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Sample records for metal salt solutions

  1. Cryochemical method for forming spherical metal oxide particles from metal salt solutions

    DOEpatents

    Tinkle, M.C.

    1973-12-01

    A method is described of preparing small metal oxide spheres cryochemically utilizing metal salts (e.g., nitrates) that cannot readily be dried and calcined without loss of sphericity of the particles. Such metal salts are cryochemically formed into small spheres, partially or completely converted to an insoluble salt, and dried and calcined. (Official Gazette)

  2. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  3. A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, A. R.; Prasad, M. V. R.; Ponraju, D.; Krishnan, H.

    2004-10-01

    A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO4.7H2O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO4 and Na2SO4 as well as Mg(OH)2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (<1.1 M) solutions, however, cause violent reactions and hence should be avoided. Repeated sodium dissolution in Epsom solution produced a solid waste of 4.7 g per g of sodium dissolved which is comparable with the waste (4 g) produced in 8 M NaOH solution. A 1.4 M Epsom solution sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting.

  4. Counter-ion specificity explored in abnormal expansion of supra-molecular aggregates in aqueous solution of alkaline metal salts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ningdong; Tao, Jiaojiao; Wei, Shenghui; Chen, Mingming; Wei, Chengsha; Li, Liangbin

    2015-09-21

    Ionic effects in aqueous solution of macro-ions showing specificity and unconventional characters, respectively, receive a lot of interests recently; however, the complexity of specific ion effects in unconventional phenomena remains ambiguous. In this study, the effects of univalent ions on aggregation of supra-molecular nano-fibrils with charged carboxylate groups on the surface as a prototype of macro-ions are investigated by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) in aqueous solutions of alkaline metal chlorides. It is found that the columnar bundles of charged fibrils are expanded in certain salt concentration range contradicting the conventional screening effects of salts. The degree of expansion is dominated by cations as Na(+) induces drastic effects in comparison to rather gentle changes from K(+) and Cs(+). The specific cations effects observed by SAXS correlate with the pH behavior of the solutions, an indicator of surface charge, or number of carboxylate groups along the supra-molecular fibrils. It is postulated that while Na(+) with stronger affinity to carboxylates apparently reduces the surface charge, K(+) and Cs(+) only weakly interact with carboxylates and induce minor changes, accounting for the cation-sensitive aggregation behavior of fibrils observed by SAXS. By probing the bundling aggregation of charged supra-molecular nano-fibrils in salty water, we provide direct evidence of specific counter-ion effects in unusual expansion caused by univalent salts. PMID:26395732

  5. Electrophysical methods of separation of metal cations in the moving salts solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofman, V. N.; Tuksov, I. V.; Timchenko, S. N.; Shamanin, I. V.; Poberezhnikov, A. D.; Kazaryan, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The results of experiments on the excitation of the phenomenon of selective drift of solvated ions under the influence of an external "asymmetric" electric field to the circulating solution of calcium chloride and magnesium salts in a polar liquid dielectric - water are shown. The purpose of the experiments was to determine the influence of the field frequency and amplitude of the field strength on the excitation phenomenon, and the study of the operating characteristics of the testing apparatus - a dividing cell. The dependences of the separation efficiency of solvated cations from the frequency of the external field and the excitation threshold of the phenomenon from the field strength in the separation cell are defined.

  6. Novel dual-salts electrolyte solution for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries with high cycle reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Feng, Xuejiao; Jia, Hao; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2014-12-01

    Metallic lithium is the most promising negative electrode for high energy rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, the low cycle efficiency and lithium dendrite formation during charge/discharge processes consistently hinder its practical application. Here a new dual-salts electrolyte composed of Li[N(SO2F)2] and Li[N(SO2CF3)2] has been explored to simultaneously cope with these two problems. Under the unique protection of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film formed in this electrolyte solution and the improvement in Li crystal growth pattern, high cycle efficiency of ca. 99% and dendrite-free Li deposit have been achieved. Moreover, the excellent cycling performance and favorable lithium morphology can be retained even at high current density of 10 mA cm-2. This study will greatly promote the development of Li-metal rechargeable batteries with high power and high energy density.

  7. Study of quantitative interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of heavy metal salts.

    PubMed

    Szymońska, Joanna; Molenda, Marcin; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2015-12-10

    Interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of silver, lead, copper or iron salts were investigated. It was shown experimentally that granules accumulated the cations in amounts depending on the granule structure and water content as well as a type of both metal and counter-ions present in solution. Potato starch retained almost three times more cations compared to corn starch what was proportional to the total phosphorous content in these starches. Quantity of milligrams of cations bound by 1g of starch was inversely correlated with the cation hydration. Ag(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) were connected in stoichiometric amounts of moles to semicrystalline and amorphous parts of the granules. Fe(3+) ions were accumulated in higher than stoichiometric quantities mainly in granule amorphous regions. Metal ions penetrated into granules together with anions except nitrates which remained on surface of potato starch granules. Cations facilitated the starch thermal decomposition in accordance with values of their standard redox potentials. Nitrates supported this process only in the presence of base metal cations.

  8. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  9. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  10. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  11. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  12. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  13. Protein aggregation in salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-05-26

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein-protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid-liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer-salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization.

  14. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  15. Behavior of Zn2+, Cd2+, Ba2+ and Pb2+ cations in ferromanganese crusts from the Marcus Wake seamount (Pacific Ocean) in aqueous solutions of metal salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, G. V.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Melnikov, M. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Drozdova, A. N.; Shulga, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of heavy-metal cations in ore minerals of cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts from the Marcus Wake seamount in aqueous solutions of metal salts was studied in experiments. The Zn2+ and Cd2+ cations showed high reactivity and Ba2+ and Pb2+ showed low reactivity. It was found that Zn2+ and Cd2+ cations within the ore mineral composition are mainly absorbed (up to 66%) whereas Pb2+ and Ba2+ are chemically bound (up to 70%). Ore minerals in the crusts are characterized by sorption properties and high ionexchange capacity by these cations (1.94-2.62 mg-equiv/g). The capacity values by heavy-metal cations for ore minerals of the crusts from different areas of the Marcus Wake seamount are close to each other.

  16. Data on energy-band-gap characteristics of composite nanoparticles obtained by modification of the amorphous potassium polytitanate in aqueous solutions of transition metal salts.

    PubMed

    Zimnyakov, D A; Sevrugin, A V; Yuvchenko, S A; Fedorov, F S; Tretyachenko, E V; Vikulova, M A; Kovaleva, D S; Krugova, E Y; Gorokhovsky, A V

    2016-06-01

    Here we present the data on the energy-band-gap characteristics of composite nanoparticles produced by modification of the amorphous potassium polytitanate in aqueous solutions of different transition metal salts. Band gap characteristics are investigated using diffuse reflection spectra of the obtained powders. Calculated logarithmic derivative quantity of the Kubelka-Munk function reveals a presence of local maxima in the regions 0.5-1.5 eV and 1.6-3.0 eV which correspond to band gap values of the investigated materials. The values might be related to the constituents of the composite nanoparticles and intermediate products of their chemical interaction. PMID:27158654

  17. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System.

    PubMed

    Lavrynenko, O M; Pavlenko, O Yu; Shchukin, Yu S

    2016-12-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations. PMID:26847693

  18. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System.

    PubMed

    Lavrynenko, O M; Pavlenko, O Yu; Shchukin, Yu S

    2016-12-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.

  19. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrynenko, O. M.; Pavlenko, O. Yu; Shchukin, Yu S.

    2016-02-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.

  20. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  1. Data on energy-band-gap characteristics of composite nanoparticles obtained by modification of the amorphous potassium polytitanate in aqueous solutions of transition metal salts

    PubMed Central

    Zimnyakov, D.A.; Sevrugin, A.V.; Yuvchenko, S.A.; Fedorov, F.S.; Tretyachenko, E.V.; Vikulova, M.A.; Kovaleva, D.S.; Krugova, E.Y.; Gorokhovsky, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the data on the energy-band-gap characteristics of composite nanoparticles produced by modification of the amorphous potassium polytitanate in aqueous solutions of different transition metal salts. Band gap characteristics are investigated using diffuse reflection spectra of the obtained powders. Calculated logarithmic derivative quantity of the Kubelka–Munk function reveals a presence of local maxima in the regions 0.5–1.5 eV and 1.6–3.0 eV which correspond to band gap values of the investigated materials. The values might be related to the constituents of the composite nanoparticles and intermediate products of their chemical interaction. PMID:27158654

  2. Notable effects of the metal salts on the formation and decay reactions of α-tocopheroxyl radical in acetonitrile solution. The complex formation between α-tocopheroxyl and metal cations.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Yutaro; Fujii, Miyabi; Matsuoka, Chihiro; Hashimoto, Haruka; Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Mukai, Kazuo

    2011-08-18

    The measurement of the UV-vis absorption spectrum of α-tocopheroxyl (α-Toc(•)) radical was performed by reacting aroxyl (ArO(•)) radical with α-tocopherol (α-TocH) in acetonitrile solution including four kinds of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts (MX or MX(2)) (LiClO(4), LiI, NaClO(4), and Mg(ClO(4))(2)), using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The maximum wavelength (λ(max)) of the absorption spectrum of the α-Toc(•) at 425.0 nm increased with increasing concentration of metal salts (0-0.500 M) in acetonitrile, and it approached constant values, suggesting an [α-Toc(•)-M(+) (or M(2+))] complex formation. The stability constants (K) were determined to be 9.2, 2.8, and 45 M(-1) for LiClO(4), NaClO(4), and Mg(ClO(4))(2), respectively. By reacting ArO(•) with α-TocH in acetonitrile, the absorption of ArO(•) disappeared rapidly, while that of α-Toc(•) appeared and then decreased gradually as a result of the bimolecular self-reaction of α-Toc(•) after passing through the maximum. The second-order rate constants (k(s)) obtained for the reaction of α-TocH with ArO(•) increased linearly with an increasing concentration of metal salts. The results indicate that the hydrogen transfer reaction of α-TocH proceeds via an electron transfer intermediate from α-TocH to ArO(•) radicals followed by proton transfer. Both the coordination of metal cations to the one-electron reduced anions of ArO(•) (ArO:(-)) and the coordination of counteranions to the one-electron oxidized cations of α-TocH (α-TocH(•)(+)) may stabilize the intermediate, resulting in the acceleration of electron transfer. A remarkable effect of metal salts on the rate of bimolecular self-reaction (2k(d)) of the α-Toc(•) radical was also observed. The rate constant (2k(d)) decreased rapidly with increasing concentrations of the metal salts. The 2k(d) value decreased at the same concentration of the metal salts in the following order: no metal salt > NaClO(4) > LiClO(4) > Mg

  3. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  4. SEPARATION OF INORGANIC SALTS FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for recovering the nitrates of uranium and plutonium from solution in oxygen-containing organic solvents such as ketones or ethers. The solution of such salts dissolved in an oxygen-containing organic compound is contacted with an ion exchange resin whereby sorption of the entire salt on the resin takes place and then the salt-depleted liquid and the resin are separated from each other. The reaction seems to be based on an anion formation of the entire salt by complexing with the anion of the resin. Strong base or quaternary ammonium type resins can be used successfully in this process.

  5. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  6. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  7. Alkali Metal Salts with Designable Aryltrifluoroborate Anions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kazuki; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Matsumoto, Hajime; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Kuwabata, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    Aryltrifluoroborate ([ArBF3](-)) has a designable basic anion structure. Various [ArBF3](-)-based anions were synthesized to create novel alkali metal salts using a simple and safe process. Nearly 40 novel alkali metal salts were successfully obtained, and their physicochemical characteristics, particularly their thermal properties, were elucidated. These salts have lower melting points than those of simple inorganic alkali halide salts, such as KCl and LiCl, because of the weaker interactions between the alkali metal cations and the [ArBF3](-) anions and the anions' larger entropy. Moreover, interestingly, potassium cations were electrochemically reduced in the potassium (meta-ethoxyphenyl)trifluoroborate (K[m-OEtC6H4BF3]) molten salt at 433 K. These findings contribute substantially to furthering molten salt chemistry, ionic liquid chemistry, and electrochemistry. PMID:27510799

  8. Metals in Metal Salts: A Copper Mirror Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple lecture demonstration is described to show the latent presence of metal atoms in a metal salt. Copper(II) formate tetrahydrate is heated in a round-bottom flask forming a high-quality copper mirror.

  9. Metal speciation in salt marsh sediments: Influence of halophyte vegetation in salt marshes with different morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Duarte, Bernardo; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro; Caçador, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes provide environmental conditions that are known to affect metal speciation in sediments. The elevational gradient along the marsh and consequent differential flooding are some of the major factors influencing halophytic species distribution and coverage due to their differential tolerance to salinity and submersion. Different species, in turn, also have distinct influences on the sediment's metal speciation, and its metal accumulation abilities. The present work aimed to evaluate how different halophyte species in two different salt marshes could influence metal partitioning in the sediment at root depth and how that could differ from bare sediments. Metal speciation in sediments around the roots (rhizosediments) of Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima was determined by sequentially extracting operationally defined fractions with solutions of increasing strength and acidity. Rosário salt marsh generally showed higher concentrations of all metals in the rhizosediments. Metal partitioning was primarily related to the type of metal, with the elements' chemistry overriding the environment's influence on fractionation schemes. The most mobile elements were Cd and Zn, with greater availability being found in non-vegetated sediments. Immobilization in rhizosediments was predominantly influenced by the presence of Fe and Mn oxides, as well as organic complexes. In the more mature of both salt marshes, the differences between vegetated and non-vegetated sediments were more evident regarding S. fruticosa, while in the younger system all halophytes presented significantly different metal partitioning when compared to that of mudflats.

  10. Americium separations from high salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mary E. Barr; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Louis D. Schulte; Peter C. Stark; Rebecca M. Chamberlin; Kent D. Abney; Thomas E. Ricketts; Yvette E. Valdez; Richard A. Bartsch

    2000-03-01

    Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material.

  11. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

    2012-05-01

    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  12. Oscillations in a Linearly Stratified Salt Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Our physics students like to watch a ball bouncing underwater. They do this by dropping a weighted plastic ball into a 1000-ml cylinder filled with a linearly stratified salt-water solution at room temperature. The ball oscillates and comes to rest at about mid-depth. Its motion is analogous to the damped vertical oscillations of a mass hanging…

  13. Chronopotentiometry of refractory metals, actinides and oxyanions in molten salts: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1992-01-01

    The applications of chronopotentiometry to the study of electrochemical behavior of three technologically important areas of refractory metals, actinides, and oxyanions in molten salts are critically reviewed. Chronopotentiometry is a very versatile diagnostic tool to understand the reaction mechanism of the electrode processes for the electrochemical reduction/oxidation of these electroactive species in molten salt solutions. Well adherent, compact, and uniformly thick coatings of refractory metals may be electrodeposited from their solutions in molten salts.

  14. Chronopotentiometry of refractory metals, actinides and oxyanions in molten salts: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, N.P.

    1992-09-01

    The applications of chronopotentiometry to the study of electrochemical behavior of three technologically important areas of refractory metals, actinides, and oxyanions in molten salts are critically reviewed. Chronopotentiometry is a very versatile diagnostic tool to understand the reaction mechanism of the electrode processes for the electrochemical reduction/oxidation of these electroactive species in molten salt solutions. Well adherent, compact, and uniformly thick coatings of refractory metals may be electrodeposited from their solutions in molten salts.

  15. Polyethylene imine-metal salt solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, G. T.; Chiang, C. K.; Takahashi, T.

    1985-02-01

    This research pertains to the development of new solid battery electrolytes. An object of this invention is to provide polymeric electrolytes using a wider variety of metal salts. These and other objects of this invention are accomplished by providing: (1) a solid polymer electrolyte comprising: a matrix of linear poly(ethylene amine) having the formula (-CH2CH2NH-)n; and (2) a metal salt which is LiI, LiClO4, NaI, NaBr, KI, CsSCN, AgNO3, CuCl1, CoCl2, or Mg(ClO4)2, wherein the salt is dissolved in and distributed throughout the poly(ethylene amine) matrix and from more than zero to 0.10 moles of salt are used per mole of monomer repeat unit, (-CH2CH2NH-).

  16. [Use of metal salts for radioprotection of plants during radioactive pollution of the territory].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Kitsno, V E; Grisiuk, S N; Tkachenko, G M; Ivanova, E A; Saenko, K V; Gural'chuk, Zh Z

    1999-01-01

    The applying salts of some metals to radionuclide contaminated soddy-podzolic soil in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear power station or the spraying of plants by its solutions are showing the radioprotective effect (salts of iron, zinc, cobalt and manganese) and decreasing the uptake of 90Sr and 137Cs through roots (salts of zinc, manganese, boron, lithium, cobalt and copper). PMID:10366969

  17. Metals Electroprocessing in Molten Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present study seeks to explain the poor quality of solid electrodeposits in molten salts through a consideration of the effects of fluid flow of the electrolyte. Transparent cells allow observation of electrolyte circulation by a laser schlieren optical technique during the electrodeposition of solid zinc from the molten salt electrolyte, ZnCl2 - LiCl-KCl. Experimental variables are current, density, electrolyte composition, and cell geometry. Based on the results of earlier electrodeposition studies as well as reports in the literature, these parameters are identified as having the primary influence on cell performance and deposit quality. Experiments are conducted to measure the fluid flow patterns and the electrochemical cell characteristics, and to correlate this information with the morphology of the solid electrodeposit produced. Specifically, cell voltage, cell current, characteristic time for dendrite evolution, and dendrite growth directions are noted. Their relationship to electrolyte flow patterns and the morphology of the resulting electrodeposit are derived. Results to date indicate that laser schlieren imaging is capable of revealing fluid flow patterns in a molten salt electrolyte.

  18. Studies of metals electroprocessing in molten salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Fluid flow patterns in molten salt electrolytes were observed in order to determine how mass transport affects the morphology of the metal deposit. Studies conducted on the same metal, both in aqueous electrolytes in which coherent solid electrodeposits are produced, as well as in transparent molten salt electrolytes are described. Process variables such as current density and composition of the electrolyte are adjusted to change the morphology of the electrodeposit and, thus, to permit the study of the nature of electrolyte flow in relation to the quality of the electrodeposit.

  19. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOEpatents

    Ally, Moonis R.; Braunstein, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  20. Chlorate salts and solutions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Jennifer; Chevrier, Vincent F.; Berget, Deanna J.; Adams, Robert D.

    2012-04-01

    Chlorate (ClO3-) is an intermediate oxidation species between chloride (Cl-) and perchlorate (ClO4-), both of which were found at the landing site by the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL). The chlorate ion is almost as stable as perchlorate, and appears to be associated with perchlorate in most terrestrial reservoirs (e.g. Atacama and Antarctica). It is possible that chlorate contributed to the ion sensor response on the WCL, yet was masked by the strong perchlorate signal. However, very little is known about chlorate salts and their effect on the stability of water. We performed evaporation rate experiments in our Mars simulation chamber, which enabled us to determine the activity of water for various concentrations. From this we constructed solubility diagrams for NaClO3, KClO3, Mg(ClO3)2 and Ca(ClO3)2, and determined the Pitzer parameters for each salt. Chlorate salt eutectic temperatures range from 270 K (KClO3) to 204 K (Mg(ClO3)2). Modeling the addition of chlorate to the initial WCL solutions shows that it precipitates in concentrations comparable to other common salts, such as gypsum and epsomite, and implies that chlorates may play an important role in the wet chemistry on Mars.

  1. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-01

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water.

  2. Organic ionic salt draw solutions for osmotic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Katie S; Achilli, Andrea; Childress, Amy E

    2012-10-01

    This investigation evaluates the use of organic ionic salt solutions as draw solutions for specific use in osmotic membrane bioreactors. Also, this investigation presents a simple method for determining the diffusion coefficient of ionic salt solutions using only a characterized membrane. A selection of organic ionic draw solutions underwent a desktop screening process before being tested in the laboratory and evaluated for performance using specific salt flux (reverse salt flux per unit water flux), biodegradation potential, and replenishment cost. Two of the salts were found to have specific salt fluxes three to six times lower than two commonly used inorganic draw solutions, NaCl and MgCl(2). All of the salts tested have organic anions with the potential to degrade in the bioreactor as a carbon source and aid in nutrient removal. Results demonstrate the potential benefits of organic ionic salt draw solutions over currently implemented inorganics in osmotic membrane bioreactor systems. PMID:22771022

  3. CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2008-01-15

    High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

  4. Phase behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions with salt.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Lun; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2009-01-14

    We have computed the phase diagrams of solutions of flexible polyelectrolyte chains with added simple electrolytes. The calculations are based on our recent theory [M. Muthukumar, Macromolecules 35, 9142 (2002)], which accounts for conformational fluctuations of chains, charge density correlations arising from dissolved ions, hydrophobic interaction between polymer backbone and solvent, and translational entropy of all species in the system. The theory is at the mean field level and recovers the results of the restricted primitive model with the Debye-Huckel description for solutions of simple electrolytes without any polymer chains and those of the Flory-Huggins and scaling theories for uncharged polymers in the absence of charges or electrolytes. In constructing the phase diagrams, the chemical potential of each of the species is maintained to be the same in the coexisting phases and at the same time each phase being electrically neutral (Donnan equilibrium). Comparisons are made with a more constrained situation where the chemical potentials of the independent components are maintained to be the same in the coexisting phases. Our calculations predict several rich phenomena. Even for the salt-free solutions, two critical phenomena (corresponding to the Flory-Huggins-type and the restricted-primitive-model-type critical points) are predicted. The coupling between these two leads to two critical end points and triple points. In the presence of salt, the valency of electrolyte ions is found to influence drastically the phase diagrams. Specifically, the predicted liquid-liquid phase transitions in certain temperature ranges is reminiscent of the re-entrant-precipitation phenomenon observed experimentally for polyelectrolytes condensed with trivalent salts.

  5. Phase behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions with salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi-Lun; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2009-01-01

    We have computed the phase diagrams of solutions of flexible polyelectrolyte chains with added simple electrolytes. The calculations are based on our recent theory [M. Muthukumar, Macromolecules 35, 9142 (2002)], which accounts for conformational fluctuations of chains, charge density correlations arising from dissolved ions, hydrophobic interaction between polymer backbone and solvent, and translational entropy of all species in the system. The theory is at the mean field level and recovers the results of the restricted primitive model with the Debye-Hückel description for solutions of simple electrolytes without any polymer chains and those of the Flory-Huggins and scaling theories for uncharged polymers in the absence of charges or electrolytes. In constructing the phase diagrams, the chemical potential of each of the species is maintained to be the same in the coexisting phases and at the same time each phase being electrically neutral (Donnan equilibrium). Comparisons are made with a more constrained situation where the chemical potentials of the independent components are maintained to be the same in the coexisting phases. Our calculations predict several rich phenomena. Even for the salt-free solutions, two critical phenomena (corresponding to the Flory-Huggins-type and the restricted-primitive-model-type critical points) are predicted. The coupling between these two leads to two critical end points and triple points. In the presence of salt, the valency of electrolyte ions is found to influence drastically the phase diagrams. Specifically, the predicted liquid-liquid phase transitions in certain temperature ranges is reminiscent of the re-entrant-precipitation phenomenon observed experimentally for polyelectrolytes condensed with trivalent salts.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June... substance identified generically as dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt (P-90-274), is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. The Upside to Hg-DOM Associations for Water Quality: Removal of Hg from Solution Using Coagulaion with Metal-Based Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberry, Y.; Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Horwath, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the potential use of metal-based coagulants to remove dissolved mercury (Hg) from natural waters and provides information regarding the importance of Hg associations with the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction and metal hydroxides. Previous research indicated coagulants were not effective at removing Hg from solution; however those studies used high concentrations of Hg, which did not reflect naturally occurring concentrations of Hg. Filtered water collected from an agricultural drain in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) was treated with three industrial-grade coagulants (ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and polyaluminum chloride) to determine their efficacy in removing both inroganic (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) from the water column. The Delta suffers from elevated surface water Hg concentrations and as a result is listed as an imparied water body. Coagulants removed up to 85% of DOM from solution. In the absence of DOM, all three coagulants released IHg into solution, however in the presence of DOM the coagulants removed up to 97% of IHg and 80% of MeHg. Results suggest that the removal of Hg is mediated by DOM-coagulant interactions. There was a preferential association of IHg with the more aromatic, higher molecular weight fraction of DOM but no such relationship was found for MeHg. This study offers new fundamental insights regarding large-scale removal of Hg at environmentally relevant concentrations. Research using isotopically labeled Hg is providing insight into whether coagulation can remove recently added Hg (e.g. atmospheric deposition) from solution and whether once formed, the floc can remove additional Hg from the water column.

  3. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  4. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-02-26

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model.

  5. Solute diffusion in liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.

    1973-01-01

    A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.

  6. Response of a salt marsh microbial community to metal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Teixeira, Catarina; Reis, Izabela; Magalhães, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.

    2013-09-01

    Salt marshes are important sinks for contaminants, namely metals that tend to accumulate around plant roots and could eventually be taken up in a process known as phytoremediation. On the other hand, microbial communities display important roles in the salt marsh ecosystems, such as recycling of nutrients and/or degradation of organic contaminants. Thus, plants can benefit from the microbial activity in the phytoremediation process. Nevertheless, above certain levels, metals are known to be toxic to microorganisms, fact that can eventually compromise their ecological functions. In this vein, the aim of present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the effect of selected metals (Cd, Cu and Pb) on the microbial communities associated to the roots of two salt marsh plants. Sediments colonized by Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis were collected in the River Lima estuary (NW Portugal), and spiked with each of the metals at three different Effects Range-Median (ERM) concentrations (1, 10×, 50×), being ERM the sediment quality guideline that indicates the concentration above which adverse biological effects may frequently occur. Spiked sediments were incubated with a nutritive saline solution, being left in the dark under constant agitation for 7 days. The results showed that, despite the initial sediments colonized by J. maritimus and P. australis displayed significant (p < 0.05) differences in terms of microbial community structure (evaluated by ARISA), they presented similar microbial abundances (estimated by DAPI). Also, in terms of microbial abundance, both sediments showed a similar response to metal addition, with a decrease in number of cells only observed for the higher addition of Cu. Nevertheless, both Cu and Pb, at intermediate metals levels promote a shift in the microbial community structure, with possibly effect on the ecological function of these microbial communities in salt marshes. These changes may affect plants phytoremediation

  7. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salt (P-90-274), is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salt (P-90-274), is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salt (P-90-274), is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salt (P-90-274), is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  11. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. III. Computational vibrational spectroscopy of HDO in aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lim, Sohee; Chon, Bonghwan; Cho, Minhaeng; Kim, Heejae; Kim, Seongheun

    2015-05-28

    The vibrational frequency, frequency fluctuation dynamics, and transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode of HDO molecule in aqueous solutions are strongly dependent on its local electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bond network structure. Therefore, the time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy the O—D stretch mode has been particularly used to investigate specific ion effects on water structure. Despite prolonged efforts to understand the interplay of O—D vibrational dynamics with local water hydrogen-bond network and ion aggregate structures in high salt solutions, still there exists a gap between theory and experiment due to a lack of quantitative model for accurately describing O—D stretch frequency in high salt solutions. To fill this gap, we have performed numerical simulations of Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of the O—D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions and compared them with experimental results. Carrying out extensive quantum chemistry calculations on not only water clusters but also ion-water clusters, we first developed a distributed vibrational solvatochromic charge model for the O—D stretch mode in aqueous salt solutions. Furthermore, the non-Condon effect on the vibrational transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode was fully taken into consideration with the charge response kernel that is non-local polarizability density. From the fluctuating O—D stretch mode frequencies and transition dipole vectors obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO in salt solutions could be calculated. The polarization effect on the transition dipole vector of the O—D stretch mode is shown to be important and the asymmetric line shapes of the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO especially in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. We

  12. Cotton fabrics with UV blocking properties through metal salts deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam, Hossam E.; Bechtold, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to sunlight is important for human health as this increases the resistance to diverse pathogens, but the higher doses cause skin problems and diseases. Hence, wearing of sunlight protective fabrics displays a good solution for people working in open atmosphere. The current study offered quite simple and technically feasible ways to prepare good UV protection fabrics based on cotton. Metal salts including Zn, Cu and Ti were immobilized into cotton and oxidized cotton fabrics by using pad-dry-cure technique. Metal contents on fabrics were determined by AAS; the highest metal content was recorded for Cu-fabric and it was 360.6 mmol/kg after treatment of oxidized cotton with 0.5 M of copper nitrate. Ti contents on fabrics were ranged between 168.0 and 200.8 mmol/kg and it showed the lowest release as only 38.1-46.4% leached out fabrics after five laundry washings. Metal containing deposits were specified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV-transmission radiation over treated fabrics was measured and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was calculated. UPF was enhanced after treatment with Cu and Ti salts to be 11.6 and 14, respectively. After five washings, the amount of metal (Cu or Ti) retained indicates acceptable laundering durability.

  13. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  14. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  15. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  16. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  17. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  18. Alkali Metal/Salt Thermal-Energy-Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Wayne W.; Stearns, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed thermal-energy-storage system based on mixture of alkali metal and one of its halide salts; metal and salt form slurry of two immiscible melts. Use of slurry expected to prevent incrustations of solidified salts on heat-transfer surfaces that occur where salts alone used. Since incrustations impede heat transfer, system performance improved. In system, charging heat-exchanger surface immersed in lower liquid, rich in halide-salt, phase-charge material. Discharging heat exchanger surface immersed in upper liquid, rich in alkali metal.

  19. Electrochemical-metallothermic reduction of zirconium in molten salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Talko, F.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes a method for separating hafnium from zirconium of the type wherein a feed containing zirconium and hafnium chlorides is prepared from zirconium-hafnium chloride and the feed is introduced into a distillation column, which distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a hafnium chloride enriched stream is taken from the top of the column and a zirconium enriched chloride stream is taken from the bottom of the column. It comprises: reducing the zirconium enriched chloride stream taken from the distillation column to metal by electrochemically reducing an alkaline earth metal in a molten salt bath with the molten salt in the molten salt bath consisting essentially of a mixture of at least one alkali metal chloride and at least one alkaline earth metal chloride and zirconium chloride, with the reduced alkaline earth metal reacting with the zirconium chloride to produce zirconium metal and alkaline earth metal chloride.

  20. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  1. A novel non-vacuum process for the preparation of CuIn(Se,S)2 thin-film solar cells from air-stable, eco-friendly, metal salts based solution ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Paifeng; Liu, Zhaofan; Ding, Yuankui; Cheng, Jigui

    2015-01-01

    A facile solution-based non-vacuum process for deposition of CuIn(Se,S)2 (CISeS) absorber layers is presented in this work, which indicates a promising way for the low-cost applications in thin-film solar cells. Firstly, low-boiling-point solvents Monobutylamine C4H11N and Carbon disulfide CS2 are selected as the complexing and thickening agents and added into the Cu/In metal salts based solution. Thus the air-stable, eco-friendly solution ink is successfully synthesized through a simple solution synthesis route. The detailed chemical reaction mechanism and the influence of the composition of precursor solution have been discussed intensively as well. After sequential spin-coating, hot-treatment and selenization process, the high-quality CISeS films are obtained and then characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM, EDS, Metallographic microscope, Hall Effect measurement and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that the compact CISeS films with chalcopyrite α-phase possess a double-layer structure, and also incorporate with a little ordered vacancy compounds (OVCs) and Cu2-xSe impurities. The typical near stoichiometric CISeS films without Carbon residuals have superior photoelectric properties with carrier concentration of 3.46 × 1016 N cm-3 and band gap of 1.15 eV. Finally, the original first-made PV devices provide a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.25%, which can be further improved by increasing the thickness of CISeS films and/or optimizing the selenization and sulfuration technologies.

  2. Salt-Finger Convection in a Stratified Fluid Layer Induced by Thermal and Solutal Capillary Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuan F.; Chan, Cho Lik

    1996-01-01

    Salt-finger convection in a double-diffusive system is a motion driven by the release of gravitational potential due to different diffusion rates. Normally, when the gravitational field is reduced, salt-finger convection together with other convective motions driven by buoyancy forces will be rapidly suppressed. However, because the destabilizing effect of the concentration gradient is amplified by the Lewis number, with values varying from 10(exp 2) for aqueous salt solutions to 10 (exp 4) for liquid metals, salt-finger convection may be generated at much reduced gravity levels. In the microgravity environment, the surface tension gradient assumes a dominant role in causing fluid motion. In this paper, we report on some experimental results showing the generation of salt-finger convection due to capillary motio on the surface of a stratified fluid layer. A numerical simulation is presented to show the cause of salt-finger convection.

  3. Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Richmann, Michael K.

    2007-05-15

    A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

  4. First-principles molecular dynamics modeling of the molten fluoride salt with Cr solute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, H. O.; Bengtson, A.; Vörtler, K.; Saha, S.; Sakidja, R.; Morgan, D.

    2014-06-01

    Fluoride salts and their interactions with metals are of wide interest for the nuclear community. In this work, first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) was employed to study both pure molten fluoride salt and fluoride salt with dissolved solute Cr ions (a common corrosion product) at high temperature (823-1423 K). Two types of molten fluoride salts, namely flibe (LiF-BeF2) and flinak (LiF-NaF-KF), with the Cr0, Cr2+ and Cr3+ ions were chosen as a target system for the FPMD modeling. The prediction of thermo-kinetic properties of pure fluoride salt, such as the equilibrium volume, density, bulk modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, and self-diffusion coefficient, provide useful extensions of existing data and verify the accuracy of the FPMD simulation in modeling of fluoride salts. The FPMD modeling of solute Cr in fluoride salt shows the effect of Cr valence on diffusivity and local structure in the salt.

  5. Methods for predicting properties and tailoring salt solutions for industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ally, Moonis R.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory accurately and quickly predicts thermodynamic properties of concentrated aqueous salt solutions. This algorithm is much simpler and much faster than other modeling schemes and is unique because it can predict solution behavior at very high concentrations and under varying conditions. Typical industrial applications of this algorithm would be in manufacture of inorganic chemicals by crystallization, thermal storage, refrigeration and cooling, extraction of metals, emissions controls, etc.

  6. The role of electrolyte anions (ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and Cl{sup {minus}}) in divalent metal (M{sup 2+}) adsorption on oxide and hydroxide surfaces in salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, L.J.; Sverjensky, D.A.

    1999-12-01

    Adsorption of divalent metal ions (M{sup 2+}) onto oxide and hydroxide surfaces from solutions of strong electrolytes has typically been inferred to take place without the involvement of the electrolyte anion. Only in situations where M{sup 2+} forms a strong enough aqueous complex with the electrolyte anion (for example, CdCl{sup +} or PbCl{sup +}) has it been frequently suggested that the metal and the electrolyte anion adsorb simultaneously. A review of experimental data for the adsorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Ca{sup 2+} onto quartz, silica, goethite, hydrous ferric oxide, corundum, {gamma}-alumina, anatase, birnessite, and magnetite, from NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, NaCl, and NaClO{sub 4} solutions over a wide range of ionic strengths (0.0001 M-1.0 M), reveals that transition and heavy metal adsorption behavior with ionic strength is a function of the type of electrolyte. In NaNO{sub 3} solutions, metal adsorption exhibits little or no dependence on the ionic strength of the solution. However, in NaCl solutions, transition and heavy metal adsorption decreases strongly with increasing ionic strength. In NaClO{sub 4} solutions, metal adsorption decreases strongly with increasing ionic strength. In NaClO{sub 4} solutions, metal adsorption exhibits little dependence on ionic strength but is often suggestive of an increase in metal adsorption with increasing ionic strength. Analysis of selected adsorption edges was carried out using the extended triple-layer model and aqueous speciation models that included metal-nitrate, metal-chloride, and metal-hydroxide complexes.

  7. Purification of diverse hemoglobins by metal salt precipitation.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Devon; Dienes, Jack; Abdulmalik, Osheiza; Elmer, Jacob J

    2016-09-01

    Although donated blood is the preferred material for transfusion, its limited availability and stringent storage requirements have motivated the development of blood substitutes. The giant extracellular hemoglobin (aka erythrocruorin) of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (LtEc) has shown promise as a blood substitute, but an efficient purification method for LtEc must be developed to meet the potential large demand for blood substitutes. In this work, an optimized purification process that uses divalent and trivalent metal salts to selectively precipitate human, earthworm, and bloodworm hemoglobin (HbA, LtEc, and GdHb, respectively) from crude solutions was developed. Although several metal ions were able to selectively precipitate LtEc, Zn(2+) and Ni(2+) provided the lowest heme oxidation and highest overall yield of LtEc. In contrast, Zn(2+) was the only metal ion that completely precipitated HbA and GdHb. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis shows that metal precipitation removes several impurities to provide highly pure hemoglobin samples. Heme oxidation levels were relatively low for Zn(2+)-purified HbA and LtEc (2.4±1.3% and 5.3±2.1%, respectively), but slightly higher for Ni(2+)-purified LtEc (8.4±1.2%). The oxygen affinity and cooperativity of the precipitated samples are also identical to samples purified with tangential flow filtration (TFF) alone, indicating the metal precipitation does not significantly affect the function of the hemoglobins. Overall, these results show that hemoglobins from several different species can be highly purified using a combination of metal (Zn(2+)) precipitation and tangential flow filtration. PMID:26363116

  8. Purification of diverse hemoglobins by metal salt precipitation.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Devon; Dienes, Jack; Abdulmalik, Osheiza; Elmer, Jacob J

    2016-09-01

    Although donated blood is the preferred material for transfusion, its limited availability and stringent storage requirements have motivated the development of blood substitutes. The giant extracellular hemoglobin (aka erythrocruorin) of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (LtEc) has shown promise as a blood substitute, but an efficient purification method for LtEc must be developed to meet the potential large demand for blood substitutes. In this work, an optimized purification process that uses divalent and trivalent metal salts to selectively precipitate human, earthworm, and bloodworm hemoglobin (HbA, LtEc, and GdHb, respectively) from crude solutions was developed. Although several metal ions were able to selectively precipitate LtEc, Zn(2+) and Ni(2+) provided the lowest heme oxidation and highest overall yield of LtEc. In contrast, Zn(2+) was the only metal ion that completely precipitated HbA and GdHb. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis shows that metal precipitation removes several impurities to provide highly pure hemoglobin samples. Heme oxidation levels were relatively low for Zn(2+)-purified HbA and LtEc (2.4±1.3% and 5.3±2.1%, respectively), but slightly higher for Ni(2+)-purified LtEc (8.4±1.2%). The oxygen affinity and cooperativity of the precipitated samples are also identical to samples purified with tangential flow filtration (TFF) alone, indicating the metal precipitation does not significantly affect the function of the hemoglobins. Overall, these results show that hemoglobins from several different species can be highly purified using a combination of metal (Zn(2+)) precipitation and tangential flow filtration.

  9. Dissolution rate of griseofulvin in bile salt solutions.

    PubMed

    de Smidt, J H; Offringa, J C; Crommelin, D J

    1991-04-01

    Bile salts increase the apparent solubility of lipophilic poorly water-soluble drugs like griseofulvin. In this study, the dissolution kinetics of griseofulvin in solutions of bile salts (sodium taurocholate and sodium cholate) were investigated. A rotating disk apparatus was chosen to monitor dissolution kinetics; it well-defined hydrodynamic conditions allowed for analysis of the behavior of bile salt micelles under different conditions. Griseofulvin solubility and dissolution rate increased with increasing bile salt concentration in the dissolution medium. The enhancement of the dissolution rate was not linearly related to the solubility increase, as diffusional transport of the solubilized drug proved to be less efficient than transport of the unsolubilized ("free") drug. The dissolution process proved to be controlled by convective diffusion. An analysis of the data with the phase separation model provided results for the micellar diffusion coefficient comparable with literature data obtained with different techniques. PMID:1865343

  10. Thermodynamics of extraction by solutions of amines and salts of substituted ammonium bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochkin, A. V.; Sergievskii, V. V.

    1989-09-01

    Extraction systems containing amines and their salts are widely used to concentrate and separate metals. From the theoretical viewpoint, these systems are among the most complex, because of the variety of intermolecular interactions in the organic phase. The explanation and quantitative description of the observed regularities of extraction became possible only as a result of progress in the study of the thermodynamics of binary and multicomponent solutions of salts of substituted ammonium bases in non-polar organic solvents, which make it possible to distinguish the contribution of each type of interaction to the non-ideal character of the solutions. All known "anomalous" features are due to the influence of the hydration of the salts of the substituted ammonium bases on their activity. The bibliography contains 113 references.

  11. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  12. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hung-Sui; Geng, Lin; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  13. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  14. PROCESS OF REMOVING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION WITH GROUP IVB METAL PHOSPHO-SILICATE COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1957-10-29

    A process for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions which contain the plutonium in minute concentrations is described. These values can be removed from an aqueous solution by taking an aqueous solution containing a salt of zirconium, titanium, hafnium or thorium, adding an aqueous solution of silicate and phosphoric acid anions to the metal salt solution, and separating, washing and drying the precipitate which forms when the two solutions are mixed. The aqueous plutonium containing solution is then acidified and passed over the above described precipi-tate causing the plutonium values to be adsorbed by the precipitate.

  15. Photoionization of Sodium Salt Solutions in a Liquid Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Grieves, G. A.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Herring-Captain, J.; Olanrewaju, B.; Aleksandrov, A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2008-06-05

    A liquid microjet was employed to examine the gas/liquid interface of aqueous sodium halide (Na+X-, X=Cl, Br, I) salt solutions. Laser excitation at 193 nm produced and removed cations of the form H+(H2O)n and Na+(H2O)m from liquid jet surfaces containing either NaCl, NaBr or NaI. The protonated water cluster yield varied inversely with increasing salt concentration, while the solvated sodium ion cluster yield varied by anion type. The distribution of H+(H2O)n at low salt concentration is identical to that observed from low-energy electron irradiated amorphous ice and the production of these clusters can be accounted for using a localized ionization/Coulomb expulsion model. Production of Na+(H2O)m is not accounted for by this model but requires ionization of solvation shell waters and a contact ion/Coulomb expulsion mechanism. The reduced yields of Na+(H2O)m from high concentration (10-2 and 10-1 M) NaBr and NaI solutions indicate a propensity for Br- and I- at the solution surfaces and interfaces. This is supported by the observation of multiphoton induced production and desorption of Br+ and I+ from the 10-2 and 10-1 M solution surfaces.

  16. Fabrication of CPA Salt Pill with Circulating Solution Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, A.; Tokoi, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; McCammon, D.

    2008-05-01

    We report results on fabrication of a Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill. CPA is a typical paramagnetic salt used as refrigerant of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) because of its low Curie point, 4 11 mK. We made an test model of CPA salt pill by fast crystallizing method, namely circulating solution between 36°C and 15°C. The crystallizing rate was 0.5 g h-1, and 40 g of CPA crystal was obtained inside a stainless steel cylinder equipped with 160 copper wires. The cooling test was operated utilizing a commercial ADR system. We attached three thermometers and four heaters to the salt pill, in order to measure thermal conductance among different parts of the pill. It is confirmed that our salt pill was cooled down from B/ T=4 T/2 K to 64 mK at zero magnetic field. We suspect the cause of limiting the cooling temperature in the present level to be the dehydration of CPA, non-uniformity of magnetic field, and stainless steel of the pill which has large heat capacity below 0.1 K.

  17. Catalyst Of A Metal Heteropoly Acid Salt That Is Insoluble In A Polar Solvent On A Non-Metallic Porous Support And Method Of Making

    DOEpatents

    Wang. Yong; Peden. Charles H. F.; Choi. Saemin

    2004-11-09

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  18. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  19. Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Almon, A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process and apparatus for quantitatively and selectively separating metal ions from mixtures thereof in aqueous solution. The apparatus includes, in combination, a horizontal electrochemical flowing cell containing flowing bulk electrolyte solution and an aqueous, metal ion-containing solution, the cell containing a metal mesh working electrode, a counter electrode positioned downstream from the working electrode, an independent variable power supply/potentiostat positioned outside of the flowing cell and connected to the electrodes, and optionally a detector such as a chromatographic detector, positioned outside the flowing cell. This apparatus and its operation has significant application where trace amounts of metal ions are to be separated.

  20. Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Almon, Amy C.

    1994-01-01

    A process and apparatus for quantitatively and selectively separating metal ions from mixtures thereof in aqueous solution. The apparatus includes, in combination, a horizontal electrochemical flow cell containing flow bulk electrolyte solution and an aqueous, metal ion-containing solution, the cell containing a metal mesh working electrode, a counter electrode positioned downstream from the working electrode, an independent variable power supply/potentiostat positioned outside of the flow cell and connected to the electrodes, and optionally a detector such as a chromatographic detector, positioned outside the flow cell. This apparatus and its operation has significant application where trace amounts of metal ions are to be separated.

  1. Molecular insights into shellac film coats from different aqueous shellac salt solutions and effect on disintegration of enteric-coated soft gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Al-Gousous, J; Penning, M; Langguth, P

    2015-04-30

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of using different salts of shellac on the disintegration properties of shellac-based enteric coatings. In the last two decades, shellac has been increasingly used as an aqueous solution for enteric coating purposes, with the ammonium salt being the form typically used. Little investigation has been performed on using other salts, and therefore, this was the focus of our work. Enteric coatings, based on different shellac salts (ammonium, sodium, potassium and composite ammonium-sodium), were applied onto soft gelatin capsules. Disintegration testing of the coated soft gelatin capsules showed that alkali metal salts promote faster disintegration than ammonium salts. In order to determine the causes behind these differences, the solubility, thermal and spectroscopic properties of films cast from the different salts were investigated. The results show that films cast from ammonium-based salts of shellac are, unlike those cast from alkali metal-based salts, water-insoluble. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that this might be due to partial salt dissociation resulting in loss of ammonium as ammonia and reduced degree of shellac ionization during drying. In addition, oxidation of shellac aldehyde groups of the ammonium-based shellac salts could also play a role. And possible higher extent of shellac hydrolysis during the preparation of alkali metal salts might also be a factor. Therefore, the nature of the shellac salt used in the preparation of shellac-based aqueous coating solutions is a significant formulation factor affecting product performance. PMID:25578368

  2. Water dynamics in divalent and monovalent concentrated salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Chiara H; Wong, Daryl B; Fayer, Michael D

    2012-11-26

    Water hydrogen bond dynamics in concentrated salt solutions are studied using polarization-selective IR pump-probe spectroscopy and 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy performed on the OD hydroxyl stretching mode of dilute HOD in H(2)O/salt solutions. The OD stretch is studied to eliminate vibrational excitation transfer, which interferes with the dynamical measurements. Though previous research suggested that only the anion affected dynamics in solution, here it is shown that the cation plays a role as well. From FT-IR spectra of the OD stretch, it is seen that replacing either ion of the salt pair causes a shift in absorption frequency relative to that of the OD stretch absorption in bulk pure water. This shift becomes pronounced with larger, more polarizable anions or smaller, high charge-density cations. The vibrational lifetime of the OD hydroxyl stretch in these solutions is a local property and is primarily dependent on the nature of the anion and whether the OD is hydrogen bonded to the anion or to the oxygen of another water molecule. However, the cation still has a small effect. Time dependent anisotropy measurements show that reorientation dynamics in these concentrated solutions is a highly concerted process. While the lifetime, a local probe, displays an ion-associated and a bulk-like component in concentrated solutions, the orientational relaxation does not have two subensemble dynamics, as demonstrated by the lack of a wavelength dependence. The orientational relaxation of the single ensemble is dependent on the identity of both the cation and anion. The 2D IR vibrational echo experiments measure spectral diffusion that is caused by structural evolution of the system. The vibrational echo measurements yield the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF). The results also show that the structural dynamics are dependent on the cation as well as the anion. PMID:23113682

  3. Precious-Metal Salt Coatings for Detecting Hydrazines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, Louis A.; Greene, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Substrates coated with a precious-metal salt KAuCl4 have been found to be useful for detecting hydrazine vapors in air at and above a concentration of the order of 0.01 parts per million (ppm). Upon exposure to air containing a sufficient amount of hydrazine for a sufficient time, the coating material undergoes a visible change in color.

  4. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-10-28

    During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached {approx}10 psi while processing {approx}1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective

  5. Chelation and foam separation of metal ions from solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Carleson, T.E.; Moussavi, M.

    1988-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted on the chelation and foam separation of trace amounts of cadmium, zinc, and lead from their water solutions. The chelation agents ethylenediaminetetraacetate (sodium salt), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, and citric acid were used with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a foam-producing agent. The chelation agents did not produce metal complexes that were very surface active. The foam-producing agent produced metal ion complexes that were surface active and resulted in appreciable separation of the metal ions. The use of 100 ppm SDS resulted in separation of 90% of the zinc ions from solution containing 2 to 20 ppm zinc. At concentrations below and above this, the removal efficiency dropped significantly.

  6. Analysis of frozen salt solutions with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy under Martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, S.; Pavlov, S. G.; Hübers, H.-W.; Rauschenbach, I.; Jessberger, E. K.

    2010-05-01

    focusing on the major elemental composition as well as on minor elements. In general, the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal elements were clearly detectable in the LIBS spectra in the 280-900 nm region. This allowed for a good distinction between different frozen solutions. Also the oxygen and hydrogen lines gave good signal-to-noise ratios. On the other hand, in particular, sulphur, as known, is difficult to detect in this spectral range as only weak sulphur lines are apparent in this region. The experiments demonstrate the capability of LIBS for detection and identification of frozen salt solutions under Martian conditions.

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for analysis of frozen salt solutions under Martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Susanne; Pavlov, Sergey; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm; Rauschenbach, Isabelle; Jessberger, Elmar K.

    focusing on the major elemental composition as well as on minor elements. In general, the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal elements were clearly detectable in the LIBS spectra in the 280-900 nm region. This allowed for a good distinction between different frozen solutions. Also the oxygen and hydrogen lines gave good signal-to-noise ratios. On the other hand, in particular, sulphur, as known, is difficult to detect in this spectral range as only weak sulphur lines are apparent in this region. The experiments demonstrate the capability of LIBS for detection and identification of frozen salt solutions under Martian conditions.

  8. Electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions of aluminum salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, J.; Rilo, E.; Segade, L.; Cabeza, O.; Varela, L. M.

    2005-03-01

    We present experimental measurements of the specific electrical conductivity (σ) in aqueous solutions of aluminum salts at different temperatures, covering all salt concentrations from saturation to infinite dilution. The salts employed were AlCl3 , AlBr3 , AlI3 , and Al(NO3)3 , which present a 1:3 relationship between the electrical charges of anion and cation. In addition, we have measured the density in all ranges of concentrations of the four aqueous electrolyte solutions at 298.15K . The measured densities show an almost linear behavior with concentration, and we have fitted it to a second order polynomial with very high degree of approximation. The measurement of the specific conductivity at constant temperature reveals the existence of maxima in the conductivity vs concentration curves at molar concentrations around 1.5M for the three halide solutions studied, and at approximately 2M for the nitrate. We present a theoretical foundation for the existence of these maxima, based on the classical Debye-Hückel-Onsager hydrodynamic mean-field framework for electrical transport and its high concentration extensions, and also a brief consideration of ionic frictional coefficients using mode-coupling theory. We also found that the calculated values of the equivalent conductance vary in an approximately linear way with the square root of the concentration at concentrations as high as those where the maximum of σ appears. Finally, and for completeness, we have measured the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity at selected concentrations from 283to353K , and performed a fit to an exponential equation of the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman type. The values of the calculated temperatures of null mobility of the four salts are reported.

  9. [Influence of epiphysectomy on biochemical changes caused by heavy metal salts].

    PubMed

    El'bek'ian, K S

    2006-01-01

    10-days exposure of rats to studied combination of heavy metal salts caused intoxication manifesting through considerable biochemical changes. Epiphysis removal promotes toxic influence of heavy metal salts. PMID:17089520

  10. Effects of metal salt mixtures on Daphnia magna reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Biesinger, K.E.; Christensen, G.M.; Fiandt, J.T.

    1986-02-01

    Three binary metal experiments were conducted using a complete block design; testing the chlorides of Cd, Hg, and Zn individually and in combinations of Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg on Daphnia magna reproduction. These mixtures were tested at one-half, once, and twice the 16% reproductive impairment concentration previously determined for individual metals. The Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg mixtures all showed significant reductions in reproduction at concentrations where the metal salts alone caused no significant effect.

  11. Melting of Uranium Metal Powders with Residual Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Jin-Mok Hur; Dae-Seung Kang; Chung-Seok Seo

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute focuses on the conditioning of Pressurized Water Reactor spent oxide nuclear fuel. After the oxide reduction step of the ACP, the resultant metal powders containing {approx} 30 wt% residual LiCl-Li{sub 2}O should be melted for a consolidation of the fine metal powders. In this study, we investigated the melting behaviors of uranium metal powders considering the effects of a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O residual salt. (authors)

  12. Single crystals of metal solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. F.; Austin, A. E.; Richard, N.; Griesenauer, N. M.; Moak, D. P.; Mehrabian, M. R.; Gelles, S. H.

    1974-01-01

    The following definitions were sought in the research on single crystals of metal solid solutions: (1) the influence of convection and/or gravity present during crystallization on the substructure of a metal solid solution; (2) the influence of a magnetic field applied during crystallization on the substructure of a metal solid solution; and (3) requirements for a space flight experiment to verify the results. Growth conditions for the selected silver-zinc alloy system are described, along with pertinent technical and experimental details of the project.

  13. 40 CFR 721.4680 - Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metal salts of complex inorganic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4680 Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids... substances identified generically as metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (PMNs P-89-576 and...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4680 - Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metal salts of complex inorganic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4680 Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids... substances identified generically as metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (PMNs P-89-576 and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4685 - Substituted purine metal salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted purine metal salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4685 Substituted purine metal salt (generic name). (a) Chemical... as a substituted purine metal salt (PMN P-95-175) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4685 - Substituted purine metal salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted purine metal salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4685 Substituted purine metal salt (generic name). (a) Chemical... as a substituted purine metal salt (PMN P-95-175) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4685 - Substituted purine metal salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted purine metal salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4685 Substituted purine metal salt (generic name). (a) Chemical... as a substituted purine metal salt (PMN P-95-175) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4685 - Substituted purine metal salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted purine metal salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4685 Substituted purine metal salt (generic name). (a) Chemical... as a substituted purine metal salt (PMN P-95-175) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4685 - Substituted purine metal salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted purine metal salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4685 Substituted purine metal salt (generic name). (a) Chemical... as a substituted purine metal salt (PMN P-95-175) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. Simulation of osmotic pressure in concentrated aqueous salt solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Roux, B.; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-01-01

    Accurate force fields are critical for meaningful simulation studies of highly concentrated electrolytes. The ion models that are widely used in biomolecular simulations do not necessarily reproduce the correct behavior at finite concentrations. In principle, the osmotic pressure is a key thermodynamic property that could be used to test and refine force field parameters for concentrated solutions. Here we describe a novel, simple, and practical method to compute the osmotic pressure directly from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of concentrated aqueous solutions by introducing an idealized semipermeable membrane. Simple models for Na+, K+, and Cl- are tested and calibrated to accurately reproduce the experimental osmotic pressure at high salt concentration, up to the solubility limit of 4-5 M. The methodology is general and can be extended to any type of solute as well as nonadditive polarizable force fields.

  6. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt

  7. Interactions between salt marsh plants and Cu nanoparticles - Effects on metal uptake and phytoremediation processes.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Federico; Mucha, Ana Paula; Caetano, Cátia; Rodrigues, Paula; Rocha Gomes, Carlos; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2015-10-01

    The increased use of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) raises the probability of finding NPs in the environment. A lot of information exists already regarding interactions between plants and metals, but information regarding interactions between metallic NPs and plants, including salt marsh plants, is still lacking. This work aimed to study interactions between CuO NPs and the salt marsh plants Halimione portulacoides and Phragmites australis. In addition, the potential of these plants for phytoremediation of Cu NPs was evaluated. Plants were exposed for 8 days to sediment elutriate solution doped either with CuO or with ionic Cu. Afterwards, total metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues. Both plants accumulated Cu in their roots, but this accumulation was 4 to 10 times lower when the metal was added in NP form. For P. australis, metal translocation occurred when the metal was added either in ionic or in NP form, but for H. portulacoides no metal translocation was observed when NPs were added to the medium. Therefore, interactions between plants and NPs differ with the plant species. These facts should be taken in consideration when applying these plants for phytoremediation of contaminated sediments in estuaries, as the environmental management of these very important ecological areas can be affected.

  8. Applications of molten salts in reactive metals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    Pyrochemical processes using molten salts provide a unique opportunity for the extraction and refining of many reactive and valuable metals either directly from the beneficiated ore or from other process effluent that contain reactive metal compounds. This research program is aimed at developing a process for the production and recovery of reactive and valuable metals, such as zinc, tin, lead, bismuth and silver, in a hybrid reactor combining electrolytic production of the calcium reductant and in-situ utilization of this reductant for pyrochemical reduction of the metal compounds, such as halide or oxides. The process is equally suitable for producing other low melting metals, such as cadmium and antimony. The cell is typically operated below 1000C temperature. Attempts have been made to produce silver, lead, bismuth, tin and cerium by calciothermic reduction in a molten salt media. In a separate effort, calcium has been produced by an electrolytic dissociation of lime in a calcium chloride medium. The most important characteristic of the hybrid technology is its ability to produce metals under ``zero-waste`` conditions.

  9. Application of molten salts in pyrochemical processing of reactive metals

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L. . Kroll Inst. for Extractive Metallurgy); Averill, W.A. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1992-01-01

    Various mixes of chloride and fluoride salts are used as the media for conducting pyrochemical processes in the production and purification of reactive metals. These processes generate a significant amount of contaminated waste that has to be treated for recycling or disposal. Molten calcium chloride based salt systems have been used in this work to electrolytically regenerate calcium metal from calcium oxide for the in situ reduction of reactive metal oxides. The recovery of calcium is characterized by the process efficiency to overcome back reactions in the electrowinning cell. A thermodynamic analysis, based on fundamental rate theory, has been performed to understand the process parameters controlling the metal deposition, rate, behavior of the ceramic anode-sheath and influence of the back-reactions. It has been observed that the deposition of calcium is dependent on the ionic diffusion through the sheath. It has also been evidenced that the recovered calcium is completely lost through the back-reactions in the absence of a sheath. A practical scenario has also been presented where the electrowon metal can be used in situ as a reductant to reduce another reactive metal oxide.

  10. Study on Mixing Field of Salt Tolerant Polymer Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. H.; Zhang, M. G.; Li, X. G.; Zhang, D.; Jiang, B.

    The salt tolerant polymer (PAM) solution is a kind of viscoelastic fluid. The polymer. whose molecular weight is more than 2.5x107g/mol, is apt to form ultra-molecular structures in solution with pretty high viscoelasticity. These characteristics considerably affect the flow patterns and the mixing process. It is far more difficult to mix viscoelastic fluid homogeneously than Newtonian fluid. Because the molecular diffusion rate of viscoelastic fluid in mixing process is very low, improving the circulating performance of the agitator is the main path to increase the mixing velocity of the viscoelastic fluid. In this study, structure and operation parameters of new type agitator—double helical ribbon screw agitator designed for the salt tolerant polymer are optimized via laboratory experiment. The experiment results show that, compared with the screw propeller, the new type agitator improves circulation of fluid field effectively and increases the homogenized rate. It reduces the mixing time from 4h to 2h. And the viscosity of the polymer solution increases by 10%. However, the energy consumption does not increase.

  11. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2013-07-01

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  12. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  13. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions.

  14. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions. PMID:26655791

  15. Optical Sensor for Characterizing the Phase Transition in Salted Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Claverie, Rémy; Fontana, Marc D.; Duričković, Ivana; Bourson, Patrice; Marchetti, Mario; Chassot, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new optical sensor to characterize the solid-liquid phase transition in salted solutions. The probe mainly consists of a Raman spectrometer that extracts the vibrational properties from the light scattered by the salty medium. The spectrum of the O – H stretching band was shown to be strongly affected by the introduction of NaCl and the temperature change as well. A parameter SD defined as the ratio of the integrated intensities of two parts of this band allows to study the temperature and concentration dependences of the phase transition. Then, an easy and efficient signal processing and the exploitation of a modified Boltzmann equation give information on the phase transition. Validations were done on solutions with varying concentration of NaCl. PMID:22319327

  16. Molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lovering, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this volume, the historical background, scope, problems, economics, and future applications of molten salt technologies are discussed. Topics presented include molten salts in primary production of aluminum, general principles and handling and safety of the alkali metals, first-row transition metals, group VIII metals and B-group elements, solution electrochemistry, transport phenomena, corrosion in different molten salts, cells with molten salt electrolytes and reactants, fuel cell design, hydrocracking and liquefaction, heat storage in phase change materials, and nuclear technologies.

  17. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  18. Lead and other metals distribution in local cooking salt from the Fofi salt- spring in Akwana, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Dim, L.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; Munyithya, J.M.; Adetunji, J. )

    1991-06-01

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique has been used to determine the concentrations of lead(Pb) and other heavy metals in local cooking salts (LCS) from Akwana village, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. The comparison of the distribution of these metals in LCS, fake salt (FS) and the usual common salts (CS) are given. Lead was found to be enriched in LCS by factor exceeding 200 times compared to the other salts. The origin of Pb contamination in the LCS is examined and its effects on the inhabitants of the village are considered.

  19. Alkali Metal Suboxometalates-Structural Chemistry between Salts and Metals.

    PubMed

    Wörsching, Matthias; Hoch, Constantin

    2015-07-20

    The crystal structures of the new cesium-poor alkali metal suboxometalates Cs10MO5 (M = Al, Ga, Fe) show both metallic and ionic bonding following the formal description (Cs(+))10(MO4(5-))(O(2-))·3e(-). Comparable to the cesium-rich suboxometalates Cs9MO4 (M = Al, Ga, In, Fe, Sc) with ionic subdivision (Cs(+))9(MO4(5-))·4e(-), they contain an oxometalate anion [M(III)O4](5-) embedded in a metallic matrix of cesium atoms. Columnlike building units form with prevalent ionic bonding inside and metallic bonding on the outer surface. In the cesium-rich suboxometalates Cs9MO4, additional cesium atoms with no contact to any anion are inserted between columns of the formal composition [Cs8MO4]. In the cesium-poor suboxometalates Cs10MO5, the same columns are extended by face-sharing [Cs6O] units, and no additional cesium atoms are present. The terms "cesium-rich" and "cesium-poor" here refer to the Cs:O ratio. The new suboxometalates Cs10MO5 crystallize in two modifications with new structure types. The orthorhombic modification adopts a structure with four formula units per unit cell in space group Pnnm with a = 11.158(3) Å, b = 23.693(15) Å, and c = 12.229(3) Å for Cs10AlO5. The monoclinic modification crystallizes with eight formula units per unit cell in space group C2/c with a = 21.195(3) Å, b = 12.480(1) Å, c = 24.120(4) Å, and β = 98.06(1)° for Cs10AlO5. Limits to phase formation are given by the restriction that the M atoms must be trivalent and by geometric size restrictions for the insertion of [Cs6O] blocks in Cs10MO5. All of the suboxometalate structures show similar structural details and form mixed crystal series with statistical occupation for the M elements following the patterns Cs9(M(1)xM(2)1-x)O4 and Cs10(M(1)xM(2)1-x)O5. The suboxometalates are a new example of ordered intergrowth of ionic and metallic structure elements, allowing for the combination of properties related to both ionic and metallic materials.

  20. Recyclables recovery of europium and yttrium metals and some salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2008-01-01

    Europium and yttrium metals and some valuable salts were recovered from the powder coating the inner surface of the glass tubes of fluorescent lamps. The tubes were broken under 30% aqueous acetone to avoid emission of mercury vapor to the atmosphere, and the powder was collected by brushing. Metals available in the powder were pressure leached using sulfuric/nitric acid mixture. Sulphate salt of europium and yttrium so obtained was converted to thiocyanate. Trimethyl-benzylammonium chloride solvent was used to selectively extract Eu and Y from the thiocyanate solution. The metal loaded in the organic solvent was recovered by N-tributylphosphate in 1M nitric acid to produce nitrate salts of Eu and Y. Europium nitrate was separated from yttrium nitrate by dissolving in ethyl alcohol. The isolated powder contained 1.62% europium oxide, 1.65% yttrium oxide, 34.48% calcium sulphate, 61.52% Ca orthophosphate and 0.65% other impurity metals by weight. Autoclave digestion of the powder in the acid mixture for 4h at approximately 125 degrees C and 5 MPa dissolved 96.4% of the yttrium and 92.8% of the europium. Conversion of the sulphate to thiocyanate is favoured at low temperature. Extraction of Eu and Y from the thiocyanate solution attained its maximum at approximately 80 degrees C. N-tributylphosphate in 1N nitric acid at 125 degrees C achieved a stripping extent of 99%. Thermal reduction using hydrogen gas at 850 degrees C and 1575 degrees C produced europium and yttrium metals, respectively. A metal separation factor of 9.4 was achieved. Economic estimation revealed that the suggested method seemed feasible for industrial applications.

  1. Kinetics of CO2 Absorption into Aqueous Basic Amino Acid Salt: Potassium Salt of Lysine Solution.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shufeng; Yang, Ya-nan; Bian, Yangyang; Zhao, Yue

    2016-02-16

    Aqueous amino acid salts are considered as an attractive alternative to alkanolamine solvents (e.g., MEA) for carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption. The kinetics of CO2 into unloaded aqueous solutions of potassium lysinate (LysK) was studied using a wetted wall column at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 M and temperatures from 298 to 333 K. Physicochemical properties of aqueous LysK solutions such as density, viscosity, and physical solubility of CO2 were measured to evaluate the reaction rate constants. The reaction pathway is described using zwitterion mechanism taking into account the effect of ionic strength on the reaction rate. Under the fast pseudo-first-order regime, the reaction rate parameters were obtained and correlated in a power-law reaction rate expression. LysK shows higher chemical reactivity toward CO2 than the industrial standard MEA and most of amino acid salts. Its reaction rate constants increase considerably with concentration and temperature. The reaction order is found to be an average value of 1.58 with respect to LysK. The forward second-order kinetic rate constant, k2 0 , are obtained as 31615 and 84822 m3 kmol−1 s−1 at 298 and 313 K, respectively with activation energy of 51.0 kJ mol−1. The contribution of water to the zwitterion deprotonation seems to be more significant than that of LysK for the above-mentioned kinetic conditions PMID:26751093

  2. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts (generic). 721.10487 Section 721.10487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  8. Inhibition of hot salt corrosion by metallic additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of several potential fuel additives in reducing the effects of sodium sulfate-induced hot corrosion was evaluated in a cyclic Mach 0.3 burner rig. The potential inhibitors examined were salts of Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, and Ba. The alloys tested were IN-100, U-700, IN-738, IN-792, Mar M-509, and 304 stainless steel. Each alloy was exposed for 100 cycles of 1 hour each at 900 C in combustion gases doped with the corrodant and inhibitor salts and the extent of attack was determined by measuring maximum metal thickness loss. The most effective and consistent inhibitor additive was Ba (NO3)2 which reduced the hot corrosion attack to nearly that of simple oxidation.

  9. Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hui-Jun Won; Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Chong-Hun Jung; Won-Zin Oh

    2006-07-01

    PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

  10. Field-assisted nanopatterning of metals, metal oxides and metal salts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Fu; Miller, Glen P

    2009-02-01

    The tip-based nanofabrication method called field-assisted nanopatterning or FAN has now been extended to the transfer of metals, metal oxides and metal salts onto various receiving substrates including highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, passivated gold and indium-tin oxide. Standard atomic force microscope tips were first dip-coated using suspensions of inorganic compounds in solvent. The films prepared in this manner were non-uniform and contained inorganic nanoparticles. Tip-based nanopatterning on chosen substrates was conducted under high electric field conditions. The same tip was used for both nanofabrication and imaging. Arbitrary patterns were formed with dimensions that ranged from tens of microns to sub-20 nm and were controlled by tuning the tip bias during fabrication. Most tip-based nanopatterning techniques are limited in terms of the type of species that can be deposited and the type of substrates onto which the deposition occurs. With the successful deposition of inorganic species reported here, FAN is demonstrated to be a truly versatile tip-based nanofabrication technique that is useful for the deposition of a wide variety of both organic and inorganic species including small molecules, large molecules and polymers.

  11. FUSED SALT METHOD FOR COATING URANIUM WITH A METAL

    DOEpatents

    Eubank, L.D.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for coating uranium with a less active metal such as Cr, Ni, or Cu comprising immersing the U in a substantially anhydrous molten solution of a halide of these less active metals in a ternary chloride composition which consists of selected percentages of KCl, NaCl and another chloride such as LiCl or CaCl/sub 2/.

  12. The use of molten salts as physical models for the study of solidification in metals and semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koziol, Jurek K.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    It is presently noted that molten salts possess attributes rendering them attractive as physical models of cast metals in solidification studies. Molten alkali halides have an approximately correct Prandtl number for this modeling of metallic melts, and are transparent to visible light. Attention is given to solidification in the LiCl-KCl system, in order to determine whether such phenomena as solute rejection can be observed and characterized through the application of laser schlieren imaging.

  13. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  18. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-03-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca2+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca2+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  19. Polyimide Composites from 'Salt-Like' Solution Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Hou, Tan H.; Weiser, Erik S.; SaintClair, Terry L.

    2001-01-01

    Four NASA Langley-developed polyimide matrix resins, LaRC(TM)-IA, LaRC(TM)-IAX, LaRC(TM)-8515 and LaRC(TM)-PETI-5, were produced via a 'saltlike' process developed by Unitika Ltd. The salt-like solutions (65% solids in NMP) were prepregged onto Hexcel IM7 carbon fiber using the NASA LaRC multipurpose tape machine. Process parameters were determined and composite panels fabricated. The temperature dependent volatile depletion rates, the thermal crystallization behavior and the resin rheology were characterized. Composite molding cycles were developed which consistently yielded well consolidated, void-free laminated parts. Composite mechanical properties such as the short beam shear strength; the longitudinal and transverse flexural strength and flexural modulus; the longitudinal compression strength and modulus; and the open hole compression strength and compression after impact strength were measured at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The processing characteristics and the composite mechanical properties of the four intermediate modulus carbon fiber/polyimide matrix composites were compared to existing data on the same polyimide resin systems and IM7 carbon fiber manufactured via poly(amide acid) solutions (30-35% solids in NMP). This work studies the effects of varying the synthetic route on the processing and mechanical properties of the polyimide composites.

  20. Evaluating Battery-like Reactions to Harvest Energy from Salinity Differences using Ammonium Bicarbonate Salt Solutions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoung; Rahimi, Mohammad; Logan, Bruce E; Gorski, Christopher A

    2016-05-10

    Mixing entropy batteries (MEBs) are a new approach to generate electricity from salinity differences between two aqueous solutions. To date, MEBs have only been prepared from solutions containing chloride salts, owing to their relevance in natural salinity gradients created from seawater and freshwater. We hypothesized that MEBs could capture energy using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB), a thermolytic salt that can be used to convert waste heat into salinity gradients. We examined six battery electrode materials. Several of the electrodes were unstable in AmB solutions or failed to produce expected voltages. Of the electrode materials tested, a cell containing a manganese oxide electrode and a metallic lead electrode produced the highest power density (6.3 mW m(-2) ). However, this power density is still low relative to previously reported NaCl-based MEBs and heat recovery systems. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that MEBs could indeed be used to generate electricity from AmB salinity gradients. PMID:27030080

  1. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin.

  2. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, E.C.

    1993-12-23

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500{degree}C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  3. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Eddie C.

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  4. Geotechnical factors and guidelines for storage of compressed air in solution-mined salt cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Thoms, R.L.

    1982-05-01

    The state of knowledge about utilization of solution-mined salt cavities for CAES including laboratory experiments, numerical modeling, field characterization, solution mining experience, and operating parameters is outlined in this report. Topics evaluated in recent studies include: cavern geometry and size; long-term creep and creep rupture of rock salt; effects of pressure and temperature loading rates; low frequency fatigue; progressive deterioration of salt fabric with possible air penetration; cavern monitoring methods; and salt properties at nonambient conditions. Currently, the only CAES operational facility in the world is located at Huntorf, West Germany. This CAES facility uses two solution-mined salt caverns for air storage and has been operating successfully for more than 2 years. Stability criteria for solution-mined salt caverns from the Huntorf facility and recent field and laboratory studies are included in this report.

  5. EXAFS study into the speciation of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jennifer M; Ip, Chung-Man; Forrest, Gregory C H; Singh, Kuldip; Gurman, Stephen J; Ryder, Karl S; Abbott, Andrew P; Frisch, Gero

    2014-06-16

    The speciation of metals in solution controls their reactivity, and this is extremely pertinent in the area of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids. In the current study, the speciation of 25 metal salts is investigated in four deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and five imidazolium-based ionic liquids using extended X-ray absorption fine structure. It is shown that in diol-based DESs M(I) ions form [MCl2](-) and [MCl3](2-) complexes, while all M(II) ions form [MCl4](2-) complexes, with the exception of Ni(II), which exhibits a very unusual coordination by glycol molecules. This was also found in the X-ray crystal structure of the compound [Ni(phen)2(eg)]Cl2·2eg (eg = ethylene glycol). In a urea-based DES, either pure chloro or chloro-oxo coordination is observed. In [C6mim][Cl] pure chloro complexation is also observed, but coordination numbers are smaller (typically 3), which can be explained by the long alkyl chain of the cation. In [C2mim][SCN] metal ions are entirely coordinated by thiocyanate, either through the N or the S atom, depending on the hardness of the metal ion according to the hard-soft acid-base principle. With weaker coordinating anions, mixed coordination between solvent and solute anions is observed. The effect of hydrate or added water on speciation is insignificant for the diol-based DESs and small in other liquids with intermediate or strong ligands. One of the main findings of this study is that, with respect to metal speciation, there is no fundamental difference between deep eutectic solvents and classic ionic liquids. PMID:24897923

  6. Glyme-lithium salt equimolar molten mixtures: concentrated solutions or solvate ionic liquids?

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kazuhide; Yoshida, Kazuki; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Tachikawa, Naoki; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2012-09-13

    To demonstrate a new family of ionic liquids (ILs), i.e., "solvate" ionic liquids, the properties (thermal, transport, and electrochemical properties, Lewis basicity, and ionicity) of equimolar molten mixtures of glymes (triglyme (G3) and tetraglyme (G4)) and nine different lithium salts (LiX) were investigated. By exploring the anion-dependent properties and comparing them with the reported data on common aprotic ILs, two different classes of liquid regimes, i.e., ordinary concentrated solutions and "solvate" ILs, were found in the glyme-Li salt equimolar mixtures ([Li(glyme)]X) depending on the anionic structures. The class a given [Li(glyme)]X belonged to was governed by competitive interactions between the glymes and Li cations and between the counteranions (X) and Li cations. [Li(glyme)]X with weakly Lewis basic anions can form long-lived [Li(glyme)](+) complex cations. Thus, they behaved as typical ionic liquids. The lithium "solvate" ILs based on [Li(glyme)]X have many desirable properties for lithium-conducting electrolytes, including high ionicity, a high lithium transference number, high Li cation concentration, and high oxidative stability, in addition to the common properties of ionic liquids. The concept of "solvate" ionic liquids can be utilized in an unlimited number of combinations of other metal salts and ligands, and will thus open a new field of research on ionic liquids.

  7. Distribution coefficients of vitamin B2 in hydrophilic organic solvent-aqueous salt solution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Mokshina, N. Ya.; Zykov, A. V.

    2010-03-01

    Distribution coefficients of vitamin B2 in hydrophilic solvent ( n-butanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, and their mixtures)-aqueous salt (potassium chloride, sodium fluoride, and ammonium sulfate salting-out agents) solution systems were calculated. The synergic effect and optimum proportions of components in the solvent mixture for efficient extraction of vitamin B2 from aqueous solutions were established.

  8. Thermal Characteristics of Chemical Refrigerating Apparatus using Silica-Gel/ Inorganic-Salt-Solution Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanadori, Michio; Watabe, Yoshihito

    This report deals with chemical refrigerating apparatus using silica-gel / inorganic-salt-solution pair. Experiments are conducted by changing concentration of inorganic-salt solution and adsorbent / refrigerant pair. The following results are obtained. (1) The temperature of refrigerant in evaporator is lowered as decrease of inorganic-salt-solution concentration. (2) The available salt-concentration range as refrigerant are gained by supercooling in restricted temperature range lower than solidification temperature of solution. (3)Difference of minimum temperature among cooled refrigerants are little in low concentration region. (4)In concentration lower than about10wt%, refrigerants supercool and solidify suddenly. Accordingly these salt-solutions are not available in these region as refrigerants.

  9. Record of the accumulation of sediment and trace metals in a Connecticut salt marsh

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, R.J.; Thomson, J.

    1980-12-01

    The possibility that a useful, historical record of deposition might be found in a salt marsh is investigated by considering a record of the accumulation of sediment and trace metals in a Connecticut salt marsh. Evidence of salt-marsh deposition dominated by riverine runoff is presented.

  10. Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yogeshwar Sahai

    2007-07-31

    Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy

  11. Salting-out effects in aqueous ionic liquid solutions: cloud-point temperature shifts.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Joana R; Visak, Zoran P; Blesic, Marijana; Marrucho, Isabel M; Coutinho, João A P; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luis P N

    2007-05-10

    The effects of the addition of three inorganic salts, namely, NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)PO(4), on the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram of aqueous solutions containing the model ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF(4)], were investigated. All three inorganic salts trigger salting-out effects, leading to significant upward shifts of the L-L demixing temperatures of the systems. The magnitude of the shifts depends on both the water-structuring nature of the salt and its concentration; that is, the effects are correlated with the ionic strength of the solution and the Gibbs free energy of hydration of the inorganic salt. The pH effect and the occurrence of salt precipitation in concentrated solutions are also discussed.

  12. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR METAL IMMOBILIZATION APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE CAPS IN FRESH AND SALT WATER SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M

    2006-11-17

    This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.

  13. ISOPAR L RELEASE RATES FROM SALTSTONE USING SIMULATED SALT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Michael Bronikowski, M; Alex Cozzi, A; Russell Eibling, R; Charles Nash, C

    2008-07-31

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour, the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed, and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the maximum concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS to assure 25% of the lower flammable limit is not exceeded has been determined to be about 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released versus time can be treated as a percentage of initial amount present; there was no statistically significant dependence of the release rate on the initial concentration. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release rate is larger than at lower temperatures. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few hours or days had a significant effect on the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released. Short scoping

  14. ISOPAR L Release Rates from Saltstone Using Simulated Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bronikowski, M

    2006-02-06

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Deactivated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour; the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed; and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the allowable concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS sent to SPF has been calculated at approximately 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher, if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 mg/L to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the Isopar{reg_sign} L release data can be treated as a percentage of initial concentration in the concentration range studied. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release is larger than at lower temperatures. In one test at 95 C essentially all of the Isopar{reg_sign} L was released in three months. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few days affected the final Isopar{reg_sign} L amount released. Short scoping tests at 95 C with solvent containing all components (Isopar

  15. Alkali Metal Halide Salts as Interface Additives to Fabricate Hysteresis-Free Hybrid Perovskite-Based Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Moghe, Dhanashree; Hafezian, Soroush; Chen, Pei; Young, Margaret; Elinski, Mark; Martinu, Ludvik; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane; Lunt, Richard R

    2016-09-01

    A new method was developed for doping and fabricating hysteresis-free hybrid perovskite-based photovoltaic devices by using alkali metal halide salts as interface layer additives. Such salt layers introduced at the perovskite interface can provide excessive halide ions to fill vacancies formed during the deposition and annealing process. A range of solution-processed halide salts were investigated. The highest performance of methylammonium lead mixed-halide perovskite device was achieved with a NaI interlayer and showed a power conversion efficiency of 12.6% and a hysteresis of less than 2%. This represents a 90% improvement compared to control devices without this salt layer. Through depth-resolved mass spectrometry, optical modeling, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, this enhancement is attributed to the reduction of iodide vacancies, passivation of grain boundaries, and improved hole extraction. Our approach ultimately provides an alternative and facile route to high-performance and hysteresis-free perovskite solar cells. PMID:27532662

  16. Alkali Metal Halide Salts as Interface Additives to Fabricate Hysteresis-Free Hybrid Perovskite-Based Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Moghe, Dhanashree; Hafezian, Soroush; Chen, Pei; Young, Margaret; Elinski, Mark; Martinu, Ludvik; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane; Lunt, Richard R

    2016-09-01

    A new method was developed for doping and fabricating hysteresis-free hybrid perovskite-based photovoltaic devices by using alkali metal halide salts as interface layer additives. Such salt layers introduced at the perovskite interface can provide excessive halide ions to fill vacancies formed during the deposition and annealing process. A range of solution-processed halide salts were investigated. The highest performance of methylammonium lead mixed-halide perovskite device was achieved with a NaI interlayer and showed a power conversion efficiency of 12.6% and a hysteresis of less than 2%. This represents a 90% improvement compared to control devices without this salt layer. Through depth-resolved mass spectrometry, optical modeling, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, this enhancement is attributed to the reduction of iodide vacancies, passivation of grain boundaries, and improved hole extraction. Our approach ultimately provides an alternative and facile route to high-performance and hysteresis-free perovskite solar cells.

  17. 40 CFR 721.4680 - Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4680 Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metal salts of complex...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4680 - Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4680 Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metal salts of complex...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4680 - Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4680 Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metal salts of complex...

  20. A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

    2013-03-01

    Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

  1. Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticles from Fungi and Metal Salts: Scope and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-02-01

    Fungi secrete enzymes and proteins as reducing agents which can be used for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles from metal salts. Large-scale production of nanoparticles from diverse fungal strains has great potential since they can be grown even in vitro. In recent years, various approaches have been made to maximize the yield of nanoparticles of varying shape, size, and stability. They have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, SEM/TEM, zeta potential measurements, UV-vis, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In this review, we focus on the biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles by fungi to explore the chemistry of their formation extracellularly and intracellularly. Emphasis has been given to the potential of metal nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi, and on other potential applications.

  2. Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticles from Fungi and Metal Salts: Scope and Application.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-12-01

    Fungi secrete enzymes and proteins as reducing agents which can be used for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles from metal salts. Large-scale production of nanoparticles from diverse fungal strains has great potential since they can be grown even in vitro. In recent years, various approaches have been made to maximize the yield of nanoparticles of varying shape, size, and stability. They have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, SEM/TEM, zeta potential measurements, UV-vis, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In this review, we focus on the biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles by fungi to explore the chemistry of their formation extracellularly and intracellularly. Emphasis has been given to the potential of metal nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi, and on other potential applications.

  3. Process for recovering metals from solution utilizing metalloprotein affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, D.R.; Vincent, J.B.

    1993-11-29

    The invention relates generally to a process for recovering metals from an aqueous metal-bearing solution and, more particularly, to a process which utilizes metalloproteins immobilized on an insoluble support to remove metal ions such as the main group, transition, lanthanide, and actinide ions from the aqueous metal-ion bearing solution.

  4. Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

    1997-02-09

    Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

  5. Method for removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report details the pyrometallurgical process for recycling spent metal fuels from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which involves electrorefining spent fuel in a molten salt electrolyte (LiCl-KCI-U/PuCl{sub 3}) at 500{degree}C. The total heavy metal chloride concentration in the salt will be about 2 mol %. At some point, the concentrations of alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth fission products in the salt must be reduced to lower the amount of heat generated in the electrorefiner. The heavy metal concentration in the salt must be reduced before removing the fission products from the salt. The operation uses a lithium-cadmium alloy anode that is solid at 500{degree}C, a solid mandrel cathode with a ceramic catch crucible below to collect heavy metal that falls off it, and a liquid cadmium cathode. The design criteria that had to be met by this equipment included the following: (1) control of the reduction rate by lithium, (2) good separation between heavy metal and rare earths, and (3) the capability to collect heavy metal and rare earths over a wide range of salt compositions. In tests conducted in an engineering-scale electrorefiner (10 kg uranium per cathode), good separation was achieved while removing uranium and rare earths from the salt. Only 13% of the rare earths was removed, while 99.9% of the uranium in the salt was removed; subsequently, the rare earths were also reduced to low concentrations. The uranium concentration in the salt was reduced to 0.05 ppm after uranium and rare earths were transferred from the salt to a solid mandrel cathode with a catch crucible. Rare earth concentrations in the salt were reduced to less than 0.01 wt % in these operations. Similar tests are planned to remove plutonium from the salt in a laboratory-scale (100--300 g heavy metal) electrorefiner.

  6. Inhibition of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase resistance enzymes by metal salts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijia; Green, Keith D; Johnson, Brooke R; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Aminoglycosides (AGs) are clinically relevant antibiotics used to treat infections caused by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as Mycobacteria. As with all current antibacterial agents, resistance to AGs is an increasing problem. The most common mechanism of resistance to AGs is the presence of AG-modifying enzymes (AMEs) in bacterial cells, with AG acetyltransferases (AACs) being the most prevalent. Recently, it was discovered that Zn(2+) metal ions displayed an inhibitory effect on the resistance enzyme AAC(6')-Ib in Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In this study, we explore a wide array of metal salts (Mg(2+), Cr(3+), Cr(6+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Au(3+) with different counter ions) and their inhibitory effect on a large repertoire of AACs [AAC(2')-Ic, AAC(3)-Ia, AAC(3)-Ib, AAC(3)-IV, AAC(6')-Ib', AAC(6')-Ie, AAC(6')-IId, and Eis]. In addition, we determine the MIC values for amikacin and tobramycin in combination with a zinc pyrithione complex in clinical isolates of various bacterial strains (two strains of A. baumannii, three of Enterobacter cloacae, and four of Klebsiella pneumoniae) and one representative of each species purchased from the American Type Culture Collection. PMID:25941215

  7. Inhibition of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Resistance Enzymes by Metal Salts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijia; Green, Keith D.; Johnson, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    Aminoglycosides (AGs) are clinically relevant antibiotics used to treat infections caused by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as Mycobacteria. As with all current antibacterial agents, resistance to AGs is an increasing problem. The most common mechanism of resistance to AGs is the presence of AG-modifying enzymes (AMEs) in bacterial cells, with AG acetyltransferases (AACs) being the most prevalent. Recently, it was discovered that Zn2+ metal ions displayed an inhibitory effect on the resistance enzyme AAC(6′)-Ib in Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In this study, we explore a wide array of metal salts (Mg2+, Cr3+, Cr6+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Au3+ with different counter ions) and their inhibitory effect on a large repertoire of AACs [AAC(2′)-Ic, AAC(3)-Ia, AAC(3)-Ib, AAC(3)-IV, AAC(6′)-Ib′, AAC(6′)-Ie, AAC(6′)-IId, and Eis]. In addition, we determine the MIC values for amikacin and tobramycin in combination with a zinc pyrithione complex in clinical isolates of various bacterial strains (two strains of A. baumannii, three of Enterobacter cloacae, and four of Klebsiella pneumoniae) and one representative of each species purchased from the American Type Culture Collection. PMID:25941215

  8. Salt weathering in Egyptian limestone after laboratory simulations with continuous flow of salt solutions at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Nevin; Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Hamed, Ayman; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica

    2013-04-01

    weathering in Egyptian limestone after laboratory simulations with continuous flow of salt solutions at different temperatures Nevin Aly Mohamed (1), Miguel Gomez - Heras(2), Ayman Hamed Ahmed (1), and Monica Alvarez de Buergo(2). (1) Faculty of Pet. & Min. Engineering- Suez Canal University, Suez, Egypt, (2) Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM) Madrid. Spain. Limestone is one of the most frequent building stones in Egypt and is used since the time of ancient Egyptians and salt weathering is one of the main threats to its conservation. Most of the limestone used in historical monuments in Cairo is a biomicrite extracted from the Mid-Eocene Mokattam Group. During this work, cylindrical samples (2.4 cm diameter and approx. 4.8 cm length) were subjected, in a purpose-made simulation chamber, to simulated laboratory weathering tests with fixed salt concentration (10% weight NaCl solution), at different temperatures, which were kept constant throughout each test (10, 20, 30, 40 oC). During each test, salt solutions flowed continuously imbibing samples by capilarity. Humidity within the simulation chamber was reduced using silica gel to keep it low and constant to increase evaporation rate. Temperature, humidity inside the simulation chamber and samples weight were digitally monitored during each test. Results show the advantages of the proposed experimental methodology using a continuous flow of salt solutions and shed light on the effect of temperature on the dynamics of salt crystallization on and within samples. Research funded by mission sector of high education ministry, Egypt and Geomateriales S2009/MAT-1629.

  9. Photochemical aerobic detoxification of aqueous phenol and chlorophenol solutions promoted by iron salts and iron, vanadium, and copper oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Nizova, G.V.; Bochkova, M.M.; Kozlova, N.B.; Shul`pin, G.B.

    1995-09-10

    Phenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in air in the presence of soluble iron salts or insoluble V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO decompose in aqueous solution when irradiated by a luminescent lamp. The degree and the rate of decomposition are strongly influenced by the nature of the substrate and metal-containing promoter. As a result of decomposition, toxicity of solutions containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol with respect to two types of living organisms - Protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) and bacteria (Beneckea harveyi) - decreases significantly.

  10. Inverse temperature dependence of electrical conductivity of solutions of lithium salts in aprotic media

    SciTech Connect

    Plakhotnik, V.N.; Tovmash, N.F.; Kovtum, Yu.V.

    1987-08-01

    Solutions of lithium salts in aprotic dipolar solvents are studied in this paper for their use as electrolytes in lithium batteries. The temperature dependence and isotherms of the electric conductivity of molten salts of lithium fluorides with arsenic and boron are assessed against a range of solvents including tetrahydrofuran, propylene carbonate, 1,3-dioxolane, gamma-butyrolactone, water, hydrogen, and dimethoxyethane. Ionization potentials are given and molar ratios for the salts and solvents are tabulated.

  11. Testing of stripping columns for the removal of benzene from aqueous radioactive salt solution

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.; Taylor, G.A.; Gaughan, T.P.

    1995-06-27

    Radioactive high level wastes (HLW) generated from production of special nuclear materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are held in interim storage in 51 underground, million gallon tanks. Radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) is segregated by evaporation of aqueous waste solution for interim storage in a salt matrix comprised of Na and K salts or in concentrated salt solution. The saltcake will be dissolved and {sup 137}Cs will be separated from the nonradioactive salts in solution in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Process. The cesium will be combined with other radioactive species and glass formers to be melted and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The salt solution remaining after decontamination in the ITP process will be incorporated into grout for disposal at the site`s Saltstone facility. In the ITP facility, sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) will be added to precipitate the cesium. Potassium in the waste solution also reacts with STPB and precipitates. Due to radiolytic and chemical degradation of the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitate, benzene is generated. The benzene dissolves into the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and into water (WW) used to {open_quotes}wash{close_quotes} the precipitate to lower the soluble salt content of the slurry. Safety and processing requirements for disposal of the DSS and for temporary storage of the WW dictate that the benzene concentration be reduced.

  12. Novel, electrolyte solutions comprising fully inorganic salts with high anodic stability for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, RE; Han, R; Hwang, J; Gmitter, AJ; Shterenberg, I; Yoo, HD; Pour, N; Aurbach, D

    2014-01-01

    Herein the first inorganic magnesium salt solution capable of highly reversible magnesium electrodeposition is presented. Synthesized by acid-base reaction of MgCl2 and Lewis acidic compounds such as AlCl3, this salt class demonstrates upwards of 99% Coulombic efficiency, deposition overpotential of <200 mV, and anodic stability of 3.1 V.

  13. Location of microseismic swarms induced by salt solution mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinscher, J.; Bernard, P.; Contrucci, I.; Mangeney, A.; Piguet, J. P.; Bigarre, P.

    2015-01-01

    Ground failures, caving processes and collapses of large natural or man-made underground cavities can produce significant socio-economic damages and represent a serious risk envisaged by the mine managements and municipalities. In order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms governing such a geohazard and to test the potential of geophysical methods to prevent them, the development and collapse of a salt solution mining cavity was monitored in the Lorraine basin in northeastern France. During the experiment, a huge microseismic data set (˜50 000 event files) was recorded by a local microseismic network. 80 per cent of the data comprised unusual swarming sequences with complex clusters of superimposed microseismic events which could not be processed through standard automatic detection and location routines. Here, we present two probabilistic methods which provide a powerful tool to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics of these swarming sequences in an automatic manner. Both methods take advantage of strong attenuation effects and significantly polarized P-wave energies at higher frequencies (>100 Hz). The first location approach uses simple signal amplitude estimates for different frequency bands, and an attenuation model to constrain the hypocentre locations. The second approach was designed to identify significantly polarized P-wave energies and the associated polarization angles which provide very valuable information on the hypocentre location. Both methods are applied to a microseismic data set recorded during an important step of the development of the cavity, that is, before its collapse. From our results, systematic spatio-temporal epicentre migration trends are observed in the order of seconds to minutes and several tens of meters which are partially associated with cyclic behaviours. In addition, from spatio-temporal distribution of epicentre clusters we observed similar epicentre migration in the order of hours and days. All together, we

  14. Students' Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Current Flow in Electrolyte Solutions and the Salt Bridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines students' misconceptions and proposed mechanisms related to current flow in electrolyte solutions and the salt bridge. Confirms reported misconceptions and identifies several new ones. Discusses probable sources of misconceptions and some methods for preventing them. Contains 27 references. (JRH)

  15. Materials and methods for stabilizing nanoparticles in salt solutions

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, David Bruce; Zuckermann, Ronald; Buffleben, George M.

    2013-06-11

    Sequence-specific polymers are proving to be a powerful approach to assembly and manipulation of matter on the nanometer scale. Ligands that are peptoids, or sequence-specific N-functional glycine oligomers, allow precise and flexible control over the arrangement of binding groups, steric spacers, charge, and other functionality. We have synthesized short peptoids that can prevent the aggregation of gold nanoparticles in high-salt environments including divalent salt, and allow co-adsorption of a single DNA molecule. This degree of precision and versatility is likely to prove essential in bottom-up assembly of nanostructures and in biomedical applications of nanomaterials.

  16. The amplification of polymerized diaminobenzidine with physical developers: sensitizing effects of transition metal salts and sulphide.

    PubMed

    von Ruhland, C J; Jasani, B

    2010-05-01

    Amplification of metal-complexed polymerized diaminobenzidine by two light-insensitive physical developers was systematically examined in a dot blot model system following either polymerizing diaminobenzidine in the presence of transition metal salts or applying the metal salts post-diaminobenzidine polymerization. The effect of sodium sulphide treatment on subsequent amplification was also investigated. Those metal-diaminobenzidine complexes that facilitated the most powerful amplification were subsequently tested in an immunohistochemical setting. The most dramatic amplification of polymerized diaminobenzidine was observed following its post-polymerization treatment with salts of platinum alone, or gold or vanadium with subsequent sulphide treatment, and allowed previously invisible quantities of polymerized diaminobenzidine to be clearly seen. Three other transition metal salts also improved the amplification of polymerized diaminobenzidine but to a lesser degree, namely nickel alone, and silver or rhodium with subsequent sulphide treatment. Sensitivity was comparable with the colloidal gold-silver amplification system. PMID:20529059

  17. Concentrations of metals in very small volumes of soil solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.

    1979-01-01

    A new method of sampling very small amounts of soil solution (0.3 g) shows that soil solutions contain high concentrations and unusual proportions of metals. In the soils studied, the solution is close in both metal proportions and total metal mass to what may be taken up annually by the growth of plants at the sites sampled. Composition of soil solution varies seasonally and with depth in soil. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Effect of Freeze Concentration of Various Salt Solutions on the Denaturation of Carp Myofibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Katsuaki; Inoue, Norio; Shinano, Haruo

    The apparent rate constants of freeze inactivation (KF) at different storage temperatures for various salts were calculated. Comparisons were then made among salts with relation to storage temperature and ionic strength of unfrozen salt solutions. For three kinds of sulfates with high eutectic points,hardly any change occured in relation to the storage temperature and ionic strength. The reason was thought to be the weaker action of sulfates to protein denaturation. The KF values of six kinds of salts (namely NH4Cl, NaNO3, Mg(NO3)3, BaCl2, CaCl2 and MgCl2 ) were highest in the temperature range of - 6~-14 °C. The extent of denaturation in the KF value differed for each salt,although,no relationship was found between maximum KF value and eutectic point. A possible explanation for the above results relates to the amount and ionic strength of unfrozen salt solution. The log KF increased with an increase in ionic strength,and reached a maximum at about 0.9 due to the effect of salt concentration. However,above an ionic strength of 0.9, the log KF decreased with an increase in ionic strength due to the decrease of unfrozen salt solution.

  19. Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents

    PubMed Central

    Moscoso, Fátima; Deive, Francisco J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Rodríguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Phase segregation in aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (CnC1im C1SO4, n = 2 and 4), tributylmethyl phosphonium methylsulfate (P4441 C1SO4) and methylpyridinium methylsulfate (C1Py C1SO4) and two high charge density potassium inorganic salts (K2CO3 and K2HPO4) were determined by the cloud point method at 298.15 K. The influence of the addition of the selected inorganic salts to aqueous mixtures of ILs was discussed in the light of the Hofmeister series and in terms of molar Gibbs free energy of hydration. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the methylsulfate-based ILs has been investigated. All the solubility data were satisfactorily correlated to several empirical equations. A pesticide (pentachlorophenol, PCP) extraction process based on the inorganic salt providing a greater salting out effect was tackled. The viability of the proposed process was analyzed in terms of partition coefficients and extraction efficiencies. PMID:24145747

  20. Heat-induced formation of myosin oligomer-soluble filament complex in high-salt solution.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masato; Takai, Eisuke; Ejima, Daisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    Heat-induced aggregation of myosin into an elastic gel plays an important role in the water-holding capacity and texture of meat products. Here, we investigated thermal aggregation of porcine myosin in high-salt solution over a wide temperature range by dynamic light scattering experiments. The myosin samples were readily dissolved in 1.0 M NaCl at 25 °C followed by dilution into various salt concentrations. The diluted solutions consistently contained both myosin monomers and soluble filaments. The filament size decreased with increasing salt concentration and temperature. High temperatures above Tm led to at least partial dissociation of soluble filaments and thermal unfolding, resulting in the formation of soluble oligomers and binding to the persistently present soluble filaments. Such a complex formation between the oligomers and filaments has never been observed. Our results provide new insight into the heat-induced myosin gelation in high-salt solution.

  1. Method for removing metals from a cleaning solution

    DOEpatents

    Deacon, Lewis E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing accumulated metals from a cleaning solution is provided. After removal of the metals, the cleaning solution can be discharged or recycled. The process manipulates the pH levels of the solution as a means of precipitating solids. Preferably a dual phase separation at two different pH levels is utilized.

  2. Elucidation of transport mechanism and enhanced alkali ion transference numbers in mixed alkali metal-organic ionic molten salts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Forsyth, Maria

    2016-07-28

    Mixed salts of Ionic Liquids (ILs) and alkali metal salts, developed as electrolytes for lithium and sodium batteries, have shown a remarkable ability to facilitate high rate capability for lithium and sodium electrochemical cycling. It has been suggested that this may be due to a high alkali metal ion transference number at concentrations approaching 50 mol% Li(+) or Na(+), relative to lower concentrations. Computational investigations for two IL systems illustrate the formation of extended alkali-anion aggregates as the alkali metal ion concentration increases. This tends to favor the diffusion of alkali metal ions compared with other ionic species in electrolyte solutions; behavior that has recently been reported for Li(+) in a phosphonium ionic liquid, thus an increasing alkali transference number. The mechanism of alkali metal ion diffusion via this extended coordination environment present at high concentrations is explained and compared to the dynamics at lower concentrations. Heterogeneous alkali metal ion dynamics are also evident and, somewhat counter-intuitively, it appears that the faster ions are those that are generally found clustered with the anions. Furthermore these fast alkali metal ions appear to correlate with fastest ionic liquid solvent ions. PMID:27375042

  3. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salts (generic). 721.10487 Section 721.10487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a)...

  4. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOEpatents

    Gay, E.C.

    1995-10-03

    An electrochemical method is described for separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500 C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode. 3 figs.

  5. Biosorption of metal ions from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiaping; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-01-01

    Copper biosorption from aqueous solutions by calcium alginate is reported in this paper. The experimental section includes potentiometric titrations of biosorbents, batch equilibrium and kinetic studies of copper biosorption, as well as fixed-bed biosorption experiments. The potentiometric titration results show that the surface charge increases with decreasing pH. The biosorption of copper strongly depends on solution pH; the metal ion binding increases from 0 to 90 percent in pH ranging from 1.5 to 5.0. In addition, a decrease in ionic strength results in an increase of copper ion removal. Kinetic studies indicate that mass transfer plays an important role in the biosorption rate. Furthermore, a fixed-bed biosorption experiment shows that calcium alginate has a significant capacity for copper ion removal. The two-pK Basic Stem model successfully represents the surface charge and equilibrium biosorption experimental data. The calculation results demonstrate that the copper removal may result from the binding of free copper and its hydroxide with surface functional groups of the biosorbents.

  6. Room temperature inorganic ``quasi-molten salts`` as alkali-metal electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, K.; Zhang, S.; Angell, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    Room temperature inorganic liquids of high ionic conductivity have been prepared by reacting Lewis acid AlCl with sulfonyl chlorides. The mechanism is not clear at this time since a crystal structure study of the 1:1 complex with CH{sub 3}SO{sub 2}Cl (T{sub m} = 30 C) is not consistent with a simple chloride transfer to create AlClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} anions. The liquid is in a state somewhere between ionic and molecular. A new term quasi-molten salt is adopted to describe this state. A comparably conducting liquid can be made using BCL{sub 3} in place of AlCl{sub 3}. Unlike their organic counterparts based on ammonium cations (e.g., pyridinium or imidazolium) which reduce in the presence of alkali metals, this inorganic class of cation shows great stability against electrochemical reduction (ca. {minus}1.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li), with the useful consequence that reversible lithium and sodium metal deposition/stripping can be supported. The electrochemical window for these quasi-salts with AlCl{sub 3} ranges up to 5.0 V, and their room temperature conductivities exceed 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. They dissolve lithium and sodium tetrachloroaluminates up to mole fraction {approximately} 0.6 at 100 C and intermediate compositions are permanently stable at ambient. The resultant lithium or sodium salt solutions exhibit electrochemical windows of 4.5--5.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li or Na{sup +}/Na and show room temperature conductivities of 10{sup {minus}3.0}--10{sup {minus}2.5} S/cm. In preliminary charge/discharge tests, the cell Li/``quasi-ionic liquid electrolyte``/Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a discharge capacity of ca. 110 mAh/(g of cathode) and sustained 80% of the initial capacity after 60 cycles, indicating that these quasi-molten salt-based electrolytes are promising candidates for alkali-metal batteries.

  7. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-06-23

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  8. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  9. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions: Ion network versus ion cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2014-09-28

    The critical aggregation phenomena are ubiquitous in many self-assembling systems. Ions in high salt solutions could also spontaneously form larger ion aggregates, but their effects on hydrogen-bond structures in water have long been controversial. Here, carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of high salt solutions and comparing the MD simulation results with infrared absorption and pump-probe spectroscopy of O–D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated salt solutions and {sup 13}C-NMR chemical shift of S{sup 13}CN{sup −} in KSCN solutions, we find evidence on the onset of ion aggregate and large-scale ion-ion network formation that concomitantly breaks water hydrogen-bond structure in certain salt solutions. Despite that these experimental results cannot provide direct evidence on the three-dimensional morphological structures of ion aggregates, they serve as reference data for verifying MD simulation methods. The MD results suggest that disrupted water hydrogen-bond network is intricately intertwined with ion-ion network. This further shows morphological variation of ion aggregate structures from ion cluster to ion network in high salt solutions that are interrelated to the onset of macroscopic aggregate formation and the water hydrogen-bond structure making and breaking processes induced by Hofmeister ions.

  10. Correlation of second virial coefficient with solubility for proteins in salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Chirag M; White, Edward T; Litster, James D

    2012-01-01

    In this work, osmotic second virial coefficients (B(22)) were determined and correlated with the measured solubilities for the proteins, α-amylase, ovalbumin, and lysozyme. The B(22) values and solubilities were determined in similar solution conditions using two salts, sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate in an acidic pH range. An overall decrease in the solubility of the proteins (salting out) was observed at high concentrations of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. However, for α-amylase, salting-in behavior was also observed in low concentration sodium chloride solutions. In ammonium sulfate solutions, the B(22) are small and close to zero below 2.4 M. As the ammonium sulfate concentrations were further increased, B(22) values decreased for all systems studied. The effect of sodium chloride on B(22) varies with concentration, solution pH, and the type of protein studied. Theoretical models show a reasonable fit to the experimental derived data of B(22) and solubility. B(22) is also directly proportional to the logarithm of the solubility values for individual proteins in salt solutions, so the log-linear empirical models developed in this work can also be used to rapidly predict solubility and B(22) values for given protein-salt systems.

  11. In vitro biomineralization by osteoblast-like cells. I. Retardation of tissue mineralization by metal salts.

    PubMed

    Morais, S; Sousa, J P; Fernandes, M H; Carvalho, G S

    1998-01-01

    The cytocompatibility of stainless steel 316L (SS 316L) corrosion products was investigated with particular focus on the dose- and time-effect of electrochemically dissolved SS and the corresponding separate metal ions on osteogenic bone marrow derived cells. Type AISI 316L stainless steel (Fe 63.9%, Cr 18.0%, Ni 12.5%, Mo 2.8%, Si 1.2%, Mn 1.6% and C 0.025%, weight for weight) was anodically dissolved in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and diluted to the following concentrations: 500 microg ml(-1) of Fe, 122 microg ml(-1) of Cr and 101 microg ml(-1) of Ni, as estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry. Similarly, salt solutions containing 50 microg ml(-1) of Fe (FeCl3 x 6H2O), 122 microg ml(-1) of Cr (CrCl3 x 6H2O) or 101 microg ml(-1) of Ni (NiNO3) were prepared. All solutions were diluted 1:10(3), 1:10(4) and 1:10(5) and their effects on cell proliferation and function of rabbit bone marrow cells were studied up to 28 days of culture. Bone marrow cells (second subculture) were cultured in alpha-Minimal Essential Medium (alpha-MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum 10(-8) mol l(-1) dexamethasone, 2.52 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) ascorbic acid and 10(-2) mol l(-1) beta-glycerophosphate. The osteoblast response to the presence of metal ions was evaluated by biochemical assays (enzymatic reduction of MTT for evaluation of cell viability/proliferation, and estimation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity) and histochemical assays (identification of ALP positive cells and calcium and phosphates deposits). Results suggest a decrease in the expression of the osteoblast phenotype in the presence of ion and alloy solutions. Stainless steel corrosion products elicited slight effects but the corresponding metal ions produced pronounced effects on the osteoblast phenotype, namely an alteration in the levels and temporal expression of ALP and lower and retarded tissue mineralization ability. PMID:9678845

  12. Effect of water structure on adsorption of thermosensitive polymer hydrogel in salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Yoshio; Seida, Yoshimi

    1996-12-31

    Effects of temperature and additive salt on an adsorption property of thermosensitive polymer hydrogel were studied in terms of (1) phase transition temperature of the gel, (2) hydration structure of network of the gel in the various salt solutions, and (3) structure of water in the solutions. The adsorption properties of the gel were correlated fairly well with the phase transition temperature of the gel and the structure of water both on the network of the gel and in the bulk solution. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2010-12-07

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  14. Lanthanide salts solutions: representation of osmotic coefficients within the binding mean spherical approximation.

    PubMed

    Ruas, Alexandre; Moisy, Philippe; Simonin, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Olivier; Dufrêche, Jean-François; Turq, Pierre

    2005-03-24

    Osmotic coefficients of aqueous solutions of lanthanide salts are described using the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) model based on the Wertheim formalism for association. The lanthanide(III) cation and the co-ion are allowed to form a 1-1 ion pair. Hydration is taken into account by introducing concentration-dependent cation size and solution permittivity. An expression for the osmotic coefficient, derived within the BIMSA, is used to fit data for a wide variety of lanthanide pure salt aqueous solutions at 25 degrees C. A total of 38 lanthanide salts have been treated, including perchlorates, nitrates, and chlorides. For most solutions, good fits could be obtained up to high ionic strengths. The relevance of the fitted parameters has been discussed, and a comparison with literature values has been made (especially the association constants) when available.

  15. Latent energy storage with salt and metal mixtures for solar dynamic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. A.; Konstantinou, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines three design alternatives for the development of a solar dynamic heat receiver as applied to power systems operating in low earth orbit. These include a base line design used for comparison in ongoing NASA studies, a system incorporating a salt energy storage system with the salt dispersed within a metal mesh and a hybrid system incorporating both a molten salt and molten metal for energy storage. Based on a typical low earth orbit condition, designs are developed and compared to determine the effect of resultant conductivity, heat capacity and heat of fusion on system size, weight, temperature gradients, cycle turbine inlet temperature and material utilization.

  16. Unusual catalytic effects of iron salts on phenol degradation by glow discharge plasma in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xuanzhen

    2009-01-30

    Catalytic effects of iron salts on phenol degradation induced by glow discharge plasma (GDP) were examined. It was found that ferric ions showed much better catalytic effect than that of ferrous ions. The reason was that GDP could produce hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide simultaneously; the hydroxyl radicals reacted with phenol to produce dihydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals which reduced the ferric ions to ferrous ions and the newly formed ferrous ions catalyzed the hydrogen peroxide to produce more hydroxyl radicals. Without iron salts, TOC of the solution gradually decreased with treatment time while COD of the solution increased due to the accumulation of the hydrogen peroxide. Without iron salts, catechol, hydroquinone, and hydroxylhydroquinone were major by-products. However, large amounts of catechol, hydroquinone and benzoquinone yielded in the presence of iron salts. The present study presents some new information related to Fenton's reaction. PMID:18501506

  17. Sub-0.5 V Highly Stable Aqueous Salt Gated Metal Oxide Electronics.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungjun; Lee, SeYeong; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Ilseop; Lee, Won-June; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Byung-Geun; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Recently, growing interest in implantable bionics and biochemical sensors spurred the research for developing non-conventional electronics with excellent device characteristics at low operation voltages and prolonged device stability under physiological conditions. Herein, we report high-performance aqueous electrolyte-gated thin-film transistors using a sol-gel amorphous metal oxide semiconductor and aqueous electrolyte dielectrics based on small ionic salts. The proper selection of channel material (i.e., indium-gallium-zinc-oxide) and precautious passivation of non-channel areas enabled the development of simple but highly stable metal oxide transistors manifested by low operation voltages within 0.5 V, high transconductance of ~1.0 mS, large current on-off ratios over 10(7), and fast inverter responses up to several hundred hertz without device degradation even in physiologically-relevant ionic solutions. In conjunction with excellent transistor characteristics, investigation of the electrochemical nature of the metal oxide-electrolyte interface may contribute to the development of a viable bio-electronic platform directly interfacing with biological entities in vivo. PMID:26271456

  18. Sub-0.5 V Highly Stable Aqueous Salt Gated Metal Oxide Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungjun; Lee, Seyeong; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Ilseop; Lee, Won-June; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Byung-Geun; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2015-08-01

    Recently, growing interest in implantable bionics and biochemical sensors spurred the research for developing non-conventional electronics with excellent device characteristics at low operation voltages and prolonged device stability under physiological conditions. Herein, we report high-performance aqueous electrolyte-gated thin-film transistors using a sol-gel amorphous metal oxide semiconductor and aqueous electrolyte dielectrics based on small ionic salts. The proper selection of channel material (i.e., indium-gallium-zinc-oxide) and precautious passivation of non-channel areas enabled the development of simple but highly stable metal oxide transistors manifested by low operation voltages within 0.5 V, high transconductance of ~1.0 mS, large current on-off ratios over 107, and fast inverter responses up to several hundred hertz without device degradation even in physiologically-relevant ionic solutions. In conjunction with excellent transistor characteristics, investigation of the electrochemical nature of the metal oxide-electrolyte interface may contribute to the development of a viable bio-electronic platform directly interfacing with biological entities in vivo.

  19. Sub-0.5 V Highly Stable Aqueous Salt Gated Metal Oxide Electronics.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungjun; Lee, SeYeong; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Ilseop; Lee, Won-June; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Byung-Geun; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2015-08-14

    Recently, growing interest in implantable bionics and biochemical sensors spurred the research for developing non-conventional electronics with excellent device characteristics at low operation voltages and prolonged device stability under physiological conditions. Herein, we report high-performance aqueous electrolyte-gated thin-film transistors using a sol-gel amorphous metal oxide semiconductor and aqueous electrolyte dielectrics based on small ionic salts. The proper selection of channel material (i.e., indium-gallium-zinc-oxide) and precautious passivation of non-channel areas enabled the development of simple but highly stable metal oxide transistors manifested by low operation voltages within 0.5 V, high transconductance of ~1.0 mS, large current on-off ratios over 10(7), and fast inverter responses up to several hundred hertz without device degradation even in physiologically-relevant ionic solutions. In conjunction with excellent transistor characteristics, investigation of the electrochemical nature of the metal oxide-electrolyte interface may contribute to the development of a viable bio-electronic platform directly interfacing with biological entities in vivo.

  20. Hydrogen-transparent metal surfaces produced by use of molten salts with very low oxygen and water activities

    SciTech Connect

    Deublein, G.; Huggins, R.A. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1989-08-01

    One can employ simple thermodynamic principles to predict conditions under which metals will not form hydrogen-blocking surface oxide layers in electrolyte environments. These principles are used to show that very low oxygen and water activities can be produced in some halide-based molten salt systems by the incorporation of alkali hydrides. Under these conditions, some normally very reactive metals will not form oxide surface layers. As a result, rapid interfacial and surface/bulk equilibria with hydrogen can be attained. Experiments are presented that verify these principles in the titanium-hydrogen and vanadium-hydrogen systems by using electro chemical methods to measure the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the solution of hydrogen and the formation of metal hydrides. In addition, it is shown that interfacial equilibrium is obtained very rapidly upon iron and aluminum in such metals.

  1. Isoconversional Kinetics of Nonisothermal Crystallization of Salts from Solutions.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Victoria L; McCulley, Calla M; Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2016-06-30

    In this study, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to measure the kinetics of nonisothermal crystallization of potassium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate from unsaturated and saturated aqueous solutions. DSC data have been analyzed by an advanced isoconversional method that demonstrates that the process is represented by negative values of the effective activation energy, which varies with the progress of crystallization. The classical nucleation model can be used to predict and understand the experimentally observed variation in the effective activation energy. The saturated and unsaturated solutions have demonstrated distinctly different crystallization kinetics. It is suggested that the unsaturated solutions undergo a change in crystallization mechanism from homogeneous to heterogeneous nucleation. PMID:27305831

  2. Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

  3. [Vascular-parenchymal ratio of testes under correction of exposure to combinations of heavy metals salts].

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, A M; Moskalenko, Iu V; Sauliak, S V; Bonchev, S D; Moskalenko, R A

    2013-06-01

    The results of the study of testes' tissue of 128 immature rats, which get within 60 days drinking water with threshold concentration of salts of copper, zinc, iron, manganese, lead, chromium. It was found that morphological changes of microvasculature was nonspecific and lead to the secondary damage of blood-testis barrier and correlated with changes in testes' parenchymal structures. Fullest possible extent of testicular parenchymal damage occurs in the areas of intensive blood supply, as well as toxic substances in these areas have a longer exposure time. Under exposure combinations of heavy metals salts of organisme the reduction of the vascular streambed in the testes is influenced by intravascular, extravascular intrawall factors. The intensity of vasculature and parenchyma violations of gland depends on duration of exposure combinations of salts of heavy metals. Applying the L-carnitine on the background of intoxication of heavy metal salts partially reduces adverse changes in testes' microvasculature streambed and parenchyma of rats.

  4. [Vascular-parenchymal ratio of testes under correction of exposure to combinations of heavy metals salts].

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, A M; Moskalenko, Iu V; Sauliak, S V; Bonchev, S D; Moskalenko, R A

    2013-06-01

    The results of the study of testes' tissue of 128 immature rats, which get within 60 days drinking water with threshold concentration of salts of copper, zinc, iron, manganese, lead, chromium. It was found that morphological changes of microvasculature was nonspecific and lead to the secondary damage of blood-testis barrier and correlated with changes in testes' parenchymal structures. Fullest possible extent of testicular parenchymal damage occurs in the areas of intensive blood supply, as well as toxic substances in these areas have a longer exposure time. Under exposure combinations of heavy metals salts of organisme the reduction of the vascular streambed in the testes is influenced by intravascular, extravascular intrawall factors. The intensity of vasculature and parenchyma violations of gland depends on duration of exposure combinations of salts of heavy metals. Applying the L-carnitine on the background of intoxication of heavy metal salts partially reduces adverse changes in testes' microvasculature streambed and parenchyma of rats. PMID:25095698

  5. Evaluation of home-made salt-sugar oral rehydration solution in a rural Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Nwoye, L O; Uwagboe, P E; Madubuko, G U

    1988-02-01

    Standardized local measures for preparing oral rehydration solution (ORS) in Nigeria were re-evaluated under laboratory conditions. Our results confirm those of the standardization team in respect of granulated and cube sugar. However, our mean weight of one salt measure (2.8155 +/- 0.292 g) is about 20% greater than their value. Consequently, correct use of the measures in our study gave solutions of 211-297 mmol-1 total concentration and 60-80 mmol-1, Na+ as against their values of 173-251 mmol 1-1 and 45-70 mmol-1, respectively. This discrepancy is most likely due to differences in salt type. Analysis of home-made solutions prepared by 40 illiterate mothers showed that 60% of them made accurately composed solutions. All the rest made hypertonic solutions. Salt type, spoon size and levelling technique are all possible causes of their error. The tendency to err only on the side of greater rather than lower salt concentration may be culture based or simply due to natural maternal instinct. To combat this trend, health education programmes in Nigeria should emphasize the danger in feeding a hypernatremic solution to a dehydrated child.

  6. Effect of magnesium cation on the interfacial properties of aqueous salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Karen M; Casillas-Ituarte, Nadia N; Xu, Man; Roeselová, Martina; Allen, Heather C; Tobias, Douglas J

    2010-08-19

    Sodium chloride solutions have been used extensively as a model of seawater in both theoretical and experimental studies of the chemistry of sea salt aerosol. Many groups have found that chloride anions are present at the air-solution interface. This observation has been important for the development of a mechanism for the heterogeneous production of molecular chlorine from chloride in sea salt aerosol. However, while sodium chloride is a major constituent of seawater, it is by no means the only salt present. Seawater contains one Mg(2+) for every eight Na(+). Mg(2+) is naturally occurring in ocean waters from mineral deposits in the Earth's crust and biological sources. Mg(2+) forms a hexahydrate structure, rather than contact ion pairs with chloride anion, and this impacts the ordering of water in solution. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations, ab initio calculations, and vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to explore the effect of the Mg(2+) cation and its tightly bound solvation shell on the surface propensity of chloride, ion-ion interactions, and water structure of the air-solution interface of concentrated chloride salt solutions. In addition, we provide molecular level details that may be relevant to the heterogeneous reactions of chloride in deliquesced sea salt aerosols. In particular, we show that the presence of the divalent Mg(2+) cation does not modify the surface propensity of chloride compared to Na(+) and hence, its availability to interfacial reaction, although some differences in the behavior of chloride may occur due to specific ion interactions. In this work, we also discuss the SFG free OH band at the surface of salt solutions and conclude that it is often not straightforward to interpret.

  7. Reusable chelating resins concentrate metal ions from highly dilute solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.; Weetal, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Column chromatographic method uses new metal chelating resins for recovering heavy-metal ions from highly dilute solutions. The absorbed heavy-metal cations may be removed from the chelating resins by acid or base washes. The resins are reusable after the washes are completed.

  8. Influence of structure of the metal salts of phosphinates on the performance of the fire-retardant polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueqing; Liu, Jiyan; Guo, Yuanhao; Cakmak, Miko

    2015-05-01

    Dialkylphosphinate salts (I) and amide-containing phosphinate salts(II) with varying metal cation and organic groups were used as flame retardants for epoxy resin(EP), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) correspondingly. Their flame retardancy, mechanical properties, thermal stability, compatibility between phosphinate salts and polymer, and leaching of the salts from the polymer were investigated with respect to the structure of phosphinate salts.

  9. Geochemistry of metal-rich brines from central Mississippi Salt Dome basin, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Maest, A.S.; Carothers, W.W.; Law, L.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Fries, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Oil-field brines are the most favored ore-forming solutions for the sediment-hosted Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Detailed inorganic and organic chemical and isotope analyses of water and gas samples from six oil fields in central Mississippi, one of the very few areas with high metal brines, were conducted to study the inorganic and organic complexes responsible for the high concentrations of these metals. The samples were obtained from production zones consisting of sandstone and limestone that range in depth from 1900 to 4000 m (70-120??C) and in age from Late Cretaceous to Late Jurassic. Results show that the waters are dominantly bittern brines related to the Louann Salt. The brines have extremely high salinities that range from 160,000 to 320,000 mg/l total dissolved solids and are NaCaCl-type waters with very high concentrations of Ca (up to 48,000 mg/l) and other alkaline-earth metals, but with low concentrations of aliphatic acid anions. The concentrations of metals in many water samples are very high, reaching values of 70 mg/l for Pb, 245 mg/l for Zn, 465 mg/l for Fe and 210 mg/l for Mn. The samples with high metal contents have extremely low concentrations (<0.02 mg/l) of H2S. Samples obtained from the Smackover Formation (limestone) have low metal contents that are more typical of oil-field waters, but have very high concentrations (up to 85 mg/l) of H2S. Computations with the geochemical code SOLMINEQ.87 give the following results: (1) both Pb and Zn are present predominantly as aqueous chloride complexes (mainly as PbCl42- and ZnCl42-, respectively); (2) the concentrations of metals complexed with short-chained aliphatic acid anions and reduced S species are minor; (3) organic acid anions are important in controlling the concentrations of metals because they affect the pH and buffer capacity of the waters at subsurface conditions; and (4) galena and sphalerite solubilities control the concentrations of Pb and Zn in these waters. ?? 1988.

  10. Salting-out effect in aqueous NaCl solutions: trends with size and polarity of solute molecules.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Pfennigsdorff, Andrea; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Salting-out in aqueous NaCl solutions is relevant for the environmental behavior of organic contaminants. In this study, Setschenow (or salting-out) coefficients (K(s) [M(-1)]) for 43 diverse neutral compounds in NaCl solutions were measured using a shared headspace passive dosing method and a negligible depletion solid phase microextraction technique. The results were used to calibrate and evaluate estimation models for K(s). The molar volume of the solute correlated only moderately with K(s) (R(2) = 0.49, SD = 0.052). The polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) model that uses five compound descriptors resulted in a more accurate fit to our data (R(2) = 0.83, SD = 0.031). The pp-LFER analysis revealed that Na(+) and Cl(-) in aqueous solutions increase the cavity formation energy cost and the polar interaction energies toward neutral organic solutes. Accordingly, the salting-out effect increases with the size and decreases with the polarity of the solute molecule. COSMO-RS, a quantum mechanics-based fully predictive model, generally overpredicted the experimental K(s), but the predicted values were moderately correlated with the experimental values (R(2) = 0.66, SD = 0.042). Literature data (n = 93) were predicted by the calibrated pp-LFER and COSMO-RS models with root mean squared errors of 0.047 and 0.050, respectively. This study offers prediction models to estimate K(s), allowing implementation of the salting-out effect in contaminant fate models, linkage of various partition coefficients (such as air-water, sediment-water, and extraction phase-water partition coefficients) measured for fresh water and seawater, and estimation of enhancement of extraction efficiency in analytical procedures.

  11. Methanol conversion over metal salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, H.; Moffat, J.B.

    1983-05-01

    The sodium, boron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, aluminum, and zirconium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid have been prepared and characterized using x-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, the chemisorption of ammonia, and Hammett indicators. Methanol conversion at 350/sup 0/C and a variety of residence times produced hydrocarbons ranging from C/sub 1/ to C/sub 5/ in amounts which varied with the cation. The more strongly acidic salts produced the higher yields of hydrocarbons. The maximum yield of the major product C/sub 4/ was found with the aluminum salt. The activities were related to the partial change on the oxygen atoms in the various catalysts. 3 figures, 1 table.

  12. Dynamics of single polyelectrolyte chains in salt-free dilute solutions investigated by analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhonglin; Wu, Sha; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2015-06-28

    The dynamics of polyelectrolytes in salt-free solution is an unsolved problem. We have investigated the sedimentation and diffusion of xanthan and poly(N-methyl 4-vinyl pyridine iodide) (P4VPI) in salt-free dilute solutions by analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) using sedimentation velocity (SV) as a function of polyelectrolyte concentration (Cp). Our study reveals two concentration regimes distinguished in either polyanion (xanthan) or polycation (P4VPI) dilute aqueous solution. When Cp is below the Debye concentration (Cd) at which the chain separation (d) is close to the debye length (lD), the interchain electrostatic repulsion is negligible, and the reciprocal apparent sedimentation coefficient (1/s), apparent diffusion coefficient (D) or reciprocal apparent molecular weight (1/Mw) is linearly related to Cp. In the range Cp > Cd with d < lD, the interchain electrostatic repulsion is present, and the dynamics of polyelectrolytes becomes complex. The real sedimentation coefficient (s0), the diffusion coefficient (D0) and the molecular weight (Mw,0) of the single polyelectrolyte chain in salt-free dilute solution can be obtained by extrapolating the concentration to zero. The present study reveals that the complex dynamics of polyelectrolytes in salt-free dilute solutions arises due to the interchain electrostatic repulsion.

  13. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM-INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM-PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM-PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM-INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N-H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM-PAM cocrystal, while ACM-CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid-carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM-INA, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM-PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM-PPZ salt and ACM-nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM-PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine salt of acemetacin exhibits superior

  14. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    PubMed Central

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N—H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine

  15. A new class of draw solutions for minimizing reverse salt flux to improve forward osmosis desalination.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hau Thi; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Li, Chi-Wang

    2015-12-15

    The applications of forward osmosis (FO) have been hindered because of the lack of an optimal draw solution. The reverse salt flux from the draw solution not only reduces the water flux but also increases the cost of draw solute replenishment. Therefore, in this study, Tergitol NP7 and NP9 with a long straight carbon chain and low critical micelle concentration (CMC) were coupled with highly charged ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an innovative draw solution to minimize reverse salt diffusion in FO for the first time. The results showed that the lowest reverse salt flux of 0.067 GMH was observed when 0.1M EDTA-2Na coupled with 15mM NP7 was used as a draw solution and deionized water was used as a feed solution in FO mode (active layer facing with the feed solution). This is due to the hydrophobic interaction between the tails of NP7 and the FO membrane, thus creating layers on the membrane surface and constricting the FO membrane pores. Moreover, 1M EDTA-2Na coupled with 15mM NP7 is promising as an optimal draw solution for brackish water and sea water desalination. Average water fluxes of 7.68, 6.78, and 5.95 LMH were achieved when brackish water was used as a feed solution (5, 10, and 20g/L NaCl), and an average water flux of 3.81 LMH was achieved when sea water was used as a feed solution (35g/L NaCl). The diluted draw solution was recovered using a nanofiltration (NF-TS80) membrane with a high efficiency of 95% because of the high charge and large size of the draw solution.

  16. A new class of draw solutions for minimizing reverse salt flux to improve forward osmosis desalination.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hau Thi; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Li, Chi-Wang

    2015-12-15

    The applications of forward osmosis (FO) have been hindered because of the lack of an optimal draw solution. The reverse salt flux from the draw solution not only reduces the water flux but also increases the cost of draw solute replenishment. Therefore, in this study, Tergitol NP7 and NP9 with a long straight carbon chain and low critical micelle concentration (CMC) were coupled with highly charged ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an innovative draw solution to minimize reverse salt diffusion in FO for the first time. The results showed that the lowest reverse salt flux of 0.067 GMH was observed when 0.1M EDTA-2Na coupled with 15mM NP7 was used as a draw solution and deionized water was used as a feed solution in FO mode (active layer facing with the feed solution). This is due to the hydrophobic interaction between the tails of NP7 and the FO membrane, thus creating layers on the membrane surface and constricting the FO membrane pores. Moreover, 1M EDTA-2Na coupled with 15mM NP7 is promising as an optimal draw solution for brackish water and sea water desalination. Average water fluxes of 7.68, 6.78, and 5.95 LMH were achieved when brackish water was used as a feed solution (5, 10, and 20g/L NaCl), and an average water flux of 3.81 LMH was achieved when sea water was used as a feed solution (35g/L NaCl). The diluted draw solution was recovered using a nanofiltration (NF-TS80) membrane with a high efficiency of 95% because of the high charge and large size of the draw solution. PMID:26298255

  17. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  18. Aqueous solutions of transition metal containing micelles.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter C; Fallis, Ian A; Tatchell, Thomas; Bushby, Lisa; Beeby, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Incorporation of d- or f-block metals into ligand systems that renders a metal complex surface-active or drives its partitioning into surfactant phases enables the localisation of chemical functionality at interfaces. This article discusses a number of fundamental aspects of these interesting materials and examines potential applications. PMID:18812239

  19. Role of chain stiffness on the conformation of single polyelectrolytes in salt solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu-Fu; Hsiao, Pai-Yi

    2007-08-01

    Conformation of single polyelectrolytes in tetravalent salt solutions is investigated under the framework of a coarse-grained model, using Langevin dynamics simulations. The chain size, studied by the radius of gyration, shows three different variational behaviors with salt concentration, depending on the chain stiffness. According to the size variations, polyelectrolytes of fixed chain length are classified into three categories: (1) flexible chain, for which the variation shows a curve similar to a tilted L, (2) semiflexible chain, whose curve resembles U, and (3) rigid chain, for which the curve is a straight line. The wormlike chain model with persistence length predicted by the Odijk-Skolnick-Fixman theory is found to be able to qualitatively describe the end-to-end distance at low salt concentration not only for semiflexible and rigid chains but also for flexible chain. In a low salt region, a flexible polyelectrolyte extends more significantly than a semiflexible chain, in reference of the size of their uncharged counterparts, and in a high salt region, regardless of chain stiffness, a chain attains a dimension comparable to that of its neutral polymer. The chain stiffness influences both the local and the global chain structures. A flexible chain exhibits a zigzagged local structure in the presence of salt ions, and the condensed structure is a disordered, random globule. A semiflexible chain is locally smooth, and the condensed structure is orderly packed, taking a form such as hairpin or toroid. Moreover, the chain stiffness can also affect the nature of the coil-globule transition. The transition occurred in a discrete manner for semiflexible chain, whereas it occurred in a continuous way for flexible chain. This discrete feature happened not only at low salt concentration when a semiflexible chain collapsed but also at high salt concentration when the collapsed chain is reexpanded. At the end, the effects of chain stiffness and salt concentration on the

  20. [Influences of the mobile phase constitution, salt concentration and pH value on retention characters of proteins on the metal chelate column].

    PubMed

    Li, R; Di, Z M; Chen, G L

    2001-09-01

    The effects of the nature and concentration of salts, pH value and competitive eluent in the mobile phase on the protein retention have been systematically investigated. A mathematical expression describing the protein retention in metal chelate chromatography has been derived. It is proposed that the eluting power of the salt solution can be expressed by the eluent strength exponent epsilon. According to the retention characters of protein under different chromatographic conditions, the interaction between the various metal chelate ligands and proteins is discussed. The protein retention on the metal chelate column is a cooperative interactions of coordination, electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction. For the strong combined metal column with proteins such as IDA-Cu, the coordination is the most important, and the electrostatic interaction is secondary in chromatographic process. However, for the weak combined metal columns with proteins such as IDA-Ni, IDA-Co and IDA-Zn, the electrostatic interaction between the metal chelate ligands and proteins is the chief one, while the coordination is the next in importance. When the mobile phase contains high concentration of salt which can't form complex with the immobilized metal, the hydrophobic interaction between the protein and stationary phase will be increased. As the interaction between the metal chelate ligand and proteins relates to chromatographic operating conditions closely, different elution processes may be selected for different metal chelate columns. The gradient elution is generally performed by the low concentration of salt or different pH for weakly combined columns with proteins, however the competitive elution procedure is commonly utilized for strongly combined column. The experiment showed that NH3 is an excellent competitive eluent. It isn't only give the efficient separation of proteins, but also has the advantages of cheapness, less bleeding of the immobilized metals and ease of controlling NH3

  1. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    PubMed

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication.

  2. Theoretical analysis of XANES for aqueous aluminum salt solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Shuji; Shirozu, Kaori; Tateishi, Yuichi; Wakita, Hisanobu; Yokoyama, Takushi

    In order to understand the coordination behavior of Al(III) ions in hydrosphere, discrete variational X[alpha] molecular orbital calculations were performed to analyze Al K-edge XANES spectra for the aqueous solutions of Al(NO3)3·9H2O and Al-EDTA (EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetate) complex. As to Al(NO3)3·9H2O, the hydrate structure was presumed to be rather an asymmetric hexahydrated structure than an high-symmetric structure. As to Al-EDTA, the 5-fold coordinated Al-EDTA was concluded to be the coexistence of the pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal structures in proportion of 4 to 6.

  3. Oxygen isotope activities and concentrations in aqueous salt solutions at elevated temperatures: Consequences for isotope geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of the effect of dissolved salts on the oxygen isotope activity ratio of water have been extended to 275??C. Dehydrated salts were added to water of known isotope composition and the solutions were equilibrated with CO2 which was sampled for analysis. For comparison similar studies were made using pure water. Results on water nearly coincide with earlier calculations. Salt effects diminish with increasing temperature only for solutions of MgCl2 and LiCl. Other salt solutions show complex behavior due to the temperature-dependent formation of ion pairs of changing character. Equilibrium fractionations (103 ln ??) between 1 molal solutions and pure water at 25, 100, and 275??C are: NaCl 0.0, -1.5, +1.0; KCl 0.0, -1.0, +2.0; LiCl -1.0, -0.6, -0.5; CaCl2 -0.4, -1.8, +0.8; MgCl2 -1.1, -0.7, -0.3; MgSO4 -1.1, +0.1, -; NaF (0.8 m) 0.0, -1.5, -0.3; and NH4Cl (0.55 m) 0.0, -1.2, -1.3. These effects are significant in the isotope study of hot saline fluids responsible for ore deposition and of fluids found in certain geothermal systems. Minor modification of published isotope geothermometers may be required. ?? 1974.

  4. Results of Analysis of Macrobatch 3 Decontaminated Salt Solution Coalescer from May 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-18

    SRNL analyzed the Decontamination Salt Solution (DSS) coalescer from MCU by several analytical methods. This unit was removed from service in May 2010. The results of these analyses indicate that there is very little evidence of fouling via excessive solids, either from the leaching studies or X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis.

  5. [Spermatogenic function under the influence of heavy metal salts and its correction by preparation Tivortin].

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, A M; Sauliak, S V; Moskalenko, R A; Moskalenko, Iu V

    2012-01-01

    Entrance of threshold concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, manganese, lead, chromium into the body of sexually mature male rats leads to secretory malfunction of the testicles, which manifests by a decrease of sperm concentration in the ejaculate, a decrease of percentage of motile gametes, an increase in the proportion of morphologically abnormal sperm forms. The evidence of disorders in spermatogram's parameters is directly depends on the duration of the influence of combination of heavy metal salts. The application of the drug Tivortin against intoxication of heavy metal salts decrease the adverse movement of quantitative and qualitative parameters of rat's spermatogramms, so far as Tivortin improves blood circulation, stimulates cell proliferation and cell differentiation, inhibits oxidative apoptosis. These explain beneficial effects of the drug on the growth and maturation of germ cells in case of the influence heavy metal salts combination on organ and the whole body. PMID:23035612

  6. Effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, Philip; Seidel, Scott; Gupta, Malancha

    2015-05-15

    In this work, the effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films was studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The polymerizations of 4-vinyl pyridine and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate were studied using copper(II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) and iron(III) chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) as the transition metal salts. It was found that the surface coverages of both poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) and poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) were decreased on CuCl{sub 2}, while the surface coverage of only P4VP was decreased on FeCl{sub 3}. The decreased polymer surface coverage was found to be due to quenching of the propagating radicals by the salt, which led to a reduction of the oxidation state of the metal. The identification of this reaction mechanism allowed for tuning of the effectiveness of the salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage through the adjustment of processing parameters such as the filament temperature. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the ability of transition metal salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage could be extended to the fabrication of patterned cross-linked coatings, which is important for many practical applications such as sensors and microelectronics.

  7. Effect of metal particles on the rate of Si etching with N-fluoropyridinium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Masaki; Kawai, Kentaro; Tsukamoto, Kentaro; Nagai, Takabumi; Adachi, Kenji; Uchikoshi, Junichi; Arima, Kenta; Morita, Mizuho

    2016-10-01

    The effect of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd, Ag, Pt, or Au metal particles on the rate of Si etching using N-fluoropyridinium salts was examined. The average etching depth increased when N-fluoropyridinium salts were mixed with Cu particles. The activation energy determined from the temperature dependence of the average etching rate for the Cu particles is lower than that without a metal. The Cu particles greatly improve the etching of Si with the salts compared with the other metals. The magnitude of the effect of the Cu particles on the rate of Si etching with the salts is larger than that of the Mn, Fe, Ni, or Zn particles. This can be explained by the order of the relative stabilities of the complexes formed by bivalent ions of transition metals. The etching method involves the application of easy-to-handle salts containing Cu particles as etchants on the Si surface and has the potential to be a simple and less expensive form of Si etching.

  8. Hydration structure of salt solutions from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bankura, Arindam; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Klein, Michael L.

    2013-01-07

    The solvation structures of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup -} ions in aqueous solution have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) based Car-Parrinello (CP) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. CPMD trajectories were collected for systems containing three NaCl or KCl ion pairs solvated by 122 water molecules using three different but commonly employed density functionals (BLYP, HCTH, and PBE) with electron correlation treated at the level of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The effect of including dispersion forces was analyzed through the use of an empirical correction to the DFT-GGA scheme. Special attention was paid to the hydration characteristics, especially the structural properties of the first solvation shell of the ions, which was investigated through ion-water radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and angular distribution functions. There are significant differences between the present results obtained from CPMD simulations and those provided by classical MD based on either the CHARMM force field or a polarizable model. Overall, the computed structural properties are in fair agreement with the available experimental results. In particular, the observed coordination numbers 5.0-5.5, 6.0-6.4, and 6.0-6.5 for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup -}, respectively, are consistent with X-ray and neutron scattering studies but differ somewhat from some of the many other recent computational studies of these important systems. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed.

  9. Electrodialysis for recovering salts from a urine solution containing micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Wouter; Biebow, Martin; Boller, Markus

    2006-04-01

    Electrodialysis was investigated for the separation of micropollutants from nutrients in anthropogenic urine. In a continuously operated process, the nutrients were concentrated up to a factor of 3.2. The concentration factor was limited by water transport across the membrane. Water transport was caused by osmosis and electroosmosis, and a model was developed to describe these phenomena. The removal of several spiked micropollutants was investigated in continuous electrodialysis experiments. Ethinylestradiol was removed completely during the whole operating period. Diclofenac and carbamazepine were initially retained, but limited permeation (5-10%) occurred after longer operating times (90 days). Retentions of propranolol and ibuprofen were also high initially, but substantial breakthroughs occurred during extended operation. Considerable adsorption on the membranes was observed for all compounds. The permeation mechanism of several compounds appears to depend on the adsorbed amount on the membrane, which indicates that partitioning and diffusion mechanisms play an important role in the permeation transport. Partial desorption occurred in leaching experiments with polarity reversal, and almost quantitative desorption was observed after incubation of the membranes with Filter Count Gel Solution. Because environmental concentrations are much lower than the concentrations spiked here, it can be anticipated that operation without significant permeation is possible in practice during extended periods of time.

  10. pH in physiological salt solutions: direct measurements.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, J; Norrie, B; Andersen, P K; Stokke, D B; Nedergaard, O A

    1990-11-01

    Calculations of pH in modified Krebs solutions by inserting PCO2 and total-CO2 in the Henderson-Hasselbalch (H.-H.) equation are obvious as the equation originally served for this purpose. An exact calculation of the relation between pH and PCO2 is complicated as the concentration of bicarbonate, the dissociation constant and the solubility of CO2 change. Furthermore, the dissociation constant in the H.-H. equation is constant only if activities are used in the equation instead of stoichiometric concentrations. We therefore investigated the influence of different carbon dioxide tensions and bicarbonate concentrations on directly measured pH of organ baths aerated with mass-spectrometric analyzed O2-CO2 gases. For reference precision buffers were used. The measured pH values differed distinctly from calculated pH values in the acidic and alkaline parts of the pH interval investigated (6.57-8.15). Measurements of actual pH with proper calibration standards therefore seem mandatory. PMID:2177306

  11. Hydration structure of salt solutions from ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankura, Arindam; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Klein, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The solvation structures of Na^+, K^+, and Cl^- ions in aqueous solution have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) based Car-Parrinello (CP) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. CPMD trajectories were collected for systems containing three NaCl or KCl ion pairs solvated by 122 water molecules using three different but commonly employed density functionals (BLYP, HCTH, and PBE) with electron correlation treated at the level of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The effect of including dispersion forces was analyzed through the use of an empirical correction to the DFT-GGA scheme. Special attention was paid to the hydration characteristics, especially the structural properties of the first solvation shell of the ions, which was investigated through ion-water radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and angular distribution functions. There are significant differences between the present results obtained from CPMD simulations and those provided by classical MD based on either the CHARMM force field or a polarizable model. Overall, the computed structural properties are in fair agreement with the available experimental results. In particular, the observed coordination numbers 5.0-5.5, 6.0-6.4, and 6.0-6.5 for Na^+, K^+, and Cl^-, respectively, are consistent with X-ray and neutron scattering studies but differ somewhat from some of the many other recent computational studies of these important systems. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed.

  12. Explicit-water theory for the salt-specific effects and Hofmeister series in protein solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Yuriy V.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2016-06-01

    Effects of addition of salts on stability of aqueous protein solutions are studied theoretically and the results are compared with experimental data. In our approach, all the interacting species, proteins, ions, and water molecules, are accounted for explicitly. Water molecules are modeled as hard spheres with four off-center attractive square-well sites. These sites serve to bind either another water or to solvate the ions or protein charges. The ions are represented as charged hard spheres, and decorated by attractive sites to allow solvation. Spherical proteins simultaneously possess positive and negative groups, represented by charged hard spheres, attached to the surface of the protein. The attractive square-well sites, mimicking the protein-protein van der Waals interaction, are located on the surface of the protein. To obtain numerical results, we utilized the energy route of Wertheim's associative mean spherical approximation. From measurable properties, we choose to calculate the second virial coefficient B2, which is closely related to the tendency of proteins to aggregate and eventually crystalize. Calculations are in agreement with experimental trends: (i) For low concentration of added salt, the alkali halide salts follow the inverse Hofmeister series. (ii) At higher concentration of added salt, the trend is reversed. (iii) When cations are varied, the salts follow the direct Hofmeister series. (iv) In contrast to the colloidal theories, our approach correctly predicts the non-monotonic behavior of B2 upon addition of salts. (v) With respect to anions, the theory predicts for the B2 values to follow different sequences below and above the iso-ionic point, as also confirmed experimentally. (vi) A semi-quantitative agreement between measured and calculated values for the second virial coefficient, as functions of pH of solution and added salt type and concentration, is obtained.

  13. Salt-Driven Deposition of Thermoresponsive Polymer-Coated Metal Nanoparticles on Solid Substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyue; Maji, Samarendra; da Fonseca Antunes, André B; De Rycke, Riet; Hoogenboom, Richard; De Geest, Bruno G

    2016-06-13

    Here we report on a simple, generally applicable method for depositing metal nanoparticles on a wide variety of solid surfaces under all aqueous conditions. Noble-metal nanoparticles obtained by citrate reduction followed by coating with thermoresponsive polymers spontaneously form a monolayer-like structure on a wide variety of substrates in presence of sodium chloride whereas this phenomenon does not occur in salt-free medium. Interestingly, this phenomenon occurs below the cloud point temperature of the polymers and we hypothesize that salt ion-induced screening of electrostatic charges on the nanoparticle surface entropically favors hydrophobic association between the polymer-coated nanoparticles and a hydrophobic substrate. PMID:27142455

  14. A traditional Japanese-style salt field is a niche for haloarchaeal strains that can survive in 0.5% salt solution

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Tadamasa; Usami, Ron; Kamekura, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    Background Most of the haloarchaeal strains have been isolated from hypersaline environments such as solar evaporation ponds, salt lakes, or salt deposits, and they, with some exceptions, lyse or lose viability in very low-salt concentrations. There are no salty environments suitable for the growth of haloarchaea in Japan. Although Natrialba asiatica and Haloarcula japonica were isolated many years ago, the question, "Are haloarchaea really thriving in natural environments of Japan?" has remained unanswered. Results Ten strains were isolated from a traditional Japanese-style salt field at Nie, Noto Peninsula, Japan by plating out the soil samples directly on agar plates containing 30% (w/v) salts and 0.5% yeast extract. They were most closely related to strains of three genera, Haladaptatus, Halococcus, and Halogeometricum. Survival rates in 3% and 0.5% SW (Salt Water, solutions containing salts in approximately the same proportions as found in seawater) solutions at 37°C differed considerably depending on the strains. Two strains belonging to Halogeometricum as well as the type strain Hgm. borinquense died and lysed immediately after suspension. Five strains that belonged to Halococcus and a strain that may be a member of Halogeometricum survived for 1–2 days in 0.5% SW solution. Two strains most closely related to Haladaptatus possessed extraordinary strong tolerance to low salt conditions. About 20 to 34% of the cells remained viable in 0.5% SW after 9 days incubation. Conclusion In this study we have demonstrated that haloarchaea are really thriving in the soil of Japanese-style salt field. The haloarchaeal cells, particularly the fragile strains are suggested to survive in the micropores of smaller size silt fraction, one of the components of soil. The inside of the silt particles is filled with concentrated salt solution and kept intact even upon suspension in rainwater. Possible origins of the haloarchaea isolated in this study are discussed. PMID

  15. Salt-water-freshwater transient upconing - An implicit boundary-element solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemblowski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The boundary-element method is used to solve the set of partial differential equations describing the flow of salt water and fresh water separated by a sharp interface in the vertical plane. In order to improve the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution, a new implicit scheme was developed for calculating the motion of the interface. The performance of this scheme was tested by means of numerical simulation. The numerical results are compared to experimental results for a salt-water upconing under a drain problem. ?? 1985.

  16. Investigation of the Ionic Hydration in Aqueous Salt Solutions by Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jeyachandran, Y L; Meyer, F; Benkert, A; Bär, M; Blum, M; Yang, W; Reinert, F; Heske, C; Weinhardt, L; Zharnikov, M

    2016-08-11

    Understanding the molecular structure of the hydration shells and their impact on the hydrogen bond (HB) network of water in aqueous salt solutions is a fundamentally important and technically relevant question. In the present work, such hydration effects were studied for a series of representative salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, and KBr) by soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering (RIXS). The oxygen K-edge XES spectra could be described with three components, attributed to initial state HB configurations in pure water, water molecules that have undergone an ultrafast dissociation initiated by the X-ray excitation, and water molecules in contact with salt ions. The behavior of the individual components, as well as the spectral shape of the latter component, has been analyzed in detail. In view of the role of ions in such effects as protein denaturation (i.e., the Hofmeister series), we discuss the ion-specific nature of the hydration shells and find that the results point to a predominant role of anions as compared to cations. Furthermore, we observe a concentration-dependent suppression of ultrafast dissociation in all salt solutions, associated with a significant distortion of intact HB configurations of water molecules facilitating such a dissociation. PMID:27442708

  17. Solution Asymmetry and Salt Expand Fluid-Fluid Coexistence Regions of Charged Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kubsch, Bastian; Robinson, Tom; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Dimova, Rumiana

    2016-06-21

    Liquid-liquid phase separation in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) leads to the formation of intramembrane domains. To mimic charged biological membranes, we studied phase separation and domain formation in GUVs of ternary lipid mixtures composed of egg sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and the negatively charged lipid dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol. The GUVs were exposed to solutions of sucrose and high-saline buffer. The phase diagram was determined using epifluorescence microscopy for vesicle populations with symmetric and asymmetric solution compositions across the membranes. Trans-membrane solution asymmetry was found to affect the membrane phase state. Furthermore, compared to the case of salt-free conditions, the phase diagram in the presence of high-saline buffer (both symmetrically or asymmetrically present across the membrane) was found to exhibit a significantly extended region of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered coexistence. These observations were confirmed on single GUVs using microfluidics and confocal microscopy. Moreover, we found that the miscibility temperatures markedly increased for vesicles in the presence of symmetric and asymmetric salt solutions. Our results demonstrate a substantial effect of salt and solution asymmetry on the phase behavior of charged membranes, which has direct implications for protein adsorption onto these membranes and for the repartitioning of proteins within the membrane domains. PMID:27288275

  18. Films, Preimpregnated Tapes and Composites Made from Polyimide "Salt-Like" Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    High quality films, preimpregnated tape (prepegs), and composites have been fabricated from polyimide precursor 'saltlike' solutions. These salt-like solutions have a low viscosity (5,000 to 10,000 cp) and a high solids content (50-65% by weight) and can be coated onto reinforcing fiber to produce prepegs with excellent tack and drape at 12-15% residual solvent (approximately 4-6% water from thermal imidization reaction). The processing of these types of prepegs significantly overcomes solvent removal problems and allows excellent fiber wet out. In addition, the physical characteristics of the polyimide precursor salt-like solutions permits processing into high-performance materials through the use of standard prepregging and composite fabrication equipment. The resultant composites are of high quality.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of the surface tension and structure of salt solutions and clusters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Li, Xin; Hede, Thomas; Tu, Yaoquan; Leck, Caroline; Ågren, Hans

    2012-03-15

    Sodium halides, which are abundant in sea salt aerosols, affect the optical properties of aerosols and are active in heterogeneous reactions that cause ozone depletion and acid rain problems. Interfacial properties, including surface tension and halide anion distributions, are crucial issues in the study of the aerosols. We present results from molecular dynamics simulations of water solutions and clusters containing sodium halides with the interatomic interactions described by a conventional force field. The simulations reproduce experimental observations that sodium halides increase the surface tension with respect to pure water and that iodide anions reach the outermost layer of water clusters or solutions. It is found that the van der Waals interactions have an impact on the distribution of the halide anions and that a conventional force field with optimized parameters can model the surface tension of the salt solutions with reasonable accuracy.

  20. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    DOEpatents

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1981-01-21

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates is described, wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300 to 800/sup 0/C is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  1. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.; Stines, William B.

    1983-10-11

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300.degree. to 800.degree. C. is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  2. Salt effects in extraction of ethanol, 1-butanol and acetone from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, J.J.; Daugulis, A.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    Experimental studies were performed to assess the effect of salt addition on the extraction of 1-butanol, ethanol and acetone from dilute aqueous solutions using cyclopentanol, n-valeraldehyde, tert-amyl alcohol, and Adol 85NF as extractants. The liquid-liquid partitioning was examined for a few strong electrolytes in a broad range of concentrations. Results demonstrate that the distribution coefficient and selectivity in systems with reduced water activity resulting from salt addition were markedly increased. These observations can be qualitatively explained on the basis of the hydration theory. It was also determined that strong electrolytes added to the aqueous feed reduced extractant solubility in the aqueous phase, thus contributing to lower solvent losses. The results showed that the extraction efficiency was not significantly affected by increasing salt content beyond a level that reduces the water activity to a value of 0.92.

  3. Effect of heat stable salts on MDEA solution corrosivity: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, P.C.; DuPart, M.S.; Bacon, T.R.

    1997-04-01

    A comprehensive coupon corrosion testing program was undertaken to address the effect of various heat stable salts on methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) corrosivity to carbon steel and various stainless steels. Corrosion rates of carbon steel, 304SS, 316SS and 410SS liquid and vapor coupons towards MDEA, and MDEA containing various anions, at 180 F and 250 F, were measured in a reactor. Corrosion results of two refinery plant solutions before and after caustic neutralization were also performed. Based on these results, guidelines were determined for heat stable amine salt (HSAS) levels of oxalates, sulfates, formates, acetates and thiosulfates. In addition, caustic neutralization guidelines for MDEA heat stable salts were determined. Ongoing results include MDEA corrosivity with succinates, and malonates, glycolates, SO{sub 2} and ammonia.

  4. Creep Behaviour of Alpine Salt Rock and the Influence of Insoluble Residues in Solution Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittino, Gerhard; Golser, Johann

    In Austrian salt mining, brine is won by way of solution mining with the borehole well method. The Alpine salt rock (Haselgebirge) consists of a high share of insolubles, and therefore leached caverns are filled with clay residues, as so-called Laist, a natural backfill, according to the salt content. The creep deformations of the Haselgebirge mainly correspond with a rupture-free flow and are calculated by means of an elasto-viscous model (power-law). These deformations mobilize the passive fill-pressure in clay residue that is described as elastoplastic with isotropic hardening by means of a modified Cam-clay model. The long-term laboratory tests are supported through calculations of the creep parameter via measured convergences of drifts at various depths. The long-term behaviour of the caverns is evaluated based on numerical calculations by the volume convergence and the degree of utilization of pillar.

  5. Effects of ion exchange on stream solute fluxes in a basin receiving highway deicing salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    At Fever Brook, a 1260-ha forested basin in central Massachusetts, highway deicing salt application increased the solute flux in streamflow by 120% above background flux (equivalent basis) during a 2-yr period. Attempts to isolate the nonsalt component of stream solute fluxes have commonly subtracted salt contributions based on the net Cl flux (Cl output in streamflow minus Cl input in precipitation). In these studies, any net Na flux in excess of the amount needed to balance the net Cl flux has been attributed to weathering. At Fever Brook, however, the net output of Na was less than the net output of Cl, suggesting a loss of Na within the basin. The Na sink was inferred to be cation exchange of Na for Ca and Mg in the soil. A method was developed to quantify the exchange based on a Na budget, which included an independent estimate of the Na flux from weathering. The amount of exchange was apportioned to Ca and Mg based on their relative concentrations in the stream. The background fluxes of Ca and Mg (i.e., those that would occur in the absence of deicing salts) were calculated by subtracting the amounts from ion exchange plus the much smaller direct contributions in deicing salts from the observed fluxes. Ion exchange and direct salt contributions increased the net output fluxes of Ca and Mg, each by 44% above background. In basins that receive deicing salts, failure to account for cation exchange thus may result in an underestimate of the flux of Na from weathering and overestimates of the fluxes of Ca and Mg from weathering.

  6. Molecular thermodynamics for swelling of a mesoscopic ionomer gel in 1 : 1 salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Victorov, A; Radke, C; Prausnitz, J

    2006-01-14

    For a microphase-separated diblock copolymer ionic gel swollen in salt solution, a molecular-thermodynamic model is based on the self-consistent field theory in the limit of strongly segregated copolymer subchains. The geometry of microdomains is described using the Milner generic wedge construction neglecting the packing frustration. A geometry-dependent generalized analytical solution for the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation is obtained. This generalized solution not only reduces to those known previously for planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries, but is also applicable to saddle-like structures. Thermodynamic functions are expressed analytically for gels of lamellar, bicontinuous, cylindrical and spherical morphologies. Molecules are characterized by chain composition, length, rigidity, degree of ionization, and by effective polymer-polymer and polymer-solvent interaction parameters. The model predicts equilibrium solvent uptakes and the equilibrium microdomain spacing for gels swollen in salt solutions. Results are given for details of the gel structure: distribution of mobile ions and polymer segments, and the electric potential across microdomains. Apart from effects obtained by coupling the classical Flory-Rehner theory with Donnan equilibria, viz. increased swelling with polyelectrolyte charge and shrinking of gel upon addition of salt, the model predicts the effects of microphase morphology on swelling. PMID:16482269

  7. The role of saline solution properties on porous limestone salt weathering by magnesium and sodium sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Mees, F.; Jacobs, P.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2007-03-01

    Saline solution properties, viscosity in particular, are shown to be critical in salt weathering associated with sodium and magnesium sulfate crystallization in porous limestone. The crystallization of sodium and magnesium sulfate within a porous limestone has been studied at a macro- and microscale using different techniques, including mercury intrusion porosimetry, environmental scanning microscopy and X-ray computed tomography. Such analysis enabled the visualization of the crystallization process in situ, and at high magnification, yielding critical information as to where and how salts crystallize. Sodium sulfate decahydrate (mirabilite) tends to crystallize in large pores as euhedral micron-sized crystals formed at low supersaturation near to the surface of the stone. In contrast, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (epsomite) tends to precipitate as anhedral wax-like aggregates formed at high supersaturation and distributed homogeneously throughout the stone pore system filling large and small pores. While the former crystallization behavior resulted in scale formation, the latter led to crack development throughout the bulk stone. Ultimately, the contrasting weathering behavior of the two sulfates is explained by considering differences in flow dynamics of solutions within porous materials that are mainly connected with the higher viscosity of magnesium sulfate saturated solution (7.27 cP) when compared with sodium sulfate saturated solution (1.83 cP). On the basis of such results, new ways to tackle salt weathering, particularly in the field of cultural heritage conservation, are discussed.

  8. Solution synthesis of mixed-metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and spray deposition of precursor films

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which is substantially free of impurities.

  9. Behavior of toxic metals and radionuclides during molten salt oxidation of chlorinated plastics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee-Chul; Cho, Yong-Jun; Eun, Hee-Chul; Yoo, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Joon-Hyung

    2004-01-01

    Molten salt oxidation is one of the promising alternatives to incineration for chlorinated organics without the emission of chlorinated organic pollutants. This study investigated the behavior of three hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Cr) and four radioactive metal surrogates (Cs, Ce, Gd, and Sm) in the molten Na2CO3 oxidation reactor during the destruction of PVC plastics. In the tested temperature ranges (1143 1223K) and NaCl content (0-10%), the impact of temperature on the retention of cadmium and lead in the molten salt reactor was very small, but that of the NaCl content for their retention was relatively higher. The influence of NaCl accumulation was, however, proven to be practically negligible due to the low-temperature operating characteristics of the molten salt oxidation system. Neither temperature increase nor chlorine accumulation in the MSO reactor reduced the retention of Cr, Ce, Gd, and Sm. Over 99.98% of these metals remained in the reactor. The influence of the temperature on the cesium behavior is relatively large for a chlorine addition, however, over 99.7% of cesium remained in the reactor throughout the entire test. The experimental metal entrainment rate and the entrained metal particle size distribution agree well with the theoretical equilibrium metal distributions.

  10. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  11. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  12. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  13. Assessment of a 42 metal salts chemical library in mouse embryonic stem cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The developmental effects of xenobiotics on differentiation can be profiled using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity (ACDC) technique was used to evaluate a library of 42 metal and metaloid salts. Jl mESCs were allowed to prolif...

  14. Solution synthesis of metal silicide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    McEnaney, Joshua M; Schaak, Raymond E

    2015-02-01

    Transition-metal silicides are part of an important family of intermetallic compounds, but the high-temperature reactions that are generally required to synthesize them preclude the formation of colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we show that palladium, copper, and nickel nanoparticles react with monophenylsilane in trioctylamine and squalane at 375 °C to form colloidal Pd(2)Si, Cu(3)Si, and Ni(2)Si nanoparticles, respectively. These metal silicide nanoparticles were screened as electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction, and Pd(2)Si and Ni(2)Si were identified as active catalysts that require overpotentials of -192 and -243 mV, respectively, to produce cathodic current densities of -10 mA cm(-2).

  15. Intrinsic viscosity and conformational parameters of xanthan in aqueous solutions: salt addition effect.

    PubMed

    Brunchi, Cristina-Eliza; Morariu, Simona; Bercea, Maria

    2014-10-01

    The intrinsic viscosity and conformational parameters of xanthan in aqueous solutions were investigated at 25°C as a function of salt nature (NaCl and KCl) and concentration (up to 3×10(-1)mol/L). The viscometric parameters were evaluated by applying semi-empirical equations proposed by Rao and Wolf. The results show that the new model proposed by Wolf provides accurate intrinsic viscosity values comparable with those obtained by using traditional methods. The experimental data were modeled with Boltzmann sigmoidal equation. The stiffness parameter, hydrodynamic volume and viscometric expansion factor were determined and discussed. With increasing salt concentration, the hydrodynamic volume and the viscometric expansion factor decrease and the critical overlap concentration increases, reaching limiting values above a given salt concentration. The high Huggins constant values suggest the existence of aggregates for salt concentrations above 5×10(-2) and 3×10(-3)mol/L for NaCl and KCl, respectively. Stiffness parameter was determined by Smidsrød and Haug method as being 5.45×10(-3), indicating a rigid conformation for xanthan macromolecules in solution.

  16. Transparent Metal-Salt-Filled Polymeric Radiation Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David; Lennhoff, John; Harris, George

    2003-01-01

    "COR-RA" (colorless atomic oxygen resistant -- radiation shield) is the name of a transparent polymeric material filled with x-ray-absorbing salts of lead, bismuth, cesium, and thorium. COR-RA is suitable for use in shielding personnel against bremsstrahlung radiation from electron-beam welding and industrial and medical x-ray equipment. In comparison with lead-foil and leaded-glass shields that give equivalent protection against x-rays (see table), COR-RA shields are mechanically more durable. COR-RA absorbs not only x-rays but also neutrons and rays without adverse effects on optical or mechanical performance. The formulation of COR-RA with the most favorable mechanical-durability and optical properties contains 22 weight percent of bismuth to absorb x-rays, plus 45 atomic percent hydrogen for shielding against neutrons.

  17. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    DOEpatents

    Hagan, Paul G.; Miner, Frend J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution.

  18. Prediction of subsidence resulting from creep closure of solutioned-mined caverns in salt domes

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The prediction of subsidence rates over a range of areal configurations of solution-mined caverns in salt domes is possible, based on some fifty years of history in solution mining. Several approaches contribute to predictions: site-specific observations obtained from subsidence monitoring; numerical modeling, now becoming more practicable and credible; salt-creep data from testing; and rule-of-thumb methods, based on experience. All of these approaches contribute to understanding subsidence but none are totally reliable alone. The example of subsidence occurring at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites demonstrates several principles of cavern creep closure, the main cause of the subsidence, and shows that reliable projections of future subsidence are possible. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Characterization of Swollen States of Polyelectrolyte Brushes in Salt Solution by Neutron Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Mitamura, Koji; Terada, Masami; Yamada, Norifumi L.; Takahara, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Cationic and zwitterionic polyelectrolyte brushes on quartz substrate were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTAC) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The effects of ionic strength on brush structure are investigated by neutron reflectivity (NR) in NaCl deuterium oxide (D2O) solutions. We observed that poly(MTAC) chains were drastically shrunk at concentrations above 0.1 M NaCl/D2O, which may be the change in charge-screening effect against ions on poly(MTAC). On the other hand, effect of salt concentration on a swollen state of poly(MPC) brush was negligible, even at the high concentration (5.0 M) close to saturation. The behaviour of poly(MPC) in salt aqueous solution is completely different from that of poly(MTAC), which may arise from the unique interaction properties, neutral nature, and hydrated water structure of phosphorylcholine units.

  20. Solution-Derived Sodalite Made with Si- and Ge-Ethoxide Precursors for Immobilizing electrorefiner salt

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Lepry, William C.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorosodalite has the general form of Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 and this paper describes experiments conducted to synthesize sodalite to immobilize a mixed chloride salt using solution-based techniques. Sodalites were made using different Group IV contributions from either Si(OC2H5)4 or Ge(OC2H5)4, NaAlO2, and a simulated spent electrorefiner salt solution containing a mixture of alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide chlorides. Additionally, 6 glass binders at low loadings of 5 mass% were evaluated as sintering aids for the consolidation process. The approach of using the organic Group IV additives can be used to produce large quantities of sodalite at room temperature and shows promise over a method where colloidal silica is used as the silica source. However, the small particle sizes inhibited densification during pressure-less sintering.

  1. Preparation and use of crystalline bis-monoorganic phosphonate and phosphate salts of tetravalent metals

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1980-06-26

    A method of preparing and using the crystalline organic derivatives of the tetravalent metal phosphates and phosphonates provides for the contacting of an aqueous solution of a metal nitrate, with a solution of an organophosphorus acid for a period of time at room temperature that is sufficient for the formation of a metal phosphate product, and thereafter recovering said product. According to the invention, the product of the disclosed process is used in effecting analytical separations, such as ion exchange and chromatography.

  2. Direct Observation of Formation Behavior of Metal Emulsion in Sn/Salt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hironori; Liu, Jiang; Kim, Sun-Joong; Gao, Xu; Ueda, Shigeru; Maruoka, Nobuhiro; Ono, Shinpei; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2016-08-01

    Using two systems with different interfacial tensions, the behavior of metal emulsions during bottom blowing was observed directly with a high-speed camera. The interfacial tension between molten salt (KCl-LiCl-NaCl) and molten Sn was measured by a pendant drop method, and it decreased to about 100 mN/m when the Te content in Sn increased from 0 to 0.5 pct. In both systems, two types of metal emulsion behaviors were observed. In Mode A, fine metal droplets were formed after the metal film ruptured at the interface. In Mode B, the formation of coarse droplets was observed after the disintegration of the column generated by the rising bubble, and the number of droplets increased with the gas flow rate compared to that in Mode A. The generating frequency of each mode revealed that Mode B became dominant with increasing gas flow rate. In the pure Sn/salt system, the numbers of droplets of Mode B showed a local maximum at high gas flow rates, but the numbers of droplets in Sn-0.5 pctTe/salt increased continuously even in the same flow range. Regarding the size distribution, the percentage of coarse metal droplets in the Sn-0.5 pctTe alloy/salt was larger than that in the pure Sn/salt. Furthermore, the effect of interfacial tension on the variation in surface area and volume of the droplets showed a similar tendency for the column height. Therefore, a decrement of the interfacial tension led to an increment of the column height when Mode B occurred and finally resulted in a higher interfacial area.

  3. Effect of salt solutions applied during wheat conditioning on lipase activity and lipid stability of whole wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Doblado-Maldonado, Andrés F; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Rose, Devin J

    2013-09-01

    Lipolytic activity in whole wheat flour (WWF) is largely responsible for the loss in baking quality during storage. Metal ions affect the activity of seed lipases; however, no previous studies have applied this information to WWF in a way that reduces lipase activity, is practical for commercial manufacture, and uses common food ingredients. NaCl, KCl, Ca-propionate, or FeNa-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeNa-EDTA) were applied to hard red winter (HRW) and hard white spring (HWS) wheats during conditioning as aqueous solutions at concentrations that would be acceptable in baked goods. Salts affected lipase activity to different degrees depending on the type of wheat used. Inhibition was greater in HRW compared with HWS WWF, probably due to higher lipase activity in HRW wheat. In HRW WWF, 1% NaCl (flour weight) reduced hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity and resulted in higher loaf volume and lower firmness than untreated WWF after 24 weeks of storage.

  4. Metals shortage prompts Europe to seek solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    Headlines about China's temporary suspension of exports of rare earth elements to Japan last year, due to a territorial dispute, brought into sharp focus the heavy dependence of many industrialized countries on imports of critical metals. Concern about the dependence on imports of rare earth elements and other key metals—including iron ore, copper, nickel, and zinc—was the focus of a “great debate” and news briefing at the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly held in Vienna, Austria, last month.

  5. Phase diagrams of microemulsions containing reducing agents and metal salts as bases for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Reza; Stubenrauch, Cosima

    2009-03-01

    We studied the phase diagrams of microemulsions with a view to using these systems for the synthesis of metallic Pt, Pb, and Bi nanoparticles as well as of intermetallic Pt/Pb and Pt/Bi nanoparticles. The microemulsions consisted of H(2)O/salt-n-decane-SDS-1-butanol. The salt was either one metal precursor (H(2)PtCl(6) x 6 H(2)O, Pb(NO(3))(2), or Bi(NO(3))(3) x 5 H(2)O), a mixture of two metal precursors (H(2)PtCl(6) x 6 H(2)O + Pb(NO(3))(2) or H(2)PtCl(6) x 6 H(2)O + Bi(NO(3))(3) x 5 H(2)O), or the reducing agent (NaBH(4)). In addition, other salts needed to be added in order to solubilize the metal precursors, to stabilize the reducing agent, and to adjust the ionic strength. Combining the microemulsion (mu e1) that contains the metal precursor(s) with the microemulsion (mu e2) that contains the reducing agent leads to metallic nanoparticles. To study systematically how the shape and size of the synthesized metallic nanoparticles depend on the size and shape of the respective microemulsion droplets, first of all one has to find those conditions under which mu e1 and mu e2 have the same structure. For that purpose we determined the water emulsification failure boundary (wefb) of each microemulsion as it is at the wefb where the water droplets are known to be spherical. We found that the ionic strength (I) of the aqueous phase as well as the hard acid and hard base properties of the ions are the key tuning parameters for the location of the wefb.

  6. Detection and identification of salts and frozen salt solutions combining laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and multivariate analysis methods: A study for future martian exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, S.; Pavlov, S. G.; Rauschenbach, I.; Jessberger, E. K.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2013-03-01

    For the geochemical investigation of extraterrestrial surfaces laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been suggested as a powerful analytical tool, and is part of the payload on NASA’s rover Curiosity, which reached Mars in August 2012. Apart from soil in general, LIBS is capable of analyzing ice and salts within the soil. This study demonstrates the feasibility of LIBS for investigating and differentiating between different salts by applying three multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. The focus was on the capability of the MVA techniques for LIBS data to discriminate between sulfates and chlorides with cations of the same kind as pure pressed pellets and in frozen salt solutions. Two data sets of LIBS spectra of eight different salts (CaCl2, CaSO4, KCl, K2SO4, MgCl2, MgSO4, NaCl, Na2SO4), pure and as frozen salt solutions, were acquired in a dedicated simulation chamber under martian atmospheric conditions. With principal components analysis (PCA) both data sets were analyzed with the aim of dividing the spectra of the ices into groups and revealing the most important lines in the spectra for discrimination and identification of the type of salt. PCA performance is improved by selecting the most relevant lines with emphasis on the sulfur and chlorine lines and additionally averaging the spectra before analysis. Moreover, a subsequent PCA with a subset of data can improve the discrimination ability for a sulfate and a chloride with the same type of cation. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed for both data sets. While SIMCA worked well for the pressed salt samples, its application to the spectra of the frozen salt solutions was not successful. A local PLS-DA of the LIBS spectra of salts with the same cation is capable of distinguishing sulfate and chloride.

  7. External application of hypertonic salt solution for treatment of posttraumatic oedema.

    PubMed

    Atalar, Hakan; Yavuz, Osman Y; Uras, Ismail; Selek, Hakan; Erakar, Aziz; Sayli, Ugur

    2005-08-01

    In 20 New Zealand rabbits (two groups of 10 rabbits each), hind limb circumference and anterior compartment pressure were measured following ketamin anaesthesia (time zero). During the same anaesthesia, closed transverse proximal tibial shaft fractures were created in both groups. Twenty-four hours after the fractures, during a second anaesthesia, limb circumference and compartment pressure were measured as before, and fractured limbs were fixed to the rabbits' bodies. At the same time, treatment was started: one group received external application of saturated salt solution and the other group received intermittent ice application. During 48 hours of treatment (from 24 to 72 hours) in the saturated salt solution group, the mean limb circumference decreased from 125.70 +/- 9.93 mm to 115.70 +/- 8.78 mm (p = 0.005) and the mean compartment pressure decreased from 18.30 +/- 1.70 mmHg to 12.40 +/- 1.77 mmHg (p = 0.005). In the control group, the mean limb circumference decreased from 127.85 +/- 7.47 mm to 122.00 +/- 6.83 mm (not significant) and the mean compartment pressure decreased from 19.57 +/- 1.27 mmHg to 17.85 +/- 2.67 mmHg (not significant). In short, differences in compartment pressure and limb circumference before and after treatment were statistically significant in the saturated salt solution group (p = 0.005) but not in the control group.

  8. Investigation of the salting out of methane from aqueous electrolyte solutions using computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Docherty, H; Galindo, A; Sanz, E; Vega, C

    2007-08-01

    We calculate the excess chemical potential of methane in aqueous electrolyte solutions of NaCl using Monte Carlo computer simulations. In a recent work [Docherty et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 125, 074510], we presented a new potential model for methane in water which is capable of describing accurately the excess chemical potential of methane in pure water over a range of temperatures, a quantity that can be related to the solubility and which is commonly used to study the hydrophobic effect. Here, we use the same potential model for the water-methane interactions and investigate the effect of added salt on the chemical potential of methane in the solution. The methane molecules are modeled as single Lennard-Jones (LJ) interaction sites, and the water molecules are modeled with the TIP4P/2005 model. A correcting factor of chi = 1.07 for the energetic Berthelot (geometric) combining rule of the methane-water interaction is also used, which mimics the polarization of methane in water. We consider NaCl as the salt and treat the ions with the Smith and Dang model (i.e., as charged LJ interaction sites). Ion-water, ion-ion, and ion-methane interactions are treated using Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules. In addition, the Coulombic potential is used to model charge-charge interactions which are calculated using the Ewald sum. We have carried out isobaric-isothermal (NpT) simulations to determine the equilibrium densities of the solutions. The simulation data is in excellent agreement with experimental densities of aqueous NaCl solutions of different concentration. Hydration numbers are also obtained and found to be in agreement with reported data. Canonical (NVT) simulations at the averaged densities are then performed using the Widom test-particle insertion method to obtain the excess chemical potential of methane in the saline solutions. An increase in the chemical potential of methane, corresponding to a salting out effect, is observed when salt is added to the solution

  9. Investigation of the salting out of methane from aqueous electrolyte solutions using computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Docherty, H; Galindo, A; Sanz, E; Vega, C

    2007-08-01

    We calculate the excess chemical potential of methane in aqueous electrolyte solutions of NaCl using Monte Carlo computer simulations. In a recent work [Docherty et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 125, 074510], we presented a new potential model for methane in water which is capable of describing accurately the excess chemical potential of methane in pure water over a range of temperatures, a quantity that can be related to the solubility and which is commonly used to study the hydrophobic effect. Here, we use the same potential model for the water-methane interactions and investigate the effect of added salt on the chemical potential of methane in the solution. The methane molecules are modeled as single Lennard-Jones (LJ) interaction sites, and the water molecules are modeled with the TIP4P/2005 model. A correcting factor of chi = 1.07 for the energetic Berthelot (geometric) combining rule of the methane-water interaction is also used, which mimics the polarization of methane in water. We consider NaCl as the salt and treat the ions with the Smith and Dang model (i.e., as charged LJ interaction sites). Ion-water, ion-ion, and ion-methane interactions are treated using Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules. In addition, the Coulombic potential is used to model charge-charge interactions which are calculated using the Ewald sum. We have carried out isobaric-isothermal (NpT) simulations to determine the equilibrium densities of the solutions. The simulation data is in excellent agreement with experimental densities of aqueous NaCl solutions of different concentration. Hydration numbers are also obtained and found to be in agreement with reported data. Canonical (NVT) simulations at the averaged densities are then performed using the Widom test-particle insertion method to obtain the excess chemical potential of methane in the saline solutions. An increase in the chemical potential of methane, corresponding to a salting out effect, is observed when salt is added to the solution

  10. Inefficacy of osmotic backwash induced by sodium chloride salt solution in controlling SWRO membrane fouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooque, A. Mohammed; Al-Jeshi, Subhi; Saeed, Mohamed O.; Alreweli, Ali

    2014-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of osmotic backwash induced by high salt (NaCl) concentration solution on feed side of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes, online and offline, in controlling membrane fouling and therefore minimizing/eliminating the need for chemical cleaning. SWRO membranes were deliberately fouled by feeding seawater from an open intake located on the Arabian Gulf Coast without dosing chemicals. The fouled membranes were subjected to offline cleaning with the salt solution of up to 25 % concentration. Despite the partial removal of foulants from the membrane surface, SWRO membrane performance could not be restored, indicating the ineffectiveness of osmotic backwash in aiding offline salt cleaning. Similarly, online osmotic backwash was found to be not only ineffective in removing foulants from membrane surfaces but actually increased the fouling rate, as indicated by faster fouling rates compared to other cases. Although the driving force required for the osmotic backwash existed, the generated back flow proved to be insufficient to detach foulants from membrane surfaces. During the study period, the average SWRO membrane flux was maintained between 19 and 23 LMH, whereas the average generated back flow flux by high salt concentration solution was only 11 LMH, which was not adequate to remove foulants from membrane surfaces. Moreover, it seems that the membrane configuration as well as inherent microstructure of SWRO membrane places certain constraints on the osmotic backwash process and renders osmotic backwash ineffective in tackling SWRO membrane fouling. Hence, chemical cleaning is essential to restore SWRO membrane performance whenever fouling occurs, and the use of highly concentrated salt solution does not have any significant benefit. Membrane autopsy revealed only an insignificant accumulation of biofouling layer despite the absence of disinfection. However, it was shown that culturable biofilm bacteria species

  11. The influence of temperature and salt on metal and sediment removal in stormwater biofilters.

    PubMed

    Søberg, Laila C; Viklander, Maria; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater biofilters are used to treat stormwater runoff. In countries with cold winter climates, biofilters are subject to low temperatures which, in some cases, are combined with potentially high salt concentrations from road de-icing, potentially affecting the biofilter's performance. Since stormwater biofilters have been developed without consideration of their critical winter use, a laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the performance of stormwater biofilters subjected to low and high temperatures, with and without salt. Both factors and their interaction had a significant effect on outflow concentrations and removal percentages. Salt had a negative impact on outflow concentrations, causing lower removal percentages for (especially dissolved) metals, this impact being most pronounced for Cu and Pb. The unrealistic combination of salt with high temperature seemed to further amplify the negative impacts of salt despite the fact that temperature alone did not cause significant differences in outflow concentrations and removal percentages. Still, biofilters showed the ability to treat stormwater efficiently under the simulated winter conditions; outflow concentrations for total metals as a minimum met the class 4 threshold value defined in the Swedish freshwater quality guidelines, while inflow concentrations clearly exceeded the threshold value for class 5. The relatively coarse filter material (which is recommended to facilitate infiltration during winter) did not seem to exacerbate biofilter performance. PMID:24901625

  12. The influence of temperature and salt on metal and sediment removal in stormwater biofilters.

    PubMed

    Søberg, Laila C; Viklander, Maria; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater biofilters are used to treat stormwater runoff. In countries with cold winter climates, biofilters are subject to low temperatures which, in some cases, are combined with potentially high salt concentrations from road de-icing, potentially affecting the biofilter's performance. Since stormwater biofilters have been developed without consideration of their critical winter use, a laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the performance of stormwater biofilters subjected to low and high temperatures, with and without salt. Both factors and their interaction had a significant effect on outflow concentrations and removal percentages. Salt had a negative impact on outflow concentrations, causing lower removal percentages for (especially dissolved) metals, this impact being most pronounced for Cu and Pb. The unrealistic combination of salt with high temperature seemed to further amplify the negative impacts of salt despite the fact that temperature alone did not cause significant differences in outflow concentrations and removal percentages. Still, biofilters showed the ability to treat stormwater efficiently under the simulated winter conditions; outflow concentrations for total metals as a minimum met the class 4 threshold value defined in the Swedish freshwater quality guidelines, while inflow concentrations clearly exceeded the threshold value for class 5. The relatively coarse filter material (which is recommended to facilitate infiltration during winter) did not seem to exacerbate biofilter performance.

  13. Am(III) and Eu(III) extraction by aliquat.336 and benzyl substituted quaternary ammonium salts from nitrate and thiocyanate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Gatrone, R.C.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1995-07-01

    The extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from HNO{sub 3} - LiNO{sub 3} or from HCOOH-NH{sub 4}SCN solutions by different quaternary ammonium salts dissolved in o-xylene was investigated as function of the aqueous phase composition. As extractants, the nitrate or thiocyanate salts of Aliquat.336, tridodecylmethylammonium, benzyl-dimethyldodecylammonium, p-methoxybenzyldimethyldodecylammonium and p-trifluoromethylbenzyldimethyldodecylammonium were used. The extraction data obtained with the thiocyanate- formic acid aqueous solutions were quantitatively interpreted by a reaction scheme that takes into account the aqueous metal complexation and the competition of formic acid and metal species for the extractant reaction center. The effect of the benzyl group (whether substituted or not) on the metal and acid extraction by the different quaternary ammonium salts was interpreted on the basis of the inductive effect of the substituents. In the thiocyanate system, Aliquat.336 provided the highest Am/Eu separation factors. 24 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.

    PubMed

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by

  15. Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.

    PubMed

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by

  16. An empirical correlation between the enthalpy of solution of aqueous salts and their ability to form hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Pandelov, S.; Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pilles, Bert M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

    2010-09-30

    The ability of aqueous salt solutions to form hydrates by cooling them at ambient pressure is probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy by examining the structure of the spectra in the hydrogen-bonding region (3,000 - 3,800 cm-1). A collection of 75 organic and inorganic salts in saturated solutions are examined. We have found a correlation between the enthalpy of solution of the salt and its ability to form a hydrate, namely that the salt’s enthalpy of solution is lower than the standard enthalpy of fusion of ice (6 kJ/mol). This observation can serve as an empirical rule that determines whether a salt will form a hydrate upon cooling from its aqueous solution.

  17. Synergistic cytotoxic effects of ions released by zinc-aluminum bronze and the metallic salts on osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Claudia A; Morales, María L; Mirífico, María V; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A

    2013-07-01

    The use of copper-based alloys for fixed dental crowns and bridges is increasingly widespread in several countries. The aim of this work is to study the dissolution of a zinc-aluminum-bronze and the cytotoxic effects of the ions released on UMR-106 osteoblastic cell line. Two sources of ions were used: (1) ions released by the metal alloy immersed in the cell culture and (2) salts of the metal ions. Conventional electrochemical techniques, atomic absorption spectroscopy [to obtain the average concentration of ions (AC) in solution], and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis were used to study the corrosion process. Corrosion tests revealed a strong influence of the composition of the electrolyte medium and the immersion time on the electrochemical response. The cytotoxicity was evaluated with (a) individual ions, (b) combinations of two ions, and (c) the mixture of all the ions released by a metal disc of the alloy. Importantly, synergistic cytotoxic effects were found when Al-Zn ion combinations were used at concentration levels lower than the cytotoxic threshold values of the individual ions. Cytotoxic effects in cells in the vicinity of the metal disc were also found. These results were interpreted considering synergistic effects and a diffusion controlled mechanism that yields to concentration levels, in the metal surroundings, several times higher than the measured AC value.

  18. Aqueous Biphasic Systems Based on Salting-Out Polyethylene Glycol or Ionic Solutions: Strategies for Actinide or Fission Product Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Robin D.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Griffin, Scott T.; Holbrey, John D.

    2004-03-29

    Aqueous biphasic systems can be formed by salting-out (with kosmotropic, waterstructuring salts) water soluble polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) or aqueous solutions of a wide range of hydrophilic ionic liquids based on imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium and ammonium cations. The use of these novel liquid/liquid biphases for separation of actinides or other fission products associated with nuclear wastes (e.g., pertechnetate salts) has been demonstrated and will be described in this presentation.

  19. Unified molecular picture of the surfaces of aqueous acid, base, and salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Martin; Frigato, Tomaso; Levering, Lori M; Allen, Heather C; Tobias, Douglas J; Dang, Liem X; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2005-04-28

    The molecular structure of the interfacial regions of aqueous electrolytes is poorly understood, despite its crucial importance in many biological, technological, and atmospheric processes. A long-term controversy pertains between the standard picture of an ion-free surface layer and the strongly ion specific behavior indicating in many cases significant propensities of simple inorganic ions for the interface. Here, we present a unified and consistent view of the structure of the air/solution interface of aqueous electrolytes containing monovalent inorganic ions. Molecular dynamics calculations show that in salt solutions and bases the positively charged ions, such as alkali cations, are repelled from the interface, whereas the anions, such as halides or hydroxide, exhibit a varying surface propensity, correlated primarily with the ion polarizability and size. The behavior of acids is different due to a significant propensity of hydronium cations for the air/solution interface. Therefore, both cations and anions exhibit enhanced concentrations at the surface and, consequently, these acids (unlike bases and salts) reduce the surface tension of water. The results of the simulations are supported by surface selective nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy, which reveals among other things that the hydronium cations are present at the air/solution interface. The ion specific propensities for the air/solution interface have important implications for a whole range of heterogeneous physical and chemical processes, including atmospheric chemistry of aerosols, corrosion processes, and bubble coalescence.

  20. Rheological properties and thickening mechanism of aqueous diutan gum solution: Effects of temperature and salts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long; Gong, Houjian; Dong, Mingzhe; Li, Yajun

    2015-11-01

    Rheological properties of a new microbial polysaccharide, diutan gum in aqueous solution have been systematically investigated. It is found that molecular aggregates of diutan gum can be formed at a very low concentration (0.12 g/L), and the mechanism of thickening by diutan gum is proposed. The viscosity retention rate of diutan gum changes little when increasing the temperature from 298 K to 348 K or in a high salinity solution (55.5 g L(-1)). Gel structure can be formed in the diutan gum solution, owing to the finding that the dynamic modulus has an exponential relationship with the concentration. The gel properties of diutan gum are not sensitive to temperature, and are virtually independent of cationic environment (Na(+) and Ca(2+)). The temperature/salt tolerance of the diutan gum solution is mainly attributed to its perfect double helix molecular conformation, the location of the side chains of its molecules, and its water retention capacity.

  1. Conformational transitions of flexible hydrophobic polyelectrolytes in solutions of monovalent and multivalent salts and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Trotsenko, Oleksandr; Roiter, Yuri; Minko, Sergiy

    2012-04-10

    Conformations of cationic polyelectrolytes (PEs), a weak poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) and a strong poly(N-methyl-2-vinylpyridinium iodide) (qP2VP), adsorbed on mica from saline solutions in the presence of counterions of different valences are studied using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Quantitative characteristics of chain conformations are analyzed using AFM images of the adsorbed molecules. The results of the statistical analysis of the chain contour reveal collapse of the PE coils when ionic strength is in a range from tens to hundreds of millimoles per kilogram and re-expansion of the coils with a further increase of ionic strength up to a region of the saturated saline solutions. The competition between monovalent and multivalent counterions simultaneously present in solutions strongly affects conformations of PE chains even at a very small fraction of multivalent counterions. Shrinkage of PE coils is steeper for multivalent counterions than for monovalent counterions. However, the re-expansion is only incremental in the presence of multivalent counterions. Extended adsorbed coils at low salt concentrations and at very high concentrations of monovalent salt exhibit conformation corresponding to a 2D coil with 0.95 fraction of bound segments (segments in "trains") in the regime of diluted surface concentration of the PE. Shrunken coils in the intermediate range of ionic strength resemble 3D-globules with 0.8 fraction of trains. The incrementally re-expanded PE coils at a high ionic strength remain unchanged at higher multivalent salt concentrations up to the solubility limit of the salt. The formation of a strong PE complex with multivalent counterions at high ionic strength is not well understood yet. A speculative explanation of the observed experimental result is based on possible stabilization of the complex due to hydrophobic interactions of the backbone.

  2. Characterization of metal ion-nucleic acid interactions in solution.

    PubMed

    Pechlaner, Maria; Sigel, Roland K O

    2012-01-01

    Metal ions are inextricably involved with nucleic acids due to their polyanionic nature. In order to understand the structure and function of RNAs and DNAs, one needs to have detailed pictures on the structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of metal ion interactions with these biomacromolecules. In this review we first compile the physicochemical properties of metal ions found and used in combination with nucleic acids in solution. The main part then describes the various methods developed over the past decades to investigate metal ion binding by nucleic acids in solution. This includes for example hydrolytic and radical cleavage experiments, mutational approaches, as well as kinetic isotope effects. In addition, spectroscopic techniques like EPR, lanthanide(III) luminescence, IR and Raman as well as various NMR methods are summarized. Aside from gaining knowledge about the thermodynamic properties on the metal ion-nucleic acid interactions, especially NMR can be used to extract information on the kinetics of ligand exchange rates of the metal ions applied. The final section deals with the influence of anions, buffers, and the solvent permittivity on the binding equilibria between metal ions and nucleic acids. Little is known on some of these aspects, but it is clear that these three factors have a large influence on the interaction between metal ions and nucleic acids.

  3. A unified molecular picture of the surfaces of aqueous acid, base, and salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mucha, M.; Frigato, Tomaso; Levering, Lori; Allen, Heather C.; Tobias, Douglas J.; Dang, Liem X.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2005-04-28

    A unified view of the structure of the air/solution interface of simple aqueous electrolytes containing monovalent inorganic ions is developed using molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy. In salt solutions and bases the positively charged ions, such as alkali cations, are repelled from the air/solution interface, while the anions, such as halides or hydroxide, exhibit a varying propensity for the surface, correlated primarily with the polarizability of the ion. As a result, there is a net depletion of ions from the interfacial layer as a whole, which is connected via the Gibbs adsorption equation to an increase in surface tension with respect to neat water. The behavior of acids, such as aqueous HCl or HBr, is different due to a significant propensity of hydronium cations for the air/solution interface. Therefore, both cations and anions exhibit enhanced concentrations at the surface and, consequently, these acids reduce the surface tension of water. The key to the qualitatively different surface behavior of aqueous salt solutions and bases on one side and acids on the other thus lies in the appreciable adsorption of hydronium cations at the air/solution interface with their “hydrophobic” oxygen side oriented towards the gas phase. The results of the molecular dynamics calculations are supported by surface selective non-linear vibrational spectroscopy, which reveals among other things that the hydronium cations are present at the air/solution interface. The propensity of inorganic ions for the air/solution interface has important implications for heterogeneous chemical processes, in particular for atmospheric chemistry.

  4. Absorption and desorption of SO2 in aqueous solutions of diamine-based molten salts.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung Rok; Hwang, Junhyeok; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Ho Seok; Cheong, Minserk; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2015-05-30

    SO2 absorption and desorption behaviors were investigated in aqueous solutions of diamine-derived molten salts with a tertiary amine group on the cation and a chloride anion, including butyl-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-dimethylammonium chloride ([BTMEDA]Cl, pKb=8.2), 1-butyl-1,4-dimethylpiperazinium chloride ([BDMP]Cl, pKb=9.8), and 1-butyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2,2,2]octane chloride ([BDABCO]Cl, pKb=11.1). The SO2 absorption and desorption performance of the molten salt were greatly affected by the basicity of the molten salt. Spectroscopic, X-ray crystallographic, and computational results for the interactions of SO2 with molten salts suggest that two types of SO2-containg species could be generated depending on the basicity of the unquaternized amino group: a dicationic species comprising two different anions, HSO3(-) and Cl(-), and a monocationic species bearing Cl(-) interacting with neutral H2SO3.

  5. Acute tellurium toxicity from ingestion of metal-oxidizing solutions.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Mark C; Curry, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    Tellurium is an element used in the vulcanization of rubber and in metal-oxidizing solutions to blacken or tarnish metals. Descriptions of human toxicity from tellurium ingestion are rare. We report the clinical course of 2 children who ingested metal-oxidizing solutions containing substantial concentrations of tellurium. Clinical features included vomiting, black discoloration of the oral mucosa, and a garlic odor to the breath. One patient developed corrosive injury to the esophagus secondary to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution. Both patients recovered without serious sequelae, which is typical of tellurium toxicity. An awareness of situations in which children may be exposed to tellurium and its clinical presentation may assist clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare poisoning. PMID:15995006

  6. Croconic acid and alkali metal croconate salts: some new insights into an old story.

    PubMed

    Braga, Dario; Maini, Lucia; Grepioni, Fabrizia

    2002-04-15

    The solid-state structures of a series of alkali metal salts of the croconate dianion (C(5)O(5)(2-)) and of croconic acid (H(2)C(5)O(5)) have been determined. The alkali metal croconates were obtained by ring contraction of rhodizonic acid (H(2)C(6)O(6)), upon treatment with alkali metal hydroxides and recrystallisation from water. The novel species Na(2)C(5)O(5) x 2H(2)O, Rb(2)C(5)O(5) and Cs(2)C(5)O(5), as well as the mixed hydrogencroconate/croconate salt K(3)(HC(5)O(5))(C(5)O(5)) small middle dot2 H(2)O are described and compared with the Li(+), K(+) and NH(4)(+) salts. Single crystals of croconic acid were obtained by crystallisation of croconic acid in the presence of HCl. Crystal structure determinations showed that the C(5)O(5)(2-) ions tend to organize themselves in columns. The interplanar separations lie in the narrow range 3.12-3.42 A and do not necessarily reflect the presence of pi-stacking interactions. It is argued that the small interplanar separation is the result of a compromise between packing of flat croconate units and the spherical cations together with the water molecules that fill the coordination spheres of the alkali metal atoms. PMID:11933108

  7. Multi-responsive metal-organic lantern cages in solution.

    PubMed

    Brega, Valentina; Zeller, Matthias; He, Yufan; Lu, H Peter; Klosterman, Jeremy K

    2015-03-25

    Soluble copper-based M4L4 lantern-type metal-organic cages bearing internal amines were synthesized. The solution state integrity of the paramagnetic metal-organic cages was demonstrated using NMR, DLS, MS, and AFM spectroscopy. 1D supramolecular pillars of pre-formed cages or covalent host-guest complexes selectively formed upon treatment with 4,4'-bipyridine and acetic anhydride, respectively.

  8. Chemodynamics of heavy metals in long-term contaminated soils: metal speciation in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The concentration and speciation of heavy metals in soil solution isolated from long-term contaminated soils were investigated. The soil solution was extracted at 70% maximum water holding capacity (MWHC) after equilibration for 24 h. The free metal concentrations (Cd2+, CU2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+) in soil solution were determined using the Donnan membrane technique (DMT). Initially the DMT was validated using artificial solutions where the percentage of free metal ions were significantly correlated with the percentages predicted using MINTEQA2. However, there was a significant difference between the absolute free ion concentrations predicted by MINTEQA2 and the values determined by the DMT. This was due to the significant metal adsorption onto the cation exchange membrane used in the DMT with 20%, 28%, 44%, and 8% mass loss of the initial total concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in solution, respectively. This could result in a significant error in the determination of free metal ions when using DMT if no allowance for membrane cation adsorption was made. Relative to the total soluble metal concentrations the amounts of free Cd2+ (3%-52%) and Zn2+ (11%-72%) in soil solutions were generally higher than those of Cu2+ (0.2%-30%) and Pb2+ (0.6%-10%). Among the key soil solution properties, dissolved heavy metal concentrations were the most significant factor governing free metal ion concentrations. Soil solution pH showed only a weak relationship with free metal ion partitioning coefficients (K(p)) and dissolved organic carbon did not show any significant influence on K(p). PMID:20108686

  9. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2014-04-14

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  10. Enhanced copper surface protection in aqueous solutions containing short-chain alkanoic acid potassium salts.

    PubMed

    Abelev, Esta; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2007-10-23

    The ability of dissolved potassium monocarboxylate salts to produce surface passivation and to inhibit aqueous corrosion of copper was studied. The electrochemical measurements indicate that the inhibiting efficiency of these compounds, with a general formula Cn-1H2n-1COOK or CnK (n=3...12), is dependent on the hydrocarbon chain length. The inhibiting efficiency was higher for a longer hydrocarbon chain of n-alkanoic acid. The degree of copper protection was found to increase with an increase in n-alkanoic acid potassium salt concentration; the optimum concentration of potassium dodecanoate (C12K) in sulfate solutions was found to be 0.07 M. The protective layers formed at the copper surface subsequent to exposure in various n-alkanoic acid potassium salt solutions were characterized by contact angle measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy. Pronounced copper protection was attributed to the growth of a protective film on the copper surface, containing both copper oxides and copper carboxylate compounds. It is suggested that the organic molecules enhance copper protection by covering copper oxides with a thin and dense organic layer, which prevents water molecules or aggressive anions from interacting with the copper surface.

  11. Molecular Thermodynamics for Swelling of a Mesoscopic Ionomer Gelin 1:1 Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Victorov, Alexey; Radke, Clayton; Prausnitz,John

    2005-06-15

    For a microphase-separated diblock copolymer ionic gel swollen in salt solution, a molecular-thermodynamic model is based on the self-consistent field theory in the limit of strongly segregated copolymer subchains. The geometry of microdomains is described using the Milner generic wedge construction neglecting the packing frustration. Thermodynamic functions are expressed analytically for gels of lamellar, bicontinuous, cylindrical and spherical morphologies. Molecules are characterized by chain composition, length, rigidity, degree of ionization, and by effective polymer-polymer and polymer-solvent interaction parameters. The model predicts equilibrium solvent uptakes and the equilibrium microdomain spacing for gels swollen in salt solutions. Results are given for details of the gel structure: distribution of mobile ions and polymer segments, and the electric potential across microdomains. Apart from effects obtained by coupling classical Flory-Rehner theory with Donnan equilibria, viz., increased swelling with polyelectrolyte charge and shrinking of gel upon addition of salt, the model predicts the effects of microphase morphology on swelling.

  12. Effects of detergent β-octylglucoside and phosphate salt solutions on phase behavior of monoolein mesophases.

    PubMed

    Khvostichenko, Daria S; Ng, Johnathan J D; Perry, Sarah L; Menon, Monisha; Kenis, Paul J A

    2013-10-15

    Using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), we investigated the phase behavior of mesophases of monoolein (MO) mixed with additives commonly used for the crystallization of membrane proteins from lipidic mesophases. In particular, we examined the effect of sodium and potassium phosphate salts and the detergent β-octylglucoside (βOG) over a wide range of compositions relevant for the crystallization of membrane proteins in lipidic mesophases. We studied two types of systems: 1), ternary mixtures of MO with salt solutions above the hydration boundary; and 2), quaternary mixtures of MO with βOG and salt solutions over a wide range of hydration conditions. All quaternary mixtures showed highly regular lyotropic phase behavior with the same sequence of phases (Lα, Ia3d, and Pn3m) as MO/water mixtures at similar temperatures. The effects of additives in quaternary systems agreed qualitatively with those found in ternary mixtures in which only one additive is present. However, quantitative differences in the effects of additives on the lattice parameters of fully hydrated mesophases were found between ternary and quaternary mixtures. We discuss the implications of these findings for mechanistic investigations of membrane protein crystallization in lipidic mesophases and for studies of the suitability of precipitants for mesophase-based crystallization methods.

  13. The analytical measurement of fluorescein, quinine and trace metal concentrations in solution using single bubble sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, P.; McCallum, K.; Barnard, C. L. R.; Clement, C.; Marshall, J.; Carroll, J.

    2007-03-01

    A single bubble was generated and levitated in a high-intensity sound field within a spherical flask excited in its fundamental mode. Under optimum experimental conditions the bubble was observed to emit light in the form of short flashes. This phenomenon is known as single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). Using this process, the emitted light from the bubble was monitored when solutions containing fluorescein, quinine and sodium, potassium and copper salts were placed in the cell. The results obtained indicated that reproducible signals related directly to the concentration of the species present in solution could be achieved using single bubble sonoluminescence. The results for the molecular species were compared with those obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy and, in the case of quinine, parallel determinations of concentration in a test solution were performed with consistent results. SBSL signals were also observed to exhibit a linear correlation with the concentration of several trace metal salts introduced to the solution in the measurement cell. However, it was not possible to demonstrate that the SBSL signals were derived from stimulated atomic emission or fluorescence, and it was concluded that the effect may result from an indirect effect involving the bubble excitation mechanism.

  14. Content of toxic and essential metals in recrystallized and washed table salt in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Table salt is the most commonly used food additive. Since most of the salt consumed in Iran comes from mines, contamination with heavy metals is a health concern. The commonest salt purification method in Iran is washing with water. But recently, some industries have turned to recrystallization method. The present study aimed to determine the level of essential and non-essential heavy metals in the table salt refined with recrystallization and washing methods. Methods Thirty eight pre-packed salt samples were directly collected from retail market in Shiraz (22 samples refined with recrystallization method and 16 with washing method). The level of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt was determined using Voltammetric method. Daily intakes of lead and cadmium as well as their weekly intakes were calculated. Results The levels of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt in recrystallized samples were 0. 30 ± 0.26, 0.02 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.34 ± 0.22, 0.15 ± 0.19 and 0.008 ± 0.007 μg/g, respectively, and also 0.37 ± 0.27, 0.017 ± 0.021, 0.19 ± 0.18, 0.37 ± 0.20, 0.13 ± 0.23 and 0.037 ± 0.06 μg/g in washed salt samples. The calculated weekly intake of lead and cadmium was 0.216 and 0.014 μg/kg, respectively for the recrystallized and 0.2653 and 0.0119 μg/kg for the washed salts. Conclusion All values for toxic metals were lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as prescribed by Codex and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Only 0.8652-1.0612% of lead and 0.17-0.2% of cadmium PTWIs are received via salt consumption weekly. PMID:24398299

  15. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; von Winbush, Samuel

    1988-01-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  16. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  17. Volume change effect on the salt-finger stability of directionally solidifying ammonium chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Chen, Falin

    1995-09-01

    The effect of the volume change due to phase transformation on the stability of salt-finger convection of directionally solidifying NH 4Cl aqueous solution cooling from below is investigated. The basic flow, induced by the volume change, not only changes the morphology and the depth of the dendritic mushy layer, but also influences the stability of salt-finger convection. A new mathematical model is proposed, which differs from the previous one mainly on the dynamical condition at the melt/mush interface. This difference not only leads to a less stable state, but can also be crucial to the dynamical behavior of the oscillatory instability mode since the convection cells of this mode are coupled viscously through the interface. In the discussion, special emphasis is placed on the volume change effect on the instability mode competition, which may be influential to the stability characteristics of the subsequent plume convection.

  18. Metal ion removal from aqueous solution using physic seed hull.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Masita; Maitra, Saikat; Ahmad, Naveed; Bustam, Azmi; Sen, T K; Dutta, Binay K

    2010-07-15

    The potential of physic seed hull (PSH), Jantropha curcas L. as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated. It has been found that the amount of adsorption for both Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) increased with the increase in initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the solution pH (in acidic range), but decreased with the increase in the particle size of the adsorbent. The adsorption process for both metal ions on PSH consists of three stages-a rapid initial adsorption followed by a period of slower uptake of metal ions and virtually no uptake at the final stage. The kinetics of metal ions adsorption on PSH followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted in the three adsorption isotherms-Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data best fit in the Langmuir isotherm indication monolayer chemisorption of the metal ions. The adsorption capacity of PSH for both Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) was found to be comparable with other available adsorbents. About 36-47% of the adsorbed metal could be leached out of the loaded PSH using 0.1M HCl as the eluting medium. PMID:20362390

  19. Ionic conductivity of dual-phase polymer electrolytes comprised of NBR/SBR latex films swollen with lithium salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Morihiko; Ichino, Toshihiro; Rutt, J.S.; Nishi, Shiro . NTT Interdisciplinary Research Lab.)

    1994-08-01

    Dual-phase polymer electrolytes (DPE) with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical strength were prepared by swelling poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) rubber (NBR) and poly(styrene-co-butadiene) rubber (SBR) mixed latex films with lithium salt solutions (e.g., 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-butyrolactone). The latex films retain particle morphology in the solid state. The NBR phase (formed from fused NBR latex particles) is polar and is impregnated selectively with polar lithium salt solutions, yielding ion-conductive channels, whereas the SBR phase (formed from fused SBR latex particles) is nonpolar and is not impregnated, providing a mechanically supportive matrix. The ionic conductivity of the DPE increased dramatically with increasing content of lithium salt solution, and higher amounts of solution were imbibed with increasing content of NBR relative to SBR. Several factors which affect the ionic conductivity of this system were examined, and the highest ionic conductivity (>10[sup [minus]3] S/cm) was obtained when either an NBR/SBR 70/30 (w/w) or a 50/50 (w/w) latex film was saturated with 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-BL solution or 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-BL/DME solution. Ion-conductive behavior changed critically with increasing lithium salt solution uptake. At low levels of lithium salt solution uptake, evidence suggested that ionic conductivity of the absorbed lithium salt solution was strongly influenced by the presence of the NBR in the ion-conductive channel, but at higher levels, the effects of the NBR were reduced and free'' lithium salt solution was present.

  20. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    DOEpatents

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  1. Faraday Discussion 160 Introductory Lecture: Interpreting and Predicting Hofmeister Salt Ion and Solute Effects on Biopolymer and Model Processes Using the Solute Partitioning Model

    PubMed Central

    Record, M. Thomas; Guinn, Emily; Pegram, Laurel; Capp, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how Hofmeister salt ions and other solutes interact with proteins, nucleic acids, other biopolymers and water and thereby affect protein and nucleic acid processes as well as model processes (e.g solubility of model compounds) in aqueous solution is a longstanding goal of biophysical research. Empirical Hofmeister salt and solute “m-values” (derivatives of the observed standard free energy change for a model or biopolymer process with respect to solute or salt concentration m3) are equal to differences in chemical potential derivatives: m-value = Δ(dμ2/dm3) = Δμ23 which quantify the preferential interactions of the solute or salt with the surface of the biopolymer or model system (component 2) exposed or buried in the process. Using the SPM, we dissect μ23 values for interactions of a solute or Hofmeister salt with a set of model compounds displaying the key functional groups of biopolymers to obtain interaction potentials (called α-values) that quantify the interaction of the solute or salt per unit area of each functional group or type of surface. Interpreted using the SPM, these α-values provide quantitative information about both the hydration of functional groups and the competitive interaction of water and the solute or salt with functional groups. The analysis corroborates and quantifies previous proposals that the Hofmeister anion and cation series for biopolymer processes are determined by ion-specific, mostly unfavorable interactions with hydrocarbon surfaces; the balance between these unfavorable nonpolar interactions and often-favorable interactions of ions with polar functional groups determine the series null points. The placement of urea and glycine betaine (GB) at opposite ends of the corresponding series of nonelectrolytes results from the favorable interactions of urea, and unfavorable interactions of GB, with many (but not all) biopolymer functional groups. Interaction potentials and local-bulk partition coefficients

  2. RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF MACROBATCH 3 DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION (DSS) COALESCER AND PRE-FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-06-13

    SRNL analyzed the pre-filter and Decontamination Salt Solution (DSS) coalescer from MCU by several analytical methods. The results of these analyses indicate that overall there is light to moderate solids fouling of both the coalescer and pre-filter elements. The majority of the solids contain aluminum, sodium, silicon, and titanium, in oxide and/or hydroxide forms that we have noted before. The titanium is presumably precipitated from leached, dissolved monosodium titanate (MST) or fines from MST at ARP, and the quantity we find is significantly greater than in the past. A parallel report discusses potential causes for the increased leaching rate of MST, showing that increases in free hydroxide concentration of the feed solutions and of chemical cleaning solutions lead to faster leaching of titanium.

  3. Photosensitized Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in Solution Using Noble-Metal Clusters for Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshima, Naoki; Yamaji, Yumi; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    1995-03-01

    Carbon dioxide was reduced to methane by visible-light irradiation of a solution composed of tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(III) as photosensitizer, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt as sacrificial reagent, methyl viologen as electron relay, and a colloidal dispersion of polymer-protected noble-metal clusters, prepared by alcohol-reduction, as catalyst. Among the noble-metal clusters examined, Pt clusters showed the highest activity for the formation of methane as well as hydrogen. In order to improve the activity, oxidized clusters and bimetallic clusters were also applied. For example, the CH4 yield in 3-h irradiation increased from 51 x 10-3 μmol with unoxidized Pt clusters to 72 x 10-3 μmol with partially oxidized ones. In the case of Pt/Ru bimetalic systems, the improvement of the catalytic activity by air treatment was much greater than in case of monometallic clusters.

  4. Decontamination of Dissolved Salt Solution from Tank 19F Using Duolite CS-100 and Amberlite IRC-718 Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.M.

    2001-10-17

    In this study actual Savannah River Plant liquid supernate solutions were processed to refine and verify these synthetic solution studies. The main objectives were: (1) confirm high decontamination factors (DFs) for cesium-137 and strontium-90 using Duolite CS-100 and Amberlite IRC-718 ion exchange resins, (2) obtain DFs for other minor radioactive isotopes such as plutonium, technetium and ruthenium, (3) provide ion exchange elutriant containing cesium-137, strontium-90 and other radioactive isotopes for ''hot'' melter studies, (4) determine the quality of the decontaminated salt solution, and (5) provide actual decontaminated salt solution for saltcrete development programs.

  5. The effect of salt solutes on the relaxation dynamics of water from 65 to 720 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinh, Nguyen; Sherwin, Mark; Allen, Jim; Plaxco, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    During the past decade, a variety of measurement techniques have provided evidence that ions and other solute molecules effect the structure and dynamics of the water molecules directly surrounding them. Most of these experiments have employed infrared spectroscopy which explores vibrational relaxation of the hydration shell by observing intramolecular vibrations. Terahertz spectroscopy, in contrast is sensitive to intermolecular dynamics. Here we use a vector network analyzer based terahertz dielectric relaxation spectrometer operating over the frequency range from 65 to 720 GHz. The literature on relaxation dynamics of water is extensive and variable. But these measurements clarify the situation and confirm that the dynamics of water over this regime are best described in terms of three Debye relaxation processes with the characteristic times of 8.56, 1.1 ps and 179 fs (at 25.0 C). Remarkably, while the relaxation times themselves are not sensitive to salt concentration, the relative strength of the relaxation modes depends in a systematic way on the solute molarity. We discuss these results by relating the salt concentration dependent strength of the three processes to the dynamics and structure of first three hydration shells. Our measurements shed light on the dynamics of hydration shells around solute molecules in a biologically relevant environment.

  6. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of cesium adsorption onto nanocrystalline mordenite from high-salt solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of cesium adsorption by nanocrystalline mordenite were investigated under cesium contamination with high-salt solution, simulating the case of an operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or an accident during the processes. The adsorption rate constants were determined using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic results strongly demonstrated that the cesium adsorption rate of nano mordenite is extremely fast, even in a high-salt solution, and much faster than that of micro mordenite. In the equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fit the cesium adsorption data of nano mordenite better than the Freundlich model, which suggests that cesium adsorption onto nano mordenite is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption involved a very stable chemical reaction. In particular, the combination of rapid particle dispersion and rapid cesium adsorption of the nano mordenite in the solution resulted in a rapid and effective process for cesium removal without stirring, which may offer great advantages for low energy consumption and simple operation.

  7. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of cesium adsorption onto nanocrystalline mordenite from high-salt solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of cesium adsorption by nanocrystalline mordenite were investigated under cesium contamination with high-salt solution, simulating the case of an operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or an accident during the processes. The adsorption rate constants were determined using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic results strongly demonstrated that the cesium adsorption rate of nano mordenite is extremely fast, even in a high-salt solution, and much faster than that of micro mordenite. In the equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fit the cesium adsorption data of nano mordenite better than the Freundlich model, which suggests that cesium adsorption onto nano mordenite is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption involved a very stable chemical reaction. In particular, the combination of rapid particle dispersion and rapid cesium adsorption of the nano mordenite in the solution resulted in a rapid and effective process for cesium removal without stirring, which may offer great advantages for low energy consumption and simple operation. PMID:26683820

  8. A new strategy to stabilize oxytocin in aqueous solutions: I. The effects of divalent metal ions and citrate buffer.

    PubMed

    Avanti, Christina; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Setyaningsih, Dewi; Hawe, Andrea; Jiskoot, Wim; Visser, Jan; Kedrov, Alexej; Driessen, Arnold J M; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2011-06-01

    In the current study, the effect of metal ions in combination with buffers (citrate, acetate, pH 4.5) on the stability of aqueous solutions of oxytocin was investigated. Both monovalent metal ions (Na(+) and K(+)) and divalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) were tested all as chloride salts. The effect of combinations of buffers and metal ions on the stability of aqueous oxytocin solutions was determined by RP-HPLC and HP-SEC after 4 weeks of storage at either 4°C or 55°C. Addition of sodium or potassium ions to acetate- or citrate-buffered solutions did not increase stability, nor did the addition of divalent metal ions to acetate buffer. However, the stability of aqueous oxytocin in aqueous formulations was improved in the presence of 5 and 10 mM citrate buffer in combination with at least 2 mM CaCl(2), MgCl(2), or ZnCl(2) and depended on the divalent metal ion concentration. Isothermal titration calorimetric measurements were predictive for the stabilization effects observed during the stability study. Formulations in citrate buffer that had an improved stability displayed a strong interaction between oxytocin and Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or Zn(2+), while formulations in acetate buffer did not. In conclusion, our study shows that divalent metal ions in combination with citrate buffer strongly improved the stability of oxytocin in aqueous solutions.

  9. Method for removing metal ions from solution with titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Lundquist, Susan H.; White, Lloyd R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for removing metal ions from solution comprises the steps of providing titanate particles by spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising sorbent titanates having a particle size up to 20 micrometers, optionally in the presence of polymer free of cellulose functionality as binder, said sorbent being active towards heavy metals from Periodic Table (CAS version) Groups IA, IIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, and VIII, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size distribution in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers. The particles can be used free flowing in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove metal ions from aqueous or organic liquid.

  10. The effects of alkaline and alkaline earth metal salts on the performance of a polymer actuator based on single-wal led carbon nanotube-ionic liquid gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasawa, Naohiro; Takeuchi, Ichiroh; Mukai, Ken; Asaka, Kinji

    We investigated an effect for alkaline metal salts or an alkaline earth metal salt on electrochemical and electromechanical properties of an actuator using a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-ionic liquid (IL) gel electrode, and much better performance of the actuator containing the metal salt/IL. The actuator containing the alkaline metal salt /IL or alkaline earth metal salt/IL performed much better than that containing only the IL. It is considered that the higher ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte layer containing the alkaline metal salt /IL or alkaline earth metal salt/IL produces the quick response actuator, and that the large capacitance gives the large generated strain.

  11. Accumulation and distribution of trace metals within soils and the austral cordgrass Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Idaszkin, Yanina L; Lancelotti, Julio L; Bouza, Pablo J; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2015-12-15

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn were determined in soils and in below- and above-ground structures of Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh (San Antonio, Río Negro, Argentina). Also, the relationship between trace metal concentrations in soils and plants was investigated to improve our knowledge regarding the ability of this plant species to take up and accumulate trace metals from the soil. Our results indicate that, within the studied salt marsh, soil trace metal concentrations follow a decreasing concentration gradient toward the sea. They show moderate pollution and a potentially negative biological effect in one site of the salt marsh. While below-ground structures reflect the soil metal concentration pattern, this is not so evident in above-ground concentrations. Also, S. densiflora is able to absorb a limited amount of metals present in the soil, the soil bioaccumulation factor being lower in sites where soil metal concentration is higher.

  12. Accumulation and distribution of trace metals within soils and the austral cordgrass Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Idaszkin, Yanina L; Lancelotti, Julio L; Bouza, Pablo J; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2015-12-15

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn were determined in soils and in below- and above-ground structures of Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh (San Antonio, Río Negro, Argentina). Also, the relationship between trace metal concentrations in soils and plants was investigated to improve our knowledge regarding the ability of this plant species to take up and accumulate trace metals from the soil. Our results indicate that, within the studied salt marsh, soil trace metal concentrations follow a decreasing concentration gradient toward the sea. They show moderate pollution and a potentially negative biological effect in one site of the salt marsh. While below-ground structures reflect the soil metal concentration pattern, this is not so evident in above-ground concentrations. Also, S. densiflora is able to absorb a limited amount of metals present in the soil, the soil bioaccumulation factor being lower in sites where soil metal concentration is higher. PMID:26481413

  13. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  14. Uptake of atmospheric mercury by deionized water and aqueous solutions of inorganic salts at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Waite, D T; Snihura, A D; Liu, Y; Huang, G H

    2002-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) is well known as a toxic environmental pollutant that is among the most highly bioconcentrated trace metals in the human food chain. The atmosphere is one of the most important media for the environmental cycling of mercury, since it not only receives mercury emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes and soil and water surfaces but also from anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, mining and metal smelting. Although atmospheric mercury exists in different physical and chemical forms, as much as 90% can occur as elemental vapour Hg0, depending on the geographic location and time of year. Atmospheric mercury can be deposited to aquatic ecosystems through both wet (rain or snow) and dry (vapour adsorption and particulate deposition) processes. The purpose of the present study was to measure, under laboratory conditions, the rate of deposition of gaseous, elemental mercury (Hg0) to deionized water and to solutions of inorganic salt species of varying ionic strengths with a pH range of 2-12. In deionized water the highest deposition rates occurred at both low (pH 2) and high (pH 12). The addition of different species of salt of various concentrations for the most part had only slight effects on the absorption and retention of atmospheric Hg0. The low pH solutions of various salt concentrations and the high pH solutions of high salt concentrations tested in this study generally showed a greater tendency to absorb and retain atmospheric Hg0 than those at a pH closer to neutral.

  15. Synthesis of the compatible solutes glucosylglycerol and trehalose by salt-stressed cells of Stenotrophomonas strains.

    PubMed

    Roder, Anja; Hoffmann, Eik; Hagemann, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2005-02-01

    In this study, physiological processes were analysed, which are involved in salt acclimation of two Stenotrophomonas species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain DSM 50170 and Stenotrophomonas rhizophila strain DSM 14405. S. maltophilia accumulated trehalose as the only osmolyte, whereas S. rhizophila produced additionally to trehalose glucosylglycerol (GG). The different spectrum and amounts of compatible solutes in these two strains led to differences in terms of their salt tolerance. The human-associated S. maltophilia was able to grow in media containing up to 3% NaCl (w/v). In contrast, S. rhizophila propagated in salinities up to 5% NaCl (w/v). The strain was isolated from the rhizosphere, a microenvironment which is characterised by high and changing salinities. Light microscopic analysis of S. rhizophila cells showed a significant increase in cell length of salt-treated cells in comparison to control cells. Cells of S. rhizophila exposed to more than 2% NaCl excreted GG into the medium during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase, while the internal trehalose pool remained constant. This feature offers a high potential for the biotechnological production of GG.

  16. Super-absorbency and phase transition of gels in physiological salt solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Qing; Tanaka, Toyoichi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    1992-11-01

    IONIC gels with the ability to absorb many times their dry weight of water have found widespread use as absorbents in medical, chemical and agricultural applications1. The dramatic swelling power of these super-absorbent gels results from both the electrostatic repulsion between the charges on the polymer chains, and the osmotic pressure of the counter-ions2. In salt solutions such as saline, urine or blood, however, excess Na+ and Cl- ions screen the polymer charges and eliminate the osmotic imbalance, effectively changing the properties of the material to that of a non-ionic gel3: this greatly diminishes the swelling power, and hence the utility of these materials under physiological conditions. Here we report the development of a system combining a non-ionic gel with ionized surfactants, which shows super-absorbent behaviour even in the presence of salt. In water, the hydrophobic gel facilitates the formation of spherical surfactant micelles, which mimic the charged sites of an ionic gel. As the salt concentration is increased, the micelles become rod-like, maintaining the electrostatic repulsion along the polymer chains and thereby preserving the swelling power of the gel.

  17. Interconnection of Salt-induced Hydrophobic Compaction and Secondary Structure Formation Depends on Solution Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Shubhasis; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the early stage of protein folding remains an interesting unsolved problem. Rapid kinetics measurements with cytochrome c using submillisecond continuous flow mixing devices suggest simultaneous formation of a compact collapsed state and secondary structure. These data seem to indicate that collapse formation is guided by specific short and long range interactions (heteropolymer collapse). A contrasting interpretation also has been proposed, which suggests that the collapse formation is rapid, nonspecific, and a trivial solvent related compaction, which could as well be observed by a homopolymer (homopolymer collapse). We address this controversy using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which enables us to monitor the salt-induced compaction accompanying collapse formation and the associated time constant directly at single molecule resolution. In addition, we follow the formation of secondary structure using far UV CD. The data presented here suggest that both these models (homopolymer and heteropolymer) could be applicable depending on the solution conditions. For example, the formation of secondary structure and compact state is not simultaneous in aqueous buffer. In aqueous buffer, formation of the compact state occurs through a two-state co-operative transition following heteropolymer formalism, whereas secondary structure formation takes place gradually. In contrast, in the presence of urea, a compaction of the protein radius occurs gradually over an extended range of salt concentration following homopolymer formalism. The salt-induced compaction and the formation of secondary structure take place simultaneously in the presence of urea. PMID:22303014

  18. Metal ion sensing solution containing double crossover DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byeongho; Dugasani, Sreekantha R.; Cho, Youngho; Oh, Juyeong; Kim, Chulki; Seo, Min Ah; Lee, Taikjin; Jhon, Young Miin; Woo, Deok Ha; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Jae Hun

    2015-07-01

    The current study describes metal ion sensing with double crossover DNAs (DX1 and DX2), artificially designed as a platform of doping. The sample for sensing is prepared by a facile annealing method to grow the DXs lattice on a silicon/silicon oxide. Adding and incubating metal ion solution with the sensor substrate into the micro-tube lead the optical property change. Photoluminescence (PL) is employed for detecting the concentration of metal ion in the specimen. We investigated PL emission for sensor application with the divalent copper. In the range from 400 to 650 nm, the PL features of samples provide significantly different peak positions with excitation and emission detection. Metal ions contribute to modify the optical characteristics of DX with structural and functional change, which results from the intercalation of them into hydrogen bonding positioned at the center of double helix. The PL intensity is decreased gradually after doping copper ion in the DX tile on the substrate.

  19. The activity-composition relationship of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in aqueous salt solutions: II. Vapor-liquid water equilibration of mixed salt solutions from 50 to 100°C and geochemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horita, Juske; Cole, David R.; Wesolowski, David J.

    1993-10-01

    The difference between oxygen and hydrogen isotope activity and composition ratios of water in mixed salt solutions in the system Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl-SO 4-H 2O was determined by means of a vaporliquid water equilibration method over the temperature range of 50 to 100°C. The observed isotope salt effects in complex mixed salt solutions to very high ionic strengths agree quantitatively with calculations based on the assumption of a simple additive property of the isotope salt effects of the individual salts in the solutions. SOFER and GAT (1972, 1975) and HORITA and GAT (1989) also observed that this simple mixing rule applies to synthetic and natural chloride-mixed salt solutions at room temperature. Equations to convert between the isotope activity and composition scales for brines and fractionation factors between brines and other substances are presented. For most geochemical interactions between brines and other phases (vapor, gases, minerals) such as evaporation/boiling, mineral precipitation, and mineral/rock alteration, the isotope activity scale should be used. The isotope composition scale, on the other hand, is most useful for studies of mixing of different brines and formation of brines by mineral dissolution. Misusage of the two isotopic scales of brines will, and probably in the literature has, lead to incorrect conclusions in many isotopic studies of brine-dominated systems (origin of brines, temperature of mineral formation, isotope ratios of fossil fluids).

  20. The activity-composition relationship of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in aqueous salt solutions: II. Vapor-liquid water equilibration of mixed salt solutions from 50 to 100[degrees]C and geochemical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, J.; Cole, D.R.; Wesolowski, D.J. )

    1993-10-01

    The difference between oxygen and hydrogen isotope activity and composition ratios of water in mixed salt solutions in the system Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl-SO[sub 4]-H[sub 2]O was determined by means of a vapor-liquid water equilibration method over the temperature range of 50 to 100[degrees]C. The observed isotope salt effects in complex mixed salt solutions to very high ionic strengths agree quantitatively with calculations based on the assumption of a simple additive property of the isotope salt effects of the individual salts in the solutions. Sofer and Gat (1972, 1975) and Horita and Gat (1989) also observed that this simple mixing rule applies to synthetic and natural chloride-mixed salt solutions at room temperature. Equations to convert between the isotope activity and composition scales for brines and fractionation factors between brines and other substances are presented. For most geochemical interactions between brines and other phases (vapor, gases, minerals), such as evaporation/boiling, mineral precipitation, and mineral/rock alteration, the isotope activity scale should be used. The isotope composition scale, on the other hand, is most useful for studies of mixing of different brines and formation of brines by mineral dissolution. Misusage of the two isotopic scales of brines will, and probably in the literature has, lead to incorrect conclusions in many isotopic studies of brine-dominated systems (origin of brines, temperature of mineral formation, isotope ratios of fossil fluids).

  1. Adsorbate-Induced Anchoring Transitions of Liquid Crystals on Surfaces Presenting Metal Salts with Mixed Anions

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jacob T.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    We report that metal salts composed of mixtures of anions of differing coordination strength can be used to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of adsorbate-induced anchoring transitions of liquid crystals (LCs) supported on surfaces decorated with the metal salts. Specifically, the dynamics of anchoring transitions triggered by the adsorbate dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) on surfaces of aluminum (III) salts were analyzed within the framework of a model for mass transport to reveal that the sensitivity of a nitrile-containing nematic LC to DMMP increased from 250 parts-per- billion (ppb) to 25 ppb when the composition of the (counter) anion was changed from 100% perchlorate to 90% nitrate and 10% perchlorate (by mole percent). To provide insight into these observations, Polarization-Modulation Infrared Reflectance-Absorbance Spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) was used to show that the intensity of the absorption band in the IR spectrum corresponding to the coordinated state of the nitrile group (but not the position of the peak) decreased with increase in mole fraction of the strongly coordinating anion (nitrate) in the anion mixture, thus suggesting that the addition of the strongly coordinating anion decreased the number of coordination interactions (per unit area of the interface) but not the strength of the individual coordination interactions between the metal cation and the LC. We also measured the incorporation of the nitrate anion into the metal salt to decrease the effect of humidity on the dynamic response of the LC to DMMP, a result that is consistent with weaker interactions between the nitrate anion and water as compared to the perchlorate anion and water. Finally, the bidentate anion acetylacetonate was measured to cause a similar increase in sensitivity to DMMP when mixed with perchlorate in a 1:1 ratio (the resulting sensitivity of the system to DMMP was 100 ppb). Overall, these results suggest that tailoring the identity of the anion represents a

  2. Simple hydrated salts in methanolic and aqueous solutions - Acoustic and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakowski, Andrzej; Gliński, Jacek; Wachał, Joanna; Guzik, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Hydrated salts, MgCl2·6H2O, CuCl2·2H2O and EuCl3·6H2O when dissolved in methanol, conserve their original coordination numbers, probably dissociating two chloride anions (magnesium chloride), stepwise in equilibrium reactions (copper chloride) or probably only one Cl- (europium chloride). Water hydrating molecules are almost fully removed from the coordination shell only in the case of MgCl2·6H2O. The above conclusions were drawn from analyzing the acoustic and densimetric properties of the title systems and confirmed by conductivity tests. The results are also compared to those in aqueous solutions. The emission and excitation spectra obtained for europium chloride were applied as spectroscopic probes of solution structure, as well as of the number of existing species and their symmetries.

  3. [Rheological properties of salt-free solutions of H+- and Na+-DNA].

    PubMed

    Paponov, V D; Fabrichnaia, O B; Kuznetsov, I A

    1984-01-01

    Rheological properties of the water solutions of H+- and Na+-DNA were studied at shear rates in the range of 0.12-126 sec-1. It was found that the concentration dependences of reduced viscosity of these systems have the maxima which displaced to the left along abscissa after ultrasonic degradation or long keeping and to the right after the salt or urea addition. Na+-DNA solutions have the rheological curve of flow typical of pseudoplastical systems (RCF-1): the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. H+-DNA solutions undergo RCF-1 RCF-2 transition leading to reverse dependence of viscosity on shear rate after long keeping or sonicating (i. e. the systems become dilatant). At centrifugation and in shear fields RCF-2 RCF-1 transition occurs. Urea prevents both transitions. These discovered phenomena as well as weakening of the dilatant properties in concentrated H+-DNA solutions allow us to assume that in these systems exist circular structures consisting of single strands of DNA associated by means of ionic bonds between phosphates and protonated bases. Rheological behaviour of DNA obtained by the method of Georgiev and Struchkov was explained by the presence of circular double stranded DNA molecules in their preparations. The analysis of the non-equilibrium behavior of water solutions of DNA allows to determine the rate constants of H+- and Na+-DNA unwinding.

  4. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination. PMID:26005789

  5. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination.

  6. Molten salt chemistry: An introduction and selected applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, G.; Marassi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The major fundamental topics covered are the structure of melts, thermodynamics of molten salt mixtures, theoretical and experimental studies of transport processes, metal-metal salt solutions, solvent properties of melt systems, acid-base effects in molten salt chemistry, electronic absorption, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of melt systems, electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry in molten salts, and organic chemistry in molten salts. The applied aspects include the chemistry of aluminium production, electrodeposition using molten salts, and molten salt batteries and fuel cells.

  7. Metals recovering from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) using molten salts.

    PubMed

    Flandinet, L; Tedjar, F; Ghetta, V; Fouletier, J

    2012-04-30

    Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) has been taken into consideration in the literature due to the large quantity of concerned wastes and their hazardous contents. The situation is so critical that EU published European Directives imposing collection and recycling with a minimum of material recovery [1]. Moreover, WEEEs contain precious metals, making the recycling of these wastes economically interesting, but also some critical metals and their recycling leads to resource conservation. This paper reports on a new approach for recycling waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Molten salts and specifically molten KOH-NaOH eutectic is used to dissolve glasses, oxides and to destruct plastics present in wastes without oxidizing the most valuable metals. This method is efficient for recovering a copper-rich metallic fraction, which is, moreover, cleared of plastics and glasses. In addition, analyses of gaseous emission show that this method is environmentally friendly since most of the process gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide and halogens, are trapped in the highly basic molten salt. In other respects, under operation without oxygen, a large quantity of hydrogen is produced and might be used as fuel gas or as synthesis gas, leading to a favourable energy balance for this new process.

  8. Composite Properties of Polyimide Resins Made From "Salt-Like" Solution Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Weiser, Erik S.; SaintClair, Terry L.; Echigo, Yoshiaki; Kaneshiro, Hisayasu

    1997-01-01

    Recent work in high temperature materials at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC (trademark)) have led to the development of new polyimide resin systems with very attractive properties. The majority of the work done with these resin systems has concentrated on determining engineering mechanical properties of composites prepared from a poly(amide acid) precursor. Three NASA Langley-developed polyimide matrix resins, LaRC (trademark) -IA, LaRC (trademark) -IAX, and LaRC (trademark) -8515, were produced via a salt-like process developed by Unitika Ltd. The 'salt-like' solutions (sixty-five percent solids in NMP) were prepregged onto Hexcel IM7 carbon fiber using the NASA LaRC Multipurpose Tape Machine. Process parameters were determined and composite panels fabricated. Mechanical properties are presented for these three intermediate modulus carbon fiber/polyimide matrix composites and compared to existing data on the same polyimide resin systems and IM7 carbon fiber manufactured via poly(amide acid) solutions (thirty-five percent solids in NMP). This work studies the effects of varying the synthetic route on the processing and mechanical properties of polyimide composites.

  9. Comparison of peak shape in hydrophilic interaction chromatography using acidic salt buffers and simple acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Heaton, James C; Russell, Joseph J; Underwood, Tim; Boughtflower, Robert; McCalley, David V

    2014-06-20

    The retention and peak shape of neutral, basic and acidic solutes was studied on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases that showed both strong and weak ionic retention characteristics, using aqueous-acetonitrile mobile phases containing either formic acid (FA), ammonium formate (AF) or phosphoric acid (PA). The effect of organic solvent concentration on the results was also studied. Peak shape was good for neutrals under most mobile phase conditions. However, peak shapes for ionised solutes, particularly for basic compounds, were considerably worse in FA than AF. Even neutral compounds showed deterioration in performance with FA when the mobile phase water concentration was reduced. The poor performance in FA cannot be entirely attributed to the negative impact of ionic retention on ionised silanols on the underlying silica base materials, as results using PA at lower pH (where their ionisation is suppressed) were inferior to those in AF. Besides the moderating influence of the salt cation on ionic retention, it is likely that salt buffers improve peak shape due to the increased ionic strength of the mobile phase and its impact on the formation of the water layer on the column surface.

  10. Determining the Enthalpy of Vaporization of Salt Solutions Using the Cooling Effect of a Bubble Column Evaporator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Chao; Pashley, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The enthalpy of vaporization (?H[subscript vap]) of salt solutions is not easily measured, as a certain quantity of pure water has to be evaporated from a solution, at constant composition, and at a fixed temperature and pressure; then the corresponding heat input has to be measured. However, a simple bubble column evaporator (BCE) was used as a…

  11. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by Sesuvium portulacastrum l. a salt marsh halophyte from tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, Durai; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Ravindran, Konganapuram Chellappan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the sources for remediation of heavy metals and salts from tannery effluent using salt marsh halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. From the results observed, in tannery effluent treated soil from 1 kg dry weight of plant sample, Sesuvium portulacastrum accumulated 49.82 mg Cr, 22.10 mg Cd, 35.10 mg Cu and 70.10 mg Zn and from 1 g dry weight of the plant sample, 246.21 mg Na Cl. Cultivation of Sesuvium portulacastrum significantly reduced the EC, pH and SAR levels in tannery effluent and salt treated soil and correspondingly increased in plant sample after 125 days of cultivation. In conclusion, Sesuvium portulacastrum was an efficient in accumulating heavy metals such as Chromium, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc, sodium and chloride maximum through its leaves when compared to stem and root. The finding of these bioacccumulation studies indicates that Sesuvium portulacastrum could be used for phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated field. PMID:26552858

  12. Utilization of Heavy Metal Molten Salts in the ARIES-RS Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Yapıcı, Hüseyin

    2008-09-01

    ARIES-RS is one of the major magnetic fusion energy reactor designs that uses a blanket having vanadium alloy structure cooled by lithium [1, 2]. It is a deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion driven reactor, having a fusion power of 2170 MW [1, 2]. This study presents the neutronic analysis of the ARIES-RS fusion reactor using heavy metal molten salts in which Li2BeF4 as the main constituent was mixed with increased mole fractions of heavy metal salt (ThF4 or UF4) starting by 2 mol.% up to 12 mol.%. Neutron transport calculations were carried out with the help of the SCALE 4.3 system by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with the XSDRNPM code in 238 neutron groups and a S 8- P 3 approximation. According to the numerical results, tritium self-sufficiency was attained for the coolants, Flibe with 2% UF4 or ThF4 and 4% UF4. In addition, higher energy multiplication values were found for the salt with UF4 compared to that with ThF4. Furthermore, significant amount of high quality nuclear fuel was produced to be used in external reactors.

  13. Salt-Responsive Polysulfabetaines from Acrylate and Acrylamide Precursors: Robust Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles in Hyposalinity and Hypersalinity.

    PubMed

    Vasantha, Vivek Arjunan; Junhui, Chen; Ying, Tay Boon; Parthiban, Anbanandam

    2015-10-13

    Metal nanoparticles (MNps) tend to be influenced by environmental factors such as pH, ionic strength, and temperature, thereby leading to aggregation. Forming stable aqueous dispersions could be one way of addressing the environmental toxicity of MNps. In contrast to the electrolyte-induced aggregation of MNps, novel zwitterionic sulfabetaine polymers reported here act as stabilizers of MNps even under high salinity. Polysulfabetaines exhibited unique solubility and swelling tendencies in brine and deionized water, respectively. The polysulfabetaines derived from methacrylate (PSBMA) and methacrylamide (PSBMAm) also showed reversible salt-responsive and thermoresponsive behaviors as confirmed by cloud-point titration, transmittance, and dynamic light scattering studies. The brine soluble nature was explored for its ability to be used as a capping agents to form metal nanoparticles using formic acid as a reducing agent. Thus, silver and noble metal (gold and palladium) nanoparticles were synthesized. The nanoparticles formed were characterized by UV-vis, XRD, TEM, EDX, and DLS studies. The size of the nanoparticles remained more or less the same even after 2 months of storage in 2 M sodium chloride solution under ambient conditions and also at elevated temperatures as confirmed by light-scattering measurements. The tunable, stimuli-responsive polysulfabetaine-capped stable MNp formed under low (hyposalinity) and hypersalinity could find potential applications in a variety of areas. PMID:26394088

  14. METAL PHTHALOCYANINES

    DOEpatents

    Frigerio, N.A.

    1962-03-27

    A process is given for preparing heavy metal phthalocyanines, sulfonated or not. The process comprises mixing an inorganic metal salt with dimethyl formamide or methyl sulfoxide; separating the metal complex formed from the solution; mixing the complex with an equimolar amount of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, or beryllium sulfonated or unsulfonated phthalocyanine whereby heavy-metal phthalocyanine crystals are formed; and separating the crystals from the solution. Uranyl, thorium, lead, hafnium, and lanthanide rare earth phthalocyanines can be produced by the process. (AEC)

  15. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  16. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE PAGES

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  17. Measuring and modeling the salting-out effect in ammonium sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Endo, Satoshi; Wania, Frank

    2014-11-18

    The presence of inorganic salts significantly influences the partitioning behavior of organic compounds between environmentally relevant aqueous phases, such as seawater or aqueous aerosol, and other, nonaqueous phases (gas phase, organic phase, etc.). In this study, salting-out coefficients (or Setschenow constants) (KS [M(-1)]) for 38 diverse neutral compounds in ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) solutions were measured using a shared headspace passive dosing method and a negligible depletion solid phase microextraction technique. The measured KS were all positive, varied from 0.216 to 0.729, and had standard errors in the range of 0.006-0.060. Compared to KS for sodium chloride (NaCl) in the literature, KS values for (NH4)2SO4 are always higher for the same compound, suggesting a higher salting-out effect of (NH4)2SO4. A polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) for predicting KS in (NH4)2SO4 solutions was generated using the experimental data for calibration. pp-LFER predicted KS agreed well with measured KS reported in the literature. KS for (NH4)2SO4 was also predicted using the quantum-chemical COSMOtherm software and the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC. While COSMOtherm generally overpredicted the experimental KS, predicted and experimental values were correlated. Therefore, a fitting factor needs to be applied when using the current version of COSMOtherm to predict KS. AIOMFAC tends to underpredict the measured KS((NH4)2SO4) but always overpredicts KS(NaCl). The prediction error is generally larger for KS(NaCl) than for KS((NH4)2SO4). AIOMFAC also predicted a dependence of KS on the salt concentrations, which is not observed in the experimental data. In order to demonstrate that the models developed and calibrated in this study can be applied to estimate Setschenow coefficients for atmospherically relevant compounds involved in secondary organic aerosol formation based on chemical structure alone, we predicted and compared KS for selected

  18. Synthesis, structures, and properties of crystalline salts with radical anions of metal-containing and metal-free phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Konarev, Dmitri V; Kuzmin, Alexey V; Faraonov, Maxim A; Ishikawa, Manabu; Khasanov, Salavat S; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Otsuka, Akihiro; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N

    2015-01-12

    Radical anion salts of metal-containing and metal-free phthalocyanines [MPc(3-)](·-), where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), H2, Sn(II), Pb(II), Ti(IV)O, and V(IV)O (1-10) with tetraalkylammonium cations have been obtained as single crystals by phthalocyanine reduction with sodium fluorenone ketyl. Their formation is accompanied by the Pc ligand reduction and affects the molecular structure of metal phthalocyanine radical anions as well as their optical and magnetic properties. Radical anions are characterized by the alternation of short and long C-Nimine bonds in the Pc ligand owing to the disruption of its aromaticity. Salts 1-10 show new bands at 833-1041 nm in the NIR range, whereas the Q- and Soret bands are blue-shifted by 0.13-0.25 eV (38-92 nm) and 0.04-0.07 eV (4-13 nm), respectively. Radical anions with Ni(II), Sn(II), Pb(II), and Ti(IV)O have S = 1/2 spin state, whereas [Cu(II)Pc(3-)](·-) and [V(IV)OPc(3-)](·-) containing paramagnetic Cu(II) and V(IV)O have two S = 1/2 spins per radical anion. Central metal atoms strongly affect EPR spectra of phthalocyanine radical anions. Instead of narrow EPR signals characteristic of metal-free phthalocyanine radical anions [H2Pc(3-)](·-) (linewidth of 0.08-0.24 mT), broad EPR signals are manifested (linewidth of 2-70 mT) with g-factors and linewidths that are strongly temperature-dependent. Salt 11 containing the [Na(I)Pc(2-)](-) anions as well as previously studied [Fe(I)Pc(2-)](-) and [Co(I)Pc(2-)](-) anions that are formed without reduction of the Pc ligand do not show changes in molecular structure or optical and magnetic properties characteristic of [MPc(3-)](·-) in 1-10.

  19. Synthesis, structures, and properties of crystalline salts with radical anions of metal-containing and metal-free phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Konarev, Dmitri V; Kuzmin, Alexey V; Faraonov, Maxim A; Ishikawa, Manabu; Khasanov, Salavat S; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Otsuka, Akihiro; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N

    2015-01-12

    Radical anion salts of metal-containing and metal-free phthalocyanines [MPc(3-)](·-), where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), H2, Sn(II), Pb(II), Ti(IV)O, and V(IV)O (1-10) with tetraalkylammonium cations have been obtained as single crystals by phthalocyanine reduction with sodium fluorenone ketyl. Their formation is accompanied by the Pc ligand reduction and affects the molecular structure of metal phthalocyanine radical anions as well as their optical and magnetic properties. Radical anions are characterized by the alternation of short and long C-Nimine bonds in the Pc ligand owing to the disruption of its aromaticity. Salts 1-10 show new bands at 833-1041 nm in the NIR range, whereas the Q- and Soret bands are blue-shifted by 0.13-0.25 eV (38-92 nm) and 0.04-0.07 eV (4-13 nm), respectively. Radical anions with Ni(II), Sn(II), Pb(II), and Ti(IV)O have S = 1/2 spin state, whereas [Cu(II)Pc(3-)](·-) and [V(IV)OPc(3-)](·-) containing paramagnetic Cu(II) and V(IV)O have two S = 1/2 spins per radical anion. Central metal atoms strongly affect EPR spectra of phthalocyanine radical anions. Instead of narrow EPR signals characteristic of metal-free phthalocyanine radical anions [H2Pc(3-)](·-) (linewidth of 0.08-0.24 mT), broad EPR signals are manifested (linewidth of 2-70 mT) with g-factors and linewidths that are strongly temperature-dependent. Salt 11 containing the [Na(I)Pc(2-)](-) anions as well as previously studied [Fe(I)Pc(2-)](-) and [Co(I)Pc(2-)](-) anions that are formed without reduction of the Pc ligand do not show changes in molecular structure or optical and magnetic properties characteristic of [MPc(3-)](·-) in 1-10. PMID:25388432

  20. Electrochemical response of metal complexes in homogeneous solution under photoirradiation

    PubMed Central

    Fukatsu, Arisa; Kondo, Mio; Okamura, Masaya; Yoshida, Masaki; Masaoka, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical detection of metal complexes in the photoexcited state is important for understanding photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes, which play a central role in photo-energy conversion systems. In general, however, the redox potentials of excited states have been indirectly estimated by a combination of spectroscopic properties and ground-state redox potentials. To establish a simple method for directly determining the redox potentials of the photoexcited states of metal complexes, electrochemical measurements under several conditions were performed. The electrochemical response was largely influenced not only by the generation of photoexcited molecules but also by the convection induced by photoirradiation, even when the global temperature of the sample solution was unchanged. The suppression of these unfavourable electrochemical responses was successfully achieved by adopting well-established electrochemical techniques. Furthermore, as an initial demonstration, the photoexcited state of a Ru-based metal complex was directly detected, and its redox potential was determined using a thin layer electrochemical method. PMID:24937471

  1. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: In Solutions.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-01

    The influence of protein-sodium interactions on the availability of sodium in the aqueous phase of liquid samples and consequently on the perception of saltiness was investigated. The aqueous effluents of casein and casein emulsion-salt solutions were monitored for sodium availability from a tongue column system. In the aqueous protein-salt solutions, increasing the protein/salt ratio from 1:1 to 5:1 or 10:1 significantly decreased the initial salt concentration in the effluent and resulted in a higher salt concentration in the effluent over time. Sensory analysis was in agreement. Samples with increased protein were rated as having significantly lower initial saltiness and a higher salty aftertaste. However, when casein was formulated as an emulsion, the initial release of sodium in the effluent was enhanced (compared to nonemulsified protein). Increasing the emulsion interfacial area (more hydrophilic segments of the protein were structured into the aqueous phase) resulted in a higher salt concentration in the aqueous phase and greater perceived saltiness intensity. In summary, protein interactions, specifically ionic, were reported as food interactions that influence salt perception and provide a basis to develop higher flavor quality low-sodium food products. PMID:26255631

  2. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: In Solutions.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-01

    The influence of protein-sodium interactions on the availability of sodium in the aqueous phase of liquid samples and consequently on the perception of saltiness was investigated. The aqueous effluents of casein and casein emulsion-salt solutions were monitored for sodium availability from a tongue column system. In the aqueous protein-salt solutions, increasing the protein/salt ratio from 1:1 to 5:1 or 10:1 significantly decreased the initial salt concentration in the effluent and resulted in a higher salt concentration in the effluent over time. Sensory analysis was in agreement. Samples with increased protein were rated as having significantly lower initial saltiness and a higher salty aftertaste. However, when casein was formulated as an emulsion, the initial release of sodium in the effluent was enhanced (compared to nonemulsified protein). Increasing the emulsion interfacial area (more hydrophilic segments of the protein were structured into the aqueous phase) resulted in a higher salt concentration in the aqueous phase and greater perceived saltiness intensity. In summary, protein interactions, specifically ionic, were reported as food interactions that influence salt perception and provide a basis to develop higher flavor quality low-sodium food products.

  3. Control of molten salt corrosion of fusion structural materials by metallic beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    P. Calderoni; P. Sharpe; H. Nishimura; T. Terai

    2009-04-01

    A series of tests have been performed between 2001 and 2006 at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research facility of the Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate chemical compatibility between the molten salt flibe (2LiF+BeF2 in moles) and fusion structural materials once suitable fluoride potential control methods are established. The tests adopted metallic beryllium contact as main fluoride potential control, and the results have been published in recent years. A further step was to expose two specimens of low activation ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr-2W to static corrosion tests that include an active corrosion agent (hydrofluoric gas) in controlled conditions at 530 C, and the results of the tests are presented in this paper. The results confirmed the expected correlation of the HF recovery with the concentration of metallic impurities dissolved in the salt because of specimen corrosion. The metals concentration dropped to level close to the detectable limit when the beryllium rod was inserted and increased once the content of excess beryllium in the system had been consumed by HF reduction and specimens corrosion progressed. Metallographic analysis of the samples after 500 hours exposure in reactive conditions showed evidence of the formation of unstable chromium oxide layers on the specimens surface.

  4. Hydrology of the Bonneville Salt Flats, northwestern Utah, and simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the shallow-brine aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the hydrologic system of the Bonneville Salt Flats with emphasis on the mechanisms of solute transport. Variable-density, three-dimensional computer simulations of the near-surface part of the ground-water system were done to quantify both the transport of salt dissolved in subsurface brine that leaves the salt-crust area and the salt dissolved and precipitated on the land surface. The study was designed to define the hydrology of the brine ground-water system and the natural and anthropogenic processes causing salt loss, and where feasible, to quantify these processes. Specific areas of study include the transport of salt in solution by ground-water flow and the transport of salt in solution by wind-driven ponds and the subsequent salt precipitation on the surface of the playa upon evaporation or seepage into the subsurface. In addition, hydraulic and chemical changes in the hydrologic system since previous studies were documented.

  5. Electromyogram as a measure of heavy metal toxicity in fresh water and salt water mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, G.W. III |; McCoy, A.A. |

    1996-02-01

    The response of bivalves to heavy metals and other toxins has usually been determined by observing valve position. Since mussels close their valves to avoid noxious stimuli, experimental delivery of chemicals ins uncertain. To obtain constant results plastic spacers can be employed to hold the valves apart. This obviates valve position as an index of response and some other method is required. Electromyography of intact mussels is one such index, giving a simple, effective, and quantitative measurement of activity. Experiments are reported in this article on the effects of added mercury on salt water and fresh water species.

  6. Hydrogen generation in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells using a heat-regenerated salt solution.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Cusick, Roland D; Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen gas can be electrochemically produced in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) using current derived from organic matter and salinity-gradient energy such as river water and seawater solutions. Here, it is shown that ammonium bicarbonate salts, which can be regenerated using low-temperature waste heat, can also produce sufficient voltage for hydrogen gas generation in an MREC. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 1.6 m(3) H(2)/m(3)·d, with a hydrogen yield of 3.4 mol H(2)/mol acetate at a salinity ratio of infinite. Energy recovery was 10% based on total energy applied with an energy efficiency of 22% based on the consumed energy in the reactor. The cathode overpotential was dependent on the catholyte (sodium bicarbonate) concentration, but not the salinity ratio, indicating high catholyte conductivity was essential for maximizing hydrogen production rates. The direction of the HC and LC flows (co- or counter-current) did not affect performance in terms of hydrogen gas volume, production rates, or stack voltages. These results show that the MREC can be successfully operated using ammonium bicarbonate salts that can be regenerated using conventional distillation technologies and waste heat making the MREC a useful method for hydrogen gas production from wastes. PMID:22463373

  7. Hydrogen generation in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells using a heat-regenerated salt solution.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Cusick, Roland D; Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen gas can be electrochemically produced in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) using current derived from organic matter and salinity-gradient energy such as river water and seawater solutions. Here, it is shown that ammonium bicarbonate salts, which can be regenerated using low-temperature waste heat, can also produce sufficient voltage for hydrogen gas generation in an MREC. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 1.6 m(3) H(2)/m(3)·d, with a hydrogen yield of 3.4 mol H(2)/mol acetate at a salinity ratio of infinite. Energy recovery was 10% based on total energy applied with an energy efficiency of 22% based on the consumed energy in the reactor. The cathode overpotential was dependent on the catholyte (sodium bicarbonate) concentration, but not the salinity ratio, indicating high catholyte conductivity was essential for maximizing hydrogen production rates. The direction of the HC and LC flows (co- or counter-current) did not affect performance in terms of hydrogen gas volume, production rates, or stack voltages. These results show that the MREC can be successfully operated using ammonium bicarbonate salts that can be regenerated using conventional distillation technologies and waste heat making the MREC a useful method for hydrogen gas production from wastes.

  8. Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution.

    PubMed

    Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2001-02-01

    It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration.

  9. Effect of laser irradiation of nanoparticles in aqueous uranium salt solutions on nuclide activity

    SciTech Connect

    Simakin, Aleksandr V; Shafeev, Georgii A

    2011-07-31

    This paper presents an experimental study of the effect of laser irradiation of aqueous uranyl chloride solutions containing gold nanoparticles on the activity of the uranium series radionuclides {sup 234}Th, {sup 234m}Pa, and {sup 235}U. The solutions were exposed to femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses and to the second or third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (150-ps pulses) at a peak intensity in the medium of {approx}10{sup 12} W cm{sup -2}. The activities of the radionuclides in the irradiated solutions were shown to differ markedly from their equilibrium values. The sign of the deviation depends on the laser wavelength. The measured activity deviations can be interpreted as evidence that laser exposure of nanoparticles accelerates the alpha and beta decays of the radionuclides. The observed effects are accounted for in terms of a mechanism that involves resonant enhancement of optical waves by metallic nanoparticles. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  10. Molecular dynamics study of charged dendrimers in salt-free solution: Effect of counterions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A.; Lyulin, Sergey V.; Karttunen, Mikko; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2006-03-01

    Polyamidoamine dendrimers, being protonated under physiological conditions, represent a promising class of nonviral, nanosized vectors for drug and gene delivery. We performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a generic model dendrimer in a salt-free solution with dendrimer's terminal beads positively charged. Solvent molecules as well as counterions were explicitly included as interacting beads. We find that the size of the charged dendrimer depends nonmonotonically on the strength of electrostatic interactions demonstrating a maximum when the Bjerrum length equals the diameter of a bead. Many other structural and dynamic characteristics of charged dendrimers are also found to follow this pattern. We address such a behavior to the interplay between repulsive interactions of the charged terminal beads and their attractive interactions with oppositely charged counterions. The former favors swelling at small Bjerrum lengths and the latter promotes counterion condensation. Thus, counterions can have a dramatic effect on the structure and dynamics of charged dendrimers and, under certain conditions, cannot be treated implicitly.

  11. Solubility and reactivity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in dilute aqueous salt solutions and in sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, A.; Kutsuna, S.; Takeuchi, K.; Ibusuki, T.

    The loss rates of PAN in several dilute aqueous salt solutions (NaBr, Na 2SO 3, KI, NaNO 2, FeCl 3, and FeSO 4) and in sulphuric acid were measured at 279 K with a simple bubbler experiment. They are little different from that in pure water. For 5 M sulphuric acid hydrolysis and solubility were determined in the temperature range of 243-293 K. The hydrolysis rate kh=3.2×10 -4 s -1 at 293 K is close to that in water. The observed temperature dependence of the Henry's Law constant H=10- 6.6±0.6exp((4780±420)/T) M atm -1 leads to enthalpy and entropy of solvation Δ Hsolv=-39.7±3.5 kJ mol -1 and Δ Ssolv=-126±11 J mol -1 K -1, respectively.

  12. Computational studies of aqueous interfaces of SrCl2 salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiuquan; Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2009-10-22

    The electron density profiles and the corresponding surface structures of an aqueous interface of SrCl2 salt solution were computed using molecular dynamics simulations. We used both polarizable and non-polarizable potential models to describe molecular interactions. The results demonstrate that the polarizable models captured the essential features of the x-ray reflectivity experimental data while the corresponding non-polarizable models could not. While there is qualitative agreement in the shape of the x-ray reflectivity curve, we find that quantitative agreement is still forthcoming. We suggest that improved agreement can be achieved if the contribution of Sr2+ ions to the total electron density profile is reduced, but not eliminated. This work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the auspices of the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the DOE.

  13. Designing voltage multipliers with nanofluidic diodes immersed in aqueous salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, P; Gomez, V; Verdia-Baguena, C; Nasir, S; Ali, M; Ensinger, W; Mafe, S

    2016-02-01

    Membranes with nanofluidic diodes allow the selective control of molecules in physiological salt solutions at ambient temperature. The electrical coupling of the membranes with conventional electronic elements such as capacitors suggests opportunities for the external monitoring of sensors and actuators. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the voltage multiplier functionality of simple electrical networks composed of membranes with conical nanopores coupled to load capacitors. The robust operation of half and full wave voltage multipliers is achieved in a broad range of experimental conditions (single pore and multipore membranes, electrolyte concentrations, voltage amplitudes, and solid-state capacitances). The designed voltage multipliers operate in the liquid state and can be used in sensing devices because different electrical, optical, and chemical inputs are known to modulate the individual nanofluidic diode resistances in the electrical network.

  14. Investigation of fundamental transport properties and thermodynamics in diglyme-salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Petrowsky, Matt; Frech, Roger; Suarez, Sophia N; Jayakody, J R P; Greenbaum, Steven

    2006-11-23

    Ionic mobility, the thermodynamics of ionic association, and the structure of associated species are studied in solutions of diglyme containing either lithium triflate or tetrabutylammonium triflate. Infrared spectroscopic, PFG NMR, thermodynamic, and crystallographic data suggest that the solute species existing in diglyme-lithium triflate are "free" ions, contact ion pairs, and dimers. Equilibrium constants, S(o), deltaH(o), and deltaG(o) are calculated for processes occurring between these species. In particular, the equilibrium constant, corrected for nonideality using a modified Debye-Hückel expression, is calculated for the dissociation of contact ion pairs into "free" cations and anions. A second equilibrium constant for the formation of dimers from contact ion pairs is also calculated; these constants do not significantly vary with salt concentration up to about 1.3 x 10(-3) mol cm(-3). The measured temperature dependence of equilibrium constants was used to calculate deltaH(o) and deltaS(o) for the two processes. The value of deltaS(o) = -102 J mol(-1) K(-1) for the dissociation of contact ion pairs shows that the large entropy decrease due to cation solvation outweighs the entropy increase due to dissociation of a contact ion pair. Ionic mobilities are calculated in lithium triflate-diglyme solutions using conductivity data in conjunction with information about the nature and concentrations of solute species obtained from IR spectroscopy. Mobilities in tetrabutlyammonium triflate-diglyme solutions are calculated directly from conductivity data. It was concluded that the concentration dependence of the molar conductivity is due in large part to the variation of the ion mobilities with concentration.

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Salt Caverns: Closed-Form Solutions vs Numerical Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Bérest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Creep closure and structural stability of a cylindrical elongated cavern leached out from a salt formation are discussed. The Norton-Hoff creep law, or "power law", is used to capture the main features of salt rheological behavior. Two failure criteria are considered: (1) shear stresses must not be larger than a certain fraction of the mean stress (dilation criterion); and (2) the effective stress at the cavern wall (actual stress plus cavern fluid pressure) must not be tensile. The case of a brine-filled cavern whose pressure is kept constant is discussed first. It is proved that creep closure reaches a steady state such that stresses in the rock mass remain constant. However, decades are needed to reach such a state. During the transient phase that results from the slow redistribution of stresses in the rock mass, deviatoric stresses decrease at the vicinity of the cavern wall, and onset of dilation is less and less likely. At this point, the case of a rapid brine pressure increase, typical of a tightness test, is considered. It is proved that during such a swift pressure increase, cavern behavior is almost perfectly elastic; there is no risk of dilation onset. However, even when cavern pressure remains significantly smaller than geostatic, the effective stress at cavern wall can become tensile. These results, obtained through numerical computations, are confirmed by closed-form solutions obtained in the case of an idealized perfectly cylindrical cavern; these solutions provide a better insight into the main structural features of the behavior of the cavern.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of Al in a non-aqueous alkyl carbonate solution containing LiBOB salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Natsui, Hiroshi; Sun, Yang-Kook; Yashiro, Hitoshi

    Aluminum was studied as a current collector for rechargeable lithium batteries to understand electrochemical and passivation behavior. Electrochemical polarization tests, in situ scratch polarization tests and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) analysis in lithium bis-oxalato borate (LiBOB)-containing alkyl carbonate solution were conducted. The Al foil did not follow the alloy and de-alloy process with the LiBOB salt in electrolyte at 0 V vs. Li/Li + in the cathodic sweep. During the anodic scan to the noble direction, the absence of an oxidation peak up to 3 V vs. Li/Li + indicated that the air-formed oxide layer of Al was not reduced to metal. Oxide-free Al surfaces made by the in situ scratch test during the electrochemical polarization resulted in abrupt alloy formation with Li at 0 V vs. Li/Li +, but the newly formed surface formed passive films at higher potential with oxygen, namely, Al-O compound, as confirmed by ToF-SIMS.

  17. Movement of Cations through Cuticles of Citrus aurantium and Acer saccharum: Diffusion Potentials in Mixed Salt Solutions.

    PubMed

    Tyree, M T; Tabor, C A; Wescott, C R

    1990-09-01

    We examined some biophysical mechanisms of ion migration across leaf cuticles enzymatically isolated from Acer saccharum L. and Citrus aurantium L. leaves. Diffusion potential measurements were used to calculate the permeabilities of Cl(-), Li(+), Na(+), and Cs(+) ions all as a ratio with respect to the permeability of K(+) in cuticles. In 2 millimolar ionic strength solutions the permeability sequence from high to low was K = Cs > Na > Li > Cl. When the outer and inner surfaces of cuticles were bathed in artificial precipitation and artificial apoplast, respectively, diffusion potentials ranging from -52 to -91 millivolts were measured (inside negative). The Goldman equation predicted that the measured potentials were enough to increase the driving force on the accumulation of heavy metals by a factor of 4 to 7. Other ions migrate with forces 3 to 10 times less than predicted by the Goldman equation for concentration differences alone. Our analysis showed that Ca(2+), and perhaps Mg(2+), might even be accumulated against concentration gradients under some circumstances. Their uptake was apparently driven by the diffusion potentials created by the outward migration of monovalent salts. We feel that future models predicting leaching of nutrients from trees during acid rain events must be modified to account for the probable influence of diffusion potentials on ion migration.

  18. Concentrated dual-salt electrolytes for improving the cycling stability of lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pin, Liu; Qiang, Ma; Zheng, Fang; Jie, Ma; Yong-Sheng, Hu; Zhi-Bin, Zhou; Hong, Li; Xue-Jie, Huang; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable Li batteries, due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh/g), low density (0.534 g/cm3), and low negative electrochemical potential (‑3.040 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, the concentrated electrolytes with dual salts, composed of Li[N(SO2F)2] (LiFSI) and Li[N(SO2CF3)2] (LiTFSI) were studied. In this dual-salt system, the capacity retention can even be maintained at 95.7% after 100 cycles in Li|LiFePO4 cells. A Li|Li cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 600 h, and a Li|Cu cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 200 cycles with a high average Coulombi efficiency of 99%. These results show that the concentrated dual-salt electrolytes exhibit superior electrochemical performance and would be a promising candidate for application in rechargeable Li batteries. Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51222210, 51472268, 51421002, and 11234013) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010300).

  19. Concentrated dual-salt electrolytes for improving the cycling stability of lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pin, Liu; Qiang, Ma; Zheng, Fang; Jie, Ma; Yong-Sheng, Hu; Zhi-Bin, Zhou; Hong, Li; Xue-Jie, Huang; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable Li batteries, due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh/g), low density (0.534 g/cm3), and low negative electrochemical potential (-3.040 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, the concentrated electrolytes with dual salts, composed of Li[N(SO2F)2] (LiFSI) and Li[N(SO2CF3)2] (LiTFSI) were studied. In this dual-salt system, the capacity retention can even be maintained at 95.7% after 100 cycles in Li|LiFePO4 cells. A Li|Li cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 600 h, and a Li|Cu cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 200 cycles with a high average Coulombi efficiency of 99%. These results show that the concentrated dual-salt electrolytes exhibit superior electrochemical performance and would be a promising candidate for application in rechargeable Li batteries. Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51222210, 51472268, 51421002, and 11234013) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010300).

  20. Artificial sweeteners and salts producing a metallic taste sensation activate TRPV1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Riera, Céline E; Vogel, Horst; Simon, Sidney A; le Coutre, Johannes

    2007-08-01

    Throughout the world many people use artificial sweeteners (AS) for the purpose of reducing caloric intake. The most prominently used of these molecules include saccharin, aspartame (Nutrasweet), acesulfame-K, and cyclamate. Despite the caloric advantage they provide, one key concern in their use is their aversive aftertaste that has been characterized on a sensory level as bitter and/or metallic. Recently, it has been shown that the activation of particular T2R bitter taste receptors is partially involved with the bitter aftertaste sensation of saccharin and acesulfame-K. To more fully understand the biology behind these phenomena we have addressed the question of whether AS could stimulate transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors, as these receptors are activated by a large range of structurally different chemicals. Moreover, TRPV1 receptors and/or their variants are found in taste receptor cells and in nerve terminals throughout the oral cavity. Hence, TRPV1 activation could be involved in the AS aftertaste or even contribute to the poorly understood metallic taste sensation. Using Ca(2+) imaging on TRPV1 receptors heterologously expressed in the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and on dissociated primary sensory neurons, we find that in both systems, AS activate TRPV1 receptors, and, moreover, they sensitize these channels to acid and heat. We also found that TRPV1 receptors are activated by CuSO(4), ZnSO(4), and FeSO(4), three salts known to produce a metallic taste sensation. In summary, our results identify a novel group of compounds that activate TRPV1 and, consequently, provide a molecular mechanism that may account for off tastes of sweeteners and metallic tasting salts.

  1. Metal ion coordination, conditional stability constants, and solution behavior of chelating surfactant metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Svanedal, Ida; Boija, Susanne; Almesåker, Ann; Persson, Gerd; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Bylund, Dan; Norgren, Magnus; Edlund, Håkan

    2014-04-29

    Coordination complexes of some divalent metal ions with the DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-based chelating surfactant 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4-C12-DTPA) have been examined in terms of chelation and solution behavior. The headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA contains eight donor atoms that can participate in the coordination of a metal ion. Conditional stability constants for five transition metal complexes with 4-C12-DTPA were determined by competition measurements between 4-C12-DTPA and DTPA, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Small differences in the relative strength between the coordination complexes of DTPA and 4-C12-DTPA indicated that the hydrocarbon tail only affected the chelating ability of the headgroup to a limited extent. The coordination of Cu(2+) ions was investigated in particular, using UV-visible spectroscopy. By constructing Job's plots, it was found that 4-C12-DTPA could coordinate up to two Cu(2+) ions. Surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry showed that the coordination of metal ions affected the solution behavior of 4-C12-DTPA, but there were no specific trends between the studied divalent metal complexes. Generally, the effects of the metal ion coordination could be linked to the neutralization of the headgroup charge of 4-C12-DTPA, and the resulting reduced electrostatic repulsions between adjacent surfactants in micelles and monolayers. The pH vs concentration plots, on the other hand, showed a distinct difference between 4-C12-DTPA complexes of the alkaline earth metals and the transition metals. This was explained by the difference in coordination between the two groups of metal ions, as predicted by the hard and soft acid and base (HSAB) theory.

  2. Metal ion coordination, conditional stability constants, and solution behavior of chelating surfactant metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Svanedal, Ida; Boija, Susanne; Almesåker, Ann; Persson, Gerd; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Bylund, Dan; Norgren, Magnus; Edlund, Håkan

    2014-04-29

    Coordination complexes of some divalent metal ions with the DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-based chelating surfactant 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4-C12-DTPA) have been examined in terms of chelation and solution behavior. The headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA contains eight donor atoms that can participate in the coordination of a metal ion. Conditional stability constants for five transition metal complexes with 4-C12-DTPA were determined by competition measurements between 4-C12-DTPA and DTPA, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Small differences in the relative strength between the coordination complexes of DTPA and 4-C12-DTPA indicated that the hydrocarbon tail only affected the chelating ability of the headgroup to a limited extent. The coordination of Cu(2+) ions was investigated in particular, using UV-visible spectroscopy. By constructing Job's plots, it was found that 4-C12-DTPA could coordinate up to two Cu(2+) ions. Surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry showed that the coordination of metal ions affected the solution behavior of 4-C12-DTPA, but there were no specific trends between the studied divalent metal complexes. Generally, the effects of the metal ion coordination could be linked to the neutralization of the headgroup charge of 4-C12-DTPA, and the resulting reduced electrostatic repulsions between adjacent surfactants in micelles and monolayers. The pH vs concentration plots, on the other hand, showed a distinct difference between 4-C12-DTPA complexes of the alkaline earth metals and the transition metals. This was explained by the difference in coordination between the two groups of metal ions, as predicted by the hard and soft acid and base (HSAB) theory. PMID:24702119

  3. Scalable salt-templated synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal oxides

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xu; Song, Huaibing; Lin, Shizhe; Zhou, Ying; Zhan, Xiaojun; Hu, Zhimi; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Jiyu; Yang, Bo; Li, Tianqi; Jiao, Liying; Zhou, Jun; Tang, Jiang; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional atomic crystals, such as two-dimensional oxides, have attracted much attention in energy storage because nearly all of the atoms can be exposed to the electrolyte and involved in redox reactions. However, current strategies are largely limited to intrinsically layered compounds. Here we report a general strategy that uses the surfaces of water-soluble salt crystals as growth templates and is applicable to not only layered compounds but also various transition metal oxides, such as hexagonal-MoO3, MoO2, MnO and hexagonal-WO3. The planar growth is hypothesized to occur via a match between the crystal lattices of the salt and the growing oxide. Restacked two-dimensional hexagonal-MoO3 exhibits high pseudocapacitive performances (for example, 300 F cm−3 in an Al2(SO4)3 electrolyte). The synthesis of various two-dimensional transition metal oxides and the demonstration of high capacitance are expected to enable fundamental studies of dimensionality effects on their properties and facilitate their use in energy storage and other applications. PMID:27103200

  4. Scalable salt-templated synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xu; Song, Huaibing; Lin, Shizhe; Zhou, Ying; Zhan, Xiaojun; Hu, Zhimi; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Jiyu; Yang, Bo; Li, Tianqi; Jiao, Liying; Zhou, Jun; Tang, Jiang; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional atomic crystals, such as two-dimensional oxides, have attracted much attention in energy storage because nearly all of the atoms can be exposed to the electrolyte and involved in redox reactions. However, current strategies are largely limited to intrinsically layered compounds. Here we report a general strategy that uses the surfaces of water-soluble salt crystals as growth templates and is applicable to not only layered compounds but also various transition metal oxides, such as hexagonal-MoO3, MoO2, MnO and hexagonal-WO3. The planar growth is hypothesized to occur via a match between the crystal lattices of the salt and the growing oxide. Restacked two-dimensional hexagonal-MoO3 exhibits high pseudocapacitive performances (for example, 300 F cm-3 in an Al2(SO4)3 electrolyte). The synthesis of various two-dimensional transition metal oxides and the demonstration of high capacitance are expected to enable fundamental studies of dimensionality effects on their properties and facilitate their use in energy storage and other applications.

  5. Excellent dynamic stability under saturated salt solution for aqueous quantum dots capped by multi-branched ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingkun; Xu, Shuhong; Lv, Changgui; Wang, Chunlei; Cui, Yiping

    2016-09-01

    Preparing quantum dots (QDs) with strong stability against salts is extremely important in some environments with ultrahigh salts concentration, such as the oil exploitation, wastewater treatment and biological markers. In this paper, we reported a simple new method to prepared highly stable QDs by using multi-branched ligands. Our results suggested that multi-branched ligands-capped QDs have extremely good dynamic stability even in salt-saturated solution. Unlike to traditional dynamic stability theory, which considers the electrostatic repulsion of QDs dominant QD stability, the current work found a new determined factor: the steric hindrance of ligand structure. The high steric hindrance effect of multi-branched ligands can maintain the single dispersity of QDs even at extremely low electrostatic repulsion. As a result, QDs with ultrahigh stability against salts can be realized.

  6. CW laser compaction of aqueous solution deposited metal oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Exarhos, G.J.; Dennis, T.

    1997-12-01

    Zirconium dioxide films were spin cast onto silica or silicon substrates from an aqueous solution comprised of the precursor metal nitrate and an organic complexant such as glycine. The hydrated films so derived consist of an amorphous organic phase in which the metal cations and nitrate anions are homogeneously dispersed. Heating to temperatures above 200 {degrees}C leads to film dehydration followed by an auto-catalyzed oxidation reaction whereby the bound nitrate oxidizes the organic matrix leaving behind an intact stoichiometric and crystalline metal oxide film. Films are characterized using AFM, XRD, and optical methods. Transformation processes in these films have been studied in detail by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and laser induced fluorescence from films doped with a suitable rare earth probe ion such as SM{sup +3}. In the latter case, the measured fluorescence emission spectra are used to identify the hydrated, dehydrated, amorphous and crystalline metal oxide phases which evolve during processing. These transformations also have been induced upon visible CW laser irradiation at fluences in excess of 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Under these conditions, the film dehydrates and compacts within the footprint of the incident laser beam rendering this region of the film water insoluble. Post irradiation washing of the film with water removes all vestiges of the film outside of the beam footprint suggesting a possible use of this technique for lithography applications. Films subjected to laser irradiation and post irradiation heating have been characterized with respect to thickness, phase composition, crystallite size and optical constants.

  7. Structure of salts solution in polar dielectric liquids and electrically induced separation of solvated ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamanin, Igor V.; Kazaryan, Mishik A.; Sachkov, Victor I.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of study is to demonstrate that separation of solvated ions in solution of mix of salts under the action of external periodic electric field happens because of around ions there are formed clusters consisting of molecules of solvent and the sizes of such clusters have dimensions ~ 0.1 μm. In investigations the sizes of clusters theoretically were defined and experimentally value of frequency of external electric field which action excites the effect of separation of the solvated ions was defined. Experiments were done in the Technical Physics Chair of the National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University. At theoretical determination of the dimensions of clusters Poisson's equation was solved and was considered that polar molecules of solvent are oriented under the action of electric field of an ion. The chemical composition of samples of solutions was determined by means of the spectrophotometry and he X-ray excited fluorescent radiation analysis method. Theoretical estimates and results of experiments confirmed the assumption that clusters which are formed around ions in solutions have the dimensions ~ 0.1 μm. Results of investigation testify that placing of volume distributed electric charge of ion in dielectric liquid is accompanied by formation of the supramolecular particles, which we called "clusters", linear sizes of which is significantly more than first and second radiuses of solvation (~ 1 Angstrom) and reach size ~ 0.1 μm. At such sizes inertial properties of clusters and their natural frequencies give the chance to operate their movement by means of action of external electric field on solution.

  8. Chain dimensions in free and immobilized brush states of polysulfobetaine in aqueous solution at various salt concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terayama, Y.; Arita, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Mitamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Yamada, N. L.; Takahara, A.

    2011-01-01

    The chain dimensions of free and immobilized polysulfobetaine in aqueous solution at various salt concentrations were investigated by size-exclusion chromatography with multiangle light scattering and neutron reflectivity measurement, respectively. The dependence of the z-average mean square radius of gyration (z1/2) on the weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of free poly(3-(N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl-N,N-dimethyl)ammonatopropanesulfo-nate) (MAPS) in aqueous solution at salt concentrations of 74, 100, 200, and 500 mM was described by the perturbed wormlike chain model using the chain stiffness parameter λ-1 the molar mass per unit contour length ML, and the excluded volume effect B. B increased from 0 to 1.8 nm with increasing salt concentration to 500 mM due to the screening of attractive electrostatic interaction between ammonium cations and sulfonyl anions by salt ions. The swollen structure of the poly(MAPS) brush in D2O changed from a shrunken state to a relatively extended state with increasing salt concentration from 0 to 500 mM NaCl/D2O solution. The thickness of the swollen poly(MAPS) brush in 500 mM NaCl/D2O was 9.0 times greater than 2z1/2 of free poly(MAPS) due to high osmotic pressure generated by the excluded volume effect of densely grafted polymer chains.

  9. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  10. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  11. Superior adsorption capacity of g-C₃N₄ for heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Congcong; Chen, Changlun; Wen, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, Anwu

    2015-10-15

    In this work, graphitic-C3N4 (g-C3N4) was synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly salt melt method, and characterized by using field-emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The as-prepared g-C3N4 was used as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption kinetics of Pb(II) and Cu(II) followed the pseudo-second-order model. The g-C3N4 exhibited much higher adsorption capacity toward heavy metal ions (1.36 mmol/g for Pb(II), 2.09 mmol/g for Cu(II), 1.00 mmol/g for Cd(II) and 0.64 mmol/g for Ni(II)) than other adsorbents. The adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) on g-C3N4 was slightly affected by ionic strength at pH<5.0 and increased with the increase of ionic strength at pH>5.0. The inner-sphere surface complexation mechanism was suitable to explain the interaction between heavy metal ions and the nitrogen- and carbon-containing functional groups of the g-C3N4. The experimental results reveal that g-C3N4 is a potential adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

  12. A quantitative assessment of the Nigerian mothers' ability to prepare salt-sugar solution for the home management of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Ekanem, E E; Akitoye, C O; Adedeji, O T; Salako, Q A

    1993-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing qualitatively and quantitatively the ability of Nigerian mothers to prepare salt-sugar solutions (SSS) (according to the Nigerian standard formula) under the usual home environment. Mothers were provided with the ingredients but not with measurement spoons nor containers. 274 mothers randomly selected from a peri-urban community participated in the study. Of the 192 (70.1%) who claimed knowledge on SSS preparation, only 47 (24.5%) gave a correct description of its constitution and 103 (54.2%) were willing to prepare the solution. Of the 103 who prepared the solution, 34 (33.0%) used the correct number of teaspoons of salt and of sugar. The composition of the solutions prepared by the mothers varied greatly with sodium levels ranging from 0-760 mmols/l (mean 225.8 +/- 155.3, median 177.3) and glucose, 0-262.6 mmols/l (mean 68.7 +/- 54.4, median 52.0). Only 7 mothers (6.8%) prepared solutions with acceptable sodium and glucose levels. It is concluded that salt-sugar solutions prepared by Nigerian mothers are not safe. There is a great need to review the oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion strategies and messages in order to avoid the dangers associated with improperly constituted solutions. PMID:8230075

  13. Electrokinetic stabilization as a reclamation tool for waste materials polluted by both salts and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Traina, G; Ferro, S; De Battisti, A

    2009-05-01

    A method for detoxifying industrial wastes is presented, aiming at a safer management and reuse. Focusing, in particular, on bottom ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator, the proposed "ElectroKinetic Stabilization" (EKS) technique requires a relatively short treatment time and improves the remediation of ashes by combining a fast extraction of chlorides by electromigration, together with a stabilization of metals through their reaction with phosphate anions, which migrate through the ash under the influence of the electric field. Heavy metals react with the phosphate anions, leading to the precipitation of metal hydroxy-apatite or chloro-apatite (for Pb and Ba), or to their trapping in a calcium-apatite mineral, that formed during the process. Along with precipitation, metal immobilization is allowed by the decrease of ash pH to 9-11 by means of H(+) produced at the anode from the electrolysis of water. The migration of salts through the wet ashes is very fast and the treatment time could be decreased to 24h. After EKS, Ba, Pb and F(-) leaching was reduced by 97%, 92% and 92%, respectively, below the allowed limits. In contrast, the final leaching of Cu and chlorides was reduced by 90% and 80%, respectively, still above the allowed limits. PMID:19201011

  14. Decolorization of Reactive Black-5 by Shewanella sp. in the Presence of Metal Ions and Salts.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Khalid, Azeem; Hussain, Sabir; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Crowley, David E

    2015-07-01

    In this study, effect of various metal ions and salts on biodecolorization of Reactive black-5, azoreductase activity, and growth of Shewanella sp. strain IFN4 was evaluated. Among the tested metals, Cr²⁺, Pb(²⁺, Ni²⁺, Fe²⁺, and Mn²⁺ did not inhibit the biodecolorization of reactive black-5, azoreductase activity and bacterial growth. Three metals (Cu²⁺, Zn²⁺, and Co²⁺) delayed the decolorization process without completely inhibiting the reaction and also suppressed the bacterial growth. However, no dye decolorization was observed in the presence of Cd²⁺ (10 mg L⁻¹). Furthermore, bacterium decolorized the dye at high concentration (15 mg L⁻¹) of mixed metal ions. Strain IFN4 was also able to decolorize the dye at 50 g NaCl L⁻¹ and 60 g Na₂SO₄ L⁻¹. NaCl was found to be more inhibitory to bacterial growth than Na₂SO₄and the reverse was observed for azoreductase activity. These findings suggest that strain IFN4 could be used in designing a bioreactor for the treatment of textile effluent.

  15. Hydrate-based heavy metal separation from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongchen; Dong, Hongsheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Mingjun; Li, Yanghui; Ling, Zheng; Zhao, Jiafei

    2016-02-01

    A novel hydrate-based method is proposed for separating heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. We report the first batch of experiments and removal characteristics in this paper, the effectiveness and feasibility of which are verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis and cross-experiment. 88.01-90.82% of removal efficiencies for Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ were obtained. Further study showed that higher R141b-effluent volume ratio contributed to higher enrichment factor and yield of dissociated water, while lower R141b-effluent volume ratio resulted in higher removal efficiency. This study provides insights into low-energy, intensive treatment of wastewater.

  16. Adaptive resolution simulation of an atomistic DNA molecule in MARTINI salt solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadlav, J.; Podgornik, R.; Melo, M. N.; Marrink, S. J.; Praprotnik, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a dual-resolution model of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule in a bathing solution, where we concurrently couple atomistic bundled water and ions with the coarse-grained MARTINI model of the solvent. We use our fine-grained salt solution model as a solvent in the inner shell surrounding the DNA molecule, whereas the solvent in the outer shell is modeled by the coarse-grained model. The solvent entities can exchange between the two domains and adapt their resolution accordingly. We critically asses the performance of our multiscale model in adaptive resolution simulations of an infinitely long DNA molecule, focusing on the structural characteristics of the solvent around DNA. Our analysis shows that the adaptive resolution scheme does not produce any noticeable artifacts in comparison to a reference system simulated in full detail. The effect of using a bundled-SPC model, required for multiscaling, compared to the standard free SPC model is also evaluated. Our multiscale approach opens the way for large scale applications of DNA and other biomolecules which require a large solvent reservoir to avoid boundary effects.

  17. Comparison of the effect of hormones on the hormone synthesis of Tetrahymena in medium or salt solution.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Lajkó, Eszter; Pállinger, Eva

    2010-11-01

    Tetrahymena pyriformis was maintained in TYM (tryptone-yeast medium) as well as in Losina salt solution. One hour treatment of 10⁻¹⁵ M histamine, serotonin or insulin was given before the histamine, serotonin, triiodothyronine and adrenocorticotropin contents of the cells were measured by flow cytometry after immunocytochemical staining. Maintenance in salt solution increased the hormone level in the cells, and use of the treatment hormone treatments further increased the endogenous hormone content relative to that in medium. The cells in salt mimic better the natural conditions, which means that the effects of hormones under more natural conditions are expressed to a greater extent than the exogenously given hormones in TYM typically used under laboratory conditions. Intercellular hormonal communication between the cells of a Tetrahymena population might assist in the survival of the individual cells.

  18. Alkali metal salts of rutin - Synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-VIS), antioxidant and antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Samsonowicz, M; Kamińska, I; Kalinowska, M; Lewandowski, W

    2015-12-01

    In this work several metal salts of rutin with lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium were synthesized. Their molecular structures were discussed on the basis of spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-VIS) studies. Optimized geometrical structure of rutin was calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G(∗∗) method and sodium salt of rutin were calculated by B3LYP/LanL2DZ method. Metal chelation change the biological properties of ligand therefore the antioxidant (FRAP and DPPH) and antimicrobial activities (toward Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of alkali metal salts were evaluated and compared with the biological properties of rutin. PMID:26184478

  19. The deliquescence behaviour, solubilities, and densities of aqueous solutions of five methyl- and ethyl-aminium sulphate salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Simon L.; Qiu, Chong; Zhang, Renyi

    2013-07-01

    We report measured solubilities of five aminium (i.e., monomethyl, dimethyl, trimethyl, diethyl, and triethyl) sulphate salts in water at 24 °C, and the densities of their aqueous solutions. Using these results, we have converted hygroscopic growth factors determined by Qiu and Zhang (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 4474-4480) to a moles of water per mole of solute basis, and obtained the relationships between concentration and equilibrium relative humidity (water activity) for solutions of the five salts. The results are compared with values predicted using the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) of Clegg and co-workers (J. Geophys. Res. 2002, 107, D14, Art. No. 4207). It is assumed in this model that ion and water activities in the solutions are the same as those for aqueous (NH4)2SO4 at the same molality. The experimental and modelled growth factors agree well in all cases, within the uncertainties of the data, which supports this assumption. Equations for the apparent molar volumes of the aminium sulphate salts in aqueous solutions are presented (based upon the measured densities and literature data), and also activity products of the salts in saturated aqueous solutions (based upon the measured solubilities and assumption of similarity with (NH4)2SO4). Simulations of the deliquescence curves of 1:1 and 1:9 mass ratio mixtures of monomethyl and dimethyl aminium sulphate with (NH4)2SO4 are shown to agree well with the measurements. The treatment of amines and aminium salts in the E-AIM model is described.

  20. REAL-TIME MONITORING OF A SALT SOLUTION MINING CAVERN: FROM PRECURSORY SIGNS TO GENERAL COLLAPSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, E.; Contrucci, I.; Cao, N.; Bigarré, P.

    2009-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding in brutal large scale ground failure phenomenon, a salt solution mining cavern was instrumented in 2004 previously to its expected collapse as part of its mining scheme. A permanent early warning system was set up, including a high resolution microseismic monitoring network linked to a surface field displacement measurement system. The important amount of data collected during this 5 years experiment offered real-time insight of the evolution of the geological system. The complete data set recorded during the experiment made it possible to track with precision the main stages in the evolution of the cavern. The early signs of failure were detected by high resolution microseismic monitoring during spring 2008: a shift in microseismic background regime as well as recurrent microseismic episodes were undoubtedly associated to a general process of rock failure due to the salt cavern extending up to a critical size. This was accompanied by a few episodes of massive roof falls while the upper part of the overburden remained elastic, with no ground surface movement detected. During a second and last stage of evolution, on-line processing and analysis of a sudden intense microseismic activity allowed the interpretation of the rapid, energetic failure of a thin and very stiff bed rock underlying 120 meters deep. After this failure, the ground surface measurements indicated an irreversible acceleration of the subsidence up to the general collapse 24 hours later. As it will be shown, the in-depth analysis of the whole data set enables to characterize the dynamic process of rupture and its associated precursory signs. It provides also essential knowledge and feedback experience for operational monitoring of underground operations carried out on other sensitive mining sites.

  1. Opto-electrochemical spectroscopy of metals in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K.

    2016-03-01

    In the present investigation, holographic interferometry was utilized for the first time to determine the rate change of the electrical resistance of aluminium samples during the initial stage of anodisation processes in aqueous solution. In fact, because the resistance values in this investigation were obtained by holographic interferometry, electromagnetic method rather than electronic method, the abrupt rate change of the resistance was called electrical resistance-emission spectroscopy. The anodisation process of the aluminium samples was carried out by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in different sulphuric acid concentrations (1.0%-2.5% H2SO4) at room temperature. In the meantime, the real time holographic interferometry was used to determine the difference between the electrical resistance of two subsequent values, dR, as a function of the elapsed time of the EIS experiment for the aluminium samples in 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 2.5% H2SO4 solutions. The electrical resistance-emission spectra of the present investigation represent a detailed picture of not only the rate change of the electrical resistance throughout the anodisation processes but also the spectra represent the rate change of the growth of the oxide films on the aluminium samples in different solutions. As a result, a new spectrometer was developed based on the combination of the holographic interferometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for studying in situ the electrochemical behavior of metals in aqueous solutions.

  2. On the feasibility of near infrared spectroscopy to detect contaminants in water using single salt solutions as model systems.

    PubMed

    Gowen, A A; Marini, F; Tsuchisaka, Y; De Luca, S; Bevilacqua, M; O'Donnell, C; Downey, G; Tsenkova, R

    2015-01-01

    This research work evaluates the feasibility of NIRS to detect contaminants in water using single salt solutions as model systems. Previous research has indicated the potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for detecting solutes in water; however, a comprehensive investigation of the limit of detection of this technique has not been carried out. Near infrared transmittance spectra of aqueous salt solutions in the concentration range 0.002-0.1 mol L(-1) (equivalent to 117-13,334 ppm or 0.0001-0.01% mass/mass) were investigated. The first overtone region of the near infrared spectrum (1300-1600 nm) was found to be the most effective wavelength range for prediction of salt concentration in aqueous solutions. Calibration models built using this wavelength range and employing the extended multiplicative scatter spectral pre-treatment resulted in root mean squared error of prediction values ranging from 0.004 to 0.01 mol L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be of the order of 0.1% (mass/mass) or 1000 ppm. Within the framework of Aquaphotomics, it was possible to examine the effect of different salts on the NIR spectra of water in the first overtone range. Our results were confirmed through test experiments at various geographical locations employing dispersive and Fourier transform type NIRS instruments.

  3. Estimation of salt water upconing using a steady-state solution for partial completion of a pumped well.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    A new steady-state analytical solution to the two-dimensional radial-flow equation was developed for drawdown (head) conditions in an aquifer with constant transmissivity, no-flow conditions at the top and bottom, constant head conditions at a known radial distance, and a partially completed pumping well. The solution was evaluated for accuracy by comparison to numerical simulations using MODFLOW. The solution was then used to estimate the rise of the salt water-fresh water interface (upconing) that occurs under a pumping well, and to calculate the critical pumping rate at which the interface becomes unstable, allowing salt water to enter the pumping well. The analysis of salt water-fresh water interface rise assumed no significant effect on upconing by recharge; this assumption was tested and supported using results from a new steady-state analytical solution developed for recharge under two-dimensional radial-flow conditions. The upconing analysis results were evaluated for accuracy by comparison to those from numerical simulations using SEAWAT for salt water-fresh water interface positions under mild pumping conditions. The results from the equation were also compared with those of a published numerical sharp-interface model applied to a case on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This comparison indicates that estimating the interface rise and maximum allowable pumping rate using the analytical method will likely be less conservative than the maximum allowable pumping rate and maximum stable interface rise from a numerical sharp-interface model.

  4. Aqueous biphasic systems for metal separations : a microcalorimetric analysis of polymer/salt interactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D. J.; Hatton, T. A.; Zaslavsky, B.

    1999-05-03

    Certain radionuclide ions (e.g., TcO{sub 4}{sup 16}) exhibit unusually strong Affinities toward the polymer-rich phase in aqueous biphase systems generated by combinations of salt solutions with polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(propylene glycol) (PPG). Thus, aqueous polymer phases could potentially be used to selectively extract these ions during pretreatment of radioactive tank wastes at Hanford. To help develop a fundamental understanding of the interactions between various ions and polymers in aqueous solution, interaction enthalpies between sodium perrhenate and a random copolymer of PEG and PPG (UCON-50) were measured by microcalorimetric titration. An entropy compensation effect was observed in this system in which changes in enthalpic interactions were balanced by entropy changes such that the interaction free energy remained constant and approximately equal to zero.

  5. Saturated Salt Solution Method: A Useful Cadaver Embalming for Surgical Skills Training

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST. PMID:25501070

  6. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  7. High-temperature corrosion of metals in the salt and metallic melts containing rare earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, V. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Zhilyakov, A. Yu.; Belikov, S. V.; Volkovich, V. A.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    A complex of independent methods was employed to study the corrosion resistance of molybdenum, zirconium, tantalum and tungsten in chloride, chloride-fluoride and fluoride-oxide melts based on LiCl, CaCl2, NaCl- KCl, LiF, and containing rare earths. Tests were conducted for 30 h at 750-1050 °C. The metals showed excellent corrosion resistance in fused chlorides (the corrosion rates were below 0.0005 g/(m2 h). Despite the presence of chemically active fluoride ions in the chloride-fluoride melts, the metals studied also showed very low corrosion rates, except molybdenum, for which the rate of corrosion was 0,8 g/(m2 h). The corrosion resistance of tantalum was considerably reduced in the fluoride-oxide melts; the corrosion rate was over 1 g/(m2 h) corresponding to the 8-th grade of stability and placing tantalum to the group of "low stability" materials.

  8. Heavy metals extraction from contaminated soil: recovery of the flushing solution.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, L; Ferrantelli, P; Medici, F

    2005-11-01

    The optimum conditions for the recovery of copper from a contaminated soil by using the soil flushing technique are evaluated. Tests on a soil artificially contaminated with copper chloride were carried out in order to evaluate the influence of the speed of percolation and of the chelating agent concentration (aqueous solution of an ethylendiaminotetraacetic acid di-sodium salt Na2-EDTA). At pH=7.3 an efficiency up to 93.9% for copper extraction was achieved by flushing 500 ml of Na2-EDTA 0.05 M solution and 100 ml of pure water at 0.792 cm/h. At these operating conditions the formation of EDTA complexes with other competitive cations (calcium and iron) was negligible. The experimental results were in agreement with the ones obtained using a model describing the chemistry of metal extraction. This model assessed that above pH=6 the formation of calcium and iron EDTA complexes was excluded and only the chelation of copper was allowed. The recovery of 91.6% of EDTA was also achieved by evaporating and acidifying the extracted solution: after filtration, solid EDTA was obtained, through the addition of sodium hydroxide Na2-EDTA. About 99.5% of the extracted copper was finally precipitated under alkaline conditions from the liquid phase.

  9. The on-line removal of non-regenerable salts from amine solutions using the UCARSEP{reg_sign} Process

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.; Gregory, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Amine unit contamination with non-regenerable salts, whether as a result of acid or inorganic salt incursion, or solvent degradation, is a common industry problem. In MEA systems this is usually addressed by the use of a reclaimer but this is not a practical solution for DEA, MDEA or formulated solvents. Similarly, the old approach of purging solvent is no longer economically or environmentally justifiable. Neutralization of amine salts with a strong base can significantly prolong the useful life of the amine solution but eventually some of the salt may have to be removed, especially if mechanical losses are low. Electrodialysis (ED) has recently been applied to this problem and has been found to overcome many of the disadvantages of vacuum distillation and ion exchange technologies, both of which have been used in recent years for solvent clean-up. Union Carbide adapted ED technology to the unique conditions encountered in an amine system and developed the UCARSEP{reg_sign} Process. A mobile UCARSEP{reg_sign} unit has been built to achieve on-line salt removal rates of 40 lbmol/day (about 3,300 lb/day). This has been successfully used to clean up UCARSOL{reg_sign} solvents as well as DEA. Case studies are presented and the relative merits of this and other clean-up options are discussed.

  10. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  11. Diversity of endophytic Pseudomonas in Halimione portulacoides from metal(loid)-polluted salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Jaqueline; Tacão, Marta; Fidalgo, Cátia; Alves, Artur; Henriques, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Phytoremediation assisted by bacteria is seen as a promising alternative to reduce metal contamination in the environment. The main goal of this study was to characterize endophytic Pseudomonas isolated from Halimione portulacoides, a metal-accumulator plant, in salt marshes contaminated with metal(loid)s. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrB genes showed that isolates affiliated with P. sabulinigri (n = 16), P. koreensis (n = 10), P. simiae (n = 5), P. seleniipraecipitans (n = 2), P. guineae (n = 2), P. migulae (n = 1), P. fragi (n = 1), P. xanthomarina (n = 1), and Pseudomonas sp. (n = 1). Most of these species have never been described as endophytic. The majority of the isolates were resistant to three or more metal(loid)s. Antibiotic resistance was frequent among the isolates but most likely related to species-intrinsic features. Common acquired antibiotic resistance genes and integrons were not detected. Plasmids were detected in 43.6 % of the isolates. Isolates that affiliated with different species shared the same plasmid profile but attempts to transfer metal resistance to receptor strains were not successful. Phosphate solubilization and IAA production were the most prevalent plant growth promoting traits, and 20 % of the isolates showed activity against phytopathogenic bacteria. Most isolates produced four or more extracellular enzymes. Preliminary results showed that two selected isolates promote Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation. Results highlight the diversity of endophytic Pseudomonas in H. portulacoides from contaminated sites and their potential to assist phytoremediation by acting as plant growth promoters and as environmental detoxifiers. PMID:27023813

  12. Advances in molten salt chemistry: Vol. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Mamautov, G.; Braunstein, J.

    1981-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: electronic properties of solutions of liquid metals and ionic melts; metal-metal halide, metal-chalcogen, and metal-metal solutions; metallic models; the use of high pressure in the study of molten salts; the purpose of high pressure experimentation; melting point curves and phase diagrams; compressibilities and equations of state; electrical conductivity measurements; physical chemistry and electrochemistry of alkali carbonate melts; equilibrium properties of molten carbonates; electrochemical characteristics and corrosion; stability of ceramics; some new molten salt electrolytic processes; sodium metal production by the use of a beta-alumina diaphragm; recovery of metallic sodium or caustic soda and sulfur from flue gas; high temperature electrolysis of water; and LiCl electrolysis by the use of a bipolar liquid metal electrode.

  13. Diclofenac Salts, VIII. Effect of the Counterions on the Permeation through Porcine Membrane from Aqueous Saturated Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fini, Adamo; Bassini, Glenda; Monastero, Annamaria; Cavallari, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The following bases: monoethylamine (EtA), diethylamine (DEtA), triethylamine (TEtA), monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA), pyrrolidine (Py), piperidine (Pp), morpholine (M), piperazine (Pz) and their N-2-hydroxyethyl (HE) analogs were employed to prepare 14 diclofenac salts. The salts were re-crystallized from water in order to obtain forms that are stable in the presence of water. Vertical Franz-type cells with a diffusional surface area of 9.62 cm2 were used to study the permeation of these diclofenac salts from their saturated solutions through an internal pig ear membrane. The receptor compartments of the cells contained 100 mL of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); a saturated solution (5 mL) of each salt was placed in the donor compartment, thermostated at 37 °C. Aliquots were withdrawn at predetermined time intervals over 8 h and then immediately analyzed by HPLC. Fluxes were determined by plotting the permeated amount, normalized for the membrane surface area versus time. Permeation coefficients were obtained dividing the flux values J by the concentration of the releasing phase—that is, water solubility of each salt. Experimental results show that fluxes could be measured when diclofenac salts with aliphatic amines are released from a saturated aqueous solution. Different chemical species (acid, anion, ion pairs) contribute to permeation of the anti-inflammatory agent even though ion-pairs could be hypothesized to operate to a greater extent. Permeation coefficients were found higher when the counterion contains a ring; while hydroxy groups alone do not appear to play an important role, the ring could sustain permeation, disrupting the organized domains of the membrane. PMID:24300300

  14. Metal Nanoparticles Preparation In Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Harry W. Rollins

    2004-04-01

    The novel optical, electronic, and/or magnetic properties of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles have resulted in extensive research on new methods for their preparation. An ideal preparation method would allow the particle size, size distribution, crystallinity, and particle shape to be easily controlled, and would be applicable to a wide variety of material systems. Numerous preparation methods have been reported, each with its inherent advantages and disadvantages; however, an ideal method has yet to emerge. The most widely applied methods for nanoparticle preparation include the sonochemical reduction of organometallic reagents,(1&2) the solvothermal method of Alivisatos,(3) reactions in microemulsions,(4-6) the polyol method (reduction by alcohols),(7-9) and the use of polymer and solgel materials as hosts.(10-13) In addition to these methods, there are a variety of methods that take advantage of the unique properties of a supercritical fluid.(14&15) Through simple variations of temperature and pressure, the properties of a supercritical fluid can be continuously tuned from gas-like to liquid-like without undergoing a phase change. Nanoparticle preparation methods that utilize supercritical fluids are briefly reviewed below using the following categories: Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS), Reactive Supercritical Fluid Processing, and Supercritical Fluid Microemulsions. Because of its easily accessible critical temperature and pressure and environmentally benign nature, carbon dioxide is the most widely used supercritical solvent. Supercritical CO2 is unfortunately a poor solvent for many polar or ionic species, which has impeded its use in the preparation of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles. We have developed a reactive supercritical fluid processing method using supercritical carbon dioxide for the preparation of metal and metal sulfide particles and used it to prepare narrowly distributed nanoparticles of silver (Ag) and silver sulfide

  15. Metal cladding envelope problems, retrofit solutions, and quality control investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    1992-04-01

    This paper deals with a case study of a building envelope retrofit of an insulated sheet steel and corrugated metal clad building. The building in discussion is a satellite testing facility which requires specific clean room conditions with controlled interior temperature (22 degree(s)C +/- 1 degree(s)C) and high relative humidity conditions (45% +/- 3%) to facilitate satellite testing programs. Preliminary mechanical system inspections indicated substantial increase in air intake to make up for air leakage losses. An infrared inspection along with an approximate air leakage test of the building envelope was requested by the client to determine the magnitude of the building envelope problem. This investigation concluded that significant air leakage was present throughout the building envelope and that existing mechanical systems did not have sufficient capacity to pressurize the building and negate wind and stack effect. Exfiltration particularly through openings on the top sections of the building were causing interior moisture to saturate wall insulation and render it ineffective. Concern for rusting of metal components was indicated. The subsequent envelope analysis discovered a number of typical metal building details that led to poor air tightness and wall insulation ineffectiveness. These were correlated to infrared investigation data. The retrofit solutions produced for this building not only apply to this building but to other similar building types. Further investigations indicated that air leakage and mechanical system performance were significant problems with buildings using metal cladding systems comparable to this building. Quality control before, during and after construction was identified as an important function of the architectural commissioning of the retrofit work and infrared investigations were used to verify locations of air leakage and insulation effectiveness.

  16. Oxidative Dissolution of Nickel Metal in Hydrogenated Hydrothermal Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S. E.; Guilmette, P. A.; Turcotte, R. A.; Tunison, H. M.

    2007-03-27

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of metallic nickel in hydrogenated ammonia and sodium hydroxide solutions between 175 and 315 C. The solubility measurements were interpreted by means of an oxidative dissolution reaction followed by a sequence of Ni(II) ion hydrolysis reactions: Ni(s) + 2H+(aq) = Ni2+(aq) + H2(g) and Ni{sup 2+}(aq) + nH{sub 2}O = Ni(OH){sub n}{sup 2-n}(aq) + nH{sup +}(aq) where n = 1 and 2. Gibbs energies associated with these reaction equilibria were determined from a least-squares analysis of the data. The extracted thermochemical properties ({Delta}fG{sup 0}, {Delta}fH{sup 0} and S{sup 0}) for Ni2{sup +}(aq), Ni(OH){sup +}(aq) and Ni(OH){sub 2}(aq) were found to be consistent with those determined in a previous solubility study of NiO/Ni(OH){sub 2} conducted in our laboratory. The thermodynamic basis of the Ni/NiO phase boundary in aqueous solutions is examined to show that Ni(s) is stable relative to NiO(s) in solutions saturated at 25 C with 1 atm H{sub 2} for temperatures below 309 C.

  17. Method and device for electroextraction of heavy metals from technological solutions and wastewater

    DOEpatents

    Khalemsky, Aron Mikhailov; Payusov, Sergei Abramovic; Kelner, Leonid; Jo, Jae

    2005-05-03

    The basic principles of the method for heavy metals electroextraction from technological solutions and wastewater includes pretreating to remove Chromium-6 and high concentrations of heavy metals and periodically treating in a six-electrode bipolar cylindrical electroreactor made of non-conducting material to achieve lower accepted levels of impurities. Six cylindrical steel electrodes form two triode stacks and are fed with three-phase alternating current of commercial frequency (50-60 Hz), which can be pulsed. Each phase of the three-phase current is connected to three electrodes of one triode stack or in parallel to two triode stacks. The parallel connection of three-phase current to two triode stacks is performed so that the same phase of the three phase current is connected in parallel with each two opposite electrodes of six electrodes located along the periphery, or with two adjacent electrodes. A bipolar stationary aluminum electrode is situated in the inter-electrode space. In one of the embodiments, the bipolar electrode is made of a perforated heat-resistant plastic container filled with secondary aluminum and duralumin scrap. In another embodiment, the bipolar electrode of aluminum or duralumin scrap may be made without a perforated container and is placed in the inter-electrode space as a bulk scrap. In this case, to prevent shorts, each of six steel electrodes is placed in isolated perforated plastic shell with holes of 5 mm in diameter. Non-ferrous metals are extracted in a form of ferrite-chromites, and aluminates as well as hydroxyl salts deposited in the inter-electrode space without electrolysis deposits on electrodes. Deposits are separated from solution by known methods of filtration.

  18. Survival of Bifidobacterium longum immobilized in calcium alginate beads in simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Y; Heo, T R

    2000-02-01

    Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128 and HLC 3742 were independently immobilized (entrapped) in calcium alginate beads containing 2, 3, and 4% sodium alginate. When the bifidobacteria entrapped in calcium alginate beads were exposed to simulated gastric juices and a bile salt solution, the death rate of the cells in the beads decreased proportionally with an increase in both the alginate gel concentration and bead size. The initial cell numbers in the beads affected the numbers of survivors after exposure to these solutions; however, the death rates of the viable cells were not affected. Accordingly, a mathematical model was formulated which expressed the influences of several parameters (gel concentration, bead size, and initial cell numbers) on the survival of entrapped bifidobacteria after sequential exposure to simulated gastric juices followed by a bile salt solution. The model proposed in this paper may be useful for estimating the survival of bifidobacteria in beads and establishing optimal entrapment conditions.

  19. Rapid releases of metal salts and nutrients following the deposition of volcanic ash into aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Gislason, Sigurður R.

    2008-08-01

    Deposition of volcanic ash into aqueous environments leads to dissolution of adsorbed metal salts and aerosols, increasing the bioavailability of key nutrients. Volcanogenic fertilization events could increase marine primary productivity, leading to a drawdown of atmospheric CO 2. Here we conduct flow-through experiments on unhydrated volcanic ash samples from a variety of locations and sources, measuring the concentrations and fluxes of elements into de-ionized water and two contrasting ocean surface waters. Comparisons of element fluxes show that dissolution of adsorbed surface salts and aerosols dominates over glass dissolution, even in sustained low pH conditions. These surface ash-leachates appear unstable, decaying in situ even if kept unhydrated. Volcanic ash from recent eruptions is shown to have a large fertilization potential in both fresh and saline water. Fluorine concentrations are integral to bulk dissolution rates and samples with high F concentrations display elevated fluxes of some nutrients, particularly Fe, Si, and P. Bio-limiting micronutrients are released in large quantities, suggesting that subsequent biological growth will be limited by macronutrient availability. Importantly, acidification of surface waters and high fluxes of toxic elements highlights the potential of volcanic ash-leachates to poison aqueous environments. In particular, large pH changes can cause undersaturation of CaCO 3 polymorphs, damaging populations of calcifying organisms. Deposition of volcanic ash can both fertilize and/or poison aqueous environments, causing significant changes to surface water chemistry and biogeochemical cycles.

  20. Localized corrosion of high performance metal alloys in an acid/salt environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Ontiveros, C.

    1991-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Space Shuttle launch site at Kennedy Space Center use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the thin walled 304L stainless steel flex hoses. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. The study focussed on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, and long term exposure at a beach corrosion testing site. Based on the results of these tests, several nickel based alloys were found to have very high resistance to this corrosive environment. Also, there was excellent agreement between the electrochemical tests and the actual beach exposure tests. This suggests that electrochemical testing may be useful for narrowing the field of potential candidate alloys before subjecting samples to long term beach exposure.

  1. Water-Insoluble Surface Coatings of Polyion-Surfactant Ion Complex Salts Respond to Additives in a Surrounding Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Charlotte; Obiols-Rabasa, Marc; Piculell, Lennart

    2015-06-16

    Hydrated, but water-insoluble, "complex salts" (CS) composed of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions with polyacrylate counterions are known to exhibit a rich phase behavior in bulk mixtures with water and have recently been shown to act as water-responsive surface coatings. Here it is shown, by SAXS measurements, that surface coatings of CS also respond to various added solutes in a surrounding aqueous solution, by altering their liquid crystalline structure. The obtained results provide new information on the phase behavior of CS in contact with water and aqueous solutions. Solutes such as acids, salts, excess ionic surfactant, or water-soluble polymers act on the CS by altering the polyion charge density, screening the electrostatic interaction, changing the curvature of the surfactant aggregate, or increasing the osmotic pressuring in the surrounding solution, all of which may result in a phase transition in the film. In water, all studied CS surface coatings had a micellar cubic structure, which could change to 2D hexagonal, HCP, or disordered micellar structure, depending on the identity of the CS and the identity and concentration of the added solute. For some systems, even dissolved CO2 from the ambient air was sufficient to induce a structural change in the film. Especially the films containing the long polyions remained intact even for large concentrations of solutes in the contacting solutions, and extensive washing in water resulted, in most cases, in films with the "original" structure found in water. PMID:26017683

  2. Synergistic effects of inorganic salt and surfactant on phenanthrene removal from aqueous solution by sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yaoguo; Hu, Sihai; Lu, Cong

    2014-01-01

    The economic and effective application of surfactant enhanced remediation (SER) technology in a sediment-freshwater/saline water system was investigated by batch method using the combined effects of inorganic salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) and anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS)) on phenanthrene (PHE) removal via sorption by sediment. In all cases, PHE sorption followed a linear equation and partition as the main mechanism for PHE removal from aqueous solution. Separate addition of SDBS (2 mmol L(-1)) and NaCl (2-100 mmol L(-1)) moderately enhanced PHE removal, while with their combined addition the enhancement was substantial, and the removal efficiency achieved a peak of 92.8%. The combined effect expressed a synergy, and the sorption enhancement increased by factors of 2.7, 3.2 and 3.4 when compared with the sum of the separate entities at elevated salinity. This was because the sorbed SDBS, with increasing amount and a high packing conformation at elevated salinity, outcompeted aqueous SDBS for PHE partition. Moreover, a combination of 2 mmol L(-1) SDBS and 2 mmol L(-1) NaCl was optimal for PHE removal. Therefore, SER technology appears more effective for PHE removal in saline water than in freshwater, and preliminary water quality monitoring is essential for economic and efficient SER application. PMID:25353936

  3. In vitro corrosion of ZEK100 plates in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years magnesium alloys have been intensively investigated as potential resorbable materials with appropriate mechanical and corrosion properties. Particularly in orthopedic research magnesium is interesting because of its mechanical properties close to those of natural bone, the prevention of both stress shielding and removal of the implant after surgery. Methods ZEK100 plates were examined in this in vitro study with Hank's Balanced Salt Solution under physiological conditions with a constant laminar flow rate. After 14, 28 and 42 days of immersion the ZEK100 plates were mechanically tested via four point bending test. The surfaces of the immersed specimens were characterized by SEM, EDX and XRD. Results The four point bending test displayed an increased bending strength after 6 weeks immersion compared to the 2 week group and 4 week group. The characterization of the surface revealed the presence of high amounts of O, P and Ca on the surface and small Mg content. This indicates the precipitation of calcium phosphates with low solubility on the surface of the ZEK100 plates. Conclusions The results of the present in vitro study indicate that ZEK100 is a potential candidate for degradable orthopedic implants. Further investigations are needed to examine the degradation behavior. PMID:22413949

  4. Protein-salt binding data from potentiometric titrations of lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Engmann, J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. |

    1997-03-01

    An existing method for potentiometric titrations of proteins was improved, tested and applied to titrations of the enzyme hen-egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl at ionic strengths from 0.1 M to 2.0 M at 25 C. Information about the protein`s net charge dependence on pH and ionic strength were obtained and salt binding numbers for the system were calculated using a linkage concept. For the pH range 2.5--11.5, the net charge slightly but distinctly increases with increasing ionic strength between 0.1 M and 2.0 M. The differences are most distinct in the pH region below 5. Above pH 11.35, the net charge decreases with increasing ionic strength. Preliminary calculation of binding numbers from titration curves at 0.1 M and 1.0 M showed selective association of chloride anions and expulsion of potassium ions at low pH. Ion-binding numbers from this work will be used to evaluate thermodynamic properties and to correlate crystallization or precipitation phase-equilibrium data in terms of a model based on the integral-equation theory of fluids which is currently under development.

  5. Salting-Out of Methane in the Aqueous Solutions of Urea and Glycine-Betaine.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Mayank Kumar; Siddique, Asrar A; Tembe, B L

    2015-08-27

    We have studied the hydrophobic association and solvation of methane molecules in aqueous solutions of urea and glycine betaine (GB). We have calculated the potentials of mean force (PMFs) between methane molecules in water, aqueous GB, aqueous urea and aqueous urea-GB mixtures. The PMFs and equilibrium constants indicate that both urea and GB increase the hydrophobic association of methane. Calculation of thermodynamic parameters shows that the association of methane is stabilized by entropy whereas solvation is favored by enthalpy. In the case of the water-urea-GB mixture, both hydrophobic association and solvation are stabilized by entropy. From the investigation of radial distribution functions, running coordination numbers and excess coordination numbers, we infer that both urea and GB are preferentially excluded from methane surface in the mixtures of osmolytes and methane is preferentially solvated by water molecules in all the mixtures. The favorable exclusion of both urea and GB from the methane surface suggests that both urea and GB increase the interaction between methane molecules, i.e., salting-out of methane. We observe that addition of both urea and GB to water enhances local water structure. The calculated values of diffusion constants of water also suggest enhanced water-water interactions in the presence of urea and GB. The calculated free energies of methane in these mixtures show that methane is less soluble in the mixtures of urea and GB than in water. The data on solvation free energies support the observations obtained from the PMFs of methane molecules.

  6. Salt Solutions in Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Cation- π Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Mortuza, Golam; Wood, Brandon; Lau, Edmond; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Buchsbaum, Steven; Siwy, Zuzanna; Fornasiero, Francesco; Schwegler, Eric

    Understanding the structure of aqueous electrolytes at interfaces is essential for predicting and optimizing device performances for a wide variety of emerging energy and environmental technologies. In this work, we investigate the structure of two common salt solutions, NaCl and KCl, at a hydrophobic interface within narrow carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Using a combination of first-principles and classical molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the solvation structure of the cations in the CNTs can deviate substantially from the conventional weakly interacting hydrophobic picture. Instead, interactions between solvated ions and the π-orbitals of the CNTs are found to play a critically important role, with the ion solvation structure ultimately determined by a subtle interplay between cation- π interactions and the intrinsic flexibility of the solvation shell. In the case of K+, these effects result in an unusually strong propensity to partially desolvate and reside closer to the carbon wall than either Na+ and Cl-, in sharp contrast to the known ion ordering at the water-vapor interface. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. The structure and terahertz dynamics of water confined in nanoscale pools in salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Turton, David A; Corsaro, Carmelo; Candelaresi, Marco; Brownlie, Angela; Seddon, Ken R; Mallamace, Francesco; Wynne, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of liquid water below its melting point is of great interest as it may hold clues to the properties of normal liquid water and of water in and on the surfaces of biomolecules. A second critical point, giving rise to a polyamorphic transition between high and low density water, may be hidden in the supercooled region but cannot be observed directly. Here it is shown that water can be locked up in nano-pools or worm-like structures using aqueous LiCl salt solutions and can be studied with terahertz spectroscopies. Very high dynamic range ultrafast femtosecond optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy is used to study the temperature-dependent behaviour of water in these nano-pools on timescales from 10 fs to 4 ns. These experiments are complemented by temperature-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements, concentration-dependent Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements, and temperature-dependent rheology. It is found that liquid water in the nanoscale pools undergoes a fragile-to-strong transition at about 220 K associated with a sharp increase in the inhomogeneity of translational dynamics.

  8. The history of metals pollution in Narragansett Bay as recorded by salt-marsh sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Sediment cores from 5 salt marshes from the head to the mouth of Narragansett Bay and an additional core from a lagoon on Block Island Sound were analyzed for [sup 210]Pb and for Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ag, and Ni in order to examine the long-term variation of metal inputs to Narragansett Bay. The [sup 210]Pb results were used to determine accretion rates for each core. Distributions of Fe and Mn were used as indicators of chemical conditions of sediment cores and Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ag, and Ni distributions with time were compared with known or estimated source inputs to examine the long-term variation of pollutant metal inputs to Narragansett Bay. At one location, duplicate cores were sampled to look at variability within a marsh. At another location, a high marsh, receiving predominantly atmospheric inputs and a low marsh, receiving waterborne and atmospheric inputs, were sampled so that atmospheric and tidal contributions could be determined. A comparison was made of the distributions of metals in bay cores and in the lagoon core. All the Rhode Island marshes accrete at rates equal to or greater than the local rise in sea level. Based on the [sup 210]Pb chronologies, pollutant metals began to increase in the mid to late 1800s, corresponding to coal burning emissions to the atmosphere. Steeper increases in the 1900s reflect industrial and sewage discharges. Maximum concentrations were reached in the 1950s and have declined almost continuously since then. Observed reductions were attributable to implementation of and improvements to sewage treatment, and controls on atmospheric emissions.

  9. Simple theoretical model for ion cooperativity in aqueous solutions of simple inorganic salts and its effect on water surface tension.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi Qin

    2011-11-01

    Careful analysis of experimental data showed that the salt aqueous solution/air surface tension depends on a rather complicated manner of salt composition and points to the importance of ion cooperativity. In this short article, we include the selective binding of anions over cations at interfaces (as revealed from molecular dynamics simulations, spectroscopic measurements, and Record's analysis of the surface tension data) and the anion-cation association (based on the observation of matching water affinity) in a simple theoretical model to understand salt effects on surface tension. The introduction of the surface effect and ion association provides a qualitative explanation of the experimental data, in particular, the strong anion dependence of the cations' rank according to their ability of increasing water surface tension. We hope that the physical insight provided by this study can be used to point to new directions for more detailed studies. PMID:21958050

  10. New sol-gel synthetic route to transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels using inorganic salt precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E; Tillotson, T M; Satcher Jr, J H; Hrubesh, L W; Simpson, R L

    2000-09-12

    We have developed a new sol-gel route to synthesize several transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels. The approach is straightforward, inexpensive, versatile, and it produces monolithic microporous materials with high surface areas. Specifically, we report the use of epoxides as gelation agents for the sol-gel synthesis of chromia aerogels and xerogels from simple Cr(III) inorganic salts. The dependence of both gel formation and its rate was studied by varying the solvent used, the Cr(III) precursor salt, the epoxide/Cr(III) ratio, as well as the type of epoxide employed. All of these variables were shown to affect the rate of gel formation and provide a convenient control of this parameter. Dried chromia aerogels were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses, results of which will be presented. Our studies have shown that rigid monolithic gels can be prepared from many different metal ions salts, provided the formal oxidation state of the metal ion is greater than or equal to +3. Conversely, when di-valent transition metal salts are used precipitated solids are the products.

  11. Hydrate-based heavy metal separation from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yongchen; Dong, Hongsheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Mingjun; Li, Yanghui; Ling, Zheng; Zhao, Jiafei

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrate-based method is proposed for separating heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. We report the first batch of experiments and removal characteristics in this paper, the effectiveness and feasibility of which are verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis and cross-experiment. 88.01–90.82% of removal efficiencies for Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ were obtained. Further study showed that higher R141b–effluent volume ratio contributed to higher enrichment factor and yield of dissociated water, while lower R141b–effluent volume ratio resulted in higher removal efficiency. This study provides insights into low-energy, intensive treatment of wastewater. PMID:26887357

  12. Extreme ductile deformation of fine-grained salt by coupled solution-precipitation creep and microcracking: Microstructural evidence from perennial Zechstein sequence (Neuhof salt mine, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Závada, Prokop; Desbois, Guillaume; Schwedt, Alexander; Lexa, Ondrej; Urai, Janos L.

    2012-04-01

    Microstructural study revealed that the ductile flow of intensely folded fine-grained salt exposed in an underground mine (Zechstein-Werra salt sequence, Neuhof mine, Germany) was accommodated by coupled activity of solution-precipitation (SP) creep and microcracking of the halite grains. The grain cores of the halite aggregates contain remnants of sedimentary microstructures with straight and chevron shaped fluid inclusion trails (FITs) and are surrounded by two concentric mantles reflecting different events of salt precipitation. Numerous intra-granular or transgranular microcracks originate at the tips of FITs and propagate preferentially along the interface between sedimentary cores and the surrounding mantle of reprecipitated halite. These microcracks are interpreted as tensional Griffith cracks. Microcracks starting at grain boundary triple junctions or grain boundary ledges form due to stress concentrations generated by grain boundary sliding (GBS). Solid or fluid inclusions frequently alter the course of the propagating microcracks or the cracks terminate at these inclusions. Because the inner mantle containing the microcracks is corroded and is surrounded by microcrack-free outer mantle, microcracking is interpreted to reflect transient failure of the aggregate. Microcracking is argued to play a fundamental role in the continuation and enhancement of the SP-GBS creep during halokinesis of the Werra salt, because the transgranular cracks (1) provide the ingress of additional fluid in the grain boundary network when cross-cutting the FITs and (2) decrease grain size by splitting the grains. More over, the ingress of additional fluids into grain boundaries is also provided by non-conservative grain boundary migration that advanced into FITs bearing cores of grains. Described readjustments of the microstructure and mechanical and chemical feedbacks for the grain boundary diffusion flow in halite-brine system are proposed to be comparable to other rock-fluid or

  13. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-05-28

    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K(+) and SCN(-) ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  14. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K+ and SCN- ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  15. Growth of single crystals of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities by solution processes for devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Data obtained from the electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) and Kurtz Powder Methods will be provided to MSFC for further refinement of their method. A theoretical model for predicting the second-order nonlinearities of organic salts is being worked on. Another task is the synthesis of a number of salts with various counterions. Several salts with promising SHG activities and new salts will be tested for the presence of two crystalline forms. The materials will be recrystallized from dry and wet solvents and compared for SHG efficiency. Salts that have a high SHG efficiency and no tendency to form hydrates will be documented. The synthesis of these materials are included in this report. A third task involves method to aid in the growth of large, high quality single crystals by solution processes. These crystals will be characterized for their applicability in the fabrication of devices that will be incorporated into optical computers in future programs. Single crystals of optimum quality may be obtained by crystal growth in low-gravity. The final task is the design of a temperature lowering single crystal growth apparatus for ground based work. At least one prototype will be built.

  16. Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

    1983-09-26

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

  17. Development of tropine-salt aqueous two-phase systems and removal of hydrophilic ionic liquids from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haoran; Yao, Shun; Qian, Guofei; Song, Hang

    2016-08-26

    A novel aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) composed of a small molecule organic compound tropine and an organic or inorganic salt aqueous solution has been developed for the first time. The phase behavior of tropine-salt ATPS was systemically investigated and the phase equilibrium data were measured in different temperatures and concentrations and correlated by the Merchuk equation with satisfactory results. The detection of the conductivity and particle size proved the formation of micelle in the process of forming tropine-salt ATPS. The separation application of the ATPS was assessed with the removal of hydrophilic benzothiazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) from aqueous solution. The result showed that ILs were effectively extracted into the top tropine-rich phase. Finally, ILs in the top tropine-rich phase were further separated by the means of adsorption-desorption with DM301 macroporous resin and ethanol. The method of novel tropine-salt ATPS combined with adsorption-desorption is demonstrated a promising alternative thought and approach for the removal or recovery of hydrophilic compounds from aqueous media and also could provide a potential application for bio-separation. PMID:27485150

  18. Electrochemical activation of carbon cloth in aqueous inorganic salt solution for superior capacitive performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao; Tang, Jie; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Carbon cloth (CC) is an inexpensive and highly conductive textile with excellent mechanical flexibility and strength; it holds great promise as an electrode material for flexible supercapacitors. However, pristine CC has such a low surface area and poor electrochemical activity that the energy storage capability is usually very poor. Herein, we report a green method, two-step electrochemical activation in an aqueous solution of inorganic salts, to significantly enhance the capacitance of CC for supercapacitor application. Micro-cracks, exfoliated carbon fiber shells, and oxygen-containing functional groups (OFGs) were introduced onto the surface of the carbon filament. This resulted in an enhancement of over two orders of magnitude in capacitance compared to that of the bare CC electrode, reaching up to a maximum areal capacitance of 505.5 mF cm-2 at the current density of 6 mA cm-2 in aqueous H2SO4 electrolyte. Electrochemical reduction of CC electrodes led to the removal of most electrochemically unstable surface OFGs, resulting in superior charging/discharging rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Although the activated CC electrode contained a high-level of surface oxygen functional groups (~15 at%), it still exhibited a remarkable charging-discharging rate capability, retaining ~88% of the capacitance when the charging rate increased from 6 to 48 mA cm-2. Moreover, the activated CC electrode exhibited excellent cycling stability with ~97% capacitance remaining after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 24 mA cm-2. A symmetrical supercapacitor based on the activated CC exhibited an ideal capacitive behavior and fast charge-discharge properties. Such a simple, environment-friendly, and cost-effective strategy to activate CC shows great potential in the fabrication of high-performance flexible supercapacitors.Carbon cloth (CC) is an inexpensive and highly conductive textile with excellent mechanical flexibility and strength; it holds great promise as

  19. OSMOTIC COEFFICIENTS, SOLUBILITIES, AND DELIQUESCENCE RELATIONS IN MIXED AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    M.S. Gruszkiewicz; D.A. Palmer

    2006-02-22

    While thermodynamic properties of pure aqueous electrolytes are relatively well known at ambient temperature, there are far fewer data for binary systems extending to elevated temperatures and high concentrations. There is no general theoretically sound basis for prediction of the temperature dependence of ionic activities, and consequently temperature extrapolations based on ambient temperature data and empirical equations are uncertain and require empirical verification. Thermodynamic properties of mixed brines in a wide range of concentrations would enhance the understanding and precise modeling of the effects of deliquescence of initially dry solids in humid air in geological environments and in modeling the composition of waters during heating, cooling, evaporation or condensation processes. These conditions are of interest in the analysis of waters on metal surfaces at the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results obtained in this project will be useful for modeling the long-term evolution of the chemical environment, and this in turn is useful for the analysis of the corrosion of waste packages. In particular, there are few reliable experimental data available on the relationship between relative humidity and composition that reveals the eutonic points of the mixtures and the mixture deliquescence RH. The deliquescence RH for multicomponent mixtures is lower than that of pure component or binary solutions, but is not easy to predict quantitatively since the solutions are highly nonideal. In this work we used the ORNL low-temperature and high-temperature isopiestic facilities, capable of precise measurements of vapor pressure between ambient temperature and 250 C for determination of not only osmotic coefficients, but also solubilities and deliquescence points of aqueous mixed solutions in a range of temperatures. In addition to standard solutions of CaCl{sub 2}, LiCl, and NaCl used as references, precise direct

  20. How can we take advantage of halophyte properties to cope with heavy metal toxicity in salt-affected areas?

    PubMed Central

    Lutts, Stanley; Lefèvre, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Many areas throughout the world are simultaneously contaminated by high concentrations of soluble salts and by high concentrations of heavy metals that constitute a serious threat to human health. The use of plants to extract or stabilize pollutants is an interesting alternative to classical expensive decontamination procedures. However, suitable plant species still need to be identified for reclamation of substrates presenting a high electrical conductivity. Scope Halophytic plant species are able to cope with several abiotic constraints occurring simultaneously in their natural environment. This review considers their putative interest for remediation of polluted soil in relation to their ability to sequester absorbed toxic ions in trichomes or vacuoles, to perform efficient osmotic adjustment and to limit the deleterious impact of oxidative stress. These physiological adaptations are considered in relation to the impact of salt on heavy metal bioavailabilty in two types of ecosystem: (1) salt marshes and mangroves, and (2) mine tailings in semi-arid areas. Conclusions Numerous halophytes exhibit a high level of heavy metal accumulation and external NaCl may directly influence heavy metal speciation and absorption rate. Maintenance of biomass production and plant water status makes some halophytes promising candidates for further management of heavy-metal-polluted areas in both saline and non-saline environments. PMID:25672360

  1. Effects of solution mining of salt on wetland hydrology as inferred from tree rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, T.M.; Kappel, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Radial growth and concentrations of selected elements within rings were studied in white pine (Pinus strobus) trees from a wetland in central New York approximately 5 km north of a salt-solution mining field that operated from 1889 to 1988. Trees seemingly document three sequential episodes of mine-induced alterations of groundwater discharge irrigating the wetland during the 100-year period. The radial growth of trees established before the onset of mining declined abruptly in the early 1890s and remained suppressed until about 1960, as did growth of numerous other trees that became established after the onset of mining. Suppressed pre-1960 radial growth coincided with the interval that surface water was injected into the saltbeds, suggesting that losses of injected water to the bedrock and/or unconsolidated deposits increased groundwater flow into the wetland. An abrupt and sustained enhancement of radial growth beginning about 1960 indicates that the wetland became drier, and thus more conducive to tree growth, when injection practices were discontinued in the late 1950s despite the continued pumping of brine. Following the cessation of mining in the late 1980s, head pressures again increased in the upper valley, driving chloride-enriched flow northward along regional bedding-plane fractures and into the wetland. Large concentrations of chloride were detected within the most recently formed rings of some trees. As the result of chloride-enriched irrigation, the radial growth of some trees declined, and some trees died. Thus trees have preserved evidence of a century of hydrologic alterations, unobtainable by other means, where the effects of brine mining have not been documented previously.

  2. Effects of solution mining of salt on wetland hydrology as inferred from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanosky, Thomas M.; Kappel, William M.

    Radial growth and concentrations of selected elements within rings were studied in white pine (Pinus strobus) trees from a wetland in central New York approximately 5 km north of a salt-solution mining field that operated from 1889 to 1988. Trees seemingly document three sequential episodes of mine-induced alterations of groundwater discharge irrigating the wetland during the 100-year period. The radial growth of trees established before the onset of mining declined abruptly in the early 1890s and remained suppressed until about 1960, as did growth of numerous other trees that became established after the onset of mining. Suppressed pre-1960 radial growth coincided with the interval that surface water was injected into the saltbeds, suggesting that losses of injected water to the bedrock and/or unconsolidated deposits increased groundwater flow into the wetland. An abrupt and sustained enhancement of radial growth beginning about 1960 indicates that the wetland became drier, and thus more conducive to tree growth, when injection practices were discontinued in the late 1950s despite the continued pumping of brine. Following the cessation of mining in the late 1980s, head pressures again increased in the upper valley, driving chloride-enriched flow northward along regional bedding-plane fractures and into the wetland. Large concentrations of chloride were detected within the most recently formed rings of some trees. As the result of chloride-enriched irrigation, the radial growth of some trees declined, and some trees died. Thus trees have preserved evidence of a century of hydrologic alterations, unobtainable by other means, where the effects of brine mining have not been documented previously.

  3. The inhibitive effect of some quaternary ammonium salts towards corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.-M. K.; Al-Nadjm, A.; Fouda, A.-A. S.

    1998-10-01

    The inhibitive action of some quaternary ammonium salts towards the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid was tested by thermometric, mass loss and polarization measurements. Parallelism between the different methods was established. It is suggested that the tested compounds act as cathodic inhibitors. The inhibitors appear to function through adsorption, following the Temkin adsorption isotherm. The values of free energy of adsorption have been calculated and discussed. The inhibitor character of the additives depends upon the concentration as well as the composition of the inhibitor. Within the given homolegous series the contribution of the functional group to adsorption increases with the length of the chain. The aim of this article is to throw some light on the mechanism of inhibition of these bulky molecules on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid. L'action inhibitrice de certains sels d'ammonium quaternaires vis-à-vis de la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique en solution a été testée par des mesures thermiques de perte de matière et de polarisation. Il est suggéré que les composés testés agissent comme des inhibiteurs cathodiques, fonctionnant par adsorption suivant l'isotherme de Temkin. Les énergies libres d'adsorption ont été calculées et discutées. Le caractère inhibiteur des additifs dépend aussi bien de leur concentration que de leur composition. Pour une série d'inhibiteurs homologues, la contribution à l'adsorption du groupe fonctionnel augmente avec la longueur de la chaîne. Le but de cet article est de mieux comprendre le mécanisme d'inhibition de ces grosses molécules sur la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique.

  4. Coordination effect-regulated CO2 capture with an alkali metal onium salts/crown ether system

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; Jiang, Deen; Zhu, Xiang; Tian, Chengcheng; Brown, Suree; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; He, Liang-Nian; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A coordination effect was employed to realize equimolar CO2 absorption, adopting easily synthesized amino group containing absorbents (alkali metal onium salts). The essence of our strategy was to increase the steric hindrance of cations so as to enhance a carbamic acid pathway for CO2 capture. Our easily synthesized alkali metal amino acid salts or phenolates were coordinated with crown ethers, in which highly sterically hindered cations were obtained through a strong coordination effect of crown ethers with alkali metal cations. For example, a CO2 capacity of 0.99 was attained by potassium prolinate/18-crown-6, being characterized by NMR, FT-IR, and quantum chemistry calculations to go through a carbamic acid formation pathway. The captured CO2 can be stripped under very mild conditions (50 degrees C, N-2). Thus, this protocol offers an alternative for the development of technological innovation towards efficient and low energy processes for carbon capture and sequestration.

  5. Model of the biotic cycle "plants germs - microorganisms" by affect heavy metal salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, Tamara

    The growth of wheat germ roots exposed to heavy metal salts (ZnSO4) was studied experimentally and theoretically. During the experiment the plant seeds were preliminarily treated with an experimental microbial association. As a result, data were obtained about the decrease of the inhibiting effect of zinc on the growth of wheat germ roots where the seeds had been treated with the microbial association. To understand such effect, calculations were made to reveal the specific growth rate of a germ root depending on the inhibitor concentration with and without microorganism association treatment. It was shown that in case with the wheat germ roots the seeds of which had been treated with the microorganisms the inhibition constant (kI = 45 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) was higher than in the case with the roots growing out of the seeds that hadn't been treated with the microorganisms (kI = 32 MPC). One of possible reasons for the decrease of growth inhibition of wheat germ roots by zinc salt is the protective function of microorganism's treatment of the seeds. To verify and confirm the experimental results, a mathematical model was created imitating the interaction between wheat germ roots and microbial association exposed to an inhibitor. Investigation of the model proved that the microbial association has a positive effect on the growth of wheat germ roots exposed to an inhibitor. The experimental and theoretical results agreed quantitatively. It was found out that the increase of the inhibitor concentration led to the effect of maximum relief of zinc inhibiting impact. The work is supported by grants Yenissei 07-04-96806.

  6. Modeling of Flow, Transport and Controlled Sedimentation Phenomena during Mixing of Salt Solutions in Complex Porous Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    The deposition of salts in porous media is a major engineering phenomenon encountered in a plethora of industrial and environmental applications where in some cases is desirable and in other not (oil production, geothermal systems, soil stabilization etc). Systematic approach of these problems requires knowledge of the key mechanisms of precipitating salts within the porous structures, in order to develop new methods to control the process. In this work, the development and the solution of spatiotemporally variable mass balances during salt solution mixing along specific pores were performed. Both analytical models and finite differences CFD models were applied for the study of flow and transport with simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation (by crystal growth on the surface of the pores) in simple geometries, while unstructured finite elements and meshless methods were developed and implemented for spatial discretization, reconstruction, and solution of transport equations and homogeneous / heterogeneous reactions in more complex geometries. At initial stages of this work, critical problem parameters were identified, such as the characteristics of the porosity, the number of dissolved components, etc. The parameters were then used for solving problems which correspond to available experimental data. For each combination of ions and materials, specific data and process characteristics were included: (a) crystal kinetics (nucleation, growth rates or reaction surface rates of crystals, critical suspension concentrations), (b) physico-chemical properties (bulk density, dimensions of generated crystals, ion diffusion coefficients in the solution), (c) operating parameters (macroscopic velocity, flow, or pressure gradient of the solution, ion concentration) (d) microfluidic data (geometry, flow area), (e) porosity data in Darcy description (initial porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity). During the modeling of flow and transport in three

  7. Conformational Preferences of N,N-Dimethylsuccinamate as a Function of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Salts: Experimental Studies in DMSO and Water As Determined by 1H NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The fraction of gauche conformers of N,N-dimethylsuccinamic acid (1) and its Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and N(Bu)4+ salts were estimated in DMSO and D2O solution by comparing the experimental vicinal proton–proton couplings determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy with those calculated using the Haasnoot, de Leeuw, and Altona (HLA) equation. In DMSO, the gauche preferences were found to increase with decreasing Ahrens ionic radius of the metal counterion. The same trend was not seen in D2O, where the gauche fraction for all of the metallic salts were estimated to be approximately statistical or less. This highlights the importance of metal chelation on the conformation of organic molecules in polar aprotic media, which has implications for protein folding. PMID:24506581

  8. Hypothermia and hypometabolism: sensitive indices of whole-body toxicity following exposure to metallic salts in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Fogelson, L; Highfill, J W

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the practicality of hypothermia and hypometabolism as sensitive indices of toxicity in the mouse, oxygen consumption was monitored continuously and body temperature was measured at 30 min postinjection following the intraperitoneal administration of various metal salts. Eleven metal ions were tested: Al3+, Cd2+, Co2+, Cr2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+. All metals induced dose-dependent reductions in both oxygen consumption (hypometabolism) and deep body (colonic) temperature. Comparative toxicity of the metal ions was evaluated by calculating the dose of metal ion in dimensions of mmol/kg body mass needed to reduce colonic temperature to 35 degrees C. The order of toxicity from lowest to highest was as follows: Cr less than Al less than Pb less than Mn less than Mg less than Zn less than Cu less than Co less than Ni less than Hg less than Cd. The threshold doses for reducing body temperature were less than 5% of the LD50 in 6 of the metals studied. Metal salts with relatively low LD50 doses such as Hg, Cd, and Ni were most efficacious in inducing hypothermia and hypometabolism. Moreover, there was a direct linear relationship between dose for inducing hypothermia or hypometabolism and the reported LD50. Hence, the hypothermia and hypometabolism test may prove to be a sensitive and rapid test for the evaluation of toxicity of environmental contaminants.

  9. 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis detects metabolic disturbances in rat urine on acute exposure to heavy metal tungsten alloy based metals salt.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ritu; Rana, Poonam; Gupta, Mamta; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Srivastava, Shatakshi; Roy, Raja; Khushu, Subash

    2014-03-25

    Heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) have been found to be safer alternatives for making military munitions. Recently, some studies demonstrating the toxic potential of HMTAs have raised concern over the safety issues, and further propose that HMTAs exposure may lead to physiological disturbances as well. To look for the systemic effect of acute toxicity of HMTA based metals salt, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopic profiling of rat urine was carried out. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered (intraperitoneal) low and high dose of mixture of HMTA based metals salt and NMR spectroscopy was carried out in urine samples collected at 8, 24, 72 and 120 h post dosing (p.d.). Serum biochemical parameters and liver histopathology were also conducted. The (1)H NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate analysis techniques to show the time- and dose-dependent biochemical variations in post HMTA based metals salt exposure. Urine metabolomic analysis showed changes associated with energy metabolism, amino acids, N-methyl nicotinamide, membrane and gut flora metabolites. Multivariate analysis showed maximum variation with best classification of control and treated groups at 24h p.d. At the end of the study, for the low dose group most of the changes at metabolite level reverted to control except for the energy metabolites; whereas, in the high dose group some of the changes still persisted. The observations were well correlated with histopathological and serum biochemical parameters. Further, metabolic pathway analysis clarified that amongst all the metabolic pathways analysed, tricarboxylic acid cycle was most affected at all the time points indicating a switchover in energy metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic. These results suggest that exposure of rats to acute doses of HMTA based metals salt disrupts physiological metabolism with moderate injury to the liver, which might indirectly result from heavy metals induced oxidative stress.

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence in doped metal oxide planar waveguides deposited from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, N.J.; Exarhos, G.J. ); Wood, S.M. . Shock Dynamics Lab.)

    1991-12-01

    An aqueous route to the deposition of complex metal oxide films is based upton the complexation of the corresponding metal nitrate salts by glycine, followed by spin-casting the concentrated solution onto silica substrates. The presence of glycine serves to frustrate precipitation and leads to the formation of a glassy matrix through which metal cations are homogeneously dispersed. Subsequent heating of coated substrates initiates an oxidation-reduction reaction which removes the organic matrix and residual nitrate leaving behind a film of the desired oxide composition. Using this method, ruby (Cr:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Sm:YAG (Sm:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) films on the order of 150 nm thick have been deposited. The respective phase have been confirmed by XRD data and from the measured fluorescence spectra. The red fluorescence exhibited by these materials under 488 nm excitation is dependent upon the ambient temperature and pressure. A marked shift in wavelength is observed as a function of increasing pressure. Ruby also exhibits a temperature dependent wavelength shift in contrast to Sm:YAG where a negligible shift is seen to temperatures near 1200 K. Fluorescence lifetimes of both materials exhibit a temperature dependence which varies with dopant concentration. This work suggests the possible application of these films as pressure-temperature sensors in a planar waveguide configuration or as a coating material for optical fibers. Details of the deposition process will be reviewed and the fluorescence response of both types of films will be summarized. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Rheological and kinetic study of the ultrasonic degradation of locust bean gum in aqueous saline and salt-free solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruoshi; Feke, Donald L

    2015-11-01

    The ultrasonic degradation of locust bean gum (LBG) in aqueous solutions has been studied at 25°C for ultrasonication times up to 120 min. Although LBG is not a polyelectrolyte, the degradation extent and kinetics were found to be somewhat sensitive to the ionic conditions in solution, and this is attributed to changes in molecular conformation that can occur in different salt environments. Ultrasonic degradation was tracked by rheological measurements that lead to the determination of intrinsic viscosity for the LBG molecules. A kinetic model was also developed and successfully applied to characterize and predict the degradation results.

  12. Soft X-ray absorption spectra of aqueous salt solutions with highly charged cations in liquid microjets

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2010-03-11

    X-ray absorption spectra of 1M aqueous solutions of indium (III) chloride, yttrium (III) bromide, lanthanum (III) chloride, tin (IV) chloride and chromium (III) chloride have been measured at the oxygen K-edge. Relatively minor changes are observed in the spectra compared to that of pure water. SnCl{sub 4} and CrCl{sub 3} exhibit a new onset feature which is attributed to formation of hydroxide or other complex molecules in the solution. At higher energy, only relatively minor, but salt-specific changes in the spectra occur. The small magnitude of the observed spectral changes is ascribed to offsetting perturbations by the cations and anions.

  13. Rheological and kinetic study of the ultrasonic degradation of locust bean gum in aqueous saline and salt-free solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruoshi; Feke, Donald L

    2015-11-01

    The ultrasonic degradation of locust bean gum (LBG) in aqueous solutions has been studied at 25°C for ultrasonication times up to 120 min. Although LBG is not a polyelectrolyte, the degradation extent and kinetics were found to be somewhat sensitive to the ionic conditions in solution, and this is attributed to changes in molecular conformation that can occur in different salt environments. Ultrasonic degradation was tracked by rheological measurements that lead to the determination of intrinsic viscosity for the LBG molecules. A kinetic model was also developed and successfully applied to characterize and predict the degradation results. PMID:26186852

  14. [Aqueous and salt solutions of quinine of low concentrations: self-organization, physicochemical properties and actions on the electrical characteristics of neurons].

    PubMed

    Murtazina, L I; Ryzhkina, I S; Mishina, O A; Andrianov, V V; Bogodvid, T Kh; Gaĭnutdinov, Kh L; Muranova, L N; Konovalov, A I

    2014-01-01

    Self-organization, the physicochemical properties of aqueous and salt solutions of quinine and the effects of salt quinine solutions in a wide range of concentrations (1 x 10(-22) - 1 x 10(-3) M) on the electrical characteristics of the edible snail's identified neurons were studied. Similar non-monotonic concentration dependencies of physicochemical properties of aqueous and salt quinine solutions at low concentrations are obtained. This allows of predicting the occurrence of biological effects at low concentrations of quinine solutions. Intrinsic (within 5% of the interval) changes in membrane potential, the amplitude and duration of the neuron action potential under the influence of quinine salt solutions at concentrations of quinine of 1 x 10(-20), 1 x 10(-18), 1 x 10(-10) M are found. For these concentrations the extreme values of specific conductivity and pH are shown.

  15. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eleanor M; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ziemann, Paul J; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols. We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), and NH4(+) and find Gibbs free energies of water displacement of -10.9, -22.0, -22.9, 2.09, and 1.2 kJ/mol for glyoxal monohydrate and -3.1, -10.3, -7.91, 6.11, and 1.6 kJ/mol for methylglyoxal monohydrate with uncertainties of 8 kJ/mol. The quantum chemical calculations support that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-) modify partitioning, while cations do not. Other factors such as ion charge or partitioning volume effects likely need to be considered to fully explain salting effects. PMID:26335375

  16. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eleanor M; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ziemann, Paul J; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols. We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), and NH4(+) and find Gibbs free energies of water displacement of -10.9, -22.0, -22.9, 2.09, and 1.2 kJ/mol for glyoxal monohydrate and -3.1, -10.3, -7.91, 6.11, and 1.6 kJ/mol for methylglyoxal monohydrate with uncertainties of 8 kJ/mol. The quantum chemical calculations support that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-) modify partitioning, while cations do not. Other factors such as ion charge or partitioning volume effects likely need to be considered to fully explain salting effects.

  17. Mixtures of lecithin and bile salt can form highly viscous wormlike micellar solutions in water.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Yang; Oh, Hyuntaek; Wang, Ting-Yu; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2014-09-01

    The self-assembly of biological surfactants in water is an important topic for study because of its relevance to physiological processes. Two common types of biosurfactants are lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) and bile salts, which are both present in bile and involved in digestion. Previous studies on lecithin-bile salt mixtures have reported the formation of short, rodlike micelles. Here, we show that lecithin-bile salt micelles can be further induced to grow into long, flexible wormlike structures. The formation of long worms and their resultant entanglement into transient networks is reflected in the rheology: the fluids become viscoelastic and exhibit Maxwellian behavior, and their zero-shear viscosity can be up to a 1000-fold higher than that of water. The presence of worms is further confirmed by data from small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and from cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We find that micellar growth peaks at a specific molar ratio (near equimolar) of bile salt:lecithin, which suggests a strong binding interaction between the two species. In addition, micellar growth also requires a sufficient concentration of background electrolyte such as NaCl or sodium citrate that serves to screen the electrostatic repulsion of the amphiphiles and to "salt out" the amphiphiles. We postulate a mechanism based on changes in the molecular geometry caused by bile salts and electrolytes to explain the micellar growth.

  18. Understanding the electromagnetic interaction of metal organic framework reactants in aqueous solution at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Laybourn, Andrea; Katrib, Juliano; Palade, Paula A; Easun, Timothy L; Champness, Neil R; Schröder, Martin; Kingman, Samuel W

    2016-02-21

    Preparation of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) via microwave heating is becoming increasingly popular due to reduced reaction times and enhanced control of MOF particle size. However, there is little understanding about the detailed interaction of the electric field portion of the wave with reactants during the synthesis of MOFs. In order to overcome this lack of fundamental understanding, information about the dielectric properties of the reactants is required. In this work the dielectric constants (ε') and loss factors (ε'') of benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC; also known as terephthalic acid) and a number of M(III) (M = metal) salts dissolved in deionized water were measured as a function of frequency, temperature and concentration and with varying anions and cations. Dielectric data confirm the aqueous M(III) salts to be strong microwave absorbers, particularly at 915 MHz. M(III) salts with mono-anionic ligands (for example chlorides and nitrates) exhibit higher losses than di-anionic salts (sulfates) demonstrating that the former are heated more effectively in an applied microwave field. Of the M(III) salts containing either singly- or doubly-charged anions, those containing Fe(III) have the highest loss indicating that they will heat more efficiently than other M(III) salts such as Cr(III) and Al(III). Interestingly, H2BDC exhibits little interaction with the electric field at microwave frequencies. PMID:26822947

  19. Understanding the electromagnetic interaction of metal organic framework reactants in aqueous solution at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Laybourn, Andrea; Katrib, Juliano; Palade, Paula A; Easun, Timothy L; Champness, Neil R; Schröder, Martin; Kingman, Samuel W

    2016-02-21

    Preparation of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) via microwave heating is becoming increasingly popular due to reduced reaction times and enhanced control of MOF particle size. However, there is little understanding about the detailed interaction of the electric field portion of the wave with reactants during the synthesis of MOFs. In order to overcome this lack of fundamental understanding, information about the dielectric properties of the reactants is required. In this work the dielectric constants (ε') and loss factors (ε'') of benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC; also known as terephthalic acid) and a number of M(III) (M = metal) salts dissolved in deionized water were measured as a function of frequency, temperature and concentration and with varying anions and cations. Dielectric data confirm the aqueous M(III) salts to be strong microwave absorbers, particularly at 915 MHz. M(III) salts with mono-anionic ligands (for example chlorides and nitrates) exhibit higher losses than di-anionic salts (sulfates) demonstrating that the former are heated more effectively in an applied microwave field. Of the M(III) salts containing either singly- or doubly-charged anions, those containing Fe(III) have the highest loss indicating that they will heat more efficiently than other M(III) salts such as Cr(III) and Al(III). Interestingly, H2BDC exhibits little interaction with the electric field at microwave frequencies.

  20. Heavy metal contamination in compost. A possible solution.

    PubMed

    Zennaro, Mariachiara; Cristofori, Fabrizio; Formigoni, Daniele; Frignani, Franco; Pavoni, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    With the objective of improving qualitative characteristics of compost, an analytical survey was carried out in a composting plant in Lombardy (Italy) in all process of production, with particular reference to heavy metals (HM) Zn and Pb. The investigation was principally aimed to study the contents and the accumulation of HM during composting process and to identify a technological solution for reducing HM content in the final product. A merceological analysis of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) input to the composting plant, a chemical analysis of the organic fraction of MSW after mechanical separation, and a comparison with values reported by some authors, showed that Zn and Pb are significant contaminants, even though concentrations have recently decreased in comparison to previous years. On the basis of Zn and Pb content in raw material input to the plant, an estimate of the theoretical value of Zn and Pb in produced compost was made. The comparison of theoretical values with the real ones, experimentally determined, confirmed that at the end of composting process the concentration is 2.6 times the initial value for Zn and 1.6 times the initial value for Pb, as suggested by some authors. Finally, the analytical investigation of Zn and Pb contents in the compost refining line, carried out by means of sieving tests, showed that by eliminating a fraction of compost < 1 mm, both Zn and Pb, which is the more critical one, can be largely removed, without a substantial yield loss (only 10% of the final product is eliminated).

  1. Solid oxide membrane-assisted controllable electrolytic fabrication of metal carbides in molten salt.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xingli; Zheng, Kai; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2016-08-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC), titanium carbide (TiC), zirconium carbide (ZrC), and tantalum carbide (TaC) have been electrochemically produced directly from their corresponding stoichiometric metal oxides/carbon (MOx/C) precursors by electrodeoxidation in molten calcium chloride (CaCl2). An assembled yttria stabilized zirconia solid oxide membrane (SOM)-based anode was employed to control the electrodeoxidation process. The SOM-assisted controllable electrochemical process was carried out in molten CaCl2 at 1000 °C with a potential of 3.5 to 4.0 V. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical production process and the characteristics of these produced metal carbides (MCs) were systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses clearly identify that SiC, TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides can be facilely fabricated. SiC carbide can be controlled to form a homogeneous nanowire structure, while the morphologies of TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides exhibit porous nodular structures with micro/nanoscale particles. The complex chemical/electrochemical reaction processes including the compounding, electrodeoxidation, dissolution-electrodeposition, and in situ carbonization processes in molten CaCl2 are also discussed. The present results preliminarily demonstrate that the molten salt-based SOM-assisted electrodeoxidation process has the potential to be used for the facile and controllable electrodeoxidation of MOx/C precursors to micro/nanostructured MCs, which can potentially be used for various applications. PMID:27195950

  2. Solid oxide membrane-assisted controllable electrolytic fabrication of metal carbides in molten salt.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xingli; Zheng, Kai; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2016-08-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC), titanium carbide (TiC), zirconium carbide (ZrC), and tantalum carbide (TaC) have been electrochemically produced directly from their corresponding stoichiometric metal oxides/carbon (MOx/C) precursors by electrodeoxidation in molten calcium chloride (CaCl2). An assembled yttria stabilized zirconia solid oxide membrane (SOM)-based anode was employed to control the electrodeoxidation process. The SOM-assisted controllable electrochemical process was carried out in molten CaCl2 at 1000 °C with a potential of 3.5 to 4.0 V. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical production process and the characteristics of these produced metal carbides (MCs) were systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses clearly identify that SiC, TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides can be facilely fabricated. SiC carbide can be controlled to form a homogeneous nanowire structure, while the morphologies of TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides exhibit porous nodular structures with micro/nanoscale particles. The complex chemical/electrochemical reaction processes including the compounding, electrodeoxidation, dissolution-electrodeposition, and in situ carbonization processes in molten CaCl2 are also discussed. The present results preliminarily demonstrate that the molten salt-based SOM-assisted electrodeoxidation process has the potential to be used for the facile and controllable electrodeoxidation of MOx/C precursors to micro/nanostructured MCs, which can potentially be used for various applications.

  3. Insights to caving processes from localization of microseismic swarms induced by salt solution mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennart Kinscher, Jannes; Bernard, Pascal; Contrucci, Isabelle; Mangeney, Anne; Piguet, Jack Pierre; Bigarre, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve our understanding of hazardous ground failures, caving processes, and collapses of large natural or man-made underground cavities, we studied microseismicity induced by the development and collapse of a salt solution mining cavity with a diameter of ~ 200 m at Cerville-Buissoncourt in Lorraine, France. Microseismicity was recorded as part of a large geophysical, multi-parameter monitoring research project (GISOS) by a local, high resolution, triggered 40 Hz geophone monitoring system consisting of five one-component and four three-component borehole stations located around and in the center of the cavity. The recorded microseismic events are very numerous (~ 50.000 recorded event files) where the major portion (~ 80 %) appear in unusual swarming sequences constituted by complex clusters of superimposed microseismic events. Body wave phase based routine tools for microseismic event detection and localization face strong limitations in the treatment of these signals. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed two probabilistic methods being able to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics in a semi-automatic manner. The first localization approach uses simple signal amplitude estimates on different frequency bands, and an attenuation model to constrain hypocenter source location. The second approach was designed to identify significantly polarized P wave energies and the associated polarization angles. Both approaches and its probabilistic conjunction were applied to the data of a two months lasting microseismic crisis occurring one year before the final collapse that was related to caving processes leading to a maximal growth of ~ 50 m of the cavity roof. The obtained epicenter locations show systematic spatio-temporal migration trends observed for different time scales. During three phases of major swarming activity, epicenter migration trends appear in the order of several seconds to minutes, are spatially constrained, and show partially a

  4. Real-time monitoring of a salt solution mining cavern: view from microseismic and levelling monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contrucci, Isabelle; Cao, Ngoc-Tuyen; Klein, Emmanuelle; Daupley, Xavier; Bigarre, Pascal

    2010-05-01

    In 2004, in order to better understand processes involved in large-scale mine collapse, an instrumentation was settled in the surrounding of a salt cavern located at a depth of 180 m in NE France. The cavern was mined by solution mining until the large-scale ground failure occurred. A high resolution multi-parameter monitoring system was deployed in the framework of the GISOS (Scientific Interest Group on the Impact and Safety of Underground Structures formed by INERIS, BRGM, INPL and ENSG). Instrumentation, installed by INERIS, consisted of a microseismic network, coupled to automatic-measurement system for levelling (Tacheometer and RTK GPS). Quasi real time transmission of the data to INERIS, at Nancy, enabled rock mass activity of the site to be monitored on a few hours basis. Also, the various recorded observations, in the beginning of spring 2008, led the operator to cause the collapse in February 2009. This was done by intensive extraction of the brine contained in the cavern, which was considered to be at limit equilibrium. On the second day of pumping sudden increase in microseismic activity indicated the start of collapse, followed by manifestation of a surface crater about 35 hours later. All the data and information collected during this experiment are now being processed and back-analysed aimed at ensuring high quality of interpretation. In particular, the space-time distribution of the failures and the evolution of the waveforms enlighten the changing conditions in the geological overburden. When correlated with the measurements of the movement and the known geology, the microseismic data enable a precise description of the failure mechanism(s), and especially of the complex and major role of the overlying bedrock. Similarly, feedback from this experience should lead to practical recommendations concerning collapse phenomena monitoring in such a mining context. While the preliminary results already indicate the exceptional quality of this data set

  5. Evaluation and elimination of inhibitory effects of salts and heavy metal ions on biodegradation of Congo red by Pseudomonas sp. mutant.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Kannappan Panchamoorthy; Kathiravan, Mathur Natarajan; Srinivasan, Raman; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian

    2011-02-01

    In this study, it was attempted to evaluate the influences and also recommended some elimination methods for inhibitory effects offered by salts and heavy metal ions. Congo red dye solution treated with mutant Pseudomonas sp. was taken as a model system for study. The salts used in this study are NaCl, CaCl(2) and MgSO(4)· 7H(2)O. Though the growth was inhibited at concentrations above 4 g/l, toleration was achieved by acclimatization process. In case of heavy metal ions, Cr (VI) showed low inhibition up to 500 mg/l of concentration, compared to Zn (II) and Cu (II). It was due to the presence of chromium reductase enzyme which was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Zn (II) and Cu (II) ion inhibitions were eliminated by chelation with EDTA. The critical ion concentrations obtained as per Han-Levenspiel model for Cr (VI), Zn (II) and Cu (II) were 0.8958, 0.3028 and 0.204 g/l respectively.

  6. Solution-based deposition of ultrathin metal oxide films on metal and superconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Glenn

    Solution chemical methods were used to deposit ultrathin metal oxide films on metal and superconductor surfaces. Platinum-molybdenum oxide films were deposited by spontaneous adsorption and electrodeposition of hexamolybdoplatinate, PtMO6O248-. Spectroscopic characterization by 17O and 195Pt NMR showed that the PtMo6O248- anion is stable in aqueous solution below pH 4. The interaction of this solution stable anion with Au and Ag was characterized by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The anion was partially reduced upon adsorption on Ag, but spontaneously adsorbed on Au to form an amorphous surface phase. The electrodeposition of hexamolybdoplatinate on Au electrodes resulted in an electrode surface that was different from the spontaneously adsorbed species, in terms of composition, voltammetry, and reactivity. Cyclic voltammetry was also used to compare the reactivity of these materials for the electrooxidation of methanol. Ultrathin zirconia films were deposited on YBa2Cu3O 7-delta by alternating exposures to tetra n-propyl zirconate, Zr4(OPrn)16, and H2O in n-propanol. Physical and chemical characterization of these films was done by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The zirconia films were determined to be ultrathin (<10 nm) and highly conformal to the surface of YBa2Cu3O7-delta. Metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions fabricated in this fashion were characterized by current-voltage and conductivity-voltage measurements. Solution deposition from Zr4(OPrn) 16 was also used to deposit ultrathin zirconia films on gold, silver, and aluminum surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to compare the physical properties of these films. Electrical measurements showed that zirconia films on Ag and Au are not insulating, but aluminum-zirconia-aluminum capacitors fabricated by this method

  7. Thermoresponsive Poly(Ionic Liquid)s in Aqueous Salt Solutions: Salting-Out Effect on Their Phase Behavior and Water Absorption/Desorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Okafuji, Akiyoshi; Kohno, Yuki; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Here, a thermoresponsive phase behavior of polymerized ionic liquids (PILs) composed of poly([tri-n-alkyl(vinylbenzyl)phosphonium]chloride) (poly([Pnnn VB ]Cl) is reported, where n (the number of carbon atoms of an alkyl chain) = 4, 5, or 6 after mixing with aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Both monomeric [P555VB ]Cl and the resulting poly([P555VB ]Cl) linear homopolymer show a lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type phase behavior in aq. NaCl solutions. The phase transition temperature of the PIL shifts to lower value by increasing concentration of NaCl. Also the swelling degree of cross-linked poly([P555VB ]Cl) gel decreases by increasing NaCl concentration, clearly suggesting the "salting-out" effect of NaCl results in a significant dehydration of the poly([P555VB ]Cl) gel. The absorbed water in the PIL gel is desorbed by moderate heating via the LCST behavior, and the absolute absorption/desorption amount is improved by copolymerization of [P555VB ]Cl with more hydrophilic [P444VB ]Cl monomer.

  8. Thermoresponsive Poly(Ionic Liquid)s in Aqueous Salt Solutions: Salting-Out Effect on Their Phase Behavior and Water Absorption/Desorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Okafuji, Akiyoshi; Kohno, Yuki; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Here, a thermoresponsive phase behavior of polymerized ionic liquids (PILs) composed of poly([tri-n-alkyl(vinylbenzyl)phosphonium]chloride) (poly([Pnnn VB ]Cl) is reported, where n (the number of carbon atoms of an alkyl chain) = 4, 5, or 6 after mixing with aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Both monomeric [P555VB ]Cl and the resulting poly([P555VB ]Cl) linear homopolymer show a lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type phase behavior in aq. NaCl solutions. The phase transition temperature of the PIL shifts to lower value by increasing concentration of NaCl. Also the swelling degree of cross-linked poly([P555VB ]Cl) gel decreases by increasing NaCl concentration, clearly suggesting the "salting-out" effect of NaCl results in a significant dehydration of the poly([P555VB ]Cl) gel. The absorbed water in the PIL gel is desorbed by moderate heating via the LCST behavior, and the absolute absorption/desorption amount is improved by copolymerization of [P555VB ]Cl with more hydrophilic [P444VB ]Cl monomer. PMID:26987760

  9. Ultra fast cooling of hot steel plate by air atomized spray with salt solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Soumya S.; Ravikumar, Satya V.; Jha, Jay M.; Singh, Akhilendra K.; Bhattacharya, Chandrima; Pal, Surjya K.; Chakraborty, Sudipto

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the applicability of air atomized spray with the salt added water has been studied for ultra fast cooling (UFC) of a 6 mm thick AISI-304 hot steel plate. The investigation includes the effect of salt (NaCl and MgSO4) concentration and spray mass flux on the cooling rate. The initial temperature of the steel plate before the commencement of cooling is kept at 900 °C or above, which is usually observed as the "finish rolling temperature" in the hot strip mill of a steel plant. The heat transfer analysis shows that air atomized spray with the MgSO4 salt produces 1.5 times higher cooling rate than atomized spray with the pure water, whereas air atomized spray with NaCl produces only 1.2 times higher cooling rate. In transition boiling regime, the salt deposition occurs which causes enhancement in heat transfer rate by conduction. Moreover, surface tension is the governing parameter behind the vapour film instability and this length scale increases with increase in surface tension of coolant. Overall, the achieved cooling rates produced by both types of salt added air atomized spray are found to be in the UFC regime.

  10. Modulating the structure and properties of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) multilayers with concentrated salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Han, Lulu; Mao, Zhengwei; Wuliyasu, He; Wu, Jindan; Gong, Xiao; Yang, Yuguang; Gao, Changyou

    2012-01-10

    Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) multilayers were treated with 1-5 M NaCl solutions, resulting in continuous changes in the physicochemical properties of the multilayers. Significant mass loss was observed when the salt concentration was higher than 2 M and reached as high as 72% in a 5 M NaCl solution. The disassembly occurred initially in the superficial layers and then developed in the bulk multilayers. For the multilayers with PDADMAC as the outmost layer, the molar ratio of PSS/PDADMAC was increased and the surface chemistry was changed from PDADMAC domination below 2 M NaCl to PSS domination above 3 M NaCl. Owing to the higher concentrations of uncompensated for polyelectrolytes at both lower and higher salt concentrations, the swelling ratio of the multilayers was decreased until reaching 3 M NaCl and then was increased significantly again. The salt-treated PSS/PDADMAC thin films are expected to show different behaviors in terms of the physical adsorption of various functional substances, cell adhesion and proliferation, and chemical reaction activity.

  11. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-09-01

    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt

  12. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-09-14

    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt

  13. On the appearance of vorticity and gradient shear bands in wormlike micellar solutions of different CPCl/salt systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mütze, Annekathrin Heunemann, Peggy; Fischer, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Wormlike micellar salt/surfactant solutions (X-salicylate, cetylpyridinium chloride) are studied with respect to the applied shear stress, concentration, temperature, and composition of the counterions (X = lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) of the salicylate salt solute to determine vorticity and gradient shear bands. A combination of rheological measurements, laser technique, video analysis, and rheo-small-angle neutron scattering allow for a detailed exploration of number and types of shear bands. Typical flow curves of the solutions show Newtonian, shear-thinning, and shear-thickening flow behavior. In the shear-thickening regime, the solutions show vorticity and gradient shear bands simultaneously, in which vorticity shear bands dominate the visual effect, while gradient shear bands always coexist and predominate the rheological response. It is shown that gradient shear bands change their phases (turbid, clear) with the same frequency as the shear rate oscillates, whereas vorticity shear bands change their phases with half the frequency of the shear rate. Furthermore, we show that with increasing molecular mass of the counterions the number of gradient shear bands increases, while the number of vorticity shear bands remains constant. The variation of temperature, shear stress, concentration, and counterions results in a predictable change in the rheological behavior and therefore allows adjustment of the number of vorticity shear bands in the shear band regime.

  14. Self-consistent field theory investigation of the behavior of hyaluronic acid chains in aqueous salt solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogovitsin, E. A.; Budkov, Yu. A.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we continue to develop a field-theoretic methodology, which combines the technique of Gaussian equivalent representation for the calculation of functional integrals with the continuous Gaussian thread model of flexible polymers for solving statistical-mechanical problems of polyelectrolyte solutions. We present new analytic expressions for the osmotic pressure, the potential of mean force, and the monomer-monomer pair distribution function, and employ them to investigate the structural and thermodynamic quantities of the polyelectrolyte system. We demonstrate the applicability of the method for systems of polyelectrolyte chains in which the monomers interact via a Yukawa-type pair potential. As a specific example, the present work focuses on aqueous solutions of hyaluronic acid with added salts NaCl and CaCl2. Hyaluronic acid is a high molecular weight linear polysaccharide, which has a multitude of roles in biological tissues. We conclude that the effect of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the osmotic properties of hyaluronic acid solutions can be accounted for by their contributions to the ionic strength. Nevertheless, the effects of coiling and self-association can be stimulated in solution by added salt.

  15. Further studies on the ability of different metal salts to influence the DNA synthesis of human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Nordlind, K

    1986-01-01

    In a further study on the ability of different metal salts to influence the DNA synthesis of human lymphoid cells, aluminum chloride, beryllium chloride, cadmium chloride, cupric sulfate, ferric chloride, manganese chloride, palladium chloride, platinum chloride and silver nitrate, were tested regarding effect on thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes in children. At certain concentrations in the range of 10(-4)-10(-5)M, all tested compounds but aluminum chloride and ferric chloride, were inhibitory, the latter compounds inhibited at 4.8 X 10(-3)M. A slight stimulation mainly on the thymocytes was obtained with beryllium chloride, cadmium chloride, palladium chloride, platinum chloride and silver nitrate, at certain concentrations in the range of 10(-5)-10(-6)M, while ferric chloride gave a slight stimulation at 1.2 X 10(-3)M. Thus, the tested metal salts should be suitable for use in lymphocyte transformation tests for diagnosis of contact allergy.

  16. A new class of Solvent-in-Salt electrolyte for high-energy rechargeable metallic lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan

    2013-01-01

    Liquid electrolyte plays a key role in commercial lithium-ion batteries to allow conduction of lithium-ion between cathode and anode. Traditionally, taking into account the ionic conductivity, viscosity and dissolubility of lithium salt, the salt concentration in liquid electrolytes is typically less than 1.2 mol l(-1). Here we show a new class of 'Solvent-in-Salt' electrolyte with ultrahigh salt concentration and high lithium-ion transference number (0.73), in which salt holds a dominant position in the lithium-ion transport system. It remarkably enhances cyclic and safety performance of next-generation high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries via an effective suppression of lithium dendrite growth and shape change in the metallic lithium anode. Moreover, when used in lithium-sulphur battery, the advantage of this electrolyte is further demonstrated that lithium polysulphide dissolution is inhibited, thus overcoming one of today's most challenging technological hurdles, the 'polysulphide shuttle phenomenon'. Consequently, a coulombic efficiency nearing 100% and long cycling stability are achieved.

  17. Dissipation behavior of organophosphorus pesticides during the cabbage pickling process: residue changes with salt and vinegar content of pickling solution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuele; Yang, Zhonghua; Shen, Luyao; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling

    2013-03-01

    In this experiment, the behavior of 10 pesticides in three different cabbage pickling treatments has been studied. The brine used for pickling was made up with different salt and vinegar contents to determine the influence of different pickling solutions on pesticide dissipation and distribution. A modified QuECHERS and SPE method was established for the analysis of the pesticides in the cabbage and brine. It was found that different pesticides showed different dissipation patterns and finally represented dissimilar residue levels in the cabbage and brine. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the distinctions of these pesticides between each treatment and proved that salt content and pH value had certain influence on the dissipation and distribution of these pesticides during the pickling process. The data from this experiment would help to control pesticide residues in pickled cabbage and prevent potential risk to human health and environmental safety. PMID:23402557

  18. Uptake and distribution of N, P and heavy metals in three dominant salt marsh macrophytes from Yangtze River estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Quan, W M; Han, J D; Shen, A L; Ping, X Y; Qian, P L; Li, C J; Shi, L Y; Chen, Y Q

    2007-07-01

    We examined the variation in aboveground biomass accumulation and tissue concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in Phragmites australis (common reed), Spartina alterniflora (salt cordgrass), and Scirpus mariqueter throughout the growing season (April-October 2005), in order to determine the differences in net element accumulation and distribution between the three salt marsh macrophytes in the Yangtze River estuary, China. The aboveground biomass was significantly greater in the plots of S. alterniflora than in the plots of P. australis and S. mariqueter throughout the growing season (P<0.05). In August, the peak aboveground biomass was 1246+/-89 gDW/m(2), 2759+/-250 gDW/m(2) and 548+/-54 gDW/m(2) for P. australis, S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter, respectively. The concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in plant tissues showed similar seasonal patterns. There was a steady decline in element concentrations of the aboveground tissues from April to October. Relative element concentrations in aboveground tissues were at a peak during the spring sampling intervals with minimum levels during the fall. But the concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the belowground tissues were relatively constant throughout growing season. Generally, trace metal concentrations in the aboveground tissues of S. mariqueter was the highest throughout the growing season, and the metal concentrations of S. alterniflora tissues (aboveground and belowground) were greater than those of P. australis. Furthermore, the aboveground pools of nutrients and metals were consistently greater for S. alterniflora than for P. australis and S. mariqueter, which suggested that the rapid replacement of native P. australis and S. mariqueter with invasive S. alterniflora would significantly improve the magnitude of nutrient cycling and bioavailability of trace metals in the salt marsh and maybe transport more toxic metals into the water column

  19. Redistribution of elements of metals in plant tissues under treatment by non-ionic colloidal solution of biogenic metal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The content of metal elements in plant tissues of 10-day wheat seedlings after seed pre-treatment and foliar treatment with non-ionic colloidal solution of metal nanoparticles (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) was determined by an atomic absorption spectrometer. It was shown that metal nanoparticles due to their physical properties (nanoscale and uncharged state) were capable of penetrating rapidly into plant cells and optimizing plant metabolic processes at the early stages of growth and development. PMID:25114646

  20. Comparison of soymilk, powdered milk, Hank's balanced salt solution and tap water on periodontal ligament cell survival.

    PubMed

    Moazami, Fariborz; Mirhadi, Hosein; Geramizadeh, Bita; Sahebi, Safoura

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of soymilk, powdered milk, and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) to maintain human periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability in vitro. PDL cells were obtained from extracted healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM). The cultures were exposed for 1, 2, 4, and 8 h to experimental solutions (tap water served as negative control and DMEM as positive control) at 37°C. The viable cells were then counted using the trypan blue exclusion technique. Data were analyzed by using one-way anova, post hoc Scheffe and two-way anova test. Statistical analysis showed that HBSS, powdered baby formula, and soymilk maintain cell viability equally well in different periods of times. Tap water cannot keep cells viable as well as other solutions. Soymilk and powdered baby formula can be recommended as suitable storage media for avulsed teeth for up to 8 h.