrum.

  11. Particle size dependent rheological property in magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Pei, Lei; Xuan, Shouhu; Yan, Qifan; Gong, Xinglong

    2016-06-01

    The influence of the particle size on the rheological property of magnetic fluid was studied both by the experimental and computer simulation methods. Firstly, the magnetic fluids were prepared by dispersing Fe3O4 nanospheres with size varied from 40 nm to 100 nm and 200 nm in the solution. Then, the rheological properties were investigated and it was found that the relative magnetorheological effects increased with increasing the particle size. Finally, the molecular dynamic simulation was used to analyze the mechanical characteristics of the magnetic fluid and the chain-like model agreed well with the experimental result. The authentic chain-like structure observed by a microscope agreed with the simulation results. The three particles composed of the similar cluster nanostructure, thus they exhibited similar magnetic property. To this end, the unique assembling microstructures was the origination of the mechanical difference. And it was found that the higher MR (magnetorheological) effects of the large particle based magnetic fluid was originated from the stronger assembling microstructure under the applying magnetic field.

  12. Dependence of thermal stability of lithiated Si on particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Shi, Tongfei; Li, Decheng; Yoshitake, Hideya; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal properties of the component materials are key issues in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Si-based anodes are one of the most promising materials, but its thermal evolution have received much less attention than its electrochemical performance. In this article, the thermal behavior of various of Si material has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Three kinds of Si-particles, ranging from nano-to micro-sizes was subject to thermal analysis. It has been found that the thermal stability increases with the rise in particle-size. For the nanoparticles of 20 nm, both characteristic peaks of A and B regions in the heating process are stronger than the large-diameter particles. For three kinds of Si particles, the starting temperature of thermal reaction demonstrates a similar trend, gradually becoming lower with the increasing of the lithiation extent. At last, the ex situ XPS has also been conducted to explore the causes of surface state after temperature elevation. In A region, the heating decomposition of SEI with electrolyte, mainly consisting of a variety of esterification compounds, produces high content of lithium carbonate below 180 °C. When lithium in the inner phase of Si particles loses the protection of SEI film, the severe exothermic reaction occurred between lithium and the solvent species.

  13. Proposed international conventions for particle size-selective sampling.

    PubMed

    Soderholm, S C

    1989-01-01

    Definitions are proposed for the inspirable (also called inhalable), thoracic and respirable fractions of airborne particles. Each definition is expressed as a sampling efficiency (S) which is a function of particle aerodynamic diameter (d) and specifies the fraction of the ambient concentration of airborne particles collected by an ideal sampler. For the inspirable fraction. SI(d) = 0.5 (1 + e-0.06d). For the thoracic fraction, ST(d) = SI(d)[1 - F(x)], where (formula; see text) F(x) is the cumulative probability function of a standardized normal random variable. For the respirable fraction, SR(d) = SI(d)[1 - F(x)], where gamma = 4.25 microns, sigma = 1.5. International harmonization will require resolution of the differences between the firmly established BMRC [Orenstein, A. J. (1960) Proceedings of the Pneumoconiosis Conference, Johannesburg, 1959, pp. 610-621. A.J. Churchill Ltd, London] and ACGIH [(1985) Particle size-selective sampling in the workplace. Report of the ACGIH Technical Committee on Air Sampling Procedures] definitions of the respirable fraction. The proposed definition differs approximately equally from the BMRC and ACGIH definitions and is at least as defensible when compared to available human data. Several standard-setting organizations are in the process of adopting particle size-selective sampling conventions. Much confusion will be avoided if all adopt the same specifications of the collection efficiencies of ideal samplers, such as those proposed here.

  14. Surface Chemistry at Size-Selected Nano-Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    A method has been developed to conduct surface chemistry and extract surface kinetic rates from size-selected aerosol nanoparticles. The measurements encompass broad ranges of particle size, phase, and composition. Results will be presented on the uptake of water by aerosolized soot nanoparticles of radius between 10 and 40 nm. Water uptake was monitored by tandem differential mobility analysis (T-DMA), which is capable of measuring changes in particle diameter as little as 0.2 nm. Soot particles were produced in an ethene diffusion flame and extracted into an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube reactor. The particles were subjected to various thermal and oxidative treatments, and the effects of these treatments on the ability of soot to adsorb monolayer quantities of water was determined. The results are important because soot nucleates atmospheric cloud particles. More generally, the results represent one of the first kinetic and mechanistic studies of gas-phase nanoparticle reactivity. Co-author: Henry Ajo, University of Minnesota

  15. The particle size effect on Gas Hydrate Formation in powdered silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, T.; Lu, H.; Ripmeester, J. A.; Zeng, H.; Fujii, T.; Nakamizu, M.

    2007-12-01

    Based on the investigations in the past years, it has been recognized that methane hydrates in Nankai Trough primarily occur in turbidite sediments (Fujii et al. 2005; Uchida et al., 2005). Turbidite is composed of a set of sediments, generally becoming finer upward in particle size, from coarse sand to clay (Bouma, 1962). In natural environment the formation of methane hydrate will be inevitably subject to the influence of sediments, so the modes of gas hydrate formation and occurrence might be different in the sediments with various particle sizes and mineral compositions. The elucidation of this issue, how sediments affect methane hydrate formation and occurrence will help in efficient hydrate exploration, accurate estimation of hydrate reserve, and the design of hydrate production method. In this research, we especially studied the particle size effect on the water conversion degree to hydrate using a set of powdered silica particles with the size from medium silt (<20 μm) to medium sand (250 ~ 500 μm). The test specimens were saturated with 3.5% NaCl solution, simulating the interstitial water of marine sediments, and reacted with methane gas at the pressure of ~ 10 MPa and temperature of 3° C. The water conversion degree to hydrate in a test specimen was estimated with the amount of gas that was clathrated in hydrate. The obtained results indicate a clear relationship between water conversion degree to hydrate and particle size: only 3.2 % when particle size is <20 μm, increasing dramatically from 5.7% to 82.8 % when particle size changes from ~30 μm (coarse silt) to ~200 μm (fine sand), and almost stable at ~ 80% when particle size is > 250 μm (medium sand). Because the test materials are all silica, the difference in water conversion degree to hydrate should be resulted from physical properties of silica particle, specific surface area, and/or the property confined by silica particle, pore size. This study was carried out as a part of Research

  16. Ejected particle size measurement using Mie scattering in high explosive driven shockwave experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Monfared, Shabnam Khalighi; Buttler, William Tillman; Frayer, Daniel K.; Grover, Michael; LaLone, Brandon M.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Stone, Joseph B.; Turley, William D.; Schauer, Martin Michael

    2015-06-11

    In this paper, we report on the development of a diagnostic to provide constraints on the size of particles ejected from shocked metallic surfaces. The diagnostic is based on measurements of the intensity of laser light transmitted through a cloud of ejected particles as well as the angular distribution of scattered light, and the analysis of the resulting data is done using the Mie solution. Finally, we describe static experiments to test our experimental apparatus and present initial results of dynamic experiments on Sn targets. Improvements for future experiments are briefly discussed.

  17. Current Development Status of a Particle Size Analyzer for Coated Particle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew T; Hunn, John D; Karnowski, Thomas Paul

    2007-08-01

    Work was performed to develop a prototype Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) for application to coated particle fuel characterization. This system was based on a light obscuration method and targeted towards high throughput analysis. Although never matured to the point of replacing existing lower throughput optical microscopy shadowgraph methods, the system was successfully applied to automating the counting of large particle samples for increased accuracy in calculating mean particle properties based on measurements of multiparticle samples. The measurement of particle size with the PSA was compared to current shadowgraph techniques and found to result in considerably greater throughput at the cost of larger measurement uncertainty. The current algorithm used by the PSA is more sensitive to particle shape and this is a likely cause of the greater uncertainty when attempting to measure average particle diameter. The use of the PSA to measure particle shape will require further development. Particle transport through the PSA and stability of the light source/detector are key elements in the successful application of this technique. A number of system pitfalls were studied and addressed.

  18. Size and concentration measurements of particles produced in commercial chromium plating processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bonin, M.P.; Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.; Peng, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    Optical measurements of particle size and concentration were made at the chromium plating tank and exhaust system at a commercial hexavalent chromium plating facility. Particles were examined at three locations in the exhaust system: (1) directly at the hexavalent chromium plating bath surface, (2) at the exit of a cyclone separator located in the exhaust system approximately three to four meters downstream of the bath, and (3) in the exhaust stack, downstream of the induced draft fan and all abatement devices. Particle diameters at the bath surface ranged from 0.3 to 25 {mu}m. Downstream of the cyclone exit and mesh pad filters, particle top sizes were approximately 5 and 0.7 mm, respectively. On a mass basis, the collection efficiency of all abatement devices was 99.997%. Assuming that droplets in the flow consist primarily of water and chromium, correcting the total particle mass flow against water content gives a chromium emission rate of 64,000 {mu}g/hr, which compares favorably with a value of 77,000 {mu}g/hr measured with EPA methods. This initial agreement, which should be validated through additional measurements over a broad range of flow conditions, raises the possibility of continuous monitoring for chromium metal emissions using particle size/mass as a surrogate. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Effect of crumb-rubber particle size on mechanical response of polyurethane foam composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjay, Omer Sheik

    The compression properties of foam are governed by by three factors: i) cell edge bending ii) compression of cell fluid iii) membrane stresses in the cell faces. The effect of reinforcement, granular form of scrap tire rubber on contribution of each of these effects along with the physical properties of polyurethane foam is investigated. It is seen that the addition of crumb-rubber hinders the formation of cell membranes during the foaming process. Four different sizes of particles were chosen to closely study the effect of particle size on the physical properties of the foam composite. There is a definite pattern seen in each of the physical property of the composite with change in the particle size. Addition of crumb-rubber decreases the compressive strength but in turn increases the elastic modulus of the composite. The rubber particles act as the sites for stress concentration and hence the inclusion of rubber particles induces the capability to transfer the axial load laterally along the surface of the foam. Also, the filler material induces porosity into the foam, which is seen in the SEM images, and hence the addition of rubber particles induces brittleness, which makes the foam composites extensively applicable for structural application in sandwich components. The lightweight composite therefore is a potential substitute to the heavier metal foams and honeycombs as a protective layer.

  20. TNT particle size distributions from detonated 155-mm howitzer rounds.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Hewitt, Alan; Lever, James; Hayes, Charlotte; Perovich, Laura; Thorne, Phil; Daghlian, Chuck

    2004-04-01

    To achieve sustainable range management and avoid or minimize environmental contamination, the Army needs to know the amount of explosives deposited on ranges from different munitions and how these are degraded and transported under different geological and climatic conditions. The physical form of the deposited explosives has a bearing on this problem, yet the shapes and size distributions of the explosive particles remaining after detonations are not known. We collected residues from 8 high-order and 6 low-order non-tactical detonations of TNT-filled 155-mm rounds. We found significant variation in the amount of TNT scattered from the high-order detonations, ranging from 0.00001 to 2% of the TNT in the original shell. All low-order detonations scattered percent-level amounts of TNT. We imaged thousands of TNT particles and determined the size, mass and surface-area distributions of particles collected from one high-order and one low-order detonation. For the high-order detonation, particles smaller than 1 mm contribute most of the mass and surface area of the TNT scattered. For the low-order detonation, most of the scattered TNT mass was in the form of un-heated, centimeter-sized pieces whereas most of the surface area was again from particles smaller than 1 mm. We also observed that the large pieces of TNT disintegrate readily, giving rise to many smaller particles that can quickly dissolve. We suggest picking up the large pieces of TNT before they disintegrate to become point sources of contamination.

  1. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic nano-sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gibot, Pierre Laffont, Lydia

    2007-02-15

    Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} Hausmanite nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solution by using metallic salt and hydrazine as precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The crystallite sizes ranged from 10 to 20 nm and the particle diameter distribution was very narrow and estimated between 20 and 30 nm. Influence of some parameters such as temperature, time of reaction, surfactant nature was studied for a synthesis in an aqueous medium. The as-made manganese oxides particles could be dispersed in an organic solvent containing stabilizing agents, according to perform the synthesis in an H{sub 2}O/n-hexan two-phase medium. These nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and nitrogen absorption measurements. - Graphical abstract: Hydrophobic nano-sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles.

  2. THE STICKINESS OF MICROMETER-SIZED WATER-ICE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water ice is one of the most abundant materials in dense molecular clouds and in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks. In contrast to other materials (e.g., silicates), water ice is assumed to be stickier due to its higher specific surface energy, leading to faster or more efficient growth in mutual collisions. However, experiments investigating the stickiness of water ice have been scarce, particularly in the astrophysically relevant micrometer-sized region and at low temperatures. In this work, we present an experimental setup to grow aggregates composed of μm-sized water-ice particles, which we used to measure the sticking and erosion thresholds of the ice particles at different temperatures between 114 K and 260 K. We show with our experiments that for low temperatures (below ∼210 K), μm-sized water-ice particles stick below a threshold velocity of 9.6 m s{sup –1}, which is approximately 10 times higher than the sticking threshold of μm-sized silica particles. Furthermore, erosion of the grown ice aggregates is observed for velocities above 15.3 m s{sup –1}. A comparison of the experimentally derived sticking threshold with model predictions is performed to determine important material properties of water ice, i.e., the specific surface energy and the viscous relaxation time. Our experimental results indicate that the presence of water ice in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks can enhance the growth of planetesimals by direct sticking of particles.

  3. Size-separated particle fractions of stainless steel welding fume particles - A multi-analytical characterization focusing on surface oxide speciation and release of hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Mei, N; Belleville, L; Cha, Y; Olofsson, U; Odnevall Wallinder, I; Persson, K-A; Hedberg, Y S

    2017-08-31

    Welding fume of stainless steels is potentially health hazardous. The aim of this study was to investigate the manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) speciation of welding fume particles and their extent of metal release relevant for an inhalation scenario, as a function of particle size, welding method (manual metal arc welding, metal arc welding using an active shielding gas), different electrodes (solid wires and flux-cored wires) and shielding gases, and base alloy (austenitic AISI 304L and duplex stainless steel LDX2101). Metal release investigations were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.3, 37°, 24h. The particles were characterized by means of microscopic, spectroscopic, and electroanalytical methods. Cr was predominantly released from particles of the welding fume when exposed in PBS [3-96% of the total amount of Cr, of which up to 70% as Cr(VI)], followed by Mn, nickel, and iron. Duplex stainless steel welded with a flux-cored wire generated a welding fume that released most Cr(VI). Nano-sized particles released a significantly higher amount of nickel compared with micron-sized particle fractions. The welding fume did not contain any solitary known chromate compounds, but multi-elemental highly oxidized oxide(s) (iron, Cr, and Mn, possibly bismuth and silicon). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspects of droplet and particle size control in miniemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygi-Arslan, Oznur

    Miniemulsion polymerization has become increasingly popular among researchers since it can provide significant advantages over conventional emulsion polymerization in certain cases, such as production of high-solids, low-viscosity latexes with better stability and polymerization of highly water-insoluble monomers. Miniemulsions are relatively stable oil (e.g., monomer) droplets, which can range in size from 50 to 500 nm, and are normally dispersed in an aqueous phase with the aid of a surfactant and a costabilizer. These droplets are the primary locus of the initiation of the polymerization reaction. Since particle formation takes place in the monomer droplets, theoretically, in miniemulsion systems the final particle size can be controlled by the initial droplet size. The miniemulsion preparation process typically generates broad droplet size distributions and there is no complete treatment in the literature regarding the control of the mean droplet size or size distribution. This research aims to control the miniemulsion droplet size and its distribution. In situ emulsification, where the surfactant is synthesized spontaneously at the oil/water interface, has been put forth as a simpler method for the preparation of miniemulsions-like systems. Using the in situ method of preparation, emulsion stability and droplet and particle sizes were monitored and compared with conventional emulsions and miniemulsions. Styrene emulsions prepared by the in situ method do not demonstrate the stability of a comparable miniemulsion. Upon polymerization, the final particle size generated from the in situ emulsion did not differ significantly from the comparable conventional emulsion polymerization; the reaction mechanism for in situ emulsions is more like conventional emulsion polymerization rather than miniemulsion polymerization. Similar results were found when the in situ method was applied to controlled free radical polymerizations (CFRP), which have been advanced as a

  5. Effect of sediment size on bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated sediments of Izmir Inner Bay.

    PubMed

    Guven, Duyusen E; Akinci, Gorkem

    2013-09-01

    The effect of sediment size on metals bioleaching from bay sediments was investigated by using fine (< 45 microm), medium (45-300 microm), and coarse (300-2000 microm) size fractions of a sediment sample contaminated with Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Chemical speciation of the metals in bulk and size fractions of sediment were studied before and after bioleaching. Microbial activity was provided with mixed cultures of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The bioleaching process was carried out in flask experiments for 48 days, by using 5% (W/V) of solid concentration in suspension. Bioleaching was found to be efficient for the removal of selected heavy metals from every size fraction of sediments, where the experiments with the smaller particles resulted in the highest solubilization ratios. At the end of the experimental period, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were solubilized to the ratios of 68%, 88%, 72%, and 91% from the fine sediment, respectively. Higher removal efficiencies can be explained by the larger surface area provided by the smaller particles. The changes in the chemical forms of metals were determined and most of the metal releases were observed from the reducible and organic fractions independent from grain size. Higher concentrations were monitored in the residual fraction after bioleaching period, suggesting they are trapped in this fraction, and cannot be solubilized under natural conditions.

  6. Particle size and concentration effects in laboratory debris flow mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz de Oliveira, Gustavo; Baselt, Ivo; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2017-04-01

    Large scale chute experiments, as considered here, are essential for the proper understanding of the complex dynamic behavior of debris flow mixtures consisting of solid particles and viscous fluid. Main flow features that are measured on a laboratory scale are the debris flow front velocity, flow depth and mass evolution. We estimate the debris front position by image analysis technique, which in turn allows to evaluate the respective front velocity. Flow depths are determined by ultrasonic pulse reflections, and the masses are estimated with sensors measuring the normal forces. We investigate the influence of the two phase mixture material composition, including different fluid fractions. The laboratory set up consists of a large rectangular channel, 1.3 m wide and 7 m long. These dimensions allow also a lateral expansion of the debris flow when it moves down the inclined channel. Experiments on debris mixtures with different particle sizes and solid concentrations but same total mass are performed to evaluate the difference in spatial evolution of the debris flow dynamics with the same initial potential energy. The experiments reveal that the debris front with large particle size is faster than with the small ones for all solid volume concentrations. The increase of solid volume fraction shows a decrease of flow velocity, which was observed only in the experiments with the small particle. The flow depth and mass measurements at multiple locations along the downslope direction of the chute indicate different dynamical behavior for different particles sizes. The debris flow depth and mass showed no significant differences for large particles with varying initial solid volume concentrations. In contrast, low solid volume concentration resulted in low debris flow depth and mass in the experiments with small particles. This indicates that the particle size plays an important role in the debris flow transport in different solid volume concentration. So, the initial

  7. Integral inversion to Fraunhofer diffraction for particle sizing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhang; Xu, Lijun; Ding, Jie

    2009-09-01

    A new solution to the inversion of Fraunhofer diffraction for particle sizing was introduced. Compared with the well-known Chin-Shifrin inversion, it is an inversion of the form of integral transform and less sensitive to noise. Simulation results with noise-contaminated data were obtained and showed that the new inversion is better than the Chin-Shifrin inversion. Especially when the particle diameter was small, the new inversion still performed well, whereas the Chin-Shifrin inversion did not converge.

  8. Combustion/particle sizing experiments at the Naval Postgraduate School Combustion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, John; Netzer, David

    1987-01-01

    Particle behavior in combustion processes is an active research area at NPS. Currently, four research efforts are being conducted: (1) There is a long standing need to better understand the soot production and combustion processes in gas turbine combustors, both from a concern for improved engine life and to minimize exhaust particulates. Soot emissions are strongly effected by fuel composition and additives; (2) A more recent need for particle sizing/behavior measurements is in the combustor of a solid fuel ramjet which uses a metallized fuel. High speed motion pictures are being used to study rather large burning particles; (3) In solid propellant rocket motors, metals are used to improve specific impulse and/or to provide damping for combustion pressure oscillations. Particle sizing experiments are being conducted using diode arrays to measure the light intensity as a function of scattering angle; (4) Once a good quality hologram is attained, a need exists for obtaining the particle distributions from hologram in a short period of time. A Quantimet 720 Image Analyzer is being used to reconstruct images.

  9. Size resolved ultrafine particles emission model--a continues size distribution approach.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Irina; Janssen, Stijn; Vrancken, Karl; Vos, Peter; Mishra, Vinit; Berghmans, Patrick

    2011-08-15

    A new parameterization for size resolved ultrafine particles (UFP) traffic emissions is proposed based on the results of PARTICULATES project (Samaras et al., 2005). It includes the emission factors from the Emission Inventory Guidebook (2006) (total number of particles, #/km/veh), the shape of the corresponding particle size distribution given in PARTICULATES and data for the traffic activity. The output of the model UFPEM (UltraFine Particle Emission Model) is a sum of continuous distributions of ultrafine particles emissions per vehicle type (passenger cars and heavy duty vehicles), fuel (petrol and diesel) and average speed representative for urban, rural and highway driving. The results from the parameterization are compared with measured total number of ultrafine particles and size distributions in a tunnel in Antwerp (Belgium). The measured UFP concentration over the entire campaign shows a close relation to the traffic activity. The modelled concentration is found to be lower than the measured in the campaign. The average emission factor from the measurement is 4.29E+14 #/km/veh whereas the calculated is around 30% lower. A comparison of emission factors with literature is done as well and in overall a good agreement is found. For the size distributions it is found that the measured distributions consist of three modes--Nucleation, Aitken and accumulation and most of the ultrafine particles belong to the Nucleation and the Aitken modes. The modelled Aitken mode (peak around 0.04-0.05 μm) is found in a good agreement both as amplitude of the peak and the number of particles whereas the modelled Nucleation mode is shifted to smaller diameters and the peak is much lower that the observed. Time scale analysis shows that at 300 m in the tunnel coagulation and deposition are slow and therefore neglected. The UFPEM emission model can be used as a source term in dispersion models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  11. Microstructure and Thermal History of Metal Particles in CH Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Jones, R. H.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides detailed microstructural and microchemical information at the nm to µm scale (SEM, EPMA, TEM, EBSD) for a select suite of metal particles in four CH chondrites, ALH 85085, PAT 91546, Acfer 214, NWA 739.

  12. Process R&D for Particle Size Control of Molybdenum Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Sujat; Dzwiniel, Trevor; Pupek, Krzysztof; Krumdick, Gregory; Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to produce MoO3 powder with a particle size range of 50 to 200 μm for use in targets for production of the medical isotope 99Mo. Molybdenum metal powder is commercially produced by thermal reduction of oxides in a hydrogen atmosphere. The most common source material is MoO3, which is derived by the thermal decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM). However, the particle size of the currently produced MoO3 is too small, resulting in Mo powder that is too fine to properly sinter and press into the desired target. In this study, effects of heating rate, heating temperature, gas type, gas flow rate, and isothermal heating were investigated for the decomposition of AHM. The main conclusions were as follows: lower heating rate (2-10°C/min) minimizes breakdown of aggregates, recrystallized samples with millimeter-sized aggregates are resistant to various heat treatments, extended isothermal heating at >600°C leads to significant sintering, and inert gas and high gas flow rate (up to 2000 ml/min) did not significantly affect particle size distribution or composition. In addition, attempts to recover AHM from an aqueous solution by several methods (spray drying, precipitation, and low temperature crystallization) failed to achieve the desired particle size range of 50 to 200 μm. Further studies are planned.

  13. Particle sizing of pharmaceutical aerosols via direct imaging of particle settling velocities.

    PubMed

    Fishler, Rami; Verhoeven, Frank; de Kruijf, Wilbur; Sznitman, Josué

    2017-08-16

    We present a novel method for characterizing in near real-time the aerodynamic particle size distributions from pharmaceutical inhalers. The proposed method is based on direct imaging of airborne particles followed by a particle-by-particle measurement of settling velocities using image analysis and particle tracking algorithms. Due to the simplicity of the principle of operation, this method has the potential of circumventing potential biases of current real-time particle analyzers (e.g. Time of Flight analysis), while offering a cost effective solution. The simple device can also be constructed in laboratory settings from off-the-shelf materials for research purposes. To demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the measurement technique, we have conducted benchmark experiments whereby aerodynamic particle size distributions are obtained from several commercially-available dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Our measurements yield size distributions (i.e. MMAD and GSD) that are closely in line with those obtained from Time of Flight analysis and cascade impactors suggesting that our imaging-based method may embody an attractive methodology for rapid inhaler testing and characterization. In a final step, we discuss some of the ongoing limitations of the current prototype and conceivable routes for improving the technique. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Optical properties of random metal-dielectric nanocomposite films: nanoparticle size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-09-01

    The optical properties of a semicontinuous metal film that contains randomly distributed dielectric nanoparticles are analyzed by taking into account both filling ratios and nanoparticle size effects. A new generalization of the standard Maxwell-Garnett formula for the present system is derived, by means of the linearized hydrodynamic theory in conjunction with the Poisson equation and the appropriate boundary conditions. The dispersion curves of surface modes of the system are presented and found to be strongly dependent on the volume fraction of particles as well as the particles size. The attenuated total reflection spectra due to surface modes for the case of p-polarization are plotted and the effect of varying filling factor for fixed nanoparticles size is studied, as well as the effect of varying nanoinclusions size for a fixed volume fraction of particles.

  15. Nano-sized particles, processes of making, compositions and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Stephen [New York, NY; Yin, Ming [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-22

    The present invention describes methods for preparing high quality nanoparticles, i.e., metal oxide based nanoparticles of uniform size and monodispersity. The nanoparticles advantageously comprise organic alkyl chain capping groups and are stable in air and in nonpolar solvents. The methods of the invention provide a simple and reproducible procedure for forming transition metal oxide nanocrystals, with yields over 80%. The highly crystalline and monodisperse nanocrystals are obtained directly without further size selection; particle size can be easily and fractionally increased by the methods. The resulting nanoparticles can exhibit magnetic and/or optical properties. These properties result from the methods used to prepare them. Also advantageously, the nanoparticles of this invention are well suited for use in a variety of industrial applications, including cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations and compositions.

  16. Porous metal oxide particles and their methods of synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Fanglin; Liu, Qiang

    2013-03-12

    Methods are generally disclosed for synthesis of porous particles from a solution formed from a leaving agent, a surfactant, and a soluble metal salt in a solvent. The surfactant congregates to form a nanoparticle core such that the metal salt forms about the nanoparticle core to form a plurality of nanoparticles. The solution is heated such that the leaving agent forms gas bubbles in the solution, and the plurality of nanoparticles congregate about the gas bubbles to form a porous particle. The porous particles are also generally disclosed and can include a particle shell formed about a core to define an average diameter from about 0.5 .mu.m to about 50 .mu.m. The particle shell can be formed from a plurality of nanoparticles having an average diameter of from about 1 nm to about 50 nm and defined by a metal salt formed about a surfactant core.

  17. Nanostructure of Metallic Particles in Light Water Reactor Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Mcnamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-03-11

    The extraordinary nano-structure of metallic particles in light water reactor fuels points to possible high reactivity through increased surface area and a high concentration of high energy defect sites. We have analyzed the metallic epsilon particles from a high burn-up fuel from a boiling water reactor using transmission electron microscopy and have observed a much finer nanostructure in these particles than has been reported previously. The individual round particles that varying in size between ~20 and ~50 nm appear to consist of individual crystallites on the order of 2-3 nm in diameter. It is likely that in-reactor irradiation induce displacement cascades results in the formation of the nano-structure. The composition of these metallic phases is variable yet the structure of the material is consistent with the hexagonal close packed structure of epsilon-ruthenium. These findings suggest that unusual catalytic behavior of these materials might be expected, particularly under accident conditions.

  18. Size segregation in bedload sediment transport at the particle scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, P.; Martin, T.

    2011-12-01

    Bedload, the larger material that is transported in stream channels, has major consequences, for the management of water resources, for environmental sustainability, and for flooding alleviation. Most particularly, in mountains, steep slopes drive intense transport of a wide range of grain sizes. Our ability to compute local and even bulk quantities such as the sediment flux in rivers is poor. One important reason is that grain-grain interactions in stream channels may have been neglected. An arguably most important difficulty pertains to the very wide range of grain size leading to grain size sorting or segregation. This phenomenon largely modifies fluxes and results in patterns that can be seen ubiquitously in nature such as armoring or downstream fining. Most studies have concerned the spontaneous percolation of fine grains into immobile gravels, because of implications for salmonid spawning beds, or stratigraphical interpretation. However when the substrate is moving, the segregation process is different as statistically void openings permit downward percolation of larger particles. This process also named "kinetic sieving" has been studied in industrial contexts where segregation of granular or powder materials is often non-desirable. We present an experimental study of two-size mixtures of coarse spherical glass beads entrained by a shallow turbulent and supercritical water flow down a steep channel with a mobile bed. The particle diameters were 4 and 6mm, the channel width 6.5mm and the channel inclination ranged from 7.5 to 12.5%. The water flow rate and the particle rate were kept constant at the upstream entrance. First only the coarser particle rate was input and adjusted to obtain bed load equilibrium, that is, neither bed degradation nor aggradation over sufficiently long time intervals. Then a low rate of smaller particles (about 1% of the total sediment rate) was introduced to study the spatial and temporal evolution of segregating smaller particles

  19. Multiple-Instrument Analyses of Single Micron-Size Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admon, Uri; Donohue, David; Aigner, Helmut; Tamborini, Gabriele; Bildstein, Olivier; Betti, Maria

    2005-08-01

    Physical, chemical, and isotopic analyses of individual radioactive and other particles in the micron-size range, key tools in environmental research and in nuclear forensics, require the ability to precisely relocate particles of interest (POIs) in the secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) or in another instrument, after having been located, identified, and characterized in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). This article describes the implementation, testing, and evaluation of the triangulation POIs re-location method, based on microscopic reference marks imprinted on or attached to the sample holder, serving as an inherent coordinate system. In SEM-to-SEM and SEM-to-SIMS experiments re-location precision better than 10 [mu]m and 20 [mu]m, respectively, is readily attainable for instruments using standard specimen stages. The method is fast, easy to apply, and facilitates repeated analyses of individual particles in different instruments and laboratories.

  20. Thermal levitation of 10 um size particles in low vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Long Fung Frankie; Kowalski, Nicholas; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We report on experimental methods for trapping 10 micron-sized ice, glass, ceramic and polyethylene particles with thermophoresis in medium vacuum, at pressures between 5 Torr and 25 Torr. Under appropriate conditions particles can launch and levitate robustly for up to an hour. We describe the experimental setup used to produce the temperature gradient necessary for the levitation, as well as our procedure for generating and introducing ice into the experimental setup. In addition to analyzing the conditions necessary for levitation, and the dependence of levitation on the experimental parameters, we report on the behavior of particles during levitation and ejection, including position and stability, under different pressures and temperatures. We also note a significant discrepancy between theory and data, suggesting the presence of other levitating forces.

  1. Laser diffraction particle sizing: Instrument probe volume relocation and elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert C.; Buchele, Donald R.; Hovenac, Edward A.; Lock, James A.

    1990-01-01

    The effective probe volume of laser diffraction particle sizing instruments depends on many instrument parameters. In particular the probe volume axial boundaries and its location along laser beam are essentially defined by the onset of a vignetting effect where light scattered at large angles from small particles misses the transform lens. This vignetting effect results in a probe volume that must be inconveniently close to the lens in order to detect smaller diameter particles (less than 100 micrometers). With the addition of an appropriately designed Keplerian telescope, the probe volume may be relocated and elongated. The theory of operation of this supplemental optical system is described. Design considerations for these supplemental optical systems are described, including recommendations for lens specifications, assembly and use. An image transfer system is described which has been designed for use on a Malvern 2600HSD instrument. Experimental validation of this image transfer system is described.

  2. Particle size distribution dynamics during precipitative softening: constant solution composition.

    PubMed

    Nason, Jeffrey A; Lawler, Desmond F

    2008-08-01

    In the treatment of surface water for potable use, precipitative coagulation (e.g., lime softening, alum or iron sweep coagulation) is widely utilized prior to particle removal processes. The particle size distribution (PSD) formed during such processes is a prime determinant of the removal efficiency for suspended and dissolved contaminants, but little is known quantitatively about how PSDs change by simultaneous precipitation and flocculation. Using precipitative softening as an example, detailed measurements of the PSD (using electronic particle counting) were made during precipitation of CaCO(3) under conditions of constant solution composition. Examination of the time-varying PSDs revealed dramatic changes resulting from nucleation, crystal growth, and flocculation. The influence of the saturation ratio, seed concentration, and mixing intensity on those processes was quantified. Implications with respect to the design and operation of water treatment facilities are discussed.

  3. Influence of particle size distribution on nanopowder cold compaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltachev, G.; Volkov, N.; Lukyashin, K.; Markov, V.; Chingina, E.

    2017-06-01

    Nanopowder uniform and uniaxial cold compaction processes are simulated by 2D granular dynamics method. The interaction of particles in addition to wide-known contact laws involves the dispersion forces of attraction and possibility of interparticle solid bridges formation, which have a large importance for nanopowders. Different model systems are investigated: monosized systems with particle diameter of 10, 20 and 30 nm; bidisperse systems with different content of small (diameter is 10 nm) and large (30 nm) particles; polydisperse systems corresponding to the log-normal size distribution law with different width. Non-monotone dependence of compact density on powder content is revealed in bidisperse systems. The deviations of compact density in polydisperse systems from the density of corresponding monosized system are found to be minor, less than 1 per cent.

  4. Droplet sizing calibration of the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, T.J.; Rader, D.J.; Ceman, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) is an LDV-based instrument for simultaneous measurement of single particle size and velocity. A PDPA calibration was performed using well-characterized liquid droplets in the 4 to 80 ..mu..m diameter range. Two test liquids were used: oleic acid and kerosene. A standard PDPA instrument and a fiber-optic probe PDPA system were tested. The standard instrument measurements agreed with expected droplet diameters to within the droplet generation accuracy for droplets above 15 ..mu..m diameter, and had a measurement accuracy of about 2 ..mu..m for smaller droplets. The fiber-optic probe system exhibited similar behavior, although the 2 ..mu..m sizing uncertainty extended to droplets as large as 25 ..mu..m. The measurement uncertainties in the small diameter ranges are in qualitative agreement with the light-scattering computations of Al-Chalabi et al. (1988) and Saffman et al. (1984). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Inversion method based on stochastic optimization for particle sizing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Escobar, Juan Jaime; Barbosa-Santillán, Liliana Ibeth; Vargas-Ubera, Javier; Aguilar-Valdés, Félix

    2016-08-01

    A stochastic inverse method is presented based on a hybrid evolutionary optimization algorithm (HEOA) to retrieve a monomodal particle-size distribution (PSD) from the angular distribution of scattered light. By solving an optimization problem, the HEOA (with the Fraunhofer approximation) retrieves the PSD from an intensity pattern generated by Mie theory. The analyzed light-scattering pattern can be attributed to unimodal normal, gamma, or lognormal distribution of spherical particles covering the interval of modal size parameters 46≤α≤150. The HEOA ensures convergence to the near-optimal solution during the optimization of a real-valued objective function by combining the advantages of a multimember evolution strategy and locally weighted linear regression. The numerical results show that our HEOA can be satisfactorily applied to solve the inverse light-scattering problem.

  6. The scattering matrix for size distributions of irregular particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Vilaplana, R.; Muñoz, O.; Molina, A.

    2005-05-01

    We have performed extensive calculations to obtain the scattering matrix elements for a size distribution of irregularly-shaped, randomly oriented particles by the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) method, at size parameters X<25. We have studied the effects of changing the porosity of the particles and their refractive index on the scattering properties. To study both the color at blue and red incident wavelengths. The results will be used in the future for the interpretation of polarimetric observations of cosmic dust and laboratory measurements of scattering matrices of dust samples in a new light scattering facility which is currently built at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía in Granada, Spain.

  7. Particle size and pathogenicity in the respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Richard James

    2013-01-01

    Particle size dictates where aerosolized pathogens deposit in the respiratory tract, thereafter the pathogens potential to cause disease is influenced by tissue tropism, clearance kinetics and the host immunological response. This interplay brings pathogens into contact with a range of tissues spanning the respiratory tract and associated anatomical structures. In animal models, differential deposition within the respiratory tract influences infection kinetics for numerous select agents. Greater numbers of pathogens are required to infect the upper (URT) compared with the lower respiratory tract (LRT), and in comparison the URT infections are protracted with reduced mortality. Pathogenesis in the URT is characterized by infection of the URT lymphoid tissues, cervical lymphadenopathy and septicemia, closely resembling reported human infections of the URT. The olfactory, gastrointestinal, and ophthalmic systems are also infected in a pathogen-dependent manner. The relevant literature is reviewed with respect to particle size and infection of the URT in animal models and humans. PMID:24225380

  8. Remediation of copper contaminated soil by using different particle sizes of apatite: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jinfeng; Hu, Tiantian; Cang, Long; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    The particle size of apatite is one of the critical factors that influence the adsorption of heavy metals on apatite in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils using apatite. However, little research has been done evaluating the impact of different particle sizes of apatite on immobilization remediation of heavy metal polluted soils in field. In this study, the adsorption isothermal experiments of copper on three kinds of apatite was tested, and the field experiment by using different particle sizes apatite [nano-hydroxyapatite (NAP), micro-hydroxyapatite (MAP), ordinary particle apatite (OAP)] at a same dosage of 25.8 t/ha (1.16 %, W/W) was also conducted. Ryegrass was chosen as the test plant. The ryegrass biomass, the copper contents in ryegrass and the copper fractionations in soil were determined after field experiments. Results of adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption amounts of copper on OAP was the lowest among different particles. The adsorption amounts of copper on MAP was higher than NAP at high copper equilibrium concentration (>1 mmol L(-1)), an opposite trend was obtained at low copper concentration (<1 mmol L(-1)). In the field experiment, we found that the application of different apatites could effectively increase the soil pH, decrease the available copper concentration in soil, provide more nutrient phosphate and promote the growth of ryegrass. The ryegrass biomass and the copper accumulation in ryegrass were the highest in MAP among all treatments. The effective order of apatite in phytoremediation of copper contaminated field soil was MAP > NAP > OAP, which was attributed to the high adsorption capacity of copper and the strong releasing of phosphate by MAP.

  9. Finite-size effects in surface-enhanced Raman scattering in noble-metal nanoparticles: a semiclassical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustovit, Vitaliy N.; Shahbazyan, Tigran V.

    2006-06-01

    We study finite-size effects in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from molecules adsorbed on small metal particles. Within an electromagnetic description of SERS, the enhancement of the Raman signal originates from the local field of the surface plasmon resonance in a nanoparticle. With decreasing particle sizes, this enhancement is reduced due to the size-dependent Landau damping of the surface plasmon. We show that, in small noble-metal particles, the reduction of interband screening in the surface layer leads to an additional increase in the local field acting on a molecule close to the metal surface. The overall size dependence of Raman signal enhancement is determined by the interplay between Landau damping and underscreening effects. Our calculations, based on a two-region model, show that the role of the surface layer increases for smaller nanoparticle sizes due to a larger volume fraction of the underscreened region.

  10. Finite-size effects in surface-enhanced Raman scattering in noble-metal nanoparticles: a semiclassical approach.

    PubMed

    Pustovit, Vitaliy N; Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2006-06-01

    We study finite-size effects in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from molecules adsorbed on small metal particles. Within an electromagnetic description of SERS, the enhancement of the Raman signal originates from the local field of the surface plasmon resonance in a nanoparticle. With decreasing particle sizes, this enhancement is reduced due to the size-dependent Landau damping of the surface plasmon. We show that, in small noble-metal particles, the reduction of interband screening in the surface layer leads to an additional increase in the local field acting on a molecule close to the metal surface. The overall size dependence of Raman signal enhancement is determined by the interplay between Landau damping and underscreening effects. Our calculations, based on a two-region model, show that the role of the surface layer increases for smaller nanoparticle sizes due to a larger volume fraction of the underscreened region.

  11. Macrophage reactivity to different polymers demonstrates particle size- and material-specific reactivity: PEEK-OPTIMA(®) particles versus UHMWPE particles in the submicron, micron, and 10 micron size ranges.

    PubMed

    Hallab, Nadim James; McAllister, Kyron; Brady, Mark; Jarman-Smith, Marcus

    2012-02-01

    Biologic reactivity to orthopedic implant debris is generally the main determinant of long-term clinical performance where released polymeric particles of Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) remain the most prevalent debris generated from metal-on-polymer bearing total joint arthroplasties. Polymeric alternatives to UHMWPE such as polyetherether-ketone (PEEK) may have increased wear resistance but the bioreactivity of PEEK-OPTIMA particles on peri-implant inflammation remains largely uncharacterized. We evaluated human monocyte/macrophage responses (THP-1s and primary human) when challenged by PEEK-OPTIMA, UHMWPE, and X-UHMWPE particles of three particle sizes (0.7 um, 2 um, and 10 um) at a dose of 20 particles-per-cell at 24- and 48-h time points. Macrophage responses were measured using cytotoxicity assays, viability assays, proliferation assays and cytokine analysis (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α). In general, there were no significant differences between PEEK-OPTIMA, UHMWPE, and X-UHMWPE particles on macrophage viability or proliferation. However, macrophages demonstrated greater cytotoxicity responses to UHMWPE and X-UHMWPE than to PEEK-OPTIMA at 24 and 48 h, where 0.7 μm-UHMWPE particles produced the highest amount of cytotoxicity. Particles of X-UHMWPE more than PEEK-OPTIMA and UHMWPE induced IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α at 24 h, p < 0.05 (no significant differences at 48 h). On average, cytokine production was more adversely affected by larger 10 μm particles than by 0.7 and 2 μm sized particles. While limitations of in vitro analysis apply to this study, PEEK-OPTIMA particles were more biocompatible than UHMWPE particles, in that they induced less inflammatory cytokine responses and thus, in part, demonstrates that PEEK-OPTIMA implant debris does not represent an increased inflammatory risk over that of UHMWPE.

  12. Characterisation of nano- and micron-sized airborne and collected subway particles, a multi-analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Midander, Klara; Elihn, Karine; Wallén, Anna; Belova, Lyuba; Karlsson, Anna-Karin Borg; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2012-06-15

    Continuous daily measurements of airborne particles were conducted during specific periods at an underground platform within the subway system of the city center of Stockholm, Sweden. Main emphasis was placed on number concentration, particle size distribution, soot content (analyzed as elemental and black carbon) and surface area concentration. Conventional measurements of mass concentrations were conducted in parallel as well as analysis of particle morphology, bulk- and surface composition. In addition, the presence of volatile and semi volatile organic compounds within freshly collected particle fractions of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were investigated and grouped according to functional groups. Similar periodic measurements were conducted at street level for comparison. The investigation clearly demonstrates a large dominance in number concentration of airborne nano-sized particles compared to coarse particles in the subway. Out of a mean particle number concentration of 12000 particles/cm(3) (7500 to 20000 particles/cm(3)), only 190 particles/cm(3) were larger than 250 nm. Soot particles from diesel exhaust, and metal-containing particles, primarily iron, were observed in the subway aerosol. Unique measurements on freshly collected subway particle size fractions of PM(10) and PM(2.5) identified several volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, the presence of carcinogenic aromatic compounds and traces of flame retardants. This interdisciplinary and multi-analytical investigation aims to provide an improved understanding of reported adverse health effects induced by subway aerosols.

  13. Determination of particle size using measurement of scatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. L., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A literature search was conducted to determine the state of the art particle size measurement by the light scatter technique. This technique may involve diffraction pattern analysis, location of minima and maxima in angular dependence of scattered light, magnitude of intensity verses angle, forward lobe scattered intensity ratio using two small angles, forward scatter in a small cone, and total scatter. Some of the more modern recordings and detection systems are video, holographic, and systems using optical processing.

  14. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals.

  15. Light scattering by lunar-like particle size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, Jay D.

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental input to models of light scattering from planetary regoliths is the mean phase function of the regolith particles. Using the known size distribution for typical lunar soils, the mean phase function and mean linear polarization for a regolith volume element of spherical particles of any composition were calculated from Mie theory. The two contour plots given here summarize the changes in the mean phase function and linear polarization with changes in the real part of the complex index of refraction, n - ik, for k equals 0.01, the visible wavelength 0.55 micrometers, and the particle size distribution of the typical mature lunar soil 72141. A second figure is a similar index-phase surface, except with k equals 0.1. The index-phase surfaces from this survey are a first order description of scattering by lunar-like regoliths of spherical particles of arbitrary composition. They form the basis of functions that span a large range of parameter-space.

  16. Particle Size Control of Polyethylene Glycol Coated Fe Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, B.; Bonder, M. J.; Zhang, Y.; Gallo, D.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2006-03-01

    Recent interest in Fe nanoparticles with high magnetization is driven by their potential use in biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery, MRI contrast enhancement and hyperthermia treatment of cancer. This study looks at the use of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution to mediate the particle size and therefore control the coercivity of the resulting nanoparticles. Iron nanoparticles were synthesized using an aqueous sodium borohydride reduction of ferrous chloride by a simultaneous introduction of reagents in a Y- junction. The resulting product was collected in a vessel containing a 15 mg/ml carboxyl terminated polyethylene glycol (cPEG) in ethyl alcohol solution located under the Y junction. By varying the length of tubing below the Y junction, the particle size was varied from 5-25 nm. X-ray diffraction data indicates the presence of either amorphous Fe-B or crystalline alpha Fe, depending on the molar ratio of reagents. Magnetic measurements indicate the particles are ferromagnetic with values of coercivity ranging from 200-500 Oe and a saturation magnetization in range of 70-110 emu/g. The XRD shows that the particles are not affected by the polymer coating.

  17. Particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Langer, Gerhard

    1988-08-16

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented impactor slots of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind the relatively larger particles according to the human thoracic separation system and passes through two elongate exhaust apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. The elongate exhaust apertures defining the impaction collection surface are spaced apart by a distance greater than the lengths of elongate impactor slots in the inlet element and are oriented to be normal thereto. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of impactor slots air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the impactor slots, in order to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks.

  18. Comprehensive understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes using nanoparticle tracking analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Desmond F; Youn, Sungmin; Zhu, Tongren; Kim, Ijung; Lau, Boris L T

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes has been limited by difficulties of nanoparticle characterization. In this study, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was deployed to evaluate the absolute particle size distributions in laboratory scale flocculation and filtration experiments with silver nanoparticles. The results from NTA were consistent with standard theories of particle destabilization and transport. Direct observations of changes in absolute particle size distributions from NTA enhance both qualitative and quantitative understanding of particle separation processes of nano-sized particles.

  19. Production of large-particle-size monodisperse latexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; El-Aasser, M. L.; Micale, F. J.; Sudol, E. D.; Tseng, C. M.; Silwanowicz, A.

    1984-01-01

    The research program achieved two objectives: (1) it has refined and extended the experimental techniques for preparing monodisperse latexes in quantity on the ground up to a particle diameter of 10 microns; and (2) it has demonstrated that a microgravity environment can be used to grow monodisperse latexes to larger sizes, where the limitations in size have yet to be defined. The experimental development of the monodisperse latex reactor (MLR) and the seeded emulsion polymerizations carried out in the laboratory prototype of the flight hardware, as a function of the operational parameters is discussed. The emphasis is directed towards the measurement, interpretation, and modeling of the kinetics of seeded emulsion polymerization and successive seeded emulsion polymerization. The recipe development of seeded emulsion polymerization as a function of particle size is discussed. The equilibrium swelling of latex particles with monomers was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Extensive studies are reported on both the type and concentration of initiators, surfactants, and inhibitors, which eventually led to the development of the flight recipes. The experimental results of the flight experiments are discussed, as well as the experimental development of inhibition of seeded emulsion polymerization in terms of time of inhibition and the effect of inhibitors on the kinetics of polymerization.

  20. Capillary effect in salt-cemented media of particle sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Hung Truong, Q.; Byun, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2015-01-01

    Natural cementation such as salt cementation may significantly affect the geotechnical properties of soils at low confining pressures. Capillary force plays a key role in the distribution patterns of salt cementation resulting from dehydration. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of capillary force on salt cementation through cone penetration testing, electrical conductivity measurements, photographic imaging technique, and nondestructive elastic wave scanning. Granular media is modeled using glass beads which are saturated in salt water and cemented by oven drying. The cone tip resistance profiles, electrical conductivity profiles, and amplitudes of the scanned elastic waves are high at the top of the specimen with small-sized particles, in the middle of the specimen in medium-sized particles, and at the bottom of the specimen in the large-sized particles. Differences in the distribution of salt in the cemented specimens are confirmed from photographic images. The calculated capillary heights are associated with the areas of high salt concentration in the cemented specimens. The four investigation methods used in this study show that the behavior of salt-cemented granular media depends on capillary force in a shallow depth.

  1. Airborne birch pollen antigens in different particle sizes.

    PubMed

    Rantio-Lehtimäki, A; Viander, M; Koivikko, A

    1994-01-01

    Two particle samplers for ambient air, situated together: a static size-selective bio-aerosol sampler (SSBAS) and a Burkard pollen and spore trap were compared in sampling intact birch pollen grains through one flowering period of Betula (a total of 44 days). The SSBAS trapped pollen grains three times more efficiently than the Burkard trap, but the variations in pollen counts were significantly correlated. In contrast, birch pollen antigenic activity and the pollen count in the Burkard samples were not closely correlated. The antigenic concentration was occasionally high both before and after the pollination period. There was a high birch pollen antigenic activity in particle size classes where intact pollen grains were absent, even on days when the pollen count was very low. Correspondingly, on days with high birch pollen counts in the air, pollen antigenic activity was on several occasions low, indicating that pollen grains were empty of antigenic material. The small particle size classes are especially important to allergic patients because they are able to penetrate immediately into the alveoli and provoke asthmatic reactions. Therefore, aerobiological information systems based on pollen and spore counts should be supplemented with information concerning antigenic activities in the air.

  2. Metals in airpollution particles decrease whole blood coagulation time

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanism underlying the pro-coagulative effect of air pollution particle exposure is not known. We tested the postulate that 1) the soluble fraction ofan air pollution particle can affect whole blood coagulation time and 2) metals included in the soluble fraction are respons...

  3. Metals in airpollution particles decrease whole blood coagulation time

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanism underlying the pro-coagulative effect of air pollution particle exposure is not known. We tested the postulate that 1) the soluble fraction ofan air pollution particle can affect whole blood coagulation time and 2) metals included in the soluble fraction are respons...

  4. Mass size distribution of particle-bound water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Simonetti, G.; Perrino, C.

    2017-09-01

    The thermal-ramp Karl-Fisher method (tr-KF) for the determination of PM-bound water has been applied to size-segregated PM samples collected in areas subjected to different environmental conditions (protracted atmospheric stability, desert dust intrusion, urban atmosphere). This method, based on the use of a thermal ramp for the desorption of water from PM samples and the subsequent analysis by the coulometric KF technique, had been previously shown to differentiate water contributes retained with different strength and associated to different chemical components in the atmospheric aerosol. The application of the method to size-segregated samples has revealed that water showed a typical mass size distribution in each one of the three environmental situations that were taken into consideration. A very similar size distribution was shown by the chemical PM components that prevailed during each event: ammonium nitrate in the case of atmospheric stability, crustal species in the case of desert dust, road-dust components in the case of urban sites. The shape of the tr-KF curve varied according to the size of the collected particles. Considering the size ranges that better characterize the event (fine fraction for atmospheric stability, coarse fraction for dust intrusion, bi-modal distribution for urban dust), this shape is coherent with the typical tr-KF shape shown by water bound to the chemical species that predominate in the same PM size range (ammonium nitrate, crustal species, secondary/combustion species - road dust components).

  5. An investigation of electrostatic interactions between organically functionalized silica particles, surfaces, and metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Sarah Margaret

    This research focuses on the electrostatic interactions between silica particles and either coated surfaces or metal ions. This work has two objectives: to begin a preliminary investigation into particle-surface systems that may be ideal for further investigation as a sensor and to investigate metal-ligand interactions for the potential use of metal ions to aid in the self assembly of silica particles. Silica particles with various organic functionalizations were synthesized from trialkoxysilane precursors using variations of the Stöber synthesis method, a well-known colloidal suspensions technique. The functional groups that were used in this work include mercaptopropyl (MPTMS), ethylenediamine (enTMOS), and aminopropyl groups (APTES). The aminopropyl functionalized particles were synthesized by varying the mol% of APTES in a tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) particle formulation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyze the particles for size, shape, and composition. Silica particles with all three functionalizations were used for the particle-surface study, whereas only MPTMS particles were used in the metal-ligand study. The coatings used for the particle-surface study were synthesized using standard sol gel chemistry with trialkoxysilane precursors as well. The functional groups used in this study include methyl (MTMOS) and aminopropyl groups (TEOS/APTES). Sol gel coatings incorporating carboxy and ammonium groups were also investigated but were not suitable for further study. FTIR was used to analyze the MTMOS and TEOS/APTES coatings. The adsorption of the MPTMS particles onto TEOS/APTES coatings and enTMOS or TEOS/APTES particles onto MTMOS coatings over time was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy. Since silica particles are not fluorescent in the visible light range, a fluorescent dye was incorporated into the particles, either rhodamine (MPTMS particles) or pyranine dye (enTMOS, TEOS

  6. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  7. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  8. Antibacterial activity of silver: the role of hydrodynamic particle size at nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Chandni; Vala, Anjana K; Andhariya, Nidhi; Pandey, O P; Chudasama, Bhupendra

    2014-10-01

    Silver shows the highest antimicrobial activities amongst all metals. It is better than many first line antibiotics. The antimicrobial properties of silver can be tuned by altering its physical and surface properties. Researchers have demonstrated enhancement in the antibacterial properties of silver with decreasing particle size from bulk to nano. In the present article, we study the effect of particle size of silver at nanoscale on their antimicrobial properties. Two samples of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) of same physical size (≈8 nm) but different hydrodynamic size (59 and 83 nm) are prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 with oleylamine followed by phase transfer with triblock copolymer Pluronic F-127. Their antimicrobial properties are investigated by microdilution method against clinically important strains of gram positive (S. aureus and B. megaterium) and gram negative (P. vulgaris and S. sonnei) bacteria. Nearly 38-50% enhancement in the antibacterial action of SNPs was observed when their hydrodynamic size was reduced to 59 nm from 83 nm. It has been observed that the antibacterial action of SNPs was governed by their hydrodynamic size and not by their crystallite and physical size. The phenomenological model was also proposed which makes an attempt to explain the microscopic mechanism responsible for the size dependent antibacterial activities of silver. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Counting Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft and Measuring Size of Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1994-01-01

    There were two principal objectives of the cooperative agreement between NASA and the University of Denver. The first goal was to modify the design of the ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) so that the effective lower detection limit would be improved at high altitudes. This improvement was sought because, in the instrument used prior to 1993, diffusion losses prevented the smallest detectable particles from reaching the detection volume of the instrument during operation at low pressure. Therefore, in spite of the sensor's ability to detect particles as small as 0.008 microns in diameter, many of these particles were lost in transport to the sensing region and were not counted. Most of the particles emitted by aircraft are smaller than 0.1 micron in diameter. At the start date of this work, May 1990, continuous sizing techniques available on the ER-2 were only capable of detecting particles larger than 0.17 micron. Thus, the second objective of this work was to evaluate candidate sizing techniques in an effort to gain additional information concerning the size of particles emitted by aircraft.

  10. Ultrasonic particle sizing in aqueous suspensions of solid particles of unknown density.

    PubMed

    Al-Lashi, Raied S; Challis, Richard E

    2015-08-01

    Estimates of particle size distributions (PSDs) in solid-in-liquid suspensions can be made on the basis of measurements of ultrasonic wave attenuation combined with a mathematical propagation model, which typically requires seven physical parameters to describe each phase of the mixture. The estimation process is insensitive to all of these except the density of the solid particles, which may not be known or difficult to measure. This paper proposes that an unknown density value is incorporated into the sizing computation as a free variable. It is shown that this leads to an accurate estimate of PSD, as well as the unknown density.

  11. Non ideal detonation of emulsion explosives mixed with metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Ricardo; Ribeiro, José B.; Plaksin, I.; Campos, Jose

    2012-03-01

    The detonation of ammonium nitrate based compositions like emulsion explosives mixed with metal particles was experimentally investigated. Aluminum powder with a mean particle size of 6 μm was used, and the mass concentration of aluminum on the explosive charge ranged from 0 to 30% wt. The values of the detonation velocity, the pressure attenuation - P(x) - of the shock front amplitude in a standard PMMA monitor and manganin gauges pressure-time histories are shown as a function of the explosive charge porosity and specific mass. All these parameters except the pressuretimes histories have been evaluated using the multi-fiber optical probe (MFOP) method which is based on the use of an optical fiber strip, with 64 independent optical fibers. The MFOP allows a quasicontinuous evaluation of the detonation wave run propagation and the assessment of spatial resolved measurements of the shock wave induced in the PMMA barrier. Results of that characterization process are presented and discussed for aluminized and non-aluminized emulsion explosives. The experimental results have shown that the detonation velocity decreases monotonically with the increase of aluminum content. Nevertheless the peak of detonation pressure profiles presents a non-monotonic behavior increasing its value up to an Al content of 20% wt, after which it starts to decrease.

  12. Non ideal detonation of emulsion explosives mixed with metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, R.; Ribeiro, J.; Plaksin, I.; Campos, J.

    2011-06-01

    The detonation of ammonium nitrate based compositions like emulsion explosives (EX) mixed with metal particles has been investigated experimentally. Aluminium powder with a mean particle size of 10 μm was used, and the mass concentration of aluminum on the explosive charge was ranged from 0 to 30%. The values of the detonation velocity, the pressure attenuation - P(x) - of detonation front amplitude in a standard PMMA monitor and manganin gauges pressure-time histories are shown as a function of the explosive charge porosity and specific mass. All these parameters except the pressure-times histories have been evaluated using the multi fiber optical probe (MFOP) method which is based on the use of an optical fiber strip, with 64 independent optical fibers. The MFOP allow a quasi continuous evaluation of the detonation wave run propagation and the assessment to spatial resolved measurements of the shock wave induced in the PMMA barrier which in turns allows a detailed characterization of the detonation reaction zone structure. Results of that characterization process are presented and discussed for aluminized and non aluminized EX. Moreover, the effect of the mass concentration of the sensitizing agent (hollow glass micro-balloons) on the non monotonic detonation velocity variation, for EX, will be discussed.

  13. Incorporation of Soft Particles into Lipid Vesicles: Effects of Particle Size and Elasticity.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2016-12-13

    The interaction between particles and lipid biomembranes plays an essential role in many fields such as endocytosis, drug delivery, and intracellular traffic. Here we conduct a theoretical study on the incorporation of elastic particles of different sizes and rigidities into a lipid vesicle through adhesive wrapping. It is shown that while the incorporation of relatively small particles involves smooth shape evolution, the vesicle wrapping of large particles exhibits a discontinuous shape transition, followed by a protrusion of the vesicle membrane at infinitesimal cost of elastic deformation energy. Moreover, softer particles require stronger adhesion energy to achieve successful internalization and delay the onset of discontinuous shape transition to a higher wrapping degree. Depending on the adhesion energy, particle-vesicle size, and rigidity ratios, and the spontaneous curvature of the vesicle, a rich variety of wrapping phase diagrams consisting of stable and metastable states of no-wrapping, partial-wrapping, and full-wrapping are established. The underlying mechanism of the discontinuous shape transformation of the vesicle and the relation between the uptake proneness and uptake efficiency are discussed. These results shed further light on the elasticity effects in cellular uptake of elastic particles and may provide rational design guidelines for controlled endocytosis and diagnostics delivery.

  14. [Ultrafine particle number concentration and size distribution of vehicle exhaust ultrafine particles].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ye-qiang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Sun, Zai; Cai, Zhi-liang; Yang, Wen-jun

    2014-09-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations obtained from three different vehicles were measured using fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and automobile exhaust gas analyzer. UFP number concentration and size distribution were studied at different idle driving speeds. The results showed that at a low idle speed of 800 rmin-1 , the emission particle number concentration was the lowest and showed a increasing trend with the increase of idle speed. The majority of exhaust particles were in Nuclear mode and Aitken mode. The peak sizes were dominated by 10 nm and 50 nm. Particle number concentration showed a significantly sharp increase during the vehicle acceleration process, and was then kept stable when the speed was stable. In the range of 0. 4 m axial distance from the end of the exhaust pipe, the particle number concentration decayed rapidly after dilution, but it was not obvious in the range of 0. 4-1 m. The number concentration was larger than the background concentration. Concentration of exhaust emissions such as CO, HC and NO showed a reducing trend with the increase of idle speed,which was in contrast to the emission trend of particle number concentration.

  15. Influence of Dose on Particle Size and Optical Properties of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gharibshahi, Elham; Saion, Elias

    2012-01-01

    Attempts to produce colloidal platinum nanoparticles by using steady absorption spectra with various chemical-based reduction methods often resulted in the fast disappearance of the absorption maxima leaving reduced platinum nanoparticles with little information on their optical properties. We synthesized colloidal platinum nanoparticles in an aqueous solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone by gamma radiolytic reduction method, which produced steady absorption spectra of fully reduced and highly pure platinum nanoparticles free from by-product impurities or reducing agent contamination. The average particle size was found to be in the range of 3.4–5.3 nm and decreased with increasing dose due to the domination of nucleation over ion association in the formation of metal nanoparticles by the gamma radiolytic reduction method. The platinum nanoparticles exhibit optical absorption spectra with two absorption peaks centered at about 216 and 264 nm and the peaks blue shifted to lower wavelengths with decreasing particle size. The absorption spectra of platinum nanoparticles were also calculated using quantum mechanical treatment and coincidently a good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured absorption peaks at various particle sizes. This indicates that the 216 and 264-nm absorption peaks of platinum nanoparticles conceivably originated from the intra-band transitions of conduction electrons of (n = 5, l = 2) and (n = 6, l = 0) energy states respectively to higher energy states. The absorption energies, i.e., conduction band energies of platinum nanoparticles derived from the absorption peaks increased with increasing dose and decreased with increasing particle size. PMID:23203091

  16. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, James V.; Savaskan, Gultekin

    1991-01-01

    A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products