Science.gov

Sample records for metal-containing polymeric materials

  1. Metal containing polymeric functional microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric functional microspheres containing metal or metal compounds are formed by addition polymerization of a covalently bondable olefinic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate in the presence of finely divided metal or metal oxide particles, such as iron, gold, platinum or magnetite, which are embedded in the resulting microspheres. The microspheres can be covalently bonded to chemotherapeutic agents, antibodies, or other proteins providing a means for labeling or separating labeled cells. Labeled cells or microspheres can be concentrated at a specific body location such as in the vicinity of a malignant tumor by applying a magnetic field to the location and then introducing the magnetically attractable microspheres or cells into the circulatory system of the subject. Labeled cells can be separated from a cell mixture by applying a predetermined magnetic field to a tube in which the mixture is flowing. After collection of the labeled cells, the magnetic field is discontinued and the labeled sub-cell population recovered.

  2. Metal containing material processing on coater/developer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Shinichiro; Mizunoura, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Koichi; Hontake, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shimura, Satoru; Enomoto, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Challenges of processing metal containing materials need to be addressed in order apply this technology to Behavior of metal containing materials on coater/developer processing including coating process, developer process and tool metal contamination is studied using CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS ProTM Z (Tokyo Electron Limited). Through this work, coating uniformity and coating film defectivity were studied. Metal containing material performance was comparable to conventional materials. Especially, new dispense system (NDS) demonstrated up to 80% reduction in coating defect for metal containing materials. As for processed wafer metal contamination, coated wafer metal contamination achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 3 materials. After develop metal contamination also achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 2 materials. Furthermore, through the metal defect study, metal residues and metal contamination were reduced by developer rinse optimization.

  3. Metal containing mesoporous silica materials: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Sinue

    The work presented here comprises the development of a new route for the incorporation of transition metals (TM = Mn, V, Cr) into the pores of mesoporous silica materials, the characterization, and the applications of the resulting materials. The mesoporous silica material used in this work is of the M41S family, known as MCM-48. The first part of the work is going to be focused on in the incorporation of manganese species. Characterization of the resulting materials will be sub-divided in two major parts: (1) Structural and textural properties and (2) Analysis of the Mn oxidation state, coordination and location in the mesoporous host. The process of incorporation of Mn into the mesoporous materials takes place by using high valence metal precursor anions. Then a mechanism to describe the process of loading the Mn species will be proposed. The method developed makes possible the incorporation of high loadings of transition metals while maintaining the properties of the host material, MCM-48. In the second part of the research the synthesis method developed in the first part is used to incorporate other transition metals such as vanadium and chromium. As in the first part, the nature of the TM species is investigated and their catalytic application in oxidation of styrene is also studied. The materials show good activity towards styrene oxidation with conversions as high as 100%. The catalysts can also be recycled without significant loss of activity. Finally, the last part of the research deals with the incorporation of tin oxide into mesoporous silica. A similar approach to the one used for transition metals was used to load tin in MCM-48, however, discrete tin oxide nanoparticles were formed on the surface of the mesoporous structure rather than inside of the pores. The sensing properties towards reducing gases such as hydrogen of these materials were tested, and the Sn containing mesoporous silica show promising properties for gas sensing applications.

  4. Migration insertion polymerization (MIP) of cyclopentadienyldicarbonyldiphenylphosphinopropyliron (FpP): a new concept for main chain metal-containing polymers (MCPs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosong; Cao, Kai; Liu, Yibo; Tsang, Brian; Liew, Sean

    2013-03-06

    We report a conceptually new polymerization technique termed migration insertion polymerization (MIP) for main chain metal-containing polymer (MCP) synthesis. Cyclopentadienyldicarbonyldiphenylphosphinopropyliron (FpP) is synthesized and polymerized via MIP, resulting in air stable poly(cyclopentadienylcarbonyldiphenylphosphinobutanoyliron) (PFpP) displaying narrow molecular weight distribution. The backbone of PFpP contains asymmetric iron units connected by both phosphine coordination and Fe-acyl bonds, which is representative of a new type of polymer. Furthermore, PFpP is tested to be soluble in a wide range of organic solvents and shown to possess reactive Fp end groups. PFpP amphiphiles have therefore been prepared via an end group migration insertion reaction in the presence of oligoethylene phosphine.

  5. Metal-containing plasma-polymerized coatings for laser-fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S.A.; Jordan, C.W.

    1981-09-14

    Addition of metal to plastic layers in some direct drive laser fusion targets is needed to reduce electron induced fuel preheat. A plasma polymerization coating system was constructed to produce a metal seeded polymer by adding an organometallic gas to the usual trans-2-butene and hydrogen feedstocks. Since organometallic gases are highly reactive and toxic, safety is a major concern in the design of a coating system. Our coating apparatus was designed with three levels of containment to assure protection of the operator. The gas handling system has redundant valves and was designed to fail safe. Several sensor controlled interlocks assure safe operating conditions. Waste materials are collected on a specially designed cold trap. Waste disposal is accomplished by heating the traps and purging volatile products through a reactor vessel. The design, operating procedure, and safety interlocks of this novel coating system are described.

  6. Metal solubilization from metal-containing solid materials by cyanogenic Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad A; Stagars, Marion; Pensini, Enrico; Krebs, Walter; Brandl, Helmut

    2004-09-30

    Different cyanogenic bacterial strains (Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus megaterium) were cultivated under cyanide-forming conditions in the presence of metal-containing solids such as nickel powder or electronic scrap. All microorganisms were able to form water-soluble metal cyanides, however, with different efficiencies. C. violaceum was able to mobilize nickel as tetracyanonickelate [Ni(CN)4(2-)] from fine-grained nickel powder. Gold was microbially solubilized as dicyanaoaurate [Au(CN)2-] from electronic waste. Additionally, cyanide-complexed copper was detected during biological treatment of shredded printed circuit boards scrap. Regarding the formation of tetracyanonickelate, C. violaceum was more effective than P. fluorescens or B. megaterium. Besides a few previous reports on gold solubilization from gold-containing ores or native gold by C. violaceum, the findings demonstrate for the first time the microbial mobilization of metals other than gold from solid materials and represent a novel type of microbial metal mobilization based on the ability of certain microbes to form HCN. The results might have the potential for industrial applications (biorecovery, bioremediation) regarding the treatment of metal-containing solids since metal cyanides can easily be separated by chromatographic means and be recovered by sorption onto activated carbon.

  7. Flame retardant polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.; Atlas, S.M.; Pearce, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The flame retardation of polyolefins is the focus of this volume. Methods for reduction of smoke and experimental evaluation of flammability parameters for polymeric materials are discussed. The flammability evaluation methods for textiles and the use of mass spectrometry for analysis of polymers and their degradation products are also presented.

  8. Polymeric materials in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    Paper of short review type. It is the continuation of and addition to previous review papers "V. E. Skurat. Polymers in Space. In: Encyclopedia of aerospace engineering, vol. 4, Wiley and sons, 2010; Ibid., 2012 (on line)". Following topics are considered: (1) Destruction of polymers by solar radiation with various wavelengths in different spectral regions (visible-UV, vacuum UV (VUV), deep UV, soft and hard X-rays) are discussed. In difference with common polymer photochemistry induced by UV radiation, directions of various routs of polymer phototransformations and their relative yields are greatly dependent on wavelength of light (photon energy) during illuminations in VUV, deep UV and X-ray regions. During last twenty years, intensive spacecraft investigations of solar spectrum show great periodic and spontaneous variations of radiation intensities in short-wavelengths regions - up to one - two decimal orders of magnitude for X-rays. As a result, during solar flares the absorbed dose on the polymer surfaces from X-rays can be compared with absorbed dose from VUV radiation. (2) Some new approaches to predictions of reaction efficiencies of fast orbital atomic oxygen in their interaction with polymeric materials are considered. (3) Some aspects of photocatalitic destruction of polymers in vacuum conditions by full-spectrum solar radiation are discussed. This process can take place in enamels containing semiconducting particles (TiO2, ZnO) as pigments. (4) Contamination of spacecraft surfaces from intrinsic outer atmosphere play important role not only from the point of view of deterioration of optical and thermophysical properties. Layers of SiO2 contaminations with nanometer thicknesses can greatly diminish mass losses from perfluorinated polymers under VUV irradiation.

  9. Ballistic Resistance of Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Chad

    2005-03-01

    Ballistic-resistant body armor has been credited with saving more than 2,500 lives, but new materials are constantly being developed, and there currently exists no method for evaluating armor over time to ensure the continued effectiveness of the protection. We report on progress towards development of a standard test method for reliability of the active polymeric materials that comprise them.

  10. Polymeric materials for neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVolder, Ross John

    Revascularization therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to treat various acute and chronic wounds, cardiovascular diseases, and tissue defects. It is common to either administer proangiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), or transplant cells that endogenously express multiple proangiogenic factors. Additionally, these strategies utilize a wide variety of polymeric systems, including hydrogels and biodegradable plastics, to deliver proangiogenic factors in a sophisticated manner to maintain a sustained proangiogenic environment. Despite some impressive results in rebuilding vascular networks, it is still a challenging task to engineer mature and functional neovessels in target tissues, because of the increasing complexities involved with neovascularization applications. To resolve these challenges, this work aims to design a wide variety of proangiogenic biomaterial systems with tunable properties used for neovascularization therapies. This thesis describes the design of several biomaterial systems used for the delivery of proangiogenic factors in neovascularization therapies, including: an electrospun/electrosprayed biodegradable plastic patch used for directional blood vessel growth (Chapter 2), an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system that biochemically stimulates cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 3), an enzyme-catalyzed alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system for VEGF delivery (Chapter 4), an enzyme-activated alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system with systematically controllable electrical and mechanical properties (Chapter 5), and an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel that enables the decoupled control of electrical conductivity and mechanical rigidity and is use to electrically stimulate cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 6). Overall, the biomaterial systems developed in this thesis will be broadly useful for improving the quality of a wide array of molecular and cellular based

  11. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  12. Fundamentals of polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shilling, M.S.

    1998-12-31

    The polymer industry is a young industry that has undergone tremendous growth and change over the last sixty years. Many important discoveries in polymer science have been accidental. Most of the learning has been by trial and error and most of the understanding is still basically empirical--make a polymer material or compound and then put it to the test to study what it is and how it performs. This article provides an overview of what polymers and polymer compounds are, why they behave as they do, and it discusses several examples of failures of rubber and plastic components.

  13. Screening of heavy metal containing waste types for use as raw material in Arctic clay-based bricks.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    2016-11-10

    In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of especially hazardous wastes can have severe consequences and the reduction and safe handling of these waste types are therefore an important issue. In this study, two groups of heavy metal containing particulate waste materials, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly and bottom ashes and mine tailings (i.e., residues from the mineral resource industry) from Greenland were screened in order to determine their suitability as secondary resources in clay-based brick production. Small clay discs, containing 20 or 40% of the different particulate waste materials, were fired and material properties and heavy metal leaching tests were conducted before and after firing. Remediation techniques (washing in distilled water and electrodialytical treatment) applied to the fly ash reduced leaching before firing. The mine tailings and bottom ash brick discs obtained satisfactory densities (1669-2007 kg/m(3)) and open porosities (27.9-39.9%). In contrast, the fly ash brick discs had low densities (1313-1578 kg/m(3)) and high open porosities (42.1-51. %). However, leaching tests on crushed brick discs revealed that heavy metals generally became more available after firing for all the investigated materials and that further optimisation is therefore necessary prior to incorporation in bricks.

  14. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  15. Marketing NASA Langley Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Diane M.

    1995-01-01

    A marketing tool was created to expand the knowledge of LaRC developed polymeric materials, in order to facilitate the technology transfer process and increase technology commercialization awareness among a non-technical audience. The created brochure features four materials, LaRC-CP, LaRC-RP46, LaRC-SI, and LaRC-IA, and highlights their competitive strengths in potential commercial applications. Excellent opportunities exist in the $40 million per year microelectronics market and the $6 billion adhesives market. It is hoped that the created brochure will generate inquiries regarding the use of the above materials in markets such as these.

  16. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsooodi, S; Yi Pang.

    1993-10-19

    A polymeric material is described which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6].

  17. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1992-05-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl.sub.5 or W(CO).sub.6 /hv.

  18. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1993-10-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl.sub.5 or W(CO).sub.6 /hv.

  19. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1992-05-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6]/hv.

  20. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  1. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; Silva, Cristina G. da; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Fernando de; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-18

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called “biopolyethylene” (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  2. Radiation effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    It is important to study changes in properties of polymeres after irradiation with charged particles, with ultraviolet radiation, and with combinations of both. An apparatus for this purpose has been built at the NASA Langley Research Center. It consists of a chamber 9 inches in diameter and 9 inches high with a port for an electron gun, another port for a mass spectrometer, and a quartz window through which an ultraviolet lamp can be focused. The chamber, including the electron gun and the mass spectrometer, can be evacuated to a pressure of 10 to the 8th power torr. A sample placed in the chamber can be irradiated with electrons and ultraviolet radiation separately, sequentially, or simultaneously, while volatile products can be monitored during all irradiations with the mass spectrometer. The apparatus described above has been used to study three different polymer films: lexan; a polycarbonate; P1700, a polysulfone; and mylar, a polyethylene terephthalate. All three polymers had been studied extensively with both electrons and ultraviolet radiation separately, but not simultaneously. Also, volatile products had not been monitored during irradiation for the materials. A high electron dose rate of 530 Mrads/hr was used so that a sufficient concentration of volatile products would be formed to yield a reasonable mass spectrum.

  3. Polymeric materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the use of polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Topics considered at the conference included polymer flow in porous media, hydrophobically associating polymers, mobility control,rheology, the direct determination of high molecular weights, size characterization of enhanced oil recovery polymers, MWD systems, light scattering, the use of size exclusion chromatography to study the degradation of water-soluble polymers for hydraulic fracturing fluids, polymer concentration in sandstone, electron microscopy, high salinity conditions, polymerization, and viscosity.

  4. Polymeric matrix materials for infrared metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Dirk, Shawn M; Rasberry, Roger D; Rahimian, Kamyar

    2014-04-22

    A polymeric matrix material exhibits low loss at optical frequencies and facilitates the fabrication of all-dielectric metamaterials. The low-loss polymeric matrix material can be synthesized by providing an unsaturated polymer, comprising double or triple bonds; partially hydrogenating the unsaturated polymer; depositing a film of the partially hydrogenated polymer and a crosslinker on a substrate; and photopatterning the film by exposing the film to ultraviolet light through a patterning mask, thereby cross-linking at least some of the remaining unsaturated groups of the partially hydrogenated polymer in the exposed portions.

  5. Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Versatile Antimicrobial Materials.

    PubMed

    Zubris, Deanna L; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Wuest, William M

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (polyQACs) comprise a broad class of materials with applications in medical implants, food processing, and surface sanitizing, amongst many others. These polymeric substances are especially promising due to their potent antibacterial activity and limited hemolytic toxicity. In particular, many polyQACs have superior therapeutic indices and a lower likelihood of developing antibacterial resistance in comparison to their monomers, making them ideal materials for wound dressings, catheters, and other biomedical applications. This review outlines the history and development, previous successes, current state of the research, and future directions of polyQACs in society.

  6. Remendable Polymeric Materials Using Reversible Covalent Bonds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Novel Polymeric Dienes and Dienophiles: Synthesis of Reversibly Cross- Linked Elastomers . Macromolecules, 35, 7246- 7253. Goiti, E., M. Huglin, and J...Materials and Nanotechnology in Engineering. Edited by Du, 6423, 112. Liu, Y., and Y. Chen, 2007: Thermally Reversible Cross- Linked Polyamides with...High Toughness and Self- Repairing Ability from Maleimide- and Furan- Functionalized Aromatic Polyamides . Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 208

  7. Chemical Compatibility of Polymeric Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solen, Kenneth A.; Kuchar, Marvin C.

    1990-01-01

    Presents some principles for specifying general classes of polymers for predicting relative chemical attack from acids, bases, oxidants, and certain common antagonists. Also discusses predicting relative solvent effects. Suggests uses of this information in two or three lectures in a chemical engineering materials course. (YP)

  8. Chemical Compatibility of Polymeric Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solen, Kenneth A.; Kuchar, Marvin C.

    1990-01-01

    Presents some principles for specifying general classes of polymers for predicting relative chemical attack from acids, bases, oxidants, and certain common antagonists. Also discusses predicting relative solvent effects. Suggests uses of this information in two or three lectures in a chemical engineering materials course. (YP)

  9. Self-healing polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Urban, Marek W

    2013-09-07

    Inspired by nature, self-healing materials represent the forefront of recent developments in materials chemistry and engineering. This review outlines the recent advances in the field of self-healing polymers. The first part discusses thermodynamic requirements for self-healing networks in the context of conformation changes that contribute to the Gibbs free energy. The chain flexibility significantly contributes to the entropy changes, whereas the heat of reaction and the external energy input are the main contributors to enthalpy changes. The second part focuses on chemical reactions that lead to self-healing, and the primary classes are the covalent bonding, supramolecular assemblies, ionic interactions, chemo-mechanical self-healing, and shape memory polymers. The third part outlines recent advances using encapsulation, remote self-healing and the role of shape memory polymers. Recent developments in the field of self-healing polymers undeniably indicate that the main challenge will be the designing of high glass transition (Tg) functional materials, which also exhibit stimuli-responsive attributes. Build-in controllable hierarchical heterogeneousness at various length scales capable of remote self-healing by physical and chemical responses will be essential in designing future materials of the 21st century.

  10. New Polymeric Materials for Solid Phase Extraction.

    PubMed

    Płotka-Wasylka, Justyna; Marć, Mariusz; Szczepańska, Natalia; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-04-11

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a popular sample preparation technique, which can be applied directly in gas-solid phase and liquid-solid phase, or indirectly to solid samples by using, e.g., thermodesorption with subsequent chromatographic analysis. Although SPE can be described as a physical extraction process involving a liquid phase and a solid phase, the increased use of packed sorbent formats seems to have led to a bias toward packed sorbent SPE devices. Without any doubt, the heart of the SPE technique is the sorbent material as it has a direct influence on the selectivity, sorptive capacity, and the format or the configuration of the resultant SPE device. There will always be a need for new sorbent materials, and therefore, it is imperative to focus research efforts on versatile sorbent fabrication techniques that could address current and anticipated challenges. Various polymeric materials have been developed and implemented in everyday life. They are also extensively used in analytical chemistry. This review provides an updated summary of the most important features of polymeric sorptive materials used at the stage of preparing samples for analysis. The application of each new polymeric sorbent material is discussed in detail. Moreover, the comparison between these materials is done.

  11. Studies of molecular properties of polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Long, Edward R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace environment effects (high energy electrons, thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and aircraft fluids) on polymeric and composite materials considered for structural use in spacecraft and advanced aircraft are examined. These materials include Mylar, Ultem, and Kapton. In addition to providing information on the behavior of the materials, attempts are made to relate the measurements to the molecular processes occurring in the material. A summary and overview of the technical aspects are given along with a list of the papers that resulted from the studies. The actual papers are included in the appendices and a glossary of technical terms and definitions is included in the front matter.

  12. Performance of selected polymeric materials on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stein, Bland A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provided a unique environmental exposure of a wide variety of materials for potential advanced spacecraft application. This paper examines the molecular level response of selected polymeric materials which flew onboard this vehicle. Polymers include epolyimide, polysulfone, and polystyrene film and polyimide, polysulfone, and epoxy matrix resin/graphite fiber reinforced composites. Several promising experimental films were also studied. Most specimens received 5.8 years of low Earth orbital (LEO) exposure on LDEF. Several samples received on 10 months of exposure. Chemical characterization techniques included ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and selected solution property measurements. Results suggest that many molecular level effects present during the first 10 months of exposure were not present after 5.8 years of exposure for specimens on or near Row 9. Increased AO fluence near the end of the mission likely eroded away much environmentally induced surface phenomena. The objective of this work is to provide fundamental information for use in improving the performance of polymeric materials for LEO application. A secondary objective is to gain an appreciation for the constraints and limitations of results from LDEF polymeric materials experiments.

  13. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  14. Bioactive Polymeric Materials for Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bienek, Diane R.; Tutak, Wojtek; Skrtic, Drago

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive polymeric materials based on calcium phosphates have tremendous appeal for hard tissue repair because of their well-documented biocompatibility. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based ones additionally protect against unwanted demineralization and actively support regeneration of hard tissue minerals. Our group has been investigating the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP polymeric composites for the last two decades. Here, we present ACP’s dispersion in a polymer matrix and the fine-tuning of the resin affects the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of ACP polymeric composites. These studies illustrate how the filler/resin interface and monomer/polymer molecular structure affect the material’s critical properties, such as ion release and mechanical strength. We also present evidence of the remineralization efficacy of ACP composites when exposed to accelerated acidic challenges representative of oral environment conditions. The utility of ACP has recently been extended to include airbrushing as a platform technology for fabrication of nanofiber scaffolds. These studies, focused on assessing the feasibility of incorporating ACP into various polymer fibers, also included the release kinetics of bioactive calcium and phosphate ions from nanofibers and evaluate the biorelevance of the polymeric ACP fiber networks. We also discuss the potential for future integration of the existing ACP scaffolds into therapeutic delivery systems used in the precision medicine field. PMID:28134776

  15. Materials discovery by crystal growth: Lanthanide metal containing oxides of the platinum group metals (Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, Pd, Pt) from molten alkali metal hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Mugavero, Samuel J.; Gemmill, William R.; Roof, Irina P.; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur

    2009-07-15

    This review addresses the process of materials discovery via crystal growth, specifically of lanthanide metal containing oxides of the platinum group metals (Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, Pd, Pt). It provides a detailed overview of the use of hydroxide fluxes for crystal growth. The melt chemistry of hydroxide fluxes, specifically, the extensive acid base chemistry, the metal cation solubility, and the ability of hydroxide melts to oxidize metals are described. Furthermore, a general methodology for the successful crystal growth of oxides is provided, including a discussion of experimental considerations, suitable reaction vessels, reaction profiles and temperature ranges. Finally, a compilation of complex platinum group metal oxides recently synthesized using hydroxide melts, focusing on their crystal growth and crystal structures, is included. - Graphical abstract: A review that addresses the process of materials discovery via crystal growth using hydroxide fluxes. It provides a detailed overview of the use of hydroxide fluxes for crystal growth and describes the melt chemistry of hydroxide fluxes, specifically, the extensive acid base chemistry, the metal cation solubility, and the ability of hydroxide melts to oxidize metals. In addition, a compilation of complex platinum group metal oxides recently synthesized using hydroxide melts is included.

  16. Performance Oriented Packaging Requirements of Wirebound Box for Small Caliber Ammunition Packed in PA108 Metal Container for Packing Group II Solid Hazardous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-05

    amunition. This wirebound box contains two PA108 metal containers containing 5.56= mall caliber wmuiticx for Squad Automatic Weapons . Tests were...REQUIREMENTS OF WIREBOUND BOX FOR SMALL CALIBER AMMUNITION PACKED IN PA108 METAL CONTAINER =0 QUALCTYI"’D 5 FOR Acl For PACKING GROUP II OTNC TAB...Squad Automatic Weapon . This box contains a maximum gross weight of 54 kg. POP tests were conducted using additional weight(62 kg test weight) to insure

  17. Collagen-based new bioartificial polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Giusti, P; Lazzeri, L; De Petris, S; Palla, M; Cascone, M G

    1994-12-01

    Bioartificial polymeric materials, based on blends of biological and synthetic polymers, have been proposed as new materials for applications in the biomedical field. They should usefully combine the biocompatibility of the biological component with the physical and mechanical properties of the synthetic component. Blends of collagen with either poly(vinyl alcohol) or poly(acrylic acid) have been prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of the two polymers. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis has been carried out to investigate the miscibility properties of the polymers and the mechanical behaviour of the blends.

  18. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  19. Space environmental effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the major environmental hazards in the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) are energetic charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. The charged particles, electrons and protons, range in energy from 0.1 to 4 MeV and each have a flux of 10 to the 8th sq cm/sec. Over a 30 year lifetime, materials in the GEO will have an absorbed dose from this radiation of 10 to the 10th rads. The ultraviolet radiation comes uninhibited from the sun with an irradiance of 1.4 kw/sq m. Radiation is known to initiate chain sission and crosslinking in polymeric materials, both of which affect their structural properties. The 30-year dose level from the combined radiation in the GEO exceeds the threshold for measurable damage in most polymer systems studied. Of further concern is possible synergistic effects from the simultaneous irradiation with charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. Most studies on radiation effects on polymeric materials use either electrons or ultraviolet radiation alone, or in a sequential combination.

  20. Novel hybrid polymeric materials for barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlacky, Erin Christine

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites, described as the inclusion of nanometer-sized layered silicates into polymeric materials, have been widely researched due to significant enhancements in material properties with the incorporation of small levels of filler (1--5 wt.%) compared to conventional micro- and macro-composites (20--30 wt.%). One of the most promising applications for polymer-clay nanocomposites is in the field of barrier coatings. The development of UV-curable polymer-clay nanocomposite barrier coatings was explored by employing a novel in situ preparation technique. Unsaturated polyesters were synthesized in the presence of organomodified clays by in situ intercalative polymerization to create highly dispersed clays in a precursor resin. The resulting clay-containing polyesters were crosslinked via UV-irradiation using donor-acceptor chemistry to create polymer-clay nanocomposites which exhibited significantly enhanced barrier properties compared to alternative clay dispersion techniques. The impact of the quaternary alkylammonium organic modifiers, used to increase compatibility between the inorganic clay and organic polymer, was studied to explore influence of the organic modifier structure on the nanocomposite material properties. By incorporating just the organic modifiers, no layered silicates, into the polyester resins, reductions in film mechanical and thermal properties were observed, a strong indicator of film plasticization. An alternative in situ preparation method was explored to further increase the dispersion of organomodified clay within the precursor polyester resins. In stark contrast to traditional in situ polymerization methods, a novel "reverse" in situ preparation method was developed, where unmodified montmorillonite clay was added during polyesterification to a reaction mixture containing the alkylammonium organic modifier. The resulting nanocomposite films exhibited reduced water vapor permeability and increased mechanical properties

  1. Approaches to flame resistant polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liepins, R.

    1975-01-01

    Four research and development areas are considered for further exploration in the quest of more flame-resistant polymeric materials. It is suggested that improvements in phenolphthalein polycarbonate processability may be gained through linear free energy relationship correlations. Looped functionality in the backbone of a polymer leads to both improved thermal resistance and increased solubility. The guidelines used in the pyrolytic carbon production constitute a good starting point for the development of improved flame-resistant materials. Numerous organic reactions requiring high temperatures and the techniques of protected functionality and latent functionality constitute the third area for exploration. Finally, some well-known organic reactions are suggested for the formation of polymers that were not made before.

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE Multiphoton polymerization of hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsari, Maria; Vamvakaki, Maria; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2010-12-01

    Multiphoton polymerization has been developed as a direct laser writing technique for the preparation of complex 3D structures with resolution beyond the diffraction limit of light. The combination of two or more hybrid materials with different functionalities in the same system has allowed the preparation of structures with advanced properties and functions. Furthermore, the surface functionalization of the 3D structures opens new avenues for their applications in a variety of nanobiotechnological fields. This paper describes the principles of 2PP and the experimental set-up used for 3D structure fabrication. It also gives an overview of the materials that have been employed in 2PP so far and depicts the perspectives of this technique in the development of new active components.

  3. Confocal Raman Imaging of Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Ute; Müller, Jörg; Koenen, Joachim

    Polymers play an essential role in modern materials science. Due to the wide variety of mechanical and chemical properties of polymers, they are used in almost every field of application and are still a dynamic area in the development of new materials with demanding requirements. Raman spectroscopy is one of the standard characterization techniques used to uniquely determine the chemical composition of a polymer. Modern materials, however, are generally heterogeneous, in which various chemical components or polymorphs of the same chemical species can be present in a very small sample volume. For the analysis of such heterogeneous materials, the combination of Raman spectroscopy with confocal microscopy delivers information about the spatial distribution of the various chemical species with a resolution down to 200 nm. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the power of confocal Raman imaging for the characterization of heterogeneous polymeric materials. The first section will deal with polymorphs of polypropylene in polymer films, followed by the nondestructive analysis of polymer blends. A later section will deal with multi-layer polymer coatings and paints and finally various additives to polymer matrices will be discussed.

  4. Kinetic and thermal analysis of polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Jeffery David

    2002-09-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques have been used to study the thermal degradation of polymeric materials. These polymers were subjected to a variety of heating programs as well as numerous types of atmospheric conditions. The results from these analyses were then used to determine activation energies as a function of an extent of reaction variable, alpha. This technique, known as the model-free isoconversional method, allows for changes in energies to occur as decomposition pathways change. This produces a more realistic means of observing complex kinetic schemes and is a better representation of kinetic analysis. Chapters 1 and 2 provide introductory backgrounds into both polymer chemistry and the isoconversional analysis technique, respectively. A brief description of the research goals and motivations is also discussed. Thermal analysis of pure polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), and polypropylene (PP) samples are presented in Chapter 3. The obtained activation energy dependencies are interpreted in terms of degradation mechanisms. These mechanisms vary greatly according to the gaseous environment in which they were analyzed. The thermal degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in both pure nitrogen and in various oxygen-containing atmospheres is discussed in Chapter 4. It was observed that oxygen exhibits a stabilizing effect on PMMA decomposition. Activation energies for these processes, and their mechanistic interpretations, will also be presented. Chapter 5 builds off the understanding gained in Chapter 4 by investigating the char-forming effects of silica gel and potassium carbonate additives on PMMA. These additives are known for their fire-resistant properties when combined in a 3:1 silica gel to potassium carbonate ratio. The effects of these additives, and their respective ratio amounts, on PMMA char formation are reported. Chapters 6 and 7 conclude the dissertation by looking at the thermal

  5. Polymerization shrinkage of flowable resin-based restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Stavridakis, Minos M; Dietschi, Didier; Krejci, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the linear polymerization displacement and polymerization forces induced by polymerization shrinkage of a series of flowable resin-based restorative materials. The materials tested were 22 flowable resin-based restorative materials (Admira Flow, Aelite Flow, Aeliteflow LV, Aria, Crystal Essence, Definite Flow, Dyract Flow, Filtek Flow, FloRestore, Flow-it, Flow-Line, Freedom, Glacier, OmegaFlo, PermaFlo, Photo SC, Revolution 2, Star Flow, Synergy Flow, Tetric Flow, Ultraseal XT and Wave). Measurements for linear polymerization displacement and polymerization forces were performed using custom made measuring devices. Polymerization of the test materials was carried out for 60 seconds by means of a light curing unit, and each property was measured for 180 seconds from the start of curing in eight specimens for each material. Statistical evaluation of the data was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) test (p=0.05) and simple linear regression. A wide range of values was recorded for linear polymerization displacement (26.61 to 80.74 microns) and polymerization forces (3.23 to 7.48 kilograms). Statistically significant differences among materials were found for both properties studied. Very few materials (Freedom, Glacier, and Photo SC) presented low values of linear polymerization displacement and polymerization forces (similar to hybrid resin composites), while the majority of materials presented very high values in both properties studied. Study of the shrinkage kinetics revealed the exponential growth process of both properties. The polymerization forces development exhibited a few seconds delay over linear polymerization displacement. Simple linear regression showed that the two polymerization shrinkage properties that were studied were not highly correlated (r2=0.59).

  6. Space environmental effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Polymeric materials that may be exposed on spacecraft to the hostile environment beyond Earth's atmosphere were subjected to atomic oxygen, electron bombardment, and ultraviolet radiation in terrestrial experiments. Evidence is presented for the utility of an inexpensive asher for determining the relative susceptibility of organic polymers to atomic oxygen. Kapton, Ultem, P1700 polysulfone, and m-CBB/BIS-A (a specially formulated polymer prepared at NASA Langley) all eroded at high rates, just as was observed in shuttle experiments. Films of Ultem, P1700 polysulfone, and m-CBB/BIS-A were irradiated with 85 keV electrons. The UV/VIS absorbance of Ultem was found to decay with time after irradiation, indicating free radical decay. The tensile properties of Ultem began to change only after it had been exposed to 100 Mrads. The effects of dose rate, temperature, and simultaneous vs. sequential electron and UV irradiation were also studied.

  7. Electron Induced Fracture of Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klakken, Michael Lee

    The application of high energy electrons onto a polymeric sample is known to induce electronic excitations which cause many reactions including dissociation, bond scissions and chemical reactions. Dissociation and bond scission tend to "weaken" the material while the chemical reactions tend to "strengthen" the material. It is hypothesized that the introduction of energetic electrons onto a stressed sample causes a decrease in the effective bond energy of the polymers main chains. The effect of electron bombardment was studied on the following materials: polyisoprene, polybutadiene, polyethylene, BAMO/THF (an energetic elastomer), butyl rubber, Kapton-H and Teflon. The techniques used in the study are: (1) measurement of the mechanical response of a sample mounted in a tension mode due to the electron application, (2) measurement of the change in the tear energy of an elastic material due to the electron beam and (3) generating the observed responses using a molecular dynamics computer simulation method. It was found that the force required to cause crack propagation in a sample mounted in tension decreased when the applied electron current was increased. Periodic patterns were also observed on the fracture surfaces of many of the materials which indicates that both crosslinking and chain scissions occurred in the induced fracture process. The tear energy was also observed to change with the application of the electron beam. The tear energy of polybutadiene was found to first increase (i.e. predominantly crosslinking) and then decrease (i.e. predominantly chain scissions) with increasing current while the tear energy of butyl rubber was found to steadily decrease as the current was increased. The decrease of the butyl rubber was modeled using a kinetic rate process theory that gave results that agreed well with the data. A molecular dynamics computer program was also used to model the electron induced fracture event and the failure event itself. The results obtained

  8. Twin Polymerization--a New Principle for Hybrid Material Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Thomas; Seifert, Andreas; Spange, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Twin polymerization is a novel modular approach for the synthesis of hybrid materials. Using this strategy two distinct polymers of either inorganic or organic nature are produced from a single source monomer in a mechanistically coupled process. Twin polymerization is an elegant way for producing nanostructured organic-inorganic hybrid materials of composition and morphology on demand. The main objective of this Review is the explanation of the principle of various twin polymerization processes and their appropriate terminologies. Different types of twin polymerization are classified with respect to the underlying processes as described in individual examples, demonstrating its potential in material synthesis. Prospects of the synthetic methodology of twin polymerization are demonstrated for different molecular structures of twin monomers and the resulting hybrid materials. A comparison with other scenarios for the synthesis of two different polymers within one procedure is included.

  9. Waveguides in Thin Film Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakisov, Sergey; Abdeldayem, Hossin; Venkateswarlu, Putcha; Teague, Zedric

    1996-01-01

    Results on the fabrication of integrated optical components in polymeric materials using photo printing methods will be presented. Optical waveguides were fabricated by spin coating preoxidized silicon wafers with organic dye/polymer solution followed by soft baking. The waveguide modes were studied using prism coupling technique. Propagation losses were measured by collecting light scattered from the trace of a propagation mode by either scanning photodetector or CCD camera. We observed the formation of graded index waveguides in photosensitive polyimides after exposure of UV light from a mercury arc lamp. By using a theoretical model, an index profile was reconstructed which is in agreement with the profile reconstructed by the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin calculation technique using a modal spectrum of the waveguides. Proposed mechanism for the formation of the graded index includes photocrosslinking followed by UV curing accompanied with optical absorption increase. We also developed the prototype of a novel single-arm double-mode interferometric sensor based on our waveguides. It demonstrates high sensitivity to the chance of ambient temperature. The device can find possible applications in aeropropulsion control systems.

  10. Waveguides in Thin Film Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakisov, Sergey; Abdeldayem, Hossin; Venkateswarlu, Putcha; Teague, Zedric

    1996-01-01

    Results on the fabrication of integrated optical components in polymeric materials using photo printing methods will be presented. Optical waveguides were fabricated by spin coating preoxidized silicon wafers with organic dye/polymer solution followed by soft baking. The waveguide modes were studied using prism coupling technique. Propagation losses were measured by collecting light scattered from the trace of a propagation mode by either scanning photodetector or CCD camera. We observed the formation of graded index waveguides in photosensitive polyimides after exposure of UV light from a mercury arc lamp. By using a theoretical model, an index profile was reconstructed which is in agreement with the profile reconstructed by the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin calculation technique using a modal spectrum of the waveguides. Proposed mechanism for the formation of the graded index includes photocrosslinking followed by UV curing accompanied with optical absorption increase. We also developed the prototype of a novel single-arm double-mode interferometric sensor based on our waveguides. It demonstrates high sensitivity to the chance of ambient temperature. The device can find possible applications in aeropropulsion control systems.

  11. Hydrolases in Polymer Chemistry: Chemoenzymatic Approaches to Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, Andreas; Palmans, Anja R. A.

    Lipases show high activity in the polymerization of a range of monomers using ring-opening polymerization and polycondensation. The range of polymer structures from this enzymatic polymerization can be further increased by combination with chemical methods. This paper reviews the developments of the last 5-8 years in chemoenzymatic strategies towards polymeric materials. Special emphasis is on the synthesis of polymer architectures like block and graft copolymers and polymer networks. Moreover, the combination of chemical and enzymatic catalysis for the synthesis of unique chiral polymers is highlighted.

  12. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  13. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.; Babcock, W.C.; Tuttle, M.

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets. 5 figs.

  14. Polymerization Simulator for Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirdon, William M.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes how molecular simulation of polymerization reactions can be used to enrich introductory polymer or material science courses to give students a deeper understanding of free-radical chain and stepwise growth polymerization reactions. These simulations have proven to be effective media for instruction that do not require material…

  15. Polymerization Simulator for Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirdon, William M.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes how molecular simulation of polymerization reactions can be used to enrich introductory polymer or material science courses to give students a deeper understanding of free-radical chain and stepwise growth polymerization reactions. These simulations have proven to be effective media for instruction that do not require material…

  16. [Special basic material for microwave polymerization of AKR-MV].

    PubMed

    Poiurovskaia, I Ia; Sutugina, T F; Rudenko, K N

    2002-01-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of the new acrylic material ACR-MW for microwave polymerization, the base material Etacryl-02 ("Stoma", Ukraine) and their analogue Acron MC (GC Lab Technologies Inc., Japan). The findings suggest that the new special denture base material ACR-MW for rapid microwave polymerization (3 min at 100%) possesses the highest bending strength with lower water absorption and solubility. The properties of ACR-MW meet the requirements of ISO 1567.

  17. Vacuum stability requirements of polymeric material for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish outgassing requirements and test guidelines for polymeric materials used in the space thermal/vacuum environment around sensitive optical or thermal control surfaces. The scope of this document covers the control of polymeric materials used near or adjacent to optical or thermal control surfaces that are exposed to the thermal/vacuum environment of space. This document establishes the requirements and defines the test method to evaluate polymeric materials used in the vicinity of these surfaces in space applications.

  18. A large deformation poroplasticity theory for microporous polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Lallit

    2017-01-01

    A coupled theory accounting for fluid diffusion and large deformations of elastic-viscoplastic microporous polymeric materials is presented. The theory is intended to represent the coupled deformation-diffusion response of a material which at a microscopic scale consists of a porous polymeric skeleton and a freely moving fluid in a fully connected pore space. Potential applications of the theory include modeling the response of polymer microfiltration membranes, as well as modeling the response of several hydrated biological tissues which are microporous polymeric materials containing a high concentration of liquids.

  19. Recent progress of atomic layer deposition on polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong Chen; Ye, Enyi; Li, Zibiao; Han, Ming-Yong; Loh, Xian Jun

    2017-01-01

    As a very promising surface coating technology, atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to modify the surfaces of polymeric materials for improving their functions and expanding their application areas. Polymeric materials vary in surface functional groups (number and type), surface morphology and internal structure, and thus ALD deposition conditions that typically work on a normal solid surface, usually do not work on a polymeric material surface. To date, a large variety of research has been carried out to investigate ALD deposition on various polymeric materials. This paper aims to provide an in-depth review of ALD deposition on polymeric materials and its applications. Through this review, we will provide a better understanding of surface chemistry and reaction mechanism for controlled surface modification of polymeric materials by ALD. The integrated knowledge can aid in devising an improved way in the reaction between reactant precursors and polymer functional groups/polymer backbones, which will in turn open new opportunities in processing ALD materials for better inorganic/organic film integration and potential applications.

  20. Novel polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials prepared using organogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei-Chi; Tseng, Shen-Chen

    2009-11-01

    We propose a new method for preparing polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials using self-assembled templates formed by 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) organogels. DBS is capable of self-assembling into a 3D nanofibrillar network at relatively low concentrations in some organic solvents to produce organogels. In this study, we induced the formation of such physical cross-linked networks in styrene. Subsequently, we polymerized the styrene in the presence of chemical cross-linkers, divinyl benzene (DVB), with different amounts of DBS using thermal-initiated polymerization. The resulting materials were transparent, homogeneous polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites with both physical and chemical cross-links. The porous polymeric materials were obtained by solvent extraction of the DBS nanofibrils from the PS. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements show that the amounts of DBS and DVB influenced the specific surface area after the removal of the DBS fibrils.

  1. Polymeric and Molecular Materials for Advanced Organic Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-20

    easily reconfigurable. These new- generation products will require new types of semiconductors and other materials, less capital- intensive thin film ...based polymers with highly informative properties. vii This includes polymers where electron-poor BTI is co- polymerized with electron-rich R2Si...blocks for molecular and polymeric hole- and electron transporters. Based on these results and our expertise in imide-based semiconducting polymers

  2. Thermomechanical properties of polymeric materials and related stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sheng Yen

    1990-01-01

    The thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and dynamic mechanical analysis characterizations of a polymeric material yield useful data relating to the thermomechanical stresses of eight widely used polymeric materials. The materials encompass Lexan, Plexiglass, Epon, Conap, Uralane, Solithane, and Humiseal. A combined profile of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and the modulus change over a wide temperature range obtained by these analytical methods indicates the drastic effects of glass transition on both the CTE and the modulus of a polymer. TMA can also detect secondary transitions, and provides a convenient means for the study of a polymer's toughness.

  3. Applications of polymeric smart materials to environmental problems.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, H N; Bergbreiter, D E

    1997-01-01

    New methods for the reduction and remediation of hazardous wastes like carcinogenic organic solvents, toxic materials, and nuclear contamination are vital to environmental health. Procedures for effective waste reduction, detection, and removal are important components of any such methods. Toward this end, polymeric smart materials are finding useful applications. Polymer-bound smart catalysts are useful in waste minimization, catalyst recovery, and catalyst reuse. Polymeric smart coatings have been developed that are capable of both detecting and removing hazardous nuclear contaminants. Such applications of smart materials involving catalysis chemistry, sensor chemistry, and chemistry relevant to decontamination methodology are especially applicable to environmental problems. PMID:9114277

  4. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  5. Metal-containing lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, M.W.; Kennedy, S.

    1987-05-12

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising: a major amount of a lubricating oil; from 1 to 10 (wt)% of an ashless dispersant compound; or from 0.3 to 10 (wt)% of a nitrogen or ester containing polymeric viscosity index improver dispersant.

  6. pH-responsive smart polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Shukla, S.; Lal, Babu; Kandpal, L. D.; Mathur, G. N.

    1999-11-01

    Polymer systems which undergo changes in volume with change in temperature, solvent or any other external stimuli find application in medicine, biotechnology and Industry. The changes which are observed are reversible and do not show any hesterisis over number of times, the experiments are repeated. The pH of systems are important in biochemical reactions and in industrial chemical reactions. Polymeric intelligent systems that can show a change in light transmission over a wide pH range can be devised to develop light induced switches to monitor the program of reaction, addition of ingredients and also control other related factors such as temperature. Such close control chemical reactions are often desired where addition/substitution of ingredients in responsible for one type of spatial order.

  7. Metal-Containing Polystyrene Beads as Standards for Mass Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I.; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Kinach, Robert; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C.; Tanner, Scott

    2010-01-01

    We examine the suitability of metal-containing polystyrene beads for the calibration of a mass cytometer instrument, a single particle analyser based on an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a time of flight mass spectrometer. These metal-containing beads are also verified for their use as internal standards for this instrument. These beads were synthesized by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with acrylic acid as a comonomer. Acrylic acid acts as a ligand to anchor the metal ions within the interior of the beads. Mass cytometry enabled the bead-by-bead measurement of the metal-content and determination of the metal-content distribution. Beads synthesized by dispersion polymerization that involved three stages were shown to have narrower bead-to-bead variation in their lanthanide content than beads synthesized by 2-stage dispersion polymerization. The beads exhibited insignificant release of their lanthanide content to aqueous solutions of different pHs over a period of six months. When mixed with KG1a or U937 cell lines, metal-containing polymer beads were shown not to affect the mass cytometry response to the metal content of element-tagged antibodies specifically attached to these cells. PMID:20390041

  8. Metal-Containing Polystyrene Beads as Standards for Mass Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Kinach, Robert; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Tanner, Scott; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the suitability of metal-containing polystyrene beads for the calibration of a mass cytometer instrument, a single particle analyser based on an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a time of flight mass spectrometer. These metal-containing beads are also verified for their use as internal standards for this instrument. These beads were synthesized by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with acrylic acid as a comonomer. Acrylic acid acts as a ligand to anchor the metal ions within the interior of the beads. Mass cytometry enabled the bead-by-bead measurement of the metal-content and determination of the metal-content distribution. Beads synthesized by dispersion polymerization that involved three stages were shown to have narrower bead-to-bead variation in their lanthanide content than beads synthesized by 2-stage dispersion polymerization. The beads exhibited insignificant release of their lanthanide content to aqueous solutions of different pHs over a period of six months. When mixed with KG1a or U937 cell lines, metal-containing polymer beads were shown not to affect the mass cytometry response to the metal content of element-tagged antibodies specifically attached to these cells.

  9. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    Polymeric encapsulation materials are typically used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules to protect the cell from the field environment. Because it is physically located adjacent to the cell, the encapsulation is exposed to a high optical flux, often including light in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. The durability of encapsulants used in CPV modules is critical to the technology, but is presently not well understood. This work seeks to identify the appropriate material types, field-induced failure mechanisms, and factors of influence (if possible) of polymeric encapsulation. These results will ultimately be weighed against those of future qualification and accelerated life test procedures.

  10. Anomalous Water and Other Polymeric Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    could be called anomalous in some ways, no material that gives the exact spectrum of ’ polywater ’ could be found. An interesting and previously...unreported form of sodium carbonate is formed when this compound crystallizes from methanol. Yields of the polywater -like material seem to vary greatly from...laboratory to laboratory, even when simple procedures that are seen to work in one are tried in another. Polywater -like material can be formed from

  11. Space radiation resistant transparent polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.

    1977-01-01

    A literature search in the field of ultraviolet and charged particle irradiation of polymers was utilized in an experimental program aimed at the development of radiation stable materials for space applications. The rationale utilized for material selection and the synthesis, characterization and testing performed on several selected materials is described. Among the materials tested for ultraviolet stability in vacuum were: polyethyleneoxide, polyvinylnaphthalene, and the amino resin synthesized by the condensation of o-hydroxybenzoguanamine with formaldehyde. Particularly interesting was the radiation behavior of poly(ethyleneoxide), irradiation did not cause degradation of optical properties but rather an improvement in transparency as indicated by a decrease in solar absorptance with increasing exposure time.

  12. Polymeric Materials for Tissue Engineering of Arterial Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Swathi; Qu, Zheng; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. The limited availability of healthy autologous vessels for bypass grafting procedures has led to the fabrication of prosthetic vascular conduits. Synthetic polymeric materials, while providing the appropriate mechanical strength, lack the compliance and biocompatibility that bioresorbable and naturally occurring protein polymers offer. Vascular tissue engineering approaches have emerged in order to meet the challenges of designing a vascular graft with long-term patency. In vitro culture techniques that have been explored with vascular cell seeding of polymeric scaffolds and the use of bioactive polymers for in situ arterial regeneration have yielded promising results. This review describes the development of polymeric materials in various tissue engineering strategies for the improvement in the mechanical and biological performance of an arterial substitute. PMID:19426609

  13. Process for impregnating a concrete or cement body with a polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Mattus, A.J.; Spence, R.D.

    1988-05-04

    A process for impregnating cementitious solids with polymeric materials by blending polymeric materials in a grout, allowing the grout to cure, and contacting the resulting solidified grout containing the polymeric materials with an organic mixture containing a monomer, a cross-linking agent and a catalyst. The mixture dissolves the polymerized particles and forms a channel for distributing the monomer throughout the network formed by the polymeric particles. The organic components are then cured to form a substantially water-impermeable mass.

  14. Process for impregnating a concrete or cement body with a polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Mattus, Alfred J.; Spence, Roger D.

    1989-01-01

    A process for impregnating cementitious solids with polymeric materials by blending polymeric materials in a grout, allowing the grout to cure, and contacting the resulting solidified grout containing the polymeric materials with an organic mixture containing a monomer, a cross-linking agent and a catalyst. The mixture dissolves the polymerized particles and forms a channel for distributing the monomer throughout the network formed by the polymeric particles. The organic components are then cured to form a substantially water-impermeable mass.

  15. Ballistic Puncture Self-Healing Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Yost, William T.; Bogert, Phil B.; Howell, Patricia A.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Burke, Eric R.

    2017-01-01

    Space exploration launch costs on the order of $10,000 per pound provide an incentive to seek ways to reduce structural mass while maintaining structural function to assure safety and reliability. Damage-tolerant structural systems provide a route to avoiding weight penalty while enhancing vehicle safety and reliability. Self-healing polymers capable of spontaneous puncture repair show promise to mitigate potentially catastrophic damage from events such as micrometeoroid penetration. Effective self-repair requires these materials to quickly heal following projectile penetration while retaining some structural function during the healing processes. Although there are materials known to possess this capability, they are typically not considered for structural applications. Current efforts use inexpensive experimental methods to inflict damage, after which analytical procedures are identified to verify that function is restored. Two candidate self-healing polymer materials for structural engineering systems are used to test these experimental methods.

  16. Preparation of atomic oxygen resistant polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tortorelli, Victor J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Connell, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Polyphenyl quinoxalines (PPQs) are an important family of high performance polymers that offer good chemical and thermal stability coupled with excellent mechanical properties. These aromatic heterocyclic polymers are potentially useful as films, coatings, adhesives, and composite materials that demand stability in harsh environments. Our approach was to prepare PPQs with pendent siloxane groups using the appropriate chemistry and then evaluate these polymers before and after exposure to simulated atomic oxygen. Either monomer, the bis(o-diamine)s or the bis(alpha-diketone)s can be synthesized with a hydroxy group to which the siloxane chain will be attached. Several novel materials were prepared.

  17. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers. PMID:25667977

  18. Biobased polymeric materials prepared from cotton byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive natural renewable materials from cotton and cottonseed processing. Recently several new polymer applications have been reported involving these cotton byproducts. These new developments are briefly reviewed in this article. In the first a...

  19. UV radiation induced surface modulation time evolution in polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, I.; Apostol, D.; Damian, V.; Iordache, I.; Hurduc, N.; Sava, I.; Sacarescu, L.; Stoica, I.

    2010-11-01

    The reorganization processes at submicron level of the polymeric materials have been investigated because of their applications in optoelectronics and bio-science. We have obtained surface relief modulation in single step processing on the photo resist and polysiloxane films. But for technical applications the time evolution and stability of the induced surface structure is an important parameter and is a problem to be discussed. In case of single step surface relief formation on polymeric materials the process is connected with the photochromic behavior of the materials. As it is known the UV light induced effects on the material structure are reversible under the action of visible light, but with different speeds. In this report is analyzed the time evolution of the surface modulation obtained under the action of the UV light for azopolymers with different structures.

  20. Apparent lethal concentrations of pyrolysis products of some polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-nine samples of polymeric materials were evaluated to determine the apparent lethal concentrations of their pyrolysis products. The materials were compared on the basis of the apparent lethal concentration for 50 percent of the test animals. Relative toxicity rankings based o apparent lethal concentration values can differ significantly depending on whether they are based on weight of sample charged or weight of sample pyrolyzed. The ranking of polyphenylene sulfide is particularly sensitive to this difference.

  1. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

    2013-04-02

    A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  2. Polymeric Materials for Electro-Optic Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    what Langmuir Blodgett films are, how they are grown and deposited on a material, and the electro - optic effects in Langmuir/Blodgett films. Stephen...Kowel has experimented with several different types of organic dyes mixed in the films to increase the electro - optic effect in the films. The bulk of his...test integrated circuits. Keywords: Langmuir Blodgett films, Electro - optic testing, Integrated circuits, Linear electro - optic effect.

  3. Fabricating Superhydrophobic Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jonah; Grinstaff, Mark

    2015-08-28

    Superhydrophobic materials, with surfaces possessing permanent or metastable non-wetted states, are of interest for a number of biomedical and industrial applications. Here we describe how electrospinning or electrospraying a polymer mixture containing a biodegradable, biocompatible aliphatic polyester (e.g., polycaprolactone and poly(lactide-co-glycolide)), as the major component, doped with a hydrophobic copolymer composed of the polyester and a stearate-modified poly(glycerol carbonate) affords a superhydrophobic biomaterial. The fabrication techniques of electrospinning or electrospraying provide the enhanced surface roughness and porosity on and within the fibers or the particles, respectively. The use of a low surface energy copolymer dopant that blends with the polyester and can be stably electrospun or electrosprayed affords these superhydrophobic materials. Important parameters such as fiber size, copolymer dopant composition and/or concentration, and their effects on wettability are discussed. This combination of polymer chemistry and process engineering affords a versatile approach to develop application-specific materials using scalable techniques, which are likely generalizable to a wider class of polymers for a variety of applications.

  4. Fabricating Superhydrophobic Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Jonah; Grinstaff, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials, with surfaces possessing permanent or metastable non-wetted states, are of interest for a number of biomedical and industrial applications. Here we describe how electrospinning or electrospraying a polymer mixture containing a biodegradable, biocompatible aliphatic polyester (e.g., polycaprolactone and poly(lactide-co-glycolide)), as the major component, doped with a hydrophobic copolymer composed of the polyester and a stearate-modified poly(glycerol carbonate) affords a superhydrophobic biomaterial. The fabrication techniques of electrospinning or electrospraying provide the enhanced surface roughness and porosity on and within the fibers or the particles, respectively. The use of a low surface energy copolymer dopant that blends with the polyester and can be stably electrospun or electrosprayed affords these superhydrophobic materials. Important parameters such as fiber size, copolymer dopant composition and/or concentration, and their effects on wettability are discussed. This combination of polymer chemistry and process engineering affords a versatile approach to develop application-specific materials using scalable techniques, which are likely generalizable to a wider class of polymers for a variety of applications. PMID:26383018

  5. Metal-containing components in medicinal plants. III. Manganese-containing components in Theae folium as oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast materials.

    PubMed

    Mino, Y; Yamada, K; Takeda, T; Nagasawa, O

    1996-12-01

    A manganese-containing component from the water-extract of Theae folium (green tea) was found to exert an augmentative effect in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast and may possibly be a manganese(II) complex with a pectin-like polysaccharide capable of shortening the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of water protons. Even though only the manganese(II) ion with S = 5/2 is active in T1-shortening ability, which should enhance contrast, complexation of this ion with the polysaccharide causes a marked increase in its activity. This manganese-containing pectin-like polysaccharides should prove useful as a low-toxic oral gastrointestinal contrast material in MRI.

  6. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Luping [Hoffman Estates, IL; Liu, Di-Jia [Naperville, IL; Yuan, Shengwen [Chicago, IL; Yang, Junbing [Westmont, IL

    2011-12-13

    Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  7. Constitutive equations of ageing polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The constitutive equation for the relaxation behavior of time-dependent, chemically unstable materials developed by Valanis and Peng (1983), which used the irreversible thermodynamics of internal variables in Eyring's absolute reaction theory and yielded a theoretical expression for the effect of chemical crosslink density on the relaxation rate, is presently applied to the creep behavior of a network polymer which is undergoing a scission process. In particular, two equations are derived which may for the first time show the relations between mechanical models and internal variables in the creep expressions, using a three-element model with a Maxwell element.

  8. Constitutive equations of ageing polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The constitutive equation for the relaxation behavior of time-dependent, chemically unstable materials developed by Valanis and Peng (1983), which used the irreversible thermodynamics of internal variables in Eyring's absolute reaction theory and yielded a theoretical expression for the effect of chemical crosslink density on the relaxation rate, is presently applied to the creep behavior of a network polymer which is undergoing a scission process. In particular, two equations are derived which may for the first time show the relations between mechanical models and internal variables in the creep expressions, using a three-element model with a Maxwell element.

  9. High Temperature Polymeric Materials for Space Transportation Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.; Campbell, Sandi G.; Chuang, Kathy C.; Scheimann, Daniel A.; Mintz, Eric; Hylton, Donald; Veazie, David; Criss, James; Kollmansberg, Ron; Tsotsis, Tom

    2003-01-01

    High temperature polymer matrix composites are attractive materials for space transporation propulsion systems because of their low density and high specific strength. However, the relatively poor stability and processability of these materials can render them unsuitable for many of these applications. New polymeric materials have been developed under the Propulsion Research and Technology Program through the use of novel resin chemistry and nanotechnology. These new materials can significantly enhance the durability and weight and improve the processability and affordability of propulsion components for advanced space transportation systems.

  10. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chaokun

    Smart materials have been widely investigated to explore new functionalities unavailable to traditional materials or to mimic the multifunctionality of biological systems. Synthetic polymers are particularly attractive as they already possess some of the attributes required for smart materials, and there are vast room to further enhance the existing properties or impart new properties by polymer synthesis or composite formulation. In this work, three types of smart polymer and composites have been investigated with important new applications: (1) healable polymer composites for structural application and healable composite conductor for electronic device application; (2) conducting polymer polypyrrole actuator for implantable medical device application; and (3) ferroelectric polymer and ceramic nanoparticles composites for electrocaloric effect based solid state refrigeration application. These application entail highly challenging materials innovation, and my work has led to significant progress in all three areas. For the healable polymer composites, well known intrinsically healable polymer 2MEP4F (a Diels-Alder crosslinked polymer formed from a monomer with four furan groups and another monomer with two maleimide groups) was first chosen as the matrix reinforced with fiber. Glass fibers were successfully functionalized with maleimide functional groups on their surface. Composites from functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F healable polymer were made to compare with composites made from commercial carbon fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. Dramatically improved short beam shear strength was obtained from composite of functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. The high cost of 2MEP4F polymer can potentially limit the large-scale application of the developed healable composite, we further developed a new healable polymer with much lower cost. This new polymer was formed through the Diels-Alder crosslinking of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) and 1,1'-(Methylenedi-4

  11. Utilization of biodegradable polymeric materials as delivery agents in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric materials are ideal carrier systems for biomedical applications. Features like controlled and sustained delivery, improved drug pharmacokinetics, reduced side effects and safe degradation make the use of these materials very attractive in a lot of medical fields, with dermatology included. A number of studies have shown that particle-based formulations can improve the skin penetration of topically applied drugs. However, for a successful translation of these promising results into a clinical application, a more rational approach is needed to take into account the different properties of diseased skin and the fate of these polymeric materials after topical application. In fact, each pathological skin condition poses different challenges and the way diseased skin interacts with polymeric carriers might be markedly different to that of healthy skin. In most inflammatory skin conditions, the skin’s barrier is impaired and the local immune system is activated. A better understanding of such mechanisms has the potential to improve the efficacy of carrier-based dermatotherapy. Such knowledge would allow the informed choice of the type of polymeric carrier depending on the skin condition to be treated, the type of drug to be loaded, and the desired release kinetics. Furthermore, a better control of polymer degradation and release properties in accordance with the skin environment would improve the safety and the selectivity of drug release. This review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on how polymeric delivery systems interact with healthy and diseased skin, giving an overview of the challenges that different pathological skin conditions pose to the development of safer and more specific dermatotherapies. PMID:24470766

  12. Material properties of novel polymeric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gene

    This dissertation will study the material properties of two types of novel polymer films (polyelectrolyte multilayer films and photolithographic polymer films). The formation of polylelectrolyte multilayer films onto functionalized aluminum oxide surfaces and functionalized poly(ethylene terephthaltate) (PET) were studied. Functionalization of the aluminum oxide surfaces was achieved via silane coupling. Functionalization of PET surfaces was achieved via hydrolysis and amidation. Surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to monitor the polyelectrolyte multilayer formation. Mechanical properties of the aluminum oxide supported polyelectrolyte multilayer films were tested using a simplified peel test. XPS was used to analyze the surfaces before and after peel. Single lap shear joint specimens were constructed to test the adhesive shear strength of the PET-supported polyelectrolyte multilayer film samples with the aid of a cyanoacrylate adhesive. The adhesive shear strength and its relation with the type of functionalization, number of polyelectrolyte layers, and the effect of polyelectrolyte conformation using added salt were explored. Also, characterization on the single lap joints after adhesive failure was carried out to determine the locus of failure within the multilayers by using XPS and SEM. Two types of photolithographic polymers were formulated and tested. These two polymers (photocrosslinkable polyacrylate (PUA), and a photocrosslinkable polyimide (HRP)) were used to investigate factors that would affect the structural integrity of these particular polymers under environmental variables such as processing (time, UV cure, pressure, and temperature) and ink exposure. Thermomechanical characterization was carried out to see the behavior of these two polymers under these environmental variables. Microscopic techniques were employed to study the morphological behavior of

  13. Charge transport through inhomogeneous polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakhshouri, Kiarash

    The generation of unique properties through mixing of organic semiconductors has enabled improved performance and novel functionalities in organic electronic devices. In organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), isolated phases of a second material within the photoactive layer can act as recombination centers, enhancing the overall device performance. Mixing of flexible polymer semiconductors with high-mobility small organic molecules can yield high-performance flexible thin film transistors. Solution-processed, bulk-heterojunction (BHJ), thin-film organic solar cells rely on the self-assembly of polymer/fullerene donor/acceptor mixtures to create the necessary morphology with a high interfacial area for efficient photocurrent generation. Efficient conversion of absorbed photons into photocurrent requires sufficiently intimate mixing of the donor and acceptor phases such that photogenerated excitons can easily find an interface, as well as a sufficiently large thermodynamic driving force for charge separation at the interface. At the same time, efficient transport of separated charges towards the electrodes requires a certain degree of phase segregation between the two materials, to enable ordered molecular packing within each phase and also minimize interfacial recombination. Despite the importance of creating inhomogeneous mixtures of organic semiconductors and the tremendous recent advances in the performance of the aforementioned devices, it remains a challenge to fully describe the optoelectronic properties of organic semiconductor mixtures and understand the effects of structural and morphological parameters on charge transport. Recently, it has been shown that highly regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) and poly[2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno(3,2-b)thiophene] (PBTTT) are promising materials for organic electronic applications due to the relatively high charge carrier mobility, high solubility in different organic solvents and acceptable film

  14. Antibacterial Drug Releasing Materials by Post-Polymerization Surface Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chng, Shuyun; Moloney, Mark G.; Wu, Linda Y. L.

    Functional materials are available by the post-polymerization surface modification of diverse polymers in a three-step process mediated, firstly, by carbene insertion chemistry, secondly, by diazonium coupling, and thirdly by modification with a remotely tethered spiropyran unit, and these materials may be used for the reversible binding and release of Penicillin V. Surface loading densities of up to 0.19mmol/g polymer are achievable, leading to materials with higher loading densities and release behavior relative to unmodified controls, and observable antibacterial biocidal activity.

  15. Urokinase immobilized on medical polymeric materials: fundamental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, T; Kosaki, G

    1980-02-01

    One of the methods of preparing an antithrombogenic material is to immobilize a fibrinolytic enzyme on the surface of a carrier. The clinical trial of such a material must be subject to not only a basic study on the quality of a carrier, the technique of immobilization, and the method of disinfection, but also an in vivo study on its antithrombotic effect. Reported herein is the evaluation of the fibrinolytic ability, at fundamental and clinical levels, of the urokinase that was immobilized on the surface of various polymeric materials. The results were favorable.

  16. Apparatus and method for stabilization or oxidation of polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Paulauskas, Felix L; Sherman, Daniel M

    2010-01-19

    An apparatus for treating polymeric materials comprises a treatment chamber adapted to maintain a selected atmosphere at a selected temperature; a means for supporting the polymeric material within the chamber; and, a source of ozone-containing gas, which decomposes at the selected temperature yielding at least one reactive oxidative species whereby the polymer is stabilized and cross linked through exposure to the oxidative species in the chamber at the selected temperature. The ozone may be generated by a plasma discharge or by various chemical processes. The apparatus may be configured for either batch-type or continuous-type processing. The apparatus and method are especially useful for preparing polymer fibers, particularly PAN fibers, for later carbonization treatments as well as to make flame-retardant fabrics.

  17. Apparatus and method for oxidation and stabilization of polymeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; White, Terry L [Knoxville, TN; Sherman, Daniel M [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-31

    An apparatus for treating polymeric materials comprises a treatment chamber adapted to maintain a selected atmosphere; a means for supporting the polymeric material within the chamber; and, a source of plasma-derived gas containing at least one reactive oxidative species whereby the polymer is stabilized and cross linked through exposure to the oxidative species in the chamber at a selected temperature. The polymer may be directly exposed to the plasma, or alternatively, the plasma may be established in a separate volume from which the reactive species may be extracted and introduced into the vicinity of the polymer. The apparatus may be configured for either batch-type or continuous-type processing. The apparatus and method are especially useful for preparing polymer fibers, particularly PAN fibers, for later carbonization treatments.

  18. New polymeric materials for photonic applications: Preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldea, Anca; Albu, Ana-Maria; Rau, Ileana

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose two types of polymeric materials synthesized by us suitable to interact by assembling with DNA in order to obtain new NLO biomaterials. The first polymer is a methacrylic chromophore with azobenzene groups and carbazolyl sequences known for their carrying principles while the second one is a copolymer of the methacrylic chromophore with a N-substituted amide. The N-substituted amide is N-acryloyl morpholine already used in biological application and also because is compatible with DNA. Spectral characterization of these materials showed charge transfer interactions depending on the solvent. The results obtained indicate that these new polymeric/copolymeric chromophores could interact with DNA in order to obtain biomaterials for photonic applications.

  19. Apparatus and method for oxidation and stabilization of polymeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; White, Terry L [Knoxville, TN; Sherman, Daniel M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-19

    An apparatus for treating polymeric materials comprises a treatment chamber adapted to maintain a selected atmosphere; a means for supporting the polymeric material within the chamber; and, a source of plasma-derived gas containing at least one reactive oxidative species whereby the polymer is stabilized and cross linked through exposure to the oxidative species in the chamber at a selected temperature. The polymer may be directly exposed to the plasma, or alternatively, the plasma may be established in a separate volume from which the reactive species may be extracted and introduced into the vicinity of the polymer. The apparatus may be configured for either batch-type or continuous-type processing. The apparatus and method are especially useful for preparing polymer fibers, particularly PAN fibers, for later carbonization treatments.

  20. Thermomechanical properties of polymeric materials and related stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sheng Yen

    1990-01-01

    The thermomechanical properties of a number of widely used polymeric materials were determined by thermomechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis. A combined profile of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the modulus change over a wide temperature range obtained by the analyses shows clearly the drastic effect of the glass transition on both the CTE and the modulus of a polymer, and the damaging potential due to such effect.

  1. Polymeric Materials Resistant to Erosion by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Thibeault, Sheila A.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer-matrix composites are ideally suited for space vehicles because of high strength to weight ratios. The principal component of the low earth orbit (LEO) is atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen causes surface erosion to polymeric materials. Polymer films with an organometallic additive showed greater resistance to atomic oxygen than the pure polymer in laboratory experiments and in the OPM/MIR experiment. In MISSE, the film with the organometallic additive was still intact after the pure film had completely eroded.

  2. Polymeric Materials for Advanced Aircraft and Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    polymeric material (films and fibers ) and the molecular composites (cast and precipitated films) are presented. 19. Key Words (Cont.) cross linked...PBT 46 Fiber 77 34 SAXS Photograph of PBT 46 Fiber Using the 29 cm Setting in a Statton Camera 77 35 Schematic Showing the Geometrical Polefigure...Specimen 82 37 A Measured Polefigure of a PBO Heat-Treated Fiber (Celanese 26085-25-1) 84 38 Photograph of the Dynamic Imaging of X-ray Diffraction

  3. Surface Hardness of Resin Cement Polymerized under Different Ceramic Materials.

    PubMed

    Kesrak, Pimmada; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the surface hardness of two light-cured resin cements polymerized under different ceramic discs. Methods. 40 experimental groups of 2 light-cured resin cement specimens (Variolink Veneer and NX3) were prepared and polymerized under 5 different ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press HT, LT, MO, HO, and Cercon) of 4 thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm), Those directly activated of both resin cements were used as control. After light activation and 37°C storage in an incubator, Knoop hardness measurements were obtained at the bottom. The data were analyzed with three-way ANOVA, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results. The KHN of NX3 was of significantly higher than that of Variolink Veneer (P < 0.05). The KHN of resin cement polymerized under different ceramic types and thicknesses was significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Resin cements polymerized under different ceramic materials and thicknesses showed statistically significant differences in KHN.

  4. Does immediate dentin sealing influence the polymerization of impression materials?

    PubMed Central

    Ghiggi, Paula Cristine; Steiger, Arno Kieling; Marcondes, Maurem Leitão; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the following study is to evaluate the interaction between the resin materials used in immediate dentin sealing (IDS) techniques and impression materials with two different techniques to eliminate the oxygen-inhibition layer. Materials and Methods: The occlusal dentin surface of 35 human molars was exposed. The teeth were used in two Groups: Group 1 – Impression with Express XT; Group 2 – Impression with Impregum. Groups 1 and 2 were divided into 14 subgroups: Groups 1a and 2a – Control groups; 1b and 2b – IDS with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); 1c and 2c – IDS with CSE + additional polymerization with glycerin jelly; 1d and 2d – IDS with CSE + alcohol; 1e and 2e – IDS with CSE and Protect Liner F (PLF); 1f and 2f – IDS with CSE and PLF + additional polymerization with glycerin jelly; and 1g and 2g – IDS with CSE and PLF + alcohol. Five teeth were used in each experimental group, and the tooth surface was photographed using a digital camera. Results: Small quantity of unpolymerized impression material remained attached to the CSE or to the PLF in Groups 1b and 1e. Groups 1c and 1d prevented the interaction. Small quantity of polymerized impression material remained attached to the CSE or to the PLF for Groups 2b and 2e. The same interaction was observed for Groups 2c and 2d. For Groups 2c and 2f, no interactions were observed. Conclusion: Resin materials interacted with impression materials. The application of glycerin jelly and alcohol prevented the interaction of CSE with Express XT and PLF with Impregum; however, these treatments were not completely effective in preventing the interaction of CSE with Impregum and PLF with Express XT. PMID:25202218

  5. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-04-01

    Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple an optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interfaces(s) while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials.

  6. Recent advances in "bioartificial polymeric materials" based nanovectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Raffaele; De Luca, Ilenia; Valentino, Anna; Di Salle, Anna; Calarco, Anna; Riccitiello, Francesco; Peluso, Gianfranco

    2017-04-01

    This chapter analyzes the advantages of the use of bioartificial polymers as carriers and the main strategies used for their design. Despite the enormous progresses in this field, more studies are required for the fully evaluation of these nanovectors in complex organisms and for the characterization of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic of the loaded drugs. Moreover, progresses in polymer chemistry are introducing a wide range of functionalities in the bioartificial polymeric material (BPM) nanostructures leading to a second generation of bioartificial polymer therapeutics based on novel and heterogeneous architectures with higher molecular weight and predictable structures, in order to achieve greater multivalency and increased loading capacity. Therefore, research on bioartificial polymeric nanovectors is an "on-going" field capable of attracting medical interest.

  7. Covering a Crucible with Metal Containing Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    In a procedure that partly resembles the lost-wax casting process, a crucible made of a brittle material (ceramic, quartz, or glass) is covered with a layer of metal containing channels. The metal cover and the channels can serve any or all of several purposes, depending upon the application: Typically, the metal would serve at least partly to reinforce the crucible. The channels could be used as passages for narrow objects that could include thermocouples and heat-transfer strips. Alternatively or in addition, channels could be used as flow paths for liquid or gaseous coolants and could be positioned and oriented for position- or direction-selective cooling. In some cases, the channels could be filled with known gases and sealed so that failure of the crucibles could be indicated by instruments that detect the gases. The process consists of three main steps. In the first step, a pattern defining the channels is formed by wrapping or depositing a material in the desired channel pattern on the outer surface of the crucible. The pattern material can be a plastic, wax, low-ash fibrous material, a soluble material, or other suitable material that can subsequently be removed easily. In a proof-of-concept demonstration (see figure), the crucible was an alumina cylinder and the mold material was plastic tie-down tape. In the second step, the patterned crucible is coated with metal. In one variation of the second step, a very thin layer containing or consisting of an electrically conductive material (e.g., gold, silver, or carbon) is painted or otherwise deposited on the mold-covered crucible, then the covering metal required for the specific application is electrodeposited on the very thin conducting layer. In another variation of the second step, the metal coat is formed by chemical vapor deposition. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, a layer of nickel 0.003 in. ( 0.08 mm) thick was electrodeposited. In the third step, the patterned material is removed. This is

  8. PREFACE: 9th National Symposium on Polymeric Materials (NSPM 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Aidy; Salit, Sapuan

    2010-07-01

    NSPM 2009 is the formal proceedings of the 9th National Symposium on Polymeric Materials held in Residence Hotel Uniten Bangi on 14-16 December 2009. It is also organised with The Plastics and Rubber Institute Malaysia PRIM. The symposium proceedings consists of 94 papers covering a large number of issues on experimental and analytical studies of polymeric materials. The objectives of the symposium are to review the state-of-the art, present and latest findings and exchange ideas among engineers, researchers and practitioners involved in this field. We strongly hope the outcomes of this symposium will stimulate and enhanced the progress of experimental and analytical studies on polymeric materials as well as contribute to the fundamental understanding in related fields. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, 15 papers were selected for publications in this issue. Another 20 papers were selected for publication in Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology (PJST). The content of the material and its rapid dissemination was considered to be more important than its form. We are grateful to all the authors for their papers and presentations in this symposium. They are also the ones who help make this symposium possible through their hard work in the preparation of the manuscripts. We would also like to offer our sincere thanks to all the invited speakers who came to share their knowledge with us. We would also like to acknowledge the untiring efforts of the reviewers, research assistants and students in meeting deadlines and for their patience and perseverance. We are indeed honoured to associate this event with Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing, and Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Finally, we appreciate the sponsor support provided by Faculty of Engineering, The Plastics and Rubber Institute Malaysia (PRIM) and PETRONAS Malaysia. Thank you all. Editors: Aidy Ali and S M Sapuan

  9. Anion Conducting Polymeric Materials For Use in Electrolytic Salt Splitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, David; Renock, Devon

    1998-10-01

    Anion Conducting Polymeric Materials for use in Electrolytic Salt Splitters Devon Renock and David S. Newman Department of Chemistry Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, OH 43403 An anion conducting form of Flemion was produced by attaching a benzo-crown ether to the Flemion backbone and then complexing the crown ether containing material with an alkali metal ion. The alkali metal ion became trapped in the crown forming a positively charged pendent group hanging from the Teflon-like fluorocarbon chain. This positively charged moiety allows negatively charged ions to pass through readily, but prevents positively charged ions prom passing through the material. Materials with Dibenzo-18-cr-6 complexed with Potassium ion, Benzo-18-cr-6 complexed with potassium ion, and benzo-15-cr-5 complexed with sodium ion were all used successfully.

  10. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  11. Molecular properties of polymeric materials for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, Wynford L.; Kern, Kristen T.; Stancil, Phillip C.

    1992-01-01

    This cooperative agreement was intended to investigate the effects of a space environment on the properties of polymeric materials. In addition, efforts have been made to understand and investigate environment simulation techniques and test methodology. The results identified the changes in the properties of six aerospace structural adhesives, three neat high polymers, and two fiber-reinforced polymers, as caused by exposure to four simulated space environmental conditions. Significant property changes occurred for several of the systems as a result of one or more of the exposures. A summary of the research follows a list of related publications and presentations.

  12. Polyphenols delivery by polymeric materials: challenges in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Vittorio, Orazio; Curcio, Manuela; Cojoc, Monica; Goya, Gerardo F; Hampel, Silke; Iemma, Francesca; Dubrovska, Anna; Cirillo, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Nanotechnology can offer different solutions for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of polyphenols, a class of natural products widely explored for a potential applicability for the treatment of different diseases including cancer. While possessing interesting anticancer properties, polyphenols suffer from low stability and unfavorable pharmacokinetics, and thus suitable carriers are required when planning a therapeutic protocol. In the present review, an overview of the different strategies based on polymeric materials is presented, with the aim to highlight the strengths and the weaknesses of each approach and offer a platform of ideas for researchers working in the field.

  13. A phenomenological approach of solidification of polymeric phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, Seyed Amir; Royon, Laurent; Abou, Bérengère; Osipian, Rémy; Azzouz, Kamel; Bontemps, André

    2017-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are widely used in thermal energy storage and thermal management systems due to their small volume for a given stored energy and their capability for maintaining nearly constant temperatures. However, their performance is limited by their low thermal conductivity and possible leaks while in the liquid phase. One solution is to imprison the PCM inside a polymer mesh to create a Polymeric Phase Change Material (PPCM). In this work, we have studied the cooling and solidification of five PPCMs with different PCMs and polymer fractions. To understand the heat transfer mechanisms involved, we have carried out micro- and macrorheological measurements in which Brownian motion of tracers embedded in PPCMs has been depicted and viscoelastic moduli have been measured, respectively. Beyond a given polymer concentration, it was shown that the Brownian motion of the tracers is limited by the polymeric chains and that the material exhibits an elastic behavior. This would suggest that heat transfer essentially occurs by conduction, instead of convection. Experiments were conducted to measure temperature variation during cooling of the five samples, and a semi-empirical model based on a phenomenological approach was proposed as a practical tool to choose and size PPCMs.

  14. Photo-triggered solvent-free metamorphosis of polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Honda, Satoshi; Toyota, Taro

    2017-09-11

    Liquefaction and solidification of materials are the most fundamental changes observed during thermal phase transitions, yet the design of organic and polymeric soft materials showing isothermal reversible liquid-nonliquid conversion remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that solvent-free repeatable molecular architectural transformation between liquid-star and nonliquid-network polymers that relies on cleavage and reformation of a covalent bond in hexaarylbiimidazole. Liquid four-armed star-shaped poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(dimethyl siloxane) with 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole end groups were first synthesized. Subsequent oxidation of the 2,4,5-triphenylimidazoles into 2,4,5-triphenylimidazoryl radicals and their coupling with these liquid star polymers to form hexaarylbiimidazoles afforded the corresponding nonliquid network polymers. The resulting nonliquid network polymers liquefied upon UV irradiation and produced liquid star-shaped polymers with 2,4,5-triphenylimidazoryl radical end groups that reverted to nonliquid network polymers again by recoupling of the generated 2,4,5-triphenylimidazoryl radicals immediately after terminating UV irradiation.The design of organic and polymeric soft materials showing isothermal reversible liquid-nonliquid conversion is challenging. Here, the authors show solvent-free repeatable molecular architectural transformation between liquid-star and non-liquid-network polymers by the cleavage and reformation of covalent bonds in the polymer chain.

  15. Development of polymeric materials for sol-gel waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusevic, Maja; Hiltunen, Marianne

    2002-06-01

    The scalability to mass production and low cost are two driving forces towards multimode waveguide technologies. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials realized by sol-gel technology are promising choices for the fabrication of integrated optical circuits. This paper describes fabrication and characterization of the photo-patternable materials that are based on the sol-gel technology. The materials can be processed directly, using UV lithographic processing. Tailored polymeric materials are achieved, avoiding the use of the previously developed pre-hydrolyzed zirconium sol-gel precursors, which exhibit a lack of environmental stability. Films, which behave as a negative tone photoresist under UV-exposure, are fabricated by the spin-coating method on various substrates. The procedure shows the possibility for tailoring the refractive index and birefringence of the materials by varying the composition concentrations of the hybrid polymer system. Refractive indices vary from 1.4770 to 1.4950. The synthesized material also exhibits the possibility for birefringence optimization depending on the composition concentrations. The direct lithography process was demonstrated on various substrate materials (i.e., silicon wafer, glass, quartz, as well as flexible plastics, LTCC and semiconductor materials). The film waveguides are characterized by using of prism coupling technique at various wavelengths. The morphology of the optical structures is measured with a white-light interferometer.

  16. Development of materials from copolyacrylates via atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Melody Mersadez

    Homopolymerization of 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl acrylate, 3,3-dimethylbutyl acrylate, methyl acrylate, and methyl methacrylate using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is reported. In addition, polymethyl acrylate and polymethyl methacrylate were used as macroinitiators for diblock copolymerizations (via ATRP) with various monomers to yield pMA-b-TMSEA, pMMA-b-TMSEA, and pMMA-b-GMA copolymers; these results are also reported. Controlled polymerizations were performed using the CuBr/hexamethyltriethylenetetramine catalyst system in combination with methyl bromopropionate as the initiator. The protected acid block copolymers pMA-b-TMSEA and pMMA-b-TMSEA were deprotected to afford acrylic and meth acrylic acid block copolymers pMA-b-AA and pMMA-b-AA. Methylene chloride was used to micellize the amphiphilic copolymers in order to obtain the critical micelle concentration of the polymers (CMCpMA-b-AA = 10 mg/mL, CMCpMMA-b-AA = 0.4 mg/mL). The majority of polymerization were done in bulk; however, since poly(trimethylsilyl)ethyl acrylate displayed polydispersity (Mn = 11459, PDI = 1.437) on the high end of the acceptable range, various solvents were utilized to decrease the polymerization rate and afford low polydispersity materials. This differs from the ATRP of polymethyl acrylate or polymethyl methacrylate using this catalytic system, which do not require the addition of a solvent to obtain well-defined polymers. Also, for this polymerization system three different temperatures (60°C, 90°C, and 120°C) were used, in order to reduce the concentration of radicals and the contribution of termination. The homopolymers and protected acid block copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography to determine the relative molecular weights. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to obtain the glass transition temperature of all polymers. Characterization using NMR (1H and 13C) and FTIR confirmed homopolymerization of 3,3-dimethylbutyl acrylate, 2

  17. Polymeric foam-ferromagnet composites as smart lightweight materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, M.; Davino, D.; Pantani, R.; Sorrentino, L.

    2016-05-01

    A new class of lightweight smart materials based on a polymeric matrix with embedded magnetic micro-particles was developed. The application of a magnetic field (MF) during the foaming of samples induced, along the MF lines, the alignment of magnetic particles dispersed in the polymer thus forming chain-like reinforcing structures. The aligned micro-particles induced an anisotropic mechanical behaviour, strongly improving the mechanical stiffness and strength along the MF direction compared to unfilled systems. Most notably, the chain-like structures imparted a magneto-sensitive behaviour to the lightweight materials. In fact, foams showed a direct relationship between the foams elastic response and the intensity as well as the shape of the time dependent MF applied during their magneto-elastic characterisation. This magneto-elastic behaviour has been obtained at low MF strength (below 200 kA m-1).

  18. Development of foamed Inorganic Polymeric Materials based on Perlite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaousi, G.-M.; Douni, I.; Taxiarchou, M.; Panias, D.; Paspaliaris, I.

    2016-04-01

    This work deals with the development of lightweight geopolymeric boards for use in construction sector utilizing a solid perlitic waste as the main raw material. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used for the foaming of geopolymeric pastes and the production of porous and lightweight inorganic polymeric materials. The effect of geopolymeric synthesis parameters, such as the composition of activator and the curing conditions, on paste's properties that affect the foaming process, such as setting time and viscosity, were studied in detailed. Finally, the effects of H2O2 concentration on the properties (apparent density and % cell volume) and the microstructure of foamed boards were also studied. The produced porous boards have effective densities in-between 540 - 900 Kg/m3 and the thermal conductivity of the optimum product is 0.08 W/mK. Based on their properties, the developed lightweight geopolymeric boards have high potential to be used as building elements in construction industry.

  19. Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

  20. Activated microporous materials through polymerization of microemulsion precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, Arunkumar

    Microemulsions have been well studied for their unique characteristics. They are isotropic, thermodynamically stable and microstructured mixtures of oil and water stabilized by one or more surfactant species. They are formed spontaneously and are thermodynamically stable. Microemulsion precursors can be polymerized to make microporous solids with controlled pore structure and sizes. These polymeric solids have been studied extensively in the past. Although the fundamental properties of the microporous solids have been studied in depth, the development of specific applications that will utilize the unique properties of these solids has not been exhaustively researched. The current work establishes the feasibility of making activated microporous solids from microemulsion precursors, by the use of a ligand that chelates metals and also attaches itself to the polymer monolith. It also uses a novel 'in-situ' incorporation by combining the formulation and incorporation steps into one. The research objectives are, to formulate a microemulsion system that can yield useful microporous solids upon polymerization and activation, to characterize these solids using existing techniques available for analysis of similar microporous solids, to identify and understand the effect of the variables in the system and to study the influence of these variables on the performance characteristics of this material. Characterization techniques like Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used. A hydroxyethylmethylmethacrylate/methylmethacrylate/aqueous phase containing 10% SDS' system was chosen as the precursor microemulsion and the corresponding microporous solids were made. A metal chelating ligand, Congo Red, was incorporated onto the microporous polymer using NaOH as a binding agent. The ability of the resultant 'activated' microporous solid to remove metal ions from solution, was evaluated. The metal ion chosen was chromium

  1. Properties of an indirect composite material polymerized with two different laboratory polymerizing systems.

    PubMed

    Satsukawa, Hidetada; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Tanoue, Naomi; Nemoto, Mika; Ogino, Tomohisa; Matsumura, Hideo

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the performance of two laboratory light polymerization systems used to polymerize an indirect composite (Sinfony). A two-step polymerization system (Visio-Alfa and Beta) and a halogen-metal halide unit (Twinkle MIII) were assessed. The composite was polymerized either with the Visio units or with the MIII unit for different exposure periods. Knoop hardness, water sorption, and solubility in water of the composite polymerized with the following modes were determined: Visio, 15 minutes; MIII, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 seconds. Extension of light exposure time to the MIII unit improved the hardness of the composite from 30.5 (30 s) to 40.7 (180 s), whereas hardness obtained with the Visio units resulted in 24.8 (15 minutes). Water sorption and solubility of the composite were greater when it was polymerized with the Visio units than with the MIII unit.

  2. Study on stimulus-responsive cellulose-based polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hongsheng

    Stimulus-responsive cellulose-based polymeric materials were developed by physical and chemical approaches. The thermal, structural, mechanical and morphological properties of the samples were comprehensively investigated by multiple tools. Shape memory effect (SME), programming-structure-property relationship and underling mechanisms were emphasized in this study. Some new concepts, such as heterogeneous-twin-switch, path-dependent multi-shape, rapidly switchable water-sensitive SME were established. The samples were divided into two categories. For the first category, cellulose nano-whiskers (CNWs) were incorporated into crystalline shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) and thermal plastic polyurethane (TPU). The CNW-SMPU nano-composites had heterogeneous switches. Triple- and multi-shape effects were achieved for the CNW-SMPU nano-composites by applying into appropriate thermal-aqueous-mechanical programming. Furthermore, the thermally triggered shape recovery of the composites was found to be tuneable, depending on the PCN content. Theoretical prediction along with numerical analysis was conducted, providing evidence on the possible microstructure of the CNW-SMPU nano-composites. Rapidly switchable water-sensitive SME of the CNW-TPU nano-composites was unprecedentedly studied, which originated from the reversible regulation of hydrogen bonding by water. The samples in the second category consisted of cellulose-polyurethane (PU) blends, cellulose-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) composites and modified cellulose with supramolecular switches, featuring the requirement of homogeneous cellulose solution in the synthesis process. The reversible behaviours of the cellulose-PU blends in wet-dry cycles as well as the underlying shape memory mechanism were characterized and disclosed. The micro-patterns of the blends were found to be self-similar in fractal dimensions. Cellulose-PAA semi-interpenetrating networks exhibited mechanical adaptability in wet-dry cycles. A type of

  3. Polymerized lyotropic liquid crystals as contact lens materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David M.; Ström, Pelle

    1991-08-01

    When an aqueous solution of a hydrophilic monomer such as 2-hydroxyethylmetharylate (HEMA) is mixed with a surfactant at the correct proportions, the components self-assemble into a lytropic liquid crystal comprising a highly ordered periodic microstructure, and polymerization of the monomer and removal of the surfactant results in a macroporous hydrogel of potential importance as a material for contact lenses and other prostheses. The two most important properties of these structured polymers as contact lens materials are: (1) unlike simple hydrogels which have irregular pores with a highly polydispersed size distribution, these new materials have an extremely well-characterized-in fact, triply periodic-network of pores of identical size, which can be preselected so as to allow for the transport of proteins, mucins, and other components of the pre-ocular tear film; and (2) this pore size can be selected independently of the polymer concentration and crosslink density, unlike simple hydrogels where large pores can only be obtained by reducing the crosslink density and along with it the shear modulus. The pore diameter can be selected in the range 20-400 Å and possibly higher. A wide variety of surfactant systems that have been shown to yield materials of this degree of precision and versatility is reviewed.

  4. Quantitative property-structural relation modeling on polymeric dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ke

    Nowadays, polymeric materials have attracted more and more attention in dielectric applications. But searching for a material with desired properties is still largely based on trial and error. To facilitate the development of new polymeric materials, heuristic models built using the Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) techniques can provide reliable "working solutions". In this thesis, the application of QSPR on polymeric materials is studied from two angles: descriptors and algorithms. A novel set of descriptors, called infinite chain descriptors (ICD), are developed to encode the chemical features of pure polymers. ICD is designed to eliminate the uncertainty of polymer conformations and inconsistency of molecular representation of polymers. Models for the dielectric constant, band gap, dielectric loss tangent and glass transition temperatures of organic polymers are built with high prediction accuracy. Two new algorithms, the physics-enlightened learning method (PELM) and multi-mechanism detection, are designed to deal with two typical challenges in material QSPR. PELM is a meta-algorithm that utilizes the classic physical theory as guidance to construct the candidate learning function. It shows better out-of-domain prediction accuracy compared to the classic machine learning algorithm (support vector machine). Multi-mechanism detection is built based on a cluster-weighted mixing model similar to a Gaussian mixture model. The idea is to separate the data into subsets where each subset can be modeled by a much simpler model. The case study on glass transition temperature shows that this method can provide better overall prediction accuracy even though less data is available for each subset model. In addition, the techniques developed in this work are also applied to polymer nanocomposites (PNC). PNC are new materials with outstanding dielectric properties. As a key factor in determining the dispersion state of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix

  5. Microgravity Processing and Photonic Applications of Organic and Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Smith, David D.; Witherow, William K.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the primary purposes of this work are to study important technologies, particularly involving thin films, relevant to organic and polymeric materials for improving applicability to optical circuitry and devices and to assess the contribution of convection on film quality in unit and microgravity environments. Among the most important materials processing techniques of interest in this work are solution-based and by physical vapor transport, both having proven gravitational and acceleration dependence. In particular, PolyDiAcetylenes (PDA's) and PhthaloCyanines (Pc's) are excellent NonLinear Optical (NLO) materials with the promise of significantly improved NLO properties through order and film quality enhancements possible through microgravity processing. Our approach is to focus research on integrated optical circuits and optoelectronic devices relevant to solution-based and vapor processes of interest in the Space Sciences Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Modification of organic materials is an important aspect of achieving more highly ordered structures in conjunction with microgravity processing. Parallel activities include characterization of materials for particular NLO properties and determination of appropriation device designs consistent with selected applications. One result of this work is the determination, theoretically, that buoyancy-driven convection occurs at low pressures in an ideal gas in a thermalgradient from source to sink. Subsequent experiment supports the theory. We have also determined theoretically that buoyancy-driven convection occurs during photodeposition of PDA, an MSFC-patented process for fabricating complex circuits, which is also supported by experiment. Finally, the discovery of intrinsic optical bistability in metal-free Pc films enables the possibility of the development of logic gate technology on the basis of these materials.

  6. Hole qualities in laser trepanning of polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, I. A.; Chong, W. C.; Vahid, G.

    2012-09-01

    The present study focuses the effect of four input controllable laser cutting variables on the hole taper and hole circularity in laser trepan drilling of polymeric materials. Experiments have been conducted on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer sheets. Laser power, assist gas pressure, cutting speed and stand-off distance were selected as independent process variables. Three different holes of diameters 2 mm, 4 mm and 6 mm were drilled in these work materials of 5 mm thickness. A Taguchi L9 orthogonal array with four factors and three levels of each factor was used to plan and conduct the experiments in order to obtain required information with reduced number of experiments. The process performance was ascertained in terms of hole taper and hole circularity. Initial analysis involved in determining the effect of the four process variables on hole taper and circularity for these two polymers at three different hole diameters. From ANOVA analysis, the optimum levels of the four process variables with respect to materials and hole diameters were evaluated. As it was found that the optimum levels of four process variables were different for different hole size and materials, additional analysis was conducted to incorporate the effect of material and hole diameter on the hole taper. From the analysis, the optimum combinations were obtained at compressed air pressure of 2.0 bar, laser power of 500 W, cutting speed of 0.6 m/min, stand-off distance of 5.0 mm, hole diameter of 2.0 mm and material of PMMA. These combinations produced the minimum taper in the hole. The circularity of the hole was more at the entrance than the exit when ABS polymer was laser drilled while in PMMA, the hole was more circular at the exit than the entrance.

  7. Characterization of outgassed contaminants from polymeric spacecraft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villahermosa, Randy M.; Joseph, Paul L.

    2004-10-01

    Silicones and polyolefins are versatile polymeric materials that are often used for spacecraft applications but can produce considerable amounts of non-volatile residue (NVR) contamination. Outgassing properties of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) polyolefin tubing and GE RTV615 silicone potting, both of which are known to outgas at high levels, were characterized using ASTM E595 testing and infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy. The total mass loss (TML) values for the polyolefin tubing varied between 1.8 and 2.5%, while the collected volatile condensable material (CVCM) was between 0.7 and 1.2%. The silicone potting had somewhat lower outgassing levels, with TML values between 1.0 and 1.7% and CVCM ranging from 0.7 to 1.3%. IR analysis of the outgassed residue indicates the materials produce NVR contamination through different mechanisms. The polyolefin tubing, which was composed of a hydrocarbon co-polymer mixed with additives, disproportionately outgassed low-weight molecular compounds containing ester functional groups. In contrast, RTV615 outgassing appeared to proceed through the release of shorter chain silicone polymers or oligomers. Combining outgassing test data with the chemical characterization of NVR residue provides a better understanding of contamination processes and will contribute to the development of more efficient mitigation strategies.

  8. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-03-01

    Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple and optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interface(s), while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials. An existing CPV module (with no PV cells present) was modified to accommodate encapsulation specimens. The module (where nominal concentration of solar flux is 500x for the domed-Fresnel design) has been mounted on a tracker in Golden, CO (elevation 1.79 km). Initial results are reported here for 18 months cumulative exposure, including the hottest and coldest months of the past year. Characteristics observed at intervals during that time include: visual appearance, direct and hemispherical transmittance, and mass. Degradation may be assessed from subsequent analysis (including yellowness index and cut-on frequency) relative to the ambient conditions present during field exposure. The fluorescence signature observed of all the silicone specimens is examined here, including possible factors of causation -- the platinum catalyst used in the addition cured materials as well as the primer used to promote adhesion to the quartz substrate and superstrate.

  9. Mechanical Testing of Common-Use Polymeric Materials with an In-House-Built Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Cristiana; Mendes, Joaquim; Magalhaes, Fernao D.

    2006-01-01

    A low-cost tensile testing machine was built for testing polymeric films. This apparatus also allows for tear-strength and flexural tests. The experimental results, obtained from common-use materials, selected by the students, such as plastic bags, illustrate important aspects of the mechanical behavior of polymeric materials. Some of the tests…

  10. Mechanical Testing of Common-Use Polymeric Materials with an In-House-Built Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Cristiana; Mendes, Joaquim; Magalhaes, Fernao D.

    2006-01-01

    A low-cost tensile testing machine was built for testing polymeric films. This apparatus also allows for tear-strength and flexural tests. The experimental results, obtained from common-use materials, selected by the students, such as plastic bags, illustrate important aspects of the mechanical behavior of polymeric materials. Some of the tests…

  11. Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials in a PMMA/glass concentrator photovoltaic system: Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T.; Gray, Matthew H.; Araki, Kenji; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2016-07-13

    The durability of polymeric encapsulation materials was examined using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36-month cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging, and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. The results of the study including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.

  12. Simple Preparation of Novel Metal-Containing Mesoporous Starches †

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Manuel; Budarin, Vitaliy; Shuttleworth, Peter S.; Clark, James H.; Pineda, Antonio; Balu, Alina M.; Romero, Antonio A.; Luque, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Metal-containing mesoporous starches have been synthesized using a simple and efficient microwave-assisted methodology followed by metal impregnation in the porous gel network. Final materials exhibited surface areas >60 m2 g−1, being essentially mesoporous with pore sizes in the 10–15 nm range with some developed inter-particular mesoporosity. These materials characterized by several techniques including XRD, SEM, TG/DTA and DRIFTs may find promising catalytic applications due to the presence of (hydr)oxides in their composition. PMID:28809249

  13. Simple Preparation of Novel Metal-Containing Mesoporous Starches.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Manuel; Budarin, Vitaliy; Shuttleworth, Peter S; Clark, James H; Pineda, Antonio; Balu, Alina M; Romero, Antonio A; Luque, Rafael

    2013-05-10

    Metal-containing mesoporous starches have been synthesized using a simple and efficient microwave-assisted methodology followed by metal impregnation in the porous gel network. Final materials exhibited surface areas >60 m² g(-1), being essentially mesoporous with pore sizes in the 10-15 nm range with some developed inter-particular mesoporosity. These materials characterized by several techniques including XRD, SEM, TG/DTA and DRIFTs may find promising catalytic applications due to the presence of (hydr)oxides in their composition.

  14. The effect of various interim fixed prosthodontic materials on the polymerization of elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Al-Sowygh, Zeyad H

    2014-08-01

    After tooth preparation, interim fixed prosthodontic materials are used to fabricate interim restorations until the definitive restoration can be delivered. The polymerization of elastomeric impression materials may be inhibited when in indirect contact with interim fixed prosthodontic materials. The purpose of this study was to detect whether the polymerization of 6 commonly used types of elastomeric impression materials was affected by direct contact with 6 commonly used interim fixed prosthodontic materials and to further evaluate the efficacy of several decontamination methods to eliminate the indirect effect of the interim fixed prosthodontic materials on the setting of elastomeric impression materials. Six brands of elastomeric impression material (Virtual, Aquasil, Genie, Correct Plus, Express, Impregum) were evaluated in vitro after direct contact with various interim fixed prosthodontic materials (Trim Plus, Unifast, Integrity, Systemp C&B, Tuff-Temp, Protemp IV) by 3 general practitioners. The setting of the impression materials was visually scored as either inhibited or noninhibited. Latex was used as a positive control. The decontamination part of the study was done indirectly on the dentin of prepared natural teeth after they had been relined with the interim fixed prosthodontic material. The decontamination methods were air-water rinse, mouthwash (chlorhexidine 0.12%), 3% hydrogen peroxide, and pumice. A Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis was used to evaluate the results. Statistically significant setting inhibition was found with 5 brands of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials with all tested types of interim fixed prosthodontic material (P<.001) except Trim Plus. No tested interim fixed prosthodontic material caused inhibition with the polyether impression material, except for minimal inhibition with Protemp IV. The decontamination method performed with 3% H2O2 alone proved adequate in preventing impression material inhibition. Interexaminer

  15. Nonlinear Inelastic Mechanical Behavior Of Epoxy Resin Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yekani Fard, Masoud

    compression plastic flow has negligible influence on flexural behavior in epoxy resins, which are stronger in pre-peak and post-peak softening in compression than in tension. The second model was a piecewise-linear stress strain curve simplified in the post-peak response. Beams and plates with different boundary conditions were tested and analytically studied. The flexural over-strength factor for epoxy resin polymeric materials were also evaluated.

  16. Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials in a PMMA/glass concentrator photovoltaic system: Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T.; ...

    2016-07-13

    The durability of polymeric encapsulation materials was examined using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36-month cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging, andmore » fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. The results of the study including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.« less

  17. Supramolecular polymeric materials via cyclodextrin-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akira; Takashima, Yoshinori; Nakahata, Masaki

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: Cyclodextrins (CDs) have many attractive functions, including molecular recognition, hydrolysis, catalysis, and polymerization. One of the most important uses of CDs is for the molecular recognition of hydrophobic organic guest molecules in aqueous solutions. CDs are desirable host molecules because they are environmentally benign and offer diverse functions. This Account demonstrates some of the great advances in the development of supramolecular materials through host-guest interactions within the last 10 years. In 1990, we developed topological supramolecular complexes with CDs, polyrotaxane, and CD tubes, and these preparation methods take advantage of self-organization between the CDs and the polymers. The combination of polyrotaxane with αCD forms a hydrogel through the interaction of αCDs with the OH groups on poly(ethylene glycol). We categorized these polyrotaxane chemistries within main chain type complexes. At the same time, we studied the interactions of side chain type supramolecular complexes with CDs. In these systems the guest molecules modified the polymers and selectively formed inclusion complexes with CDs. The systems that used low molecular weight compounds did not show such selectivity with CDs. The multivalency available within the complex cooperatively enhances the selective binding of CD with guest molecules via the polymer side chains, a phenomenon that is analogous to binding patterns observed in antigen-antibody complexes. To incorporate the molecular recognition properties of CDs within the polymer side chains, we first prepared stimuli-responsive sol-gel switching materials through host-guest interactions. We chose azobenzene derivatives for their response to light and ferrocene derivatives for their response to redox conditions. The supramolecular materials were both redox-responsive and self-healing, and these properties resulted from host-guest interactions. These sol-gels with built in switches gave us insight for

  18. Recent Advances in Polymeric Materials Used as Electron Mediators and Immobilizing Matrices in Developing Enzyme Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Moyo, Mambo; Okonkwo, Jonathan O.; Agyei, Nana M.

    2012-01-01

    Different classes of polymeric materials such as nanomaterials, sol-gel materials, conducting polymers, functional polymers and biomaterials have been used in the design of sensors and biosensors. Various methods have been used, for example from direct adsorption, covalent bonding, crossing-linking with glutaraldehyde on composites to mixing the enzymes or use of functionalized beads for the design of sensors and biosensors using these polymeric materials in recent years. It is widely acknowledged that analytical sensing at electrodes modified with polymeric materials results in low detection limits, high sensitivities, lower applied potential, good stability, efficient electron transfer and easier immobilization of enzymes on electrodes such that sensing and biosensing of environmental pollutants is made easier. However, there are a number of challenges to be addressed in order to fulfill the applications of polymeric based polymers such as cost and shortening the long laboratory synthetic pathways involved in sensor preparation. Furthermore, the toxicological effects on flora and fauna of some of these polymeric materials have not been well studied. Given these disadvantages, efforts are now geared towards introducing low cost biomaterials that can serve as alternatives for the development of novel electrochemical sensors and biosensors. This review highlights recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on different polymeric material. The synergistic action of some of these polymeric materials and nanocomposites imposed when combined on electrode during sensing is discussed. PMID:22368503

  19. Interactions and Assemblies of Polymeric Materials and Colloidal Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Teresa Elaine

    Our need to reduce global energy use is well known and without question, not just from an economic standpoint but also to decrease human impact on climate change. Emerging advances in this area result from the ability to tailor-make materials and energy-saving devices using solution-phase chemistry and deposition techniques. Colloidally synthesized nanocrystals, with their tunable size, shape, and composition, and unusual optical and electronic properties, are leading candidates in these efforts. Because of recent advances in colloidal chemistries, the inventory of monodisperse nanocrystals has expanded to now include metals, semiconductors, magnetic materials, and dielectric materials. For a variety of applications, an active layer composed of a thin film of randomly close-packed nanocrystals is not ideal for optimized device performance; here, the ability to arrange these nano building units into mesoporous (2 nm < d < 50 nm) architectures is highly desirable. Given this, the goal of the work in this dissertation is to determine and understand the design rules that govern the interactions between ligand-stripped nanocrystals and polymeric materials, leading to their hierarchical assembly into colloidal nanocrystal frameworks. I also include the development of quantitative, and novel, characterization techniques, and the application of such frameworks in energy efficiency devices such as electrochromic windows. Understanding the local environment of nanocrystal surfaces and their interaction with surrounding media is vital to their controlled assembly into higher-order structures. Though work has continued in this field for over a decade, researchers have yet to provide a simple and straightforward procedure to scale across nanoscale material systems and applications allowing for synthetic and structural tunability and quantitative characterization. In this dissertation, I have synthesized a new class of amphiphilic block copolymer architecture-directing agents

  20. Process for the preparation of metal-containing nanostructured films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yunfeng (Inventor); Wang, Donghai (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Metal-containing nanostructured films are prepared by electrodepositing a metal-containing composition within the pores of a mesoporous silica template to form a metal-containing silica nanocomposite. The nanocomposite is annealed to strengthen the deposited metal-containing composition. The silica is then removed from the nanocomposite, e.g., by dissolving the silica in an etching solution to provide a self-supporting metal-containing nanostructured film. The nanostructured films have a nanowire or nanomesh architecture depending on the pore structure of the mesoporous silica template used to prepare the films.

  1. Nonintrusive method and apparatus for monitoring the cure of polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, David F. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a nonintrusive method of monitoring the cure of a polymeric material using an electromagnetic field to sense a change of resistance of the polymeric material in the electromagnetic field that occurs during curing. This change of resistance is used to vary the impedance of an alternating voltage power supply that produces the electromagnetic field and which change of impedance is measured periodically or continuously to monitor the cure of said polymeric material. The apparatus for practicing the method of this invention may include a nonintrusive sensing head providing an inner, electromagnetic core within an open ended outer pot formed of magnet material. The open end of the pot core is positioned from a selected area of the surface of a sheet of the polymeric material. An alternating voltage supply circuit includes an inductance coil around the electromagnetic core and capacitor connected in parallel with the inductance coil forms a resonant tank circuit when energized. The resulting change in resistance of the polymeric material opposite the open end, a function of the curing, is measured as a corresponding change in the impedance of the power supply circuit to thereby monitor the cure of the polymeric material in the selected area.

  2. Radical Ring-Opening Polymerization: Scope, Limitations, and Application to (Bio)Degradable Materials.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Antoine; Nicolas, Julien; Gigmes, Didier; Lefay, Catherine; Guillaneuf, Yohann

    2017-02-08

    Cyclic monomers bearing either vinyl or exomethylene groups have the ability to be polymerized through a radical pathway via a ring-opening mechanism (addition-fragmentation process), leading to the introduction of functionalities in the polymer backbone. Radical ring-opening polymerization (rROP) combines the advantages of both ring-opening polymerization and radical polymerization, that is the preparation of polymers bearing heteroatoms in the backbone but with the ease and robustness of a radical process. This current review presents a comprehensive description of rROP by detailing: (i) the various monomers that polymerize through rROP; (ii) the main parameters that govern the rROP mechanism; (iii) the copolymerization by conventional or controlled/living radical polymerization between rROP monomers and traditional vinyl monomers to obtain copolymers with advanced properties; (iv) the different applications (low shrinkage materials and preparation of (bio)degradable materials) of rROP monomer-containing materials, and (v) the main alternatives to rROP to induce degradability to materials obtained by a radical polymerization.

  3. Renewable and functional wood materials by grafting polymerization within cell walls.

    PubMed

    Cabane, Etienne; Keplinger, Tobias; Merk, Vivian; Hass, Philipp; Burgert, Ingo

    2014-04-01

    A "grafting-from" polymerization approach within and at the complex and heterogeneous macromolecular assembly of wood cell walls is shown. The approach allows for the implementation of novel functionalities in renewable and functional wood-based materials. The native wood structure is retained and used as a hierarchical multiscale framework for a modular two-step polymerization process. The versatility and potential of the approach is shown by a polymerization of either hydrophobic or hydrophilic and pH-responsive monomers in the wood structure. Characterization of the modified wood reveals the presence of polymer in the cell wall, and the new properties of these wood materials are discussed.

  4. Metastable Polymeric Nitrogen: The Ultimate Green High-Energy-Density Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciezak, Jennifer

    2007-06-01

    High-energy-high-density materials offering increased stability, vulnerability, and environmental safety are being aggressively pursued to meet the requirements of the DoD Joint Visions and Future Force. Nearly two decades ago, it was proposed that polymeric nitrogen would exceed all of these requirements and possess nearly five times the energy of any conventional energetic material in use today. The present study details an investigation into nitrogen polymerization using a novel high-pressure approach utilizing sodium azide as the starting material. Due to the weaker bonding structure of the anionic azide chains in comparison to a N-N triple bond, one expects that the azide chains will create single-covalently bonded polymeric networks more easily than diatomic nitrogen. A polymeric form of sodium azide was synthesized at high pressures, but the material was not metastable at ambient conditions, which precluded performance testing. Quantum chemical calculations have indicated stabilization of the polymeric structure at ambient conditions may be possible with the addition of hydrogen. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization suggests that a meta-stable polymeric form of nitrogen has been synthesized under high-pressure using sodium azide/hydrogen as the starting materials. This material remains stable at ambient conditions upwards of two weeks depending on the storage conditions.

  5. Modified cytotoxicity evaluation of elastomeric impression materials while polymerizing with reduced exposure time.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2012-12-01

    Cytotoxicity evaluation is an important step in biocompatibility assessment of dental impression materials. Previously, cytotoxicity evaluations were carried out on already set ('set') impression materials for contact time or extraction time of 24 h or longer in duration. However, clinically, dental impression materials are in contact with oral tissue while they are being set ('polymerizing'), for no longer than 10 min. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the difference in results between 'polymerizing' and 'set' forms of impression materials as well as the difference in results between longer duration of contact or extraction time (12 or 24 h) and shorter duration of time (15 or 30 min). Seven dental impression materials of different chemical compositions were tested. Two commonly used in vitro tests were used-test on extraction and test by direct contact. Both 'polymerizing' and 'set' forms of impression materials were used with different durations of extraction and contact (15 min, 30 min, 12 h and 24 h). There were significant (p < 0.05) differences of cell viability and cell proliferation between the 'polymerizing' and 'set' impression materials. Also, significant (p < 0.05) differences were noted with variance in duration of time. In light of the results, it is recommended to use a 'polymerizing' state of dental impression material for cytotoxicity evaluation, with 15 or 30 min of contact between cell and dental impression materials and an extraction time of 15 or 30 min that is more reflective of clinical situations.

  6. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state shear pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    2001-01-30

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  7. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    1998-09-29

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  8. Reconstituted Polymeric Materials Derived From Post-Consumer Waste, Industrial Scrap And Virgin Resins Made By Solid State Shear Pulverizat

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    2005-02-01

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  9. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, K.

    1998-09-29

    A method of making polymeric particulates is described wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatible agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product. 29 figs.

  10. Studies in reactive extrusion processing of biodegradable polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Sunder

    Various reaction chemistries such as Polymerization, Polymer cross-linking and Reactive grafting were investigated in twin-screw extruders. Poly (1,4-dioxan-2-one) (PPDX) was manufactured in melt by the continuous polymerization of 1,4-dioxan-2-one (PDX) monomer in a twin-screw extruder using Aluminum tri-sec butoxide (ATSB) initiator. Good and accurate control over molecular weight was obtained by controlling the ratio of monomer to initiator. A screw configuration consisting of only conveying elements was used for the polymerization. The polymerization reaction was characterized by a monomer-polymer dynamic equilibrium, above the melting temperature of the polymer, limiting the equilibrium conversion to 78-percent. Near complete (˜100-percent) conversion was obtained on co-polymerizing PDX monomer with a few mol-percent (around 8-percent) Caprolactone (CL) monomer in a twin-screw extruder using ATSB initiator. The co-polymers exhibited improved thermal stability with reduction in glass transition temperature. The extruder was modeled as an Axial Dispersed Plug Flow Reactor for the polymerization of CL monomer using Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Analysis. The model provided a good fit to the experimental RTD and conversion data. Aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters, namely Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Poly butylenes (adipate-co-terephthalate) (Ecoflex) were cross-linked in a twin-screw extruder using radical initiator to form micro-gel reinforced biodegradable polyesters. Cross-linked Ecoflex was further extrusion blended with talc to form blends suitable to be blown into films. A screw configuration consisting of conveying and kneading elements was found to be effective in dispersion of the talc particles (5--10 microns) in the polyester matrix. While the rates of crystallization increased for the talc filled polyester blends, overall crystallinity reduced. Mechanical, tear and puncture properties of films made using the talc filled polyester blends

  11. Organic Polymeric Electro-Optic Materials: Synthesis, Processing and Device Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    A number of polymeric second and third order nonlinear optical materials were designed and synthesized. The materials were characterized for their...performed.... Electro-Optic Effects, Guided Wave Devices, Organic Polymers, Nonlinear Optical Materials , Langmuir-Blodgett Films, Second Harmonic Generation

  12. Apparatus for consolidating a pre-impregnated, filament-reinforced polymeric prepreg material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Donald A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method were developed for providing a uniform, consolidated, unidirectional, continuous, fiber-reinforced polymeric material. The apparatus comprises a supply means, a forming means, a shaping means, and a take-up means. The forming means further comprises a pre-melting chamber and a stationary bar assembly. The shaping means is a loaded cooled nip-roller apparatus. Forming takes place by heating a polymeric prepreg material to a temperature where the polymer becomes viscous and applying pressure gradients at separate locations along the prepreg material. Upon exiting the forming means, the polymeric prepreg material is malleable, consolidated, and flattened. Shaping takes place by passing the malleable, consolidated, flattened prepreg material through a shaped, matched groove in a loaded, cooled nip-roller apparatus to provide the final solid product.

  13. Using Spiral Notch Torsion Test to Evaluate Fracture Toughness of Structural Materials and Polymeric Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Tan, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Spiral Notch Torsion Test (SNTT) was developed recently to measure the intrinsic fracture toughness (KIC) of structural materials. The SNTT system operates by applying pure torsion to uniform cylindrical specimens with a notch line that spirals around the specimen at a 45 pitch. The KIC values and the associated energy release rate are obtained with the aid of a three-dimensional finite-element evaluation. The SNTT method is uniquely suitable for testing a wide variety of structural materials, including others such as ceramics, graphite, concrete, polymeric composites, and for bi-material interface fracture toughness evaluation. The SNTT test results for these structural materials and polymeric composite are demonstrated in this paper. These results demonstrated that SNTT has great potential in structural materials and polymeric composites testing, which can provide useful information for design and fabrication of structural components.

  14. Measuring polymerization shrinkage of photo-activated restorative materials by a water-filled dilatometer.

    PubMed

    Lai, J H; Johnson, A E

    1993-03-01

    A water-filled dilatometer specifically designed for determining the polymerization shrinkage of photo-activated composite restorative materials was used to measure the polymerization shrinkage of three visible light-activated composites. Polymerization shrinkage values ranged from 1.82% for P-50 to 2.15% and 2.19% for Herculite XRV and Prisma APH, respectively. Shrinkage data obtained in this investigation were compared with the published data, and the factors which affect shrinkage measurements were reviewed. It was concluded that maintaining a constant temperature environment (+ or - 0.02 degrees C) for the dilatometer during the shrinkage test was the most critical factor for successful application of the dilatometer.

  15. Investigation on the achievable flow length in injection moulding of polymeric materials with dynamic mould tempering.

    PubMed

    Meister, Steve; Drummer, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    A variety of parts in microsystems technology are manufactured by injection moulding of polymeric materials. In Particular the high cooling velocity affects negatively the process and the resulting part properties. The scope of this paper is to investigate the influence on the reachable flow length in injection moulding of different polymeric materials. The results indicate that the mould temperature has less impact on the achievable flow length of the polymer melt as the injection pressure. A higher mould temperature leads only to a slight increase in flow length. In addition, a transcending of the glass or the crystallization temperature of polymeric materials with the mould temperature shows no effect on the achievable flow length of the material.

  16. Investigation on the Achievable Flow Length in Injection Moulding of Polymeric Materials with Dynamic Mould Tempering

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    A variety of parts in microsystems technology are manufactured by injection moulding of polymeric materials. In Particular the high cooling velocity affects negatively the process and the resulting part properties. The scope of this paper is to investigate the influence on the reachable flow length in injection moulding of different polymeric materials. The results indicate that the mould temperature has less impact on the achievable flow length of the polymer melt as the injection pressure. A higher mould temperature leads only to a slight increase in flow length. In addition, a transcending of the glass or the crystallization temperature of polymeric materials with the mould temperature shows no effect on the achievable flow length of the material. PMID:23970840

  17. On-line mass spectrometric monitoring of the polymerization of a phenolic-resin-based material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikens, D. A.; Wood, G. M.; Upchurch, B. T.

    1975-01-01

    Polymerization of phenolic-resin-based materials requires elevated temperatures. The low thermal conductivity of these materials has led to the use of dielectric heating techniques in lieu of standard convection oven heating to obtain a satisfactory cure. The curing rate and therefore the quality of the cured material depends on the heating rate and maximum temperature attained, parameters which are extremely difficult to measure in dielectric heating units. The dielectric curing of these materials was monitored by using a mass spectrometer to measure the partial pressure of phenol in the gas evolved during polymerization. The resulting plots of phenol partial pressure as a function of time have a characteristic shape, and these may be used to indicate the attainment of complete curing. The validity of the mass spectrometric technique was confirmed by chemical analysis of the polymerized samples.

  18. Crosslinked polymeric dielectric materials and electronic devices incorporating same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, Tobin J. (Inventor); Facchetti, Antonio (Inventor); Wang, Zhiming (Inventor); Choi, Hyuk-Jin (Inventor); Suh, legal representative, Nae-Jeong (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Solution-processable dielectric materials are provided, along with precursor compositions and processes for preparing the same. Composites and electronic devices including the dielectric materials also are provided.

  19. Polymeric Materials for Aerospace Power and Propulsion: Overview of Polymer Research at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Weight, durability and performance are all major concerns for any NASA mission. Use of lightweight materials, such as fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites can lead to significant reductions in vehicle weight and improvements in vehicle performance. Research in the Polymeric Materials Branch at NASA Glenn is focused on improving the durability, properties, processability and performance of polymeric materials by utilizing both conventional polymer science and engineering as well as nanotechnology and bioinspired approaches. This presentation will provide an overview of these efforts and highlight recent progress.

  20. Functional Materials from Nanostructured Block Polymers Prepared via Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitet, Louis Marcel

    The structural and molecular versatility afforded to polymeric materials by ruthenium catalysts during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) cannot be exaggerated. This dissertation describes the synthesis of functionalized polyolefins via ROMP with particular emphasis on designing straightforward approaches to materials in which the molecular structure is meticulously controlled. Moreover, large portions of the body are dedicated to describing functionalized polyolefins as precursors to more complex multicomponent block copolymers. Block copolymers having various components derived from mechanistically incompatible feedstocks were designed with translational targets in mind, including toughening agents for brittle plastics, and free-standing nanoporous membranes. Several fundamental structure-property relationships were also explored for the newly synthesized materials.

  1. The effects of the interaction of polymeric materials with the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Polymeric materials in low earth orbit will be exposed to a harmful environment mainly due to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation. In geosynchronous earth orbit, the major hazards to such materials are energetic charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. The progress of studies on the effects of these hazards on a polyetherimide, a polyimide, and an epoxy adhesive is presented.

  2. Impact of Chlorine dioxide Gas on the Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One important criterion of polymeric material selection and packaging design for fresh produce is choosing the material with suitable ratio of carbon dioxide and oxygen permabilities (PCO2/P O2), to the respiratory proportion of the targeted produce. The ratio of [O2] and [CO2] in the head space var...

  3. Three-dimensional two-photon imaging in polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfield, Kevin D.; Schafer, Katherine J.; Andrasik, Stephen; Yavuz, Ozlem; Van Stryland, Eric W.; Hagan, David J.; Hales, Joel M.

    2002-01-01

    We report image formation via single and two-photon photoinduced fluorescence changes in a polymeric medium with two-photon fluorescence readout of multiplayer structures. Photoinduced acid generation in the presence of a two-photon fluorescent dye possessing strongly basic functional groups (7-benzothiazolyl-9,9-didecyl-2,2-(N,N- diphenylamino)fluorene underwent protonation upon exposure with UV or near-IR (740 nm fs pulses). Solution studies demonstrate formation of monoprotonated and diprotonated species upon irradiation, each resulting in distinctly different absorption and fluorescence properties. The fluorescence of the original, neutral, fluorophore is quenched upon monoprotonation with a concomitant increase in fluorescence at longer wavelengths due to the monoprotonated form. Hence, two channel two-photon fluorescence imaging provides 'positive' or 'negative' image readout capability. Results of solution and solid polymer thin films experiments are presented.

  4. New method of the polymeric material properties experimental investigation under powerful energy flux impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, B. A.; Efremov, V. P.; Kalinin, Yu G.; Kazakov, E. D.; Metelkin, S. Yu; Petrov, V. A.; Potapenko, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    Investigation of the polymeric material properties under powerfull energy flux impact is relevant as for basic research (mathematical modeling of polymeric materials behavior in extreme conditions, testing the state equations), as for practical applications (for testing of protective coatings for space research and laboratory facilities). This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the interaction of polymeric materials with a relativistic electron beam produced by a high-current electron accelerator Calamary. Calamary facility provides a wide range of electron beam parameters: diameter 10-15 mm, the voltage on the diode up to 300 kV, the current through the diode up to 30 kA. New method of beam-target interaction area measurement was developed. The original method for the mechanical kick impulse measuring based on piezoelectric vibration sensor was presented. The dependence of the kick impulse from the power flux was obtained.

  5. Polymeric nanoporous materials fabricated with supercritical CO2 and CO2-expanded liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijuan; Zhang, Qingkun; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Both academia and industries have put great efforts into developing non-destructive technologies for the fabrication of polymeric nanoporous materials. Such non-destructive technologies developed with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and CO2-expanded liquids (CXLs) have been attracting more and more attention because they have been demonstrated to be green and effective media for porous polymer preparation and processing. In this tutorial review, we present several such new technologies with scCO2 and CXLs, which have the capacity to prepare polymeric nanoporous materials with unique morphologies. The fabricated nanoporous polymers have significantly improved the performance of polymeric monoliths and films, and have found wide applications as templates, antireflection coatings, low-k materials, tissue engineering scaffolds and filtration membranes. This tutorial review also introduces the associated characterization methods, including the imaging, scattering and physisorption techniques.

  6. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Rais, J.

    1997-09-09

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  7. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.; Mason, Caroline F. V.; Rais, Jiri

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  8. Design considerations for multi component molecular-polymeric nonlinear optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, K.D. . Dept. of Physics); Kuzyk, M.G. . Dept. of Physics); Fang, T.; Holland, W.R. ); Cahill, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    We review our work on multi component polymeric nonlinear optical materials. These materials consist of nonlinear optical molecules incorporated in a polymeric host. A cross-linked triazine polymer incorporating a dicyanovinyl terminated azo dye was found to be relatively stable at 85{degree} and posses an electro-optic coefficient of 11pm/V. We have also observed the zero dispersion condition in a new anomalous dispersion dye for phase matched second harmonic generation, and expect efficient conversion to the blue. A squarylium dye, ISQ, has been found to posses a large third order nonlinearity, and may display two-level behavior. 24 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Effect of polymerization cycles on flexural strengths and microhardness of different denture base materials.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Hasan; Gundogdu, Mustafa; Alkurt, Murat; Yesil Duymus, Zeynep

    2017-01-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different polymerization cycles on the flexural strengths and microhardness of two denture base materials (Meliodent and Paladent). Heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens (65.0 mm long×10.0 mm wide×2.5 mm in height) were prepared using different short and long polymerization cycles. After the specimens had been polymerized, they were stored in distilled water at 37±1°C for 24 h. Flexural strength test was performed at a cross-head speed of 5 mm/min and Vickers microhardness was measured. Data were analyzed with a 1-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey test, and Student t-test (α=0.05). The flexural strengths and microhardness were significantly different between Meliodent and Paladent (p<0.05). Significant differences were found among the polymerization cycles in terms of flexural strengths and microhardness (p<0.05). Polymerization with G cycle may be suggested for Meliodent and H cycle may be suggested for Paladent.

  10. A Robust Damage Reporting Strategy for Polymeric Materials Enabled by Aggregation Induced Emission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-17

    A Robust Damage-Reporting Strategy for Polymeric Materials Enabled by Aggregation-Induced Emission Maxwell J. Robb,†,‡,§ Wenle Li,†,§,∥ Ryan C. R...and Technology, ‡Department of Chemistry, ∥Department of Materials Science and Engineering, ⊥Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, and...Microscopic damage inevitably leads to failure in polymers and composite materials , but it is difficult to detect without the aid of specialized

  11. A comparison of the dimensional accuracy of microwave and conventionally polymerized denture base materials.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A; Huggett, R; Zissis, A; Vowles, R W

    1993-01-01

    This study compares the dimensional changes of microwave and conventionally polymerized denture bases and also establishes the degree of monomer conversion using gas-liquid chromatography. Dimensional changes of three denture base materials were assessed using an optical comparator and the results showed no significant differences between the materials employed or the curing method used. Efficient monomer conversion was demonstrated with levels of residual monomer of less than 1% for all materials.

  12. Use of common beans as components in polymeric materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the research trends in recent years is to use natural renewable materials as "green" raw materials for industrial applications. Common beans are well known, widely available and relatively cheap. They contain polysaccharides, proteins, triglyceride oils, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic antio...

  13. Recent advances of basic materials to obtain electrospun polymeric nanofibers for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.; Leon, A. L.; Popa, A.

    2016-08-01

    The most important applications of electrospun polymeric nanofibers are by far those from biomedical field. From the biological point of view, almost all the human tissues and organs consist of nanofibroas structures. The examples include the bone, dentine, cartilage, tendons and skin. All these are characterized through different fibrous structures, hierarchically organized at nanometer scale. Electrospinning represents one of the nanotechnologies that permit to obtain such structures for cell cultures, besides other technologies, such as selfassembling and phase separation technologies. The basic materials used to produce electrospun nanofibers can be natural or synthetic, having polymeric, ceramic or composite nature. These materials are selected depending of the nature and structure of the tissue meant to be regenerated, namely: for the regeneration of smooth tissues regeneration one needs to process through electrospinning polymeric basic materials, while in order to obtain the supports for the regeneration of hard tissues one must mainly use ceramic materials or composite structures that permit imbedding the bioactive substances in distinctive zones of the matrix. This work presents recent studies concerning basic materials used to obtain electrospun polymeric nanofibers, and real possibilities to produce and implement these nanofibers in medical bioengineering applications.

  14. Metal-containing radiation-sensitive polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The copolymers of methyl methacrylate with alkali metal salts (Na, K, and Cs) of methacrylic acid have been prepared by saponification K, and Cs) of methylacrylic acid have been prepared by saponification of the homopolymer poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA. Low degrees of hydrolysis have been achieved by a heterogeneous system, and from the infrared spectra it has been confirmed that the ester groups of the methyl methacrylates are directly converted to the metal salts of methacrylic acid. These ionomers exhibit pseudo high molecular weights in gel permeation chromatogram, but no appreciable increase in intrinsic viscosities is observed in comparison to PMMA. The coordinated inorganic polymers poly((dithio-2,2'-diacetato)bis(dimethylsulfoxide)dioxouranium(VI)) and poly()methylenebis(thio)-2,2'-bis(acetato))bis(dimethylsulfoxide)dioxouranium(VI))have been synthesized in dimethyl sulfoxide solution with about 90% yield. The degree of polymerization and the number of average molecular weights of these polymers have been assessed by high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance, with which the acetato end group to the bridging ligand group ratios have been determined. The polymers bridging ligand group ratios have been determined. The polymers have been characterized by employing various techniques: infrared spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, /sup 13/C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, and gel permeation chromatography. The prepared polymer samples have been subjected to various doses of /sup 137/Cs gamma radiation under which the polymers predominantly undergo chain scission. The radiation sensitivities of the polymers are assessed by G values which are obtained from gel permeation chromatograms. These uranyl polymers exhibit unusually high G values.

  15. Microgravity Processing and Photonic Applications of Organic and Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald 0; Penn, Benjamin G.; Smith, David; Witherow, William K.; Paley, M. S.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, a great deal of interest has been directed toward the use of organic materials in the development of high-efficiency optoelectronic and photonic devices. There is a myriad of possibilities among organic which allow flexibility in the design of unique structures with a variety of functional groups. The use of nonlinear optical (NLO) organic materials such as thin-film waveguides allows full exploitation of their desirable qualities by permitting long interaction lengths and large susceptibilities allowing modest power input. There are several methods in use to prepare thin films, such as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembly techniques, vapor deposition, growth from sheared solution or melt, and melt growth between glass plates. Organics have many features that make Abstract: them desirable for use in optical devices such as high second- and third-order nonlinearities, flexibility of molecular design, and damage resistance to optical radiation. However, their use in devices has been hindered by processing difficulties for crystals and thin films. In this chapter, we discuss photonic and optoelectronic applications of a few organic materials and the potential role of microgravity on processing these materials. It is of interest to note how materials with second- and third-order nonlinear optical behavior may be improved in a diffusion-limited environment and ways in which convection may be detrimental to these materials. We focus our discussion on third-order materials for all-optical switching, and second-order materials for all-optical switching, and second-order materials for frequency conversion and electrooptics.

  16. Microgravity Processing and Photonic Applications of Organic and Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald 0; Penn, Benjamin G.; Smith, David; Witherow, William K.; Paley, M. S.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, a great deal of interest has been directed toward the use of organic materials in the development of high-efficiency optoelectronic and photonic devices. There is a myriad of possibilities among organic which allow flexibility in the design of unique structures with a variety of functional groups. The use of nonlinear optical (NLO) organic materials such as thin-film waveguides allows full exploitation of their desirable qualities by permitting long interaction lengths and large susceptibilities allowing modest power input. There are several methods in use to prepare thin films, such as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembly techniques, vapor deposition, growth from sheared solution or melt, and melt growth between glass plates. Organics have many features that make Abstract: them desirable for use in optical devices such as high second- and third-order nonlinearities, flexibility of molecular design, and damage resistance to optical radiation. However, their use in devices has been hindered by processing difficulties for crystals and thin films. In this chapter, we discuss photonic and optoelectronic applications of a few organic materials and the potential role of microgravity on processing these materials. It is of interest to note how materials with second- and third-order nonlinear optical behavior may be improved in a diffusion-limited environment and ways in which convection may be detrimental to these materials. We focus our discussion on third-order materials for all-optical switching, and second-order materials for all-optical switching, and second-order materials for frequency conversion and electrooptics.

  17. Potential Polymeric Sphere Construction Materials for a Spacecraft Electrostatic Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Smith, Trent; Williams, Martha; Youngquist, Robert; Mendell, Wendell

    2006-01-01

    An electrostatic shielding concept for spacecraft radiation protection under NASA s Exploration Systems Research and Technology Program was evaluated for its effectiveness and feasibility. The proposed shield design is reminiscent of a classic quadrupole with positively and negatively charged spheres surrounding the spacecraft. The project addressed materials, shield configuration, power supply, and compared its effectiveness to that of a passive shield. The report herein concerns the identification of commercially available materials that could be used in sphere fabrication. It was found that several materials were needed to potentially construct the spheres for an electrostatic shield operating at 300 MV.

  18. Adhesive Bonding of Polymeric Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D., Boeman, R.G., Paulauskas, F.L.

    1994-11-18

    In 1992, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began a cooperative research program with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would overcome obstacles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures. By reducing the weight of current automobiles, greater fuel economy and reduced emissions can be achieved. The bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance since this enabling technology gives designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low-mass materials for structural component weight reduction. Early in the project`s conception, five key areas were identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry.

  19. Raman Study of Solid State Reactions in Polymeric Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    and dynamics of the conducting complex: ( Benzophenone )9 (KI)2 .17 CHCl3" Some preliminary work was done on this novel group of conducting materials...the conducting complex: ( Benzophenone )9 (KI)2 17 CHCl3. Some preliminary work was done on this novel group of conducting materials. (e) Phonon...investigate photochemistry in solid state of two systems which are prototypes of two broad classes of compounds. The first reaction is the photodimerization

  20. Microgravity Processing and Photonic Applications of Organic and Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Smith, David D.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, a great deal of interest has been directed toward the use of organic materials in the development of high-efficiency optoelectronic and photonic devices. There is a myriad of possibilities among organics which allow flexibility in the design of unique structures with a variety of functional groups. The use of nonlinear optical (NLO) organic materials such as thin-film waveguides allows full exploitation of their desirable qualities by permitting long interaction lengths and large susceptibilities allowing modest power input. There are several methods in use to prepare thin films, such as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembly techniques, vapor deposition, growth from sheared solution or melt, and melt growth between glass plates. Organics have many features that make them desirable for use in optical devices such as high second- and third-order nonlinearities, flexibility of molecular design, and damage resistance to optical radiation. However, their use in devices has been hindered by processing difficulties for crystals and thin films. In this chapter, we discuss photonic and optoelectronic applications of a few organic materials and the potential role of microgravity on processing these materials. It is of interest to note how materials with second- and third-order nonlinear optical behavior may be improved in a diffusion-limited environment and ways in which convection may be detrimental to these materials.

  1. Optical Analysis of Transparent Polymeric Material Exposed to Simulated Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1999-01-01

    Transparent polymeric materials are being designed and utilized as solar concentrating lenses for spacecraft power and propulsion systems. These polymeric lenses concentrate solar energy onto energy conversion devices such as solar cells and thermal energy systems. The conversion efficiency is directly related to the transmissivity of the polymeric lens. The Environmental Effects Group of the Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing Department exposed a variety of materials to a simulated space environment and evaluated them for an, change in optical transmission. These materials include Lexan(TM), polyethylene terephthalate (PET). several formulations of Tefzel(TM). and Teflon(TM), and silicone DC 93-500. Samples were exposed to a minimum of 1000 Equivalent Sun Hours (ESH) of near-UV radiation (250 - 400 nm wavelength). Data will be presented on materials exposed to charged particle radiation equivalent to a five-year dose in geosynchronous orbit. These exposures were performed in MSFC's Combined Environmental Effects Test Chamber, a unique facility with the capability to expose materials simultaneously or sequentially to protons, low-energy electrons, high-energy electrons, near UV radiation and vacuum UV radiation.Prolonged exposure to the space environment will decrease the polymer film's transmission and thus reduce the conversion efficiency. A method was developed to normalize the transmission loss and thus rank the materials according to their tolerance to space environmental exposure. Spectral results and the material ranking according to transmission loss are presented.

  2. Ignition Resistance of Polymeric Materials to Particle Impact in High-Pressure Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsyth, Elliot T.; Stolzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Particle impact ignition has been the primary cause of numerous fires in oxygen systems. This ignition phenomenon is known to occur where particles are present in high-velocity gas, and where impact occurs on a flammable material. The particle impact ignition behavior of many metals has been widely studied, but the particle impact ignition behavior of polymeric materials is relatively unknown. Particle impact ignition in polymeric materials is a concern as these materials are commonly used in component seat and seal applications, where high-velocity particle impacts can occur. This study evaluates several polymeric materials and compares the minimum temperature required for ignition (threshold temperature) of these materials: Kel-F 81 (CTFE), Teflon (PTFE), PEEK, Vespel SP-21, and Nylon 6/6. The materials were configured as targets in the White Sands Test Facility high-velocity particle impact test system. Gaseous oxygen was flowed at 4000 psi and sonic velocity, and the targets were impacted with 2000-micron aluminum 2017 particles. This paper discusses the results of these tests and ranks the materials according to their threshold temperatures at these conditions.

  3. Optical Analysis of Transparent Polymeric Material Exposed to Simulated Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1999-01-01

    Transparent polymeric materials are being designed and utilized as solar concentrating lenses for spacecraft power and propulsion systems. These polymeric lenses concentrate solar energy onto energy conversion devices such as solar cells and thermal energy systems. The conversion efficiency is directly related to the transmissivity of the polymeric lens. The Environmental Effects Group of the Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing Department exposed a variety of materials to a simulated space environment and evaluated them for an, change in optical transmission. These materials include Lexan(TM), polyethylene terephthalate (PET). several formulations of Tefzel(TM). and Teflon(TM), and silicone DC 93-500. Samples were exposed to a minimum of 1000 Equivalent Sun Hours (ESH) of near-UV radiation (250 - 400 nm wavelength). Data will be presented on materials exposed to charged particle radiation equivalent to a five-year dose in geosynchronous orbit. These exposures were performed in MSFC's Combined Environmental Effects Test Chamber, a unique facility with the capability to expose materials simultaneously or sequentially to protons, low-energy electrons, high-energy electrons, near UV radiation and vacuum UV radiation.Prolonged exposure to the space environment will decrease the polymer film's transmission and thus reduce the conversion efficiency. A method was developed to normalize the transmission loss and thus rank the materials according to their tolerance to space environmental exposure. Spectral results and the material ranking according to transmission loss are presented.

  4. Assessment of Heat Hazard during the Polymerization of Selected Light-Sensitive Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Katarzyna; Fita, Katarzyna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk-Zając, Małgorzata; Czajczyńska-Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piesiak-Pańczyszyn, Dagmara; Kosior, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Polymerization of light-cured dental materials used for restoration of hard tooth tissue may lead to an increase in temperature that may have negative consequence for pulp vitality. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine maximum temperatures reached during the polymerization of selected dental materials, as well as the time that is needed for samples of sizes similar to those used in clinical practice to reach these temperatures. Materials and Methods. The study involved four composite restorative materials, one lining material and a dentine bonding agent. The polymerization was conducted with the use of a diode light-curing unit. The measurements of the external surface temperature of the samples were carried out using the Thermovision®550 thermal camera. Results. The examined materials significantly differed in terms of the maximum temperatures values they reached, as well as the time required for reaching the temperatures. A statistically significant positive correlation of the maximum temperature and the sample weight was observed. Conclusions. In clinical practice, it is crucial to bear in mind the risk of thermal damage involved in the application of light-cured materials. It can be reduced by using thin increments of composite materials. PMID:27840825

  5. Assessment of Heat Hazard during the Polymerization of Selected Light-Sensitive Dental Materials.

    PubMed

    Janeczek, Maciej; Herman, Katarzyna; Fita, Katarzyna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk-Zając, Małgorzata; Czajczyńska-Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piesiak-Pańczyszyn, Dagmara; Kosior, Piotr; Dobrzyński, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Polymerization of light-cured dental materials used for restoration of hard tooth tissue may lead to an increase in temperature that may have negative consequence for pulp vitality. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine maximum temperatures reached during the polymerization of selected dental materials, as well as the time that is needed for samples of sizes similar to those used in clinical practice to reach these temperatures. Materials and Methods. The study involved four composite restorative materials, one lining material and a dentine bonding agent. The polymerization was conducted with the use of a diode light-curing unit. The measurements of the external surface temperature of the samples were carried out using the Thermovision®550 thermal camera. Results. The examined materials significantly differed in terms of the maximum temperatures values they reached, as well as the time required for reaching the temperatures. A statistically significant positive correlation of the maximum temperature and the sample weight was observed. Conclusions. In clinical practice, it is crucial to bear in mind the risk of thermal damage involved in the application of light-cured materials. It can be reduced by using thin increments of composite materials.

  6. Mass Transfer Study of Chlorine Dioxide Gas Through Polymeric Packaging Materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A continuous system for measuring the mass transfer of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2), a strong oxidizing agent and used in food and pharmaceutical packaging, through 10 different types of polymeric packaging material was developed utilizing electrochemical sensor as a detector. Permeability, diff...

  7. Making and Using a Sensing Polymeric Material for Cu[superscript 2+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Jean R.; Maghasi, Anne T.; Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.

    2005-01-01

    A simple chemical sensor-related experiment rooted in the synthesis of polymeric materials for use in either an advanced high-school or undergraduate college laboratory is presented. Students are introduced to and combine to the concepts of the chemical sensor, polymer chemistry, spectroscopy, metal chelates, and quantitative analytical methods.

  8. Increase of Longevity of High Filled Composite Polymeric Materials Intended for Covering of Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negmatov, S. S.; Sobirov, B. B.; Abdullaev, A. X.; Salimsakov, Yu. A.; Raxmonov, B. Sh.; Negmatova, K. S.; Ergashev, E.; Jonuzokov, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    In work the results of researches of influence of various components included in structure of high filled asphalt-concrete coverings and composite polymeric hermetic materials for sealing them deformed seams and cracks are given. The opportunity of increase of long lived operation of highways was shown using as filler the mechano-activated river and dune sands in a combination to secondary polyethylene.

  9. Making and Using a Sensing Polymeric Material for Cu[superscript 2+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Jean R.; Maghasi, Anne T.; Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.

    2005-01-01

    A simple chemical sensor-related experiment rooted in the synthesis of polymeric materials for use in either an advanced high-school or undergraduate college laboratory is presented. Students are introduced to and combine to the concepts of the chemical sensor, polymer chemistry, spectroscopy, metal chelates, and quantitative analytical methods.

  10. Impedance spectroscopy of composites based on waste polymeric materials for electrical engineering purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, V. I.; Zubko, D. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a high-sensitivity capacitance transducer and a method for measuring the complex of electrical indices of composites based on waste polymeric materials in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The electrical properties of composites depending on the electric field frequency and the content and type of the filler have been investigated.

  11. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    At the altitudes of low-earth orbit (LEO), atomic oxygen (AO) is the most abundant chemical species. This strong oxidizing agent reacts with virtually any organic material that is not already fully oxidized. Erosion by AO can be extensive and jeopardizes any protective coatings, thermal blankets, adhesives, and structural composites exposed on the exterior of satellites in LEO. Researchers prepared and tested organic materials for their susceptibility to AO using a commercial plasma asher which approximately simulates the oxygen effects in LEO. Experiments were performed on a polyimide, a polysulfone, and two epoxy adhesives into which low molecular-weight additives have been dissolved. Incorporated in the molecular structure of these additives are elements such as silicon whose nonvolatile oxides, which are formed on exposure to AO, remain as a coating on the surface to create a barrier between the remainder of the organic material and the AO. We find that the additives protect the materials, but the low solubility of some limit their utility. Concurrent studies are underway to measure the effect of the additives on the thermal expansion coefficients of the materials. Tows of aramid fibers, which are important components in the proposed tether satellite systems, have been eroded in the asher. The results which show that the square root of the mass remaining decreases linearly with the time of exposure (see the figure) are consistent with a constant rate of surface erosion. The tensile strength of these eroded tows decreases with time of exposure also; additional measurements are in progress.

  12. Modeling of Slot Waveguide Sensors Based on Polymeric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Bettotti, Paolo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Rigo, Eveline; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers) to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies. PMID:22164020

  13. Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Bettotti, Paolo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Rigo, Eveline; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers) to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies.

  14. Characterization of Viscoelastic Properties of Polymeric Materials Through Nanoindentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Bandorawalla, T.; Herring, H. M.; Gates, T. S.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoindentation is used to determine the dynamic viscoelastic properties of six polymer materials. It is shown that varying the harmonic frequency of the nanoindentation does not have any significant effect on the measured storage and loss moduli of the polymers. Agreement is found between these results and data from DMA testing of the same materials. Varying the harmonic amplitude of the nanoindentation does not have a significant effect on the measured properties of the high performance resins, however, the storage modulus of the polyethylene decreases as the harmonic amplitude increases. Measured storage and loss moduli are also shown to depend on the density of the polyethylene.

  15. Tailoring the Poisson Ratio: Design Concepts for New Polymeric Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    unusual mechanical behavior is also known as auxetic behavior and is characterized by a material getting fatter when stretched. Our approach deals with a...direction resulting in an increase in the interchain separation and to an auxetic response. We have made model compounds to examine this concept; a

  16. Ion beam modification of injection moulded polymere materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, G. K.; Kersten, H. J.

    1998-05-01

    Ion beam based treatments and processes are an ecologically friendly alternative for the metallization of polymers. Nowadays mainly chemical and electrochemical and plasma assisted techniques are used. In this contribution the copper metallization of high temperature thermoplasts using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) was studied. The applications in mind were magnetic shielding of cases for sensors. The influence of ion beam intensity and energy, deposition rate, preconditioning and substrate material on the Cu adhesion was investigated. As materials PPS (Polyphenylene sulfide) and LCP (Liquid Crystal Polymer) with different filling materials were used. It could be shown that the adhesion reacts very critical to the type of polymer and the type and concentration of filling material. The IBAD parameters giving best results are I/A ratios of 0.005-0.01 and energies of 0.5-2 keV. The highest adhesion force (≈27 N/mm 2) was measured on PPS. For LCP thin Ti interlayers increased the adhesion force ≈50% up to values above 10 N/mm 2.

  17. UV radiation-induced surface modulation time evolution in polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, I.; Apostol, D.; Damian, V.; Iordache, I.; Hurduc, N.; Sava, I.; Sacarescu, L.; Stoica, I.

    2009-05-01

    The reorganization processes at submicron level of the polymeric materials have been investigated because of their applications in optoelectronics and bio-science. We have obtained surface relief modulation in single step processing on the photo resist and polysiloxane films. But for technical applications the time evolution and stability of the induced surface structure is an important parameter and is a problem to be discussed. In case of single step surface relief formation on polymeric materials the process is connected with the photochromic behavior of the materials. As it is known the UV light induced effects on the material structure are reversible under the action of visible light, but with different speeds. In this report is analyzed the time evolution of the surface modulation obtained under the action of the UV light for azopolymers with different structures.

  18. Highly Flexible, Tough, and Self-Healing Supramolecular Polymeric Materials Using Host-Guest Interaction.

    PubMed

    Nakahata, Masaki; Takashima, Yoshinori; Harada, Akira

    2015-09-23

    Flexible, tough, and self-healable polymeric materials are promising to be a solution to the energy problem by substituting for conventional heavy materials. A fusion of supramolecular chemistry and polymer chemistry is a powerful method to create such intelligent materials. Here, a supramolecular polymeric material using multipoint molecular recognition between cyclodextrin (CD) and hydrophobic guest molecules at polymer side chain is reported. A transparent, flexible, and tough hydrogel (host-guest gel) is formed by a simple preparation procedure. The host-guest gel shows self-healing property in both wet state and dry state due to reversible nature of host-guest interaction. The practical utility of the host-guest gel as a scratch curable coating is demonstrated.

  19. Laser-optical treatment for toothbrush bristles (nylon, synthetic, and polymeric materials, etc.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yangwu

    1994-08-01

    On the basis of the principle of laser radiation and materials interaction, a laser-optical treatment method for toothbrush bristles (nylon et al., synthetic and polymeric materials) is provided. In this process, laser irradiation is stopped during melting and followed by cooling, so the free end of each bristle of toothbrush is formed for a smooth globe. The toothbrush with laser-optical end-globed bristles have many remarkable functions.

  20. Exploration of the conformational space of a polymeric material that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Ercanli, Tulay; Boyd, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    Baertschi et al. (Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 1997, 8, 353-362) clarified the nature of a polymeric degradation product formed from the cephalosporin ceftazidime. Interest in the polymeric material arises from its ability to inhibit the RNase H and polymerase activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). To shed light on the structure of the polymeric material like that which forms from degradation of third-generation cephalosporins, we apply molecular modeling and other computational chemistry techniques. Aminothiazole methoxime (2-amino-4-thiazolyl-methoxyimino; ATMO) is the parent structure related to the isolated degradation product of ceftazidime. The MMFF94 force field and Monte Carlo multiple minimum method as implemented in MacroModel are used to generate low-energy conformers. We built up oligomeric models starting from the trimer to the 16-mer and performed distribution analyses on the dihedral angles from the Monte Carlo runs to analyze the three-dimensional shapes of the oligomers. Although the larger oligomers are too long for a complete search of conformational space, the low-energy conformers examined do not show secondary structure or repetitive conformations. Polymeric ATMO material may, therefore, exhibit only random coil conformations. Topological similarity of ATMO structures to other reported RT inhibitors is also examined.

  1. A fragment-based approach towards ab-initio treatment of polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingale, Reshma S.; Pingale, Subhash S.; Kshirsagar, Anjali

    2017-07-01

    The broad range of applications of π -conjugated polymeric materials in industries such as automobiles, textiles, packaging, medical etc. have led to their extensive studies in both academic and industrial fields. Predicting the structure of these polymers is important for the study of their properties. The present work uses a `divide and conquer'-type approach for the ab-initio studies of these polymeric systems. The method employs a fragmentation technique with independent fragment optimization for obtaining optimized geometries of the oligomers of various polymeric materials such as polyfuran, polypyrrole, polythiophene and other such π -conjugated polymers. A few test calculations performed in the study provide fair concurrence between the energies and the HOMO-LUMO energy gaps obtained using the fragmentation-based approach with those obtained using the full optimization of the whole oligomer. Also, a significant reduction in time complexity occurs for the present fragment-based approach compared to the parent system optimization. The results are encouraging and prompt for studies of large polymeric materials.

  2. Production and analysis of thermal decomposition products from polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, D. A.; Einhorn, I. N.; Hileman, F. D.; Futrell, J. H.; Voorhees, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a strategy for analyzing the combustion process and the degradation products which are formed. One of three primary objectives in the study of polymer degradation is related to the characterization of the material to be studied and the investigation of the thermal behavior of the material. Another objective is concerned with the definition of the nature of the decomposition process by identification and quantitation of the degradation products. The third objective involves the determination of the mechanism and kinetics of the decomposition process. The methods of sample degradation include pyrolysis, oxidative degradation, flaming combustion, and the use of large-scale combustion chambers. Methods of chemical separation and identification are considered, taking into account low-boiling volatiles, high-boiling volatiles, and ancillary techniques.

  3. Moisture effect on mechanical properties of polymeric composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airale, A. G.; Carello, M.; Ferraris, A.; Sisca, L.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of moisture on the mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was investigated. Four materials had been take into account considering: both 2×2-Twill woven carbon fibre or glass fibre, thermosetting matrix (Epoxy Resin) or thermoplastic matrix (Polyphenylene Sulfide). The specimens were submitted for 1800 hours to a hygrothermic test to evaluate moisture absorption on the basis of the Fick's law and finally tested to verify the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength). The results showed that the absorbed moisture decreases those properties of composites which were dominated by the matrix or the interface, while was not detectable the influence of water on the considered fibre. An important result is that the diffusion coefficient is highest for glass/PPS and lowest for carbon/epoxy composite material. The results give useful suggestions for the design of vehicle components that are exposed to environmental conditions (rain, snow and humidity).

  4. [Allergenic characteristics of chemical compounds migrating from polymeric building materials].

    PubMed

    Trubitskaia, G P; Bokov, A N; Poliak, A I; Komareva, R F

    1977-02-01

    The authors worked out the technique of determining the allergenic activity of the volatiles migrating into the air medium from polymer building materials (PBM). The methods of allergodiagnosis in vitro (the passive hemagglutination test, specific leukocytic agglomeration test, intensification of leukocyte pyroninophilia test) were used to detect sensitization in experiments on guinea pigs. It appeared that PBM could cause atopic allergie reaction under certain dwelling conditions.

  5. Polymeric and Molecular Materials for Advanced Organic Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-25

    Transistors and Active Matrix Organic Light -Emitting Diode Displays” ACS Nano 2009, 3, 3383-3390. 17. Ponce Ortiz, R.; Casado, J.; Hernandez, V.; Lopez...Optically Transparent n-Channel Field-Effect Transistors” Chem. Mater. 2007, 19, 2703-2705. Summaries of Student Theses Eminating from this Project...applications such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). These materials enable vapor- or solution-phase fabrication of large-area, light -weight

  6. Considerations for Contractile Electroactive Polymeric Materials and Actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Erickson, Carl J.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Gentile, Charles A.; Tilson, Charles; Bernasek, Stephen L.; Abelev, Esta

    2009-06-16

    Ras Labs produces electroactive polymer (EAP) based materials and actuators that bend, swell, ripple and now contract (new development) with low electric input. This is an important attribute because of the ability of contraction to produce life-like motion. The mechanism of contraction is not well understood. Radionuclide-labeled experiments were conducted to follow the movement of electrolytes and water in these EAPs when activated. Extreme temperature experiments were performed on the contractile EAPs with very favorable results. One of the biggest challenges in developing these actuators, however, is the electrode-EAP interface because of the pronounced movement of the EAP. Plasma treatments of metallic electrodes were investigated in order to improve the attachment of the embedded electrodes to the EAP material. Surface analysis, adhesive testing, and mechanical testing were conducted to test metal surfaces and metal-polymer interfaces. The nitrogen plasma treatment of titanium produced a strong metal-polymer interface; however, oxygen plasma treatment of both stainless steel and titanium produced even stronger metal-polymer interfaces. Plasma treatment of the electrodes allows for the embedded electrodes and the EAP material of the actuator to work and move as a unit, with no detachment, by significantly improving the metal-polymer interface.

  7. Polymeric materials replacement issues for the LANL stockpile.

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, C. W.; Gladysz, G. M.; Stephens, T. S.; Gleiman, S. S.; Mendoza, D.; Baker, G. K.; Schoonover, J. R.; Schneider, Jim; Perry, B.; Lula, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    A number of materials in the LANL stockpile are no longer available due to lack of availability or environment, safety and health issues. Silastic S-5370 a polysiloxane foam used to manufacture multiple components in LANL systems has been discontinued by Dow Corning. Kerimid 601 is a polyimide resin used as the binder for the syntactic foam used as a support material in the W76. It contains MDA, which has been identified by OSHA as a carcinogen and is no longer used in the nuclear weapons complex. In addition, the Thornel carbon mat used in the syntactic foam formulation is no longer available. These issues have created major challenges in the effort to reestablish aft support production capability for the W76 LEP. Urethane Encapsulant 7200, an adhesive used to bond explosive booster pellets and detonator components, was originally manufactured by Hexcel Corporation and is no longer available. The details of the projects currently underway to provide replacements for these materials will be discussed.

  8. Effects of atomic oxygen on polymeric materials flown on EOIM-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1995-01-01

    Diverse polymeric materials, including several variations of Kapton, were flown on STS-46 as part of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials Experiment (EOIM-3). These materials were flown in the cargo bay and exposed to the space environment July 31 - August 8, 1992, including 40 hours of direct atomic oxygen impingement. The atomic oxygen exposure was approximately 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Polymeric materials flown on EOIM-3 include coated and uncoated Kapton, Tefzel ETFE, Lexan, FEP and TFE Teflon, bulk Halar and PEEK, S383 silicone and Viton elastomeric seal material. Analyses performed included thickness measurements using Dektak and eddy current methods, mass loss, resistance, permeability, hardness, and FTIR. The effects of stress and the space environment on Kapton were also evaluated. Previous EOIM missions on STS-5 and STS-8 and the Long Duration Exposure Facility also contained polymeric material samples. Data from these previous flights are shown for comparison, as well as ground simulation of space environment effects using both thermal energy flow tubes and 5 eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facilities. Reaction efficiencies for the various atomic oxygen exposure conditions are discussed.

  9. SOLUBILIZATION OF ACTINIDE METAL-CONTAINING SLAG

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

    1959-08-01

    This patent relates to solubilization of the actinide rare earths valves contained in the slag materials resulting from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably at about 700 deg C with gaseous hydrogen chloride, until the actinides within the slag are substantially convented to the chlorides. The resultant chlorinated actinides are then leached from the cooled roasted mass by treating with aqueous 0.01 M nitric acid.

  10. Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    replaced with neat DMSO. Also potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was used as the base, instead of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Synthesis of ASD-D03 The NLO dye used in...by sublimation. The optically clear films exhibited some microscopic cracks , which could probably be prevented by further process optimization, or...the use of a more crack resistant Accuglass host such as the T-14 series of materials [3]. We now describe the work on the temporally stable nonlinear

  11. Characterization of Semicrystalline Polymeric Materials by Atomistic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa-Gerstenmaier, Susana; Milano, Giuseppe; Guerra, Gaetano

    2010-12-21

    Characterization of two crystalline phases ({delta} and {epsilon}) of syndiotactic polystyrene using molecular modeling are discussed. These two polymorphs present nanoporosity, being able to adsorb molecules of low molecular weight in their cavities ({delta}) or in their channels ({epsilon}). By means of Grand Canonical Monte Carlo molecular simulations, adsorption isotherms of nitrogen and hydrogen were calculated, exploring the possible utilization of these materials with storage purposes. Molecular Dynamics simulations were performed to determine self diffusion behavior of light gases and these results combined with a geometric method are being employed to measure the size of the nanochannels of the e polymorph.

  12. LDEF polymeric materials: A summary of Langley characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Whitley, Karen S.; Kalil, Carol R.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Shen, James Y.; Chang, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) enabled the exposure of a wide variety of materials to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment. This paper provides a summary of research conducted at the Langley Research Center into the response of selected LDEF polymers to this environment. Materials examined include graphite fiber reinforced epoxy, polysulfone, and additional polyimide matrix composites, films of FEP Teflon, Kapton, several experimental high performance polyimides, and films of more traditional polymers such as poly(vinyl toluene) and polystyrene. Exposure duration was either 10 months or 5.8 years. Flight and control specimens were characterized by a number of analytical techniques including ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron and scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and, in some instances, selected solution property measurements. Characterized effects were found to be primarily surface phenomena. These effects included atomic oxygen-induced erosion of unprotected surfaces and ultraviolet-induced discoloration and changes in selected molecular level parameters. No gross changes in molecular structure or glass transition temperature were noted. The intent of this characterization is to increase our fundamental knowledge of space environmental effects as an aid in developing new and improved polymers for space application. A secondary objective is to develop benchmarks to enhance our methodology for the ground-based simulation of environmental effects so that polymer performance in space can be more reliably predicted.

  13. Characterization of 3D rapid prototyped polymeric material by ultrasonic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livings, Richard; Dayal, Vinay; Barnard, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Rapid prototyped parts are quickly becoming a viable alternative for manufacturers. Although the polymeric material is initially isotropic, the printing process introduces a level of anisotropy. This work characterizes the elastic and acoustic properties of the material, after printing, using ultrasonic methods. The elastic constants and the level of anisotropy are determined by measuring the ultrasonic wave velocities. It is shown that the material possesses less symmetry than the orthotropic material model. The dispersion and attenuation characteristics are also determined to provide a basis for ultrasonic flaw detection.

  14. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    SciTech Connect

    Best, S.A.; Etherton, B.P.; Kaus, M.J.

    1989-09-12

    This patent describes a polymerization process. It comprises polymerizing ethylene, alpha-olefins of 3 to 20 carbon atoms or mixtures of ethylene and the alpha-olefins in the presence of a catalyst system. The system comprising: an organo aluminum compound of the formula AIR'''/sub eta/X'''/sub 3-eta/ wherein R''' is hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, X''' is a halogen and eta is a number from 1 to 3, and a transition metal-containing catalyst component. The component comprising the solid reaction product obtained by treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent with an organonmetallic compound represented by the formula R/sup 1/MgR/sup 2/ wherein R/sup 1/ and R/sup 2/, which may be the same of different,contain 1 to 20 carbon atoms and are selected from alkyl group, aryl group, cycloalkyl group, aralkyl group, alkadienyl group of group; an alcohol; an acyl halide; a titanium halide; Cl/sub 2/, and prereducing the transition metal-containing product with an aluminum alkyl, with the proviso that the first two ingredients can be added to the inert solid simultaneously, as the reaction product of the first two steps or treatment with step two immediately precedes treatment with step one.

  15. Solution properties and spectroscopic characterization of polymeric precursors to SiNCB and BN ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cortez, E.; Remsen, E; Chlanda, V.; Carrol, P.; Sneddon, L.

    1998-06-01

    Boron Nitride, BN, and composite SiNCB ceramic fibers are important structural materials because of their excellent thermal and oxidative stabilities. Consequently, polymeric materials as precursors to ceramic composites are receiving increasing attention. Characterization of these materials requires the ability to evaluate simultaneous molecular weight and compositional heterogeneity within the polymer. Size exclusion chromatography equipped with viscometric and refractive index detection as well as coupled to a LC-transform device for infrared absorption analysis has been employed to examine these heterogeneities. Using these combined approaches, the solution properties and the relative amounts of individual functional groups distributed through the molecular weight distribution of SiNCB and BN polymeric precursors were characterized. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Biocompatibility correlation of polymeric materials using human osteosarcoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geckeler, K. E.; Wacker, Roland; Aicher, Wilhelm K.

    Metal implants are the preferred materials to generate articular prostheses, plates, or bone pegs in orthopedic surgery. Although titanium and titanium alloys show a relatively good biocompatibility, clinical experience revealed that coating of the metallic implant surface may increase the biocompatibility. In a search for optimum bone implant surfaces, we determined polarity and contact angle parameters of a variety of polymers and substances and correlated the findings in a biocompatibility assay using an in vitro bone cell model. We report that an optimum adherence of SAOS-2 cells to such surfaces and a good vitality for polymers are characterized by water-based contact angles of 80° and 20° for advancing and receding probes, respectively.

  17. Novel metal containing resists for EUV lithography extendibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Danilo; Sayan, Safak; Dei, Satoshi; Pollentier, Ivan; Kuwahara, Yuhei; Vandenberghe, Geert; Nafus, Kathleen; Shiratani, Motohiro; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Naruoka, Takehiko

    2016-03-01

    Strong interest has recently developed among the researchers in the use of metals in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography photoresists [1, 2] aiming to simultaneously achieve the resolution, line-width roughness and sensitivity (RLS) requirements for 10nm technology node and below and have the highest productivity with low exposure dose requirements (below 20mJ/cm2). In this paper two different metal containing resists (MCR) are discussed: the first one uses metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) bonded with ligands as an alternative non chemically amplified EUV photoresist; the second one introduces a metal species (the sensitizer) into a conventional chemically amplified EUV photoresist. In both cases, the metal is added to the resist system to increase the absorption of EUV photons as well as increase the generation of secondary electrons, thereby making more effective use of the dose. The initial work is focused on manufacturing compatibility, concerning metal cross-contamination, outgassing and hydrides formation risk. Next, lithographic performance is evaluated with respect to the RLS requirements by patterning on NXE:3300 full field scanner exposure tool, with particular emphasis on the material stability of different formulations.. Finally, imaging results at different processing conditions are also reported and discussed.

  18. Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: a status report.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Beatrice; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Forte, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals' dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Friction Behaviour of Polymeric Composite Materials Mixed with Carbon Fibers Having Different Orientations Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliman, R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the friction properties of polymeric composite materials reinforced with unidirectional carbon fibers having different stratified structure. So, the composites are complex and versatile materials but their behaviour in practice is not fully studied. For instance, these polymeric composite materials mixed with carbon fibers after being investigated in terms of wear, did not elucidate the effect of fiber orientation on wear properties. Is therefore necessary to investigate the effect of carbon fibers orientation on the friction-wear properties of the reinforced composite materials tested to abrasive and adhesive friction. Research work has been done with unidirectional composite materials having overlap 18 successive layers made from a polymeric resine and 60% of carbon fibers. The stratified structure was obtained by compressing multiple pre-impregnated strips, positioned manually. During this experimental work, three types of test samples were investigated: parallel, normal and anti-parallel, taking in consideration the carbon fibre orientation with respect to the sliding direction. The friction coefficient is computed function to the friction load and loading value. Also, the specific wear rate was calculated according to: the mass loss, density, the normal contact surface, the sliding distance and load rating.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic materials precipitated into polymeric and novel liquid crystalline systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubeck, Christopher Ryan

    The use of nanostructured, hybrid materials possesses great future potential. Many examples of nanostructured materials exist within nature, such as animal bone, animal teeth, and seashells. This research, inspired by nature, strove to mimic salient properties of natural materials, utilizing methods observed within nature to produce materials. Further, this research increased the functionality of the templates from "mere" template to functional participant. Different chemical methods to produce hybrid materials were employed within this research to achieve these goals. First, electro-osmosis was utilized to drive ions into a polymeric matrix to form hybrid inorganic polymer material, creating a material inspired by naturally occurring bone or seashell in which the inorganic component provides strength and the polymeric material decreases the brittleness of the combined hybrid material. Second, self-assembled amphiphiles, forming higher ordered structures, acted as a template for inorganic cadmium sulfide. Electronically active molecules based on ethylene oxide and aniline segments were synthesized to create interaction between the templating material and the resulting inorganic cadmium sulfide. The templating process utilized self-assembly to create the inorganic structure through the interaction of the amphiphiles with water. The use of self-assembly is itself inspired by nature. Self-assembled structures are observed within living cells as cell walls and cell membranes are created through hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Finally, the mesostructured inorganic cadmium sulfide was itself utilized as a template to form mesostructured copper sulfide.

  1. Influence of the material for preformed moulds on the polymerization temperature of resin materials for temporary FPDs

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Wätjen, Hans; Stiesch, Meike; Eisenburger, Michael

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE Temperature increase of 5.5 ℃ can cause damage or necrosis of the pulp. Increasing temperature can be caused not only by mechanical factors, e.g. grinding, but also by exothermic polymerization reactions of resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate influences of the form material on the intrapulpal temperature during the polymerization of different self-curing resin materials for temporary restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 provisonal bridges were made of 5 resin materials: Prevision Temp (Pre), Protemp 4 (Pro), Luxatemp Star (Lux), Structure 3 (Str) and an experimental material (Exp). Moulds made of alginate (A) and of silicone (S) and vacuum formed moulds (V) were used to build 10 bridges each on a special experimental setup. The intrapulpal temperatures of three abutment teeth (a canine, a premolar, and a molar,) were measured during the polymerization every second under isothermal conditions. Comparisons of the maximum temperature (TMax) and the time until the maximum temperature (tTMax) were performed using ANOVA and Tukey Test. RESULTS Using alginate as the mould material resulted in a cooling effect for every resin material. Using the vacuum formed mould, TMax increased significantly compared to alginate (P<.001) and silicone (P<.001). In groups Lux, Pro, and Pre, tTMax increased when the vacuum formed moulds were used. In groups Exp and Str, there was no influence of the mould material on tTMax. CONCLUSION All of the mould materials are suitable for clinical use if the intraoral application time does not exceed the manufacturer's instructions for the resin materials. PMID:28874997

  2. Hard surfaced polymeric materials by ion beam processing

    SciTech Connect

    Simandl, R.F.; Rose, D.

    1996-09-27

    Initially, both General Motors and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. were interested in altering the surface properties of polymers using ion beam technologies. Specifically, GM wished to treat the nylon that is used to encapsulate automotive assemblies so that it would be impervious to the alcohols and ethers used in present day blends of gasoline. Fuel oxygenates such as methanol can rapidly permeate the nylon encapsulant and tend to corrode the components within the assemblies. Once the CRADA was initiated, GM learned about the cleaning/decontamination expertise that was available at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Because GM was also interested in solving contamination issues related to these assemblies, GM worked with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. to amend the CRADA to include such issues. Y-12 was eager to share its environmentally friendly, cleaning/decontamination expertise and also to expand upon its knowledge in this area. GM provided funds into the CRADA in order to address these contamination issues. Further on into the CRADA, GM put even more emphasis on the decontamination issues. This change in direction resulted because of rapid progress on the decontamination issues and, secondly, because GM changed its component material from nylon to the highly impervious polyphenylene sulfide.

  3. Surface modification of polymeric materials by cold atmospheric plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, K. G.; Nishime, T. M. C.; Castro, A. H. R.; Toth, A.; Hein, L. R. O.

    2014-09-01

    In this work we report the surface modification of different engineering polymers, such as, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). It was operated with Ar gas using 10 kV, 37 kHz, sine wave as an excitation source. The aim of this study is to determine the optimal treatment conditions and also to compare the polymer surface modification induced by plasma jet with the one obtained by another atmospheric pressure plasma source - the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The samples were exposed to the plasma jet effluent using a scanning procedure, which allowed achieving a uniform surface modification. The wettability assessments of all polymers reveal that the treatment leads to reduction of more than 40° in the water contact angle (WCA). Changes in surface composition and chemical bonding were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that both detected incorporation of oxygen-related functional groups. Surface morphology of polymer samples was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and an increase of polymer roughness after the APPJ treatment was found. The plasma-treated polymers exhibited hydrophobic recovery expressed in reduction of the O-content of the surface upon rinsing with water. This process was caused by the dissolution of low molecular weight oxidized materials (LMWOMs) formed on the surface as a result of the plasma exposure.

  4. Influence of the material for preformed moulds on the polymerization temperature of resin materials for temporary FPDs.

    PubMed

    Pott, Philipp-Cornelius; Schmitz-Wätjen, Hans; Stiesch, Meike; Eisenburger, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Temperature increase of 5.5 ℃ can cause damage or necrosis of the pulp. Increasing temperature can be caused not only by mechanical factors, e.g. grinding, but also by exothermic polymerization reactions of resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate influences of the form material on the intrapulpal temperature during the polymerization of different self-curing resin materials for temporary restorations. 30 provisonal bridges were made of 5 resin materials: Prevision Temp (Pre), Protemp 4 (Pro), Luxatemp Star (Lux), Structure 3 (Str) and an experimental material (Exp). Moulds made of alginate (A) and of silicone (S) and vacuum formed moulds (V) were used to build 10 bridges each on a special experimental setup. The intrapulpal temperatures of three abutment teeth (a canine, a premolar, and a molar,) were measured during the polymerization every second under isothermal conditions. Comparisons of the maximum temperature (TMax) and the time until the maximum temperature (tTMax) were performed using ANOVA and Tukey Test. Using alginate as the mould material resulted in a cooling effect for every resin material. Using the vacuum formed mould, TMax increased significantly compared to alginate (P<.001) and silicone (P<.001). In groups Lux, Pro, and Pre, tTMax increased when the vacuum formed moulds were used. In groups Exp and Str, there was no influence of the mould material on tTMax. All of the mould materials are suitable for clinical use if the intraoral application time does not exceed the manufacturer's instructions for the resin materials.

  5. Tunable polymeric sorbent materials for fractionation of model naphthenates.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Headley, John V

    2013-04-04

    The sorption properties are reported for several examples of single-component carboxylic acids representing naphthenic acids (NAs) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based polyurethane sorbents. Seven single-component examples of NAs were chosen with variable z values, carbon number, and chemical structure as follows: 2-hexyldecanoic acid (z = 0 and C = 16; S1), n-caprylic acid (z = 0 and C = 8; S2), trans-4-pentylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z = -2 and C = 12; S3), 4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z = -2 and C = 8; S4), dicyclohexylacetic acid (z = -4; C = 14; S5), 4-pentylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-carboxylic acid (z = -4; C = 14; S6), and lithocholic acid (z = -6; C = 24; S7). The copolymer sorbents were synthesized at three relative β-CD:diisocyanate mole ratios (i.e., 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3) using 4,4'-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate (CDI) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents were characterized using equilibrium sorption isotherms in aqueous solution at pH 9.00 with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The equilibrium fraction of the unbound carboxylate anions was monitored in the aqueous phase. The sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents (i.e., Qm) were obtained from the Sips isotherm model. The Qm values generally decrease as the number of accessible β-CD inclusion sites in the copolymer framework decreases. The chemical structure of the adsorbates played an important role in their relative uptake, as evidenced by the adsorbate lipophilic surface area (LSA) and the involvement of hydrophobic effects. The copolymers exhibit molecular selective sorption of the single-component carboxylates in mixtures which suggests their application as sorbents for fractionation of mixtures of NAs. By comparison, granular activated carbon (GAC) and chitosan sorbents did not exhibit any significant molecular selective sorption relative to the copolymer materials; however, evidence of variable sorption capacity was

  6. Polymerization of resin composite restorative materials: exposure reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Musanje, L; Darvell, B W

    2003-09-01

    To examine whether there is reciprocity between irradiation time and irradiance with regard to the mechanical properties of filled, resin composite restorative materials (RCs). Four visible light-cured RCs, all of shade A3, were used: Heliomolar Radiopaque (HR) and Tetric Ceram (TC) (Ivoclar, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Filtek Z250 (FZ) (3M, St Paul, MN, USA) and Prodigy condensable (PR) (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA). Bar specimens (1.0 x 1.5 x 16.0 mm(3)) were cured at irradiances (I) ranging from 25-1500 mW/cm(2) and irradiation times (t) of 1-3000 s. Six specimens at 250 combinations of t and I were prepared and stored in artificial saliva of pH 6, at 37 degrees C for 7d before performing three-point bend tests for flexural strength (F), flexural modulus (E) and total energy to failure (W). Contour plots of property value vs. t and I on log scales were prepared. The contour plots showed three regions: unset at low I.t, a plateau corresponding to more or less full property development, and connecting ramp. The boundary between the plateau and the ramp suggests the minimum acceptable exposure. No practical lower limit to irradiance was detected, but there may be no benefit from increasing I beyond about 1,000 mW/cm(2). The slopes of the contours in the log-log plots provided a test of the hypothesis of reciprocity. These slopes were approximately -1.5 for HR, TC and PR; and approximately -1 for FZ, compared with the expected value of -1. The general hypothesis therefore fails. The existence of localized maxima in property values is further evidence of that failure, even for FZ. Dentists may use any lamp, including LED sources, and attain satisfactory results providing irradiation time is long enough. Manufacturers ought to supply a graph indicating the minimum acceptable exposure for each product for specified curing lamps. Calculations based on total energy delivered to guide irradiation protocols are invalid and do not recognize product behavior.

  7. Polymeric variable optical attenuators based on magnetic sensitive stimuli materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pedro, S.; Cadarso, V. J.; Ackermann, T. N.; Muñoz-Berbel, X.; Plaza, J. A.; Brugger, J.; Büttgenbach, S.; Llobera, A.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetically-actuable, polymer-based variable optical attenuators (VOA) are presented in this paper. The design comprises a cantilever which also plays the role of a waveguide and the input/output alignment elements for simple alignment, yet still rendering an efficient coupling. Magnetic properties have been conferred to these micro-opto-electromechanical systems (MOEMS) by implementing two different strategies: in the first case, a magnetic sensitive stimuli material (M-SSM) is obtained by a combination of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and ferrofluid (FF) in ratios between 14.9 wt % and 29.9 wt %. An M-SSM strip under the waveguide-cantilever, defined with soft lithography (SLT), provides the required actuation capability. In the second case, specific volumes of FF are dispensed at the end of the cantilever tip (outside the waveguide) by means of inkjet printing (IJP), obtaining the required magnetic response while holding the optical transparency of the waveguide-cantilever. In the absence of a magnetic field, the waveguide-cantilever is aligned with the output fiber optics and thus the intrinsic optical losses can be obtained. Numerical simulations, validated experimentally, have shown that, for any cantilever length, the VOAs defined by IJP present lower intrinsic optical losses than their SLT counterparts. Under an applied magnetic field (Bapp), both VOA configurations experience a misalignment between the waveguide-cantilever and the output fiber optics. Thus, the proposed VOAs modulate the output power as a function of the cantilever displacement, which is proportional to Bapp. The experimental results for the three different waveguide-cantilever lengths and six different FF concentrations (three per technology) show maximum deflections of 220 µm at 29.9 wt % of FF for VOASLT and 250 µm at 22.3 wt % FF for VOAIJP, at 0.57 kG for both. These deflections provide maximum actuation losses of 16.1 dB and 18.9 dB for the VOASLT and VOAIJP

  8. Polymeric Materials for Aerospace Power and Propulsion-NASA Glenn Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Use of lightweight materials in aerospace power and propulsion components can lead to significant reductions in vehicle weight and improvements in performance and efficiency. Polymeric materials are well suited for many of these applications, but improvements in processability, durability and performance are required for their successful use in these components. Polymers Research at NASA Glenn is focused on utilizing a combination of traditional polymer science and engineering approaches and nanotechnology to develop new materials with enhanced processability, performance and durability. An overview of these efforts will be presented.

  9. Precision synthesis of functional materials via RAFT polymerization and click-type chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Joel Diez

    2011-12-01

    The need to tailor polymeric architectures with specific physico-chemical properties via the simplest, cleanest, and most efficient synthetic route possible has become the ultimate goal in polymer synthesis. Recent progress in macromolecular science, such as the discoveries of controlled/"living" free radical polymerization (CRP) methods, has brought about synthetic capabilities to prepare (co)polymers with advanced topologies, predetermined molecular weights, narrow molecular weight distributions, and precisely located functional groups. In addition, the establishment of click chemistry has redefined the selected few highly efficient chemical reactions that become highly useful in post-polymerization modification strategies. Hence, the ability to make well-defined topologies afforded by controlled polymerization techniques and the facile incorporation of functionalities along the chain via click-type reactions have yielded complex architectures, allowing the investigation of physical phenomena which otherwise could not be studied with systems prepared via conventional methods. The overarching theme of the research work described in this dissertation is the fusion of the excellent attributes of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization method, which is one of the CRP techniques, and click-type chemical reactions in the precision of synthesis of advanced functional materials. Chapter IV is divided into three sections. In Section I, the direct RAFT homopolymerization of 2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl isocyanate (AOI) and subsequent post-polymerization modifications are described. The polymerization conditions were optimized in terms of the choice of RAFT chain transfer agent (CTA), polymerization temperature and the reaction medium. Direct RAFT polymerization of AOI requires a neutral CTA, and relatively low reaction temperature to yield AOI homopolymers with low polydispersities. Efficient side-chain functionalization of PAOI homopolymers was

  10. Ground-Based Tests of Spacecraft Polymeric Materials under OXY-GEN Plasma-Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernik, Vladimir; Novikov, Lev; Gaidar, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft LEO mission is accompanied by destruction of polymeric material surface under influence of atomic oxygen flow. Sources of molecular, plasma and ion beams are used for the accelerated ground-based tests of spacecraft materials. In the work application of oxygen plasma accelerator of a duoplasmatron type is described. Plasma particles have been accelerated up to average speed of 13-16 km/s. Influence of such beam on materials leads to more intensive destruction of polymers than in LEO. This fact allows to execute tests in the accelerated time scale by a method of an effective fluence. Special measures were given to decrease a concentration of both gaseous and electrode material impurities in the oxygen beam. In the work the results of simulative tests of spacecraft materials and experiments on LEO are considered. Comparison of plasma beam simulation with LEO data has shown conformity for structures of a number of polymeric materials. The relative erosion yields (normalized with respect to polyimide) of the tested materials are shown practically equal to those in LEO. The obtained results give grounds for using the plasma-generation mode with ion energies of 20-30 eV to accelerated testing of spacecraft materials for long -term LEO missions.

  11. CO2-responsive polymeric materials: synthesis, self-assembly, and functional applications.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Ali; Jessop, Philip G; Cunningham, Michael F

    2016-08-07

    CO2 is an ideal trigger for switchable or stimuli-responsive materials because it is benign, inexpensive, green, abundant, and does not accumulate in the system. Many different CO2-responsive materials including polymers, latexes, solvents, solutes, gels, surfactants, and catalysts have been prepared. This review focuses on the preparation, self-assembly, and functional applications of CO2-responsive polymers. Detailed discussion is provided on the synthesis of CO2-responsive polymers, in particular using reversible deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP), formerly known as controlled/living radical polymerization (CLRP), a powerful technique for the preparation of well-defined (co)polymers with precise control over molecular weight distribution, chain-end functional groups, and polymer architectural design. Self-assembly in aqueous dispersed media is highlighted as well as emerging potential applications.

  12. Extrusion of xylans extracted from corn cobs into biodegradable polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Bahcegul, Erinc; Akinalan, Busra; Toraman, Hilal E; Erdemir, Duygu; Ozkan, Necati; Bakir, Ufuk

    2013-12-01

    Solvent casting technique, which comprises multiple energy demanding steps including the dissolution of a polymer in a solvent followed by the evaporation of the solvent from the polymer solution, is currently the main technique for the production of xylan based polymeric materials. The present study shows that sufficient water content renders arabinoglucuronoxylan (AGX) polymers extrudable, enabling the production of AGX based polymeric materials in a single step via extrusion, which is economically advantageous to solvent casting process for mass production. AGX polymers with water content of 27% were found to yield extrudates at an extrusion temperature of 90°C. The extruded strips showed very good mechanical properties with an ultimate tensile strength of 76 ± 6 MPa and elongation at break value of 35 ± 8%, which were superior to the mechanical properties of the strips obtained from polylactic acid.

  13. Computation of the mass attenuation coefficient of polymeric materials at specific gamma photon energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirji, Rajeshwari; Lobo, Blaise

    2017-06-01

    The gamma ray mass attenuation coefficients of ten synthetic polymeric materials, namely, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) have been calculated using second order polynomial equation and logarithmic interpolation formula at selected gamma photon energies, in the energy range starting from 14.4 keV up to 1332 keV. It is important to note that second order polynomial equation fits very well with NIST data for all the polymeric materials considered here, for gamma photon energies ranging from 300 keV up to 2000 keV. Third order polynomial fitting is best suited for lower gamma photon energies (from 10 keV up to 200 keV).

  14. Characteristics of low polymerization shrinkage flowable resin composites in newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Keiko; Nomoto, Rie; Tsubota, Yuji; Tsuchikawa, Masuji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2017-06-23

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage and other physical properties of newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique, with the brand name BULK BASE (BBS). Polymerization shrinkage was measured according to ISO/FDIS 17304. BBS showed the significantly lowest polymerization shrinkage and significantly higher depth of cure than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). The Knoop hardness, flexural strength and elastic modulus of that were significantly lower than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). BBS had the significantly greatest filler content (p<0.05). SEM images of the surface showed failure of fillers. The lowest polymerization shrinkage was due to the incorporation of a new type of low shrinkage monomer, which has urethane moieties. There were no clear correlations between inorganic filler contents and polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and elastic modulus. In conclusion, the low polymerization shrinkage of BBS will be useful for cavity treatment in dental clinics.

  15. A finite element method for the thermochemical decomposition of polymeric materials. II - Carbon phenolic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. M.; Salamon, N. J.

    1992-01-01

    A previously developed formulation for modeling the thermomechanical behavior of chemically decomposing, polymeric materials is verified by simulating the response of carbon phenolic specimens during two high temperature tests: restrained thermal growth and free thermal expansion. Plane strain and plane stress models are used to simulate the specimen response, respectively. In addition, the influence of the poroelasticity constants upon the specimen response is examined through a series of parametric studies.

  16. On the Use of Accelerated Aging Methods for Screening High Temperature Polymeric Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Grayson, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A rational approach to the problem of accelerated testing of high temperature polymeric composites is discussed. The methods provided are considered tools useful in the screening of new materials systems for long-term application to extreme environments that include elevated temperature, moisture, oxygen, and mechanical load. The need for reproducible mechanisms, indicator properties, and real-time data are outlined as well as the methodologies for specific aging mechanisms.

  17. Radiation durability and functional reliability of polymeric materials in space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruvy, Y.

    Polymeric materials are preferred for the light-weight construction of space-systems. Materials in space systems are required to fulfill a complete set of specifications, at utmost reliability, throughout the whole period of service in space, while being exposed to the hazardous influence of the space environment. The major threats of the space environment in orbits at the geostationary altitude (GSO) are implied by the ionizing radiations, the main constituents of which are highly energetic protons (affecting mainly the surface) and the fast electrons (which produce the main threat to the electronic components). The maximum dose of ionizing radiation (within the limits of uncertainty of the calculations) at the surface of a material mounted on a space system, namely the "Skin-Dose", is ca. 2500 Mrads/yr. Space systems such as telecommunication satellites are planned to serve for prolonged periods of 30 years and longer. The cumulative predicted dose of ionizing-radiation over such periods presents a severe threat of chemical degradation to most of the polymeric construction materials commonly utilized in space systems. The reliability of functioning of each of the polymeric materials must be evaluated in detail, considering each of the relevant typical threats, such as ionizing-radiation, UV radiation, meteoroides flux, thermal cycling and ultra-high vacuum. For each of the exposed materials, conservation of the set of functional characteristics such as mechanical integrity, electrical and thermo-optical properties, electrical conductivity, surface charging and outgassing properties, which may cause contamination of neighboring systems, is evaluated. The reliability of functioning of the materials exposed to the space environment can thus be predicted, utilizing data from the literature, experimental results reported from space flights and laboratory simulations, and by chemical similarity of untested polymers to others, which are widely experienced for space uses.

  18. Polymeric Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Tunable and white light- emitting diodes of monolayer fluorinated benzoxazole graft copolymers”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2004, 84(10), 1656. J.-B. Baek...phenoxybenzoic acids onto carbon nanotubes via electrophilic substitution reaction in polyphosphoric acid". Polymer Preprints, 46, 216-217 (2005). R. B

  19. Recruiting physisorbed water in surface polymerization for bio-inspired materials of tunable hydrophobicity

    DOE PAGES

    Oyola-Reynoso, S.; Tevis, I. D.; Chen, J.; ...

    2016-08-18

    Here, chemical grafting has been widely used to modify the surface properties of materials, especially surface energy for controlled wetting, because of the resilience of such coatings/modifications. Reagents with multiple reactive sites have been used with the expectation that a monolayer will form. The step-growth polymerization mechanism, however, suggests the possibility of gel formation for hydrolyzable moieties in the presence of physisorbed water. In this report, we demonstrated that using alkyltrichlorosilanes (trivalent [i.e., 3 reactive sites]) in the surface modification of a cellulosic material (paper) does not yield a monolayer but rather gives surface-bound particles. We infer that the presencemore » of physisorbed (surface-bound) water allows for polymerization (or oligomerization) of the silane prior to its attachment on the surface. Surface energy mismatch between the hydrophobic tails of the growing polymer and any unreacted bound water leads to the assembly of the polymerizing material into spherical particles to minimize surface tension. By varying paper grammage (16.2–201.4 g m–2), we varied the accessible surface area and thus the amount of surface-adsorbed water, allowing us to control the ratio of the silane to the bound water. Using this approach, polymeric particles were formed on the surface of cellulose fibers ranging from ~70 nm to a film. The hydrophobicity of the surface, as determined by water contact angles, correlates with particle sizes (p < 0.001, Student's t-test), and, hence, the hydrophobicity can be tuned (contact angle between 94° and 149°). Using a model structure of a house, we demonstrated that as a result of this modification, paper-based houses can be rendered self-cleaning or tolerant to surface running water. In another application, we demonstrated that the felicitous choice of architectural design allows for the hydrophobic paper to be used for water harvesting.« less

  20. Recruiting physisorbed water in surface polymerization for bio-inspired materials of tunable hydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Oyola-Reynoso, S.; Tevis, I. D.; Chen, J.; Chang, B. S.; Cinar, S.; Bloch, J. -F.; Thuo, M. M.

    2016-08-18

    Here, chemical grafting has been widely used to modify the surface properties of materials, especially surface energy for controlled wetting, because of the resilience of such coatings/modifications. Reagents with multiple reactive sites have been used with the expectation that a monolayer will form. The step-growth polymerization mechanism, however, suggests the possibility of gel formation for hydrolyzable moieties in the presence of physisorbed water. In this report, we demonstrated that using alkyltrichlorosilanes (trivalent [i.e., 3 reactive sites]) in the surface modification of a cellulosic material (paper) does not yield a monolayer but rather gives surface-bound particles. We infer that the presence of physisorbed (surface-bound) water allows for polymerization (or oligomerization) of the silane prior to its attachment on the surface. Surface energy mismatch between the hydrophobic tails of the growing polymer and any unreacted bound water leads to the assembly of the polymerizing material into spherical particles to minimize surface tension. By varying paper grammage (16.2–201.4 g m–2), we varied the accessible surface area and thus the amount of surface-adsorbed water, allowing us to control the ratio of the silane to the bound water. Using this approach, polymeric particles were formed on the surface of cellulose fibers ranging from ~70 nm to a film. The hydrophobicity of the surface, as determined by water contact angles, correlates with particle sizes (p < 0.001, Student's t-test), and, hence, the hydrophobicity can be tuned (contact angle between 94° and 149°). Using a model structure of a house, we demonstrated that as a result of this modification, paper-based houses can be rendered self-cleaning or tolerant to surface running water. In another application, we demonstrated that the felicitous choice of architectural design allows for the hydrophobic paper to be used for water harvesting.

  1. Acceleration factors for oxidative aging of polymeric materials by oxygen detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Assink, Roger Alan; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Skutnik, Julie Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Three methods that were used to measure the chemical changes associated with oxidative degradation of polymeric materials are presented. The first method is based on the nuclear activation of {sup 18}O in an elastomer that was thermally aged in an {sup 18}O{sub 2} atmosphere. Second, the alcohol groups in a thermally aged elastomer were derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride and their concentration measured via {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy. Finally, a respirometer was used to directly measure the oxidative rates of a polyurethane foam as a function of aging temperature. The measurement of the oxidation rates enabled acceleration factors for oxidative degradation of these materials to be calculated.

  2. Fundamental investigation of ultraviolet radiation effects in polymeric film-forming materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.; Llewellen, P.; Gilligan, J.

    1974-01-01

    A literature search from 1958 to present was conducted on the effect of ultraviolet radiation on polymeric materials, with particular emphasis on vacuum photolysis, mechanisms of degradation, and energy transfer phenomena. The literature from 1958 to 1968 was searched manually, while the literature from 1968 to present was searched by using a computerized keyword system. The primary objective was to provide the necessary background information for the design of new or modified materials with improved stability to the vacuum-radiation environment of space.

  3. On a possible methodology for identifying the initiation of damage of a class of polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagappan, P.; Kannan, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we provide a possible methodology for identifying the initiation of damage in a class of polymeric solids. Unlike most approaches to damage that introduce a damage parameter, which might be a scalar, vector or tensor, that depends on the stress or strain (that requires knowledge of an appropriate reference configuration in which the body was stress free and/or without any strain), we exploit knowledge of the fact that damage is invariably a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the body that makes the body locally `weak' and the fact that the material properties of a body invariably depend on the density, among other variables that can be defined in the current configuration, of the body. This allows us to use density, for a class of polymeric materials, as a means to identify incipient damage in the body. The calculations that are carried out for the biaxial stretch of an inhomogeneous multi-network polymeric solid bears out the appropriateness of the thesis that the density of the body can be used to forecast the occurrence of damage, with the predictions of the theory agreeing well with experimental results. The study also suggests a meaningful damage criterion for the class of bodies being considered.

  4. Radiation Grafting for the Functionalization and Development of Smart Polymeric Materials.

    PubMed

    Pino-Ramos, Víctor H; Ramos-Ballesteros, Alejandro; López-Saucedo, Felipe; López-Barriguete, Jesús E; Varca, Gustavo H C; Bucio, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Gamma radiation has been shown particularly useful for the functionalization of surfaces with stimuli-responsive polymers. This method involves the formation of active sites (free radicals) onto the polymeric backbone as a result of the high-energy radiation exposition over the polymeric material. Thus, a microenvironment suitable for the reaction among monomer and/or polymer and the active sites is formed and then leading to propagation to form side-chain grafts. The modification of polymers using high-energy irradiation can be performed by the following methods: direct or simultaneous, pre-irradiation oxidative, and pre-irradiation. The most frequently used ones correspond to the pre-irradiation oxidative method as well as the direct one. Radiation-grafting has many advantages over other conventional methods because it does not require the use of catalyst nor additives to initiate the reaction and usually no changes on the mechanical properties with respect to the pristine polymeric matrix are observed. This chapter is focused on the synthesis of smart polymers and coatings obtained by the use of gamma radiation. In addition, the diverse applications of these materials in the biomedical area are also reported, with focus in drug delivery, sutures, and biosensors.

  5. The Interaction of Bacteria with Engineered Nanostructured Polymeric Materials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Armentano, Ilaria; Arciola, Carla Renata; Fortunati, Elena; Ferrari, Davide; Mattioli, Samantha; Amoroso, Concetta Floriana; Rizzo, Jessica; Kenny, Jose M.; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of great advances in biomaterials research and development, a significant proportion of medical devices undergo bacterial colonization and become the target of an implant-related infection. We present a review of the two major classes of antibacterial nanostructured materials: polymeric nanocomposites and surface-engineered materials. The paper describes antibacterial effects due to the induced material properties, along with the principles of bacterial adhesion and the biofilm formation process. Methods for antimicrobial modifications of polymers using a nanocomposite approach as well as surface modification procedures are surveyed and discussed, followed by a concise examination of techniques used in estimating bacteria/material interactions. Finally, we present an outline of future sceneries and perspectives on antibacterial applications of nanostructured materials to resist or counteract implant infections. PMID:25025086

  6. [In Situ Polymerization and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane Implanted Material].

    PubMed

    Gu, Muqing; Xiao, Fengjuan; Liang, Ye; Yue, Lin; Li, Song; Li, Lanlan; Feng, Feifei

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the interfacial bonding strength of hydroxyapatite/polyurethane implanted material and dispersion of hydroxyapatite in the polyurethane matrix, we in the present study synthesized nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composites by in situ polymerization. We then characterized and analyzed the fracture morphology, thermal stability, glass transition temperature and mechanical properties. We seeded MG63 cells on composites to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composites. In situ polymerization could improve the interfacial bonding strength, ameliorate dispersion of hydroxyapatite in the properties of the composites. After adding 20 wt% hydroxyapatite into the polyurethane, the thermal stability was improved and the glass transition temperatures were increased. The tensile strength and maximum elongation were 6.83 MPa and 861.17%, respectively. Compared with those of pure polyurethane the tensile strength and maximum elongation increased by 236.45% and 143.30%, respectively. The composites were helpful for cell adhesion and proliferation in cultivation.

  7. Preparation of polyimide-silica hybrid materials by high pressure-thermal polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Gaw, K.; Suzuki, Hironori; Jikei, Mitsutoshi; Kakimoto, Masaaki; Imai, Yoshio

    1996-12-31

    Polyimide-silica hybrid materials were prepared via a modified sol-gel, high pressure-thermal polymerization procedure. Precursor monomer salts were made from ethanol soluble 2,5-diethoxycarboxyl terephthalic acid (p-PME) and either a disiloxanediamine, an aliphatic diamine (1,9 diaminononane) or combinations of the two. Solutions of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and monomer salt were transformed into a gel, dehydrated, and the resulting powders were subjected to high pressure and thermal polymerization and transformed into a polyimide-silica composite. By varying the TMOS content, and/or the siloxane to aliphatic diamine ratio, composites of 0 to 100 wt% SiO{sub 2} were made. The silica morphology changed significantly with siloxane/aliphatic PI ratio. Reaction mechanisms, thermal and physical properties and composite morphologies are discussed.

  8. Dimensional accuracy of an epoxy die material using different polymerization methods.

    PubMed

    Prisco, Rosario; Cozzolino, Giancarlo; Vigolo, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    Shrinkage of resinous die materials during setting reaction limits their acceptance, even though these materials show several advantages compared to stone die materials with respect to strength, abrasion resistance, and detail reproduction. The purpose of this study was to determine if retarding the setting reaction during polymerization and altering the base-to-catalyst ratio, as suggested by previous studies, can be recommended for resinous die materials to reduce the inaccuracy in transferring the spatial position of teeth or implants from the oral cavity to the master cast. A Blue Star Type E epoxy resin die material was tested. A reference triangular metal master die was fabricated. Forty medium-consistency polyether impressions of this model were made. Four groups (S, M, N, P) were compared, and ten dies were fabricated for each group. In the S group, the epoxy resin die material was manipulated according to the manufacturer's instructions; in the other three groups, the epoxy resin die material was manipulated by retarding the setting reaction and by modifying the epoxy resin base/activator ratio. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between the four groups of the epoxy resin die material (p < 0.0001). Tukey's multiple comparisons test (p < 0.05) revealed that none of the resin groups was similar to the metal master die for each of the tested dimensions (A, B, and C). For the specific dimension C, however, the P group was statistically closer to the metal master die than the S group. The epoxy resin die material tested in this research did not improve its dimensional accuracy following retarding polymerization or modifying the epoxy resin base/activator ratio. The epoxy resin material exhibited higher contraction variability across all tested groups. This shrinkage can significantly affect the dimension of the master cast.

  9. Compatibility Testing of Polymeric Materials for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) of International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Charles D.

    2003-01-01

    In the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts will convert urine into potable water with the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) by a distillation process. The urine is pre-treated, containing flush water and stabilizers. About 2.5% solids in the urine are concentrated up to 16% brine through distillation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in the stress relaxation mode was primarily used to test 15 polymeric UPA materials for compatibility with the pre-treated and brine solutions. There were concerns that chromium trioxide (CrO3), a stabilizer not in the original pre-treat formulation for similar compatibility testing in 2000, could have an adverse effect on these polymers. DMA testing is partially complete for polymeric material samples immersed in the two solutions at room temperature for as long as 200 days. By comparing each material (conditioned and virgin), the stress relaxation modulus (E) was determined for short-term use and predicted for as long as a 10-year use in space. Such a delta E showed a decrease of as much as 79% for a Nylon material, but an increase as much as 454% for a polysulfone material, with increasing immersion time.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of functionally gradient materials obtained by frontal polymerization.

    PubMed

    Nuvoli, Daniele; Alzari, Valeria; Pojman, John A; Sanna, Vanna; Ruiu, Andrea; Sanna, Davide; Malucelli, Giulio; Mariani, Alberto

    2015-02-18

    Functionally gradient materials (FGMs) with gradual and continuous changes of their properties in one or more dimensions are useful in a wide range of applications. However, obtaining such materials with accurate control of the gradient, especially when the gradient is nonlinear, is not easy. In this work, frontal polymerization (FP) was exploited to synthesize polymeric FGMs. We demonstrated that the use of ascending FP with continuous feeding of monomers with computer-controlled peristaltic pumps provided an excellent method for the preparation of functionally gradient materials with programmed gradients. To test the effectiveness of the method, copolymers made from triethylene glycol dimethacrylate/hexyl methacrylate with linear and hyperbolic gradient in composition were synthesized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Shore A hardness measurements, compression tests, and swelling studies were performed along the length of the materials to assess the relationship between the gradients and the material properties. Glass transition temperatures, determined by DSC, showed a linear dependence on the composition and were in agreement with theoretical values. The other properties showed different and specific behaviors as a function of the compositional gradient.

  11. Screening Methods for Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening-level analysis of water for metal-containing nanoparticles is achieved with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS). This method measures both the concentration of nanoparticles containing an analyte metal and the mass of the metal in eac...

  12. Screening Methods for Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening-level analysis of water for metal-containing nanoparticles is achieved with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS). This method measures both the concentration of nanoparticles containing an analyte metal and the mass of the metal in eac...

  13. Redox chromophore compounds and electrodes of metal containing substituted bipyridines

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Cecil M.; Redepenning, Jody G.

    1986-01-01

    Chromophoric compounds, each having a wide range of distinct color changes in response to changes in the oxidation states thereof, are provided in the form of polymerizable monomers, and polymers thereof, of certain metal containing, and electron group substituted, 2,2'-bipyridine compounds.

  14. Short-term organic carbon migration from polymeric materials in contact with chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guannan; Wang, Yingying; Hammes, Frederik

    2017-09-24

    Polymeric materials are widely used in drinking water distribution systems. These materials could release organic carbon that supports bacterial growth. To date, the available migration assays for polymeric materials have not included the potential influence of chlorination on organic carbon migration behavior. Hence, we established a migration and growth potential protocol specifically for analysis of carbon migration from materials in contact with chlorinated drinking water. Four different materials were tested, including ethylene propylene dienemethylene (EPDM), poly-ethylene (PEX b and PEX c) and poly-butylene (PB). Chlorine consumption rates decreased gradually over time for EPDM, PEXc and PB. In contrast, no free chlorine was detected for PEXb at any time during the 7 migration cycles. Total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) was evaluated in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated migrations. TOC concentrations for EPDM and PEXb in chlorinated migrations were significantly higher than non-chlorinated migrations. The AOC results showed pronounced differences among tested materials. AOC concentrations from chlorinated migration waters of EPDM and PB were higher compared to non-chlorinated migrations, whereas the opposite trend was observed for PEXb and PEXc. There was also a considerable difference between tested materials with regards to bacterial growth potential. The results revealed that the materials exposed to chlorine-influenced migration still exhibited a strong biofilm formation potential. The overall results suggested that the choice in material would make a considerable difference in chlorine consumption and carbon migration behavior in drinking water distribution systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Techniques used for limiting degradation products of polymeric materials for use in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, C. E.; Park, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for limiting or controlling the degradation products (outgassing) of polymeric materials in the space environment. One technique, now ASTM E-595-77, is used to screen out those materials which lose greater than 1% Total Mass Loss when in vacuum for 24 hours at 125 C and which have more than 0.10% Collected Volatile Condensable Materials condensing on a collector surface at 25 C. Examples of silicone materials which are high and low in outgassing are given. The numerous mechanical motions in spacecraft experiments require liquid lubricants which also might degrade in space. Labyrinth seals and barrier films are utilized to limit the degradation of or from these lubricants. A recoverable in-flight experiment has been proposed for making definitive measurements of how effective these techniques are in limiting the amounts and escape paths of outgassed molecules.

  16. A Robust Damage-Reporting Strategy for Polymeric Materials Enabled by Aggregation-Induced Emission.

    PubMed

    Robb, Maxwell J; Li, Wenle; Gergely, Ryan C R; Matthews, Christopher C; White, Scott R; Sottos, Nancy R; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2016-09-28

    Microscopic damage inevitably leads to failure in polymers and composite materials, but it is difficult to detect without the aid of specialized equipment. The ability to enhance the detection of small-scale damage prior to catastrophic material failure is important for improving the safety and reliability of critical engineering components, while simultaneously reducing life cycle costs associated with regular maintenance and inspection. Here, we demonstrate a simple, robust, and sensitive fluorescence-based approach for autonomous detection of damage in polymeric materials and composites enabled by aggregation-induced emission (AIE). This simple, yet powerful system relies on a single active component, and the general mechanism delivers outstanding performance in a wide variety of materials with diverse chemical and mechanical properties.

  17. A Robust Damage-Reporting Strategy for Polymeric Materials Enabled by Aggregation-Induced Emission

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic damage inevitably leads to failure in polymers and composite materials, but it is difficult to detect without the aid of specialized equipment. The ability to enhance the detection of small-scale damage prior to catastrophic material failure is important for improving the safety and reliability of critical engineering components, while simultaneously reducing life cycle costs associated with regular maintenance and inspection. Here, we demonstrate a simple, robust, and sensitive fluorescence-based approach for autonomous detection of damage in polymeric materials and composites enabled by aggregation-induced emission (AIE). This simple, yet powerful system relies on a single active component, and the general mechanism delivers outstanding performance in a wide variety of materials with diverse chemical and mechanical properties. PMID:27725956

  18. Studies on Stress-Strain Relationships of Polymeric Materials Used in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jana, Sadhan C.; Freed, Alan

    2002-01-01

    A two-year research plan was undertaken in association with Polymers Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center, to carry out experimental and modeling work relating stress and strain behavior of polymeric materials, especially elastomers and vulcanized rubber. An experimental system based on MTS (Mechanical Testing and Simulation) A/T-4 test facility environment has been developed for a broader range of polymeric materials in addition to a design of laser compatible temperature control chamber for online measurements of various strains. Necessary material processing has been accomplished including rubber compounding and thermoplastic elastomer processing via injection molding. A broad suite of testing methodologies has been identified to reveal the complex non-linear mechanical behaviors of rubbery materials when subjected to complex modes of deformation. This suite of tests required the conceptualization, design and development of new specimen geometries, test fixtures, and test systems including development of a new laser based technique to measure large multi-axial deformations. Test data has been generated for some of these new fixtures and has revealed some complex coupling effects generated during multi-axial deformations. In addition, fundamental research has been conducted concerning the foundation principles of rubber thermodynamics and resulting theories of rubber elasticity. Studies have been completed on morphological properties of several thermoplastic elastomers. Finally, a series of steps have been identified to further advance the goals of NASA's ongoing effort.

  19. Metal-centered polymers: Using controlled polymerization methodologies for the generation of responsive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert Matthew

    Controlled polymerization methods were used to prepare highly modular polymeric metal complexes via convergent and divergent strategies. In these materials, the metal center provides a versatile hub for preparing diverse architectures through coordinative bonds. Moreover, the metal complex introduces various properties to the polymer such as luminescence, magnetism, or electroactivity. Suitably functionalized metal complexes have been used for the atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylate and methacrylate monomers by metalloinitiation to generate luminescent biocompatible materials through a divergent synthesis. By cleaving the tert-butyl groups from poly(tert -butyl acrylate), water soluble [Ru(bpyPAA2)3] 2+ has been prepared as well as the amphiphilic star block copolymer [Ru{bpy(PLA-PAA)2}3]2+ (PLA = poly(lactic acid), PAA = poly(acrylic acid) Bipyridine-centered polymeric macroligands may be chelated to a variety of metal salts. The polymer size greatly influences the formation of [Fe(bpy) 3]2+ centered polymers. As the molecular weight increases (> ˜25 kDa) tris complex formation decreases. Tris(bpy) synthesis is also impacted by chemical composition. BpyPtBA2 (PtBA = poly(tert-butyl acrylate) generates an iron mono(bpy) complex before giving rise to the bis(bpy) iron complex; no tris complex is observed. In contrast, the combination of bpyPEG2 (3 equiv) (PEG = (poly(ethylene glycol)) results in the formation of some iron tris(bpy) compound; however, complete tris(bpy) product formation is suppressed, presumably because of the chelating ability of the PEG chains. These examples contrast with other polymeric macroligands such as bpyPS2, bpyPMMA2, bpyPCL2 and bpyPLA 2 (PS = polystyrene; PMMA = poly(methyl methacrylate); PCL = poly(epsilon-caprolactone); PLA = poly(DL-lactic acid)) for which chelation reactions are facile for low molecular weight macroligands (<15 kDa), with chelation efficiencies (defined as (epsilonPMC/epsilonbpy) x 100%) only declining

  20. Using polymeric materials to generate an amplified response to molecular recognition events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikes, Hadley D.; Hansen, Ryan R.; Johnson, Leah M.; Jenison, Robert; Birks, John W.; Rowlen, Kathy L.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and field-portable diagnostic devices require the detection of atto- to zeptomoles of biological molecules rapidly, easily and at low cost, with stringent requirements in terms of robustness and reliability. Though a number of creative approaches to this difficult problem have been reported, numerous unmet needs remain in the marketplace, particularly in resource-poor settings. Using rational materials design, we investigated harnessing the amplification inherent in a radical chain polymerization reaction to detect molecular recognition. Polymerization-based amplification is shown to yield a macroscopically observable polymer, easily visible to the unaided eye, as a result of as few as ~1,000 recognition events (10 zeptomoles). Design and synthesis of a dual-functional macromolecule that is capable both of selective recognition and of initiating a polymerization reaction was central to obtaining high sensitivity and eliminating the need for any detection equipment. Herein, we detail the design criteria that were used and compare our findings with those obtained using enzymatic amplification. Most excitingly, this new approach is general in that it is readily adaptable to facile detection at very low levels of specific biological interactions of any kind.

  1. Selective Fragmentation of Radiation-Sensitive Novel Polymeric Resist Materials by Inner-Shell Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Gabriela Ramos; Satyanarayana, Vardhineedi Sri Venkata; Kessler, Felipe; Belmonte, Guilherme Kretzmann; Gonsalves, Kenneth E; Weibel, Daniel Eduardo

    2015-08-05

    Two key concepts in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) are important for it to be a candidate for the mass production of future integrated circuits: the polymer formulation and the photofragmentation process. In this work, both concepts were carefully studied. The design and synthesis of radiation-sensitive organic polymeric materials based on the inclusion of a radiation-sensitive tetrahydrothiophenium functional group are outlined. A 1-(4-methacryloyoxy)naphthalene-1-yl)tetrahydro-1H-thiophenium trifluoromethanesulfonate (MANTMS) monomer containing the tetrahydrothiophenium group undergoes homo- and copolymerizations using free-radical polymerization with a 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) initiator. The surface photodegradation and oxidation of these novel polymeric materials were investigated using highly monochromatized soft X-rays from synchrotron radiation at the carbon K-edge excitation region. An efficient functionalization was observed when the excitation energy was tuned to C 1s → π*C═C. A high rate of defluorination and a loss of sulfonated groups as a result of an increase in the irradiation time for the MANTMS homopolymer thin films were mainly observed under the π*C═C excitation of the naphthyl functional groups. On the contrary, excitation similar to C 1s → π*C═O or C 1s → σ*C-F did not produce important degradation, showing a highly selective process of bond breaking. Additionally, the presence of methyl methacrylate copolymer in the original MANTMS yielded a much higher degree of stability against inner-shell radiation damage. Our results highlight the importance of choosing the right polymer formulation and excitation energy to produce a sensitive material for EUVL without using the concept of chemical amplification.

  2. Curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through different ceramic thicknesses and curing time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Won; Cha, Hyun-Suk

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through ceramic restorations with 3 different thicknesses. Curing efficiency was evaluated by determining the surface microhardness (VHN) of the resin specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four kinds of resin materials were used. Z350 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z350: A2 Shade), Z250 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z250: A2 Shade) and Variolink® II (VL: Ivoclar vivadent, base: transparent) either with or without a self-curing catalyst (VLC: Ivoclar vivadent, catalyst: low viscosity/transparent) were filled into the silicone mold (10 mm diameter, 1 mm thick). They were cured through ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press MO-0 ingot ivoclar vivadent, 10 mm diameter, 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thicknesses) by LED light-curing units for 20 and 40 seconds. Vicker's microhardness numbers (VHNs) were measured on the bottom surfaces by a microhardness tester. Data were analyzed using a 3- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The thickness of ceramic disc increased, the VHNs of all four resin types were decreased (P<.05). The mean VHN values of the resins light cured for 40 seconds were significantly higher than that of LED for 20 seconds in all four resin materials (P<.05). VLC showed significantly higher VHN values than VL regardless of other conditions (P<.05). Z350 and Z250 showed higher values than VL or VLC (P<.01). CONCLUSION Thinner ceramic disc with increased curing time resulted higher VHN values of all resin materials. The use of a catalyst produced a greater hardness with all polymerization methods. Restorative resin materials (Z350, Z250) showed higher VHN values than resin cement materials (VL, VLC). PMID:22053242

  3. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, Raimond; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Liepins, Leila Z.

    1989-01-01

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO.sub.3 +RCHO.fwdarw.AG.sup.0 +RCOOH and R.sub.3 M.fwdarw.M.sup.0 3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R.sub.3 M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone.

  4. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, Raimond; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Liepins, Leila Z.

    1993-01-01

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO.sub.3 +RCHO.fwdarw.Ag.degree.+RCOOH and R.sub.3 M.fwdarw.M.degree.+3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R.sub.3 M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone.

  5. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1993-12-21

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers are described. The in situ reactions: AgNO[sub 3] + RCHO [yields] Ag + RCOOH and R[sub 3]M [yields] M + 3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R[sub 3]M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrone.

  6. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1987-08-27

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO/sub 3/ + RCHO ..-->.. Ag/sup 0/ + RCOOH and R/sub 3/M ..-->.. M/sup 0/ + 3R, where M = Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high- temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R/sub 3/M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone. 3 tabs.

  7. Smart Polymeric Nanoparticles as Emerging Tools for Imaging--The Parallel Evolution of Materials.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Sofia A; Salinas, Yolanda; Resmini, Marina

    2016-03-07

    The field of imaging has developed considerably over the past decade and recent advances in the area of nanotechnology, in particular nanomaterials, have opened new opportunities. Polymeric nanoparticles are particularly interesting and a number of novel materials, characterized by stimuli-responsive characteristics and fluorescent tagging, have allowed visualization, intracellular labeling and real-time tracking. In some of the latest applications the nanoparticles have been used for imagining of tumor cells, both in vivo and ex vivo. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Methods For Improving Polymeric Materials For Use In Solar Cell Applications

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.

    2001-11-20

    A method of manufacturing a solar cell module includes the use of low cost polymeric materials with improved mechanical properties. A transparent encapsulant layer is placed adjacent a rear surface of a front support layer. Interconnected solar cells are positioned adjacent a rear surface of the transparent encapsulant layer to form a solar cell assembly. A backskin layer is placed adjacent a rear surface of the solar cell assembly. At least one of the transparent encapsulant layer and the backskin layer are predisposed to electron beam radiation.

  9. Methods For Improving Polymeric Materials For Use In Solar Cell Applications

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.

    2003-07-01

    A method of manufacturing a solar cell module includes the use of low cost polymeric materials with improved mechanical properties. A transparent encapsulant layer is placed adjacent a rear surface of a front support layer. Interconnected solar cells are positioned adjacent a rear surface of the transparent encapsulant layer to form a solar cell assembly. A backskin layer is placed adjacent a rear surface of the solar cell assembly. At least one of the transparent encapsulant layer and the backskin layer are predisposed to electron beam radiation.

  10. Method for determining trace quantities of chloride in polymeric materials using ion selective electrodes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Salary, J.

    1987-02-01

    A method for determining trace quantities of chloride in polymeric materials has been developed. Ion-selective electrodes and the standard addition method were used in all the analyses. The ion-selective electrode method was compared with neutron activation, ion chromatography and chloridometer titration. The ion-selective electrode technique results for chloride were similar to those of neutron activation, which is the acknowledged referee method. This ion-selective electrode method showed the highest standard recovery when compared with the ion chromatography and chloridometer titration methods.

  11. Determination of residual monomers resulting from the chemical polymerization process of dental materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boboia, S.; Moldovan, M.; Ardelean, I.

    2013-11-13

    The residual monomer present in post-polymerized dental materials encourages premature degradation of the reconstructed tooth. That is why the residual monomer should be quantified in a simple, fast, accurate and reproducible manner. In our work we propose such an approach for accurate determination of the residual monomer in dental materials which is based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The results of the NMR approach are compared with those of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The samples under study contain the main monomers (2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) constituting the liquid phase of most dental materials and an initiator. Two samples were analyzed with different ratios of chemical initiation systems: N,N-dimethyl-p-toluide: benzoyl peroxide (1:2 and 0.7:1.2). The results obtained by both techniques highlight that by reducing the initiator the polymerization process slows down and the amount of residual monomer reduces. This prevents the premature degradation of the dental fillings and consequently the reduction of the biomaterial resistance.

  12. Magnetite Core-Shell Nanoparticles in Nondestructive Flaw Detection of Polymeric Materials.

    PubMed

    Hetti, Mimi; Wei, Qiang; Pohl, Rainer; Casperson, Ralf; Bartusch, Matthias; Neu, Volker; Pospiech, Doris; Voit, Brigitte

    2016-10-04

    Nondestructive flaw detection in polymeric materials is important but difficult to achieve. In this research, the application of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) in nondestructive flaw detection is studied and realized, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Superparamagnetic and highly magnetic (up to 63 emu/g) magnetite core-shell nanoparticles are prepared by grafting bromo-end-group-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (Br-PGMA) onto surface-modified Fe3O4 NPs. These Fe3O4-PGMA NPs are blended into bisphenol A diglycidylether (BADGE)-based epoxy to form homogeneously distributed magnetic epoxy nanocomposites (MENCs) after curing. The core Fe3O4 of the Fe3O4-PGMA NPs endows the MENCs with magnetic property, which is crucial for nondestructive flaw detection of the materials, while the shell PGMA promotes colloidal stability and prevents NP aggregation during curing. The eddy current testing (ET) technique is first applied to detect flaws in the MENCs. Through the brightness contrast of the ET image, surficial and subsurficial flaws in MENCs can be detected, even for MENCs with low content of Fe3O4-PGMA NPs (1 wt %). The incorporation of Fe3O4-PGMA NPs can be easily extended to other polymer and polymer-based composite systems and opens a new and very promising pathway toward MNP-based nondestructive flaw detection in polymeric materials.

  13. Micro-scale thermal imaging of advanced organic and polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Junko

    2012-10-01

    Recent topics of micro-scale thermal imaging on advanced organic and polymeric materials are presented, the originally developed IR camera systems equipped with a real time direct impose-signal capturing device and a laser drive generating a modulated spot heating with a diode laser, controlled by the x-y positioning actuator, has been applied to measure the micro-scale thermal phenomena. The advanced organic and polymeric materials are now actively developed especially for the purpose of the effective heat dissipation in the new energy system, including, LED, Lithium battery, Solar cell, etc. The micro-scale thermal imaging in the heat dissipation process has become important in view of the effective power saving. In our system, the imposed temperature data are applied to the pixel emissivity corrections and visualizes the anisotropic thermal properties of the composite materials at the same time. The anisotropic thermal diffusion in the ultra-drawn high-thermal conductive metal-filler composite polymer film and the carbon-cloth for the battery systems are visualized.

  14. Injectable redox-polymerized methylcellulose hydrogels as potential soft tissue filler materials.

    PubMed

    Gold, Gittel T; Varma, Devika M; Harbottle, David; Gupta, Michelle S; Stalling, Simone S; Taub, Peter J; Nicoll, Steven B

    2014-12-01

    There is a significant clinical need for long-lasting, injectable materials for soft tissue reconstruction. Methylcellulose (MC) is an FDA-approved polysaccharide derivative of cellulose that is inexpensive, renewable, and biocompatible, and may serve as an alternative to existing synthetic and natural fillers. In this study, MC was modified with functional methacrylate groups and polymerized using a redox-initiation system to produce hydrogels with tunable properties. By varying the percent methacrylation and macromer concentration, the equilibrium moduli of the hydrogels were found to range between 1.29 ± 0.46 and 12.8 ± 2.94 kPa, on par with human adipose tissue, and also displayed an inverse relationship to the swelling properties. Rheological analyses determined gelation onset and completion to be in accordance with the ISO standard for injectable materials. Cellulase enzymatic treatment resulted in complete degradation of the hydrogels by 48 h, presenting the possibility of minimally invasive removal of the materials in the event of malposition or host reaction. In addition, co-culture experiments with human dermal fibroblasts showed the gels to be cytocompatible based on DNA measurements and Live/Dead staining. Taken together, these redox-polymerized MC hydrogels may be of use for a wide range of clinical indications requiring soft tissue augmentation.

  15. Space environmental effects on polymeric materials. Final technicaal report, 1 June 1987-15 June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, R.L.; Orwoll, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the major environmental hazards in the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) are energetic charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. The charged particles, electrons and protons, range in energy from 0.1 to 4 MeV and each have a flux of 10 to the 8th sq cm/sec. Over a 30 year lifetime, materials in the GEO will have an absorbed dose from this radiation of 10 to the 10th rads. The ultraviolet radiation comes uninhibited from the sun with an irradiance of 1.4 kw/sq m. Radiation is known to initiate chain sission and crosslinking in polymeric materials, both of which affect their structural properties. The 30-year dose level from the combined radiation in the GEO exceeds the threshold for measurable damage in most polymer systems studied. Of further concern is possible synergistic effects from the simultaneous irradiation with charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. Most studies on radiation effects on polymeric materials use either electrons or ultraviolet radiation alone, or in a sequential combination.

  16. Determination of residual monomers resulting from the chemical polymerization process of dental materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boboia, S.; Moldovan, M.; Ardelean, I.

    2013-11-01

    The residual monomer present in post-polymerized dental materials encourages premature degradation of the reconstructed tooth. That is why the residual monomer should be quantified in a simple, fast, accurate and reproducible manner. In our work we propose such an approach for accurate determination of the residual monomer in dental materials which is based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The results of the NMR approach are compared with those of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The samples under study contain the main monomers (2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) constituting the liquid phase of most dental materials and an initiator. Two samples were analyzed with different ratios of chemical initiation systems: N,N-dimethyl-p-toluide: benzoyl peroxide (1:2 and 0.7:1.2). The results obtained by both techniques highlight that by reducing the initiator the polymerization process slows down and the amount of residual monomer reduces. This prevents the premature degradation of the dental fillings and consequently the reduction of the biomaterial resistance.

  17. Improvement of Strength Characteristics of Aerospace Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Graft Polymerization Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, Tatsuji; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Tahara, Mitsuru; Okubo, Masaaki

    The atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasma-graft polymerization treatment is applied for the surface modification of the organic fibers in order to enhance the strength of the aerospace structural composite material consisting of the laminated textiles. The influence of the treatment on the composite materials' strength properties is examined. As a result, the plasma-graft polymerization surface treatment is effective for the compression and bend of the composite materials. Because the interfacial bonding between each fiber and matrix resin is strengthened by the treatment, the strengths of the composite materials are increased.

  18. An Overview of Polymeric Materials for Propellant Tank Membrane Applications in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia Bel, F.; Caramelli, F.

    2004-10-01

    Diaphragms and bladders are used as positive expulsion devices in liquid propulsion systems since the early stages of space flight. This paper presents an identification of the critical properties of polymeric materials for positive expulsion systems and an overview of the applicable mechanical and chemical performance requirements identified and tested in the frame of ESA technology development initiatives either carried out as R&D activities or within specific hardware development programs for Spacecraft projects. A set of requirements based on those experiences is presented. Finally, an approach of modelling and a comparison with experimental results is proposed for the identified critical properties. Materials currently adopted or considered suitable for potential utilisation in Monopropellant (Hydrazine) and Bipropellant systems (UDMH-NTO) have been treated. Possible alternative materials have also been described to provide a wider view of potential technological solutions.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of polymeric materials derived from 2,5-diketopiperazines and pyroglutamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Dennis Arch

    The research presented in this dissertation describes the investigation of 2,5-diketopiperazines (DKPs) as property modifiers for addition polymers and the self association behavior of pyroglutamic acid derivatives. The first project involved the copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and styrene with DKP-based methacrylate monomers. Low incorporations of serine- and aspartame-based DKPs in the copolymer resulted in dramatic increases in the glass transition temperature (Ts). The research presented in Chapter II focuses on the ring-opening reactions of pyroglutamic diketopiperazine (pyDKP). The original intent was to synthesize polymers containing backbone DKPs through ring-opening polymerization of the five-membered rings. However, it was discovered that regioselective ring-opening occurs at the six-membered ring to give pyroglutamic acid derivatives. Since this reaction had not been reported previously, the focus of research was altered to investigate the scope and limitations of the new reaction. The ring-opening reactions of pyDKP with diamines to give bispyroglutamides is described in Chapter IV. While these materials are not polymeric, they display polymeric behavior. It was found that multi-functional pyroglutamides display Tgs during thermal analysis, exhibit high thermal stability, and form melt-drawn fibers. In contrast, the materials have low solution viscosities and are freely soluble in water, ethanol, and chloroform. This behavior is attributed to non-covalent supramolecular associations. The final part of this dissertation involved the investigation of thermoreversible organic solvent gelators. The ring-opening reaction of pyDKP with long alkyl amines unexpectedly gelled the reaction solvent. A series of analogous gelators were synthesized, and the minimum concentration required for gelation in various solvents was determined. It was found that the nature of the solvent, alkyl chain length, and optical activity of the gelator determined gelator

  20. Aging behavior of polymeric solar absorber materials - Part 1: Engineering plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlen, S.; Wallner, G.M.; Lang, R.W.

    2010-09-15

    In this series of two papers, various polymeric materials are investigated as to their potential applicability as absorber materials for solar thermal collectors. The focus of the investigation is to study the aging behavior of these materials under maximum operating conditions (80 C in water up to 16,000 h) and stagnation conditions (140 C in air up to 500 h) typical for northern climate. The materials supplied or produced as polymer films were first characterized in the unaged state and then for different states of aging by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and by mechanical tensile tests. Physical aging phenomena were studied by DSC, SEC analysis provided information on chemical degradation of the materials. In addition, physical and chemical aging were both analyzed via the small and large strain mechanical behavior. While the present Part 1 of this paper series deals with the aging behavior of engineering plastics, including two amorphous polymers (a polyphenylene ether polystyrene blend (PPE + PS) and polycarbonate (PC)) and two semi-crystalline polymers (two types of polyamide 12 (PA12)), the aging behavior of so-called ''commodity'' plastics (PE and PP) is the subject of Part 2. Comparing the two aging conditions, the amorphous materials (PPE + PS and PC) turned out to be more prone to physical and chemical aging at 140 C in air. In contrast, the semi-crystalline PA12 materials were more strongly affected by exposure to water at 80 C, although to different degrees, depending on the modification. (author)

  1. Surface-initiated anionic polymerization of [1]silaferrocenophanes for the preparation of colloidal preceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Elbert, Johannes; Didzoleit, Haiko; Fasel, Claudia; Ionescu, Emanuel; Riedel, Ralf; Stühn, Bernd; Gallei, Markus

    2015-04-01

    A novel strategy for the preparation of poly(ferrocenylsilane) (PFS) immobilized on the surface of cross-linked polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles is reported. The ferrocene-containing core/shell architectures are shown to be excellent candidates as preceramic polymers yielding spherical ceramic materials consisting of iron silicide (Fe3 Si) and metallic iron after thermal treatment. For this purpose, dimethyl- and hydromethyl[1]silaferrocenophane monomers are polymerized by surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization upon taking advantage of residual vinylic moieties at the PS particle surface. A strategy for selective chain growth from the particle surface is developed without the formation of free PFS homopolymer in solution. The grafted particles are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). These particles are excellent precursors for ceramics as studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The composition of the ceramics is studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, while the morphology is probed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealing the original spherical shape of the precursor particles. Obtained ceramic materials- predominantly based on iron silicides-show ferromagnetic behavior as investigated by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetization measurements at different temperatures. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Impact of extended radiant exposure time on polymerization depth of fluoride-containing fissure sealer materials.

    PubMed

    Borges, Boniek C D; Souza-Junior, Eduardo J; Catelan, Anderson; Ambrosano, Gláucia M B; Paulillo, Luís A M S; Aguiar, Flávio H B

    2011-01-01

    Physical properties such as surface hardness of dental materials are directly linked to their clinical behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of extended curing time on the polymerization depth offluoride-containing materials used as pit and fissure sealants. Conventional and extended exposure times (20 and 60 seconds) were used to photoactivate a gold-standard pit and fissure sealant (Fluroshield, Dentsply) and a flowable composite (PermaFlo, Ultradent). Twenty square-shaped samples (n=5) were prepared using a LED device (Bluephase 16i, Ivoclar). The Knoop Hardness Number (KHN) was calculated for the top and bottom surface of each sample 24 hours after polymerization. Bottom/top hardness ratio (B/T KHN) was than calculated. Averages were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (alpha=0.05). The flowable composite had higher KHN than conventional pit and fissure sealant for all experimental conditions (p<0.05). The 60-second photoactivation time increased KHN at the bottom surface and B/T KHN only of composite specimens. The flowable composite had better physical properties than the pit and fissure sealant, and they were improved by extended curing time.

  3. Calcium carbonate mineralization: involvement of extracellular polymeric materials isolated from calcifying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ercole, Claudia; Bozzelli, Paola; Altieri, Fabio; Cacchio, Paola; Del Gallo, Maddalena

    2012-08-01

    This study highlights the role of specific outer bacterial structures, such as the glycocalix, in calcium carbonate crystallization in vitro. We describe the formation of calcite crystals by extracellular polymeric materials, such as exopolysaccharides (EPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS) isolated from Bacillus firmus and Nocardia calcarea. Organic matrices were isolated from calcifying bacteria grown on synthetic medium--in the presence or absence of calcium ions--and their effect on calcite precipitation was assessed. Scanning electron microscopy observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that CPS and EPS fractions were involved in calcium carbonate precipitation, not only serving as nucleation sites but also through a direct role in crystal formation. The utilization of different synthetic media, with and without addition of calcium ions, influenced the biofilm production and protein profile of extracellular polymeric materials. Proteins of CPS fractions with a molecular mass between 25 and 70 kDa were overexpressed when calcium ions were present in the medium. This higher level of protein synthesis could be related to the active process of bioprecipitation.

  4. The effects of energetic proton bombardment on polymeric materials: Experimental studies and degradation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, D. R.; Gupta, A.; Smith, M. V.; Fornes, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes 3 MeV proton bombardment experiments on several polymeric materials of interest to NASA carried out on the Tandem Van De Graff Accelerator at the California Institute of Technology's Kellogg Radiation Laboratory. Model aromatic and aliphatic polymers such as poly(1-vinyl naphthalene) and poly(methyl methacrylate), as well as polymers for near term space applications such as Kapton, Epoxy and Polysulfone, have been included in this study. Chemical and physical characterization of the damage products have been carried out in order to develop a model of the interaction of these polymers with the incident proton beam. The proton bombardment methodology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and reported here is part of an ongoing study on the effects of space radiation on polymeric materials. The report is intended to provide an overview of the mechanistic, as well as the technical and experimental, issues involved in such work rather than to serve as an exhaustive description of all the results.

  5. The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woo Jin; Griebel, Jared J.; Kim, Eui Tae; Yoon, Hyunsik; Simmonds, Adam G.; Ji, Hyun Jun; Dirlam, Philip T.; Glass, Richard S.; Wie, Jeong Jae; Nguyen, Ngoc A.; Guralnick, Brett W.; Park, Jungjin; Somogyi, Árpád; Theato, Patrick; Mackay, Michael E.; Sung, Yung-Eun; Char, Kookheon; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    An excess of elemental sulfur is generated annually from hydrodesulfurization in petroleum refining processes; however, it has a limited number of uses, of which one example is the production of sulfuric acid. Despite this excess, the development of synthetic and processing methods to convert elemental sulfur into useful chemical substances has not been investigated widely. Here we report a facile method (termed ‘inverse vulcanization’) to prepare chemically stable and processable polymeric materials through the direct copolymerization of elemental sulfur with vinylic monomers. This methodology enabled the modification of sulfur into processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties, which leads to well-defined sulfur-rich micropatterned films created by imprint lithography. We also demonstrate that these copolymers exhibit comparable electrochemical properties to elemental sulfur and could serve as the active material in Li-S batteries, exhibiting high specific capacity (823 mA h g-1 at 100 cycles) and enhanced capacity retention.

  6. The reaction efficiency of thermal energy oxygen atoms with polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Nordine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The reaction efficiency of several polymeric materials with thermal-energy (0.04 eV translational energy), ground-state (O3P) oxygen atoms was determined by exposing the materials to a room temperature gas containing a known concentration of atomic oxygen. The reaction efficiency measurements were conducted in two flowing afterglow systems of different configuration. Atomic oxygen concentration measurements, flow, transport and surface dose analysis is presented in this paper. The measured reaction efficiencies of Kapton, Mylar, polyethylene, D4-polyethylene and Tedlar are .001 to .0001 those determined with high-energy ground-state oxygen atoms in low earth orbit or in a high-velocity atom beam. D4-polyethylene exhibits a large kinetic isotope effect with atomic oxygen at thermal but not hyperthermal atom energies.

  7. Exposure of Polymeric Glazing Materials Using NREL's Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.; Jorgensen, G.; Wylie, A.

    2010-01-01

    NREL's Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) selectively reflects and concentrates natural sunlight ultraviolet irradiance below 475 nm onto exposed samples to provide accelerated weathering of materials while keeping samples within realistic temperature limits. This paper will explain the design and implementation of the UAWS which allow it to simulate the effect of years of weathering in weeks of exposure. Exposure chamber design and instrumentation will be discussed for both a prototype UAWS used to test glazing samples as well as a commercial version of UAWS. Candidate polymeric glazing materials have been subjected to accelerated exposure testing at a light intensity level of up to 50 UV suns for an equivalent outdoor exposure in Miami, FL exceeding 15 years. Samples include an impact modified acrylic, fiberglass, and polycarbonate having several thin UV-screening coatings. Concurrent exposure is carried out for identical sample sets at two different temperatures to allow thermal effects to be quantified along with resistance to UV.

  8. Application of operational radiographic inspection method for flaw detection of blade straightener from polymeric composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoshkin, A. N.; Osokin, V. M.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Potrakhov, N. N.; Bessonov, V. B.

    2017-02-01

    In the article on the example of the straightener blade made of polymer composite materials, discusses the advantages of using the method of microfocus X-ray for nondestructive testing of aviation products. Described basic types of defects characteristics occurring in a similar type parts both during their manufacture and during their operation, namely, interlayer delamination, pores and wrinkles. Peculiarities of microfocus X-ray are shown, which is the use of radiation sources with a focal spot size of less than 100 μm. These features make it possible to increase the details and therefore, to minimize the size of detected defects in transmission. On the basis of experimental studies were defined radiographic signs of major types of defects, typical for products made of polymeric composite materials. Calculated time costs of personnel required for high-resolution X-ray recording and evaluation of test results.

  9. A study of radon and thoron release from Egyptian building materials using polymeric nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Hafez, A F; Hussein, A S; Rasheed, N M

    2001-02-01

    The free exhalation rates of both thoron and radon, the specific activities of 224Ra, and 226Ra, and the physical properties, such as the emanation coefficients and radon effective diffusion coefficient of several building material samples were determined using LR-115 and CR-39 polymeric nuclear track detectors. The free areal exhalation rate was measured by the sealed cup-technique, whereas the radium content was obtained by the alpha-autoradiographic method. The calibration coefficient for thoron measurements in air using cylindrical cup equipped with LR-115 detector was estimated. Moreover, the calibration coefficients for measurements of the specific activities of 224Ra and 226Ra were also evaluated. New method was developed for evaluating the emanation coefficient as well as the diffusion coefficient of radon isotopes in the studied materials.

  10. The reaction efficiency of thermal energy oxygen atoms with polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Nordine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The reaction efficiency of several polymeric materials with thermal-energy (0.04 eV translational energy), ground-state (O3P) oxygen atoms was determined by exposing the materials to a room temperature gas containing a known concentration of atomic oxygen. The reaction efficiency measurements were conducted in two flowing afterglow systems of different configuration. Atomic oxygen concentration measurements, flow, transport and surface dose analysis is presented in this paper. The measured reaction efficiencies of Kapton, Mylar, polyethylene, D4-polyethylene and Tedlar are .001 to .0001 those determined with high-energy ground-state oxygen atoms in low earth orbit or in a high-velocity atom beam. D4-polyethylene exhibits a large kinetic isotope effect with atomic oxygen at thermal but not hyperthermal atom energies.

  11. The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woo Jin; Griebel, Jared J; Kim, Eui Tae; Yoon, Hyunsik; Simmonds, Adam G; Ji, Hyun Jun; Dirlam, Philip T; Glass, Richard S; Wie, Jeong Jae; Nguyen, Ngoc A; Guralnick, Brett W; Park, Jungjin; Somogyi, Arpád; Theato, Patrick; Mackay, Michael E; Sung, Yung-Eun; Char, Kookheon; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    An excess of elemental sulfur is generated annually from hydrodesulfurization in petroleum refining processes; however, it has a limited number of uses, of which one example is the production of sulfuric acid. Despite this excess, the development of synthetic and processing methods to convert elemental sulfur into useful chemical substances has not been investigated widely. Here we report a facile method (termed 'inverse vulcanization') to prepare chemically stable and processable polymeric materials through the direct copolymerization of elemental sulfur with vinylic monomers. This methodology enabled the modification of sulfur into processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties, which leads to well-defined sulfur-rich micropatterned films created by imprint lithography. We also demonstrate that these copolymers exhibit comparable electrochemical properties to elemental sulfur and could serve as the active material in Li-S batteries, exhibiting high specific capacity (823 mA h g(-1) at 100 cycles) and enhanced capacity retention.

  12. Creep in Photovoltaic Modules: Examining the Stability of Polymeric Materials and Components

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Glick, S. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    Interest in renewable energy has motivated the implementation of new polymeric materials in photovoltaic modules. Some of these are non-cross-linked thermoplastics, in which there is a potential for new behaviors to occur, including phase transformation and visco-elastic flow. Differential scanning calorimetry and rheometry data were obtained and then combined with existing site-specific time-temperature information in a theoretical analysis to estimate the displacement expected to occur during module service life. The analysis identified that, depending on the installation location, module configuration and/or mounting configuration, some of the thermoplastics are expected to undergo unacceptable physical displacement. While the examples here focus on encapsulation materials, the concerns apply equally to the frame, junction-box, and mounting-adhesive technologies.

  13. Imidazolium-Based Polymeric Materials as Alkaline Anion-Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Reddy, Prakash V.; Nair, Nanditha

    2012-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes that conduct hydroxide ions have potential use in fuel cells. A variety of polystyrene-based quaternary ammonium hydroxides have been reported as anion exchange fuel cell membranes. However, the hydrolytic stability and conductivity of the commercially available membranes are not adequate to meet the requirements of fuel cell applications. When compared with commercially available membranes, polystyrene-imidazolium alkaline membrane electrolytes are more stable and more highly conducting. At the time of this reporting, this has been the first such usage for imidazolium-based polymeric materials for fuel cells. Imidazolium salts are known to be electrochemically stable over wide potential ranges. By controlling the relative ratio of imidazolium groups in polystyrene-imidazolium salts, their physiochemical properties could be modulated. Alkaline anion exchange membranes based on polystyrene-imidazolium hydroxide materials have been developed. The first step was to synthesize the poly(styrene-co-(1-((4-vinyl)methyl)-3- methylimidazolium) chloride through a free-radical polymerization. Casting of this material followed by in situ treatment of the membranes with sodium hydroxide solutions provided the corresponding hydroxide salts. Various ratios of the monomers 4-chloromoethylvinylbenzine (CMVB) and vinylbenzine (VB) provided various compositions of the polymer. The preferred material, due to the relative ease of casting the film, and its relatively low hygroscopic nature, was a 2:1 ratio of CMVB to VB. Testing confirmed that at room temperature, the new membranes outperformed commercially available membranes by a large margin. With fuel cells now in use at NASA and in transportation, and with defense potential, any improvement to fuel cell efficiency is a significant development.

  14. Supramolecular Architectures Based no Dehydro[24]annulenes: Toward the Controlled Synthesis of pi-Conjugated Nanotubular Materials via Topochemical Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuharu

    Chapter 1 overviews currently available synthetic methodologies of carbon nanomaterials. Conventional syntheses, stepwise chemical syntheses, and seeding/cloning approaches are described. Problems associated with each methodology are pointed out. Chapter 2 begins with introductions to the dehydroannulene-based synthesis of carbon nanomaterials and topochemical polymerization of butadiynes. This chapter then describes a new approach to achieve the controlled synthesis of tubular nanocarbon materials, namely multifold topochemical polymerization of dehydroannulenes. An extensive crystal-engineering study leads to successful formation of supramolecular nanotubes based on dehydro[24]annulenes. The obtained structures possess preferable packing parameters for the intended multifold topochemical polymerization. Chapter 3 explores on-surface self-assemblies of dehydro[24]annulenes. The relationship between the molecular structure and self-assembling behavior of is examined with the aid of scanning tunnel microscopy. This study paves the way for the topochemical polymerization of these compounds within surface-confined self-assemblies.

  15. Polymeric materials combustion: Toxicity hazards and legal aspects. January 1973-December 1989 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity hazards and legal aspects of polymeric materials combustion in building, electrical and electronic applications. Flammability assessment, flame retardant additives, and toxicity standards of polymeric materials are discussed. Regulations and legislation on polymer flammability are presented. Health hazards caused by toxic gases from polymeric materials combustion are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 238 citations, 28 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  16. The effect of megavoltage radiation on polymeric materials to be used in biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Neto, V F; Lencart, J; Dias, A G; Santos, J A M; Ramos, A; Relvas, C

    2012-08-01

    For a number of biomedical applications, including the development of phantoms for quality control of radiotherapy treatments and dose determination, it is important to study the radiation response of the used materials, in order to distinguish the relevant dose distribution modifications from the artifacts caused by the phantom material when subjected to high dose irradiation. Beside the radiation response, those materials should have certain physical and chemical properties in order to be able to be used for the purposes described above, i.e., mechanical hardness and inelasticity, chemically stability and nonreactive, among others. In this work, a wide range of polymeric materials were irradiated under megavoltage radiation using a radiotherapy linear accelerator. The irradiated materials were imaged using transmission X-ray tomography to determine if some radiation induced electronic density change could result in altered Hounsfield units. Furthermore, Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques were used before and after irradiation in order to study any structural modification induced by the radiation. In addition, a special phantom simulating a breast treatment with two tangential beams has been fabricated and tested.

  17. The ac and dc performance of polymeric insulating materials under accelerated aging in a fog chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gorur, R.S. ); Cherney, E.A. ); Hackam, R. )

    1988-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the dc performance of polymeric insulating materials in a fog chamber. The materials evaluated in fog produced from low (250 ..mu..S/cm) and high (1000 ..mu..S/cm) conductivity water include cylindrical rod samples of high temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber containing various amounts of either alumina trihydrate (ATH) or silica fillers, or both. Comparison is made of material performance obtained with ac which was reported in an earlier study. In both low and high conductivity fog, the time to failure with ac and +dc was very similar, but a reduction by a factor of about four was observed in the time to failure with -dc. For both ac and dc, silicone rubber performed better than EPDM samples in low conductivity fog, while the order of performance was reversed in high conductivity fog. A theoretical model to determine the effect of dry band discharges on material is presented. Good agreement of the predicted behavior of materials with the experimental findings is shown.

  18. Synthesis and testing of a conducting polymeric composite material for lightning strike protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katunin, A.; Krukiewicz, K.; Turczyn, R.; Sul, P.; Łasica, A.; Catalanotti, G.; Bilewicz, M.

    2017-02-01

    Lightning strike protection is one of the important issues in the modern maintenance problems of aircraft. This is due to a fact that the most of exterior elements of modern aircraft is manufactured from polymeric composites which are characterized by isolating electrical properties, and thus cannot carry the giant electrical charge when the lightning strikes. This causes serious damage of an aircraft structure and necessity of repairs and tests before returning a vehicle to operation. In order to overcome this problem, usually metallic meshes are immersed in the polymeric elements. This approach is quite effective, but increases a mass of an aircraft and significantly complicates the manufacturing process. The approach proposed by the authors is based on a mixture of conducting and dielectric polymers. Numerous modeling studies which are based on percolation clustering using kinetic Monte Carlo methods, finite element modeling of electrical and mechanical properties, and preliminary experimental studies, allow achieving an optimal content of conducting particles in a dielectric matrix in order to achieve possibly the best electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, simultaneously. After manufacturing the samples with optimal content of a conducting polymer, mechanical and electrical characterization as well as high-voltage testing was performed. The application of such a material simplifies manufacturing process and ensures unique properties of aircraft structures, which allows for minimizing damage after lightning strike, as well as provide electrical bounding and grounding, interference shielding, etc. The proposed solution can minimize costs of repair, testing and certification of aircraft structures damaged by lightning strikes.

  19. Control of polymerization shrinkage and stress in nanogel-modified monomer and composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Rafael R.; Garcia, Jeffrey W.; Barros, Matthew D.; Lewis, Steven H.; Pfeifer, Carmem S.; Liu, JianCheng; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study demonstrates the effects of nano-scale prepolymer particles as additives to model dental monomer and composite formulations. Methods Discrete nanogel particles were prepared by solution photopolymerization of isobornyl methacrylate and urethane dimethacrylate in the presence of a chain transfer agent, which also provided a means to attach reactive groups to the prepolymer. Nanogel was added to triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) in increments between 5 and 40 wt% with resin viscosity, reaction kinetics, shrinkage, mechanical properties, stress and optical properties evaluated. Maximum loading of barium glass filler was determined as a function of nanogel content and composites with varied nanogel content but uniform filler loading were compared in terms of consistency, conversion, shrinkage and mechanical properties. Results High conversion, high molecular weight internally crosslinked and cyclized nanogel prepolymer was efficiently prepared and redispersed into TEGDMA with an exponential rise in viscosity accompanying nanogel content. Nanogel addition at any level produced no deleterious effects on reaction kinetics, conversion or mechanical properties, as long as reactive nanogels were used. A reduction in polymerization shrinkage and stress was achieved in proportion to nanogel content. Even at high nanogel concentrations, the maximum loading of glass filler was only marginally reduced relative to the control and high strength composite materials with low shrinkage were obtained. Significance The use of reactive nanogels offers a versatile platform from which resin and composite handling properties can be adjusted while the polymerization shrinkage and stress development that challenge the adhesive bonding of dental restoratives are controllably reduced. PMID:21388669

  20. Proline-poor hydrophobic domains modulate the assembly and material properties of polymeric elastin.

    PubMed

    Muiznieks, Lisa D; Reichheld, Sean E; Sitarz, Eva E; Miao, Ming; Keeley, Fred W

    2015-10-01

    Elastin is a self-assembling extracellular matrix protein that provides elasticity to tissues. For entropic elastomers such as elastin, conformational disorder of the monomer building block, even in the polymeric form, is essential for elastomeric recoil. The highly hydrophobic monomer employs a range of strategies for maintaining disorder and flexibility within hydrophobic domains, particularly involving a minimum compositional threshold of proline and glycine residues. However, the native sequence of hydrophobic elastin domain 30 is uncharacteristically proline-poor and, as an isolated polypeptide, is susceptible to formation of amyloid-like structures comprised of stacked β-sheet. Here we investigated the biophysical and mechanical properties of multiple sets of elastin-like polypeptides designed with different numbers of proline-poor domain 30 from human or rat tropoelastins. We compared the contributions of these proline-poor hydrophobic sequences to self-assembly through characterization of phase separation, and to the tensile properties of cross-linked, polymeric materials. We demonstrate that length of hydrophobic domains and propensity to form β-structure, both affecting polypeptide chain flexibility and cross-link density, play key roles in modulating elastin mechanical properties. This study advances the understanding of elastin sequence-structure-function relationships, and provides new insights that will directly support rational approaches to the design of biomaterials with defined suites of mechanical properties.

  1. Photosensitive properties of metal-containing polydisalicylidene azomethines

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrova, E. L.; Ivanov, A. G. Heller, N. M.; Nadezhdina, L. B.; Shamanin, V. V.

    2008-11-15

    Photosensitive properties of new metal-containing polydisalicylidene azomethines were studied. It was shown that polymer properties are controlled by the nature of the metal atom (its electron affinity energy A{sub a} and ionic radius r{sub i}) included in 'nonclassical' polyconjugation. The photosensitivity S{sub 0.1} of studied polymers is {approx}10{sup 5}cm{sup 2}/J, and the quantum yield of free-carrier photogeneration is {eta} {approx} 0.10-0.15, which corresponds to the level of organometallic complexes that have found application in optoelectronics.

  2. Nanoscale physicochemical properties of chain- and step-growth polymerized PEG hydrogels affect cell-material interactions.

    PubMed

    Vats, Kanika; Marsh, Graham; Harding, Kristen; Zampetakis, Ioannis; Waugh, Richard E; Benoit, Danielle S W

    2017-04-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels provide a versatile platform to develop cell instructive materials through incorporation of a variety of cell adhesive ligands and degradable chemistries. Synthesis of PEG gels can be accomplished via two mechanisms: chain and step growth polymerizations. The mechanism dramatically impacts hydrogel nanostructure, whereby chain polymerized hydrogels are highly heterogeneous and step growth networks exhibit more uniform structures. Underpinning these alterations in nanostructure of chain polymerized hydrogels are densely-packed hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) or poly(acrylate) kinetic chains between hydrophilic PEG crosslinkers. As cell-material interactions, such as those mediated by integrins, occur at the nanoscale and affect cell behavior, it is important to understand how different modes of polymerization translate into nanoscale mechanical and hydrophobic heterogeneities of hydrogels. Therefore, chain- and step-growth polymerized PEG hydrogels with macroscopically similar macromers and compliance (for example, methacrylate-functionalized PEG (PEGDM), MW  = 10 kDa and norbornene-functionalized 4-arm PEG (PEGnorb), MW  = 10 kDa) were used to examine potential nanoscale differences in hydrogel mechanics and hydrophobicity using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that chain-growth polymerized network yielded greater heterogeneities in both stiffness and hydrophobicity as compared to step-growth polymerized networks. These nanoscale heterogeneities impact cell-material interactions, particularly human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion and spreading, which has implications in use of these hydrogels for tissue engineering applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1112-1122, 2017.

  3. Fluorescence and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the analysis of iconic Italian design lamps made of polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Toja, Francesca; Nevin, Austin; Comelli, Daniela; Levi, Marinella; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Toniolo, Lucia

    2011-03-01

    The preservation of design object collections requires an understanding of their constituent materials which are often polymeric blends. Challenges associated with aging of complex polymers from objects with an unknown physical history may compromise the interpretation of data from analytical techniques, and therefore complicate the assessment of the condition of polymers in indoor museum environments. This study focuses on the analysis of polymeric materials from three well-known Italian design lamps from the 1960s. To assess the degree of chemical modifications in the polymers, non-destructive molecular spectroscopic techniques, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy, have been applied directly on the object surfaces using an optical fiber probe and through examination of micro samples. FTIR spectra of the different polymers, polyvinylacetate (PVAc) for the lamps Taraxacum and Fantasma, and both acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) and cellulose acetate (CA) for the lamp Nesso, allowed the detection of ongoing deterioration processes. Fluorescence spectroscopy proved particularly sensitive for the detection of molecular changes in the polymeric objects, as the spectra obtained from the examined lamps differ significantly from those of the unaged reference materials. Differences in fluorescence spectra are also detected between different points on the same object further indicating the presence of different chemical species on the surfaces. With the aid of complementary data from FTIR spectroscopy, an interpretation of the emission spectra of the studied polymeric objects is here proposed, further suggesting that fluorescence spectroscopy may be useful for following the degradation of historical polymeric objects.

  4. Relative toxicity of products of pyrolysis and combustion of polymeric materials using various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    Relative toxicity data for a large number of natural and synthetic polymeric materials are presented which were obtained by 11 pyrolysis and three flaming-combustion test methods. The materials tested include flexible and rigid polyurethane foams, different kinds of fabrics and woods, and a variety of commodity polymers such as polyethylene. Animal exposure chambers of different volumes containing mice, rats, or rabbits were used in the tests, which were performed over the temperature range from ambient to 800 C with and without air flow or recirculation. The test results are found to be sensitive to such variables as exposure mode, temperature, air flow and dilution, material concentration, and animal species, but relative toxicity rankings appear to be similar for many methods and materials. It is concluded that times to incapacitance and to death provide a more suitable basis for relative toxicity rankings than percent mortality alone, that temperature is the most important variable in the tests reported, and that variables such as chamber volume and animal species may not significantly affect the rankings.

  5. Investigation of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials for engineered barrier applications in nuclear-waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    An effort to develop licensable engineered barrier systems for the long-term (about 1000 yr) containment of nuclear wastes under conditions of deep continental geologic disposal has been underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory since January 1979, under the auspices of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program. In the present work, the barrier system comprises the hard or structural elements of the package: the canister, the overpack(s), and the hole sleeve. A number of candidate metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials were put through mechanical, corrosion, and leaching screening tests to determine their potential usefulness in barrier-system applications. Materials demonstrating adequate properties in the screening tests will be subjected to more detailed property tests, and, eventually, cost/benefit analyses, to determine their ultimate applicability to barrier-system design concepts. The following materials were investigated: two titanium alloys of Grade 2 and Grade 12; 300 and 400 series stainless steels, Inconels, Hastelloy C-276, titanium, Zircoloy, copper-nickel alloys and cast irons; total of 14 ceramic materials, including two grades of alumina, plus graphite and basalt; and polymers such as polyamide-imide, polyarylene, polyimide, polyolefin, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, fluoropolymer, epoxy, furan, silicone, and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. The most promising candidates for further study and potential use in engineered barrier systems were found to be rubber, filled polyphenylene sulfide, fluoropolymer, and furan derivatives.

  6. Fast screening of stabilizers in polymeric materials by flow injection-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beißmann, Susanne; Reisinger, Michael; Toelgyesi, Laszlo; Klampfl, Christian; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the applicability of rapid flow injection-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for simultaneous qualitative screening of different classes of stabilizers in polymeric materials is demonstrated. Electrospray ionization and atmospherical pressure chemical ionization were compared, whereby the latter yielded generally poorer detection limits and only single charged ions that were for some analytes beyond the mass range of the quadrupole mass spectrometry. Positive electrospray ionization allowed the interference-free monitoring of multiple reaction monitoring transitions selective for 36 commonly used stabilizers without chromatographic separation. Real polymer samples were extracted by toluene and the method allowed the detection of analytes down to 0.00001-0.025 wt% depending on the stabilizer.

  7. Surface hydration of polymeric (bio)materials: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Raffaini, Giuseppina; Ganazzoli, Fabio

    2010-03-15

    The surface hydration of some crystalline polymeric (bio)materials is investigated at room temperature using molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics techniques through the statistical distribution of the water molecules as a function of their distance from the surface atoms. Considering different crystalline polymers such as polyethylene, poly(vinylidene fluoride), and poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide), and in particular their different crystal faces, we can take into account unlike surface chemistries and their subnanoscale topologies. Such features are ultimately related to the intermolecular forces between the exposed groups of the specific crystal face and the water molecules, and those among the polymer chains, which also affects the thermal motion of the surface repeat units. We find that the parallel grooves and depressions that can be formed at the surface by the ordered hydrophobic chains may trap the nearest water molecules at short times, unless the (sub) nanoscale pattern is effectively blurred by the thermal motion of the surface units.

  8. Mechanical properties of photo-polymerized sustainable epoxy materials from vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew; Yang, Zheqin; Crivello, James

    2014-03-01

    Our research program aimed at advancing our ability to tailor the photocationic polymerization and physical properties of sustainable epoxy materials derived from crosslinked epoxidized vegetable oils using onium salt photoinitiators. Specifically, we developed solventless, photopolymerizable epoxy monomer and oligomer systems derived from sustainable biorenewable sources as alternatives to existing highly polluting and energy-intensive thermal curing of epoxy resin chemistry. Two sustainable epoxy network polymer systems will be presented to investigate how the network formation can be controlled. The first system is a series of epoxidized vegetable oils that offer various degrees of crosslinking densities, and the second system represents the blends of epoxidized vegetable oils with epoxidized terpenes to tailor their photocuring and mechanical properties for the potential usage in ``green'' coating, adhesive, 3D printing, and composite applications. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  9. Charge Transfer Dynamics from Organometal Halide Perovskite to Polymeric Hole Transport Materials in Hybrid Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jan C; Lee, Yong Hui; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Banerji, Natalie

    2015-09-17

    Organometal halide perovskites have emerged as promising next-generation solar cell technologies presenting outstanding efficiencies. However, many questions concerning their working principles remain to be answered. Here, we present a detailed study of hole transfer dynamics into polymeric hole transporting materials (HTMs), poly(triarylamine) (PTAA), poly(3-hexylthiophee-2,5-diyl (P3HT), and poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (PCPDTBT). The hole transfer dynamics are shown to occur on a time scale of thousands of picoseconds, being orders of magnitude slower compared to hole transfer involving commonly used Spiro-OMeTAD as HTM.

  10. Affects of Microgravity on the Polymerization and Material Properties of Biomedical Grade Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    the material of choice in the production of acetabular cups for hip and tibial cradles for knee orthopeadic implant components for over 30 years. Although UHMWPE is used for more than 1.5 million implants a year in the United States alone and more than 3 million implant surgeries a year worldwide, problems with debris particle formation, pitting and fracture continue to induce premature failure of implant components. chains produced during polymerization are capable of packing into crystalline structures called lamellae, which are embedded within randomly oriented amorphous regions. Crosslinks, or tie molecules bridge the crystalline structures, which contribute to the materials' toughness and strength as a biomedical material. Research has been conducted providing evidence that a crosslinked gradient at the articulating surface of the polymer component provides resistance to surface degradation and subsequent debris formation. Recently, the introduction of highly crosslinked UHMWPE had proven to reduce some of the problems associated with the applications of this polymer as a biomedical material and was seen as the answer to solving the continuing problems associated with UHMWPE implant components. Yet current research into the fatigue characteristics of highly crosslinked UHMWPE has shown that subsurface crack propagation and subsequent delamination continues to produce problematic debris generation. Studies have shown that various sterilization and accelerated aging (to emulate natural oxidation rates) protocols adversely effects the material properties. Additional research has shown that alignment of the lamellae, caused by processing technique, fabrication or surface articulation may be the precursor to debris particle formation. Processing techniques performed under high pressure has proven to effect the width of the crystalline lamellae and therefore, the material's response to wear and fracture. UHMWP due to a microgravity environment, which could be

  11. Space charge suppression effect of nano-size fillers added to polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayase, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Takada, T.; Murata, Y.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Reddy, C. C.

    2009-08-01

    Space charge suppression mechanism in nano-composite polymer material is studied using experimental results and numerical simulation. Recently, many kinds of nano-composite polymeric materials have been reported to have improved their characteristics under high electric field. For example, LDPE/MgO nano-composite, which is made up of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and nano size filler of magnesium oxide (MgO), exhibits high volume resistivity and high dielectric strength under dc electric field. Authors have investigated the space charge behaviour in LDPE/MgO nano-composite under high electric field using pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method. It has been found that, compared to LDPE, the space charge formation is also suppressed in the nano-composite material. As a reason for the suppression, we have suggested that the induced dipole polarization around MgO filler formed by dc stress application might play a role of carrier trap sites. From the numerical calculation, distortion of electric potential around MgO is seen to be much larger than that around naturally included dipole. It means that the MgO acts as a deep trap site as different from some defect or ions included in LDPE. Using the numerical calculation based on such electric potential distortion, we have tried to simulate the space charge distribution in LDPE/MgO under high dc electric field. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Enhancing the biological performance of synthetic polymeric materials by decoration with engineered, decellularized extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Nasser; Pippenger, Benjamin E; Scherberich, Arnaud; Wendt, David; Mantero, Sara; Martin, Ivan; Papadimitropoulos, Adam

    2012-07-01

    Materials based on synthetic polymers can be extensively tailored in their physical properties but often suffer from limited biological functionality. Here we tested the hypothesis that the biological performance of 3D synthetic polymer-based scaffolds can be enhanced by extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by cells in vitro and subsequently decellularized. The hypothesis was tested in the context of bone graft substitutes, using polyesterurethane (PEU) foams and mineralized ECM laid by human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). A perfusion-based bioreactor system was critically employed to uniformly seed and culture hMSC in the scaffolds and to efficiently decellularize (94% DNA reduction) the resulting ECM while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. As compared to plain PEU, the decellularized ECM-polymer hybrids supported the osteoblastic differentiation of newly seeded hMSC by up-regulating the mRNA expression of typical osteoblastic genes (6-fold higher bone sialoprotein; 4-fold higher osteocalcin and osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition (6-fold higher), approaching the performance of ceramic-based materials. After ectopic implantation in nude mice, the decellularized hybrids induced the formation of a mineralized matrix positively immunostained for bone sialoprotein and resembling an immature osteoid tissue. Our findings consolidate the perspective of bioreactor-based production of ECM-decorated polymeric scaffolds as off-the-shelf materials combining tunable physical properties with the physiological presentation of instructive biological signals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for a PMMA/glass Concentrator Photovoltaic System

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T; Gray, Matthew H.; Araki, Kenji; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2014-04-08

    The durability of polymeric encapsulation materials was examined using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36 months cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/ polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging, and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. The results of the study including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.

  14. Using polymeric materials to control stem cell behavior for tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nianli; Kohn, David H

    2012-03-01

    Patients with organ failure often suffer from increased morbidity and decreased quality of life. Current strategies of treating organ failure have limitations, including shortage of donor organs, low efficiency of grafts, and immunological problems. Tissue engineering emerged about two decades ago as a strategy to restore organ function with a living, functional engineered substitute. However, the ability to engineer a functional organ is limited by a limited understanding of the interactions between materials and cells that are required to yield functional tissue equivalents. Polymeric materials are one of the most promising classes of materials for use in tissue engineering, due to their biodegradability, flexibility in processing and property design, and the potential to use polymer properties to control cell function. Stem cells offer potential in tissue engineering because of their unique capacity to self-renew and differentiate into neurogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic lineages under appropriate stimuli from extracellular components. This review examines recent advances in stem cell-polymer interactions for tissue regeneration, specifically highlighting control of polymer properties to direct adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells, and how biomaterials can be designed to provide some of the stimuli to cells that the natural extracellular matrix does.

  15. Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials in a PMMA/glass concentrator photovoltaic system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T.; Gray, Matthew H.; Araki, Kenji; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2016-07-13

    We examined the durability of polymeric encapsulation materials using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36-month cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Our measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging, and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. Furthermore, our results, including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.

  16. Micromechanical Properties of a New Polymeric Microcapsule for Self-Healing Cementitious Materials

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Leyang; Schlangen, Erik; Yang, Zhengxian; Xing, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Self-healing cementitious materials containing a microencapsulated healing agent are appealing due to their great application potential in improving the serviceability and durability of concrete structures. In this study, poly(phenol–formaldehyde) (PF) microcapsules that aim to provide a self-healing function for cementitious materials were prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction. Size gradation of the synthesized microcapsules was achieved through a series of sieving processes. The shell thickness and the diameter of single microcapsules was accurately measured under environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The relationship between the physical properties of the synthesized microcapsules and their micromechanical properties were investigated using nanoindentation. The results of the mechanical tests show that, with the increase of the mean size of microcapsules and the decrease of shell thickness, the mechanical force required to trigger the self-healing function of microcapsules increased correspondingly from 68.5 ± 41.6 mN to 198.5 ± 31.6 mN, featuring a multi-sensitive trigger function. Finally, the rupture behavior and crack surface of cement paste with embedded microcapsules were observed and analyzed using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). The synthesized PF microcapsules may find potential application in self-healing cementitious materials. PMID:28774144

  17. Using Polymeric Materials to Control Stem Cell Behavior for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nianli; Kohn, David H.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with organ failure often suffer from increased morbidity and decreased quality of life. Current strategies of treating organ failure have limitations, including shortage of donor organs, low efficiency of grafts, and immunological problems. Tissue engineering emerged about two decades ago as a strategy to restore organ function with a living, functional engineered substitute. However, the ability to engineer a functional organ substitute is limited by a limited understanding of the interactions between materials and cells that are required to yield functional tissue equivalents. Polymeric materials are one of the most promising classes of materials for use in tissue engineering due to their biodegradability, flexibility in processing and property design, and the potential to use polymer properties to control cell function. Stem cells offer potential in tissue engineering because of their unique capacity to self renew and differentiate into neurogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic lineages under appropriate stimuli from extracellular components. This review examines recent advances in stem cell-polymer interactions for tissue regeneration, specifically highlighting control of polymer properties to direct adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells, and how biomaterials can be designed to provide some of the stimuli to cells that the natural extracellular matrix does. PMID:22457178

  18. Single-Monomer Formulation of Polymerized Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate as a Nonadsorptive Material for Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Chad I.; Pagaduan, Jayson V.; Nordin, Gregory P.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2011-01-01

    Nonspecific adsorption in microfluidic systems can deplete target molecules in solution and prevent analytes, especially those at low concentrations, from reaching the detector. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used material for microfluidics, but is prone to nonspecific adsorption, necessitating complex chemical modification processes to address this issue. An alternative material to PDMS that does not require subsequent chemical modification is presented here. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) mixed with photoinitiator forms on exposure to UV radiation a polymer with inherent resistance to nonspecific adsorption. Optimization of the polymerized PEGDA (poly-PEGDA) formula imbues this material with some of the same properties, including optical clarity, water stability, and low background fluorescence, that make PDMS so popular. Poly-PEGDA demonstrates less nonspecific adsorption than PDMS over a range of concentrations of flowing fluorescently tagged bovine serum albumin solutions, and poly-PEGDA has greater resistance to permeation by small hydrophobic molecules than PDMS. Poly-PEGDA also exhibits long-term (hour scale) resistance to nonspecific adsorption compared to PDMS when exposed to a low (1 µg/mL) concentration of a model adsorptive protein. Electrophoretic separations of amino acids and proteins resulted in symmetrical peaks and theoretical plate counts as high as 4 × 105/m. Poly-PEGDA, which displays resistance to nonspecific adsorption, could have broad use in small volume analysis and biomedical research. PMID:21728310

  19. Micromechanical Properties of a New Polymeric Microcapsule for Self-Healing Cementitious Materials.

    PubMed

    Lv, Leyang; Schlangen, Erik; Yang, Zhengxian; Xing, Feng

    2016-12-20

    Self-healing cementitious materials containing a microencapsulated healing agent are appealing due to their great application potential in improving the serviceability and durability of concrete structures. In this study, poly(phenol-formaldehyde) (PF) microcapsules that aim to provide a self-healing function for cementitious materials were prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction. Size gradation of the synthesized microcapsules was achieved through a series of sieving processes. The shell thickness and the diameter of single microcapsules was accurately measured under environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The relationship between the physical properties of the synthesized microcapsules and their micromechanical properties were investigated using nanoindentation. The results of the mechanical tests show that, with the increase of the mean size of microcapsules and the decrease of shell thickness, the mechanical force required to trigger the self-healing function of microcapsules increased correspondingly from 68.5 ± 41.6 mN to 198.5 ± 31.6 mN, featuring a multi-sensitive trigger function. Finally, the rupture behavior and crack surface of cement paste with embedded microcapsules were observed and analyzed using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). The synthesized PF microcapsules may find potential application in self-healing cementitious materials.

  20. Effect of temperature on photophysical properties of polymeric nanofiber materials with porphyrin photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Suchánek, Jan; Henke, Petr; Mosinger, Jiří; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Kubát, Pavel

    2014-06-12

    Electrospun nanofibers possess large surface to volume ratios, high porosity, and good mechanical properties that are necessary for biological applications. We prepared different types of photoactive polymeric nanofiber materials with encapsulated or externally bound porphyrin photosensitizers. The kinetics of formation and the decay of both singlet oxygen O2((1)Δg) and porphyrin triplet states that are generated by irradiation of nanofiber materials in an air atmosphere or in an air-saturated aqueous solution were measured and evaluated by luminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy in the temperature range between 5 and 60 °C. We found shortening of the O2((1)Δg) lifetime and a significant increase in singlet oxygen-sensitized delayed fluorescence at higher temperatures. These photophysical data show an increase in the diffusion coefficient for O2((1)Δg) with temperature, and they are consistent with a stronger antibacterial effect of the nanofiber material on Escherichia coli at higher temperature.

  1. New directions for high-performance materials via postextrusion solid state polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almonacil, Celine

    Solid state polymerization (SSP) usually consists of heating condensation polymers to temperatures below their melting point and holding there for a significant time to raise their molecular weight. The process is common in the polymer industry for the production of high molecular weight polyesters and polyamides for industrial fibers and molded products. Recent research has shown that post-extrusion SSP, where polymerization is performed on extruded products such as thin films or fibers, has the potential to lead to high performance materials. Although literature on SSP is abundant, the mechanisms and possible morphological consequences have remained largely unexplored. The purpose of this work is to explore the potential for generating high performance oriented polymer morphologies by performing a fundamental analysis of the mechanisms and morphological consequences of post-extrusion SSP in oriented polymers. It is based on recent research that has shown that interchange reactions can play a fundamental role during many solid state polymerizations by providing the primary mechanism for migration of functionality. It is also based on the recent recognition that these reactions can cause profound changes in the morphology of the polymer. A coarse-grained model which can be used to explore quantitatively the effect of interchange reactions on the topological distribution of chains in inter-crystalline regions is presented here. It includes a novel thermodynamic scheme, coupled with Monte Carlo Rotational Isomeric State simulations, to determine quantitatively the relative probabilities of morphologically different reaction pathways. The results show the role of intrinsic molecular rigidity on interconversions of bridges and loops during SSP of different polymers. The generalized scheme presented here can serve to identify, via gedanken experiments, appropriate semi-rigid systems to explore through real synthesis and processing of high mechanical performance polymers

  2. The Effects of Ground and Space Processing on the Properties of Organic, Polymeric, and Colloidal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Paley, M. S.; Abdeldayem, Hossain A.; Witherow, W. K.; Smith, D.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, a great deal of interest has been directed toward the use of organic materials in the development of high-efficiency optoelectronic and phototonic devices. There is a myriad of possibilities among organic materials which allow flexibility in the design of unique structures with a variety of functional groups. The use of nonlinear optical (NLO) organic materials as thin film wave-guides allows full exploitation of their desirable qualifies by permitting long interaction lengths and large susceptibilities allowing modest power input. There are several methods in use to prepare thin films such as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembly techniques, vapor deposition, growth from sheared solution or melt, and melt growth between glass plates. Organic-based materials have many features that make them desirable for use in optical devices, such as high second-and third-order nonlinearity, flexibility of molecular design, and damage resistance to optical radiation. However, their use in devices has been hindered by processing difficulties for crystals and thin films. We discuss the potential role of microgravity processing of a few organic and polymeric materials. It is of interest to note how materials with second-and third-order NLO behavior may be improved in a diffusion-limited environment and ways in which convection may be detrimental to these materials. We focus our discussion on third-order materials for all-optical switching, and second-order materials for frequency conversion and electrooptics. The goal of minimizing optical loss obviously depends on processing methods. For solution-based processes, such as solution crystal growth and solution photopolymerization, it is well known that thermal and solutal density gradients can initiate buoyancy-driven convection. Resultant fluid flows can affect transport of material to and from growth interfaces and become manifest in the morphology and homogeneity of the growing film or crystal. Likewise

  3. Radiation Protection Effectiveness of Polymeric Based Shielding Materials at Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Stewart-Sloan, Charlotte R.; Wilson, John W.; Adams, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    Correlations of limited ionizing radiation measurements onboard the Space Transportation System (STS; shuttle) and the International Space Station (ISS) with numerical simulations of charged particle transport through spacecraft structure have indicated that usage of hydrogen rich polymeric materials improves the radiation shielding performance of space structures as compared to the traditionally used aluminum alloys. We discuss herein the radiation shielding correlations between measurements on board STS-81 (Atlantis, 1997) using four polyethylene (PE) spheres of varying radii, and STS-89 (Endeavour, 1998) using aluminum alloy spheres; with numerical simulations of charged particle transport using the Langley Research Center (LaRC)-developed High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN) algorithm. In the simulations, the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) component of the ionizing radiation environment at Low Earth Orbit (LEO) covering ions in the 1< or equals Z< or equals 28 range is represented by O'Neill's (2004) model. To compute the transmission coefficient for GCR ions at LEO, O'Neill's model is coupled with the angular dependent LaRC cutoff model. The trapped protons/electrons component of LEO environment is represented by a LaRC-developed time dependent procedure which couples the AP8min/AP8max, Deep River Neutron Monitor (DRNM) and F10.7 solar radio frequency measurements. The albedo neutron environment resulting from interaction of GCR ions with upper atmosphere is modeled through extrapolation of the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) measurements. With the validity of numerical simulations through correlation with PE and aluminum spheres measurements established, we further present results from the expansion of the simulations through the selection of high hydrogen content commercially available polymeric constituents such as PE foam core and Spectra fiber(Registered TradeMark) composite face sheet to assess their radiation shield properties as compared to

  4. Radiation Protection Effectiveness of Polymeric Based Shielding Materials at Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Stewart-Sloan, Charlotte R.; Wilson, John W.; Adams, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    Correlations of limited ionizing radiation measurements onboard the Space Transportation System (STS; shuttle) and the International Space Station (ISS) with numerical simulations of charged particle transport through spacecraft structure have indicated that usage of hydrogen rich polymeric materials improves the radiation shielding performance of space structures as compared to the traditionally used aluminum alloys. We discuss herein the radiation shielding correlations between measurements on board STS-81 (Atlantis, 1997) using four polyethylene (PE) spheres of varying radii, and STS-89 (Endeavour, 1998) using aluminum alloy spheres; with numerical simulations of charged particle transport using the Langley Research Center (LaRC)-developed High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN) algorithm. In the simulations, the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) component of the ionizing radiation environment at Low Earth Orbit (LEO) covering ions in the 1< or equals Z< or equals 28 range is represented by O'Neill's (2004) model. To compute the transmission coefficient for GCR ions at LEO, O'Neill's model is coupled with the angular dependent LaRC cutoff model. The trapped protons/electrons component of LEO environment is represented by a LaRC-developed time dependent procedure which couples the AP8min/AP8max, Deep River Neutron Monitor (DRNM) and F10.7 solar radio frequency measurements. The albedo neutron environment resulting from interaction of GCR ions with upper atmosphere is modeled through extrapolation of the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) measurements. With the validity of numerical simulations through correlation with PE and aluminum spheres measurements established, we further present results from the expansion of the simulations through the selection of high hydrogen content commercially available polymeric constituents such as PE foam core and Spectra fiber(Registered TradeMark) composite face sheet to assess their radiation shield properties as compared to

  5. Research and Development of Manufacture Technology of Polymeric Composite Materials of Electrotechnical Purpose Filled with Hydrolytic Lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negmatov, S. S.; Salimsakov, Yu. A.; Sobirov, B. B.; Kobilov, N. S.; Negmatova, K. S.; Rakhmanov, B. Sh.

    2008-08-01

    In work the opportunity of manufacture of polymeric composite materials of electro technical purpose filled hydrolytic lignin from wood, cotton of peel and rice husks were shown in view of changes occurring in hydrolytic lignin of conditions of reception and processing press composition.

  6. Optical Analysis of Transparent Polymeric Material Exposed to Simulated Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    2000-01-01

    Many innovations in spacecraft power and propulsion have been recently tested at NASA, particularly in non-chemical propulsion. One improvement in solar array technology is solar concentration using thin polymer film Fresnel lenses. Weight and cost savings were proven with the Solar Concentrator Arrays with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET)-II array on NASA's Deep Space I spacecraft. The Fresnel lens concentrates solar energy onto high-efficiency solar cells, decreasing the area of solar cells needed for power. Continued efficiency of this power system relies on the thin film's durability in the space environment and maintaining transmission in the 300 - 1000 nm bandwidth. Various polymeric materials have been tested for use in solar concentrators, including Lexan(TM), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), several formulations of Tefzel(Tm) and Teflon(TM), and DC 93-500, the material selected for SCARLET-II. Also tested were several innovative materials including Langley Research Center's CPI and CP2 polymers and atomic oxygen- resistant polymers developed by Triton Systems, Inc. The Environmental Effects Group of the Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing Department exposed these materials to simulated space environment and evaluated them for any change in optical transmission. Samples were exposed to a minimum of 1000 equivalent Sun hours of near-UV radiation (250 - 400 nm wavelength). Materials that appeared robust after near-UV exposure were then exposed to charged particle radiation equivalent to a five-year dose in geosynchronous orbit. These exposures were performed in MSFC's Combined Environmental Effects Test Chamber, a unique facility with the capability to expose materials simultaneously or sequentially to protons, low-energy electrons, high-energy electrons, near UV radiation and vacuum UV radiation. Reflectance measurements can be made on the samples in vacuum. Prolonged exposure to the space environment will

  7. Optical Analysis of Transparent Polymeric Material Exposed to Simulated Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    2000-01-01

    Many innovations in spacecraft power and propulsion have been recently tested at NASA, particularly in non-chemical propulsion. One improvement in solar array technology is solar concentration using thin polymer film Fresnel lenses. Weight and cost savings were proven with the Solar Concentrator Arrays with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET)-II array on NASA's Deep Space I spacecraft. The Fresnel lens concentrates solar energy onto high-efficiency solar cells, decreasing the area of solar cells needed for power. Continued efficiency of this power system relies on the thin film's durability in the space environment and maintaining transmission in the 300 - 1000 nm bandwidth. Various polymeric materials have been tested for use in solar concentrators, including Lexan(TM), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), several formulations of Tefzel(Tm) and Teflon(TM), and DC 93-500, the material selected for SCARLET-II. Also tested were several innovative materials including Langley Research Center's CPI and CP2 polymers and atomic oxygen- resistant polymers developed by Triton Systems, Inc. The Environmental Effects Group of the Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing Department exposed these materials to simulated space environment and evaluated them for any change in optical transmission. Samples were exposed to a minimum of 1000 equivalent Sun hours of near-UV radiation (250 - 400 nm wavelength). Materials that appeared robust after near-UV exposure were then exposed to charged particle radiation equivalent to a five-year dose in geosynchronous orbit. These exposures were performed in MSFC's Combined Environmental Effects Test Chamber, a unique facility with the capability to expose materials simultaneously or sequentially to protons, low-energy electrons, high-energy electrons, near UV radiation and vacuum UV radiation. Reflectance measurements can be made on the samples in vacuum. Prolonged exposure to the space environment will

  8. [Phytotoxicity of colloidal solutions of metal-containing nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Konotop, Ie O; Kovalenko, M S; Ulynets', V Z; Meleshko, A O; Batsmanova, L M; Taran, N Iu

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxicity of colloidal solutions of metal-containing nanoparticles (Ag, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn) has been investigated using a standard Allium cepa (L.) test system. Toxicity of experimental solutions at the organism level was evaluated in terms of biomass growth of onion roots, and cytotoxicity was estimated by the mitotic index of root meristem cells. The colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Allium cepa (L.) roots due to their ability to penetrate into cells and interact with their components, and thus to inhibit mitosis. According to our results cytotoxicity of test solutions decreases in the following order: Cu > or = Zn > Ag > or = Fe. Solution of Mn-containing nanoparticles revealed physiological activity according to root growth reaction.

  9. Quantitative orientational analysis of a polymeric material (Kevlar{sup {reg_sign}} fibers) with x-ray microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.P.; Ade, H.

    1996-12-01

    It has previously been shown that x-ray linear dichroism microscopy can be utilized to image and determine orientation in a polymeric material at high spatial resolution. We have now expanded on this technique and extracted quantitative information about the orientation of specific functional groups in a polymeric system from submicron areas. This is accomplished by acquiring and analyzing spectral data sets rather than just images at specific energies. It has allowed us to compare the relative lateral orientation of various grades of Kevlar{sup {reg_sign}} fibers. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. The rational design of polymeric EUV resist materials by QSPR modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, Kevin; Liu, Heping; Blakey, Idriss; Hill, David; Yueh, Wang; Cao, Heidi; Leeson, Michael; Denbeaux, Greg; Waterman, Justin; Whittaker, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    We present the initial results of the development of a qualitative structure property relationship (QSPR) model to guide in the design and synthesis of high-sensitivity, non-CAR materials for EUV lithography. The model was developed using the fragmentation data of low molecular weight species at 70 eV using a mass spectrometer (MS) with an electron ionization source as the input parameter. The preliminary model has highlighted a number of structural elements which will be important in the future design of resists, however, limitations with the current set of input data for molecules which fragment readily have been identified and these are currently being addressed. Additionally, a correlation between γ (1 MeV) and EUV (92 eV) radiolysis of selected polymers has been established and it is proposed that the higher energy (1 MeV) irradiation source is a suitable model process for EUV and can, therefore, be used in the future screening of polymeric materials.

  11. Static adsorptive fouling of extracellular polymeric substances with different membrane materials.

    PubMed

    Su, Xinying; Tian, Yu; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Hui; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2014-03-01

    Adsorptive fouling of microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) greatly influences the fouling behavior and membrane characteristics in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). In this study, adsorptive fouling of the EPS on different membrane materials was compared and adsorptive mechanism between membranes and EPS was investigated by thermodynamic analysis. The results suggested that both the absolute and relative changes of hydraulic resistances should be considered to evaluate fouling of membranes with different materials, and Sips isotherm was the most suitable model to describe the EPS carbohydrate and protein adsorptions on membranes. Thermodynamic analysis showed that both EPS carbohydrate and protein adsorptions were spontaneous (ΔrG(θ) < 0), endothermic (ΔrH(θ) > 0), and entropy driven (ΔrS(θ) > 0). Decreasing ΔrG(θ) values with temperature suggested that EPS adsorptive fouling can be limited by reducing temperature. In addition, physisorption processes and hydrogen bonding interactions between EPS and membranes might play a relatively major role in the adsorption mechanism of EPS on the membrane surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle analysis confirmed that the adsorptive fouling modified the membrane surface, making the membrane surface more heterogeneous and more hydrophobic.

  12. Physiological and toxicological aspects of smoke produced during the combustion of polymeric materials.

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, I N

    1975-01-01

    Normally one expects that flame contact is the major cause of injury and death during fires. Analysis of the factors involved in numerous fires has revealed that most deaths were not due to flame contact, but were a consequence of the production of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and other combustion products, such as aldehydes, low molecular weight alcohols, hydrogen cyanide, and other noxious species. The major emphasis within the scope of this paper relates to the physiological and toxicological aspects of smoke produced during the combustion of materials. Special emphasis is directed toward laboratory procedures which have been developed to determine the qualitative and quantitative analysis of smoke, factors pertaining to smoke development, and to measure the response of laboratory animals exposed to smoke. The effects that fire retardants, incorporated into polymeric materials as a means of improving flammability characteristics, may have on smoke development, the mechanism of polymer degradation, and on the survival response of laboratory animals are also considered. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. PMID:170077

  13. AFM nanoscale indentation in air of polymeric and hybrid materials with highly different stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriano, Raffaella; Credi, Caterina; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    In this study, nanomechanical properties of a variety of polymeric materials was investigated by means of AFM. In particular, selecting different AFM probes, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bulk samples, sol-gel hybrid thin films and hydrated hyaluronic acid hydrogels were indented in air to determine the elastic modulus. The force-distance curves and the indentation data were found to be greatly affected by the cantilever stiffness and by tip geometry. AFM indentation tests show that the choice of the cantilever spring constant and of tip shape is crucially influenced by elastic properties of samples. When adhesion-dominated interactions occur between the tip and the surface of samples, force-displacement curves reveal that a suitable functionalization of AFM probes allows the control of such interactions and the extraction of Young' modulus from AFM curves that would be otherwise unfeasible. By applying different mathematical models depending on AFM probes and materials under investigation, the values of Young's modulus were obtained and compared to those measured by rheological and dynamic mechanical analysis or to literature data. Our results show that a wide range of elastic moduli (10 kPa-10 GPa) can be determined by AFM in good agreement with those measured by conventional macroscopic measurements.

  14. Polymeric stent materials dysregulate macrophage and endothelial cell functions: implications for coronary artery stent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xintong; Zachman, Angela L.; Chun, Young Wook; Shen, Fang-Wen; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Background Biodegradable polymers have been applied as bulk or coating materials for coronary artery stents. The degradation of polymers, however, could induce endothelial dysfunction and aggravate neointimal formation. Here we use polymeric microparticles to simulate and demonstrate the effects of degraded stent materials on phagocytic activity, cell death and dysfunction of macrophages and endothelial cells. Methods Microparticles made of low molecular weight polyesters were incubated with human macrophages and coronary artery endothelial cells (ECs). Microparticle-induced phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cytokine release and surface marker expression were determined by immunostaining or ELISA. Elastase expression was analyzed by ELISA and the elastase-mediated polymer degradation was assessed by mass spectrometry. Results We demonstrated poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) microparticles induced cytotoxicity in macrophages and ECs, partially through cell apoptosis. The particle treatment alleviated EC phagocytosis, as opposed to macrophages, but enhanced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM) along with decreased nitric oxide production, indicating ECs were activated and lost their capacity to maintain homeostasis. The activation of both cell types induced release of elastase or elastase-like protease, which further accelerated polymer degradation. Conclusions This study revealed that low molecule weight PLLA and PCL microparticles increased cytotoxicity and dysregulated endothelial cell function, which in turn enhanced elastase release and polymer degradation. These indicate polymer or polymer-coated stents impose a risk of endothelial dysfunction after deployment which can potentially lead to delayed endothelialization, neointimal hyperplasia and late thrombosis. PMID:24820736

  15. Combinatorial screening of polymeric sensing materials using RFID sensors: combined effects of plasticizers and temperature.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Surman, Cheryl; Morris, William G

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have developed battery-free, passive RFID chemical and biological sensors that are attractive in diverse applications where sensor performance is needed at a low cost and when battery-free operation is critical. In this study, we apply this attractive low-cost sensing platform for the combinatorial screening of formulated sensing materials. As a model system, a 6 x 8 array of polymer-coated RFID sensors was constructed to study the combined effects of polymeric plasticizers and annealing temperature. A solid polymer electrolyte Nafion was formulated with five different phthalate plasticizers: dimethyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, dicapryl phthalate, and diisotridecyl phthalate. These sensing film formulations and control sensing films without a phthalate plasticizer were deposited onto 9-mm diameter RFID sensors, exposed to eight temperatures ranging from 40 to 140 degrees C using a gradient temperature heater, and evaluated for their response stability and gas-selectivity response patterns. This study demonstrated that our RFID-based sensing approach permits rapid cost-effective combinatorial screening of dielectric properties of sensing materials.

  16. Investigating Fracture Behaviors of Polymer and Polymeric Composite Materials Using Spiral Notch Torsion Test

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei; Tan, Ting; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Agastra, Pancasatya; Mandell, John; Bertelsen, Williams D.; LaFrance, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbine blades are usually fabricated from fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) materials, which are subject to complex loading conditions during service. The reliability of the blades thus depends on the mechanical behaviors of the FRP under various loading conditions. Specifically, the fracture behavior of FRP is of great importance to both the scientific research community and the wind industry. In the current project, a new testing technique is proposed based on the spiral notch torsion test (SNTT) to study the fracture behavior of composite structures under mixed mode loading conditions, particularly under combined Mode I (flexural or normal tensile stress) and Mode III (torsional shear stress) loading. For the SNTT test method, round-rod specimens with V-grooved spiral lines are subjected to pure torsion. Depending on the pitch angle of the spiral lines, pure Mode I, pure Mode III, or mixed Mode I/Mode III loading conditions can be simulated. A three dimensional finite element analysis is then used to evaluate the fracture toughness and energy release rate of SNTT specimens. In the current study, both epoxy and fiberglass reinforced epoxy materials are investigated using the SNTT technique. This paper will discuss the fracture behaviors of mode I and mixed mode samples, with or without fatigue precrack. In addition, results from fractographic study and finite element analysis will be presented and discussed in detail.

  17. The effects of radiation on the behavior of polymeric materials containing photoisomerizable groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hauenstein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet and electron radiation on the behavior of polymeric materials containing photoisomerizable groups was examined with primary emphases on the development of photocontrollable gas separation membranes. These photoresponses were found to be reversible, suggesting a method for real-time control of membrane properties. Extruded, oriented polyethylene films containing photoisomerizable dyes contracted in length by as much as 4.5% upon exposure to ultraviolet light. A 12-70% recovery was observed after 20 minutes to 2 days in darkness. The photoresponse was attributed to the geometrical isomerism of the azo photochromes. Similarly, the effect of electron radiation on the behavior of uncoated poly(vinyl alcohol) containing phenylazobenzene side groups was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The area of surface openings was reversibly decreased by as much as 45% as the emission current was increased. The stability of these uncoated materials under the electron beam was increased by the presence of the sodium salt of p-phenylazobenzoic acid. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the permeability and diffusivity of gases through nonporous membranes of ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose modified with p-phenylazobenzoyl chloride was examined at temperatures ranging from 30{degree} to 85{degree}C. Upon ultraviolet irradiation, the diffusion coefficient for nitrogen gas in membranes containing p-phenylazobenzoyl side groups reversibly decreased by as much as 18% with the maximum decrease observed at 40{degree}C. At 50{degree}C above, the irradiated and non-irradiated measurements were equivalent.

  18. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM using polymerized whey proteins as wall material.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yujun; Zheng, Zhe; Zhang, Tiehua; Hendricks, Gregory; Guo, Mingruo

    2016-09-01

    Survivability of probiotics in foods is essential for developing functional food containing probiotics. We investigated polymerized whey protein (PWP)-based microencapsulation process which is developed for protecting probiotics like Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and compared with the method using sodium alginate (SA). The entrapment rate was 89.3 ± 4.8% using PWP, while it was 73.2 ± 1.4% for SA. The microencapsulated NCFM by PWP and SA were separately subjected to digestion juices and post-fermentation storage of fermented cows' and goats' milk using the encapsulated culture. The log viable count of NCFM in PWP-based microencapsulation was 4.56, compared with that of 4.26 in SA-based ones and 3.13 for free culture. Compared with using SA as wall material, PWP was more effective in protecting probiotic. Microencapsulation of L. acidophilus NCFM using PWP as wall material can be exploited in the development of fermented dairy products with better survivability of probiotic organism.

  19. A Continued Study of Polymeric Materials for Protection Against Chemical and Biological Contaminants and Halogen Oxidants for Immobilization in Protective Materials and Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    laboratory testing of materials developed during the project, as well as to Dr. M. E. Shirtliff at the Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State...unlimited. 88ABW-2013-1126, 8 March 2013. Engineering at Montana State University coated polycarbonate slides with our material and tested them...AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2012-0027 A CONTINUED STUDY OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS AND HALOGEN

  20. The micro-element dynamic in hortic antrosoils conditioned with polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipov, F.; Bulgariu, D.; Jitareanu, G.; Bulgariu, L.

    2009-04-01

    The studies regarding the dynamic of microelements in hortic anthrosols (soils from glasshouses and solariums) are important both from scientific point of view and in special, for the implementation of durable ecological technologies of amelioration, conservation and superior capitalization of soil resources from protected areas (glasshouses and solariums). In case of hortic anthrosols, the application of intensive technologies for plants cultivation determined brusque and intense perturbations of equilibriums between microelements and mineral and organic components of anthrosols, which is reflected by a fast degradation of morphological and physic-chemical properties. But, in case of hortic anthrosols, the exploitation conditions determined a particular evolution of microelements, and of distributions and interactions way with soil components, respectively. The conditioning and the amelioration of hortic antrosols with ecologic polymeric materials is one of the method approved in this moment and according with the opinion of most of specialists, represent one of method with large applications in modern agriculture. The utilization of polymeric materials to the conditioning of soils have been studied over 50 years, their effects on morphological, physical and chemical properties of soils being know, in special for agricultural and polluted soils. Ours studied have been performed using soil profiles drawing from Copou-glass house, Iasi (Romania). Has been followed the modification of distribution for speciation forms of some micro-elements (Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, P), between hortic antrosol horizons, and between chemical-mineralogical components of this, with the progressive salinization of superior horizons, in 2007-2008 period. For the experimental study have been used three types of water-soluble polymers, with different hydrophobicities: polyethylene glycol (molecular mass 2000, 4000 and 8000), vinyl acetate - ammonia maleate salt copolymer (AM-VA) and

  1. Melt-polymerization of TEMPO methacrylates with nano carbons enables superior battery materials.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Alexandru; Rolland, Julien; Hauffman, Guillaume; Ernould, Bruno; Gohy, Jean-François

    2015-05-22

    A solvent-free, melt polymerization process of a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) precursor for rechargeable organic radical batteries is proposed. In situ carbon incorporation in the melted monomer phase yields a nanoscale homogenous polymer composite. Superior battery performances including higher power and cycling stability are attained by using the melt-polymerization method.

  2. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    SciTech Connect

    Best, S.A.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for the polymerization of ethylene and alpha-olefins having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms or mixtures of ethylene, alpha-olefins and diolefins. The process comprises polymerizing in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (a) an organo aluminum compound of the formula ALR''/sub n/X''/sub 3-n/ wherein R is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, X is halogen and is a number from 1 to 3, and (b) a transition metal containing catalyst component comprising the solid reaction product obtained by treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent. This is done sequentially with (A) an organometallic compounds of a Group IIa, IIb or IIIa metal wherein all the metal valencies are satisfied with a hydrocarbon group, (B) an oxygen containing compound selected from ketones, aldehydes, alcohols or mixtures thereof, (C) an acyl halide, (D) at least one transition metal compound of a Group IVb, Vb, VIb or VIII metal, and (E) a group IIIa metal hydrocarbyl dihalide.

  3. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    SciTech Connect

    Best, S.A.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for the polymerization of ethylene and alpha-olefins having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms or mixtures of ethylene, alpha-olefins and diolefins. The process comprises polymerizing in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (a) an organo aluminum compound of the formula AIR''/sub n/X''/sub 3-n/ wherein R'' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, X is halogen and n is a number from 1 to 3, and (B) a transition metal containing catalyst component comprising the solid reaction product obtained by treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent. This is done sequentially with, optionally (A) Cl/sub 2/, Br/sub 2/, an interhalogen or mixtures thereof, (B) an organometallic compound of a Group IIa, IIb or IIIa metal wherein all the metal valencies are satisfied with a hydrocarbon group, (C) an oxygen containing compound selected from ketones, aldehydes, alcohols or mixtures thereof, (D) an acyl halide, (E) at least one transition metal compound of a Group IVb, VB, VIb or VIII metal, and (F) Cl/sub 2/, Br/sub 2/, an interhalogen or mixtures thereof.

  4. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    SciTech Connect

    Best, S.A.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for the polymerization of ethylene and alpha-olefins having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms or mixtures of ethylene, alpha-olefins and diolefins. The process comprises polymerizing in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (a) an organo aluminum compounds of the formula AIR''/sub n/X''/sub 3-n/ wherein R'' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, X is halogen and n is a number from 1 to 3, and (b) a transition metal containing catalyst component comprising the solid reaction product obtained by treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent. This is done sequentially with (A) an organometallic compound of a Group IIa, IIb, or IIIa metal wherein all the metal valencies are satisfied with a hydrocarbon group, optionally (B) an oxygen containing compound selected from ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, siloxanes or mixtures thereof, (C) at least one transition metal compound of a Group IVb, Vb, VIb or VIII metal, and (D) a group IIIa metal hydrocarbyl dihalide.

  5. Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials in a PMMA/glass concentrator photovoltaic system

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T.; ...

    2016-07-13

    We examined the durability of polymeric encapsulation materials using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36-month cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Our measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging,more » and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. Furthermore, our results, including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.« less

  6. Improving the binding capacities of protein A chromatographic materials by means of ligand polymerization.

    PubMed

    Freiherr von Roman, Matthias; Berensmeier, Sonja

    2014-06-20

    Protein A chromatography is one of the most important techniques used in the purification of monoclonal antibodies. Due to the low dynamic binding capacity of protein A chromatographic materials compared to other stationary phases, protein A chromatography is often discussed to be the bottleneck among current purification processes. Several approaches were tested within this study in order to maximize IgG binding capacities of current acrylamido-based based resins. Genetic engineering techniques were used in order to polymerize one of the IgG binding domains (B-domain) of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) to achieve ligands with an increased length. The solution-binding ratio and the total size of ligand-antibody complexes were used to characterize the interaction potential of novel ligands, revealing a relatively linear dependency between the number of binding domains upon the amount of bound antibody molecules. This relationship was also valid up to a ligand which was comprised of 8 B-domains after attaching them onto acrylamido-based based stationary phases using epoxy coupling techniques. Equilibrium binding capacities of more than 80mghIgGmL(-1) were achieved using the B8 ligand. Furthermore, static binding capacities, especially for smaller ligands comprised of fewer B-domains, were improved up to 87mghIgGmL(-1) using site-specific coupling chemistry, which is an improvement of more than 20% compared to commercially available materials. In order to evaluate pore exclusion effects due to the use of prolonged affinity ligands, prepared materials were characterized regarding their effective intraparticle porosity and breakthrough capacity.

  7. [Advances in the research of natural polymeric materials and their derivatives in the manufacture of scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Wang, Hong; Leng, Chongyan; Wang, Kuan; Xie, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Natural polymeric materials and their derivatives are organic macromolecular compounds which exist in plants, animals, and micro-organisms. They have been widely used in the preparation of scaffolds for skin tissue engineering recently because of their good histocompatibility and degradability, and low immunogenicity. With the improvement of the preparation technics, composite materials are more commonly used to make scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering. This article summarizes the classification and research status of the commonly used natural polymer materials, their derivatives, and composite scaffold materials, as well as makes a prospect of the research trends of dermal scaffold in the future.

  8. Recent developments in curcumin and curcumin based polymeric materials for biomedical applications: A review.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Kashif; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Salman, Mahwish; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed

    2015-11-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a popular Indian spice that has been used for centuries in herbal medicines for the treatment of a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, diabetic ulcers, anorexia, cough and sinusitis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid present in turmeric and responsible for its yellow color. Curcumin has been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anticoagulant and anti-infective effects. This review summarizes and discusses recently published papers on the key biomedical applications of curcumin based materials. The highlighted studies in the review provide evidence of the ability of curcumin to show the significant vitro antioxidant, diabetic complication, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, anti-cancer activities and detection of hypochlorous acid, wound healing, treatment of major depression, healing of paracentesis, and treatment of carcinoma and optical detection of pyrrole properties. Hydrophobic nature of this polyphenolic compound along with its rapid metabolism, physicochemical and biological instability contribute to its poor bioavailability. To redress these problems several approaches have been proposed like encapsulation of curcumin in liposomes and polymeric micelles, inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrin, formation of polymer-curcumin conjugates, etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Resistance Against the Intrinsic Rate of Fracture Mechanics Parameters for Polymeric Materials Under Moderate Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, R.; Seidler, S.; Grellmann, W.

    2005-09-01

    This study contributes towards understanding crack toughness as resistance against the intrinsic rate of fracture mechanics parameters. Up to now only few investigations have been done under moderate impact loading conditions. Based on experimental investigations using the crack resistance (R) concept, it has been shown that the stop block method combined with the multiple-specimen technique is a unique method for polymers under impact loading conditions in comparison with different R-curve methods. Other methods for the determination of R curve such as the low-blow technique are normally not applicable for polymers due to their time-dependent mechanical properties. The crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) rate is a measurement of the rate sensibility of stable fracture process depending on the type of deformation, which can provide deep insights into the micromechanics and activation mechanisms during the fracture processes. In the polymeric materials mostly investigated, one can understand the stable crack propagation with three-stage processes; crack-tip blunting/crack initiation, non-stationary stable crack growth and steady-state stable crack growth (an equilibrium state). In this stable crack propagation, the values of normalized CTOD rate converge rapidly to a ‘matrix’-specific threshold. The stop block method in the multiple-specimen technique assures the criteria of the time-independent strain field around the crack tip and constant crack speed therewith and the J-integral is a valid toughness parameter.

  10. Aligned carbon nanotube film enables thermally induced state transformations in layered polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonyoon; Stein, Itai Y; Kessler, Seth S; Wardle, Brian L

    2015-04-29

    The energy losses and geometric constraints associated with conventional curing techniques of polymeric systems motivate the study of a highly scalable out-of-oven curing method using a nanostructured resistive heater comprised of aligned carbon nanotubes (A-CNT). The experimental results indicate that, when compared to conventional oven based techniques, the use of an "out-of-oven" A-CNT integrated heater leads to orders of magnitude reductions in the energy required to process polymeric layered structures such as composites. Integration of this technology into structural systems enables the in situ curing of large-scale polymeric systems at high efficiencies, while adding sensing and control capabilities.

  11. Polymeric stent materials dysregulate macrophage and endothelial cell functions: implications for coronary artery stent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xintong; Zachman, Angela L; Chun, Young Wook; Shen, Fang-Wen; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2014-07-01

    Biodegradable polymers have been applied as bulk or coating materials for coronary artery stents. The degradation of polymers, however, could induce endothelial dysfunction and aggravate neointimal formation. Here we use polymeric microparticles to simulate and demonstrate the effects of degraded stent materials on phagocytic activity, cell death and dysfunction of macrophages and endothelial cells. Microparticles made of low molecular weight polyesters were incubated with human macrophages and coronary artery endothelial cells (ECs). Microparticle-induced phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cytokine release and surface marker expression were determined by immunostaining or ELISA. Elastase expression was analyzed by ELISA and the elastase-mediated polymer degradation was assessed by mass spectrometry. We demonstrated that poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) microparticles induced cytotoxicity in macrophages and ECs, partially through cell apoptosis. The particle treatment alleviated EC phagocytosis, as opposed to macrophages, but enhanced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 along with decreased nitric oxide production, indicating that ECs were activated and lost their capacity to maintain homeostasis. The activation of both cell types induced the release of elastase or elastase-like protease, which further accelerated polymer degradation. This study revealed that low molecule weight PLLA and PCL microparticles increased cytotoxicity and dysregulated endothelial cell function, which in turn enhanced elastase release and polymer degradation. These indicate that polymer or polymer-coated stents impose a risk of endothelial dysfunction after deployment which can potentially lead to delayed endothelialization, neointimal hyperplasia and late thrombosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polymeric Materials With Additives for Durability and Radiation Shielding in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric materials are attractive for use in space structures because of their light weight and high strength In addition, polymers are made of elements with low atomic numbers (Z), primarily carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (0), and nitrogen (N) which provide the best shielding from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) (ref. 1). Galactic cosmic rays are composed primarily of nuclei (i.e., fully ionized atoms) plus a contribution of about 2% from electrons and positrons. There is a small but significant component of GCR particles with high charge (Z > 10) and high energy (E >100 GeV) (ref. 2). These so-called HZE particles comprise only 1 to 2% of the cosmic ray fluence but they interact with very high specific ionization and contribute 50% of the long- term dose to humans. The best shield for this radiation would be liquid hydrogen, which is not feasible. For this reason, hydrogen-containing polymers make the most effective practical shields. Moreover, neutrons are formed in the interactions of GCR particles with materials. Neutrons can only lose energy by collisions or reactions with a nucleus since they are uncharged. This is a process that is much less probable than the Coulombic interactions of charged particles. Thus, neutrons migrate far from the site of the reaction in which they were formed. This increases the probability of neutrons reaching humans or electronic equipment. Fast neutrons (> 1 MeV) can interact with silicon chips in electronic equipment resulting in the production of recoil ions which can cause single event upsets (SEU) in sensitive components (ref. 3). Neutrons lose energy most effectively by elastic collisions with light atoms, particularly hydrogen atoms. Therefore, hydrogen-containing polymers are not only effective in interacting with GCR particles; they are also effective in reducing the energy of the neutrons formed in the interactions.

  13. Estimation of the atmospheric corrosion on metal containers in industrial waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Baklouti, M; Midoux, N; Mazaudier, F; Feron, D

    2001-08-17

    Solid industrial waste are often stored in metal containers filled with concrete, and placed in well-aerated warehouses. Depending on meteorological conditions, atmospheric corrosion can induce severe material damages to the metal casing, and this damage has to be predicted to achieve safe storage. This work provides a first estimation of the corrosivity of the local atmosphere adjacent to the walls of the container through a realistic modeling of heat transfer phenomena which was developed for this purpose. Subsequent simulations of condensation/evaporation of the water vapor in the atmosphere were carried out. Atmospheric corrosion rates and material losses are easily deduced. For handling realistic data and comparison, two different meteorological contexts were chosen: (1) an oceanic and damp atmosphere and (2) a drier storage location. Some conclusions were also made for the storage configuration in order to reduce the extent of corrosion phenomena.

  14. Improving proton therapy by metal-containing nanoparticles: nanoscale insights

    PubMed Central

    Schlathölter, Thomas; Eustache, Pierre; Porcel, Erika; Salado, Daniela; Stefancikova, Lenka; Tillement, Olivier; Lux, Francois; Mowat, Pierre; Biegun, Aleksandra K; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Remita, Hynd; Lacombe, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles to enhance the effect of radiation-based cancer treatments is a growing field of study and recently, even nanoparticle-induced improvement of proton therapy performance has been investigated. Aiming at a clinical implementation of this approach, it is essential to characterize the mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects of nanoparticles combined with proton irradiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of platinum- and gadolinium-based nanoparticles on the nanoscale damage induced by a proton beam of therapeutically relevant energy (150 MeV) using plasmid DNA molecular probe. Two conditions of irradiation (0.44 and 3.6 keV/μm) were considered to mimic the beam properties at the entrance and at the end of the proton track. We demonstrate that the two metal-containing nanoparticles amplify, in particular, the induction of nanosize damages (>2 nm) which are most lethal for cells. More importantly, this effect is even more pronounced at the end of the proton track. This work gives a new insight into the underlying mechanisms on the nanoscale and indicates that the addition of metal-based nanoparticles is a promising strategy not only to increase the cell killing action of fast protons, but also to improve tumor targeting. PMID:27143877

  15. Thermal plasma process for recovering monomers and high value carbons from polymeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Richard; Grossmann, Elihu D.; Guddeti, Ravikishan R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of recycling polymeric waste products into monomers and high value forms of carbon by pyrolytic conversion using an induction coupled RF plasma heated reactor.

  16. Polar, Functional Diene-Based Materials: Free Radical Polymerization of 2-Cyanomethyl-1,3-Butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Y

    2000-09-12

    This thesis presented here focuses on the synthesis of 2-cyanomethyl-l ,3-butadiene and the free-radical polymerization of this monomer. In addition to the bulk, solution and emulsion polymerizations,, copolymerization with styrene and acrylonitrile will also be discussed. The comonomers were chosen due to the potential applications mentioned above. Furthermore, the thermal properties and rnicrostructures of the homopolymers and the copolymers are examined.

  17. L-Lactide Ring-Opening Polymerization with Tris(acetylacetonate)Titanium(IV) for Renewable Material.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Hee; Yoo, Ji Yun; Ko, Young Soo

    2016-05-01

    A new Ti-type of catalyst for L-lactide polymerization was synthesized by reaction of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) with acetylacetone (AA). Moreover, PLA was prepared by the bulk ring-opening polymerization using synthesized Ti catalyst. Polymerization behaviors were examined depending on monomer/catalyst molar ratio, polymerization temperature and time. The structure of synthesized catalysts was verified with FT-IR and 1H NMR and the properties of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) were examined by GPC, DSC and FT-IR. There existed about 30 minutes of induction time at the monomer/catalyst molar ratio of 300. The molecular weight (MW) increased as monomer/catalyst molar ratio increased. The MW increased almost linearly as polymerization progressed. Increasing polymerization temperature increased the molecular weight of PLLA as well as monomer/catalyst molar ratio. The melting point (T(m)) of polymers was in the range of 142 to 167 degrees C. Lower T(m) was expected to be resulted from relatively lower molecular weight.

  18. Enhancement of Raman light scattering in dye-labeled cell membrane on metal-containing conducting polymer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grushevskaya, H. V.; Krylova, N. G.; Lipnevich, I. V.; Orekhovskaja, T. I.; Egorova, V. P.; Shulitski, B. G.

    2016-03-01

    An enhanced Raman spectroscopy method based on a plasmon resonance in ultrathin metal-containing LB-film deposited on nanoporous anodic alumina supports has been proposed. This material has been utilized to enhance Raman scattering of light in fluorescent-labeled subcellular membrane structures. It has been shown that the plasmon resonance between vibrational modes of the organometallic complexes monolayers and dye-labeled subcellular structures happens. It makes possible to detect interactions between living cell monolayers and an extracellular matrix.

  19. Biocompatibility evaluations and biomedical sensing applications of nitric oxide-releasing/generating polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiduo

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent signaling molecule secreted by healthy vascular endothelial cells (EC) that is capable of inhibiting the activation and adhesion of platelets, preventing inflammation and inducing vasodilation. Polymeric materials that mimic the EC through the continuous release or generation of NO are expected to exhibit enhanced biocompatibility in vivo. In this dissertation research, the biocompatibility of novel NO-releasing/generating materials has been evaluated via both in vitro and in vivo studies. A new in vitro platelet adhesion assay has been designed to quantify platelet adhesion on NO-releasing/generating polymer surfaces via their innate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content. Using this assay, it was discovered that continuous NO fluxes of up to 7.05 x10-10 mol cm-2 min-1 emitted from the polymer surfaces could reduce platelet adhesion by almost 80%. Such an in vitro biocompatibility assay can be employed as a preliminary screening method in the development of new NO-releasing/generating materials. In addition, the first in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of NO-generating polymers was conducted in a porcine artery model for intravascular oxygen sensing catheters. The Cu(I)-catalyzed decomposition of endogenous S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) generated NO in situ at the polymer/blood interface and offered enhanced biocompatibility to the NO-generating catheters along with more accurate analytical results for intra-arterial measurements of PO2 levels. NO-generating polymers can also be utilized to fabricate electrochemical RSNO sensors based on the amperometric detection of NO generated by the reaction of RSNOs with immobilized catalysts. Unlike conventional methodologies employed to measure labile RSNO, the advantage of the RSNO sensor method is that measurement in whole blood samples is possible and this minimizes sample processing artifacts in RSNO measurements. An electrochemical RSNO sensor with organoselenium crosslinked polyethylenimine (RSe

  20. Polymerization shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion of contemporary posterior resin-based filling materials--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rüttermann, Stefan; Krüger, Sören; Raab, Wolfgang H-M; Janda, Ralf

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the polymerization shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion of contemporary posterior resin-based filling materials. The densities of SureFil (SU), CeramXMono (CM), Clearfil AP-X (CF), Solitaire 2 (SO), TetricEvoCeram (TE), and Filtek P60 (FT) were measured using the Archimedes' principle prior to and 15min after curing for 20, 40 and 60s and after 1h, 24h, 7 d, and 30 d storage at 37 degrees C in water. Volumetric changes (DeltaV) in percent after polymerization and after each storage period in water were calculated from the changes of densities. Water sorption and solubility were determined after 30 d for all specimens and their curing times. Two-way ANOVA was calculated for shrinkage and repeated measures ANOVA was calculated for hygroscopic expansion (p<0.05). DeltaV depended on filler load but not on curing time (SU approximately -2.0%, CM approximately -2.6%, CF approximately -2.1%, SO approximately -3.3%, TE approximately -1.7%, FT approximately -1.8%). Hygroscopic expansion depended on water sorption and solubility. Except for SU, all materials showed DeltaV approximately +1% after water storage. Polymerization shrinkage depended on the type of resin-based filling material but not on curing time. Shrinkage was not compensated by hygroscopic expansion.

  1. Effect of membrane polymeric materials on relationship between surface pore size and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Taro; Yuasa, Kotaku; Ishigami, Toru; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Kamio, Eiji; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Saeki, Daisuke; Ni, Jinren; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of different membrane polymeric materials on the relationship between membrane pore size and development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Membranes with different pore sizes were prepared using three different polymeric materials, cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and the development of membrane fouling in each membrane was evaluated by batch filtration tests using a mixed liquor suspension obtained from a laboratory-scale MBR. The results revealed that the optimal membrane pore size to mitigate membrane fouling differed depending on membrane polymeric material. For PVDF membranes, the degree of membrane fouling decreased as membrane pore size increased. In contrast, CAB membranes with smaller pores had less fouling propensity than those with larger ones. Such difference can be attributed to the difference in major membrane foulants in each membrane; in PVDF, they were small colloids or dissolved organics in which proteins are abundant, and in CAB, microbial flocs. The results obtained in this study strongly suggested that optimum operating conditions of MBRs differ depending on the characteristics of the used membrane.

  2. Electrochemical method for synthesizing metal-containing particles and other objects

    DOEpatents

    Rondinone, Adam Justin; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Smith, Sean Campbell; Liang, Chengdu; Hensley, Dale K.; Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2017-05-02

    The invention is directed to a method for producing metal-containing (e.g., non-oxide, oxide, or elemental) nano-objects, which may be nanoparticles or nanowires, the method comprising contacting an aqueous solution comprising a metal salt and water with an electrically powered electrode to form said metal-containing nano-objects dislodged from the electrode, wherein said electrode possesses a nanotextured surface that functions to confine the particle growth process to form said metal-containing nano-objects. The invention is also directed to the resulting metal-containing compositions as well as devices in which they are incorporated.

  3. Metal-containing residues from industry and in the environment: geobiotechnological urban mining.

    PubMed

    Glombitza, Franz; Reichel, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explains the manifold geobiotechnological possibilities to separate industrial valuable metals from various industrial residues and stored waste products of the past. In addition to an overview of the different microbially catalyzed chemical reactions applicable for a separation of metals and details of published studies, results of many individual investigations from various research projects are described. These concern the separation of rare earth elements from phosphorous production slags, the attempts of tin leaching from mining flotation residues, the separation of metals from spent catalysts, or the treatment of ashes as valuable metal-containing material. The residues of environmental technologies are integrated into this overview as well. The description of the different known microbial processes offers starting points for suitable and new technologies. In addition to the application of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms the use of heterotrophic microorganisms is explained.

  4. [Methodical aspects of hygienic safety assessment of polymeric materials in contact with foodstuffs].

    PubMed

    Rakitskiĭ, V N; Iudina, T V; Fedorova, N E

    2012-01-01

    It was purposed new technique by capillary gas chromatography (GC) for the low level determination of monomer hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) in food simulants water from polymeric materials in contact with foodstuffs. Hexamethylenediamine, HN2-(CH2)6-NH2, is a monomer used in the manufacture of certain of polyamide plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. Compound exhibits all the chemical properties of aliphatic amines, is an irritant, causing dermatitis, can accumulate in the body, the degree of human exposure to HMDA assigned to the 2nd class of hazard - the substance is highly dangerous. There was studied two methodological approaches pre-derivatization of compound for GC determination. The first approach involves conversion of the free diamine using ethyl chloroformate as derivatizing agent followed by analysis of the resulting diurethan by gas chromatography using a flame ionization and mass selective detection (HMDA was quantitated by selective ion monitoring at m/z 102, the lower detection limit of 1 ng). According to second methodological approach the water samples were mixed with sodium chloride and extracted with toluene, then derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride (60 min, 55 degrees C) to diamide, 1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7,0) was add to remove excess derivatizing agent, followed by analysis of resulting diamide by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (lower limit value 0,01 ng). Conformation of HMDA levels is carried out by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HMDA was quantitated by selective ion monitoring at m/z 126, the lower limit value of 0,1 ng). The optimal pre-derivatization of the second approach for the determination of low levels of HMDA in the water extracts. The range of measured concentrations of 0,005-0,5 mg/dm3, recovery 88-101%, the total error of measurement is 16%, the relative standard deviation is 1,85%. The method was tested in the study of aqueous extracts

  5. Temperature changes under demineralized dentin during polymerization of three resin-based restorative materials using QTH and LED units

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Sayed-Mostafa; Moharreri, Mohammadreza; Atai, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Light-curing of resin-based materials (RBMs) increases the pulp chamber temperature, with detrimental effects on the vital pulp. This in vitro study compared the temperature rise under demineralized human tooth dentin during light-curing and the degrees of conversion (DCs) of three different RBMs using quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) units (LCUs). Materials and Methods Demineralized and non-demineralized dentin disks were prepared from 120 extracted human mandibular molars. The temperature rise under the dentin disks (n = 12) during the light-curing of three RBMs, i.e. an Ormocer-based composite resin (Ceram. X, Dentsply DeTrey), a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE), and a giomer (Beautifil II, Shofu GmbH), was measured with a K-type thermocouple wire. The DCs of the materials were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results The temperature rise under the demineralized dentin disks was higher than that under the non-demineralized dentin disks during the polymerization of all restorative materials (p < 0.05). Filtek P90 induced higher temperature rise during polymerization than Ceram.X and Beautifil II under demineralized dentin (p < 0.05). The temperature rise under demineralized dentin during Filtek P90 polymerization exceeded the threshold value (5.5℃), with no significant differences between the DCs of the test materials (p > 0.05). Conclusions Although there were no significant differences in the DCs, the temperature rise under demineralized dentin disks for the silorane-based composite was higher than that for dimethacrylate-based restorative materials, particularly with QTH LCU. PMID:25110638

  6. The effects of non-ionic polymeric surfactants on the cleaning of biofouled hydrogel materials.

    PubMed

    Guan, Allan; Li, Zhenyu; Phillips, K Scott

    2015-01-01

    Block co-polymer surfactants have been used for cleaning hydrogel medical devices that contact the body (e.g., contact lenses) because of their biocompatibility. This work examined the relationship between concentration and detergency of two non-ionic polymeric surfactants (Pluronic F127 and Triton X-100) for cleaning protein soil, with anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate) as positive controls. Surface plasmon resonance was used to quantify removal of simulated tear soil from self-assembled monolayer surfaces, and a microplate format was used to study the removal of fluorescently labeled soil proteins from contact lenses. While detergency increased as a function of concentration for anionic surfactants, it decreased with concentration for the two polymeric surfactants. The fact that the protein detergency of some non-ionic polymeric surfactants did not increase with concentration above the critical micelle concentration could have implications for optimizing the tradeoff between detergency and biocompatibility.

  7. Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials.

    PubMed

    Sábio, Sérgio; Franciscone, Paulo Afonso; Mondelli, José

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test) were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic), a polyether (Impregum), a condensation silicone (Xantopren) and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil)] when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop) and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin) gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin) affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength and polymerization

  8. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL GINGIVAL RETRACTION SOLUTIONS ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH AND INHIBITION OF POLYMERIZATION OF FOUR TYPES OF IMPRESSION MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Sábio, Sérgio; Franciscone, Paulo Afonso; Mondelli, José

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test) were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic), a polyether (Impregum), a condensation silicone (Xantopren) and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil)] when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop) and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin) gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin) affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength and polymerization

  9. The development of coil short circuits when transformer windings become contaminated with metal-containing colloidal particles

    SciTech Connect

    L'vov, S. Yu.; Lyut'ko, E. O.; Bondareva, V. N.; Komarov, V. B.; L'vov, Yu. N.

    2012-01-15

    The radiational-thermal development of coil short circuits due to the action of partial discharges of the first kind when the windings of transformers, autotransformers and shunting reactors become contaminated with metal-containing colloidal particles, formed in the transformer oil as a result of the interaction of the oil with the constructional materials (the copper of the windings, the iron of the tank, the core etc.) is considered. Acriterion of dangerous contamination of the coil insulation of the windings by metal-containing colloidal particles is proposed, namely, 3% of the mass content of copper and iron in it, which, if exceeded, may serve as a basis for recognizing the state of transformers, autotransformers and shunting reactors at a voltage of 110 kV and above the limit. It is shown that filters for continuously cleaning the oil play a considerable role in prolonging the life of transformer equipment.

  10. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

  11. Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Daniele; Kwon, Seong-Ji; Figi, Harry; Kwon, O-Pil; Jazbinsek, Mojca; Günter, Peter

    2008-03-28

    We compare the photochemical stability of the nonlinear optical chromophore configurationally locked polyene 2-{3-[2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene} malononitrile (DAT2) embedded in a polymeric matrix and in a single-crystalline configuration. The results show that, under resonant light excitations, the polymeric compound degrades through an indirect process, while the DAT2 crystal follows a slow direct process. We show that chromophores in a crystalline environment exhibit three orders of magnitude better photostability as compared to guest-host polymer composites.

  12. Weatherability Evaluation of Nanocomposite Polymeric Treatments for Surface Protection of Construction Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Scarfato, Paola; Letizia Fariello, Maria; Di Maio, Luciano; Incarnato, Loredana

    2010-06-02

    In this work the protective efficacy and stability against UV weathering of polymeric nanocomposites for concrete (CLS) surface protection have been evaluated. In particular, nanocomposite hybrids were prepared dispersing a commercial organomodified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B) in two different polymeric matrices, one based on fluoroelastomers (Fluoline CP), the other on silane and siloxane (Antipluviol S). The obtained systems were characterized by several techniques (SAXD, DSC, TGA, FT-IR, contact angle measurements, colorimetry), before and after accelerated aging due to UV exposure, in order to evaluate the effect of the nanoscale dispersion of the organoclay on the properties and the UV stability of the treatments.

  13. Optical and Microwave Spectroscopy of Transient Metal-Containing Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Small metal containing molecules are ideal venues for testing Fundamental Physics, investigating relativistic effects, and modelling spin-orbit induced unimolecular dynamics. Electronic spectroscopy is an effective method for probing these phenomena because such spectra are readily recorded at the natural linewidth limited resolution and accuracy of 0.0001 wn. The information garnered includes fine and hyperfine interactions, magnetic and electric dipoles, and dynamics. With this in mind, three examples from our recent (unpublished) studies will be highlighted. SiHD: Long ago Duxbury et al. developed a semi-quantitative model invoking Renner-Teller and spin-orbit coupling of the tilde{a}3B{1}, tilde{X}1A1, and tilde{A}1B1, states to explain the observed local perturbations and anomalous radiative lifetimes in the visible spectrum. More recently, the tilde{a}3B1 to tilde{A}1B1 intersystem crossing has been modeled using both semi-classical transition state theory and quantum trajectory surface hopping dynamics. Here we investigate the effects of the reduced symmetry of SiHD on the spectroscopy and dynamics using 2D spectroscopy. Rotationally resolved lines in the origin tilde{X}1A'→ tilde{A}1A" band are assigned to both c-type transitions and additional axis-switching induced transitions. AuO and AuS: The observed markedly different bonding of thiols and alcohols to gold clusters should be traceable to the difference in Au-O and Au-S bonding. To investigate this difference we have used optical Stark and Zeeman spectroscopy to determine the permanent electric dipole moments and magnetic g-factors. The results are rationalized using simple m.o. correlation diagrams and compared to ab initio predictions. TaN: TaN is the best candidate to search for a T,P- violating nuclear magnetic quadrupole moment. Here we report on the optical 2D, Stark, and Zeeman spectra, and our efforts to record the pure rotational spectrum using the separated field pump/probe microwave

  14. Pyrolysis of polymeric materials. I - Effect of chemical structure, temperature, heating rate, and air flow on char yield and toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Various polymeric materials, including synthetic polymers and cellulosic materials, were evaluated at different temperatures, heating rates and air flow rates for thermophysical and toxicological responses. It is shown that char yields appeared to be a function of air access as much as of the chemical structure of the material. It is stated that the sensitivity of the apparent thermal stability of some materials to air access is so marked that thermogravimetric studies in oxygen-free atmospheres may be a consistently misleading approach to comparing synthetic polymers intended to increase fire safety. Toxicity also appeared to be a function of temperature and air access as much as of the chemical structure of the material. Toxicity of the gases evolved seemed to increase with increasing char yield for some polymers.

  15. Pyrolysis of polymeric materials. I - Effect of chemical structure, temperature, heating rate, and air flow on char yield and toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Various polymeric materials, including synthetic polymers and cellulosic materials, were evaluated at different temperatures, heating rates and air flow rates for thermophysical and toxicological responses. It is shown that char yields appeared to be a function of air access as much as of the chemical structure of the material. It is stated that the sensitivity of the apparent thermal stability of some materials to air access is so marked that thermogravimetric studies in oxygen-free atmospheres may be a consistently misleading approach to comparing synthetic polymers intended to increase fire safety. Toxicity also appeared to be a function of temperature and air access as much as of the chemical structure of the material. Toxicity of the gases evolved seemed to increase with increasing char yield for some polymers.

  16. Mechanical and spectroscopic properties of metal-containing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. T.; St.clair, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of specific metal ions into polyimides is described. Detailed studies have included various compounds of copper, lithium, and palladium as dopants. Addition of the metal during polymerization or after formation of the polyamic acid precedes the thermal imidization step. With many dianhydride-diamine-dopant combinations high quality variously colored films are produced. Many metal doped films exhibit (1) improved high temperature adhesive properties, (2) increased electrical conductivity, (3) excellent thermal stability, (4) improved acid/base resistance, (5) increased modulus in flexible films and (6) excellent high temperature tensile strength. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopic study of these films suggests that many of the additives undergo chemical modification during thermal imidization. Palladium dopants appear to be partially reduced to the metallic state, while lithium and copper dopants are probably converted to their oxides. Ion etching experiments with Auger electron spectroscopy monitoring are discussed.

  17. Thermodynamic characterization of polymeric materials subjected to non-isothermal flows: Experiment, theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Tudor Constantin

    Frictional or viscous heating phenomena are found in virtually every industrial operation dealing with processing of polymeric materials. This work is aimed at addressing some of the existing shortcomings in modeling non-isothermal polymer flowing processes. Specifically, existing theories suggest that when a polymer melt is subjected to deformation, its internal energy changes very little compared to its conformational entropy. This statement forms the definition of the Theory of Purely Entropic Elasticity (PEE) applied to polymer melts. Under the auspices of this theory, the temperature evolution equation for modeling the polymer melt under an applied deformation is greatly simplified. In this study, using a combination of experimental measurements, continuum-based computer modeling and molecular simulation techniques, the validity of this theory is tested for a wide range of processing conditions. First, we present experimental evidence that this theory is only valid for low deformation regimes. Furthermore, using molecular theory, a direct correlation is found between the relaxation characteristics of the polymer and the flow regime where this theory stops being valid. We present a new and improved form of the temperature equation containing an extra term previously neglected under the PEE assumption, followed by a recipe for evaluating the extra term. The corrected temperature equation is found to give more accurate predictions for the temperature profiles in the high flow rate regimes, in excellent agreement with our experimental measurements. Next, in order to gain a molecular-level understanding of our experimental findings, a series of polydisperse linear alkane systems with average chain lengths between 24 and 78 carbon atoms are modeled with an applied "orienting field" using a highly efficient non-equilibrium Monte Carlo scheme. Our simulation results appear to substantiate our experimental findings. The internal energy change of the oriented

  18. Effects of Antioxidants on Polymeric Coatings for a Fibrous Collagen Material: Leather

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of our research endeavors has focused on an environmentally friendly finishing process that will improve the UV and heat resistance of chrome-free leather. Experiments were conducted by adding 1 to 5% alpha-tocopherol and mixed-tocopherol to the grain layer finishes (polymeric topcoat) of chrom...

  19. 9 CFR 355.33 - Plant number to be embossed on metal containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant number to be embossed on metal... Plant number to be embossed on metal containers. The official number assigned to an inspected plant under § 355.8 shall be embossed on all sealed metal containers of certified products filled in...

  20. 9 CFR 355.33 - Plant number to be embossed on metal containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant number to be embossed on metal... Plant number to be embossed on metal containers. The official number assigned to an inspected plant under § 355.8 shall be embossed on all sealed metal containers of certified products filled in...

  1. Novel biocompatible polymeric blends for bone regeneration: Material and matrix design and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Meng

    The first part of the work presented in this dissertation is focused on the design and development of novel miscible and biocompatible polyphosphazene-polyester blends as candidate materials for scaffold-based bone tissue engineering applications. Biodegradable polyesters such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) are among the most widely used polymeric materials for bone tissue engineering. However, acidic degradation products resulting from the bulk degradation mechanism often lead to catastrophic failure of the structure integrity, and adversely affect biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. One promising approach to circumvent these limitations is to blend PLAGA with other macromolecules that can buffer the acidic degradation products with a controlled degradation rate. Biodegradable polyphosphazenes (PPHOS), a new class of biomedical materials, have proved to be superior candidate materials to achieve this objective due to their unique buffering degradation products. A highly practical blending approach was adopted to develop novel biocompatible, miscible blends of these two polymers. In order to achieve this miscibility, a series of amino acid ester, alkoxy, aryloxy, and dipeptide substituted PPHOS were synthesized to promote hydrogen bonding interactions with PLAGA. Five mixed-substituent PPHOS compositions were designed and blended with PLAGA at different weight ratios producing candidate blends via a mutual solvent method. Preliminary characterization identified two specific side groups namely glycylglycine dipeptide and phenylphenoxy that resulted in improved blend miscibility and enhanced in vitro osteocompatibility. These findings led to the synthesis of a mixed-substituent polyphosphazene poly[(glycine ethyl glycinato)1(phenylphenoxy)1phosphazene] (PNGEGPhPh) for blending with PLAGA. Two dipeptide-based blends having weight ratios of PNGEGPhPh to PLAGA namely 25:75 (Matrix1) and 50:50 (Matrix2) were fabricated. Both of the blends were

  2. New Polymeric Materials Expected to Have Superior Properties for Space-Based Use.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    85-129 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b OFFICE SYMBOL 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATIONI (If applcle) SRI International aRome Air Development...polymers has been evaluated, and some of the data are presented below. Polyethylene (PE) The radiation chemistry of PE has been extensively studied...U. S. Patent 1,906,402 (1929). 2. A. Chapiro, Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems (Interscience Publishers, NY., 1962). 3. A. Chapiro, J. Chim

  3. Self-healing of polymeric materials: The effect of the amount of DCPD confined within microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipara, Dorina M.; Perez, Alma; Lozano, Karen; Elamin, Ibrahim; Villarreal, Jahaziel; Salinas, Alfonso; Chipara, Mircea

    2013-03-01

    The self-healing SH) of polymers is based on the dispersion of a catalyst and of microcapsules filled with monomer within the polymeric matrix. Sufficiently large external stresses will rupture the microcapsule, releasing the monomer which will diffuse through the polymer and eventually will reach a catalyst particle igniting a polymerization reaction. The classical SH system includes first generation Grubbs catalyst and poly-urea formaldehyde microcapsules filled with DCPD. The polymerization reaction is a ring-opening metathesis. The size and the mechanical features of microcapsules are critical in controlling the SH process. Research was focused on the effect of DCPD on the size and thickness of microcapsules. Microscopy was used to determine the size of microcapsules (typically in the range of 10-4 m) and the thickness of the microcapsules (ranging between 10-6 to 10-8 m). Research revealed a thick disordered layer over a thin and more compact wall. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the confinement of DCPD, TGA measurements aimed to a better understanding of the degradation processes in inert atmosphere, and mechanical tests supported the ignition of self-healing properties. This research has been supported by National Science Foundation under DMR (PREM) grant 0934157.

  4. Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials.

    PubMed

    Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Schlie, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Haverich, Axel; Chichkov, Boris N

    2007-01-01

    We report on recent advances in the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine constructs using a two-photon polymerization technique (2PP). 2PP is a novel CAD/CAM technology allowing the fabrication of any computer-designed 3D structure from a photosensitive polymeric material. The flexibility of this technology and the ability to precisely define 3D construct geometry allows issues associated with vascularization and patient-specific tissue fabrication to be directly addressed. The fabrication of reproducible scaffold structures by 2PP is important for systematic studies of cellular processes and better understanding of in vitro tissue formation. In this study, 2PP was applied for the generation of 3D scaffold-like structures, using the photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer ORMOCER (ORganically MOdified CERamics) and epoxy-based SU8 materials. By comparing the proliferation rates of cells grown on flat material surfaces and under control conditions, it was demonstrated that ORMOCER and SU8 are not cytotoxic. Additional tests show that the DNA strand breaking of GFSHR-17 granulosa cells was not affected by the presence of ORMOCER. Furthermore, gap junction conductance measurements revealed that ORMOCER did not alter the formation of cell-cell junctions, critical for functional tissue growth. The possibilities of seeding 3D structures with cells were analysed. These studies demonstrate the great potential of 2PP technique for the manufacturing of scaffolds with controlled topology and properties.

  5. A simple method for the prediction of the detonation performances of metal-containing explosives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Jichuan; Su, Hui; Li, Shenghua; Zhang, Shaowen; Pang, Siping

    2014-06-26

    Accurate prediction to the detonation performances of different kinds of energetic materials has attracted significant attention in the area of high energy density materials (HEDMs). A common approach for the estimation of CHNO explosives is the Kamlet-Jacobs (K-J) equation. However, with the development of energetic materials, the components of explosives are no longer restricted to CHNO elements. In this study, we have extended the K-J equation to the calculation of certain metal-containing explosives. A new empirical method, in which metal elements are assumed to form metallic oxides, has been developed on the basis of the largest exothermic principle. In this method, metal oxides can be deemed as inert solids that release heat other than gases. To evaluate the prediction accuracy of new method, a commercial program EXPLO5 has been employed for the calculation. The difference involved in the ways of treating products has been taken into account, and the detonation parameters from two methods were subject to close comparison. The results suggest that the mean absolute values (MAVs) of relative deviation for detonation velocity (D) and detonation pressure (P) are less than 5%. Overall, this new method has exhibited excellent accuracy and simplicity, affording an efficient way to estimate the performance of explosives without relying on sophisticated computer programs. Therefore, it will be helpful in designing and synthesizing new metallic energetic compounds.

  6. Effect of material properties on stresses at the restoration-dentin interface of composite restorations during polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Bill; Kotousov, Andrei; Borkowski, Krzysztof

    2006-10-01

    Numerous analyses for the shrinkage stress in the adhesive resin-based composite restorations mostly rely on numerical models. However, various finite element studies have inherent difficulties and inconsistencies associated with the use of different anatomy (tooth and restoration), boundary conditions (root and interfaces) and shrinkage models. As a consequence many numerical results remain inconclusive. The objective of this paper is to develop a simplified analytical model of shrinkage stress and investigate effects of material properties of the restorative material, size of the restoration and volumetric shrinkage on the magnitude of the shrinkage stress in the vicinity of the dental-restoration interface. The model is based on the following assumptions. The geometry is axisymmetric; all materials are linear-elastic; and the polymerization of the restoration material results in uniform volume shrinkage. An application of compatibility conditions leads to the system of five linear algebraic equations to five unknown variables, which can be easily resolved using standard techniques. An explicit equation for the tensile stress at the interface was obtained. It was shown that higher Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and volume shrinkage of the restorative material normally lead to larger tensile stress at the interface, which increases the risk of debonding. The results obtained based in this work, in general, are in a good agreement with published results of finite element studies. The model allows comparison of different adhesive restorative materials with respect to the fracture risk of the interface induced by the development of the shrinkage stress at the restoration-dentine interface during polymerization. The model can be used to validate more sophisticated computational models as well as to conduct various optimization studies and preliminary assessments of fracture risk.

  7. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of high-performance polymeric materials: Part I. Silphenylene-siloxanes. Part II. Biodegradable films from gelatins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruzhi

    Poly(tetramethyl-m-silphenylene-siloxane) (PTMMS) has been successfully synthesized from m-bis(dimethylhydroxysilyl)benzene in a step-growth polymerization using n-hexylamine 2-ethylhexoate as the catalyst. The glass transition temperature of PTMMS is -52 °C, but no melting temperature was detected by DSC. TGA measurements revealed excellent high-temperature properties under nitrogen or air. Random copolymers of tetramethyl-p-silphenylene-siloxane and tetramethyl-m-silphenylene-siloxane were synthesized through condensation copolymerization. Alternating copolymers were prepared through dehydrogenation polymerization. The physical properties can be adjusted from those of a crystalline polymer to those of an amorphous, elastomeric polymer by increasing the amount of the meta comonomer. Thermal studies revealed that these copolymers possess excellent thermal stability. PTMMS has been successfully cross-linked by UV irradiation under air or argon in the presence of benzophenone. Mechanical properties of PTMMS networks were studied by equilibrium stress-strain measurements, and the cross-link density was estimated by means of the Mooney-Rivlin equation. TGA studies revealed that PTMMS elastomers have excellent thermal and thermo-oxidative stabilities. Dehydrogenation polymerization of bis-silanes and disilanols to silphenylenesiloxane polymers through the formation of Si-O-Si bonds as mediated by a rhodium complex was successfully developed. Coordination polymerization using Wilkinson's catalyst provided high molecular weight polymers in high yield at room temperature in an open system. Octamethylcyclo-di(meta-silphenylenesiloxane) (cyclic meta-dimer) was synthesized as the dominant cyclic oligomer product from 1,3--bis(dimethylhydroxysilyl)benzene using 4-dimethylaminopyridine as the catalyst in a dilute THF solution. The X-ray structure of the cyclic meta-dimer was obtained and the Si-O-Si bond angle is 142.1°. The attempted ring-opening polymerization of cyclic

  9. Development of Novel Polymeric Materials for Gene Therapy and pH-Sensitive Drug Delivery: Modeling, Synthesis, Characterization, and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian Curtis

    2002-01-01

    The underlying theme of this thesis is the use of polymeric materials in bioapplications. Chapters 2-5 either develop a fundamental understanding of current materials used for bioapplications or establish protocols and procedures used in characterizing and synthesizing novel materials. In chapters 6 and 7 these principles and procedures are applied to the development of materials to be used for gene therapy and drug delivery. Chapter one is an introduction to the ideas that will be necessary to understand the subsequent chapters, as well as a literature review of these topics. Chapter two is a paper that has been published in the ''Journal of Controlled Release'' that examines the mechanism of drug release from a polymer gel, as well as experimental design suggestions for the evaluation of water soluble drug delivery systems. Chapter three is a paper that has been published in the ''Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences'' that discusses the effect ionic salts have on properties of the polymer systems examined in chapter two. Chapter four is a paper published in the Materials Research Society Fall 2000 Symposium Series dealing with the design and synthesis of a pH-sensitive polymeric drug delivery device. Chapter five is a paper that has been published in the journal ''Biomaterials'' proposing a novel polymer/metal composite for use as a biomaterial in hip arthroplasty surgery. Chapter six is a paper that will appear in an upcoming volume of the Journal ''Biomaterials'' dealing with the synthesis of a novel water soluble cationic polymer with possible applications in non-viral gene therapy. Chapter seven is a paper that has been submitted to ''Macromolecules'' discussing several novel block copolymers based on poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(diethylamino ethyl methacrylate) that possess both pH-sensitive and temperature sensitive properties. Chapter eight contains a summary of the research contained in chapters 2-7 and proposes future research for the gene therapy and

  10. Hydrophobic coating of solid materials by plasma-polymerized thin film using tetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozumi, K.; Kitamura, K.; Kitade, T.

    1980-01-01

    Glass slides were coated with plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films of different thickness using the glow discharge technique in a tube-shaped chamber, and the plasma conditions, film growth rates, light permeability of the polymer films, and particle bond strength in the polymer films were studied. Ashed sections of mouse organs and ashed bacillus spores were also coated to give them hydrophobic treatment without damaging their shapes or appearance. The hydrophobic coating of the specimens was successful, and the fine ash patterns were strongly fixed onto the glass slides, making permanent preparations.

  11. Forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials. Part III - Biodegradation of thermoformed rigid PLA packaging under industrial composting conditions.

    PubMed

    Musioł, Marta; Sikorska, Wanda; Adamus, Grazyna; Janeczek, Henryk; Richert, Jozef; Malinowski, Rafal; Jiang, Guozhan; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a forensic engineering study on the biodegradation behaviour of prototype packaging thermoformed from PLA-extruded film and plain PLA film under industrial composting conditions. Hydrolytic degradation in water was conducted for reference. The effects of composting duration on changes in molar mass, glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity of the polymeric material were monitored using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The chemical structure of water soluble degradation products of the polymeric material was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results show that the biodegradation process is less dependent on the thermoforming process of PLA and more dependent on the composting/degradation conditions that are applied. The increase in the dispersity index, leading to the bimodal molar mass distribution profile, suggests an autocatalytic hydrolysis effect at the early stage of the composting process, during which the bulk hydrolysis mechanism dominantly operates. Both the prototype PLA-packaging and PLA rigid film samples were shown to have a gradual increase in opacity due to an increase in the degree of crystallinity.

  12. "Click chemistry" in tailor-made polymethacrylates bearing reactive furfuryl functionality: a new class of self-healing polymeric material.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, A Amalin; Singha, Nikhil K

    2009-07-01

    This investigation reports the effective use of the Diels-Alder (DA) reaction, a "click reaction" in the preparation of thermally amendable and self-healing polymeric materials having reactive furfuryl functionality. In this case, the DA and retro-DA (rDA) reactions were carried out between the tailor-made homo- and copolymer of furfuryl methacrylate prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization and a bismaleimide (BM). The kinetic studies of DA and rDA reactions were carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The DA polymers were insoluble in toluene at room temperature. When the DA polymers were heated at 100 degrees C in toluene, it was soluble. This is because of the cleavage between furfuryl functionality and BM. The chemical cross-link density was determined by the Flory-Rehner equation. The cross-linked polymer showed much greater adhesive strength at room temperature, but the adhesive strength was quite low at higher temperature. The self-healing capability was studied by using scanning electron microscopy analysis. The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of the thermally amendable cross-linked materials were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  13. Facile electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole film applied as cathode material in dual rotating disk photo fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kan; Zhang, Hongbo; Tang, Tiantian; Tang, Yanping; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2016-08-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) film is synthesized on Ti substrate through electrochemical polymerization method and is applied as cathode material in a TiO2 NTs-PPy dual rotating disk photo fuel cell (PFC). The optimized PPy electrochemical polymerization is carried out using linear sweep voltammetry from 0 V to 1.2 V (vs. SCE) with scan rate of 0.1 V s-1, 100 circles. Sixty milliliter real textile wastewater with the initial COD and conductivity of 408 ± 6 mgO2 L-1 and 20180 μS cm-1 is treated in this PFC under UV irradiation. About 0.46 V open-circuit voltage (VOC) and 1.8-2.2 mA short-circuit current (JSC) are obtained. Due to the effective electron-hole separation effect, the COD removal rate is as high as 0.0055 min-1. Stable current and COD removal can be obtained at different output voltage. Two influence factors including rotating speed and pH are investigated. Better electricity generation performance and COD removal activity are achieved at high rotating speed and in acidic condition. In comparison with platinized cathode, though VOC is lower, similar JSC is measured. Considering the high cost of Pt, PPy is a promising alternative cathode material in PFC that can also generate electricity efficiently and stably.

  14. A correction method for dual energy liquid CT image reconstruction with metallic containers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Zhang, Li; Chen, Zhiqiang; Li, Liang

    2012-01-01

    With its capability of material discrimination, dual energy computed tomography (DECT) is widely used in security inspection for the purpose of detecting contraband. DECT provides effective atomic number image and electron density image in addition to traditional attenuation images. In dual energy liquid inspection system, the presence of metallic containers will cause partial volume effect (PVE) that leads to severe deviation in effective atomic number image. Usually, the deviation is too large for a reliable material discrimination and may cause false results. In this paper, a projection splitting method is proposed to combat the PVE. This method is based on the assumption that a prior projection of the empty container is available and photoelectric and Compton coefficient integrals can be calculated via dual energy decomposition. Each integral is split into two parts by subtracting the integral of the empty container from the total integral. The subtraction removes the integral part contributed by the container, thus discarding the error source created by PVE that appears on the boundary of the sinogram. Images are reconstructed in which only the interior liquid area remains. Experiments are performed in a real liquid inspection system to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. Accuracy of the reconstructed effective atomic number is greatly improved with this method, which helps a lot in determining the type of the object.

  15. Syringyl Methacrylate, a Hardwood Lignin-Based Monomer for High-Tg Polymeric Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As viable precursors to a diverse array of macromolecules, biomass-derived compounds must impart wide-ranging and precisely controllable properties to polymers. Herein, we report the synthesis and subsequent reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization of a new monomer, syringyl methacrylate (SM, 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl methacrylate), that can facilitate widespread property manipulations in macromolecules. Homopolymers and heteropolymers synthesized from SM and related monomers have broadly tunable and highly controllable glass transition temperatures ranging from 114 to 205 °C and zero-shear viscosities ranging from ∼0.2 kPa·s to ∼17,000 kPa·s at 220 °C, with consistent thermal stabilities. The tailorability of these properties is facilitated by the controlled polymerization kinetics of SM and the fact that one vs two o-methoxy groups negligibly affect monomer reactivity. Moreover, syringol, the precursor to SM, is an abundant component of depolymerized hardwood (e.g., oak) and graminaceous (e.g., switchgrass) lignins, making SM a potentially sustainable and low-cost candidate for tailoring macromolecular properties. PMID:27213117

  16. Generation, Detection and characterization of Gas-Phase Transition Metal containing Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Steimle, Timothy

    2015-12-15

    The objective of this project was to generate, detect, and characterize small, gas-phase, metal containing molecules. In addition to being relevant to high temperature chemical environments (e.g. plasmas and combustion), gas-phase experiments on metal containing molecules serve as the most direct link to a molecular-level theoretical model for catalysis. Catalysis (i.e. the addition of a small about of recoverable material to control the rate and direction of a chemical reaction) is critical to the petroleum and pharmaceutical industries as well as environmental remediation. Currently, the majority of catalytic materials are based on very expensive metals such as platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), iridium (Ir,) rhenium (Re), and rhodium (Rh). For example, the catalyst used for converting linear hydrocarbon molecules (e.g. hexane) to cyclic molecules (e.g. cyclohexane) is a mixture of Pt and Re suspended on alumina. It enables straight chain alkanes to be converted into branched-chain alkanes, cyclohexanes and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used, amongst other things, to enhance the octane number of petrol. A second example is the heterogeneous catalysis used in automobile exhaust systems to: a) decrease nitrogen oxide; b) reduce carbon monoxide; and c) oxidize unburned hydrocarbons. The exhaust is vented through a high-surface area chamber lined with Pt, Pd, and Rh. For example, the carbon monoxide is catalytically converted to carbon dioxide by reaction with oxygen. The research results from this work have been published in readily accessible journals1-28. The ground and excited electronic state properties of small metal containing molecules that we determine were: a) electronic state distributions and lifetimes, b) vibrational frequencies, c) bond lengths and angles, d) hyperfine interactions, e) permanent electric dipole moments, mel, and f) magnetic dipoles, μm. In general terms, μel, gives insight into the charge distribution and mm into

  17. System and process for aluminization of metal-containing substrates

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W

    2015-11-03

    A system and method are detailed for aluminizing surfaces of metallic substrates, parts, and components with a protective alumina layer in-situ. Aluminum (Al) foil sandwiched between the metallic components and a refractory material when heated in an oxidizing gas under a compression load at a selected temperature forms the protective alumina coating on the surface of the metallic components. The alumina coating minimizes evaporation of volatile metals from the metallic substrates, parts, and components in assembled devices during operation at high temperature that can degrade performance.

  18. A model of gravity-induced distribution of material in plasma polymerized aerosols and films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyn, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of the volumetric part of plasma polymerization influenced by gravity is presented. Plasma-activated adhesion of monomer molecules to a surface of a germinal particle is assumed as a basic mechanism of particulate growth. The continuity equation for the flow of matter through the discharge has been formulated and solved in two extreme asymptotic approximations --for small and major duration of the process. Several non-equilibrium distribution functions of the polymer were obtained, for instance, an amount of the particles as a function of their size or time of fall. Within the adopted model this function demonstrates a sharp downward increase inside a discharge. In addition it contains such parameters as the free fall acceleration or reaction rate coefficients, variations of which enable control of the discharge and properties of the disperse medium.

  19. Molecular interference of fibrin’s divalent polymerization mechanism enables modulation of multiscale material properties

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ashley C.; Baker, Stephen; Douglas, Alison; Keating, Mark; Alvarez-Elizondo, Martha; Botvinick, Elliot; Guthold, Martin; Barker, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Protein based polymers provide an exciting and complex landscape for tunable natural biomaterials through modulation of molecular level interactions. Here we demonstrate the ability to modify protein polymer structural and mechanical properties at multiple length scales by molecular ‘interference’ of fibrin’s native polymerization mechanism. We have previously reported that engagement of fibrin’s polymerization ‘hole b’, also known as ‘b-pockets’, through PEGylated complimentary ‘knob B’ mimics can increase fibrin network porosity but also, somewhat paradoxically, increase network stiffness. Here, we explore the possible mechanistic underpinning of this phenomenon through characterization of the effects of knob B-fibrin interaction at multiple length scales from molecular to bulk polymer. Despite its weak monovalent binding affinity for fibrin, addition of both knob B and PEGylated knob B at concentrations near the binding coefficient, Kd, increased fibrin network porosity, consistent with the reported role of knob B-hole b interactions in promoting lateral growth of fibrin fibers. Addition of PEGylated knob B decreases the extensibility of single fibrin fibers at concentrations near its Kd but increases extensibility of fibers at concentrations above its Kd. The data suggest this bimodal behavior is due to the individual contributions knob B, which decreases fiber extensibility, and PEG, which increase fiber extensibility. Taken together with laser trap-based microrheological and bulk rheological analyses of fibrin polymers, our data strongly suggests that hole b engagement increases in single fiber stiffness that translates to higher storage moduli of fibrin polymers despite their increased porosity. These data point to possible strategies for tuning fibrin polymer mechanical properties through modulation of single fiber mechanics. PMID:25725552

  20. Design and experimental validation of an adaptive phononic crystal using highly dissipative polymeric material interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billon, K.; Ouisse, M.; Sadoulet-Reboul, E.; Collet, M.; Chevallier, G.; Khelif, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, some numerical tools for dispersion analysis of periodic structures are presented, with a focus on the ability of the methods to deal with dissipative behaviour of the systems. An adaptive phononic crystal based on the combination of metallic parts and highly dissipative polymeric interface is designed. The system consists in an infinite periodic bidirectional waveguide. The periodic cylindrical pillars include a layer of shape memory polymer and Aluminum. The mechanical properties of the polymer depend on both temperature and frequency and can radically change from glassy to rubbery state, with various combination of high/low stiffness and high/low dissipation. A fractional derivative Zener model is used for the description of the frequency-dependent behaviour of the polymer. A 3D finite element model of the cell is developed for the design of the metamaterial. The "Shifted-Cell Operator" technique consists in a reformulation of the PDE problem by "shifting" in terms of wave number the space derivatives appearing in the mechanical behaviour operator inside the cell, while imposing continuity boundary conditions on the borders of the domain. Damping effects can easily be introduced in the system and a quadratic eigenvalue problem yields to the dispersion properties of the periodic structure. In order to validate the design and the adaptive character of the metamaterial, results issued from a full 3D model of a finite structure embedding an interface composed by a distributed set of the unit cells are presented. Various driving temperature are used to change the behaviour of the system. After this step, a comparison between the results obtained using the tunable structure simulation and the experimental results is presented. Two states are obtained by changing the temperature of the polymeric interface: at 25°C, the bandgap is visible around a selected frequency. Above the glass transition, the phononic crystal tends to behave as an homogeneous plate.

  1. Characterization and Gas Sensitivity of Polyaniline/Coral-Like SnO2 Hybrid Material Prepared by In Situ Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Tengrui; Lin, Zhidong; Qu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    A PANI/coral-like mesoporous SnO2 hybrid material was fabricated using in situ polymerization method at 0-5 degrees C. The coral-like mesoporous SnO2 was synthesized by controlling the hydrolysis of SnCl4 and subsequent removal of the templates by calcination in air. The obtained PANI/coral-like mesoporous SnO2 hybrid material was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TEM and SEM. The XRD pattern suggested that PANI did not modify the crystal structure of SnO2, but SnO2 affect the crystallization of PANI to some extents. The SEM and TEM pattern suggested that coral-like mesoporous SnO2 was enwrapped by PANI. The gas-sensing property of PANI/coral-like SnO2 hybrid material was also studied to NH3, trimethylamine (TMA), and SO2 at room temperature. It was found that the sensor based on PANI/coral-like SnO2 hybrid material had higher response and faster response/recovery to NH3, TMA and SO2 than that based on PANI. The sensing mechanism of the hybrid material was also investigated.

  2. Polymeric implant materials for the reconstruction of tracheal and pharyngeal mucosal defects in head and neck surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rickert, Dorothee

    2011-01-01

    The existing therapeutical options for the tracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction by use of implant materials are described. Inspite of a multitude of options and the availability of very different materials none of these methods applied for tracheal reconstruction were successfully introduced into the clinical routine. Essential problems are insufficiencies of anastomoses, stenoses, lack of mucociliary clearance and vascularisation. The advances in Tissue Engineering (TE) offer new therapeutical options also in the field of the reconstructive surgery of the trachea. In pharyngeal reconstruction far reaching developments cannot be recognized at the moment which would allow to give a prognosis of their success in clinical application. A new polymeric implant material consisting of multiblock copolymers was applied in our own work which was regarded as a promising material for the reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract (ADT) due to its physicochemical characteristics. In order to test this material for applications in the ADT under extreme chemical, enzymatical, bacterial and mechanical conditions we applied it for the reconstruction of a complete defect of the gastric wall in an animal model. In none of the animals tested either gastrointestinal complications or negative systemic events occurred, however, there was a multilayered regeneration of the gastric wall implying a regular structured mucosa. In future the advanced stem cell technology will allow further progress in the reconstruction of different kind of tissues also in the field of head and neck surgery following the principles of Tissue Engineering. PMID:22073099

  3. Polymer length distributions for catalytic polymerization within mesoporous materials: Non-Markovian behavior associated with partial extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Da-Jiang; Chen, Hung-Ting; Lin, Victor S.-Y.; Evans, J. W.

    2010-04-01

    We analyze a model for polymerization at catalytic sites distributed within parallel linear pores of a mesoporous material. Polymerization occurs primarily by reaction of monomers diffusing into the pores with the ends of polymers near the pore openings. Monomers and polymers undergo single-file diffusion within the pores. Model behavior, including the polymer length distribution, is determined by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a suitable atomistic-level lattice model. While the polymers remain within the pore, their length distribution during growth can be described qualitatively by a Markovian rate equation treatment. However, once they become partially extruded, the distribution is shown to exhibit non-Markovian scaling behavior. This feature is attributed to the long-tail in the "return-time distribution" for the protruding end of the partially extruded polymer to return to the pore, such return being necessary for further reaction and growth. The detailed form of the scaled length distribution is elucidated by application of continuous-time random walk theory.

  4. Polymer length distributions for catalytic polymerization within mesoporous materials: non-Markovian behavior associated with partial extrusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-Jiang; Chen, Hung-Ting; Lin, Victor S-Y; Evans, J W

    2010-04-21

    We analyze a model for polymerization at catalytic sites distributed within parallel linear pores of a mesoporous material. Polymerization occurs primarily by reaction of monomers diffusing into the pores with the ends of polymers near the pore openings. Monomers and polymers undergo single-file diffusion within the pores. Model behavior, including the polymer length distribution, is determined by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a suitable atomistic-level lattice model. While the polymers remain within the pore, their length distribution during growth can be described qualitatively by a Markovian rate equation treatment. However, once they become partially extruded, the distribution is shown to exhibit non-Markovian scaling behavior. This feature is attributed to the long-tail in the "return-time distribution" for the protruding end of the partially extruded polymer to return to the pore, such return being necessary for further reaction and growth. The detailed form of the scaled length distribution is elucidated by application of continuous-time random walk theory.

  5. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 8. Land Transportation Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    material and raising the combustion temperature of the burning plastics . In two tunnel fires, one in the Montreal Subway in January 1974, and the other in...the back seat, found a pack of matches. The upholstery materials in the back seat became ignited, and then the foam plastic padding material became in...extinguish the fire with a portable extinguisher but was driven back by the intense smoke. The foam plastic seating was the initial material observed to

  6. Process Controlled Multiscale Morphologies in Metal-containing Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Darling, Seth B.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (PS-b-PFS) is a metal-containing block copolymer that exhibits certain advantages as a mask for lithographic applications. These advantages include compatibility with a wide range of substrates, ease of control over domain morphologies and robust stability to etch plasma, which aid in the development of high-aspect-ratio patterns. An asymmetric cylinder-forming PS-b-PFS copolymer is subjected to different processing to manipulate the morphology of the phase-separated domains. Control of film structure and domain morphology is achieved by adjusting the film thickness, mode of annealing, and/or annealing time. Changing the process from thermal or solvent annealing to hybrid annealing (thermal and then solvent annealing in sequence) leads to the formation of mesoscale spherulitic and dendritic morphologies. In this communication, we show that reversing the order of the hybrid annealing (solvent annealing first and then thermal annealing) of relatively thick films (>100 nm) on homogeneously thick substrates develops disordered lamellar structure. Furthermore, the same processing applied on a substrate with a thin, mechanically flexible window in the center leads to the formation of sub-micron scale concentric ring patterns. Enhanced material mobility in the thick film during hybrid annealing along with dynamic rippling effects that may arise from the vibration of the thin window during spin casting are likely causes for these morphologies.

  7. Quantitative Interpretation of Multifrequency Multimode EPR Spectra of Metal Containing Proteins, Enzymes, and Biomimetic Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Petasis, Doros T.; Hendrich, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has long been a primary method for characterization of paramagnetic centers in materials and biological complexes. Transition metals in biological complexes have valence d-orbitals that largely define the chemistry of the metal centers. EPR spectra are distinctive for metal type, oxidation state, protein environment, substrates, and inhibitors. The study of many metal centers in proteins, enzymes, and biomimetic complexes has led to the development of a systematic methodology for quantitative interpretation of EPR spectra from a wide array of metal containing complexes. The methodology is now contained in the computer program SpinCount. SpinCount allows simulation of EPR spectra from any sample containing multiple species composed of one or two metals in any spin state. The simulations are quantitative, thus allowing determination of all species concentrations in a sample directly from spectra. This chapter will focus on applications to transition metals in biological systems using EPR spectra from multiple microwave frequencies and modes. PMID:26478486

  8. Metals contained and leached from rubber granulates used in synthetic turf areas.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Beatrice; Forte, Giovanni; Petrucci, Francesco; Costantini, Sergio; Izzo, Paolo

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this study was to quantify metals contained in and leached from different types of rubber granulates used in synthetic turf areas. To investigate the total content of metals, ca 0.5 g of material was added with HNO(3), HF and HClO(4) and microwave digested with power increasing from 250 W to 600 W. Leachates were prepared by extraction of about 5.0 g of material at room temperature for 24 h in an acidic environment (pH 5). Leaching with deionized water was also performed for comparison. Aluminium, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, W and Zn were quantified by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Results indicated that the developed method was accurate and precise for the multi-element characterization of rubber granulates and leachates. The total amount and the amount leached during the acidic test varied from metal to metal and from granulate to granulate. The highest median values were found for Zn (10,229 mg/kg), Al (755 mg/kg), Mg (456 mg/kg), Fe (305 mg/kg), followed by Pb, Ba, Co, Cu and Sr. The other elements were present at few units of mg/kg. The highest leaching was observed for Zn (2300 microg/l) and Mg (2500 microg/l), followed by Fe, Sr, Al, Mn and Ba. Little As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb and V leached, and Be, Hg, Se, Sn, Tl and W were below quantification limits. Data obtained were compared with the maximum tolerable amounts reported for similar materials, and only the concentration of Zn (total and leached) exceeded the expected values.

  9. Assessment of commercially available polymeric materials for sorptive microextraction of priority and emerging nonpolar organic pollutants in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Zubiaguirre, Laura; Delgado, Alejandra; Ros, Oihana; Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Vallejo, Asier; Prieto, Ailette; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2014-10-01

    Among the different organic pollutants, persistent organic pollutants and emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are of particular concern due to their potentially dangerous effects on the ecosystems and on human health. In the framework of the analysis of some of these organic pollutants in water samples, sorptive extraction devices have proven to be adequate for their monitoring. The efficiency of four commercially available and low-cost polymeric materials [polypropylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), Raffia, and polyethersulfone (PES)] for the simultaneous extraction of 16 organic compounds from five different families from environmental water samples was evaluated in this work. Firstly, the homogeneity of the sorbent materials was confirmed by means of Raman spectroscopy. After the optimization of the parameters affecting the extraction and the liquid desorption steps, it was found that PES showed the largest efficiencies for slightly polar analytes and, to a lesser extent, for nonpolar analytes. Additionally, Raffia rendered good extraction efficiencies for nonpolar compounds. Thus sorptive extraction methods followed by large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were validated using PES and Raffia as sorbent materials. The validation of the method provided good linearity (0.978 < r (2) < 0.999 for PES and 0.977 < r (2) < 0.999 for Raffia), adequate repeatability (below 19 % and 14 % for PES and Raffia, respectively), and low method detection limits (low ng · l(-1) level). Finally, these materials were applied to the analysis of contaminants in environmental water samples.

  10. New screening methodology for selection of polymeric materials for transdermal drug delivery devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, Roberto P.

    As medical advances extend the human lifespan, the level of chronic illnesses will increase and thus straining the needs of the health care system that, as a result, governments will need to balance expenses without upsetting national budgets. Therefore, the selection of a precise and affordable drug delivery technology is seen as the most practical solution for governments, health care professionals, and consumers. Transdermal drug delivery patches (TDDP) are one of the best economical technologies that are favored by pharmaceutical companies and physicians alike because it offers fewer complications when compared to other delivery technologies. TDDP provides increased efficiency, safety and convenience for the patient. The TDDP segment within the US and Global drug delivery markets were valued at 5.6 and 12.7 billion respectively in 2009. TDDP is forecasted to reach $31.5 billion in 2015. The present TDDP technology involves the fabrication of a patch that consists of a drug embedded in a polymeric matrix. The diffusion coefficient is determined from the slope of the cumulative drug release versus time. It is a trial and error method that is time and labor consuming. With all the advantages that TDDPs can offer, the methodology used to achieve the so-called optimum design has resulted in several incidents where the safety and design have been put to question in recent times (e.g. Fentanyl). A more logical screening methodology is needed. This work shows the use of a modified Duda Zielinsky equation (DZE). Experimental release curves from commercial are evaluated. The experimental and theoretical Diffusion Coefficient values are found to be within the limits specified in the patent literature. One interesting finding is that the accuracy of the DZE is closer to experimental values when the type of Molecular Shape and Radius are used. This work shows that the modified DZE could be used as an excellent screening tool to determine the optimal polymeric matrices that

  11. Structure and properties of polymeric composite materials during 1501 days outer space exposure at Salyut-7 orbital station

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, O.V.; Nikishin, E.F.

    1995-02-01

    Specimens of polymeric composite materials for aviation and space applications such as glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP), carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP), organic fiber reinforced plastics (OFRP), and hybrid plastics (HP) based on epoxy compounds were exposed to the space environment on the surface of Salyut-7 orbital station. The space exposure lasted 1501 days as a maximum. The data relating to the change in mechanical properties, mass losses, glass transition temperature, linear thermal expansion coefficient, and microstructure after various periods of exposure are given. It has been found that the change in properties is caused by the processes of binder postcuring and microerosion of the exposed surface of plastics. The phenomenon of strengthening of the surface layer of hybrid composites, due to which the nature of destruction changes at bending loads, has been revealed.

  12. Structure and properties of polymeric composite materials during 1501 days outer space exposure at Salyut-7 orbital station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Startsev, Oleg V.; Nikishin, Eugene F.

    1995-01-01

    Specimens of polymeric composite materials for aviation and space applications such as glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP), carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP), organic fiber reinforced plastics (OFRP), and hybrid plastics (HP) based on epoxy compounds were exposed to the space environment on the surface of Salyut-7 orbital station. The space exposure lasted 1501 days as a maximum. The data relating to the change in mechanical properties, mass losses, glass transition temperature, linear thermal expansion coefficient, and microstructure after various periods of exposure are given. It has been found that the change in properties is caused by the processes of binder postcuring and microerosion of the exposed surface of plastics. The phenomenon of strengthening of the surface layer of hybrid composites, due to which the nature of destruction changes at bending loads, has been revealed.

  13. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  14. Photothermal analysis of polymeric dye laser materials excited at different pump rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchowic, Ricardo; Scaffardi, Lucía B.; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; Sastre, Roberto; Acun~A, Alberto Ulises

    2003-02-01

    The photothermal properties and heat diffusion of polymeric lasers, made up from solutions of Rhodamine 6G in solid matrices of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with different amounts of the cross-linking monomer ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate have been studied through photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The heat load that is due to the pumping process was quantified as a function of the pump excitation repetition frequency (0.25-10 Hz), determining the time-dependent temperature changes at different locations within the laser matrix. A theoretical model, which reproduces these changes with high accuracy, was developed on the basis of the heat-diffusion equation of optically dense fluids. The observed thermal effects became important for impairing the laser stability at pump repetition frequencies higher than 1 Hz. In addition, the irreversible optical changes produced in the laser matrices at high pump fluence values (>1 J/cm2) were also analyzed. These effects originate, most likely, from a two-step photothermal mechanism.

  15. Polymeric-Calcium Phosphate Cement Composites-Material Properties: In Vitro and In Vivo Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Khashaba, Rania M.; Moussa, Mervet M.; Mettenburg, Donald J.; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Chutkan, Norman B.; Borke, James L.

    2010-01-01

    New polymeric calcium phosphate cement composites (CPCs) were developed. Cement powder consisting of 60 wt% tetracalcium phosphate, 30 wt% dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, and 10 wt% tricalcium phosphate was combined with either 35% w/w poly methyl vinyl ether maleic acid or polyacrylic acid to obtain CPC-1 and CPC-2. The setting time and compressive and diametral tensile strength of the CPCs were evaluated and compared with that of a commercial hydroxyapatite cement. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of the two CPCs and hydroxyapatite cement were assessed. The setting time of the cements was 5–15 min. CPC-1 and CPC-2 showed significantly higher compressive and diametral strength values compared to hydroxyapatite cement. CPC-1 and CPC-2 were equivalent to Teflon controls after 1 week. CPC-1, CPC-2, and hydroxyapatite cement elicited a moderate to intense inflammatory reaction at 7 days which decreased over time. CPC-1 and CPC-2 show promise for orthopedic applications. PMID:20811498

  16. Screening-level models to estimate partition ratios of organic chemicals between polymeric materials, air and water.

    PubMed

    Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, Efstathios; Sobek, Anna; MacLeod, Matthew

    2016-06-15

    Polymeric materials flowing through the technosphere are repositories of organic chemicals throughout their life cycle. Equilibrium partition ratios of organic chemicals between these materials and air (KMA) or water (KMW) are required for models of fate and transport, high-throughput exposure assessment and passive sampling. KMA and KMW have been measured for a growing number of chemical/material combinations, but significant data gaps still exist. We assembled a database of 363 KMA and 910 KMW measurements for 446 individual compounds and nearly 40 individual polymers and biopolymers, collected from 29 studies. We used the EPI Suite and ABSOLV software packages to estimate physicochemical properties of the compounds and we employed an empirical correlation based on Trouton's rule to adjust the measured KMA and KMW values to a standard reference temperature of 298 K. Then, we used a thermodynamic triangle with Henry's law constant to calculate a complete set of 1273 KMA and KMW values. Using simple linear regression, we developed a suite of single parameter linear free energy relationship (spLFER) models to estimate KMA from the EPI Suite-estimated octanol-air partition ratio (KOA) and KMW from the EPI Suite-estimated octanol-water (KOW) partition ratio. Similarly, using multiple linear regression, we developed a set of polyparameter linear free energy relationship (ppLFER) models to estimate KMA and KMW from ABSOLV-estimated Abraham solvation parameters. We explored the two LFER approaches to investigate (1) their performance in estimating partition ratios, and (2) uncertainties associated with treating all different polymers as a single "bulk" polymeric material compartment. The models we have developed are suitable for screening assessments of the tendency for organic chemicals to be emitted from materials, and for use in multimedia models of the fate of organic chemicals in the indoor environment. In screening applications we recommend that KMA and KMW be

  17. Bond strength of restorative materials to hydroxyapatite inserts and dimensional changes of insert-containing restorations during polymerization.

    PubMed

    Lezaja, Maja; Veljovic, Djordje; Manojlovic, Dragica; Milosevic, Milos; Mitrovic, Nenad; Janackovic, Djordje; Miletic, Vesna

    2015-02-01

    To determine the shear bond strength (SBS) between synthetic controlled porous hydroxyapatite (HAP) inserts and restorative materials and dimensional changes of insert-containing restorations during curing. Cylinder-shaped HAP inserts (4mm in diameter, 1.6mm thick) were cemented in dentin discs (5mm×1.6mm), cut mid-coronally from human third molars, using one of the following materials: universal microhybrid composite Filtek Z250, flowable composite Filtek Ultimate or glass-ionomer Vitrebond (all 3M ESPE). SBS of the same materials to HAP inserts was tested in a universal testing machine. Three-dimensional digital image correlation system Aramis (GOM) was used to measure strains and displacements. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-test (α=0.05). SBS of restorative materials to HAP inserts ranged between 12.2±2.1MPa (Filtek Z250) and 0.7±0.4MPa (Filtek Z250 without an adhesive). The 'total-etch' approach of adhesive application significantly increased SBS of both Filtek Z250 (12.2±2.1MPa) and Filtek Ultimate flowable (9.5±2.5MPa) compared to the 'self-etch' approach (8.2±1.6MPa and 4.4±0.9MPa, respectively) (p<0.05). HAP inserts reduced polymerization shrinkage to below 0.5% as well as displacements in the central region of the restorations. Peripheral shrinkage of restorative materials was similar with and without HAP inserts as were displacements of Filtek Z250 and Vitrebond. Replacing major part of dentin clinically, especially in large cavities, HAP inserts may shorten clinical working time, improve dimensional stability of the restoration by reducing central shrinkage and displacements and provide adhesive bonding to universal composites following a 'total-etch' approach. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of low-cost disposable polymeric materials for sorptive extraction of organic pollutants in water samples.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Ailette; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Rodríguez, Isaac; Cela, Rafael; Möder, Monika

    2012-02-24

    The capabilities of four commercially available and low cost polymeric materials for the extraction of polar and non-polar contaminants (logK(ow)=-0.07-6.88, from caffeine to octocrylene, respectively) from water samples was compared. Tested sorbents were polyethersulphone, polypropylene and Kevlar, compared to polydimethylsiloxane as reference material. Parameters that affect the extraction process such as pH and ionic strength of the sample, extraction time and desorption conditions were thoroughly investigated. A set of experimental partition coefficients (K(pw)), at two different experimental conditions, was estimated for the best suited materials and compared with the theoretical octanol-water (K(ow)) partition coefficients of the analytes. Polyethersulphone displayed the largest extraction yields for both polar and non-polar analytes, with higher K(pw) and lower matrix effects than polydimethylsiloxane and polypropylene. Thus, a sorptive microextraction method, followed by large volume injection (LVI) gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), was proposed using the former sorbent (2 mg) for the simultaneous determination of model compounds in water samples. Good linearity (>0.99) was obtained for most of the analytes, except in the case of 4-nonylphenol (0.9466). Precision (n=4) at 50 and 500 ng L(-1) levels was in the 2-24% and limits of detection (LODs) were in the 0.6-25 ng L(-1) range for all the analytes studied.

  19. Synthesis of microporous boron-substituted carbon (b/c) materials using polymeric precursors for hydrogen physisorption.

    PubMed

    Chung, T C Mike; Jeong, Youmi; Chen, Qiang; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wu, Yue

    2008-05-28

    This paper discusses a new synthesis route to prepare microporous boron substituted carbon (B/C) materials that show a significantly higher hydrogen binding energy and physisorption capacity, compared with the corresponding carbonaceous (C) materials. The chemistry involves a pyrolysis of the designed boron-containing polymeric precursors, which are the polyaddition and polycondensation adducts between BCl3 and phenylene diacetylene and lithiated phenylene diacetylene, respectively. During pyrolysis, most of the boron moieties were transformed into a B-substituted C structure, and the in situ formed LiCl byproduct created a microporous structure. The microporous B/C material with B content > 7% and surface area > 700 m2/g has been prepared, which shows a reversible hydrogen physisorption capacity of 0.6 and 3.2 wt % at 293 and 77 K, respectively, under 40 bar of hydrogen pressure. The physisorption results were further warranted by absorption isotherms indicating a binding energy of hydrogen molecules of approximately 11 kJ/mol, significantly higher than the 4 kJ/mol reported on most graphitic surfaces.

  20. Simultaneous sound velocity and thickness measurement by the ultrasonic pitch-catch method for corrosion-layer-forming polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Masahiro; Takizawa, Shota; Sakai, Tetsuya; Arao, Yoshihiko; Kubouchi, Masatoshi

    2017-08-10

    Since thermosetting resins have excellent resistance to chemicals, fiber reinforced plastics composed of such resins and reinforcement fibers are widely used as construction materials for equipment in chemical plants. Such equipment is usually used for several decades under severe corrosive conditions so that failure due to degradation may result. One of the degradation behaviors in thermosetting resins under chemical solutions is "corrosion-layer-forming" degradation. In this type of degradation, surface resins in contact with a solution corrode, and some of them remain asa corrosion layer on the pristine part. It is difficult to precisely measure the thickness of the pristine part of such degradation type materials by conventional pulse-echo ultrasonic testing, because the sound velocity depends on the degree of corrosion of the polymeric material. In addition, the ultrasonic reflection interface between the pristine part and the corrosion layer is obscure. Thus, we propose a pitch-catch method using a pair of normal and angle probes to measure four parameters: the thicknesses of the pristine part and the corrosion layer, and their respective sound velocities. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by measuring a two-layer sample and a sample including corroded parts. The results demonstrate that the pitch-catch method can successfully measure the four parameters and evaluate the residual thickness of the pristine part in the corrosion-layer-forming sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between Surface Properties and In Vitro Drug Release from Compressed Matrix Containing Polymeric Materials with Different Hydrophobicity Degrees

    PubMed Central

    Yarce, Cristhian J.; Echeverri, Juan D.; Palacio, Mario A.; Rivera, Carlos A.; Salamanca, Constain H.

    2017-01-01

    This work is the continuation of a study focused on establishing relations between surface thermodynamic properties and in vitro release mechanisms using a model drug (ampicillin trihydrate), besides analyzing the granulometric properties of new polymeric materials and thus establishing the potential to be used in the pharmaceutical field as modified delivery excipients. To do this, we used copolymeric materials derived from maleic anhydride with decreasing polarity corresponding to poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic acid) (hydrophilic), sodium salt of poly(maleic acid-alt-octadecene) (amphiphilic), poly(maleic anhydride-alt-octadecene) (hydrophobic) and the reference polymer hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose (HPMC). Each material alone and in blends underwent spectroscopic characterization by FTIR, thermal characterization by DSC and granulometric characterization using flow and compaction tests. Each tablet was prepared at different polymer ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, and the surface properties were determined, including the roughness by micro-visualization, contact angle and water absorption rate by the sessile drop method and obtaining Wadh and surface free energy (SFE) using the semi-empirical models of Young–Dupré and  Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Käelbe (OWRK), respectively. Dissolution profiles were determined simulating physiological conditions in vitro, where the kinetic models of order-zero, order-one, Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas were evaluated. The results showed a strong relationship between the proportion and nature of the polymer to the surface thermodynamic properties and kinetic release mechanism. PMID:28125020

  2. Axisymmetric Simulation of Bulging Process in Polymeric Materials during Projectile Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kyung-Hun; Kim, See-Jo; Shin, Hyung-Seop; Choi, Joon-Hong; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    Combination of different materials used both in the projectile and the sandwich panel is getting more important in designing for maximization of energy absorption during impact. In the present study, we have simulated the bulging process during projectile impact for axisymmetric impact problems. We have discussed the bulging velocity tendency depending on some important geometrical and material parameters such as the yield strength, and tensile limit of the core for several different core thickness and different elapsed time after impact by using the AUTODYN commercial software. From our simulation, we have found that material properties have more dominant effects than the geometric properties on the bulging velocity.

  3. Novel functionalized polymeric fabric and fiber material as solid support for solid-phase synthesis and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Bei

    The aim of the research is to develop novel polymer solid support by modifying or fabricating polymeric fibrous materials for peptide synthesis and biomedical applications. Originally chemical inert isotactic polypropylene (iPP) fabric was utilized and modified to serve as a functional flexible planar solid support for solid phase peptide synthesis. The modification was achieved through thermal initiated radical grafting polymerization using acrylic acid, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate as monomers, and benzoyl peroxide as radical initiator. The iPP fabric was successfully functionalized and possessing as high as 0.7mmol/g carboxylic acid groups. Peptide ligand LHPQF was successfully synthesized on the new functional planar support. Specific enzyme immobilization was fulfilled on the functional iPP fabric support. A commercially available ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer was made into ultrafine copolymer fiber bundles which are composed of nanofibers with diameters ranging from 200nm to 800nm. Various mixing ratios of copolymer/matrix materials were utilized to explore the effect on the final nanofiber physical properties including morphology and stability in solvents. The surface carboxylic acid groups were further converted to amino groups before the functional nanofibers can be applied in solid phase peptide synthesis. Two peptide ligands, LHPQF and HWRGWV, were also successfully synthesized on the nanofiber bundles. Streptavidin and human immunoglobulin G specific binding with the corresponding ligand which was anchored on the nanofibers was conducted successfully to illustrate the potential applications of the nanofiber materials in biomedical field. Further study on the dispersion of the ethylene-acrylic acid nanofiber bundles was pursued to take advantage of the super high active surface area of functional nanofibers. To manipulate the polymer nanofibers during synthesis and bio-assays, a technique was developed to controllably assemble and disperse the

  4. Method of forming a continuous polymeric skin on a cellular foam material

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.; Barthell, Barry L.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the outer surface of the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tensin of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  5. Aerospace Composite Materials Delivery Order 0003: Nanocomposite Polymeric Resin Enhancements for Improved Composite Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    nations. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. :~~~~~OLLE. Chief Structural Materials Branch Nonmetallic Materials...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send

  6. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 4. Fire Dynamics and Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    Executive Director, Electronic Device, Process and Materials Division Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 Dr. Arthur C. Damask...of a flat surface. 5.5 Flaming or Smoldering Combustion Some combustible materials may burn either in a smoldering mode, like a cigarette , 44 JÜ...soot particles capable of obscuring vision even at low concentrations. The lachrymatory effects of gases, such as aldehydes or acids associated with

  7. Effects of Gingival Retraction Paste and Subsequent Cleaning with Hydrogen Peroxide on the Polymerization of Three Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Tariq S; Al Amri, Mohammad D; Al Rifaiy, Mohammad Q; Al-Sowygh, Zeyad H; Vohra, Fahim A; Balous, Moneeb A; Alqarni, Adel S; Alotaibi, Abdulmajeed O

    2017-09-27

    It has been hypothesized that there are no effects of Expasyl and subsequent cleaning with hydrogen peroxide on polymerization of selected commonly used impression materials. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Expasyl paste on the polymerization of three impression materials with and without subsequent cleaning using 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Nine standardized stainless steel specimens were fabricated. One hundred and eighty impressions were made using 3 materials (60 each) as follows: group I: poly(vinyl siloxane) (PVS) (Virtual); group II: polyether (Monophase); group III: polyether (Impregum). Groups were subdivided into 3 categories: control without intervention (n = 20), pre-application of Expasyl and subsequent 1-minute washing with water and air-drying (n = 20), and pre-application of Expasyl and subsequent cleaning with 3% H2 O2 for 10 seconds (n = 20). All impressions were made by one operator using auto-mixing cartridges under standardized conditions at room temperature. Evaluation of the polymerization inhibition was blindly and independently performed by three practitioners with comparable experience using a visual scale. The observation was subjectively categorized as noninhibited or inhibited. Data were tabulated and analyzed using Fisher's exact test with significance level set at p ˂ 0.05. Significant differences were found between the control group and the impressions made after contamination with Expasyl (p < 0.001). Polymerization inhibition of PVS and Impregum was similar (in 85% and 90% of the specimens, respectively) when washed with water. There was a statistically significant reduction in polymerization inhibition in both upon cleaning with H2 O2 (p < 0.001); however, polymerization inhibition occurred in 100% of Monophase specimens when contaminated with Expasyl despite the washing technique used. Under these in vitro conditions, it can be concluded that the remnants of Expasyl on specimens caused a

  8. Ternary europium mesoporous polymeric hybrid materials Eu({beta}-diketonate){sub 3}pvpd-SBA-15(16): host-guest construction, characterization and photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Yanjing; Yan Bing; Li Yanyan

    2012-06-15

    Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent polymeric hybrid materials containing europium(III) complexes incorporated to mesoporous silica SBA-15/SBA-16 have been prepared by simple physical doping (impregnation) methods, followed by the addition polymerization reaction of the monomer 4-vinylpyridine (vpd) extending along the mesoporous channels. The precursor europium(III) complexes are synthesized by {beta}-diketonate ({beta}-diketonate=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (tta), hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfac), trifluoroacetylacetonate (taa)) and monomer 4-vinylpyridine (vpd) coordinated to Eu{sup 3+}, and SBA-15/SBA-16 are obtained via a sol-gel process. After the physical doping and the polymerization reaction, the final ternary materials Eu({beta}-diketonate){sub 3}pvpd-SBA-15/Eu({beta}-diketonate){sub 3}pvpd-SBA-16 ({beta}-diketonate=tta, hfac, taa) are received. The physical properties and espeically the photoluminescence of these hybrids are characterized, and the XRD and BET results reveal that all of these hybrid materials have uniformity in the mesostructure. The detailed luminescence investigation on all the materials show that Eu(tta){sub 3}pvpd-SBA-16 have the highest luminescence intensity and the materials with taa ligands have longer lifetimes. - Grapical abstract: Luminescent mesoporous polymeric hybrid materials containing europium complexes hydrogen bonding to silica SBA-15/SBA-16 followed by the addition polymerization reaction of 4-vinylpyridine (vpd) extending along the mesoporous channels. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional mesoporous with simple impregnation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New lanthanide mesoporous hybrids with polymer ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence in visible region.

  9. Making Polymeric Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Hyson, Michael T.; Chung, Sang-Kun; Colvin, Michael S.; Chang, Manchium

    1989-01-01

    Combination of advanced techniques yields uniform particles for biomedical applications. Process combines ink-jet and irradiation/freeze-polymerization techniques to make polymeric microspheres of uniform size in diameters from 100 to 400 micrometer. Microspheres used in chromatography, cell sorting, cell labeling, and manufacture of pharmaceutical materials.

  10. Making Polymeric Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Hyson, Michael T.; Chung, Sang-Kun; Colvin, Michael S.; Chang, Manchium

    1989-01-01

    Combination of advanced techniques yields uniform particles for biomedical applications. Process combines ink-jet and irradiation/freeze-polymerization techniques to make polymeric microspheres of uniform size in diameters from 100 to 400 micrometer. Microspheres used in chromatography, cell sorting, cell labeling, and manufacture of pharmaceutical materials.

  11. Evaluation of ceramic and polymeric materials for use in engineered barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.; Skiens, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    Ceramic materials evaluated in the screening studies were Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99.8%), mullite, vitreous silica, BaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiO/sub 3/, CaZrO/sub 3/, CaTiSiO/sub 5/, TiO/sub 2/, ZrSiO/sub 4/, basalt, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor code 9658 machinable glass ceramic. One grade of graphite (Toyotanso IB-11) was also evaluated. Demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford groundwater, and a synthetic NaCl brine solution were used in the screening tests. Demineralized water was used in all five of the leach tests, but the other solutions were only used in the static leach tests at 150 and 250/sup 0/C. Based on the results obtained, graphite appears to be the most leach resistant of the materials tested with the two grades of alumina being the best of the ceramic materials. Titanium dioxide and ZrO/sub 2/ are the most leach resistant of the remaining materials. Candidate materials from all three general classes of polymers (thermoplastics, thermosets, and elastomers) were considered in the selection of materials. Selected groups of polymers were tested in the flowing autoclave at 150, 200, and 250/sup 0/C with some polymers being further tested at the next higher temperature. Next, selected samples were exposed to gamma radiation. These samples were then submitted for tensile and elongation measurements. Selected samples which appeared promising from both autoclave and radiation testing were further evaluated by impact tests. The materials that appeared most promising after autoclave testing were the EPDM rubbers, polyphenylene sulfide, poly(ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) copolymer, and polyfurfuryl alcohol. The radiation dose had little effect on polyfurfuryl alcohol and polyphenylene sulfide samples; very significant decreases in elongation were observed for the fluorocarbon copolymer and the EPDM rubbers. While the polyphenylene sulfide and polyfurfuryl alcohol showed little change in impact strength, poly(ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) decreased in impact strength.

  12. [The modification of the polymerization of composite materials by eugenol-containing temporary fillings].

    PubMed

    Hotz, P; Schlatter, D; Lussi, A

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of eugenol-containing temporary fillings on the polymerisation of composite materials. Cavities of 2 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth were prepared in enamel as well as in dentine. Immediately after preparation the cavities of the control group were filled with a light curing composite, a chemical curing composite, or a light and chemical curing composite. The cavities of the experimental group were filled with Nobetec (temporary filling material containing zinc-oxide-eugenol). After six weeks, the Nobetec fillings were removed by means of an excavator, the cavities were cleaned with water and filled with one of the above six composites. The specimens were embedded in Epofix and afterwards cut through the center of the filling. The cut surfaces were polished to 3 microns and afterwards (> 4 days) the hardness was measured with a Knoop hardness testing machine at different distances from the cavity wall. The results of the control group and of the experimental group were compared statistically. The polymerisation of five of the six materials was not inhibited by a temporary filling material containing zinc-oxide-eugenol. The difference in hardness for Brilliant Lux (light curing) was fer-highly significant (p < 0.001) between 0 micron and 100 microns from the cavity margin, if the cavity was first filled with a temporary filling material, containing zinc-oxide-eugenol. The results show that there exist certain composite filling materials that are inhibited in their polymerisation by the tested eugenol containing temporary filling material.

  13. Correction: Decrease in thermal conductivity in polymeric P3HT nanowires by size-reduction induced by crystal orientation: new approaches towards thermal transport engineering of organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Miguel Muñoz; Martín, Jaime; Grauby, Stéphane; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Dilhaire, Stefan; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2015-02-01

    Correction for `Decrease in thermal conductivity in polymeric P3HT nanowires by size-reduction induced by crystal orientation: new approaches towards thermal transport engineering of organic materials' by Miguel Muñoz Rojo et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 7858-7865.

  14. Development of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma system for surface modification of polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasih, T. P.

    2017-04-01

    Non-thermal plasma has become one of the new technologies which are highly developed now days. This happens because the cold plasma using the principle of generated reactive gases that have the ability to modify the surface properties of a material or product without changing the original characteristics of the material. The purpose of this study is to develop a cold plasma system that operates at atmospheric pressure and investigates the effect of cold plasma treatment to change the surface characteristics of the polymer material polyethylene (PE) at various time conditions. We are successfully developing a non-thermal plasma system that can operate at atmospheric pressure and can be run with Helium or Argon gas. The characteristics of plasma will be discussed from the view of its electrical property, plasma discharge regime andoperation temperature. Experiment results on plasma treatment on PE material shows the changes of surface properties of originally hydrophobic material PE becomes hydrophilic by only few seconds of plasma treatment and level of hydrophilicity become greater with increasing duration of plasma treatment. Confirmation of this is shown by the measurement of contact angle of droplets of water on the surface of PE are getting smaller.

  15. Characterization of physio-chemical properties of polymeric and electrochemical materials for aerospace flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.; Kunigahalli, V.; Khan, S.; Mcnair, A.

    1984-01-01

    Sealed nickel cadmium cells having undergone a large number of cycles were discharged using the Hg/HgO reference electrode. The negative electrode exhibited the second plateau. SEM of negative plates of such cells show clusters of large crystals of cadmium hydroxide. These large crystals on the negative plates disappear after continuous overcharging in flooded cells. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard wet chemical methods are being used to determine the cell materials viz: nickel, cadmium, cobalt, potassum and carbonate. The anodes and cathodes are analyzed after careful examination and the condition of the separator material is evaluated.

  16. Test methods for the dynamic mechanical properties of polymeric materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.K.

    1980-06-01

    Various test geometries and procedures for the dynamic mechanical analysis of polymers employing a mechanical spectrometer have been evaluated. The methods and materials included in this work are forced torsional pendulum testing of Kevlar/epoxy laminates and rigid urethane foams, oscillatory parallel plate testing to determine the kinetics of the cure of VCE with Hylene MP, oscillatory compressive testing of B-3223 cellular silicone, and oscillatory tensile testing of Silastic E and single Kevlar filaments. Fundamental dynamic mechanical properties, including the storage and loss moduli and loss tangent of the materials tested, were determined as a function of temperature and sometimes of frequency.

  17. Fate and toxicity of metallic and metal-containing nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Feng; Chen, Chunying

    2011-11-04

    It is important to obtain a better understanding of the uptake, trafficking, pharmacokinetics, clearance, and role of nanomaterials in biological systems, so that their possible undesirable effects can be avoided. A number of metallic or metal-containing nanomaterials, such as gold nanoparticles and nanorods, quantum dots, iron oxides nanoparticles, and endohedral metallofullerenes, have already been or will soon become very promising for biomedical applications. This review presents a summary of currently available data on the fate and toxicity of these metallic or metal-containing nanoparticles based on animal studies. Several issues regarding the nanotoxicity assessment and future directions on the study of the fate of these nanoparticles are also proposed.

  18. High density crystalline boron prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1993-08-31

    Boron powder is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid boron monolith with a bulk density at least 2.22 g/cc and up to or greater than 2.34 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1,800 C and 30 PSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.34 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  19. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1994-08-09

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2,200 C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made. 1 fig.

  20. High density crystalline boron prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, Clarence L.

    1993-01-01

    Boron powder is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid boron monolith with a bulk density at least 2.22 g/cc and up to or greater than 2.34 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed or chemical vapor deposited onto a powder compact. Hot isostatic pressing at 1800.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for four hours produces a bulk density of 2.34 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  1. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOEpatents

    Hoenig, Clarence L.

    1994-01-01

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2200.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  2. Equipment for the Production of Wood-Polymeric Thermal Insulation Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldaev, Vladimir A.; Prosvirnikov, Dmitry B.; Stepanov, Vladislav V.; Sadrtdinov, Almaz R.; Kapustin, Alexey N.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents developed pilot-plant equipment for slabby patterns of wood- filled polyurethane foam insulation material and its specifications are presented. Based on the results of experimental studies of pilot models the allowable range of equipment's technological parameters was defined.

  3. Optimization of continuous triboelectrification process for polymeric materials in dry contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prawatya, Y. E.; Neagoe, M. B.; Zeghloul, T.; Dascalescu, L.

    2017-02-01

    Triboelectrification (i.e., generation of electric charge by friction between two materials) is a complex process. Besides the nature and condition of the surfaces in contact, several factors can have an influence on charge generation: pressure load and relative velocity between the two bodies, number of friction cycles, ambient temperature and humidity, condition and type of material surface. This paper aims at demonstrating that associating the experimental response surface methodology and genetic algorithms is an effective technique for the optimisation of triboelectrification process. The quadratic model derived from the experiments is used in a genetic algorithm program to find the optimal combination of factor values (10 sliding cycles; normal force: 10 N; sliding speed: 55 mm/s) that maximize the average potential at the surface of the tribocharged materials: -1633 V. A final experiment confirmed the prediction of the genetic algorithm. The conclusions of this experimental study can be applied to the optimisation of industrial triboelectrification processes, and contribute to the reduction of the related maintenance, energy and raw-material costs.

  4. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Thin Film Materials of Potential for Microgravity Processing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin; Witherow, William K.; Bank, Curtis; Shields, Angela; Hicks, Rosline; Ashley, Paul R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we will take a closer look at the state of the art of polydiacetylene, and metal-free phthalocyanine films, in view of the microgravity impact on their optical properties, their nonlinear optical properties and their potential advantages for integrated optics. These materials have many attractive features with regard to their use in integrated optical circuits and optical switching. Thin films of these materials processed in microgravity environment show enhanced optical quality and better molecular alignment than those processed in unit gravity. Our studies of these materials indicate that microgravity can play a major role in integrated optics technology. Polydiacetylene films are produced by UV irradiation of monomer solution through an optical window. This novel technique of forming polydiacetylene thin films has been modified for constructing sophisticated micro-structure integrated optical patterns using a pre-programmed UV-Laser beam. Wave guiding through these thin films by the prism coupler technique has been demonstrated. The third order nonlinear parameters of these films have been evaluated. Metal-free phthalocyanine films of good optical quality are processed in our laboratories by vapor deposition technique. Initial studies on these films indicate that they have excellent chemical, laser, and environmental stability. They have large nonlinear optical parameters and show intrinsic optical bistability. This bistability is essential for optical logic gates and optical switching applications. Waveguiding and device making investigations of these materials are underway.

  5. High-throughput quantification of stabilizers in polymeric materials by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beißmann, Susanne; Reisinger, Michael; Reimann, Andreas; Klampfl, Christian W; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2014-04-30

    High-throughput methods for identification and quantification of stabilizers in plastic materials are of significant importance in order to evaluate the suitability of materials of unknown origin for specific application areas, to clarify reasons for failure of materials, or for comparison of materials from different sources. In the present study, a highly sensitive and rapid flow injection method coupled to selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MS) for comprehensive analysis of 21 polymer stabilizers in polyolefins is demonstrated. A critical factor for this approach is the choice of ionization mode, as no separation was performed prior to MS detection. Differences between several ionization techniques regarding matrix effects are reported. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was found to be the most suitable ionization technique, with no significant matrix effects observed. The developed method has a linear dynamic range over two to three orders of magnitude with correlation coefficients better than 0.99 for all studied analytes. Following a multistep sample preparation protocol, the method allowed quantification down to minimum values of between 0.0001 and 0.04 wt% depending on the type of stabilizer. Results were compared to an established chromatographic approach and showed very good correlation (bias below 7.5%). The applicability of the optimized method could be demonstrated for both the qualitative and quantitative determination of polymer stabilizers in polyolefins. Furthermore, the described approach yields a complete analysis in a much shorter time than can be achieved with commonly applied chromatographic methods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A new copper borophosphate with novel polymeric chains and its structural correlation with raw materials in molten hydrated flux synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Ruijing; Liu, Wei Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Xu, Hongmei; Zhao, Chenggong

    2014-02-15

    A novel copper borophosphate, Cu{sub 3}[B{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}] has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. Its crystal structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (monoclinic, Cc, a=6.1895 Å, b=13.6209 Å, c=11.9373 Å, β=97.62°, V=997.5 Å{sup 3}, Z=4). The three-dimensional framework of the titled compound, is composed by two kinds of polymeric chains and isolated PO{sub 4} tetrahedral. One novel 4-membered tetrahedral rings has been observed in borophosphates. Magnetic measurements indicate that the title compound exits antiferromagnetic interactions. Due to the special reaction medium created by the molten hydrated flux method, a possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted. - Graphical abstract: The 3D structure consists of a framework composed of CuO{sub x} polyhedra, BO{sub 4} and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. A intersection angle between the metal chains and borophosphate chains can be noted. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel copper borophosphate has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. • One novel 4-membered tetrahedral ring has been observed firstly in borophosphates. • A possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted.

  7. Ion-pair sorptive extraction of perfluorinated compounds from water with low-cost polymeric materials: polyethersulfone vs polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Racamonde, Inés; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2012-08-31

    A method for the determination of seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in aqueous samples using low-cost polymeric sorptive extraction as sample preparation technique, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination has been developed and validated. Simplicity of the analytical procedure, low volume of solvent and sample required, low global price and a good selectivity providing cleaner extracts are the main advantages of this extraction technique. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyethersulfone (PES) materials were evaluated and compared to achieve the best extraction efficiencies. Hence, different variables have been optimized, viz.: sample pH, concentration of an ion-pairing agent (tetrabutylammonium), ionic strength, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent volume, desorption time and the need for auxiliary desorption techniques (sonication). Overall, PES leaded to a better sensitivity than PDMS, particularly for the most polar compounds, reaching detection limits (LODs) in the 0.2-20 ng L(-1) range. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), was lower than 16%. Finally, the PES material was employed for the analysis of sea, sewage and fresh water samples. Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were detected in all the analyzed influent samples reaching levels of up to 401 ng L(-1). In surface water, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exhibited the highest concentrations, up to 137 ng L(-1).

  8. Influence of Curing Light Attenuation Caused by Aesthetic Indirect Restorative Materials on Resin Cement Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Bárbara; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Junior, Washington Steagall; Kawano, Yoshio; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero; Cardoso, Paulo Eduardo Capel

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To verify the effect of interposing different indirect restorative materials on degree of conversion (DC), hardness, and flexural strength of a dual-cure resin cement. Methods: Discs (2 mm-thick, n=5) of four indirect restorative materials were manufactured: a layered glass-ceramic (GC); a heat-pressed lithium disilicate-based glass-ceramic veneered with the layered glass-ceramic (LD); a micro-hybrid (MH); and a micro-filled (MF) indirect composite resin. The light transmittance of these materials was determined using a double-beam spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Bar-shaped specimens of a dual-cure resin cement (Nexus 2/SDS Kerr), with (dual-cure mode) and without the catalyst paste (light-cure mode), were photoactivated through the discs using either a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) or a light-emitting diode (LED) unit. As a control, specimens were photoactivated without the interposed discs. Specimens were stored at 37ºC for 24h before being submitted to FT-Raman spectrometry (n=3), Knoop microhardness (n=6) and three-point bending (n=6) tests. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results: MH presented the highest transmittance. The DC was lower in light-cure mode than in dual-cure mode. All restorative materials reduced the cement microhardness in light-cure mode. GC and LD with QTH and GC with LED decreased the strength of the cement for both activation modes compared to the controls. Curing units did not affect DC or microhardness, except when the dual-cure cement was photoactivated through LD (LED>QTH). Flexural strength was higher with QTH compared to LED. Conclusions: Differences in transmittance among the restorative materials significantly influenced cement DC and flexural strength, regardless of the activation mode, as well as the microhardness of the resin cement tested in light-cure mode. Microhardness was not impaired by the interposed materials when the resin cement was used in dual-cure mode. PMID:20613921

  9. Simultaneous TG/DSC (thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry) and TG/MS (thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry) analyses of polymeric and energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R B; Brown, C R; Chang, C; McDaniel, J A; Shell, T L

    1987-01-01

    The utility of simultaneous thermal analysis techniques, such as TG/DSC and TG/MS, has been demonstrated for both energetic and polymeric materials. TG/DSC can assist in elucidating reaction mechanisms and determining weight losses for endothermic transitions which precede decomposition of energetic materials. The endothermic and exothermic nature of decomposition processes can be defined by TG/DSC and the decomposition products identified by TG/MS.

  10. Strategies for the Conversion of Lignin to High-Value Polymeric Materials: Review and Perspective.

    PubMed

    Upton, Brianna M; Kasko, Andrea M

    2016-02-24

    The majority of commodity plastics and materials are derived from petroleum-based chemicals, illustrating the strong dependence on products derived from non-renewable energy sources. As the most accessible, renewable form of carbon (in comparison to CO2), lignocellulosic biomass (defined as organic matter available on a renewable basis) has been acknowledged as the most logical carbon-based feedstock for a variety of materials such as biofuels and chemicals. This Review focuses on methods developed to synthesize polymers derived from lignin, monolignols, and lignin-derived chemicals. Major topics include the structure and processing of lignocellulosic biomass to lignin, polymers utilizing lignin as a macromonomer, synthesis of monomers and polymers from monolignols, and polymers from lignin-derived chemicals, such as vanillin.

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography Enabling Non Destructive Metrology of Layered Polymeric GRIN Material

    PubMed Central

    Meemon, Panomsak; Yao, Jianing; Lee, Kye-Sung; Thompson, Kevin P.; Ponting, Michael; Baer, Eric; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2013-01-01

    Gradient Refractive INdex (GRIN) optical components have historically fallen short of theoretical expectations. A recent breakthrough is the manufacturing of nanolayered spherical GRIN (S-GRIN) polymer optical elements, where the construction method yields refractive index gradients that exceed 0.08. Here we report on the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT), including micron-class axial and lateral resolution advances, as effective, innovative methods for performing nondestructive diagnostic metrology on S-GRIN. We show that OCT can be used to visualize and quantify characteristics of the material throughout the manufacturing process. Specifically, internal film structure may be revealed and data are processed to extract sub-surface profiles of each internal film of the material to quantify 3D film thickness and homogeneity. The technique provides direct feedback into the fabrication process directed at optimizing the quality of the nanolayered S-GRIN polymer optical components.

  12. Improvement in photorefractivity of a polymeric composite doped with the electron-injecting material Alq3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qun; Liu, Yihong; Chen, Zhijian; Huang, Maomao; Zhang, Jie; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Xiaofang; Zhou, Qifeng

    2004-09-01

    A photorefractive composite composed of 8-pertyloxy-4' -cyanobiphenyl (8OCB)/N, N' -diphenyl-N, N' -bis(3-methylphenyl)-[1,1' -biphenyl]-4,4' -diamine (TPD)/2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3)/polycarbonate plastic was fabricated. The additive of Alq3 in the composite leads to a larger two-beam coupling coefficient Ggr and shorter response time. Ggr over 330 cm-1 at an applied electric field of 26 V µm-1 was measured while Ggr of the sample without Alq3 was only 213 cm-1. It is presumed that the electron-injecting material Alq3 and charge-transporting material TPD form more effective traps in the composite, which leads to the improvement in the PR performance.

  13. Bacterial attachment to polymeric materials correlates with molecular flexibility and hydrophilicity.

    PubMed

    Sanni, Olutoba; Chang, Chien-Yi; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Davies, Martyn C; Williams, Philip M; Williams, Paul; Alexander, Morgan R; Hook, Andrew L

    2015-04-02

    A new class of material resistant to bacterial attachment has been discovered that is formed from polyacrylates with hydrocarbon pendant groups. In this study, the relationship between the nature of the hydrocarbon moiety and resistance to bacteria is explored, comparing cyclic, aromatic, and linear chemical groups. A correlation is shown between bacterial attachment and a parameter derived from the partition coefficient and the number of rotatable bonds of the materials' pendant groups. This correlation is applicable to 86% of the hydrocarbon pendant moieties surveyed, quantitatively supporting the previous qualitative observation that bacteria are repelled from poly(meth)acrylates containing a hydrophilic ester group when the pendant group is both rigid and hydrophobic. This insight will help inform and predict the further development of polymers resistant to bacterial attachment.

  14. Bacterial Attachment to Polymeric Materials Correlates with Molecular Flexibility and Hydrophilicity

    PubMed Central

    Sanni, Olutoba; Chang, Chien-Yi; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Davies, Martyn C; Williams, Philip M; Williams, Paul; Alexander, Morgan R; Hook*, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    A new class of material resistant to bacterial attachment has been discovered that is formed from polyacrylates with hydrocarbon pendant groups. In this study, the relationship between the nature of the hydrocarbon moiety and resistance to bacteria is explored, comparing cyclic, aromatic, and linear chemical groups. A correlation is shown between bacterial attachment and a parameter derived from the partition coefficient and the number of rotatable bonds of the materials' pendant groups. This correlation is applicable to 86% of the hydrocarbon pendant moieties surveyed, quantitatively supporting the previous qualitative observation that bacteria are repelled from poly(meth)acrylates containing a hydrophilic ester group when the pendant group is both rigid and hydrophobic. This insight will help inform and predict the further development of polymers resistant to bacterial attachment. PMID:25491266

  15. Characterization of Mechanical Damage Mechanisms in Ceramic and Polymeric Matrix Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    microplasticity is a vital factor in the compressive failure of even these very hard materials under essentially all conditions (temperature, strain rate...OF CONTENTS Pag= The Compressive Strength of Strong Ceramics: Microplasticity Versus 1 Microfracture Abstract 1 1. Introduction 2 2. Hardness 3 3...Acknowledgements 51 References 51 COATVANOORD1 24-91CDXC 11. LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page The Compressive Strength of Strong Ceramics: Microplasticity Versus

  16. Influence of polymeric matrix and fiber on composite materials at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Roussy, L.; Parcelier, M.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, we have been looking ahead to new concepts of hypersonic planes and launchers with cryotechnic tanks using composite materials for high strength to weight ratios. These structures will be subjected to extremely low temperatures in isothermal or cycling conditions. Within these severe conditions, mechanical properties of composite materials are generally unkown and their behavior not understood. To prepare for this very near future, we have looked at the effect of various parameters at different temperatures (from 400 K down to 20 K) on the mechanical properties of thermoset (cyanate, epoxy, bismaleimide, polyimide) and thermoplastic (PEEK) composite materials. The results enable us to appreciate the complexity and the sensitivity of organic matrices at low temperatures and especially to show up their brittleness. The results of works also show how the different thermal deformations of fiber and matrix induce residual stresses during cooling. These stresses may be critical all the more as the temperature is low and the matrix is brittle. At very low temperatures, relaxation mechanisms and load transfers are strongly reduced which led damages at composite interfaces. These investigations have led to a selection of rules for composite structures design.

  17. Sialic Acid-Responsive Polymeric Interface Material: From Molecular Recognition to Macroscopic Property Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yuting; Jiang, Ge; Li, Minmin; Qing, Guangyan; Li, Xiuling; Liang, Xinmiao; Sun, Taolei

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems that utilize multiple weak non-covalent interactions and hierarchical assemblies to achieve various bio-functions bring much inspiration for the design of artificial biomaterials. However, it remains a big challenge to correlate underlying biomolecule interactions with macroscopic level of materials, for example, recognizing such weak interaction, further transforming it into regulating material’s macroscopic property and contributing to some new bio-applications. Here we designed a novel smart polymer based on polyacrylamide (PAM) grafted with lactose units (PAM-g-lactose0.11), and reported carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI)-promoted macroscopic properties switching on this smart polymer surface. Detailed investigations indicated that the binding of sialic acid molecules with the grafted lactose units via the CCIs induced conformational transformation of the polymer chains, further resulted in remarkable and reversible switching in surface topography, wettability and stiffness. With these excellent recognition and response capacities towards sialic acid, the PAM-g-lactose0.11 further facilitated good selectivity, strong anti-interference and high adsorption capacity in the capture of sialylated glycopeptides (important biomarkers for cancers). This work provides some enlightenment for the development of biointerface materials with tunable property, as well as high-performance glycopeptide enrichment materials.

  18. Does long term exposure to radon gas influence the properties of polymeric waterproof materials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratilova Rovenska, Katerina; Jiranek, Martin; Kokes, Pavel; Wasserbauer, Richard; Kacmarikova, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    The technical state of buildings and the quality of the indoor environment depend on the quality of the waterproofing course and on the properties of the insulating materials that are applied, in particular on their durability, long-term functional reliability and resistance to corrosive effects of the subsoil. Underground water chemistry and soil bacteria are well-known corrosive agents. Our investigations indicate that the ageing process of waterproof materials can be significantly accelerated by alpha particles emitted by radon and radon progenies which are present in soil gas. Materials commonly available on the building market, e.g. LDPE and HDPE of various densities, PVC, TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin), PP (polypropylene) and EPDM were selected for our experimental study. The preliminary results for 3-year exposure to radon gas show a decrease in tensile strength to 60%, elongation to 80% and hardness to 95% for samples based on PE. The diffusion coefficient of radon for samples based on PVC decreased to 20% of the initial value after 1-year exposure to radon and soil bacteria.

  19. Finite element analysis of the high strain rate testing of polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorwade, C. V.; Alghamdi, A. S.; Ashcroft, I. A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.; Song, M.

    2012-08-01

    Advanced polymer materials are finding an increasing range of industrial and defence applications. Ultra-high molecular weight polymers (UHMWPE) are already used in lightweight body armour because of their good impact resistance with light weight. However, a broader use of such materials is limited by the complexity of the manufacturing processes and the lack of experimental data on their behaviour and failure evolution under high-strain rate loading conditions. The current study deals with an investigation of the internal heat generation during tensile of UHMWPE. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the tensile test is developed and validated the with experimental work. An elastic-plastic material model is used with adiabatic heat generation. The temperature and stresses obtained with FE analysis are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental results. The model can be used as a simple and cost effective tool to predict the thermo-mechanical behaviour of UHMWPE part under various loading conditions.

  20. Durability of polymeric materials used in zinc/bromine flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C., Jr.

    The lifetimes of zinc/bromine flow batteries may be limited by the durability of components which are fabricated from thermoplastic materials and exposed to the bromine-containing electrolyte. Examples of such components are flowframes and carbon-filled plastic electrodes. In early versions of the zinc/bromine battery, flowframes and electrodes were made from polypropylene and copolymers of propylene and ethylene. In later versions of the zinc/bromine battery, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was used as the material to fabricate flowframes and polyethylene was used as the material used to fabricate both flowframes and electrodes. We found that carbon-plastic electrodes made from polypropylene or polypropylene rich copolymers were swelled and chemically attacked by the bromine-containing electrolytes. As a result, warpage occurred and the battery failed. On the basis of accelerated aging studies we estimated the lifetimes of the electrode and its polypropylene based component to be 96 and 10 months, respectively. The enhanced stability of the electrode was attributed to the presence of carbon which is known to be an antioxidant for thermoxidation. In accelerated exposure tests, bromine-containing electrolytes were also found to attack and leach out the additives used in PVC flowframes. PVC itself was only slightly degraded by the electrolyte. A commercial fluorocarbon, Tefzel, which contains no additives, was determined to be stable in bromine-containing electrolytes and is recommended as a replacement for PVC. Currently, aging studies on carbon-filled polyethylene electrodes are in progress.

  1. Sialic Acid-Responsive Polymeric Interface Material: From Molecular Recognition to Macroscopic Property Switching

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yuting; Jiang, Ge; Li, Minmin; Qing, Guangyan; Li, Xiuling; Liang, Xinmiao; Sun, Taolei

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems that utilize multiple weak non-covalent interactions and hierarchical assemblies to achieve various bio-functions bring much inspiration for the design of artificial biomaterials. However, it remains a big challenge to correlate underlying biomolecule interactions with macroscopic level of materials, for example, recognizing such weak interaction, further transforming it into regulating material’s macroscopic property and contributing to some new bio-applications. Here we designed a novel smart polymer based on polyacrylamide (PAM) grafted with lactose units (PAM-g-lactose0.11), and reported carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI)-promoted macroscopic properties switching on this smart polymer surface. Detailed investigations indicated that the binding of sialic acid molecules with the grafted lactose units via the CCIs induced conformational transformation of the polymer chains, further resulted in remarkable and reversible switching in surface topography, wettability and stiffness. With these excellent recognition and response capacities towards sialic acid, the PAM-g-lactose0.11 further facilitated good selectivity, strong anti-interference and high adsorption capacity in the capture of sialylated glycopeptides (important biomarkers for cancers). This work provides some enlightenment for the development of biointerface materials with tunable property, as well as high-performance glycopeptide enrichment materials. PMID:28084463

  2. Polymeric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C-S.

    1999-11-02

    Synthesis of polymeric carbon dioxide has long been of interest to many chemists and materials scientists. Very recently we discovered the polymeric phase of carbon dioxide (called CO{sub 2}-V) at high pressures and temperatures. Our optical and x-ray results indicate that CO{sub 2}-V is optically non-linear, generating the second harmonic of Nd: YLF laser at 527 nm and is also likely superhard similar to cubic-boron nitride or diamond. CO{sub 2}-V is made of CO{sub 4} tetrahedra, analogous to SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, and is quenchable at ambient temperature at pressures above 1 GPa. In this paper, we describe the pressure-induced polymerization of carbon dioxide together with the stability, structure, and mechanical and optical properties of polymeric CO{sub 2}-V. We also present some implications of polymeric CO{sub 2} for high-pressure chemistry and new materials synthesis.

  3. Surface functionalization of macroporous polymeric materials by treatment with air low temperature plasma.

    PubMed

    Molina, R; Sole, I; Vílchez, A; Bertran, E; Solans, C; Esquena, J

    2013-04-01

    Polystyrene/divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) macroporous monoliths obtained using highly concentrated emulsions as templates show a superhydrophobic behaviour, restricting their potential technological applications, especially those related to adhesion and wetting. Air plasma treatments were carried out in order to modulate wetting properties, modifying the surface chemical composition of macroporous polystyrene/divinylbenzene materials. The superhydrophobic behaviour was rapidly suppressed by air plasma treatment, greatly reducing the water contact angle, from approximately 150 degrees to approximately 90 degrees, in only 10 seconds of treatment. The new surface chemical groups, promoted by plasma active species, were characterized by surface analysis techniques with different depth penetration specificity (contact angle, XPS, FTIR and SEM). Results demonstrated that very short treatment times produced different chemical functionalities, mainly C-O, C=O, O-C=O and C-N, which provide the materials with predominantly acidic surface properties. However, plasma active species did not penetrate deeply through the interconnected pores of the material. FTIR analysis evidenced that the new hydrophilic surface groups promoted by plasma active species are in a negligibly concentration compared to bulk chemical groups, and are located in a very thin surface region on the PS-DVB monolith surface (significantly below 2 microm). XPS analysis of treated monoliths revealed a progressive increase of oxygen and nitrogen content as a function of plasma treatment time. However, oxidation of the PS-DVB monoliths surface prevails over the incorporation of nitrogen atoms. Finally, SEM studies indicated that the morphology of the plasma treated PS-DVB does not significantly change even for the longest air plasma treatment time studied (120 s).

  4. Protective gloves of polymeric materials. Experimental permeation testing and clinical study of side effects.

    PubMed

    Mellström, G

    1991-01-01

    In the occupational use and handling of hazardous chemicals and infectious materials, exposure must be minimized. To diminish the risk of direct skin contact and percutaneous toxicity, the use of protective gloves is one of the most important measures to consider. For effective protection, the selection process must include evaluation of permeation test data as well as the risk of side effects possibly caused by the glove materials. In permeation testing (in vitro), breakthrough time and permeation rate are key values measured. Test conditions such as size and design of the permeation test cell, flow rate of the collecting medium through the test cell, measurement systems, testing procedures and analytical equipment can vary and can have crucial influence on the test results. In the present investigation, five permeation test cells of different sizes and design were used, the collecting gas flow rate was varied between 60 and 120 ml/min and 120 to 500 ml/min, the ASTM F 739 and ISO/DIS standard test procedures were performed using two different measurement systems, and in vitro versus in vivo testing techniques were studied. Gloves and glove materials of neoprene were exposed to four organic solvents. The breakthrough times (in vitro) for the test chemicals were slightly influenced by variations in cell size and design, flow rate and test procedure. The only significant influence on the breakthrough time values was between the two measurement systems, direct flow and automatic sampling. On the other hand, the permeation rate values were affected to a much greater extent, in most cases significantly. The test conditions in the in vitro and in vivo procedures differed in many ways and the test results were therefore compared on a relative basis. The breakthrough time values for the solvents through gloves of vinyl, natural rubber and butyl rubber were in the same rank order in both in vitro and in vivo testing. There was no evident correlation between the relative

  5. Charge recombination in distributed heterostructures of semiconductor discotic and polymeric materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jenny; Archer, Robert; Redding, Tim; Foden, Clare; Tant, Julien; Geerts, Yves; Friend, Richard H.; Silva, Carlos

    2008-06-01

    Control of microstructure and energetics at heterojunctions in organic semiconductors is central to achieve high light-emitting or photovoltaic device efficiency. We report the observation of an emissive exciplex formed between an electron-accepting discotic material (hexaazatrinaphthylene or HATNA-SC12) and a hole accepting conjugated polymer {poly[9,9- dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine] or TFB}. In contrast to polymer-polymer systems, we find here that the exciplex is strongly localized at the interface, acting as an energy bottleneck with inefficient transfer to bulk exciton states and with low yield of charge separation.

  6. Metal-Containing Molecules Beyond the Solar System: a Laboratory and Radio Astronomical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziurys, L. M.

    2010-06-01

    Although the history of interstellar molecules began around 1970, with the millimeter-wave detection of CO in the Orion Nebula, metal-containing species have been somewhat elusive for astronomical searches. Only in the past two decades have metal-bearing molecules been identified in space, starting with metal halides (NaCl, KCl, AlCl, and AlF), and then metal cyanide and isocyanide species (MgNC, MgCN, NaCN, and AlNC). Moreover, the metal-containing molecules seemed to be present in a single astronomical object: the envelope of a dying, carbon-rich star, IRC+10216. However, with improvements both in laboratory spectroscopy and telescope sensitivity, it is becoming clear that the relevance of metal-containing species in astrophysics is increasing. Metal oxide and hydroxide species, such as AlO and AlOH, have recently been identified in interstellar space. Metal-containing molecules are now being found in other astronomical sources, such as the oxygen-rich shell surrounding VY Canis Majoris, a supergiant star. These new astronomical discoveries will be presented, as well as the laboratory measurements that made them possible. New directions in rotational spectroscopy of metal-bearing molecules will also be discussed.

  7. 9 CFR 355.33 - Plant number to be embossed on metal containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant number to be embossed on metal containers. 355.33 Section 355.33 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA...

  8. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  10. 9 CFR 355.33 - Plant number to be embossed on metal containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant number to be embossed on metal containers. 355.33 Section 355.33 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER...

  11. 9 CFR 355.33 - Plant number to be embossed on metal containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant number to be embossed on metal containers. 355.33 Section 355.33 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER...

  12. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol

    Treesearch

    Alexandra L. Chang-Graham; Luisa T. M. Profeta; Timothy J. Johnson; Robert J. Yokelson; Alexander Laskin; Julia Laskin

    2011-01-01

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of...

  13. Using Living Radical Polymerization to Enable Facile Incorporation of Materials in Microfluidic Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Simms, Helen M.; Bowman, Christopher M.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2008-01-01

    High throughput screening tools are expediting cell culture studies with applications in drug discovery and tissue engineering. This contribution demonstrates a method to incorporate 3D cell culture sites into microfluidic devices and enables the fabrication of high throughput screening tools with uniquely addressable culture environments. Contact Lithographic Photopolymerization (CLiPP) was used to fabricate microfluidic devices with two types of 3D culture sites: macroporous rigid polymer cell scaffolds and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) encapsulated cell matrices. Cells were cultured on-device with both types of culture sites, demonstrating material cytocompatibility. Multilayer microfluidic devices were fabricated with channels passing the top and bottom sides of a series of rigid porous polymer scaffolds. Cells were seeded and cultured on-device, demonstrating the ability to deliver cells and culture cells on multiple scaffolds along the length of a single channel. Flow control through these rigid porous polymer scaffolds was demonstrated. Finally, devices were modified by grafting of PEG methacrylate from surfaces to prevent non-specific protein adsorption and ultimately cell adhesion to channel surfaces. The living radical component of this CLiPP device fabrication platform enables facile incorporation of 3D culture sites into microfluidic cell culture devices, which can be utilized for high throughput screening of cell material interactions. PMID:18294686

  14. Crystallization-modulated nanoporous polymeric materials with hierarchical patterned surfaces and 3D interpenetrated internal channels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lijun; Shi, Xianchun; Ye, Cuicui; Chen, Zhouli; Zeng, Mengmeng; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2015-04-01

    Poly(oxymethylene)/poly(L-lactic acid) (POM/PLLA) blends are typical melt-miscible binary systems. During isothermal crystallization at various temperatures, in the presence of amorphous PLLA chains, POM crystallizes into banded spherulites with different band spaces, which forms a continuous crystalline phase and serves as a sturdy frame in the final porous materials. On the other hand, the amorphous PLLA chains are simultaneously expelled out from POM crystal lamellae to generate the other continuous phase during the crystallization of POM. Consequently, the interpenetration of the POM lamellae and the amorphous PLLA phase construct a cocontinuous phase structure. All the PLLA constituents are fully included in the interlamellar or interfibrillar of POM crystals. Thus, nanoporous POM materials with hierarchical patterned surface and 3D interpenetrated internal channels have been successfully obtained by extracting the amorphous PLLA phase. It is further found that the POM crystal morphologies in the blends are much dependent on the crystallization conditions. Therefore, the hierarchical patterned structure and the size of internal channels (pore size) can be modulated by adjusting the crystallization conditions.

  15. Dependence of contact electrification on the magnitude of strain in polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sow, Mamadou; Lacks, Daniel J.; Mohan Sankaran, R.

    2012-10-01

    We present a new experimental approach to systematically study the effect of material strain on contact electrification. Thin sheets of latex rubber are variably strained by stretching over a hollow cylinder, analogous to a drum. The strained sheets are repeatedly contacted with another surface by a computer-controlled apparatus. The surface potential on the latex rubber is measured in real time by a non-contact electrostatic voltmeter. For unstrained latex rubber, we find that contact with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) leads to a negative surface potential that progressively increases in magnitude to more negative values with increasing number of contacts. When the latex rubber is strained, contact with PTFE causes the surface potential of the latex rubber to shift to less negative values. At strains of more than ˜50%, the polarity of the surface potential is reversed, such that contact with PTFE causes the latex rubber to charge positively. These results indicate that contact electrification intimately depends on the degree of material strain, and may explain how spatial inhomogeneities of charge exist on contacted surfaces and why there is a lack of reproducibility in contact charging experiments.

  16. Water-Soluble Polymeric Interfacial Material for Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lingling; Ma, Yingzhuang; Xiao, Lixin; Zhang, Fengyan; Wang, Yuanhao; Yang, Hongxing

    2017-04-11

    Interfacial materials play a critical role in photoelectric conversion properties as well as the anomalous hysteresis phenomenon of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this article, a water-soluble polythiophene PTEBS was employed as a cathode interfacial material for PSCs. Efficient energy level aligning and improved film morphology were obtained due to an ultrathin coating of PTEBS. Better ohmic contact between the perovskite layer and the cathode also benefits the charge transport and extraction of the device. Moreover, less charge accumulation at the interface weakens the polarization of the perovskite resulting in a relatively quick response of the modified device. The ITO/PTEBS/CH3NH3PbI3/spiro-MeOTAD/Au cells by an all low-temperature process achieved power conversion efficiencies of up to 15.4% without apparent hysteresis effect. Consequently, the utilization of this water-soluble polythiophene is a practical approach for the fabrication of highly efficient, large-area, and low-cost PSCs and compatible with low-temperature solution process, roll-to-roll manufacture, and flexible application.

  17. Recent aspects of self-oscillating polymeric materials: designing self-oscillating polymers coupled with supramolecular chemistry and ionic liquid science.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryo

    2014-06-14

    Herein, we summarise the recent developments in self-oscillating polymeric materials based on the concepts of supramolecular chemistry, where aggregates of molecular building blocks with non-covalent bonds evolve the temporal or spatiotemporal structure. By utilising the rhythmic oscillation of the association/dissociation of molecular aggregates coupled with the redox oscillation by the BZ reaction, novel soft materials that express similar functions as those of living matter will be achieved. Further, from the viewpoint of materials science, our recent approach to prepare self-oscillating materials that operate long-term under mild conditions will be introduced.

  18. Robust, double-walled microcapsules for self-healing polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Mary M; Blaiszik, Benjamin J; Jin, Henghua; Schelkopf, Stuart R; Stradley, Dylan S; Sottos, Nancy R; White, Scott R; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2010-04-01

    Double-walled polyurethane/poly(urea-formaldehyde) microcapsules (PU/UF) are prepared for use in self-healing materials. This modified encapsulation procedure combines two chemistries to form more robust capsule shell walls in a single operation. Robust capsules are formed by this procedure as long as the aromatic polyisocyanate prepolymer is soluble in the core liquid and the core liquid is compatible with isocyanates. Compared to a standard UF encapsulation, the modified procedure results in capsules with an increase in shell wall thickness from 200 to 675 nm as a function of the amount of PU added to the core liquid. Thermal stability of PU/UF microcapsules prepared with varying amounts of PU is compared to UF microcapsules. Mechanical properties of the PU/UF microcapsules are assessed from single-capsule compression testing.

  19. Investigation of space radiation effects in polymeric film-forming materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.; Jarke, F.

    1975-01-01

    The literature search in the field of ultraviolet radiation effects that was conducted during the previous program, Contract No. NAS1-12549, has been expanded to include the effects of charged particle radiation and high energy electromagnetic radiation. The literature from 1958 to 1969 was searched manually, while the literature from 1969 to present was searched by using a computerized keyword system. The information generated from this search was utilized for the design of an experimental program aimed at the development of materials with improved resistance to the vacuum-radiation environment of space. Preliminary irradiation experiments were performed which indicate that the approaches and criteria employed are very promising and may provide a solution to the challenging problem of polymer stability to combined ultraviolet/high energy radiation.

  20. Nonequilibrium material effects on the behavior of polymeric composite matrices and their related composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of physical aging on the material properties of some linear and network macromolecular glasses are discussed. The free volume concept is used to describe this behavior. The effect of physical aging on properties of some uniaxial graphite/fiber epoxy resin composites is investigated using stress relaxation in both tensile and flexural modes. The matrix polymers used were resins both of which are based on a 4,4-methylenedianiline derivative of epichlorohydrin with diamino diphenyl sulfone (DDS) as the curing agent. The matrix resin, as used in the practical application in composites, not fully cured and the glass transition of the network was dependent on the curing schedule. The physical aging of the bulk crosslinked epoxy was found to depend on the annealing temperature, and the T sub g of the resin. The physical aging of the composite, monitored by the stress relaxation method, was found to be dependent on the testing direction.

  1. Preliminary design polymeric materials experiment. [for space shuttles and Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, S. G.; Rude, E. T.; Marshner, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A typical Advanced Technology Laboratory mission flight plan was developed and used as a guideline for the identification of a number of experiment considerations. The experiment logistics beginning with sample preparation and ending with sample analysis are then overlaid on the mission in order to have a complete picture of the design requirements. The results of this preliminary design study fall into two categories. First specific preliminary designs of experiment hardware which is adaptable to a variety of mission requirements. Second, identification of those mission considerations which affect hardware design and will require further definition prior to final design. Finally, a program plan is presented which will provide the necessary experiment hardware in a realistic time period to match the planned shuttle flights. A bibliography of all material reviewed and consulted but not specifically referenced is provided.

  2. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.

    1978-01-01

    Materials intended for use in spacecraft are routinely tested at low pressures, and outgassed substances are condensed on cold surfaces at liquid nitrogen temperature, -196 C. These condensates are then analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromotography-mass spectroscopy. The polymers were tested and allowed to outgas isothermally at 125 C and 0.000001 torr or less. Valuable information was obtained by extending the temperature range below and above 125 C. The performance of substances of interest to NASA were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) from room temperature to 450 C or until the substance decomposed. Thermogravimetric analysis of a substance is a useful technique for studying its thermal nature in both static and dynamic thermal environments. It gives considerable insight into the stability and characterization of substances and the changes they undergo in varying thermal environments. The system is able to get pressures down to 1 micron or 0.001 torr.

  3. The electrical performance of polymeric insulating materials under accelerated aging in a fog chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gorur, R.S.; Cherney, E.A.; Hackam, R. ); Orbeck, T. )

    1988-07-01

    A comparative study of the ac (60 Hz) surface aging in a fog chamber is reported on cylindrical rod samples of high temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber containing various amounts of alumina trihydrate (ATH) and/or silica fillers. In low conductivity (250 ..mu..S/cm) fog, silicone rubber performed better than EPDM samples whereas in high conductivity (1000 ..mu..S/cm) fog, the order of performance was reversed. The mechanisms by which fillers impart tracking and erosion resistance to materials is discussed as influenced by the experimental conditions of the accelerated aging tests. Surface studies by ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) demonstrate that the hydrophobicity of silicone rubber, despite the accumulation of surface contamination, can be attributed to migration of low molecular weight polymer chains and/or mobile fluids, such as silicone oil.

  4. Helmet of a laminate construction of polycarbonate and polysulfone polymeric material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J. (Inventor); Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An article of laminate construction is disclosed which is comprised of an underlayer of polycarbonate polymer material to which is applied a chemically resistant outer layer of polysulfone. The layers which are joined by compression-heat molding, are molded to form the shape of a body protective shell such as a space helmet comprising a shell of polycarbonate, polysulfone laminate construction attached at its open end to a sealing ring adapted for connection to a space suit. The front portion of the shell provides a transparent visor for the helmet. An outer visor of polycarbonate polysulfone laminate construction is pivotally mounted to the sealing ring for covering the transparent visor portion of the shell during extravehicular activities. The polycarbonate under layer of the outer visor is coated on its inner surface with a vacuum deposit of gold to provide additional thermal radiation resistance.

  5. Aging behavior of polymeric solar absorber materials: Aging on the component level

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlen, S.; Wallner, G.M.; Lang, R.W.; Meir, M.; Rekstad, J.

    2010-03-15

    Within this study, the aging behavior of a PPE + PS absorber material was investigated on the absorber component level. To indicate aging, characteristic mechanical values were determined by indentation tests of specimens taken from components and exposed to laboratory aging (140 C in air, 80 C in water) and service near outdoor aging conditions (stagnation in northern climate). In addition to the mechanical tests, the unaged and aged specimens were also characterized thermo-analytically via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that reductions in both characteristic mechanical values of the indentation tests, i.e., load of the first transition and ultimate indentation, reflect at least some physical aging although chemical aging may also be of importance based on previous analytical investigations of laboratory aged polymer films. While laboratory aging in air at 140 C and service exposure at a test facility in Oslo (N) under stagnation conditions led to a significant reduction in the mechanical indentation resistance, no influence of laboratory aging in water at 80 C on the mechanical behavior of the absorber sheet was found. Depending on the ultimate failure criterion applied (reduction of characteristic mechanical values to 80% and 50%, respectively), the technical service life found for hot air laboratory and stagnation service conditions was found to be less than 51 and 159 h, respectively. As these durations are significantly below the estimated stagnation conditions accumulated in the desired operation lifetime for such a collector, the PPE + PS type investigated does not seem to be a proper material candidate for solar thermal absorbers. Finally, based on the results obtained, a relation between laboratory aging time in air at 140 C and cumulated irradiation energy during exposure on the test facility in Oslo was established. (author)

  6. Guided Placement of Magnetic Microcapsules in Self-Healing Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crall, Matthew D.

    Magnetically guided microcapsules are used to achieve self-healing with 1/10th of the healing components required using traditional self-healing approaches. Microcapsules are rendered responsive to magnetic fields by suspending magnetic nanoparticles in the core material. The nanoparticles are surface-modified to enable ureaformaldehyde encapsula tion within a phenyl acetate core. Nanoparticles are characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showing an average size of 8 nm across the hexagonal cross section. Simple emulsion tests are conducted to qualitatively determine if the nanoparticles are suitable for encapsulation, and contact angle testing is also preformed to determine the effectiveness of the nanoparticle coating. Microcapsules were characterized by both SEM and optical microscopy to determine size distribution, shell wall characteristics, and confirm the presence of nanoparticles in the core. Magnetized razorblades are used to manipulate the nanoparticles within the microcapsule core. Barrier property studies are performed using TGA, and AAS is used to quantify the nanoparticle loading within the microcapsules, found to be within 0.10% of the added concentration of 0.33 wt% nanoparticles suspended in the phenyl acetate core material. Magnetic fields are used to guide the microcapsules to the expected fracture location in tapered double cantilever beam (TDCB) epoxy specimens. This guiding method achieves a ten-fold increase in local microcapsule concentration over controls that are cured without magnets, resulting in self-healing behavior that remains constant for microcapsule concentrations as low as 0.025 wt%. This value is two orders of magnitude lower than the concentration required to achieve consistent self-healing using traditional approaches. Additionally, the observed healing for guided specimens is both more consistent and significantly higher than that of control specimens.

  7. In Situ X-ray Synchrotron Tomographic Imaging During the Compression of Hyperelastic Polymeric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Henderson, Kevin; Williams, Jason J.; Stannard, Tyler; Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Ovejero, Angel Rodriguez; Xiao, Xianghui; Robinson, Mathew; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2016-01-01

    Cellular structures are present in many modern and natural materials and their proper utilization is crucial within many industries. Characterizing their structural and mechanical properties is complicated, in that they often have a stochastic cellular structure, and in addition, they often have hyperelastic (i.e., non-linear) mechanical properties. Understanding the 3D structure and the dynamic response of polymer foams to mechanical stress is key to predicting lifetime performance, damage pathways, and stress recovery. Therefore, to gain a more complete picture, experiments which are designed to understand their mechanical properties must simultaneously acquire performance metrics during loading. In situ synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (CT) can image these cellular materials in 3D during uniaxial compression at a 10-2 s-1 strain rate. By utilizing the high X-ray photon flux and high speed camera provided by beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), it is possible to collect a full 3D tomogram (900 radiographs as the sample is rotated 180°) within 1 s. Rotating the sample stage in a washing machine motion allows for a 1 s tomogram to be collected every fifth second. In this study, a series of 20 tomograms were collected as the sample was continuously stressed to a nominal 60% compression. Several types of silicone foams with various structures were used to explore this technique. Stress-strain curves, collected simultaneously with the 3D tomograms, can be used to directly correlate the morphology with the mechanical performance and visualize in real-time, the buckling of ligaments. In addition, this method allows for the accurate measurement of the Poisson’s ratio as a function of compression. Coupling this moderate strain rate 3D data with finite element analysis provides a direct comparison between the true mechanical response and the modeled performance and adds a level of robustness that is not possible with other techniques

  8. Temperature rise under normal and caries-affected primary tooth dentin disks during polymerization of adhesives and resin-containing dental materials.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Gul; Usumez, Aslihan; Yondem, Isa; Sener, Yagmur

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the temperature rise under normal and caries-affected primary tooth dentin during photopolymerization of two adhesives and resin-containing restorative materials. Caries-affected and normal dentin disks were prepared from extracted primary molars with only mesial or distal approximal caries (4 mm in diameter, 1 mm in height). Temperature rise during photopolymerization of adhesive materials was measured with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and independent samples t-test. Temperature rise under caries-affected primary tooth dentin disks was higher than that of normal primary tooth dentin disks during polymerization of both adhesive systems and resin-containing dental materials (p < 0.05). It was found that adhesive systems induced a higher temperature rise during polymerization as compared to the resin-containing restorative materials (p < 0.05). In particular, temperature rise during polymerization of adhesive materials exceeded 5.5 degrees C under caries-affected primary tooth dentin.

  9. DNA polymeric films as a support for cell growth as a new material for regenerative medicine: compatibility and applicability.

    PubMed

    Jayme, Cristiano Ceron; de Paula, Leonardo Barcelos; Rezende, Nayara; Calori, Italo Rodrigo; Franchi, Leonardo Pereira; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio

    2017-09-21

    DNA polymeric films (DNA-PFs) are a promising drug delivery system (DDS) in modern medicine. In this study, we evaluated the growth behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells on DNA-PFs. The morphological, biochemical, and cytometric features of OSCC cell adhesion on DNA-PFs were also assessed. An initial, temporary alteration in cell morphology was observed at early time points owing to the inhibition of cell attachment to the film, which then returned to a normal morphological state at later time points. MTT and resazurin assays showed a moderate reduction in cell viability related to increased DNA concentration in the DNA-PFs. Flow cytometry studies showed low cytotoxicity of DNA-PFs, with cell viabilities higher than 90% in all the DNA-PFs tested. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis also showed average cell cycle phase distributions at later time points, indicating that OSCC cell growth is maintained in the presence of DNA-PFs. These results show high biocompatibility of DNA-PFs and suggest their use in designing "dressing material," where the DNA film acts as a support for cell growth, or with incorporation of active or photoactive compounds, which can induce tissue regeneration and are useful to treat many diseases, especially oral cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Microstructure Analysis of Barium M- Hexaferrite Particles Coated by Pani Conducting Material with In Situ Polymerization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuri, M.; Amalia, L.

    2017-05-01

    Barium M-Hexaferrite (BaM) was synthesized by coprecipitation method and doped with Zn. Polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemically and doped DBSA. The composite of PANI/BaM was synthesized by in situ polymerization method. The phase identification of the sample was performed by XRD, FTIR and SEM. Based on XRD data, the phase composition of BaM and hematite are 85.52 % and 14.48%. The characteristic peaks of PANI occur at 3435, 1637, 1473, 1298, 1127, 1009, and 799 cm-1. The characteristic metal oxide stretching peaks of BaM occurs at 575 and 437 cm-1. There is no phase changing in PANI/BaM composite. Based on SEM photography, the shape of BaM is hexagonal. The particle size of BaM powder ranges from 400-700 nm. The qualitative interfacial bonding between PANI and BaM particles are conducted very well and the both materials have good wettability.

  11. Strategy for Fabricating Multiple-Shape-Memory Polymeric Materials via the Multilayer Assembly of Co-Continuous Blends.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Ji, Xiaoying; Yin, Min; Shen, Jiabin; Guo, Shaoyun

    2017-09-05

    Shape-memory polymeric materials containing alternating layers of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and co-continuous poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/polycaprolactone (PCL) blends (denoted SLBs) were fabricated through layer-multiplying coextrusion. Because there were two well-separated phase transitions caused by the melt of PCL and PBS, both the dual- and triple-shape-memory effects were discussed. Compared with the blending specimen with the same components, the TPU/SLB multilayer system with a multicontinuous structure and a plenty of layer interfaces was demonstrated to have higher shape fixity and recovery ability. When the number of layers reached 128, both the shape fixity and recovery ratios were beyond 95 and 85% in dual- and triple-shape-memory processes, respectively, which were difficult to be achieved through conventional melt-processing methods. On the basis of the classic viscoelastic theory, the parallel-assembled TPU and SLB layers capable of maintaining the same strain along the deforming direction were regarded to possess the maximum ability to fix temporary shapes and trigger them to recover back to original ones through the interfacial shearing effect. Accordingly, the present approach provided an efficient strategy for fabricating outstanding multiple-shape-memory polymers, which may exhibit a promising application in the fields of biomedical devices, sensors and actuators, and so forth.

  12. In vitro photosensitization initiated by camphorquinone and phenyl propanedione in dental polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Terje; Morisbak, Else; Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth; Bruzell, Ellen M

    2010-09-02

    Documentation is scarce on the photobiological effects of photoinitiators present in dental light curable materials. The aim of this study was to determine cellular effects of the photoinitiators camphorquinone (CQ) and phenyl propanedione (PPD) and to investigate whether these substances produced reactive oxygen species after low and high doses of optical radiation (between 0 and 17J/cm(2)). Rat salivary gland cells in vitro were exposed to visible blue light and/or UVA. Hematoporphyrin (HP), a photosensitizer used in medicine, and the UVA-filter 2-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzophenone (B-3) were used as reference substances. It was found that PPD produced hydrogen peroxide, but not singlet oxygen, upon light irradiation. CQ produced neither hydrogen peroxide nor singlet oxygen. Cell death by necrosis and apoptosis was induced by irradiation in the presence of CQ, PPD and HP. Doses higher than 6J/cm(2) UVA and blue visible light from a source similar to clinically applied sources, induced apoptosis even in the absence of photosensitizers added. A reciprocity relationship was found between radiant exposure (at constant irradiance) and concentration of photoinitiators. In conclusion, the oral cells under investigation were light sensitive, and the sensitivity increased in presence of photoinitiators. PPD acted by mechanisms that included reactive oxygen species and CQ probably by formation of free radicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid determination of oligomeric hindered amine light stabilizers in polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Kreisberger, Georg; Buchberger, Wolfgang W

    2017-04-12

    Hindered amine light stabilizers are of essential for the stabilization of synthetic polymers, particularly for materials used for outdoor applications. Although up to now a considerable number of studies dealing with the analytics of this class of stabilizers had been published, especially the determination of oligomeric hindered amine light stabilizers is still an analytical challenge. In the current work a fast and simple liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of oligomeric hindered amine light stabilizers is presented. A key aspect of this method is their completely different retention behavior depending on the pH, enabling a single peak elution approach by a pH gradient run. This allows a quantitation with simple UV detection independent of the actual oligomeric composition. Calibration curves within the concentration range relevant for the analysis of real polymer samples (LOQ = 70 mg L(-1) ) were constructed with R(2) values above 0.99. Spiked extracts from polyolefin samples showed recovery rates between 97.3 and 102.9% for five different commercial hindered amine light stabilizers. Relative standard deviations were between 2.0 and 3.9%. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the employed approach can be easily adapted for mass spectrometry detection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  15. Characterisation and potential migration of silver nanoparticles from commercially available polymeric food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Addo Ntim, Susana; Thomas, Treye A; Begley, Timothy H; Noonan, Gregory O

    2015-01-01

    The potential for consumer exposure to nano-components in food contact materials (FCMs) is dependent on the migration of nanomaterials into food. Therefore, characterising the physico-chemical properties and potential for migration of constituents is an important step in assessing the safety of FCMs. A number of commercially available food storage products, purchased domestically within the United States and internationally, that claim to contain nanosilver were evaluated. The products were made of polyethylene, polypropylene and polyphenylene ether sulfone and all contained silver (0.001-36 mg kg(-1) of polymer). Silver migration was measured under various conditions, including using 3% acetic acid and water as food simulants. Low concentrations (sub-ppb levels) of silver were detected in the migration studies generally following a trend characterised by a surface desorption phenomenon, where the majority of the silver migration occurred in the first of three consecutive exposures. Silver nanoparticles were not detected in food simulants, suggesting that the silver migration may be due solely to ionic silver released into solution from oxidation of the silver nanoparticle surface. The absence of detectable silver nanoparticles was consistent with expectations from a physico-chemical view point. For the products tested, current USFDA guidance for evaluating migration from FCMs was applicable.

  16. Accumulation of air in polymeric materials investigated by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, W. L.; Hermann, J.; Mothe, E.; Beldjilali, S.

    2012-03-15

    We report on spectroscopic analyses of plasmas produced by laser irradiation of nitrogen-free and nitrogen-containing polymer materials. Ultraviolet laser pulses of 5 ns duration and 4 mJ energy were focused onto the samples with a fluence of about 20 Jcm{sup -2}. The plasma emission was analyzed with an Echelle spectrometer equipped with a gated detector. Comparing the spectra recorded during ablation in air and argon, it is shown that the spectral line emission of atomic nitrogen originates from the excitation of the ambient air, whereas the CN molecular bands are essentially emitted from the ablation plume. Furthermore, the measurements demonstrate an additional contribution of nitrogen emission from the air molecules accumulated in the polymer. Storage under vacuum over a duration of the order of one day leads to the release of the absorbed air. As a consequence of the air absorption, the measurement of elemental composition of polymers via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is particularly difficult. Here, we quantify the atmospheric contribution to the plume emission during polymer analysis.

  17. Polymeric microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  18. Contamination of the transformer oil of power transformers and shunting reactors by metal-containing colloidal particles

    SciTech Connect

    L'vov, S. Yu.; Komarov, V. B.; Bondareva, V. N.; Seliverstov, A. F.; Lyut'ko, E. O.; L'vov, Yu. N.; Ershov, B. G.

    2011-05-15

    The results of a measurement of the contamination of the oil in 66 transformers by metal-containing colloidal particles, formed as a result of the interaction of the oil with the structural materials (the copper of the windings, the iron of the tank and core etc.), and also the results of measurements of the optical turbidity of the oil in 136 transformers when they were examined at the Power Engineering Research and Development Center Company are presented. Methods of determining the concentration of copper and iron in transformer oil are considered. The limiting values of the optical turbidity factors, the copper and iron content are determined. These can serve as a basis for taking decisions on whether to replace the silica gel of the filters for continuously purifying the oil of power transformers and the shunting reactors in addition to the standardized oil contamination factors, namely, the dielectric loss tangent and the acidity number of the oil.

  19. Using Layer-by-Layer Coating and Nanocomposite Technologies to Improve the Barrier Properties of Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Iman

    Means for improving barrier properties of polymers against gases, particularly for promoting their applications as packaging materials, are divided into surface coating and embedding nanoparticles in the bulk of the polymeric membranes. In this research, we mainly investigated improvement in barrier properties of polymers against oxygen and carbon dioxide, through layer-by-layer (LBL) coating and bulk nanocomposite methods. Initially, we studied the morphology of layer-by-layer assemblies comprising alternating layers of polyelectrolyte (PE) and natural montmorillonite (MMT) platelets, where polyethyleneterephthalate ionomer was used as our proposed alternative PE, to be compared with already examined polyethyleneimine. For both investigated PEs, while microscopic images showed the formation of tortuous networks of galleries between subsequent layers of oriented clay platelets parallel to the substrate surface, x-ray diffractometry (XRD) traces pointed to the intercalation of PE layers between clay platelets. As a confirmation of forming tortuous networks between oriented and high aspect ratio clay platelets to increase the path length of diffusing gas species dramatically, LBL-coated polystyrene-based membranes demonstrated pronounced decreases in permeability of oxygen and carbon dioxide (e.g. about the scale of 500 times decrease in permeability, with only five cycles of bilayer deposition). Before LBL deposition, the surface of the hydrophobic polymeric substrate was pretreated with oxygen plasma to improve its interaction with the coating. In the next study, previously LBL-coated samples were melt pressed in a cyclic manner to embed and to crush the coating inside the polystyrene-based matrix, aiming the exfoliated polymer-clay nanocomposites. The morphological investigations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the tortuous internal structure of crushed LBL assemblies' portions, mainly comprising swollen intercalated stacks of clay, as well as

  20. Broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal polymeric paint materials: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and membrane-active mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Jiaul; Akkapeddi, Padma; Yadav, Vikas; Manjunath, Goutham B; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Konai, Mohini M; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-28

    Microbial attachment and subsequent colonization onto surfaces lead to the spread of deadly community-acquired and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections. Noncovalent immobilization of water insoluble and organo-soluble cationic polymers onto a surface is a facile approach to prevent microbial contamination. In the present study, we described the synthesis of water insoluble and organo-soluble polymeric materials and demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against various human pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and beta lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The polymer coated surfaces completely inactivated both bacteria and fungi upon contact (5 log reduction with respect to control). Linear polymers were more active and found to have a higher killing rate than the branched polymers. The polymer coated surfaces also exhibited significant activity in various complex mammalian fluids such as serum, plasma, and blood and showed negligible hemolysis at an amount much higher than minimum inhibitory amounts (MIAs). These polymers were found to have excellent compatibility with other medically relevant polymers (polylactic acid, PLA) and commercial paint. The cationic hydrophobic polymer coatings disrupted the lipid membrane of both bacteria and fungi and thus showed a membrane-active mode of action. Further, bacteria did not develop resistance against these membrane-active polymers in sharp contrast to conventional antibiotics and lipopeptides, thus the polymers hold great promise to be used as coating materials for developing permanent antimicrobial paint.