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Sample records for metal-insulator phase transition

  1. Switchable Metal-Insulator Phase Transition Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Hajisalem, Ghazal; Nezami, Mohammadreza S; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-04-06

    We investigate the switching of a gap plasmon tunnel junction between conducting and insulating states. Hysteresis is observed in the second and the third harmonic generation power dependence, which arises by thermally induced disorder ("melting") of a two-carbon self-assembled monolayer between an ultraflat gold surface and metal nanoparticles. The hysteresis is observed for a variety of nanoparticle sizes, but not for larger tunnel junctions where there is no appreciable tunneling. By combining quantum corrected finite-difference time-domain simulations with nonlinear scattering theory, we calculate the changes in the harmonic generation between the tunneling and the insulating states, and good agreement is found with the experiments. This paves the way to a new class of metal-insulator phase transition switchable metamaterials, which may provide next-generation information processing technologies.

  2. Role of phonons in the metal-insulator phase transition.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review, for the transition series oxides, of the Mattis and Lander model, which is one of electrons interacting with lattice vibrations (electron and phonon interaction). The model displays superconducting, insulating, and metallic phases. Its basic properties evolve from a finite crystallographic distortion associated with a dominant phonon mode and the splitting of the Brillouin zone into two subzones, a property of simple cubic and body centered cubic lattices. The order of the metal-insulator phase transition is examined. The basic model has a second-order phase transition and the effects of additional mechanisms on the model are calculated. The way in which these mechanisms affect the magnetically ordered transition series oxides as described by the Hubbard model is discussed.

  3. Chiral phase transition in lattice QCD as a metal-insulator transition

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Garcia, Antonio M.; Osborn, James C.

    2007-02-01

    We investigate the lattice QCD Dirac operator with staggered fermions at temperatures around the chiral phase transition. We present evidence of a metal-insulator transition in the low lying modes of the Dirac operator around the same temperature as the chiral phase transition. This strongly suggests the phenomenon of Anderson localization drives the QCD vacuum to the chirally symmetric phase in a way similar to a metal-insulator transition in a disordered conductor. We also discuss how Anderson localization affects the usual phenomenological treatment of phase transitions a la Ginzburg-Landau.

  4. Separation observation of metal-insulator transition and structural phase transition in VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Tak; Kim, Bong-Jun; Lee, Yong Wook; Chae, Byung Gyu; Yun, Sun Jin; Oh, Soo-Young; Lim, Yong-Sik

    2007-03-01

    An intermediate monoclinic metal phase between the metal-insulator transition (MIT) and the structural phase transition (SPT) is observed with VO2-based two-terminal devices and can be explained in terms of the Mott MIT. The conductivity of this phase linearly increases with increasing temperature up to TSPT 68^oC and becomes maximum at TSPT. The SPT is confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Optical microscopic observation reveals the absence of a local current path in the metal phase. The current uniformly flows throughout the surface of the VO2 film when the MIT occurs. This device can be used as a programmable critical temperature sensor. (References: New J. Phys. 6 (1994) 52 (http://www.njp.org); Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005) 24210); Physica B 369 (2005) 76; cond-mat/0607577; cond-mat/0608085; cond-mat/0609033).

  5. Striped nanoscale phase separation at the metal-insulator transition of heteroepitaxial nickelates.

    PubMed

    Mattoni, G; Zubko, P; Maccherozzi, F; van der Torren, A J H; Boltje, D B; Hadjimichael, M; Manca, N; Catalano, S; Gibert, M; Liu, Y; Aarts, J; Triscone, J-M; Dhesi, S S; Caviglia, A D

    2016-11-02

    Nucleation processes of mixed-phase states are an intrinsic characteristic of first-order phase transitions, typically related to local symmetry breaking. Direct observation of emerging mixed-phase regions in materials showing a first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT) offers unique opportunities to uncover their driving mechanism. Using photoemission electron microscopy, we image the nanoscale formation and growth of insulating domains across the temperature-driven MIT in NdNiO3 epitaxial thin films. Heteroepitaxy is found to strongly determine the nanoscale nature of the phase transition, inducing preferential formation of striped domains along the terraces of atomically flat stepped surfaces. We show that the distribution of transition temperatures is a local property, set by surface morphology and stable across multiple temperature cycles. Our data provide new insights into the MIT of heteroepitaxial nickelates and point to a rich, nanoscale phenomenology in this strongly correlated material.

  6. Striped nanoscale phase separation at the metal-insulator transition of heteroepitaxial nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoni, G.; Zubko, P.; Maccherozzi, F.; van der Torren, A. J. H.; Boltje, D. B.; Hadjimichael, M.; Manca, N.; Catalano, S.; Gibert, M.; Liu, Y.; Aarts, J.; Triscone, J.-M.; Dhesi, S. S.; Caviglia, A. D.

    2016-11-01

    Nucleation processes of mixed-phase states are an intrinsic characteristic of first-order phase transitions, typically related to local symmetry breaking. Direct observation of emerging mixed-phase regions in materials showing a first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT) offers unique opportunities to uncover their driving mechanism. Using photoemission electron microscopy, we image the nanoscale formation and growth of insulating domains across the temperature-driven MIT in NdNiO3 epitaxial thin films. Heteroepitaxy is found to strongly determine the nanoscale nature of the phase transition, inducing preferential formation of striped domains along the terraces of atomically flat stepped surfaces. We show that the distribution of transition temperatures is a local property, set by surface morphology and stable across multiple temperature cycles. Our data provide new insights into the MIT of heteroepitaxial nickelates and point to a rich, nanoscale phenomenology in this strongly correlated material.

  7. Approximating metal-insulator transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danieli, Carlo; Rayanov, Kristian; Pavlov, Boris; Martin, Gaven; Flach, Sergej

    2015-12-01

    We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step, the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate Metal-Insulator Transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges, which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-André model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase, similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.

  8. Interplay between Ferroelastic and Metal-Insulator Phase Transitions in Strained Quasi-2D VO[subscript 2] Nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, Alexander; Strelcov, Evgheni; Luk’yanchuk, Igor A.; Budai, John D.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jones, Keith; Proksch, Roger; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Aandrei

    2010-07-06

    Formation of ferroelastic twin domains in vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanosystems can strongly affect local strain distributions, and hence couple to the strain-controlled metal-insulator transition. Here we report polarized-light optical and scanning microwave microscopy studies of interrelated ferroelastic and metal-insulator transitions in single-crystalline VO{sub 2} quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) nanoplatelets (NPls). In contrast to quasi-1D single-crystalline nanobeams, the 2D geometric frustration results in emergence of several possible families of ferroelastic domains in NPls, thus allowing systematic studies of strain-controlled transitions in the presence of geometrical frustration. We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the ferroelastic domain population by the strength of the NPl-substrate interaction, mechanical stress, and by the NPl lateral size. Ferroelastic domain species and domain walls are identified based on standard group-theoretical considerations. Using variable temperature microscopy, we imaged the development of domains of metallic and semiconducting phases during the metal-insulator phase transition and nontrivial strain-driven reentrant domain formation. A long-range reconstruction of ferroelastic structures accommodating metal-insulator domain formation has been observed. These studies illustrate that a complete picture of the phase transitions in single-crystalline and disordered VO{sub 2} structures can be drawn only if both ferroelastic and metal-insulator strain effects are taken into consideration and understood.

  9. Interplay between Ferroelastic and Metal-Insulator Phase Transitions in Strained Quasi-2D VO[subscript 2] Nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, Alexander; Strelcov, Evgheni; Luk’yanchuk, Igor A.; Budai, John D.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jones, Keith; Proksch, Roger; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2011-08-09

    Formation of ferroelastic twin domains in vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanosystems can strongly affect local strain distributions, and hence couple to the strain-controlled metal-insulator transition. Here we report polarized-light optical and scanning microwave microscopy studies of interrelated ferroelastic and metal-insulator transitions in single-crystalline VO{sub 2} quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) nanoplatelets (NPls). In contrast to quasi-1D single-crystalline nanobeams, the 2D geometric frustration results in emergence of several possible families of ferroelastic domains in NPls, thus allowing systematic studies of strain-controlled transitions in the presence of geometrical frustration. We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the ferroelastic domain population by the strength of the NPl-substrate interaction, mechanical stress, and by the NPl lateral size. Ferroelastic domain species and domain walls are identified based on standard group-theoretical considerations. Using variable temperature microscopy, we imaged the development of domains of metallic and semiconducting phases during the metal-insulator phase transition and nontrivial strain-driven reentrant domain formation. A long-range reconstruction of ferroelastic structures accommodating metal-insulator domain formation has been observed. These studies illustrate that a complete picture of the phase transitions in single-crystalline and disordered VO{sub 2} structures can be drawn only if both ferroelastic and metal-insulator strain effects are taken into consideration and understood.

  10. Metal - Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials

    PubMed Central

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a fundamental advance in the fabrication of GST with out-of-plane stacking of ordered vacancy layers by means of three distinct methods: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, thermal annealing and application of femtosecond laser pulses. We assess the degree of vacancy ordering and explicitly correlate it with the MIT. We further tune the ordering in a controlled fashion attaining a large range of resistivity. Employing ordered GST might allow the realization of cells with larger programming windows. PMID:27033314

  11. Field-Induced Reversible Phase Manipulation in Metal-Insulator Transition using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Se Jun

    2005-03-01

    Reversible electronic switching between insulating and metallic phases is a novel idea that may allow new types of field effect devices feasible.^1 Here we demonstrate the reversible manipulation between metallic and insulating phases in two-dimensional In nanowire arrays on Si(111) surface near the metal-insulator transition temperature (Tc). The electronic switching of phases was induced by local electric field applied by the probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. The field-dependent hysteresis behavior was also observed in tip height measurements as a function of the sample bias, under the constraint of constant tunneling current. A model including the intrinsic bi-stability of the nanometer-scale domains of In nanowire arrays will be discussed. ^1C. Ahn, J. Triscone, J. Mannhart, Nature 6952, 1015 (2003)

  12. Composition induced metal-insulator quantum phase transition in the Heusler type Fe2VAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Takashi; Nikitin, Artem M.; Pan, Yu; de Visser, Anne; Nakane, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Yamada, Yuh; Imai, Motoharu; Matsushita, Akiyuki

    2016-07-01

    We report the magnetism and transport properties of the Heusler compound Fe2+x V1-x Al at  -0.10  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.20 under pressure and a magnetic field. A metal-insulator quantum phase transition occurred at x  ≈  -0.05. Application of pressure or a magnetic field facilitated the emergence of finite zero-temperature conductivity σ 0 around the critical point, which scaled approximately according to the power law (P  -  P c ) γ . At x  ⩽  -0.05, a localized paramagnetic spin appeared, whereas above the ferromagnetic quantum critical point at x  ≈  0.05, itinerant ferromagnetism was established. At the quantum critical points at x  =  -0.05 and 0.05, the resistivity and specific heat exhibited singularities characteristic of a Griffiths phase appearing as an inhomogeneous electronic state.

  13. Suppression of Structural Phase Transition in VO2 by Epitaxial Strain in Vicinity of Metal-insulator Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mengmeng; Yang, Yuanjun; Bin Hong; Wang, Liangxin; Hu, Kai; Dong, Yongqi; Xu, Han; Huang, Haoliang; Zhao, Jiangtao; Chen, Haiping; Song, Li; Ju, Huanxin; Zhu, Junfa; Bao, Jun; Li, Xiaoguang; Gu, Yueliang; Yang, Tieying; Gao, Xingyu; Luo, Zhenlin; Gao, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Mechanism of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strained VO2 thin films is very complicated and incompletely understood despite three scenarios with potential explanations including electronic correlation (Mott mechanism), structural transformation (Peierls theory) and collaborative Mott-Peierls transition. Herein, we have decoupled coactions of structural and electronic phase transitions across the MIT by implementing epitaxial strain on 13-nm-thick (001)-VO2 films in comparison to thicker films. The structural evolution during MIT characterized by temperature-dependent synchrotron radiation high-resolution X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping and Raman spectroscopy suggested that the structural phase transition in the temperature range of vicinity of the MIT is suppressed by epitaxial strain. Furthermore, temperature-dependent Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) revealed the changes in electron occupancy near the Fermi energy EF of V 3d orbital, implying that the electronic transition triggers the MIT in the strained films. Thus the MIT in the bi-axially strained VO2 thin films should be only driven by electronic transition without assistance of structural phase transition. Density functional theoretical calculations further confirmed that the tetragonal phase across the MIT can be both in insulating and metallic states in the strained (001)-VO2/TiO2 thin films. This work offers a better understanding of the mechanism of MIT in the strained VO2 films. PMID:26975328

  14. Electrophoretic-like gating used to control metal-insulator transitions in electronically phase separated manganite wires.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hangwen; Noh, Joo H; Dong, Shuai; Rack, Philip D; Gai, Zheng; Xu, Xiaoshan; Dagotto, Elbio; Shen, Jian; Ward, T Zac

    2013-08-14

    Electronically phase separated manganite wires are found to exhibit controllable metal-insulator transitions under local electric fields. The switching characteristics are shown to be fully reversible, polarity independent, and highly resistant to thermal breakdown caused by repeated cycling. It is further demonstrated that multiple discrete resistive states can be accessed in a single wire. The results conform to a phenomenological model in which the inherent nanoscale insulating and metallic domains are rearranged through electrophoretic-like processes to open and close percolation channels.

  15. Interplay between Ferroelastic and Metal-Insulator Phase Transitions in Strained Quasi-Two-Dimensional VO2 Nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, Alexander; Strelcov, Evgheni; Luk'yanchuk, Prof. Igor A.; Ivanov, Ilia N; Budai, John D; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Jones, Keith M; Proksch, Roger; Kalinin, Sergei V; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Formation of ferroelastic twin domains in VO_2 nanosystems can strongly affect local strain distributions, and hence couple to the strain-controlled metal-insulator transition. Here we report polarized-light optical and scanning microwave microscopy studies of interrelated ferroelastic and metal-insulator transitions in single-crystalline vanadium dioxide (VO_2) quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) nanoplatelets (NPls). In contrast to quasi-1D single-crystalline nanobeams, the geometric frustration results in emergence of several possible families of ferroelastic domains in NPls, thus allowing systematic studies of strain-controlled transitions in the presence of geometrical frustration. We demonstrate possibility of controlling the ferroelastic domain population by the strength of the NPl-substrate interaction, mechanical stress, and by the NPl lateral size. Ferroelastic domain species and domain walls are identified based on standard group-theoretical considerations. Using variable temperature microscopy, we imaged the development of domains of metallic and semiconducting phases during the metal-insulator phase transition and non-trivial strain-driven reentrant domain formation. A long-range reconstruction of ferroelastic structures accommodating metal-insulator domain formation has been observed. These studies illustrate that complete picture of the phase transitions in single-crystalline and disordered VO_2 structures can be drawn only if both ferroelastic and metal-insulator strain effects are taken into consideration and understood.

  16. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M.; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems. PMID:26783076

  17. Metal Insulator transition in Vanadium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovaini, Azita; Fujita, Shigeji; Suzuki, Akira; Godoy, Salvador

    2012-02-01

    MAR12-2011-000262 Abstract Submitted for the MAR12 Meeting of The American Physical Society Sorting Category: 03.9 (T) On the metal-insulator-transition in vanadium dioxide AZITA JOVAINI, SHIGEJI FUJITA, University at Buffalo, SALVADOR GODOY, UNAM, AKIRA SUZUKI, Tokyo University of Science --- Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at 340 K with the structural change from tetragonal to monoclinic crystal. The conductivity _/ drops at MIT by four orders of magnitude. The low temperature monoclinic phase is known to have a lower ground-state energy. The existence of the k-vector k is prerequisite for the conduction since the k appears in the semiclassical equation of motion for the conduction electron (wave packet). The tetragonal (VO2)3 unit is periodic along the crystal's x-, y-, and z-axes, and hence there is a three-dimensional k-vector. There is a one-dimensional k for a monoclinic crystal. We believe this difference in the dimensionality of the k-vector is the cause of the conductivity drop. Prefer Oral Session X Prefer .

  18. β phase and γ-β metal-insulator transition in multiferroic BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palai, R.; Katiyar, R. S.; Schmid, H.; Tissot, P.; Clark, S. J.; Robertson, J.; Redfern, S. A. T.; Catalan, G.; Scott, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on extensive experimental studies on thin film, single crystal, and ceramics of multiferroic bismuth ferrite BiFeO3 using differential thermal analysis, high-temperature polarized light microscopy, high-temperature and polarized Raman spectroscopy, high-temperature x-ray diffraction, dc conductivity, optical absorption and reflectivity, and domain imaging, and show that epitaxial (001) thin films of BiFeO3 are clearly monoclinic at room temperature, in agreement with recent synchrotron studies but in disagreement with all other earlier reported results. We report an orthorhombic order-disorder β phase between 820 and 925 (±5)°C , and establish the existence range of the cubic γ phase between 925 (±5) and 933 (±5)°C , contrary to all recent reports. We also report the refined Bi2O3-Fe2O3 phase diagram. The phase transition sequence rhombohedral-orthorhombic-cubic in bulk [monoclinic-orthorhombic-cubic in (001)BiFeO3 thin film] differs distinctly from that of BaTiO3 . The transition to the cubic γ phase causes an abrupt collapse of the band gap toward zero (insulator-metal transition) at the orthorhombic-cubic β-γ transition around 930°C . Our band structure models, high-temperature dc resistivity, and light absorption and reflectivity measurements are consistent with this metal-insulator transition.

  19. Resistivity of the insulating phase approaching the two-dimensional metal-insulator transition: The effect of spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiqi; Sarachik, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    The resistivities of the dilute, strongly interacting two-dimensional electron systems in the insulating phase of a silicon MOSFET are the same for unpolarized electrons in the absence of magnetic field and for electrons that are fully spin polarized by the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. In both cases the resistivity obeys Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping ρ (T ) =ρ0exp[(TES/T ) 1 /2] , with TE S and 1 /ρ0 mapping onto each other if one applies a shift of the critical density nc reported earlier. With and without magnetic field, the parameters TE S and 1 /ρ0=σ0 exhibit scaling consistent with critical behavior approaching a metal-insulator transition.

  20. Dynamic phase coexistence and non-Gaussian resistance fluctuations in VO2 near the metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Sudeshna; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Zhong, Xing; Gupta, A.

    2015-11-01

    We have carried out an extensive investigation on the resistance fluctuations (noise) in an epitaxial thin film of VO2 encompassing the metal-insulator transition (MIT) region to investigate the dynamic phase coexistence of metal and insulating phases. Both flicker noise as well as the Nyquist noise (thermal noise) were measured. The experiments showed that flicker noise, which has a 1 /f spectral power dependence, evolves with temperature in the transition region following the evolution of the phase fractions and is governed by activated kinetics. Importantly, closer to the insulating end of the transition, when the metallic phase fraction is low, the magnitude of the noise shows an anomaly and a strong non-Gaussian component of noise develops. In this region, the local electron temperature (as measured through the Nyquist noise thermometry) shows a deviation from the equilibrium bath temperature. It is proposed that this behavior arises due to current crowding where a substantial amount of the current is carried through well separated small metallic islands leading to a dynamic correlated current path redistribution and an enhanced effective local current density. This leads to a non-Gaussian component to the resistance fluctuation and an associated local deviation of the electron temperature from the bath. Our experiment establishes that phase coexistence leads to a strong inhomogeneity in the region of MIT that makes the current transport strongly inhomogeneous and correlated.

  1. Thermodynamic behavior near a metal-insulator transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paalanen, M. A.; Graebner, J. E.; Bhatt, R. N.; Sachdev, S.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of the low-temperature specific heat of phosphorus-doped silicon for densities near the metal-insulator transition show an enhancement over the conduction-band itinerant-electron value. The enhancement increases toward lower temperatures but is less than that found for the spin susceptibility. The data are compared with various theoretical models; the large ratio of the spin susceptibility to specific heat indicates the presence of localized spin excitations in the metallic phase as the metal-insulator transition is approached.

  2. Anisotropic phase separation through the metal-insulator transition in amorphous Mo-Ge and Fe-Ge alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, Michael J.

    1993-12-01

    Since an amorphous solid is often defined as that which lacks long-range order, the atomic structure is typically characterized in terms of the high-degree of short-range order. Most descriptions of vapor-deposited amorphous alloys focus on characterizing this order, while assuming that the material is chemically homogeneous beyond a few near neighbors. By coupling traditional small-angle x-ray scattering which probes spatial variations of the electron density with anomalous dispersion which creates a species-specific contrast, one can discern cracks and voids from chemical inhomogeneity. In particular, one finds that the chemical inhomogeneities which have been previously reported in amorphous FexGe1-x and MoxGe1-x are quite anisotropic, depending significantly on the direction of film growth. With the addition of small amounts of metal atoms (x<0.2), no films appear isotropic nor homogeneous through the metal/insulator transition. The results indicate that fluctuations in the growth direction play a pivotal role in preventing simple growth models of a columnar structure or one that evolves systematically as it grows. The anomalous scattering measurements identify the metal atoms (Fe or Mo) as the source of the anisotropy, with the Ge atoms distributed homogeneously. The author has developed a method for using these measurements to determine the compositions of the phase-separating species. The results indicate phase separation into an amorphous Ge and an intermetallic phase of stoichiometry close to FeGe2or MoGe3. Finally, by manipulating the deposited power flux and rates of growth, FexGe1-x films which have the same Fe composition x can be grown to different states of phase separation. These results may help explain the difficulty workers have had in isolating the metal/insulator transition for these and other vapor-deposited amorphous alloys.

  3. Terahertz spectroscopy of the metal insulator transition in vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, David; Prasankumar, Rohit; Cavalleri, Andrea; Fourmaux, Sylvain; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Taylor, Antoinette; Averitt, Richard

    2006-03-01

    We employ terahertz spectroscopy to study the metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2 ). We measure the terahertz frequency conductivity in the metallic phase that has a real conductivity of 1000 &-1circ; cm-1 and a negligible imaginary conductivity. The observed conductivity dynamics are consistent with a photoinduced transition in spatially inhomogeneous regions of the film, followed by a thermally driven transition to the maximum conductivity.

  4. Ferroelectric control of metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan; Ge, Chen; Ma, Zhong-shui; Yang, Guo-zhen

    2016-03-01

    We propose a method of controlling the metal-insulator transition of one perovskite material at its interface with another ferroelectric material based on first principle calculations. The operating principle is that the rotation of oxygen octahedra tuned by the ferroelectric polarization can modulate the superexchange interaction in this perovskite. We designed a tri-color superlattice of (BiFeO3)N/LaNiO3/LaTiO3, in which the BiFeO3 layers are ferroelectric, the LaNiO3 layer is the layer of which the electronic structure is to be tuned, and LaTiO3 layer is inserted to enhance the inversion asymmetry. By reversing the ferroelectric polarization in this structure, there is a metal-insulator transition of the LaNiO3 layer because of the changes of crystal field splitting of the Ni eg orbitals and the bandwidth of the Ni in-plane eg orbital. It is highly expected that a metal-transition can be realized by designing the structures at the interfaces for more materials.

  5. Compact silicon photonic waveguide modulator based on the vanadium dioxide metal-insulator phase transition.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Ryan M; Pryce, Imogen M; Atwater, Harry A

    2010-05-24

    We have integrated lithographically patterned VO2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition with silicon-on-insulator photonic waveguides to demonstrate a compact in-line absorption modulator for use in photonic circuits. Using single-mode waveguides at lambda=1550 nm, we show optical modulation of the guided transverse-electric mode of more than 6.5 dB with 2 dB insertion loss over a 2-microm active device length. Loss is determined for devices fabricated on waveguide ring resonators by measuring the resonator spectral response, and a sharp decrease in resonator quality factor is observed above 70 degrees C, consistent with switching of VO2 to its metallic phase. A computational study of device geometry is also presented, and we show that it is possible to more than double the modulation depth with modified device structures.

  6. Metal-Insulator Transition and Topological Properties of Pyrochlore Iridates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Haule, Kristjan; Vanderbilt, David

    2017-01-01

    Combining density functional theory (DFT) and embedded dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) methods, we study the metal-insulator transition in R2Ir2 O7 (R =Y , Eu, Sm, Nd, Pr, and Bi) and the topological nature of the insulating compounds. Accurate free energies evaluated using the charge self-consistent DFT +DMFT method reveal that the metal-insulator transition occurs for an A -cation radius between that of Nd and Pr, in agreement with experiments. The all-in-all-out magnetic phase, which is stable in the Nd compound but not the Pr one, gives rise to a small Ir4 + magnetic moment of ≈0.4 μB and opens a sizable correlated gap. We demonstrate that within this state-of-the-art theoretical method, the insulating bulk pyrochlore iridates are topologically trivial.

  7. Dielectric breakdown and avalanches at nonequilibrium metal-insulator transitions.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Ashivni; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Zapperi, Stefano; Sethna, James P

    2011-12-30

    Motivated by recent experiments on the finite temperature Mott transition in VO(2) films, we propose a classical coarse-grained dielectric breakdown model where each degree of freedom represents a nanograin which transitions from insulator to metal with increasing temperature and voltage at random thresholds due to quenched disorder. We describe the properties of the resulting nonequilibrium metal-insulator transition and explain the universal characteristics of the resistance jump distribution. We predict that by tuning voltage, another critical point is approached, which separates a phase of boltlike avalanches from percolationlike ones.

  8. Cu(Ir1 − xCrx)2S4: a model system for studying nanoscale phase coexistence at the metal-insulator transition

    PubMed Central

    Božin, E. S.; Knox, K. R.; Juhás, P.; Hor, Y. S.; Mitchell, J. F.; Billinge, S. J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, nanoscale phase coexistence and hidden broken symmetry states are being found in the vicinity of metal-insulator transitions (MIT), for example, in high temperature superconductors, heavy fermion and colossal magnetoresistive materials, but their importance and possible role in the MIT and related emergent behaviors is not understood. Despite their ubiquity, they are hard to study because they produce weak diffuse signals in most measurements. Here we propose Cu(Ir1 − xCrx)2S4 as a model system, where robust local structural signals lead to key new insights. We demonstrate a hitherto unobserved coexistence of an Ir4+ charge-localized dimer phase and Cr-ferromagnetism. The resulting phase diagram that takes into account the short range dimer order is highly reminiscent of a generic MIT phase diagram similar to the cuprates. We suggest that the presence of quenched strain from dopant ions acts as an arbiter deciding between the competing ground states. PMID:24518384

  9. Distinctive Finite Size Effects on the Phase Diagram and Metal-insulator Transitions of Tungsten-doped Vanadium(IV) Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    L Whittaker; T Wu; C Patridge; S Ganapathy; S Banerjee

    2011-12-31

    The influence of finite size in altering the phase stabilities of strongly correlated materials gives rise to the interesting prospect of achieving additional tunability of solid-solid phase transitions such as those involved in metal-insulator switching, ferroelectricity, and superconductivity. We note here some distinctive finite size effects on the relative phase stabilities of insulating (monoclinic) and metallic (tetragonal) phases of solid-solution W{sub x}V{sub 1-x}O{sub 2}. Ensemble differential scanning calorimetry and individual nanobelt electrical transport measurements suggest a pronounced hysteresis between metal {yields} insulator and insulator {yields} metal phase transformations. Both transitions are depressed to lower critical temperatures upon the incorporation of substitutional tungsten dopants but the impact on the former transition seems far more prominent. In general, the depression in the critical temperatures upon tungsten doping far exceeds corresponding values for bulk W{sub x}V{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} of the same composition. Notably, the depression in phase transition temperature saturates at a relatively low dopant concentration in the nanobelts, thought to be associated with the specific sites occupied by the tungsten substitutional dopants in these structures. The marked deviations from bulk behavior are rationalized in terms of a percolative model of the phase transition taking into account the nucleation of locally tetragonal domains and enhanced carrier delocalization that accompany W{sup 6+} doping in the W{sub x}V{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} nanobelts.

  10. Effective Hamiltonians for correlated narrow energy band systems and magnetic insulators: Role of spin-orbit interactions in metal-insulator transitions and magnetic phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Vijay, Amrendra

    2016-04-14

    Using a second-quantized many-electron Hamiltonian, we obtain (a) an effective Hamiltonian suitable for materials whose electronic properties are governed by a set of strongly correlated bands in a narrow energy range and (b) an effective spin-only Hamiltonian for magnetic materials. The present Hamiltonians faithfully include phonon and spin-related interactions as well as the external fields to study the electromagnetic response properties of complex materials and they, in appropriate limits, reduce to the model Hamiltonians due to Hubbard and Heisenberg. With the Hamiltonian for narrow-band strongly correlated materials, we show that the spin-orbit interaction provides a mechanism for metal-insulator transition, which is distinct from the Mott-Hubbard (driven by the electron correlation) and the Anderson mechanism (driven by the disorder). Next, with the spin-only Hamiltonian, we demonstrate the spin-orbit interaction to be a reason for the existence of antiferromagnetic phase in materials which are characterized by a positive isotropic spin-exchange energy. This is distinct from the Néel-VanVleck-Anderson paradigm which posits a negative spin-exchange for the existence of antiferromagnetism. We also find that the Néel temperature increases as the absolute value of the spin-orbit coupling increases.

  11. Capacitive network near the metal insulator transition in Vanadium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, J. G.; Patino, E. J.; Schmidt, R.; Sharoni, A.; Gomez, M. E.; Schuller, I. K.

    2011-03-01

    Recent infrared spectroscopy and transport measurements in nano-scaled junction of VO2 have revealed the existence of phase separation into metallic and insulating phases. Here we present Impedance spectroscopy measurements performed in high quality Vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films for the first time. This technique allows distinguishing between the resistive and capacitive response of the VO2 films and provides the dielectric properties across the metal-insulator transition (MIT). The film capacitance exhibits an unusual increase close to the MIT which implies the formation of a capacitor network produced by the nanoscale phase separation of metallic and insulating phases. This work has been supported by AFOSR, COLCIENCIAS, CENM and Ramon y Cajal Fellowship.

  12. Holographic metal-insulator transition in higher derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin; Zhou, Zhenhua

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a Weyl term into the Einstein-Maxwell-Axion theory in four dimensional spacetime. Up to the first order of the Weyl coupling parameter γ, we construct charged black brane solutions without translational invariance in a perturbative manner. Among all the holographic frameworks involving higher derivative gravity, we are the first to obtain metal-insulator transitions (MIT) when varying the system parameters at zero temperature. Furthermore, we study the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) of strip geometry in this model and find that the second order derivative of HEE with respect to the axion parameter exhibits maximization behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs) of MIT. It testifies the conjecture in [1,2] that HEE itself or its derivatives can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT).

  13. On holographic disorder-driven metal-insulator transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    We give a minimal holographic model of a disorder-driven metal-insulator transition. It consists in a CFT with a charge sector and a translation-breaking sector that interact in the most generic way allowed by the symmetries and by dynamical consistency. In the gravity dual, it reduces to a Massive Gravity-Maxwell model with a new direct coupling between the gauge field and the metric that is allowed when gravity is massive. We show that the effect of this coupling is to decrease the DC electrical conductivity generically. This gives a nontrivial check that holographic massive gravity can be consistently interpreted as disorder from the CFT perspective. The suppression of the conductivity happens to such an extent that it does not obey any lower bound and it can be very small in the insulating phase. In some cases, the large disorder limit produces gradient instabilities that hint at the formation of modulated phases.

  14. Metal-insulator transition in NaxWO3: Photoemission spectromicroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sanhita; Ghosh, Anirudha; Raj, Satyabrata

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated the validity of percolation model, which is quite often invoked to explain the metal-insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronzes, NaxWO3 by photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The spatially resolved direct spectromicroscopic probing on both the insulating and metallic phases of high quality single crystals of NaxWO3 reveals the absence of any microscopic inhomogeneities embedded in the system within the experimental limit. Neither any metallic domains in the insulating host nor any insulating domains in the metallic host have been found to support the validity of percolation model to explain the metal-insulator transition in NaxWO3.

  15. Metal-insulator transition in films of doped semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Reich, K V; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Shklovskii, B I

    2016-03-01

    To fully deploy the potential of semiconductor nanocrystal films as low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of the amount of dopants required to make their conductivity metallic is needed. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the Mott criterion. Here, we theoretically derive the critical concentration nc for films of heavily doped nanocrystals devoid of ligands at their surface and in direct contact with each other. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition.

  16. Disorder-Driven Metal-Insulator Transitions in Deformable Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sante, Domenico; Fratini, Simone; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Ciuchi, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    We show that, in the presence of a deformable lattice potential, the nature of the disorder-driven metal-insulator transition is fundamentally changed with respect to the noninteracting (Anderson) scenario. For strong disorder, even a modest electron-phonon interaction is found to dramatically renormalize the random potential, opening a mobility gap at the Fermi energy. This process, which reflects disorder-enhanced polaron formation, is here given a microscopic basis by treating the lattice deformations and Anderson localization effects on the same footing. We identify an intermediate "bad insulator" transport regime which displays resistivity values exceeding the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit and with a negative temperature coefficient, as often observed in strongly disordered metals. Our calculations reveal that this behavior originates from significant temperature-induced rearrangements of electronic states due to enhanced interaction effects close to the disorder-driven metal-insulator transition.

  17. Anderson metal-insulator transitions with classical magnetic impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2014-08-20

    We study the effects of classical magnetic impurities on the Anderson metal-insulator transition (AMIT) numerically. In particular we find that while a finite concentration of Ising impurities lowers the critical value of the site-diagonal disorder amplitude W{sub c}, in the presence of Heisenberg impurities, W{sub c} is first increased with increasing exchange coupling strength J due to time-reversal symmetry breaking. The resulting scaling with J is compared to analytical predictions by Wegner [1]. The results are obtained numerically, based on a finite-size scaling procedure for the typical density of states [2], which is the geometric average of the local density of states. The latter can efficiently be calculated using the kernel polynomial method [3]. Although still suffering from methodical shortcomings, our method proves to deliver results close to established results for the orthogonal symmetry class [4]. We extend previous approaches [5] by combining the KPM with a finite-size scaling analysis. We also discuss the relevance of our findings for systems like phosphor-doped silicon (Si:P), which are known to exhibit a quantum phase transition from metal to insulator driven by the interplay of both interaction and disorder, accompanied by the presence of a finite concentration of magnetic moments [6].

  18. Metal-insulator transition near a superconducting state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveh, M.; Mott, N. F.

    1992-03-01

    We show that when the metal-insulation transition occurs near a superconducting state it results in a different critical behavior from that of amorphous metals or uncompensated doped semiconductors. This difference results from the enhancement of the effective electron-electron interaction caused by fluctuations to the superconducting state. This explains the recent experiments of Micklitz and co-workers on amorphous superconducting mixtures Ga-Ar and Bi-Kr.

  19. The metal-insulator transition in magnetite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, J. R.; Callen, E.

    1972-01-01

    We describe an electronic model for the low temperature transition in magnetite, in which the average number of electrons on a site is non-integral. The solution of the one-dimensional problem is reviewed, and the connection of the model with the Verwey ordering is discussed. Some of the implication of the three dimensional problem are discussed.

  20. Metal-insulator transition in a switchable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arunabha Shasanka

    2001-11-01

    Rare earth hydride films can be converted reversibly from metallic mirrors to insulating windows simply by changing the surrounding hydrogen gas pressure at room temperature. At low temperatures, in situ doping is not possible in this way as hydrogen cannot diffuse. However, our finding of persistent photoconductivity under ultraviolet illumination enables us to tune yttrium hydride through the T = 0 metal-insulator transition. Conductivity and Hall measurements are used to determine the critical exponents in this system: mu = 1.0 +/- 0.1 and zv = 6.0 +/- 0.5. The simultaneous validity of finite-size scaling in the metal and its failure in the insulator motivates a study of the insulating phase of YHx in greater detail. A new transport regime is discovered which is consistent with our earlier determined values for the critical exponents but entails a new scaling dependence of the conductivity on the carrier density n and temperature T. The unusually large value for the product of the static and dynamic critical exponents appears to signify the important role played by electron-electron interactions in this system. Finally, possible schemes for the mechanism underlying the unusual photoconductivity are discussed.

  1. Gas sensor based on metal-insulator transition in VO2 nanowire thermistor.

    PubMed

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Lilach, Yigal; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2009-06-01

    Using temperature driven sharp metal-insulator phase transition in single crystal VO(2) nanowires, the realization of a novel gas sensing concept has been tested. Varying the temperature of the nanowire close to the transition edge, the conductance of the nanowire becomes extremely responsive to the tiny changes in molecular composition, pressure, and temperature of the ambient gas environment. This gas sensing analog of the transition edge sensor radiometry used in astrophysics opens new opportunities in gas sensorics.

  2. Pure electronic metal-insulator transition at the interface of complex oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, D.; Liu, Jian; Freeland, J. W.; Middey, S.; Kareev, M.; Kwon, Jihwan; Zuo, J. M.; Chuang, Yi-De; Kim, J. W.; Ryan, P. J.; Chakhalian, J.

    2016-06-21

    We observed complex materials in electronic phases and transitions between them often involve coupling between many degrees of freedom whose entanglement convolutes understanding of the instigating mechanism. Metal-insulator transitions are one such problem where coupling to the structural, orbital, charge, and magnetic order parameters frequently obscures the underlying physics. We demonstrate a way to unravel this conundrum by heterostructuring a prototypical multi-ordered complex oxide NdNiO3 in ultra thin geometry, which preserves the metal-to-insulator transition and bulk-like magnetic order parameter, but entirely suppresses the symmetry lowering and long-range charge order parameter. Furthermore, these findings illustrate the utility of heterointerfaces as a powerful method for removing competing order parameters to gain greater insight into the nature of the transition, here revealing that the magnetic order generates the transition independently, leading to an exceptionally rare purely electronic metal-insulator transition with no symmetry change.

  3. Pure electronic metal-insulator transition at the interface of complex oxides

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, D.; Liu, Jian; Freeland, J. W.; Middey, S.; Kareev, M.; Kwon, Jihwan; Zuo, J. M.; Chuang, Yi-De; Kim, J. W.; Ryan, P. J.; Chakhalian, J.

    2016-01-01

    In complex materials observed electronic phases and transitions between them often involve coupling between many degrees of freedom whose entanglement convolutes understanding of the instigating mechanism. Metal-insulator transitions are one such problem where coupling to the structural, orbital, charge, and magnetic order parameters frequently obscures the underlying physics. Here, we demonstrate a way to unravel this conundrum by heterostructuring a prototypical multi-ordered complex oxide NdNiO3 in ultra thin geometry, which preserves the metal-to-insulator transition and bulk-like magnetic order parameter, but entirely suppresses the symmetry lowering and long-range charge order parameter. These findings illustrate the utility of heterointerfaces as a powerful method for removing competing order parameters to gain greater insight into the nature of the transition, here revealing that the magnetic order generates the transition independently, leading to an exceptionally rare purely electronic metal-insulator transition with no symmetry change. PMID:27324948

  4. Metal-insulator transition in epitaxial NdNiO3 thin film: A structural, electrical and optical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tao; Qi, Zeming; Wang, Yuyin; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mei; Hu, Chuansheng

    2017-03-01

    NdNiO3 thin film has been prepared by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 (001) single crystalline substrate. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurement shows a sharp metal-insulator transition in such thin film. The phase transition temperature can be tuned from 90 K to 121 K by changing the thickness of thin film. The structure evolution during phase transition is studied by Raman spectroscopy. Optical conductivity reveals that the variation carrier density in the process of phase transition. The results of structural, electrical and optical studies provide useful insights to understand the mechanism of metal-insulator transition of NdNiO3 thin film.

  5. Metal-insulator and charge ordering transitions in oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sujay Kumar

    Strongly correlated oxides are a class of materials wherein interplay of various degrees of freedom results in novel electronic and magnetic phenomena. Vanadium oxides are widely studied correlated materials that exhibit metal-insulator transitions (MIT) in a wide temperature range from 70 K to 380 K. In this Thesis, results from electrical transport measurements on vanadium dioxide (VO2) and vanadium oxide bronze (MxV 2O5) (where M: alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal cations) are presented and discussed. Although the MIT in VO2 has been studied for more than 50 years, the microscopic origin of the transition is still debated since a slew of external parameters such as light, voltage, and strain are found to significantly alter the transition. Furthermore, recent works on electrically driven switching in VO2 have shown that the role of Joule heating to be a major cause as opposed to electric field. We explore the mechanisms behind the electrically driven switching in single crystalline nanobeams of VO2 through DC and AC transport measurements. The harmonic analysis of the AC measurement data shows that non-uniform Joule heating causes electronic inhomogeneities to develop within the nanobeam and is responsible for driving the transition in VO2. Surprisingly, field assisted emission mechanisms such as Poole-Frenkel effect is found to be absent and the role of percolation is also identified in the electrically driven transition. This Thesis also provides a new insight into the mechanisms behind the electrolyte gating induced resistance modulation and the suppression of MIT in VO2. We show that the metallic phase of VO2 induced by electrolyte gating is due to an electrochemical process and can be both reversible and irreversible under different conditions. The kinetics of the redox processes increase with temperature; a complete suppression of the transition and the stabilization of the metallic phase are achievable by gating in the rutile metallic phase

  6. Photoelectron spectromicroscopy study of metal-insulator transition in NaxWO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sanhita; Ghosh, Anirudha; Dudin, Pavel; Barinov, Alexei; Chakraborty, Anirban; Ray, Sugata; Sarma, D. D.; Oishi, Shuji; Raj, Satyabrata

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated the validity of percolation model, which is quite often invoked to explain the metal-insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronzes, NaxWO3 by photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The spatially resolved direct spectromicroscopic probing on both the insulating and metallic phases of high quality single crystals of NaxWO3 reveals the absence of any microscopic inhomogeneities embedded in the system within the experimental limit. Neither any metallic domains in the insulating host nor any insulating domains in the metallic host have been found to support the validity of percolation model to explain the metal-insulator transition in NaxWO3. The possible origin of insulating phase in NaxWO3 is due to the Anderson localization of all the states near EF. The localization occurs because of the strong disorder arising from random distribution of Na+ ions in the WO3 lattice.

  7. Nanostructural model of metal-insulator transition in layered LixZrNCl superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2008-03-01

    The self-organized dopant percolative filamentary model, entirely orbital in character (no fictive spins), has recently quantitatively and specifically explained chemical trends in ceramic layered cuprate superconductors. Here, this model explains the observation of an abrupt jump ΔTc(x) in LixZrNCl powders over a wide composition range Δx , as well as many other features in the resistivity, lattice constants, Raman spectra, upper critical field, and Meissner volume factor. The ceramic data confirm one-dimensional features in realistic structural models of three-dimensional metal-insulator transitions that had been previously only hypothetical. These data provide a “missing link” between the metal-insulator transition in semiconductor impurity bands and cuprate superconductors. They show that all three material families are united by exhibiting an intermediate phase, absent from crystals, but seen in many properties of network glasses.

  8. Metal-insulator transition in Na{sub x}WO{sub 3}: Photoemission spectromicroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Sanhita Ghosh, Anirudha Raj, Satyabrata

    2014-04-24

    We have investigated the validity of percolation model, which is quite often invoked to explain the metal-insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronzes, Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} by photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The spatially resolved direct spectromicroscopic probing on both the insulating and metallic phases of high quality single crystals of Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} reveals the absence of any microscopic inhomogeneities embedded in the system within the experimental limit. Neither any metallic domains in the insulating host nor any insulating domains in the metallic host have been found to support the validity of percolation model to explain the metal-insulator transition in Na{sub x}WO{sub 3}.

  9. Metal-Insulator Transition in the Hubbard Model: Correlations and Spiral Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timirgazin, Marat A.; Igoshev, Petr A.; Arzhnikov, Anatoly K.; Irkhin, Valentin Yu.

    2016-12-01

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) for the square, simple cubic, and body-centered cubic lattices is investigated within the t-t^' Hubbard model at half-filling by using both the generalized for the case of spiral order Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA) and Kotliar-Ruckenstein slave-boson approach. It turns out that the magnetic scenario of MIT becomes superior over the non-magnetic one. The electron correlations lead to some suppression of the spiral phases in comparison with HFA. We found the presence of a metallic antiferromagnetic (spiral) phase in the case of three-dimensional lattices.

  10. Metal-insulator-metal transition in NdNiO3 films capped by CoFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, M. S.; Song, C.; Peng, J. J.; Cui, B.; Li, F.; Gu, Y. D.; Pan, F.

    2017-02-01

    Metal-insulator transition features as a transformation from a highly charge conductive state to another state where the charge conductivity is greatly suppressed when decreasing the temperature. Here, we demonstrate two consecutive transitions in NdNiO3 films with CoFe2O4 capping, in which the metal-insulator transition occurs at ˜85 K, followed by an unprecedented insulator-metal transition below 40 K. The emerging insulator-metal transition associated with a weak antiferromagnetic behavior is observed in 20 unit cell-thick NdNiO3 with more than 5 unit cell CoFe2O4 capping. Differently, the NdNiO3 films with thinner CoFe2O4 capping only exhibit metal-insulator transition at ˜85 K, accompanied by a strong antiferromagnetic state below 40 K. Charge transfer from Co to Ni, instead of from Fe to Ni, formulates the ferromagnetic interaction between Ni-Ni and Ni-Co atoms, thus suppressing the antiferromagnetic feature and producing a metallic conductive behavior. Furthermore, a phase diagram for the metal-insulator-metal transition in this system is drawn.

  11. Pure electronic metal-insulator transition at the interface of complex oxides

    DOE PAGES

    Meyers, D.; Liu, Jian; Freeland, J. W.; ...

    2016-06-21

    We observed complex materials in electronic phases and transitions between them often involve coupling between many degrees of freedom whose entanglement convolutes understanding of the instigating mechanism. Metal-insulator transitions are one such problem where coupling to the structural, orbital, charge, and magnetic order parameters frequently obscures the underlying physics. We demonstrate a way to unravel this conundrum by heterostructuring a prototypical multi-ordered complex oxide NdNiO3 in ultra thin geometry, which preserves the metal-to-insulator transition and bulk-like magnetic order parameter, but entirely suppresses the symmetry lowering and long-range charge order parameter. Furthermore, these findings illustrate the utility of heterointerfaces as amore » powerful method for removing competing order parameters to gain greater insight into the nature of the transition, here revealing that the magnetic order generates the transition independently, leading to an exceptionally rare purely electronic metal-insulator transition with no symmetry change.« less

  12. Thermally driven analog of the Barkhausen effect at the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Huber-Rodriguez, Benjamin; Ji, Heng; Chen, Chih-Wei; Kwang, Siu Yi; Hardy, Will J.; Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas

    2014-09-29

    The physics of the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide remains a subject of intense interest. Because of the complicating effects of elastic strain on the phase transition, there is interest in comparatively strain-free means of examining VO{sub 2} material properties. We report contact-free, low-strain studies of the MIT through an inductive bridge approach sensitive to the magnetic response of VO{sub 2} powder. Rather than observing the expected step-like change in susceptibility at the transition, we argue that the measured response is dominated by an analog of the Barkhausen effect, due to the extremely sharp jump in the magnetic response of each grain as a function of time as the material is cycled across the phase boundary. This effect suggests that future measurements could access the dynamics of this and similar phase transitions.

  13. Thermally driven analog of the Barkhausen effect at the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber-Rodriguez, Benjamin; Kwang, Siu Yi; Hardy, Will J.; Ji, Heng; Chen, Chih-Wei; Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas

    2014-09-01

    The physics of the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide remains a subject of intense interest. Because of the complicating effects of elastic strain on the phase transition, there is interest in comparatively strain-free means of examining VO2 material properties. We report contact-free, low-strain studies of the MIT through an inductive bridge approach sensitive to the magnetic response of VO2 powder. Rather than observing the expected step-like change in susceptibility at the transition, we argue that the measured response is dominated by an analog of the Barkhausen effect, due to the extremely sharp jump in the magnetic response of each grain as a function of time as the material is cycled across the phase boundary. This effect suggests that future measurements could access the dynamics of this and similar phase transitions.

  14. Thermal Conductivity and Thermopower near the 2D Metal-Insulator transition, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2015-02-20

    STUDIES OF STRONGLY-INTERACTING 2D ELECTRON SYSTEMS – There is a great deal of current interest in the properties of systems in which the interaction between electrons (their potential energy) is large compared to their kinetic energy. We have investigated an apparent, unexpected metal-insulator transition inferred from the behavior of the temperature-dependence of the resistivity; moreover, detailed analysis of the behavior of the magnetoresistance suggests that the electrons’ effective mass diverges, supporting this scenario. Whether this is a true phase transition or crossover behavior has been strenuously debated over the past 20 years. Our measurements have now shown that the thermoelectric power of these 2D materials diverges at a finite density, providing clear evidence that this is, in fact, a phase transition to a new low-density phase which may be a precursor or a direct transition to the long sought-after electronic crystal predicted by Eugene Wigner in 1934.

  15. Metal-insulator transitions and magnetic susceptibility in doped cuprate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumanov, S.; Kurbanov, U. T.; Khudayberdiev, Z. S.; Hafizov, A. R.

    2016-11-01

    Results are presented from a theoretical study of the possibility of hole carrier localization and metal-insulator transitions which show up in the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility χ(T) of doped copper-oxide (cuprate) compounds. The criteria for metal-insulator transitions owing to strong hole-lattice interactions and the formation of very narrow polaron bands in these materials with reduced doping level x are analyzed. It is shown that these kinds of metal-insulator transitions occur in underdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 and YBa2Cu3O6+x cuprates (i.e., for x ranging from 0.04 to 0.12). The characteristic temperature dependences χ(T) of the HTSC cuprates are found for different doping levels. These results are in good agreement with experimental data on metal-insulator transitions and the magnetic susceptibility of the HTSC cuprates.

  16. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kota Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO{sub 2} film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management.

  17. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO2 film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management.

  18. Near-Field Nanoscopy of Metal-Insulator Phase Transitions Towards Synthesis of Novel Correlated Transition Metal Oxides and Their Interaction with Plasmon Resonances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-05

    most exciting discoveries in the past few years in condensed matter research is the theoretical foundations of topological insulating electronic...Figure 1b–d) show bright and dark optical contrast due to the coexisting insulating ( dark ) and metallic (bright) phases affecting the nanoscale...separated by a dark contrast from the inner bright surface of the structure. Such an edge fringe is missing in the near-field amplitude image taken

  19. Light scattering by epitaxial VO{sub 2} films near the metal-insulator transition point

    SciTech Connect

    Lysenko, Sergiy Fernández, Felix; Rúa, Armando; Figueroa, Jose; Vargas, Kevin; Cordero, Joseph; Aparicio, Joaquin; Sepúlveda, Nelson

    2015-05-14

    Experimental observation of metal-insulator transition in epitaxial films of vanadium dioxide is reported. Hemispherical angle-resolved light scattering technique is applied for statistical analysis of the phase transition processes on mesoscale. It is shown that the thermal hysteresis strongly depends on spatial frequency of surface irregularities. The transformation of scattering indicatrix depends on sample morphology and is principally different for the thin films with higher internal elastic strain and for the thicker films where this strain is suppressed by introduction of misfit dislocations. The evolution of scattering indicatrix, fractal dimension, surface power spectral density, and surface autocorrelation function demonstrates distinctive behavior which elucidates the influence of structural defects and strain on thermal hysteresis, twinning of microcrystallites, and domain formation during the phase transition.

  20. Percolation metal-insullator transition in BiSrCaCuO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunev, V. D.; Pafomov, N. N.; Svistunov, V. M.; Lewandowski, S. J.; Gierlowski, P.; Kula, W.

    1996-02-01

    An experimental investigation of the metal-insulator trnasition in BiSrCaCuO (BSCCO) films is reported. We performed resistivity, optical-absorption and critical-temperature measurements on several samples obtained by different technological methods. The results agree well with the percolation mechanism of the metal-insulator transition and show interesting correlations between room-temperature conductivity and superconducting properties of the investigated films.

  1. Moderate pressure synthesis of rare earth nickelate with metal-insulator transition using polymeric precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Napierala, C.; Lepoittevin, C.; Edely, M.; Sauques, L.; Giovanelli, F.; Laffez, P.; VanTedeloo, G.

    2010-07-15

    Rare earth nickelates exhibit a reversible metal-semiconductor phase transition that is, in the infrared range, responsible for a thermo-optical contrast. The state of the art synthesis of these compounds usually requires high oxygen pressure to stabilize Ni in the oxidation state 3{sup +}. In this work, using polymeric precursor associated with moderate pressure annealing, we show that it is possible to obtain fully oxidized rare earth nickelate with metal-insulator transition. Using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy we compare different samples synthesized at different oxygen pressures and demonstrate their structural similarity. Thermo-optical properties were measured, in the infrared range, using reflectance measurements and confirmed the metal-insulator transition at 60 {sup o}C in both samples.TEM observations lead to the conclusion that the structure commonly obtained at 175 bar is perfectly observed in the 20 bar sample without major structural defects. The two samples exhibit a thermochromic behavior and thermo-optical properties of the two samples are equivalent. - Graphical Abstract: Thermochromic behavior of Nd{sub 0.3}Sm{sub 0.7}NiO{sub 3} samples annealed under 20 and 175 bar at 278 and 373 K.

  2. Metal-insulator transition in disordered systems from the one-body density matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Resta, Raffaele; Souza, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    The insulating state of matter can be probed by means of a ground state geometrical marker, which is closely related to the modern theory of polarization (based on a Berry phase). In the present work we show that this marker can be applied to determine the metal-insulator transition in disordered systems. In particular, for noninteracting systems the geometrical marker can be obtained from the configurational average of the norm-squared one-body density matrix, which can be calculated within open as well as periodic boundary conditions. This is in sharp contrast to a classification based on the static conductivity, which is only sensible within periodic boundary conditions. We exemplify the method by considering a simple lattice model, known to have a metal-insulator transition as a function of the disorder strength, and demonstrate that the transition point can be obtained accurately from the one-body density matrix. The approach has a general ab initio formulation and could in principle be applied to realistic disordered materials by standard electronic structure methods.

  3. Electrodynamics of the conducting polymer polyaniline on the insulating side of the metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgren, Erik; Penney, Keith; Diefenbach, Matt; Longnickel, Maryna; Wainwright, Mark; Walker, Eldridge; Al-Azzawi, Sarah; Erhahon, Hendrix; Singley, Jason

    2017-03-01

    Conducting polymer samples of polyaniline (PANI) exhibit a dramatic change in their conductivity as a function of protonation level, analogous with the changes in the transport properties of semiconductors upon doping. In this paper, PANI samples were prepared by protonating with varying concentrations of hydrochloric acid. The complex terahertz frequency-dependent conductivity and the dc conductivity of these samples were measured and analyzed in the framework of the disorder-driven, metal-insulator quantum phase transition. The samples were determined to all fall in the insulating phase of this phase transition. The frequency dependence of both the real and imaginary terahertz conductivity are found to be consistent with theories that include electronic correlation effects.

  4. Metal-insulator transitions of bulk and domain-wall states in pyrochlore iridates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Kentaro

    A family of pyrochlore iridates R2Ir2O7 offers an ideal platform to explore intriguing phases such as topological Mott insulator and Weyl semimetal. Here we report transport and spectroscopic studies on the metal-insulator transition (MIT) induced by the modulations of effective electron correlation and magnetic structures, which is finely tuned by external pressure, chemical substitutions (R = Nd1-x Prx and SmyNd1-y) , and magnetic field. A reentrant insulator-metal-insulator transition is observed near the paramagnetic insulator-metal phase boundary reminiscent of a first-order Mott transition for R = SmyNd1-y compounds (y~0.8). The metallic states on the magnetic domain walls (DWs), which are observed for R = Nd in real space as well as in transport properties, is simultaneously turned into the insulating one. These findings imply that the DW electronic state is intimately linked to the bulk states. For the mixed R = Nd1-x Prx compounds, the divergent behavior of resistivity with antiferromagnetic order is significantly suppressed by applying a magnetic field along [001] direction. It is attributed to the phase transition from the antiferromagnetic insulating state to the novel Weyl (semi-)metal state accompanied by the change of magnetic structure. The present study combined with experiment and theory suggests that there are abundant exotic phases with physical parameters such as electron correlation and Ir-5 d magnetic order pattern. Work performed in collaboration with J. Fujioka, B.-J. Yang, C. Terakura, N. Nagaosa, Y. Tokura (University of Tokyo, RIKEN CEMS), J. Shiogai, A. Tsukazaki, S. Nakamura, S. Awaji (Tohoku University). 1This work was supported by JSPS FIRST Program and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grants No. 80609488 and No. 24224009).

  5. Photocurrent Switching of Monolayer MoS2 Using a Metal-Insulator Transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hee; Gul, Hamza Zad; Kim, Hyun; Moon, Byoung Hee; Adhikari, Subash; Kim, Jung Ho; Choi, Homin; Lee, Young Hee; Lim, Seong Chu

    2017-02-08

    We achieve switching on/off the photocurrent of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) by controlling the metal-insulator transition (MIT). N-type semiconducting MoS2 under a large negative gate bias generates a photocurrent attributed to the increase of excess carriers in the conduction band by optical excitation. However, under a large positive gate bias, a phase shift from semiconducting to metallic MoS2 is caused, and the photocurrent by excess carriers in the conduction band induced by the laser disappears due to enhanced electron-electron scattering. Thus, no photocurrent is detected in metallic MoS2. Our results indicate that the photocurrent of MoS2 can be switched on/off by appropriately controlling the MIT transition by means of gate bias.

  6. Suppression of the weak localization near the metal-insulator transition in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Maryam; Anissimova, S.; Sakr, M. R.; Kravchenko, S. V.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2003-03-01

    We have studied the suppression of weak localization by perpendicular magnetic field in low-disordered two-dimensional electron systems in silicon for a range of electron densities. We show that the negative corrections to the resistance, found in the metallic phase, disappear in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. Our data suggest that localization is fully suppressed near and at the transition even in zero field, confirming similar results in ultra-clean p-GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures [1] and verifying their universality. [1] A. P. Mills, A. P. Ramirez, X. P. A. Gao, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and S. H. Simon, preprint cond-mat/0101020.

  7. Stable metal-insulator transition in epitaxial SmNiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Sieu D.; Otaki, Miho; Jaramillo, R.; Podpirka, Adrian; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-06-15

    Samarium nickelate (SmNiO{sub 3}) is a correlated oxide that exhibits a metal-insulator transition (MIT) above room temperature and is of interest for advanced electronics and optoelectronics. However, studies on SmNiO{sub 3} thin films have been limited to date, in part due to well-known difficulties in stabilizing the Ni{sup 3+} valence state during growth, which are manifested in non-reproducible electrical characteristics. In this work, we show that stable epitaxial SmNiO{sub 3} thin films can be grown by rf magnetron sputtering without extreme post-deposition annealing conditions using relatively high growth pressure (>200 mTorr). At low growth pressure, SmNiO{sub 3} is insulating and undergoes an irreversible MIT at {approx}430 K. As pressure is increased, films become metallic across a large temperature range from 100 to 420 K. At high pressure, films are insulating again but with a reversible and stable MIT at {approx}400 K. Phase transition properties can be continuously tuned by control of the sputtering pressure. - Graphical Abstract: X-ray diffraction (left) and resistivity-temperature characteristics (right) of sputtered SmNiO{sub 3} thin films as a function of sputtering pressure. As sputtering pressure increases, the out-of-plane lattice constant of SmNiO{sub 3} decreases, consistent with enhanced oxygen concentration. Concordantly, the electrical properties are strongly modified, and a reversible metal-insulator phase transition is observed at {approx}400 K in the film grown at high pressure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable SmNiO{sub 3} films grown by rf sputtering without extreme annealing conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sputtering pressures needed to fully stabilize SmNiO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible metal-insulator transition observed at {approx}400 K, similar to bulk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical properties strongly modifiable by varying sputtering pressure.

  8. Local Peltier-effect-induced reversible metal-insulator transition in VO2 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Hidefumi; Kanki, Teruo; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2016-06-01

    We report anomalous resistance leaps and drops in VO2 nanowires with operating current density and direction, showing reversible and nonvolatile switching. This event is associated with the metal-insulator phase transition (MIT) of local nanodomains with coexistence states of metallic and insulating phases induced by thermoelectric cooling and heating effects. Because the interface of metal and insulator domains has much different Peltier coefficient, it is possible that a significant Peltier effect would be a source of the local MIT. This operation can be realized by one-dimensional domain configuration in VO2 nanowires because one straight current path through the electronic domain-interface enables theoretical control of thermoelectric effects. This result will open a new method of reversible control of electronic states in correlated electron materials.

  9. Terahertz transport dynamics in the metal-insulator transition of V2O3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y. Y.; Su, F. H.; Zhang, C.; Zhong, L.; Pan, S. S.; Xu, S. C.; Wang, H.; Dai, J. M.; Li, G. H.

    2017-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of thermally-induced metal-insulator transition of V2O3 thin film on Si substrate grown by reactive magnetron sputtering was investigated by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. It was found that the THz absorption and optical conductivity of the thin films are temperature-dependent, and the THz amplitude modulation can reach as high as 74.7%. The complex THz optical conductivity in the metallic state of the V2O3 thin films can be well-fitted by the Drude-Smith model, which offer the insight into the electron transport dynamic during the metal-insulator transition of the thin film.

  10. Magnetism variations and susceptibility hysteresis at the metal-insulator phase transition temperature of VO2 in a composite film containing vanadium and tungsten oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akande, Amos A.; Rammutla, Koena E.; Moyo, Thomas; Osman, Nadir S. E.; Nkosi, Steven S.; Jafta, Charl J.; Mwakikunga, Bonex W.

    2015-02-01

    We report on the magnetic property of 0.67-WO3+0.33-VOx mixture film deposit on the corning glass substrate using the chemical sol-gel and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) methods. The XRD and Raman spectroscopy confirm species of both materials, and the morphological studies with FIB-SEM and TEM reveal segregation of W and V atoms. XPS reveals that V4+ from VO2 forms only 11% of the film; V3+ in the form of V2O3 form 1% of the film, 21% is V5+ from V2O5 and 67% is given to W6+ from WO3. The analysis of the ESR data shows some sharp changes in the magnetism near the metal-to-insulator (MIT), which could be theoretically interpreted as the ordering or alignment of electron spins from net moment nature to parallel alignment of magnetic moment. The derivatives of magnetic susceptibility established the thermally induced magnetic property: two distinct transitions of 339 K for heating data and 338 K for cooling data for 151.2 mT field were obtained. Similar results were also obtained for 308.7 mT field, 336 K for heating data and 335 K for cooling data. VSM results confirm a paramagnetic phase with a small amount of magnetically ordered phase.

  11. Disorder and metal-insulator transitions in Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hua; Chen, Chui-Zhen; Song, Juntao; Sun, Qing-Feng; Wang, Ziqiang; Xie, X. C.

    The Weyl semimetal (WSM) is a newly proposed quantum state of matter. It has Weyl nodes in bulk excitations and Fermi arcs surface states. We study the effects of disorder and localization in WSMs and find three novel phase transitions.(I) Two Weyl nodes near the Brillouin zone boundary can be annihilated pairwise by disorder scattering, resulting in the opening of a topologically nontrivial gap and a transition from a WSM to a three-dimensional (3D) quantum anomalous Hall state. (II) When the two Weyl nodes are well separated in momentum space, the emergent bulk extended states can give rise to a direct transition from a WSM to a 3D diffusive anomalous Hall metal. (III) Two Weyl nodes can emerge near the zone center when an insulating gap closes with increasing disorder, enabling a direct transition from a normal band insulator to a WSM. We determine the phase diagram by numerically computing the localization length and the Hall conductivity, and propose that the novel phase transitions can be realized on a photonic lattice.

  12. Disorder and Metal-Insulator Transitions in Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chui-Zhen; Song, Juntao; Jiang, Hua; Sun, Qing-feng; Wang, Ziqiang; Xie, X. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Weyl semimetal (WSM) is a newly proposed quantum state of matter. It has Weyl nodes in bulk excitations and Fermi arc surface states. We study the effects of disorder and localization in WSMs and find three novel phase transitions. (i) Two Weyl nodes near the Brillouin zone boundary can be annihilated pairwise by disorder scattering, resulting in the opening of a topologically nontrivial gap and a transition from a WSM to a three-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall state. (ii) When the two Weyl nodes are well separated in momentum space, the emergent bulk extended states can give rise to a direct transition from a WSM to a 3D diffusive anomalous Hall metal. (iii) Two Weyl nodes can emerge near the zone center when an insulating gap closes with increasing disorder, enabling a direct transition from a normal band insulator to a WSM. We determine the phase diagram by numerically computing the localization length and the Hall conductivity, and propose that the novel phase transitions can be realized on a photonic lattice.

  13. Metal-insulator transition in nanocomposite VO{sub x} films formed by anodic electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Lok-kun; Lu, Jiwei; Zangari, Giovanni; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik

    2013-11-11

    The ability to grow VO{sub 2} films by electrochemical methods would open a low-cost, easily scalable production route to a number of electronic devices. We have synthesized VO{sub x} films by anodic electrodeposition of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, followed by partial reduction by annealing in Ar. The resulting films are heterogeneous, consisting of various metallic/oxide phases and including regions with VO{sub 2} stoichiometry. A gradual metal insulator transition with a nearly two order of magnitude change in film resistance is observed between room temperature and 140 °C. In addition, the films exhibit a temperature coefficient of resistance of ∼ −2.4%/ °C from 20 to 140 °C.

  14. Metal-insulator transition in nanocomposite VOx films formed by anodic electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Lok-kun; Hildebrand, Helga; Lu, Jiwei; Schmuki, Patrik; Zangari, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    The ability to grow VO2 films by electrochemical methods would open a low-cost, easily scalable production route to a number of electronic devices. We have synthesized VOx films by anodic electrodeposition of V2O5, followed by partial reduction by annealing in Ar. The resulting films are heterogeneous, consisting of various metallic/oxide phases and including regions with VO2 stoichiometry. A gradual metal insulator transition with a nearly two order of magnitude change in film resistance is observed between room temperature and 140 °C. In addition, the films exhibit a temperature coefficient of resistance of ˜ -2.4%/ °C from 20 to 140 °C.

  15. Mechanism of the metal-insulator transition of hollandite vanadate K2V8O16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriyama, T.; Konishi, T.; Ohta, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We make the electronic structure calculations of hollandite vanadate K2V8O16 using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in the density functional theory, where the Hubbard-type repulsive interaction U is taken into account (GGA+U). We in particular calculate the electronic structure of the low-temperature phase of this material using the crystal structure reported by Komarek et al. We find that the electronic wave functions near the Fermi level are predominantly of the dxy character and form the quasi-one-dimensional energy bands. The energy bands are made of the single chains of the VO6 octahedra rather than the double chains. The effects of strong electron correlations play an essential role here. Based on these results, we discuss possible mechanisms of the observed metal-insulator transition of this material.

  16. Voltage-induced Metal-Insulator Transitions in Perovskite Oxide Thin Films Doped with Strongly Correlelated Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yudi; Gil Kim, Soo; Chen, I.-Wei

    2007-03-01

    We have observed a reversible metal-insulator transition in perovskite oxide thin films that can be controlled by charge trapping pumped by a bipolar voltage bias. In the as-fabricated state, the thin film is metallic with a very low resistance comparable to that of the metallic bottom electrode, showing decreasing resistance with decreasing temperature. This metallic state switches to a high-resistance state after applying a voltage bias: such state is non-ohmic showing a negative temperature dependence of resistance. Switching at essentially the same voltage bias was observed down to 2K. The metal-insulator transition is attributed to charge trapping that disorders the energy of correlated electron states in the conduction band. By increasing the amount of charge trapped, which increases the disorder relative to the band width, increasingly more insulating states with a stronger temperature dependence of resistivity are accessed. This metal-insulator transition provides a platform to engineer new nonvolatile memory that does not require heat (as in phase transition) or dielectric breakdown (as in most other oxide resistance devices).

  17. Metal-insulator transition at lanthanum aluminate-strontium titanate interface induced by oxygen plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Weitao; Cen, Cheng

    The formation of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at lanthanum aluminate (LAO)-strontium titanate (STO) interface, as well as the 2DEG's unique characters in metal-insulator transition, have evoked widespread interest. Highly insulating interfaces are obtained for the structures with LAO thickness below 3 unit cell (uc) and abrupt transition from an insulating to conducting interface was observed for samples with thicker LAO layers. For 3uc LAO/STO samples, reversible nanoscale control of the metal-insulator transition was implemented by a conductive AFM writing. Our research furtherly discovered a very stable metal-insulator transition can be achieved by oxygen plasma (OP) treatment for samples with thicker LAO layers. AFM imaging and XPS measurement demonstrated the low energy OP treatment altered only the surface bonds, which confirmed the importance of surface properties in the heterostructures. Then microscale Hall bars were patterned at the interface and imaged by electrostatic force microscope. Their transport and magnetic properties were measured. This research will promote deeper understanding about the interfacial metal-insulator transition mechanism and open new device opportunities. This work is supported by the Department of Energy Grant No. DE-SC-0010399 and National Science Foundation Grant No. NSF-1454950.

  18. New aspects of the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide nanobeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobden, David

    2010-03-01

    The fundamental properties of the famous metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium dioxide are obscured in traditional samples by domain structure. In contrast, single-crystal nanobeams of the material can be prepared in such a way that the frustration is absent, and the stress is zero or almost uniform, even while the transition is taking place. Studying nanobeams using a combination of transport and optical methods has allowed us to obtain a number of new results, including the following. First, the uniform metallic phase can be dramatically supercooled. Second, the so-called M2 insulating phase shows a temperature-independent resistivity at the transition, implicating electron-electron interactions in the controlling mechanism. Third, the M1 and M2 insulating phases have the same thermal electronic gap. Fourth, we establish a new phase diagram of the material as a function of stress along the rutile c-axis which helps to explain a number of recent experiments and some anomalies in the older literature. Work done in collaboration with Jiang Wei, Jae Park, Vinny Roma, Andrew Jones, Sam Berweger, and Markus Raschke.

  19. Effects of Thickness on the Metal-Insulator Transition in Free-Standing Vanadium Dioxide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Fadlelmula, Mustafa M; Sürmeli, Engin C; Ramezani, Mehdi; Kasırga, T Serkan

    2017-03-08

    Controlling solid state phase transitions via external stimuli offers rich physics along with possibilities of unparalleled applications in electronics and optics. The well-known metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide (VO2) is one instance of such phase transitions emerging from strong electronic correlations. Inducing the MIT using electric field has been investigated extensively for the applications in electrical and ultrafast optical switching. However, as the Thomas-Fermi screening length is very short, for considerable alteration in the material's properties with electric field induced MIT, crystals below 10 nm are needed. So far, the only way to achieve thin crystals of VO2 has been via epitaxial growth techniques. Yet, stress due to lattice mismatch as well as interdiffusion with the substrate complicate the studies. Here, we show that free-standing vapor-phase grown crystals of VO2 can be milled down to the desired thickness using argon ion-beam milling without compromising their electronic and structural properties. Among our results, we show that even below 4 nm thickness the MIT persists and the transition temperature is lowered in two-terminal devices as the crystal gets thinner. The findings in this Letter can be applied to similar strongly correlated materials to study quantum confinement effects.

  20. Experimental Observation of a Metal-insulator Transition in 2D at Zero Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, S. V.

    1996-03-01

    The scaling theory of Abrahams et al. ^1 has had considerable success in describing many features of metal-insulator transitions. Within this theory, which was developed for non-interacting electrons, no such transition is possible in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in the absence of a magnetic field. However, we show experimentally that an ultra-high-mobility 2DES on the surface of silicon does exhibit the signature of a true metal-insulator phase transition at zero magnetic field at a critical electron density n_c ~10^11 cm-2. The energy of electron-electron interactions, ignored in the scaling theory,^1 is the dominant parameter in this 2DES. The resistivity, ρ, is empirically found to scale near the critical point both with temperature T and electric field E so that it can be represented by the form ρ(T,n_s)=ρ(T/T_0(n_s)) as Earrow0 or ρ(E,n_s)=ρ(E/E_0(n_s)) as Tarrow0. At the transition, the resistivity is close to 3h/e^2. Both scaling parameters, T0 and E_0, show power law behavior at the critical point. This is characteristic of a true phase transition and strongly resembles, in particular, the superconductor-insulator transition in disordered thin films,^2 as well as the transition between quantum Hall liquid and insulator.^3 Many high-mobility samples from two different sources (Institute for Metrological Service, Russia, and Siemens AG, Germany) with different oxide thicknesses and gate materials have been studied and similar results were found. Work done in collaboration with J. E. Furneaux, Whitney Mason, V. M. Pudalov, and M. D'Iorio, supported by NSF. ^1 E. Abrahams, P. W. Anderson, D. C. Licciardello, and T. V. Ramakrishnan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 673 (1979). ^2 Y. Liu, K. A. McGreer, B. Nease, D. B. Haviland, G. Martinez, J. W. Halley, and A. M. Goldman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2068 (1991). ^3 T. Wang, K. P. Clark, G. F. Spencer, A. M. Mack, and W. P. Kirk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 709 (1994).

  1. Antiferromagnetic, metal-insulator, and superconducting phase transitions in underdoped cuprates: Slave-fermion t-J model in the hopping expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Akihiro; Aoki, Koji; Ichinose, Ikuo; Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Matsui, Tetsuo

    2011-02-01

    We study a system of doped antiferromagnet in three dimensions at finite temperatures using the t-J model, a canonical model of strongly correlated electrons. We employ the slave-fermion representation of electrons, in which an electron is described as a composite of a charged spinless holon and a chargeless spinon. We introduce two kinds of U(1) gauge fields on links as auxiliary fields, one describing resonating valence bonds of antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin pairs and the other for nearest-neighbor hopping amplitudes of holons and spinons in the ferromagnetic channel. To perform a numerical study of the system, we integrate out the fermionic holon field by using the hopping expansion in powers of the hopping amplitude, which is legitimate for the region in and near the insulating phase. The resultant effective model is described in terms of bosonic spinons, two U(1) gauge fields, and a collective field for hole pairs. We study this model by means of Monte Carlo simulations, calculating the specific heat, spin correlation functions, and instanton densities. We obtain a phase diagram in the hole concentration-temperature plane, which is in good agreement with that observed recently for clean and homogeneous underdoped samples.

  2. Electrocaloric effect of metal-insulator transition in VO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunami, Daichi; Fujita, Asaya

    2015-01-26

    The electrocaloric effect was observed in association with an electric-field induced metal-insulator transition in VO{sub 2} using a calorimetric measurement under an applied voltage. For a VO{sub 2} plate with a 0.4 mm thickness located in the center of a capacitor-like structure, the metal-insulator transition was manipulated by applying a few volts. The occurrence of a transition in such a thick sample with relatively low voltage indicates that a surface charge accumulation mechanism is effective. The isothermal entropy change reached 94 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}, while the adiabatic temperature change was calculated as −3.8 K under a voltage change of 0–3 V. The large entropy change is attributed to correlation of the complex freedom among spin, charge, and lattice.

  3. Change of universality class of metal-insulator transition due to magnetic ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, N. A.; Tovar Costa, M. V.; Troper, A.; Japiassú, Gloria M.; Continentino, M. A.

    1999-04-01

    Using a two-band model we report a theory to describe the metal-insulator (MI) transition as a function of an external applied magnetic field in Kondo insulators. To deal with electronic correlations we use a functional integral approach in the static approximation. We show the existence of a critical value of the Coulomb correlation Uc, such that for Utransition is continuous and occurs from a paramagnetic insulator to a paramagnetic metal. In this case this transition is in the universality class of density-driven transitions. For U>Uc, the transition is to a ferromagnetic metal and it is described by different critical exponents.

  4. Metal-insulator transition above room temperature in maximum colossal magnetoresistance manganite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. J.; Habermeier, H.-U.; Zhang, H.; Gu, G.; Varela, M.; Santamaria, J.; Almasan, C. C.

    2005-09-01

    It has been suggested that the maximum magnitude of colossal magnetoresistance occurs in mixed-valent manganites with a tolerance factor t=0.96 [Zhou, Archibald, and Goodenough, Nature (London) 381, 770 (1996)]. However, at t≈0.96 most manganites have relatively low values of the metal-insulator transition temperature TMI(˜60-150K) . Here, we report that a 50 Å La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 thin film with t=0.96 grown on a (100) SrTiO3 substrate has a metal-insulator transition above room temperature, which represents a doubling of TMI compared with its value in the bulk material. We show that this spectacular increase of TMI is a result of the epitaxially compressive strain-induced reduction of the Jahn-Teller distortion.

  5. GW study of the metal-insulator transition of bcc hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Je-luen; Rignanese, G.-M.; Chang, Eric K.; Blase, Xavier; Louie, Steven G.

    2002-01-31

    We study the metal-insulator transition in a model Mott system, a bcc hydrogen solid, by performing ab initio quasiparticle band-structure calculations within the GW approximation for a wide range of lattice constants. The value of the critical electron density n-sub c is consistent with Mott's original criterion. For smaller lattice constants, our spin-polarized GW results agree well with previous variational quantum Monte Carlo calculations. For large lattice constants, the computed quasiparticle band gap corresponds to the difference between the ionization energy and electron affinity of an isolated hydrogen atom. Near the metal-insulator transition, we investigate the quality of the quasiparticle wave functions obtained from different starting approximations in density-functional theory. Finally, we gain new insight into the GW method and its applicability to spin-polarized systems, for which several refinements are introduced.

  6. Verwey Metal-Insulator Transition in Magnetite from the Slave-Boson Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, Mohammad; Satpathy, Sashi; Pettey, Dix

    2013-03-01

    We study the Verwey metal-insulator transition in magnetite (Ref.1) by solving a three-band extended Hubbard Hamiltonian for spinless fermions using the slave-boson approach, which also includes coupling to the local phonon modes. This model is suggested from the earlier density-functional studies of magnetite.(Ref.2) We first solve the 1D Hubbard model for the spinless fermions with nearest-neighbor interaction by both Gutzwiller variational and slave-boson methods and show that these two approaches yield different results unlike in the case of the standard Hubbard model, thereby clarifying some of the discrepancies in the literature (Ref.3), then we extend the formalism to three-band Hamiltonian for magnetite. The results suggest a metal-insulator transition at a critical value for the intersite interaction.

  7. First-order metal-insulator transition and infrared identification of shape-controlled magnetite nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lei; Su, Wei; Qi, Zeming; Xu, Yang; Zhou, Min; Xie, Yi

    2011-12-01

    The first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT) in magnetite has been known for a long time but is still controversial in its nature. In this study, well-defined magnetite nanocrystals (NCs) with controllable size, shape and terminated surface are first employed to elucidate this important issue, and new discoveries such as a highly suppressed phase transition temperature are identified by monitoring the variable-temperature electric resistance and infrared spectroscopy. Significantly, by carefully comparing the infrared vibrational bands of the as-prepared magnetite NCs with octahedral and cubic shapes, respectively, we found that these two forms of magnetite NCs exhibited different transmittance changes and frequency shifts of the infrared characteristics, presumably due to the differences in the lattice distortions on the corresponding {001} and {111} terminal surfaces. This result produced evidence in support of the charge ordering of Fe atoms along the low dimensionality at octahedral B sites undergoing the MIT. Taken together, infrared identification was proposed to be an available characterization strategy for MIT, which can reflect more information on the elusive lattice distortion of crystallographic structure or exposed surfaces.

  8. Magnetic states, correlation effects and metal-insulator transition in FCC lattice.

    PubMed

    Timirgazin, M A; Igoshev, P A; Arzhnikov, A K; Yu Irkhin, V

    2016-12-21

    The ground-state magnetic phase diagram (including collinear and spiral states) of the single-band Hubbard model for the face-centered cubic lattice and related metal-insulator transition (MIT) are investigated within the slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein. The correlation-induced electron spectrum narrowing and a comparison with a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation allow one to estimate the strength of correlation effects. This, as well as the MIT scenario, depends dramatically on the ratio of the next-nearest and nearest electron hopping integrals [Formula: see text]. In contrast with metallic state, possessing substantial band narrowing, insulator one is only weakly correlated. The magnetic (Slater) scenario of MIT is found to be superior over the Mott one. Unlike simple and body-centered cubic lattices, MIT is the first order transition (discontinuous) for most [Formula: see text]. The insulator state is type-II or type-III antiferromagnet, and the metallic state is spin-spiral, collinear antiferromagnet or paramagnet depending on [Formula: see text]. The picture of magnetic ordering is compared with that in the standard localized-electron (Heisenberg) model.

  9. Magnetic states, correlation effects and metal-insulator transition in FCC lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timirgazin, M. A.; Igoshev, P. A.; Arzhnikov, A. K.; Irkhin, V. Yu

    2016-12-01

    The ground-state magnetic phase diagram (including collinear and spiral states) of the single-band Hubbard model for the face-centered cubic lattice and related metal-insulator transition (MIT) are investigated within the slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein. The correlation-induced electron spectrum narrowing and a comparison with a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation allow one to estimate the strength of correlation effects. This, as well as the MIT scenario, depends dramatically on the ratio of the next-nearest and nearest electron hopping integrals {{t}\\prime}/t . In contrast with metallic state, possessing substantial band narrowing, insulator one is only weakly correlated. The magnetic (Slater) scenario of MIT is found to be superior over the Mott one. Unlike simple and body-centered cubic lattices, MIT is the first order transition (discontinuous) for most {{t}\\prime}/t . The insulator state is type-II or type-III antiferromagnet, and the metallic state is spin-spiral, collinear antiferromagnet or paramagnet depending on {{t}\\prime}/t . The picture of magnetic ordering is compared with that in the standard localized-electron (Heisenberg) model.

  10. Correlating the Energetics and Atomic Motions of the Metal-Insulator Transition of M1 Vanadium Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Jamie M.; Drumm, Daniel W.; Casey, Phil S.; Smith, Jackson S.; Seeber, Aaron J.; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Russo, Salvy P.

    2016-01-01

    Materials that undergo reversible metal-insulator transitions are obvious candidates for new generations of devices. For such potential to be realised, the underlying microscopic mechanisms of such transitions must be fully determined. In this work we probe the correlation between the energy landscape and electronic structure of the metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide and the atomic motions occurring using first principles calculations and high resolution X-ray diffraction. Calculations find an energy barrier between the high and low temperature phases corresponding to contraction followed by expansion of the distances between vanadium atoms on neighbouring sub-lattices. X-ray diffraction reveals anisotropic strain broadening in the low temperature structure’s crystal planes, however only for those with spacings affected by this compression/expansion. GW calculations reveal that traversing this barrier destabilises the bonding/anti-bonding splitting of the low temperature phase. This precise atomic description of the origin of the energy barrier separating the two structures will facilitate more precise control over the transition characteristics for new applications and devices. PMID:27211303

  11. Oxygen Vacancy Induced Room-Temperature Metal-Insulator Transition in Nickelate Films and Its Potential Application in Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Dash, Sibashisa; Chang, Lei; You, Lu; Feng, Yaqing; He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan; Zhou, Yang; Ong, Hock Guan; Ren, Peng; Wang, Shiwei; Chen, Lang; Wang, Junling

    2016-04-20

    Oxygen vacancy is intrinsically coupled with magnetic, electronic, and transport properties of transition-metal oxide materials and directly determines their multifunctionality. Here, we demonstrate reversible control of oxygen content by postannealing at temperature lower than 300 °C and realize the reversible metal-insulator transition in epitaxial NdNiO₃ films. Importantly, over 6 orders of magnitude in the resistance modulation and a large change in optical bandgap are demonstrated at room temperature without destroying the parent framework and changing the p-type conductive mechanism. Further study revealed that oxygen vacancies stabilized the insulating phase at room temperature is universal for perovskite nickelate films. Acting as electron donors, oxygen vacancies not only stabilize the insulating phase at room temperature, but also induce a large magnetization of ∼50 emu/cm³ due to the formation of strongly correlated Ni²⁺ t(2g)⁶e(g)² states. The bandgap opening is an order of magnitude larger than that of the thermally driven metal-insulator transition and continuously tunable. Potential application of the newly found insulating phase in photovoltaics has been demonstrated in the nickelate-based heterojunctions. Our discovery opens up new possibilities for strongly correlated perovskite nickelates.

  12. Nano-optical investigations of the metal-insulator phase behavior of individual VO(2) microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew C; Berweger, Samuel; Wei, Jiang; Cobden, David; Raschke, Markus B

    2010-05-12

    Despite the relatively simple stoichiometry and structure of VO(2), many questions regarding the nature of its famous metal-insulator transition (MIT) remain unresolved. This is in part due to the prevailing use of polycrystalline film samples and the limited spatial resolution in most studies, hindering access to and control of the complex phase behavior and its inevitable spatial inhomogeneities. Here, we investigate the MIT and associated nanodomain formation in individual VO(2) microcrystals subject to substrate stress. We employ symmetry-selective polarization Raman spectroscopy to identify crystals that are strain-stabilized in either the monoclinic M1 or M2 insulating phase at room-temperature. Raman measurements are further used to characterize the phase dependence on temperature, identifying the appearance of the M2 phase during the MIT. The associated formation and spatial evolution of rutile (R) metallic domains is studied with nanometer-scale spatial resolution using infrared scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). We deduce that even for small crystals of VO(2), the MIT is influenced by the competition between the R, M1, and M2 crystal phases with their different lattice constants subjected to the external substrate-induced stress. The results have important implications for the interpretation of the investigations of conventional polycrystalline thin films where the mutual interaction of constituent crystallites may affect the nature of the MIT in VO(2).

  13. Interaction-Driven Metal-Insulator Transition in Strained Graphene.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ho-Kin; Laksono, E; Rodrigues, J N B; Sengupta, P; Assaad, F F; Adam, S

    2015-10-30

    The question of whether electron-electron interactions can drive a metal to insulator transition in graphene under realistic experimental conditions is addressed. Using three representative methods to calculate the effective long-range Coulomb interaction between π electrons in graphene and solving for the ground state using quantum Monte Carlo methods, we argue that, without strain, graphene remains metallic and changing the substrate from SiO_{2} to suspended samples hardly makes any difference. In contrast, applying a rather large-but experimentally realistic-uniform and isotropic strain of about 15% seems to be a promising route to making graphene an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator.

  14. Charge and orbital orderings associated with metal-insulator transition in V6O13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriyama, T.; Nakayama, T.; Konishi, T.; Ohta, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Density-functional-theory-based electronic-structure calculations are carried out to elucidate the mechanism of the metal-insulator transition (MIT) of a Wadsley-phase vanadium oxide V6O13. We show that, at the MIT, the orbitals occupied by electrons are reconstructed in the single trellis layers of the V(1) ions, which occurs simultaneously with the transfer of electrons from the V(2) to V(3) ions in the double trellis layers, leaving the V(2) ions nonmagnetic. We discuss that these changes lead to the formation of spin-singlet state associated with the ordering of the dyz and dxz orbitals in the V(1) zigzag chain, together with the formation of the Mott-insulator state with frustrated spin degrees of freedom in the zigzag ladder of the dxy orbitals of the V(3) ions; possible antiferromagnetic ordering patterns are predicted for the latter state. Thus, the spin-singlet and antiferromagnetic states coexist in spatially separated regions at lowest temperatures. The band Jahn-Teller-type instability hidden in the single trellis layer, which is the orbital ordering instability in the strong correlation limit, is suggested to cause the MIT.

  15. Control of plasmonic nanoantennas by reversible metal-insulator transition

    DOE PAGES

    Abate, Yohannes; Marvel, Robert E.; Ziegler, Jed I.; ...

    2015-09-11

    We demonstrate dynamic reversible switching of VO2 insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) locally on the scale of 15 nm or less and control of nanoantennas, observed for the first time in the near-field. Using polarization-selective near-field imaging techniques, we simultaneously monitor the IMT in VO2 and the change of plasmons on gold infrared nanoantennas. Structured nanodomains of the metallic VO2 locally and reversibly transform infrared plasmonic dipole nanoantennas to monopole nanoantennas. Fundamentally, the IMT in VO2 can be triggered on femtosecond timescale to allow ultrafast nanoscale control of optical phenomena. In conclusion, these unique features open up promising novel applications in activemore » nanophotonics.« less

  16. Control of plasmonic nanoantennas by reversible metal-insulator transition

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, Yohannes; Marvel, Robert E.; Ziegler, Jed I.; Gamage, Sampath; Javani, Mohammad H.; Stockman, Mark I.; Haglund, Richard F.

    2015-09-11

    We demonstrate dynamic reversible switching of VO2 insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) locally on the scale of 15 nm or less and control of nanoantennas, observed for the first time in the near-field. Using polarization-selective near-field imaging techniques, we simultaneously monitor the IMT in VO2 and the change of plasmons on gold infrared nanoantennas. Structured nanodomains of the metallic VO2 locally and reversibly transform infrared plasmonic dipole nanoantennas to monopole nanoantennas. Fundamentally, the IMT in VO2 can be triggered on femtosecond timescale to allow ultrafast nanoscale control of optical phenomena. In conclusion, these unique features open up promising novel applications in active nanophotonics.

  17. Control of plasmonic nanoantennas by reversible metal-insulator transition

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Yohannes; Marvel, Robert E.; Ziegler, Jed I.; Gamage, Sampath; Javani, Mohammad H.; Stockman, Mark I.; Haglund, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate dynamic reversible switching of VO2 insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) locally on the scale of 15 nm or less and control of nanoantennas, observed for the first time in the near-field. Using polarization-selective near-field imaging techniques, we simultaneously monitor the IMT in VO2 and the change of plasmons on gold infrared nanoantennas. Structured nanodomains of the metallic VO2 locally and reversibly transform infrared plasmonic dipole nanoantennas to monopole nanoantennas. Fundamentally, the IMT in VO2 can be triggered on femtosecond timescale to allow ultrafast nanoscale control of optical phenomena. These unique features open up promising novel applications in active nanophotonics. PMID:26358623

  18. Metal-insulator transition in the Hollandite vanadate K2V8O16 investigated by 51V NMR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, Katsunori; Itoh, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Masahiko; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Yutaka

    2009-03-01

    51V NMR measurements have been made on powdered samples to investigate the metal-insulator (MI) transition and the local magnetic properties of the Hollandite vanadate K2V8O16 which undergoes the MI transition at TMI~170 K. An asymmetric 51V NMR spectrum in the metallic phase has the T-dependent negative Knight shift K. The two NMR spectra appears around TMI, showing the coexistence of the metallic and insulating phases in consistent with the two-step first-order transition. The temperature dependence of K and the 51V nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate indicates the presence of the ferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the metallic phase. A 51V NMR spectrum observed below TMI has the temperature-independent K~0.35%, showing the presence of the nonmagnetic ground state.

  19. Temperature dependence of the first-order metal-insulator transition in VO2 and programmable critical temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bong-Jun; Lee, Yong Wook; Chae, Byung-Gyu; Yun, Sun Jin; Oh, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Tak; Lim, Yong-Sik

    2007-01-01

    For VO2-based two-terminal devices, the first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT, jump) is controlled by an applied voltage and temperature, and an intermediate monoclinic metal phase between the MIT and the structural phase transition (SPT) is observed. The conductivity of this phase linearly increases with increasing temperature up to TSPT≈68°C and becomes maximum at TSPT. Optical microscopic observation reveals the absence of a local current path in the metal phase. The current uniformly flows throughout the surface of the VO2 film when the MIT occurs. This device can be used as a programmable critical temperature sensor where the applied voltage is controlled by a program.

  20. Dynamically tracking the strain across the metal-insulator transition in VO2 measured using electromechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Pritesh; Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Abhilash, T S; Sengupta, Shamashis; Cheng, Chun; Wu, Junqiao; Deshmukh, Mandar M

    2013-10-09

    We study the strain state of doubly clamped VO2 nanobeam devices by dynamically probing resonant frequency of the nanoscale electromechanical device across the metal-insulator transition. Simultaneous resistance and resonance measurements indicate M1-M2 phase transition in the insulating state with a drop in resonant frequency concomitant with an increase in resistance. The resonant frequency increases by ~7 MHz with the growth of metallic domain (M2-R transition) due to the development of tensile strain in the nanobeam. Our approach to dynamically track strain coupled with simultaneous resistance and resonance measurements using electromechanical resonators enables the study of lattice-involved interactions more precisely than static strain measurements. This technique can be extended to other phase change systems important for device applications.

  1. Critical metal-insulator transition due to nuclear quantum effects in Mn-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Soungmin; Raebiger, Hannes

    2016-12-01

    Mn-doped GaAs exhibits a critical metal-insulator transition at the Mn concentration of xcrit≈1 % . Our self-interaction corrected first principles calculation shows that for Mn concentrations x ≳1 % , hole carriers are delocalized in host valence states, and for x ≲1 % , holes tend to be trapped in impurity-band-like states. We further show that for a finite range of concentrations around xcrit the system exhibits a nonadiabatic superposition of these states, i.e., a mixing of electronic and nuclear wave functions. This means that the phase transition is continuous, and its criticality is caused by quantum effects of the atomic nuclei. In other words, the apparently electronic phase transition from the insulator to metal state cannot be described by electronic effects alone.

  2. Voltage- and current-activated metal-insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crunteanu, Aurelian; Givernaud, Julien; Leroy, Jonathan; Mardivirin, David; Champeaux, Corinne; Orlianges, Jean-Christophe; Catherinot, Alain; Blondy, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    Vanadium dioxide is an intensively studied material that undergoes a temperature-induced metal-insulator phase transition accompanied by a large change in electrical resistivity. Electrical switches based on this material show promising properties in terms of speed and broadband operation. The exploration of the failure behavior and reliability of such devices is very important in view of their integration in practical electronic circuits. We performed systematic lifetime investigations of two-terminal switches based on the electrical activation of the metal-insulator transition in VO2 thin films. The devices were integrated in coplanar microwave waveguides (CPWs) in series configuration. We detected the evolution of a 10 GHz microwave signal transmitted through the CPW, modulated by the activation of the VO2 switches in both voltage- and current-controlled modes. We demonstrated enhanced lifetime operation of current-controlled VO2-based switching (more than 260 million cycles without failure) compared with the voltage-activated mode (breakdown at around 16 million activation cycles). The evolution of the electrical self-oscillations of a VO2-based switch induced in the current-operated mode is a subtle indicator of the material properties modification and can be used to monitor its behavior under various external stresses in sensor applications.

  3. The electrochemical impact on electrostatic modulation of the metal-insulator transition in nickelates

    SciTech Connect

    Bubel, Simon; Glaudell, Anne M.; Mates, Thomas E.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Hauser, Adam J.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2015-03-23

    For physical studies of correlated electron systems and for realizing novel device concepts, electrostatic modulation of metal-insulator transitions (MITs) is desired. The inherently high charge densities needed to modulate MITs make this difficult to achieve. The high capacitance of ionic liquids are attractive but, voltages are needed that can be in excess of the electrochemical stability of the system. Here, we show temperature/resistivity data that suggest electrostatic modulation of the MIT temperature of NdNiO{sub 3} in a wide regime. However, additional voltammetric and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements demonstrate the electrochemical impact of the electrostatic doping approach with ionic liquids.

  4. Reconfigurable van der Waals Heterostructured Devices with Metal-Insulator Transition.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinseong; Jeong, Heejeong; Cho, Yeonchoo; Lee, Jaeho; Lee, Kiyoung; Nam, Seunggeol; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Lee, Sangyeob; Lee, Hyangsook; Hwang, Sungwoo; Park, Seongjun

    2016-11-09

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials range from semimetallic graphene to insulating hexagonal boron nitride to semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides. Recently, metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors built from these 2D elements were studied for flexible and transparent electronics. However, to induce ambipolar characteristics for alternative power-efficient circuitry, ion-gel gating is often employed for high capacitive coupling, limiting stable operation at ambient conditions. Here, we report reconfigurable MoTe2 optoelectronic transistors with all 2D components, where the device can be reconfigured by both drain and gate voltages. Eight different configurations for each fixed voltage are spatially resolved by scanning photocurrent microscopy. In addition, metal-insulator transitions are observed in both electron and hole carriers under 2 V due to strong Coulomb interaction in the system. Furthermore, the vertical tunneling photocurrent through multiple van der Waals layers between the gate and source contacts is measured. Our reconfigurable devices offer potential building blocks for system-on-a-chip optoelectronics.

  5. Dynamically tracking the joule heating effect on the voltage induced metal-insulator transition in VO2 crystal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, G. M.; Chen, S.; Fan, L. L.; Chen, Y. L.; Wang, X. Q.; Ren, H.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zou, C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Insulator to metal phase transitions driven by external electric field are one of the hottest topics in correlated oxide study. While this electric triggered phenomena always mixes the electric field switching effect and joule thermal effect together, which are difficult to clarify the intrinsic mechanism. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical process of voltage-triggered metal-insulator transition (MIT) in a VO2 crystal film and observe the temperature dependence of the threshold voltages and switching delay times, which can be explained quite well based on a straightforward joule thermal model. By conducting the voltage controlled infrared transmittance measurement, the delayed infrared transmission change is also observed, further confirming the homogeneous switching process for a large-size film. All of these results show strong evidences that joule thermal effect plays a dominated role in electric-field-induced switching of VO2 crystal.

  6. Visualizing the interfacial evolution from charge compensation to metallic screening across the manganite metal-insulator transition.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Julia A; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hidaka, Takeaki; Yajima, Takeaki; Higuchi, Takuya; Hwang, Harold Y; Muller, David A; Kourkoutis, Lena F

    2014-03-17

    Electronic changes at polar interfaces between transition metal oxides offer the tantalizing possibility to stabilize novel ground states yet can also cause unintended reconstructions in devices. The nature of these interfacial reconstructions should be qualitatively different for metallic and insulating films as the electrostatic boundary conditions and compensation mechanisms are distinct. Here we directly quantify with atomic-resolution the charge distribution for manganite-titanate interfaces traversing the metal-insulator transition. By measuring the concentration and valence of the cations, we find an intrinsic interfacial electronic reconstruction in the insulating films. The total charge observed for the insulating manganite films quantitatively agrees with that needed to cancel the polar catastrophe. As the manganite becomes metallic with increased hole doping, the total charge build-up and its spatial range drop substantially. Direct quantification of the intrinsic charge transfer and spatial width should lay the framework for devices harnessing these unique electronic phases.

  7. Diffusion Monte Carlo study of the metal-insulator transition in stretched graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Wagner, Lucas K.

    At low energies and equilibrium geometries, graphene is well-described by a single-band Hubbard model, with U/t 1.4, which is well within the semimetal regime. One would expect that under tensile stress, U/t should increase and a transition from semimetal to Mott insulator should occur. However, the bonding σ electrons are also affected by the stretching and may affect the applicability of the single-band model. At the same time, the critical region near the metal-insulator transition is a highly multi-determinantal ground state which is a challenging case for fixed node diffusion Monte Carlo simulations. We address progress on both these points by assessing a number of wave functions for the critical region around the transition and assessing the validity of the single-band Hubbard model using the method of Ref 1. This work was supported by NSF DMR 1206242.

  8. Electronic Excitations and Metal-Insulator Transition inPoly(3-hexylthiophene) Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Sai, N.; Li, Z.Q.; Martin, M.C.; Basov, D.N.; Di Ventra, M.

    2006-11-07

    We carry out a comprehensive theoretical and experimentalstudy of charge injection in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to determinethe most likely scenario for metal-insulator transition in this system.Wecalculate the optical-absorption frequencies corresponding to a polaronand a bipolaron lattice in P3HT. We also analyze the electronicexcitations for three possible scenarios under which a first- or asecond-order metal-insulator transition can occur in doped P3HT. Thesetheoretical scenarios are compared with data from infrared absorptionspectroscopy on P3HT thin-film field-effect transistors (FETs). Ourmeasurements and theoretical predictions suggest that charge-inducedlocalized states in P3HT FETs are bipolarons and that the highest dopinglevel achieved in our experiments approaches that required for afirst-order metal-insulator transition.

  9. Metal-insulator-transition in SrTiO3 induced by argon bombardment combined with field effect

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jie; Zhu, Zhengyong; Zhao, Hengliang; Luo, Zhijiong

    2014-12-15

    By fabricating the Field-Effect-Transistors on argon bombardment SrTiO3 substrates, not only we have achieved one of the best mobility for Field-Effect-Transistors fabricated on SrTiO3, but also realized strong field induced Metal-Insulator-Transition. The critical sheet resistance for the Metal-Insulator-Transition is only 1/7 of the value obtained in the former experiments, indicating a different mechanism. Further study shows that the Metal-Insulator-Transition can be attributed to the oxygen vacancies formed after the bombardment becoming the electron donor under the electric field modulation, increasing SrTiO3 surface electron density and transforming the substrate into metallic state.

  10. Role of magnetic and orbital ordering at the metal-insulator transition in NdNiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Scagnoli, V.; Staub, U.; Mulders, A. M.; Janousch, M.; Meijer, G. I.; Hammerl, G.; Tonnerre, J. M.; Stojic, N.

    2006-03-01

    Soft x-ray resonant scattering at the Ni L{sub 2,3} edges is used to test models of magnetic- and orbital-ordering below the metal-insulator transition in NdNiO{sub 3}. The large branching ratio of the L{sub 3} to L{sub 2} intensities of the (1/2 0 1/2) reflection and the observed azimuthal angle and polarization dependence originates from a noncollinear magnetic structure. The absence of an orbital signal and the noncollinear magnetic structure show that the nickelates are materials for which orbital ordering is absent at the metal-insulator transition.

  11. Density inhomogeneity driven percolation metal-insulator transition and dimensional crossover in graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Adam, S; Cho, S; Fuhrer, M S; Das Sarma, S

    2008-07-25

    Transport in graphene nanoribbons with an energy gap in the spectrum is considered in the presence of random charged impurity centers. At low carrier density, we predict and establish that the system exhibits a density inhomogeneity driven two dimensional metal-insulator transition that is in the percolation universality class. For very narrow graphene nanoribbons (with widths smaller than the disorder induced length scale), we predict that there should be a dimensional crossover to the 1D percolation universality class with observable signatures in the transport gap. In addition, there should be a crossover to the Boltzmann transport regime at high carrier densities. The measured conductivity exponent and the critical density are consistent with this percolation transition scenario.

  12. Effect of crystal-field splitting and interband hybridization on the metal-insulator transitions of strongly correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poteryaev, Alexander I.; Ferrero, Michel; Georges, Antoine; Parcollet, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    We investigate a quarter-filled two-band Hubbard model involving a crystal-field splitting, which lifts the orbital degeneracy as well as an interorbital hopping (interband hybridization). Both terms are relevant to the realistic description of correlated materials such as transition-metal oxides. The nature of the Mott metal-insulator transition is clarified and is found to depend on the magnitude of the crystal-field splitting. At large values of the splitting, a transition from a two-band to a one-band metal is first found as the on-site repulsion is increased and is followed by a Mott transition for the remaining band, which follows the single-band (Brinkman-Rice) scenario well documented previously within dynamical mean-field theory. At small values of the crystal-field splitting, a direct transition from a two-band metal to a Mott insulator with partial orbital polarization is found, which takes place simultaneously for both orbitals. This transition is characterized by a vanishing of the quasiparticle weight for the majority orbital but has a first-order character for the minority orbital. It is pointed out that finite-temperature effects may easily turn the metallic regime into a bad metal close to the orbital polarization transition in the metallic phase.

  13. Hallmarks of Metal Insulator transition in Doped Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Dhaka, Rajendra; Waugh, Justin; Reber, Theodore; Li, Haoxiang; Parham, Stephen; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Park, Seung Ryong; Qi, Tongfei; Korneta, Oleksandr; Plumb, Nicholas; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Denlinger, Jonathan; Hermele, Michael; Cao, Gang; Dessau, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    How Mott insulators acquire metallicity upon the introduction of extra carriers lies at the heart of correlated electron physics. The evolution of the electronic structure and low energy dynamics in the ultra-low doped region where the Mottness begins to break down is a critical place to study this physics. We report ARPES studies of the Rh and La doped Sr2IrO4 and show the appearance and evolution of a pseudogap and Fermi arcs. Further more we present evidence how the Mott gap breaks down with a profound change in the band structure. The experimental results in the doped iridates resemble those observed in the cuprate systems, which are prototype Mott insulators, and suggest we could establish a series of signatures that occur in the metal insulator transition. Now at Los Alamos National Lab.

  14. Metal-insulator transition in two-dimensional random fermion systems of chiral symmetry classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, E. J.; Ostrovsky, P. M.; Protopopov, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    Field-theoretical approach to Anderson localization in 2D disordered fermionic systems of chiral symmetry classes (BDI, AIII, CII) is developed. Important representatives of these symmetry classes are random hopping models on bipartite lattices at the band center. As was found by Gade and Wegner two decades ago within the sigma-model formalism, quantum interference effects in these classes are absent to all orders of perturbation theory. We demonstrate that the quantum localization effects emerge when the theory is treated nonperturbatively. Specifically, they are controlled by topological vortexlike excitations of the sigma models. We derive renormalization-group equations including these nonperturbative contributions. Analyzing them, we find that the 2D disordered systems of chiral classes undergo a metal-insulator transition driven by topologically induced Anderson localization. We also show that the Wess-Zumino and Z2 θ terms on surfaces of 3D topological insulators (in classes AIII and CII, respectively) overpower the vortex-induced localization.

  15. Magnetically driven metal-insulator transition in NaOsO3.

    PubMed

    Calder, S; Garlea, V O; McMorrow, D F; Lumsden, M D; Stone, M B; Lang, J C; Kim, J-W; Schlueter, J A; Shi, Y G; Yamaura, K; Sun, Y S; Tsujimoto, Y; Christianson, A D

    2012-06-22

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) is one of the most dramatic manifestations of electron correlations in materials. Various mechanisms producing MITs have been extensively considered, including the Mott (electron localization via Coulomb repulsion), Anderson (localization via disorder), and Peierls (localization via distortion of a periodic one-dimensional lattice) mechanisms. One additional route to a MIT proposed by Slater, in which long-range magnetic order in a three dimensional system drives the MIT, has received relatively little attention. Using neutron and x-ray scattering we show that the MIT in NaOsO(3) is coincident with the onset of long-range commensurate three dimensional magnetic order. While candidate materials have been suggested, our experimental methodology allows the first definitive demonstration of the long predicted Slater MIT.

  16. Magnetically Driven Metal-Insulator Transition in NaOsO3

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, Stuart A; Christianson, Andrew D; Lumsden, Mark D; Lang, Jonathan; Stone, Matthew B; McMorrow, D. F.; Garlea, Vasile O; Kim, Jong-Woo; Schlueter, J. A.; Shi, Y. G.; Yamaura, K.; Sun, Y. S.; Tsujimoto, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) is one of the most dramatic manifestations of electron correlations in materials. Various mechanisms producing MITs have been extensively considered, including the Mott (electron localization via Coulomb repulsion), Anderson (localization via disorder), and Peierls (local- ization via distortion of a periodic one-dimensional lattice) mechanisms. One additional route to a MIT proposed by Slater, in which long-range magnetic order in a three dimensional system drives the MIT, has received relatively little attention. Using neutron and x-ray scattering we show that the MIT in NaOsO3 is coincident with the onset of long-range commensurate three dimensional magnetic order. While candidate materials have been suggested, our experimental methodology allows the first definitive demonstration of the long predicted Slater MIT.

  17. Mott metal-insulator transition in a metallic liquid - Gutzwiller molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Kipton; Chern, Gia-Wei; Batista, Cristian D.; Kress, Joel D.; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to modern computational physics, chemistry, and materials science, especially when combined with potentials derived from density-functional theory. However, even in state of the art MD codes, the on-site Coulomb repulsion is only treated at the self-consistent Hartree-Fock level. This standard approximation may miss important effects due to electron correlations. The Gutzwiller variational method captures essential correlated-electron physics yet is much faster than, e.g., the dynamical-mean field theory approach. We present our efficient Gutzwiller-MD implementation. With it, we investigate the Mott metal-insulator transition in a metallic fluid and uncover several surprising static and dynamic properties of this system.

  18. Two-dimensional metal-insulator transition as a strong localization induced crossover phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Sarma, S.; Hwang, E. H.

    2014-06-01

    Low-disorder and high-mobility two-dimensional (2D) electron (or hole) systems confined in semiconductor heterostructures undergo an apparent metal-insulator transition (MIT) at low temperatures as the carrier density (n) is varied. In some situations, the 2D MIT can be caused at a fixed low carrier density by changing an externally applied in-plane magnetic field parallel to the 2D layer. The goal of the current work is to obtain the critical density (nc) for the 2D MIT with the system being an effective metal (Anderson insulator) for density n above (below) nc. We study the 2D MIT phenomenon theoretically as a possible strong localization induced crossover process controlled by the Ioffe-Regel criterion, kFl=1, where kF(n) is the 2D Fermi wave vector and l (n) is the disorder-limited quantum mean free path on the metallic side. Calculating the quantum mean free path in the effective metallic phase from a realistic Boltzmann transport theory including disorder scattering effects, we solve the integral equation (with l depending on n through multidimensional integrals) defined by the Ioffe-Regel criterion to obtain the nonuniversal critical density nc as a function of the applicable physical experimental parameters including disorder strength, in-plane magnetic field, spin and valley degeneracy, background dielectric constant and carrier effective mass, and temperature. The key physics underlying the nonuniversal parameter dependence of the critical density is the density dependence of the screened Coulomb disorder. Our calculated results for the crossover critical density nc appear to be in qualitative and semiquantitative agreement with the available experimental data in different 2D semiconductor systems lending credence to the possibility that the apparent 2D MIT signals the onset of the strong localization crossover in disordered 2D systems. We also compare the calculated critical density obtained from the Ioffe-Regel criterion with that obtained from a

  19. Functionalized graphene as a model system for the two-dimensional metal-insulator transition

    PubMed Central

    Osofsky, M. S.; Hernández, S. C.; Nath, A.; Wheeler, V. D.; Walton, S. G.; Krowne, C. M.; Gaskill, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Reports of metallic behavior in two-dimensional (2D) systems such as high mobility metal-oxide field effect transistors, insulating oxide interfaces, graphene, and MoS2 have challenged the well-known prediction of Abrahams, et al. that all 2D systems must be insulating. The existence of a metallic state for such a wide range of 2D systems thus reveals a wide gap in our understanding of 2D transport that has become more important as research in 2D systems expands. A key to understanding the 2D metallic state is the metal-insulator transition (MIT). In this report, we explore the nature of a disorder induced MIT in functionalized graphene, a model 2D system. Magneto-transport measurements show that weak-localization overwhelmingly drives the transition, in contradiction to theoretical assumptions that enhanced electron-electron interactions dominate. These results provide the first detailed picture of the nature of the transition from the metallic to insulating states of a 2D system. PMID:26860789

  20. Critical behavior of ultrasonic attenuation near interaction-driven metal-insulator transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrosavljević, V.; Kirkpatrick, T. R.; Chen, Changfeng; Belitz, D.

    1991-09-01

    We consider the critical behavior of the ultrasonic attenuation (UA) near interaction-driven metal-insulator transitions. To first order in the disorder no localization corrections are found. Using a field-theoretical nonlinear σ-model representation, and performing a renormalization-group analysis, we show that the absence of first-order corrections follows from the presence of two scaling parts for the UA. The critical exponents for the UA are shown to be sensitive to both the symmetry class and the interaction range, in contrast to the behavior of the conductivity. We have examined the cases of strong magnetic fields and of magnetic impurities where the critical exponents prove to be universal for Coulomb interactions, but are found to be nonuniversal for short-ranged interactions. The UA was further examined near the pseudomagnetic transition that occurs in the absence of magnetic perturbations. In that case, the UA critical exponents were found to vanish, indicating that the UA stays uncritical at this transition.

  1. Metal-Insulator Transitions in Epitaxial LaVO(3) and LaTiO(3) Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    are insulating in the bulk—has led to an explosion of research activity in perovskite transition-metal oxide heterostructures. The most well-known...ADDRESSES U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS metal insulator transition, oxide ...effects must be duly taken into consideration when interpreting metallic behavior in these complex oxide heterostructures. This work is supported by the

  2. Linear-in-temperature resistivity close to a topological metal insulator transition in ultra-multi valley fcc-ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlein, Carsten; Fontes, Magda; Baggio-Saitovich, Elisa; Continentino, Mucio A.

    2016-01-01

    The semimetal-to-semiconductor transition in fcc-Yb under modest pressure can be considered a picture book example of a metal-insulator transition of the Lifshitz type. We have performed transport measurements at low temperatures in the closest vicinity of the transition and related DFT calculations of the Fermi surface. Our resistivity measurements show a linear temperature dependence with an unusually low dρ / dT at low temperatures approaching the MIT. The calculations suggest fcc-ytterbium being an ultra-multi valley system with 24 electron and 6 hole pockets in the Brillouin zone. Such Fermi surface topology naturally supports the appearance of strongly correlated phases. An estimation of the quasiparticle-enhanced effective mass shows that the scattering rate is by at least two orders of magnitude lower than in other materials which exhibit linear-in-T behavior at a quantum critical point. However, we cannot exclude an excessive effective mass enhancement, when the van Hove singularity touches the Fermi level.

  3. Three-terminal field effect switches probing the electrically triggered Metal-Insulator Transition in Vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Gokul; Ko, Changhyun; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2010-03-01

    Electrostatic control of the Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) in correlated oxides is valuable, both as a probe of the nature of the phase transition, as well as being a critical aspect of novel switching devices based on Mott insulators. Of much recent interest among this class of materials, is vanadium dioxide (VO2), a correlated semiconductor which exhibits a thermally induced MIT close to room temperature, and has also been shown to undergo an ultra-fast switching of conductivity by optical and electrical means. Among many of the experiments demonstrating an electrically triggered transition, however, the attendant phenomenon of Joule heating in the current channel raises questions about the triggering mechanism. To carefully address this issue, we explore the fabrication of three terminal field-effect devices, in which the resistance of a VO2 based channel may be modulated by a gate electric field in the absence of any significant current induced heating. In this talk we present details of the fabrication, the technical challenges involved in implementing them, and results of gated I-V measurements performed on these devices along with our interpretation of the observed effects.

  4. Magnetic Superstructure and Metal-Insulator Transition in Mn-Substituted Sr3Ru2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. A.; Bohnenbuck, B.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Geck, J.; Tokura, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hussain, Z.; Keimer, B.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Damascelli, A.

    2010-03-01

    We present a temperature-dependent resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering (REXS) study of the metal-insulator transition in Sr3(Ru1-xMnx)2O7, performed at both Ru and Mn L-edges. Resonant magnetic superstructure reflections, which indicate an incipient instability of the parent compound, are detected below the transition. Based on modelling of the REXS intensity from randomly distributed Mn impurities, we establish the inhomogeneous nature of the metal-insulator transition, with an effective percolation threshold corresponding to an anomalously low x˜0.05 Mn substitution. In collaboration with A.G. Cruz Gonzalez, J.D. Denlinger (Berkeley Lab), I. Zegkinoglou, M.W. Haverkort (MPI, Stuttgart), I.S. Elfimov, D.G. Hawthorn (UBC), R. Mathieu, S. Satow, H. Takagi (Tokyo), H.-H. Wu and C. Sch"ußler-Langeheine (Cologne).

  5. Influence of oxygen flow rate on metal-insulator transition of vanadium oxide thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xu; Liu, Xinkun; Li, Haizhu; Zhang, Angran; Huang, Mingju

    2017-03-01

    High-quality vanadium oxide ( VO2) films have been fabricated on Si (111) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering deposition method. The sheet resistance of VO2 has a significant change (close to 5 orders of magnitude) in the process of the metal-insulator phase transition (MIT). The field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) results show the grain size of VO2 thin films is larger with the increase of oxygen flow. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate the thin films fabricated at different oxygen flow rates grow along the (011) crystalline orientation. As the oxygen flow rate increases from 3 sccm to 6 sccm, the phase transition temperature of the films reduces from 341 to 320 K, the width of the thermal hysteresis loop decreases from 32 to 9 K. The thin films fabricated in the condition of 5 sccm have a high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) -3.455%/K with a small resistivity of 2.795 ρ/Ω cm.

  6. Metal-insulator transitions in LaTiO3 / CaTiO3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sung Seok A.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2010-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons at an interface of complex oxide heterostructures often show interesting behaviors that require an introduction of new physical concepts. For example, the metallic transport behavior found in the superlattices of a Mott insulator LaTiO3 and a band insulator SrTiO3 (STO) has established the concept of interfacial electronic reconstruction. In this work, we have studied the transport property of a new type of Mott/band insulator LaTiO3/CaTiO3 (LTO/CTO) superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to rule out concerns about the PLD plume-triggered oxygen vacancies generated in STO substrates, which might influence transport measurement, and to investigate the effect of epitaxial strain, we have used insulating NdGaO3 substrates. While both LTO and CTO single films are highly insulating, we have observed intriguing metal-insulator transitions (MIT) in the LTO/CTO superlattices depending on the global LTO/CTO thickness ratio and temperature. (Note that LTO/STO superlattices are metallic at all temperatures (2-300 K)). In this talk, we will discuss the origin of the MIT in the scheme of self compensation mechanism of d-electrons at the hetero-interface between LTO and CTO.

  7. Weak localization and the approach to metal-insulator transition in single crystalline germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sett, Shaili; Das, K; Raychaudhuri, A K

    2017-03-22

    We study the low-temperature electronic transport properties of single germanium nanowires (NWs) with diameters down to 45 nm to investigate the weak localization (WL) behavior and approach to metal-insulator transition (MIT) within them. The NWs (single crystalline) we investigate lie on the metallic side of the MIT with an extrapolated zero temperature conductivity [Formula: see text] in the range 23 to 1790 [Formula: see text] cm)(-1) and show a temperature-dependent conductivity which below 30 K can be described by a 3D WL behavior with Thouless length [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. From the observed value of [Formula: see text] and the value of the critical carrier concentration n c, it is observed that the approach to MIT can be described by the scaling equation [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text], which is a value expected for an uncompensated system. The investigation establishes a NW size limit for the applicability of 3D scaling theories.

  8. Unusual behaviour of thermal conductivity in vanadium dioxide across the metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Lee, Sangwook; Ko, Changhyun; Yang, Fan; Suh, Joonki; Liu, Kai; Wang, Kevin; Zhang, Xiang; Dames, Chris; Wu, Junqiao

    In an electrically conductive solid, the Wiedemann-Franz (WF) law requires the electronic contribution to thermal conductivity to be proportional to the product of electrical conductivity and absolute temperature , where the ratio is the Lorenz number, typically not much different from the Sommerfeld value L0 = 2.44x10-8 W-ohm-K-2 at room temperature. The WF law reflects a basic property of metals where charge and heat are both carried by the same quasiparticles that both experience elastic scattering. At temperatures below the Debye temperature, the WF law has been experimentally shown to be robust in conventional conductors, with violations theoretically predicted or experimentally observed in strongly correlated electron systems or Luttinger liquids. However, the experimentally observed violations are at very low temperatures. Here we report breakdown of the WF law in a strongly correlated metal, in which the electronic thermal conductivity and L nearly vanish at temperatures above room temperature, where the electronic thermal conductivity amounts to only <~5% of the value expected from the WF law. Unusual behaviour of thermal conductivity in vanadium dioxide across the metal-insulator transition.

  9. Mobility engineering and a metal-insulator transition in monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radisavljevic, Branimir; Kis, Andras

    2013-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are a new class of materials with interesting physical properties and applications ranging from nanoelectronics to sensing and photonics. In addition to graphene, the most studied 2D material, monolayers of other layered materials such as semiconducting dichalcogenides MoS2 or WSe2 are gaining in importance as promising channel materials for field-effect transistors (FETs). The presence of a direct bandgap in monolayer MoS2 due to quantum-mechanical confinement allows room-temperature FETs with an on/off ratio exceeding 108. The presence of high- κ dielectrics in these devices enhanced their mobility, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report on electrical transport measurements on MoS2 FETs in different dielectric configurations. The dependence of mobility on temperature shows clear evidence of the strong suppression of charged-impurity scattering in dual-gate devices with a top-gate dielectric. At the same time, phonon scattering shows a weaker than expected temperature dependence. High levels of doping achieved in dual-gate devices also allow the observation of a metal-insulator transition in monolayer MoS2 due to strong electron-electron interactions. Our work opens up the way to further improvements in 2D semiconductor performance and introduces MoS2 as an interesting system for studying correlation effects in mesoscopic systems.

  10. Carbon kagome lattice and orbital-frustration-induced metal-insulator transition for optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanping; Sun, Y Y; Wang, H; West, D; Xie, Yuee; Zhong, J; Meunier, V; Cohen, Marvin L; Zhang, S B

    2014-08-22

    A three-dimensional elemental carbon kagome lattice, made of only fourfold-coordinated carbon atoms, is proposed based on first-principles calculations. Despite the existence of 60° bond angles in the triangle rings, widely perceived to be energetically unfavorable, the carbon kagome lattice is found to display exceptional stability comparable to that of C(60). The system allows us to study the effects of triangular frustration on the electronic properties of realistic solids, and it demonstrates a metal-insulator transition from that of graphene to a direct gap semiconductor in the visible blue region. By minimizing s-p orbital hybridization, which is an intrinsic property of carbon, not only the band edge states become nearly purely frustrated p states, but also the band structure is qualitatively different from any known bulk elemental semiconductors. For example, the optical properties are similar to those of direct-gap semiconductors GaN and ZnO, whereas the effective masses are comparable to or smaller than those of Si.

  11. Multifractality and Conformal Invariance at 2D Metal-Insulator Transition in the Spin-Orbit Symmetry Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuse, Hideaki; Subramaniam, Arvind; Furusaki, Akira; Gruzberg, Ilya; Ludwig, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    We study the multifractality of critical wave functions at boundaries and corners at the Anderson metal-insulator transition for noninteracting electrons in the two-dimensional (2D) spin-orbit (symplectic) universality class. We find that the multifractal exponents near a boundary are different from those in the bulk. The exponents at a corner are found to be directly related to those at a straight boundary through a relation arising from conformal invariance. This provides direct numerical evidence for conformal invariance at the 2D spin-orbit metal-insulator transition. We also show that the presence of boundaries modifies the multifractality of the whole sample even in the thermodynamic limit.

  12. Variation of optical conductivity spectra in the course of bandwidth-controlled metal-insulator transitions in pyrochlore iridates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, K.; Fujioka, J.; Tokura, Y.

    2016-06-01

    We spectroscopically investigate a series of pyrochlore iridates R2Ir2O7 (R : rare-earth and Y ions) where the metal-insulator transitions are induced by systematic bandwidth control via chemical substitutions of R ions. We establish the phase diagram of R2Ir2O7 , as endorsed by the variation of the optical conductivity spectra, in which the competing phases including paramagnetic insulator (PI), paramagnetic metal (PM), and antiferromagnetic insulator (AFI) show up as a function of bandwidth and temperature. For small R -ionic radius (R = Y-Sm), i.e., strongly correlated region, pronounced peaks on the edge of the optical gap are discerned below the magnetic transition temperature TN, which is attributable to exciton and magnon sideband absorptions. It turns out that the estimated nearest-neighbor exchange interaction increases as R -ionic radius increases, whereas TN monotonically decreases, indicating that the all-in all-out magnetic order arises from the interplay among several exchange interactions inherent to extended 5 d orbitals on the frustrated lattice. For larger R -ionic radius (R = Sm-Pr), i.e., relatively weakly correlated region, the optical conductivity spectra markedly change below 0.3 eV in the course of PM-AFI transition, implying that the magnetic order induces the insulating state. In particular, we have found distinct electrodynamics in the composition of R =Nd0.5Pr0.5 which is located on the boundary of the quantum PM-AFI transition, pointing to the possible emergence of unconventional topological electronic phases related possibly to the correlated Weyl electrons.

  13. Novel Electronic Behavior Driving NdNiO3 Metal-Insulator Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, M. H.; Choi, Yongseong; Park, Hyowon; Liu, Jian; Meyers, D.; Chakhalian, J.; Middey, S.; Kim, Jong-Woo; Ryan, Philip J.

    2015-07-01

    We present evidence that the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in a tensile-strained NdNiO3 (NNO) film is facilitated by a redistribution of electronic density and that it neither requires Ni charge disproportionation nor a symmetry change [U. Staub et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 126402 (2002); R. Jaramillo et al., Nat. Phys. 10, 304 (2014)]. Given that epitaxial tensile strain in thin NNO films induces preferential occupancy of the eg dx2-y2 orbital we propose that the larger transfer integral of this orbital state with the O 2 p orbital state mediates a redistribution of electronic density from the Ni atom. A decrease in the Ni dx2-y2 orbital occupation is directly observed by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering below the MIT temperature. Furthermore, an increase in the Nd charge occupancy is measured by x-ray absorption at the Nd L3 edge. Both spin-orbit coupling and crystal field effects combine to break the degeneracy of the Nd 5 d states, shifting the energy of the Nd eg dx2-y2 orbit towards the Fermi level, allowing the A site to become an active acceptor during the MIT. This work identifies the relocation of electrons from the Ni 3 d to the Nd 5 d orbitals across the MIT. We propose that the insulating gap opens between the Ni 3 d and O 2 p states, resulting from Ni 3 d electron localization. The transition seems to be neither a purely Mott-Hubbard transition nor a simple charge transfer.

  14. Mg doping of thermochromic VO2 films enhances the optical transmittance and decreases the metal-insulator transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlyuka, N. R.; Niklasson, G. A.; Granqvist, C. G.

    2009-10-01

    Thermochromic films of MgxV1-xO2 were made by reactive dc magnetron sputtering onto heated glass. The metal-insulator transition temperature decreased by ˜3 K/at. %Mg, while the optical transmittance increased concomitantly. Specifically, the transmittance of visible light and of solar radiation was enhanced by ˜10% when the Mg content was ˜7 at. %. Our results point at the usefulness of these films for energy efficient fenestration.

  15. Heteroepitaxial VO{sub 2} thin films on GaN: Structure and metal-insulator transition characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou You; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-10-01

    Monolithic integration of correlated oxide and nitride semiconductors may open up new opportunities in solid-state electronics and opto-electronics that combine desirable functional properties of both classes of materials. Here, we report on epitaxial growth and phase transition-related electrical properties of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films on GaN epitaxial layers on c-sapphire. The epitaxial relation is determined to be (010){sub vo{sub 2}} parallel (0001){sub GaN} parallel (0001){sub A1{sub 2O{sub 3}}} and [100]{sub vo{sub 2}} parallel [1210]{sub GaN} parallel [0110]{sub A1{sub 2O{sub 3}}} from x-ray diffraction. VO{sub 2} heteroepitaxial growth and lattice mismatch are analyzed by comparing the GaN basal plane (0001) with the almost close packed corrugated oxygen plane in vanadium dioxide and an experimental stereographic projection describing the orientation relationship is established. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests a slightly oxygen rich composition at the surface, while Raman scattering measurements suggests that the quality of GaN layer is not significantly degraded by the high-temperature deposition of VO{sub 2}. Electrical characterization of VO{sub 2} films on GaN indicates that the resistance changes by about four orders of magnitude upon heating, similar to epitaxial VO{sub 2} films grown directly on c-sapphire. It is shown that the metal-insulator transition could also be voltage-triggered at room temperature and the transition threshold voltage scaling variation with temperature is analyzed in the framework of a current-driven Joule heating model. The ability to synthesize high quality correlated oxide films on GaN with sharp phase transition could enable new directions in semiconductor-photonic integrated devices.

  16. Dynamically Babinet-invertible metasurface: a capacitive-inductive reconfigurable filter for terahertz waves using vanadium-dioxide metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urade, Yoshiro; Nakata, Yosuke; Okimura, Kunio; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Miyamaru, Fumiaki; Takeda, Mitsuo W.; Kitano, Masao

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a reconfigurable planar metamaterial that can be switched between capacitive and inductive responses using local changes in the electrical conductivity of its constituent material. The proposed device is based on Babinet's principle and exploits the singular electromagnetic responses of metallic checkerboard structures, which are dependent on the local electrical conductivity. Utilizing the heating-induced metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide ($\\mathrm{VO}_2$), the proposed metamaterial is designed to compensate for the effect of the substrate and is experimentally characterized in the terahertz regime. This reconfigurable metamaterial can be utilized as a switchable filter and as a switchable phase shifter for terahertz waves.

  17. Metal-insulator transition in RbC60 polymer fulleride studied by ESR and electron-spin relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsarkin, V. A.; Demidov, V. V.; Vasneva, G. A.

    1997-10-01

    The ESR intensity, line shape, and longitudinal electron-spin relaxation in the polymer phase of the RbC60 fulleride are investigated in the temperature range 4.2metal-insulator transition region (25-50 K). It is found that below 50 K the ESR line can be separated into two Lorentzian components ascribed to conduction electrons and some localized paramagnetic centers (with concentration of about 0.03 per formula unit) with allowance made for the relaxation bottleneck. The decrease of the conduction-electron susceptibility obeys an activation law with the characteristic energy Δ/kB=80+/-10 K related to the opening of a gap 2Δ~100 cm -1. The same quantity is found by analyzing both longitudinal and transverse relaxation caused by fluctuations of internal fields with correlation time τc~ exp(2Δ/kBT). Below 25 K, the temperature dependencies of the linewidth and the relaxation times change abruptly, revealing the development of a new ordered state. The nature of this state is discussed.

  18. Tuning the metal-insulator transition in NdNiO3 heterostructures via Fermi surface instability and spin fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaka, R. S.; Das, Tanmoy; Plumb, N. C.; Ristic, Z.; Kong, W.; Matt, C. E.; Xu, N.; Dolui, Kapildeb; Razzoli, E.; Medarde, M.; Patthey, L.; Shi, M.; Radović, M.; Mesot, Joël

    2015-07-01

    We employed in situ pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to investigate the mechanism of the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in NdNiO3 (NNO) thin films, grown on NdGaO3(110) and LaAlO3(100) substrates. In the metallic phase, we observe three-dimensional hole and electron Fermi surface (FS) pockets formed from strongly renormalized bands with well-defined quasiparticles. Upon cooling across the MIT in NNO/NGO sample, the quasiparticles lose coherence via a spectral weight transfer from near the Fermi level to localized states forming at higher binding energies. In the case of NNO/LAO, the bands are apparently shifted upward with an additional holelike pocket forming at the corner of the Brillouin zone. We find that the renormalization effects are strongly anisotropic and are stronger in NNO/NGO than NNO/LAO. Our study reveals that substrate-induced strain tunes the crystal field splitting, which changes the FS properties, nesting conditions, and spin-fluctuation strength, and thereby controls the MIT via the formation of an electronic order parameter with QAF˜(1 /4 ,1 /4 ,1 /4 ±δ ) .

  19. Metal-insulator transition of valence-controlled VO2 thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suetsugu, Takaaki; Shimazu, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Minohara, Makoto; Sakai, Enju; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    We have prepared b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radicals as the reactive gas. The VO2 thin films consist of a mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state formed by oxygen vacancies. The V3+ ratio strongly depends on the film thickness and the oxygen partial pressure of the radical gun during deposition. The lattice constant of the b-axis increases and the metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature decreases with decreasing V3+ ratio, although the VO2 thin films with a high V3+ ratio of 42% do not exhibit MIT. The bandwidths and spectral weights of V 3d a1g and \\text{e}\\text{g}σ bands at around the Fermi level, which correspond to the insulating phase at 300 K, are smaller in the VO2 thin films with a low V3+ ratio. These results indicate that the control of the mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state is important for the MIT of b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films.

  20. Dynamics of the metal-insulator transition of donor-doped SrTi O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, René; Zurhelle, Alexander F.; De Souza, Roger A.; Waser, Rainer; Gunkel, Felix

    2016-09-01

    The electrical properties of donor-doped SrTi O3 (n -STO) are profoundly affected by an oxidation-induced metal-insulator transition (MIT). Here we employ dynamical numerical simulations to examine the high-temperature MIT of n -STO over a large range of time and length scales. The simulations are based on the Nernst-Planck equations, the continuity equations, and the Poisson equation, in combination with surface lattice disorder equilibria serving as time-dependent boundary conditions. The simulations reveal that n -STO, upon oxidation, develops a kinetic space charge region (SCR) in the near-surface region. The surface concentrations of the variously mobile defects (electrons, Sr vacancies, and O vacancies) are found to vary over time and to differ considerably from the values of the new equilibrium. The formation of the SCR in which electrons are strongly depleted occurs within nanoseconds, i.e., it yields a fast MIT in the near-surface region during the oxidation process. As a result of charge (over-)compensation by Sr vacancies incorporated at the surface of n -STO, this SCR is much more pronounced than conventionally expected. In addition, we find an anomalous increase of O vacancy concentration at the surface upon oxidation caused by the SCR. Our simulations show that the SCR fades in the long term as a result of the slow in-diffusion of Sr vacancies. We discuss implications for the electrical conductivity of n -STO crystals used as substrates for epitaxial oxide thin films, of n -STO thin films and interfaces, and of polycrystalline n -STO with various functionalities.

  1. Changes in the electronic structure and spin dynamics across the metal-insulator transition in LaLa1-xSrxCoO3

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, R. X.; Hoch, M. J. R.; Moulton, W. G.; ...

    2016-01-25

    The magnetoelectronic properties of La1-xSrxCoO3, which include giant magnetoresistance, are strongly dependent on the level of hole doping. The system evolves, with increasing x, from a spin glass insulator to a metallic ferromagnet with a metal-insulator (MI) transition at xC ~ 0.18. Nanoscale phase separation occurs in the insulating phase and persists, to some extent, into the just-metallic phase. The present experiments at 4.2 K have used 139La NMR to investigate the transition from hopping dynamics for x < xC to Korringa-like ferromagnetic metal behavior for x > xC. A marked decrease in the spin-lattice relaxation rate is found inmore » the vicinity of xC as the MI transition is crossed. Lastly, this behavior is accounted for in terms of the evolution of the electronic structure and dynamics with cluster size.« less

  2. Electrolysis-induced protonation of VO2 thin film transistor for the metal-insulator phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Endo, Kenji; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-02-01

    Compared to state-of-the-art modulation techniques, protonation is the most ideal to control the electrical and optical properties of transition metal oxides (TMOs) due to its intrinsic non-volatile operation. However, the protonation of TMOs is not typically utilized for solid-state devices because of imperative high-temperature annealing treatment in hydrogen source. Although one solution for room temperature (RT) protonation of TMOs is liquid-phase electrochemistry, it is unsuited for practical purposes due to liquid-leakage problem. Herein we demonstrate solid-state RT-protonation of vanadium dioxide (VO2), which is a well-known thermochromic TMO. We fabricated the three terminal thin-film-transistor structure on an insulating VO2 film using a water-infiltrated nanoporous glass, which serves as a solid electrolyte. For gate voltage application, water electrolysis and protonation/deprotonation of VO2 film surface occurred, leading to reversible metal-insulator phase conversion of ~11-nm-thick VO2 layer. The protonation was clearly accompanied by the structural change from an insulating monoclinic to a metallic tetragonal phase. Present results offer a new route for the development of electro-optically active solid-state devices with TMO materials by engineering RT protonation.

  3. Ultracold fermions in a one-dimensional bipartite optical lattice: Metal-insulator transitions driven by shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Liberto, M.; Malpetti, D.; Japaridze, G. I.; Morais Smith, C.

    2014-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of a system of fermionic atoms loaded in a bipartite one-dimensional optical lattice that is under the action of an external time-periodic driving force. By using Floquet theory, an effective model is derived. The bare hopping coefficients are renormalized by zeroth-order Bessel functions of the first kind with different arguments for the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor hopping. The insulating behavior characterizing the system at half filling in the absence of driving is dynamically suppressed, and for particular values of the driving parameter the system becomes either a standard metal or an unconventional metal with four Fermi points. The existence of the four-Fermi-point metal relies on the fact that, as a consequence of the shaking procedure, the next-nearest-neighbor hopping coefficients become significant compared to the nearest-neighbor ones. We use the bosonization technique to investigate the effect of on-site Hubbard interactions on the four-Fermi-point metal-insulator phase transition. Attractive interactions are expected to enlarge the regime of parameters where the unconventional metallic phase arises, whereas repulsive interactions reduce it. This metallic phase is known to be a Luther-Emery liquid (spin-gapped metal) for both repulsive and attractive interactions, contrary to the usual Hubbard model, which exhibits a Mott-insulator phase for repulsive interactions. Ultracold fermions in driven one-dimensional bipartite optical lattices provide an interesting platform for the realization of this long-studied four-Fermi-point unconventional metal.

  4. Voltage control of metal-insulator transition and non-volatile ferroelastic switching of resistance in VOx/PMN-PT heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Nan, Tianxiang; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Sun, Nian X

    2014-08-04

    The central challenge in realizing electronics based on strongly correlated electronic states, or 'Mottronics', lies in finding an energy efficient way to switch between the distinct collective phases with a control voltage in a reversible and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate that a voltage-impulse-induced ferroelastic domain switching in the (011)-oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates allows a robust non-volatile tuning of the metal-insulator transition in the VOx films deposited onto them. In such a VOx/PMN-PT heterostructure, the unique two-step electric polarization switching covers up to 90% of the entire poled area and contributes to a homogeneous in-plane anisotropic biaxial strain, which, in turn, enables the lattice changes and results in the suppression of metal-insulator transition in the mechanically coupled VOx films by 6 K with a resistance change up to 40% over a broad range of temperature. These findings provide a framework for realizing in situ and non-volatile tuning of strain-sensitive order parameters in strongly correlated materials, and demonstrate great potentials in delivering reconfigurable, compactable, and energy-efficient electronic devices.

  5. Metal-insulator transition in the hollandite K2V8O16 with a frustrated zigzag ladder probed by V51 NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Okai, Katsunori; Itoh, Masayuki; Isobe, Masahiro; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Yamauchi, Touru; Ueda, Yutaka

    2011-04-01

    We report the experimental results of V51 NMR measurements on the hollandite K2V8O16 consisting of a frustrated zigzag ladder with the orbital degrees of freedom. The metal-insulator transition is found to involve the spin-singlet formation by the V51 Knight shift K, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1, and the spin-echo decay rate 1/T2 measurements. In the insulating state, the anisotropic electric-field gradient supports the dxy orbital order with the spin singlet along the chain. The dxy orbital is magnetically most active in the metallic state, as observed by the anisotropic Knight shift, which suggests the strong electron correlation in the dxy band. Despite the large enhancement of the spin susceptibility, no apparent spin correlation is developed in the frustrated metallic state. Pressure suppresses the electron correlation continuously, as highlighted in the decrease of the metal-insulator transition and the spin susceptibility keeping the largest dxy contribution in the metallic state. A robust spin-singlet insulating phase with the large spin gap and paramagnetic spins appears above 1 GPa, which suggests a competition of the charge-orbital ordering pattern.

  6. Voltage Control of Metal-insulator Transition and Non-volatile Ferroelastic Switching of Resistance in VOx/PMN-PT Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Tianxiang; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Sun, Nian X.

    2014-01-01

    The central challenge in realizing electronics based on strongly correlated electronic states, or ‘Mottronics', lies in finding an energy efficient way to switch between the distinct collective phases with a control voltage in a reversible and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate that a voltage-impulse-induced ferroelastic domain switching in the (011)-oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates allows a robust non-volatile tuning of the metal-insulator transition in the VOx films deposited onto them. In such a VOx/PMN-PT heterostructure, the unique two-step electric polarization switching covers up to 90% of the entire poled area and contributes to a homogeneous in-plane anisotropic biaxial strain, which, in turn, enables the lattice changes and results in the suppression of metal-insulator transition in the mechanically coupled VOx films by 6 K with a resistance change up to 40% over a broad range of temperature. These findings provide a framework for realizing in situ and non-volatile tuning of strain-sensitive order parameters in strongly correlated materials, and demonstrate great potentials in delivering reconfigurable, compactable, and energy-efficient electronic devices. PMID:25088796

  7. Metal insulator transition with ferrimagnetic order in epitaxial thin films of spinel NiCo2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silwal, Punam; Miao, Ludi; Stern, Ilan; Zhou, Xiaolan; Hu, Jin; Ho Kim, Dae

    2012-01-01

    We have grown epitaxial thin films of spinel NiCo2O4 on single crystalline MgAl2O4 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Magnetization measurement revealed hysteresis loops consistent with the reported ferrimagnetic order. The electrical transport exhibits a metallic behavior with the lowest resistivity of 0.8 mΩ cm and a metal insulator transition around the Néel temperature. The systematic variation in the properties of the films grown at different growth temperatures indicates a close relationship between the magnetic order and electrical transport.

  8. Multifractality and Conformal Invariance at 2D Metal-Insulator Transition in the Spin-Orbit Symmetry Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuse, H.; Subramaniam, A. R.; Furusaki, A.; Gruzberg, I. A.; Ludwig, A. W. W.

    2007-04-01

    We study the multifractality (MF) of critical wave functions at boundaries and corners at the metal-insulator transition (MIT) for noninteracting electrons in the two-dimensional (2D) spin-orbit (symplectic) universality class. We find that the MF exponents near a boundary are different from those in the bulk. The exponents at a corner are found to be directly related to those at a straight boundary through a relation arising from conformal invariance. This provides direct numerical evidence for conformal invariance at the 2D spin-orbit MIT. The presence of boundaries modifies the MF of the whole sample even in the thermodynamic limit.

  9. Unusual valence state and metal-insulator transition in BaV10O15 probed by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, T.; Okawa, M.; Kajita, T.; Dash, S.; Shimoyama, R.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Takayanagi, R.; Saitoh, T.; Ootsuki, D.; Yoshida, T.; Ikenaga, E.; Saini, N. L.; Katsufuji, T.; Mizokawa, T.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of BaV10O15 across the metal-insulator transition with V trimerization by means of hard-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) and mean-field calculations. The V 2 p HAXPES indicates V2.5 +-V3 + charge fluctuation in the metallic phase, and V2+-V3+ charge order in the insulating phase. The V2.5 +-V3 + charge fluctuation is consistent with the mean-field solution where a V 3 d a1 g electron is shared by two V sites with face-sharing VO6 octahedra. The valence-band HAXPES of the metallic phase exhibits pseudogap opening at the Fermi level associated with the charge fluctuation, and a band gap ˜200 meV is established in the insulating phase due to the switching of charge correlation.

  10. Metal-insulator transition characteristics of vanadium dioxide thin films synthesized by ultrasonic nebulized spray pyrolysis of an aqueous combustion mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, R.; Naorem, Rameshwari; Umarji, A. M.

    2015-08-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films by a novel spray pyrolysis technique, namely ultrasonic nebulized spray pyrolysis of aqueous combustion mixture (UNSPACM). This simple and cost effective two step process involves synthesis of a V2O5 film on an LaAlO3 substrate followed by a controlled reduction to form single phase VO2. The formation of M1 phase (P21/c) is confirmed by Raman spectroscopic studies. A thermally activated metal-insulator transition (MIT) was observed at 61 ^\\circ C, where the resistivity changes by four orders of magnitude. Activation energies for the low conduction phase and the high conduction phase were obtained from temperature variable resistance measurements. The infrared spectra also show a dramatic change in reflectance from 13% to over 90% in the wavelength range of 7-15 μ m. This indicates the suitability of the films for optical switching applications at infrared frequencies.

  11. Metal-insulator transition in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Y-Cu-O caused by a change in the structural modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Noburu; Yoshiki, Masahiko

    1994-07-01

    A metal-insulator transition was observed in the layered cuprate Bi2-xPbxSr2Ca0.3Y0.7Cu2O8+d, where the carrier concentration is not changed but the structural modulation was relaxed with increasing lead content x. Resistivity measurements and x-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy (XPS) valence-band spectra manifested the occurrence of the metal-insulator transition; XPS core-level spectra, together with the results of a chemical analysis, confirmed that in this system the degree of the electron filling is constant. This metal-insulator transition is believed to arise from the change in the Cu-O-Cu bonding angle, as well as those in some nonlayered transition-metal perovskites.

  12. Doping-driven metal-insulator transitions and charge orderings in the extended Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapcia, K. J.; Robaszkiewicz, S.; Capone, M.; Amaricci, A.

    2017-03-01

    We perform a thorough study of the extended Hubbard model featuring local and nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion. Using the dynamical mean-field theory we investigated the zero-temperature phase diagram of this model as a function of the chemical doping. The interplay between local and nonlocal interactions drives a variety of phase transitions connecting two distinct charge-ordered insulators, i.e., half filled and quarter filled, a charge-ordered metal and a Mott-insulating phase. We characterize these transitions and the relative stability of the solutions and we show that the two interactions conspire to stabilize the quarter-filled charge-ordered phase.

  13. Magnetic and Metal-Insulator Transition in natural Transition Metal Sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renxiong; Metz, Tristin; Liu, I.-Lin; Wang, Kefeng; Wang, Xiangfeng; Jeffries, J. R.; Saha, S. R.; Greene, R. L.; Paglione, J.; Santelli, C. C.; Post, J.,

    In collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, we present detailed studies of a class of natural minerals with potential to harbor correlated behavior. Transition metal sulfide minerals, such as Bornite (Cu5FeS4), are an important family of compounds known for their thermoelectric properties. We will present low temperature experimental studies of magnetic transitions and focus on a compound that exhibits a metal to insulator transition concident with entrance to an antiferromagnetic ground state, suggesting a potentially interesting system with promise for realizing new correlated states of matter in a naturally occurring mineral.

  14. Magnetic Superstructure and Metal-Insulator Transition in Mn-Substituted Sr3 Ru 2 O 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. A.; Zhu, Z. H.; Bohnenbuck, B.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Yoshida, Y.; Hussain, Z.; Keimer, B.; Elfimov, I. S.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Damascelli, A.

    2011-03-01

    We present a temperature-dependent resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering (REXS) study of the metal-insulator transition in Sr 3 (Ru 1-x Mn x)2 O7 , performed at both Ru and Mn L -edges. Resonant magnetic superstructure reflections together with ab-initio density functional theory calculations identify the ground state as a spin checkerboard with blocks of 4 spins up and 4 spins down. Based on modelling of the REXS intensity from randomly distributed Mn impurities, we establish the inhomogeneous nature of the metal-insulator transition, with an effective percolation threshold corresponding to an anomalously low x ~ 0.05 Mn substitution. Perhaps more important, our results suggest that the same checkerboard instability might be present already in the parent compound Sr 3 Ru 2 O7 . In collaboration with: A.G. Cruz Gonzalez, J.D. Denlinger (Berkeley) I. Zegkinoglou, M.W. Haverkort (MPI) J. Geck, D.G. Hawthorn (UBC) R. Mathieu, Y. Tokura, S. Satow, H. Takagi (Tokyo) H.-H. Wu and C. Schussler-Langeheine (Cologne).

  15. Effect of Structural Relaxation on the Metal-Insulator Transition in Heavily Underdoped YBa $_2 2 Cu _3 3 O _{7-delta }$ 7 - δ Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, R. V.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Nazyrov, Z. F.; Kotvitskaya, K. A.; Chroneos, A.

    2015-08-01

    We report the results of a study of the effect of structural relaxation on the basal-plane conductivity of heavily underdoped high- YBaCuO single crystals. An increase of the oxygen deficiency in YBaCuO has been found to strengthen localization effects and to lead to the realization of a transition of the metal-insulator type, which always precedes the superconducting transition. In addition, a 5-day room-temperature annealing of the samples has been revealed to result in a notable shift of the metal-insulator transition point toward higher temperatures.

  16. Mott metal-insulator transition induced by utilizing a glasslike structural ordering in low-dimensional molecular conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Benedikt; Müller, Jens; Sasaki, Takahiko

    2014-11-01

    We utilize a glasslike structural transition in order to induce a Mott metal-insulator transition in the quasi-two-dimensional organic charge-transfer salt κ -(BEDT-TTF)2Cu [N (CN)2Br ]. In this material, the terminal ethylene groups of the BEDT-TTF molecules can adopt two different structural orientations within the crystal structure, namely eclipsed (E) and staggered (S) with the relative orientation of the outer C-C bonds being parallel and canted, respectively. These two conformations are thermally disordered at room temperature and undergo a glasslike ordering transition at Tg˜75 K. When cooling through Tg, a small fraction that depends on the cooling rate remains frozen in the S configuration, which is of slightly higher energy, corresponding to a controllable degree of structural disorder. We demonstrate that, when thermally coupled to a low-temperature heat bath, a pulsed heating current through the sample causes a very fast relaxation with cooling rates at Tg of the order of several 1000 K /min . The freezing of the structural degrees of freedom causes a decrease of the electronic bandwidth W with increasing cooling rate, and hence a Mott metal-insulator transition as the system crosses the critical ratio (W/U ) c of bandwidth to on-site Coulomb repulsion U . Due to the glassy character of the transition, the effect is persistent below Tg and can be reversibly repeated by melting the frozen configuration upon warming above Tg. Both by exploiting the characteristics of slowly changing relaxation times close to this temperature and by controlling the heating power, the materials can be fine-tuned across the Mott transition. A simple model allows for an estimate of the energy difference between the E and S state as well as the accompanying degree of frozen disorder in the population of the two orientations.

  17. Theory of the metal-insulator transition in Pr Ru4 P12 and Pr Fe4 P12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curnoe, S. H.; Harima, H.; Takegahara, K.; Ueda, K.

    2004-12-01

    All symmetry-allowed couplings between the 4f2 -electron ground state doublet of trivalent praseodymium in PrRu4P12 and PrFe4P12 and displacements of the phosphorus, iron, or ruthenium ions are considered. Two types of displacements can change the crystal lattice from body-centred cubic to simple orthorhombic or to simple cubic. The first type lowers the point group symmetry from tetrahedral to orthorhombic, while the second type leaves it unchanged, with corresponding space group reductions Im3¯→Pmmm and Im3¯→Pm3¯ , respectively. In former case, the lower point group symmetry splits the degeneracy of the 4f2 doublet into states with opposite quadrupole moment, which then leads to antiquadrupolar ordering, as in PrFe4P12 . Either kind of displacement may conspire with nesting of the Fermi surface to cause the metal-insulator or partial metal-insulator transition observed in PrFe4P12 and PrRu4P12 . We investigate this scenario using band-structure calculations, and it is found that displacements of the phosphorus ions in PrRu4P12 (with space-group reduction Im3¯→Pm3¯ ) open a gap everywhere on the Fermi surface.

  18. Tuning the metal-insulator transition via epitaxial strain and Co doping in NdNiO{sub 3} thin films grown by polymer-assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Dan; Shi, Lei Zhou, Shiming; Liu, Haifeng; Zhao, Jiyin; Li, Yang; Wang, Yang

    2016-01-21

    The epitaxial NdNi{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) thin films on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates were grown by a simple polymer-assisted deposition technique. The co-function of the epitaxial strain and Co doping on the metal-insulator transition in perovskite nickelate NdNiO{sub 3} thin films is investigated. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the as-prepared thin films exhibit good crystallinity and heteroepitaxy. The temperature dependent resistivities of the thin films indicate that both the epitaxial strain and Co doping lower the metal-insulator (MI) transition temperature, which can be treated as a way to tune the MI transition. Furthermore, under the investigated Co-doping levels, the MI transition temperature (T{sub MI}) shifts to low temperatures with Co content increasing under both compressive and tensile strain, and the more distinction is in the former situation. When x is increased up to 0.10, the insulating phase is completely suppressed under the compressive strain. With the strain increases from compression to tension, the resistivities are enhanced both in the metal and insulating regions. However, the Co-doping effect on the resistivity shows a more complex situation. As Co content x increases from zero to 0.10, the resistivities are reduced both in the metal and insulating regions under the tensile strain, whereas they are enhanced in the high-temperature metal region under the compressive strain. Based on the temperature dependent resistivity in the metal regions, it is suggested that the electron-phonon coupling in the films becomes weaker with the increase of both the strain and Co-doping.

  19. Metal-Insulator Transition of strained SmNiO3 Thin Films: Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Torriss, B.; Margot, J.; Chaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Samarium nickelate (SmNiO3) thin films were successfully synthesized on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed-laser deposition. The Mott metal-insulator (MI) transition of the thin films is sensitive to epitaxial strain and strain relaxation. Once the strain changes from compressive to tensile, the transition temperature of the SmNiO3 samples shifts to slightly higher values. The optical conductivity reveals the strong dependence of the Drude spectral weight on the strain relaxation. Actually, compressive strain broadens the bandwidth. In contrast, tensile strain causes the effective number of free carriers to reduce which is consistent with the d-band narrowing. PMID:28098240

  20. Metal-Insulator Transition of strained SmNiO3 Thin Films: Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torriss, B.; Margot, J.; Chaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Samarium nickelate (SmNiO3) thin films were successfully synthesized on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed-laser deposition. The Mott metal-insulator (MI) transition of the thin films is sensitive to epitaxial strain and strain relaxation. Once the strain changes from compressive to tensile, the transition temperature of the SmNiO3 samples shifts to slightly higher values. The optical conductivity reveals the strong dependence of the Drude spectral weight on the strain relaxation. Actually, compressive strain broadens the bandwidth. In contrast, tensile strain causes the effective number of free carriers to reduce which is consistent with the d-band narrowing.

  1. Superconductivity and bandwidth-controlled Mott metal-insulator transition in 1T-TaS2-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, R.; Miyata, Y.; Ieki, E.; Nakayama, K.; Sato, T.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. J.; Sun, Y. P.; Takahashi, T.

    2013-09-01

    We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) of layered chalcogenide 1T-TaS2-xSex to elucidate the electronic states especially relevant to the occurrence of superconductivity. We found a direct evidence for a Ta-5d-derived electron pocket associated with the superconductivity, which is fragile against a Mott-gap opening observed in the insulating ground state for S-rich samples. In particular, a strong electron-electron interaction-induced Mott gap driven by a Ta 5d orbital also exists in the metallic ground state for Se-rich samples, while finite ARPES intensity near the Fermi level likely originating from a Se 4p orbital survives, indicative of the orbital-selective nature of the Mott transition. Present results suggest that effective electron correlation and p-d hybridization play a crucial role to tune the superconductivity and Mott metal-insulator transition.

  2. Studies on electric triggering of the metal-insulator transition in VO2 thin films between 77 K and 300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng; Hart, Sean; Ko, Changhyun; Yacoby, Amir; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the electrically triggered metal-insulator transition (E-MIT) in VO2 thin films at temperatures far below the structural phase transition temperature (˜340 K). At 77 K, the maximum current jump observed across the E-MIT is nearly 300×. The threshold voltage for E-MIT decreases slightly from ˜2.0 V at 77 K to ˜1.1 V at 300 K across ˜200 nm thick films, which scales weakly over the temperature range of 77-300 K with an activation energy of ˜5 meV. The phase transition properties are found to be stable after over one thousand scans, indicating reproducible measurements. Analysis of the scaling behavior suggests that the observed weak temperature-dependence of the threshold voltages for E-MIT is smaller than that predicted for a purely current induced Joule heating effect and may include contribution from field effect or carrier injection under applied bias. The results are of potential relevance to the field of phase transition oxide electronics and further understanding of the transition mechanisms.

  3. Superconductor-Metal-Insulator transition in two dimensional Ta thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sun-Gyu; Kim, Eunseong

    2013-03-01

    Superconductor-insulator transition has been induced by tuning film thickness or magnetic field. Recent electrical transport measurements of MoGe, Bi, Ta thin films revealed an interesting intermediate metallic phase which intervened superconducting and insulating phases at certain range of magnetic field. Especially, Ta thin films show the characteristic IV behavior at each phase and the disorder tuned intermediate metallic phase [Y. Li, C. L. Vicente, and J. Yoon, Physical Review B 81, 020505 (2010)]. This unexpected metallic phase can be interpreted as a consequence of vortex motion or contribution of fermionic quasiparticles. In this presentation, we report the scaling behavior during the transitions in Ta thin film as well as the transport measurements in various phases. Critical exponents v and z are obtained in samples with wide ranges of disorder. These results reveal new universality class appears when disorder exceeds a critical value. Dynamical exponent z of Superconducting sample is found to be 1, which is consistent with theoretical prediction of unity. z in a metallic sample is suddenly increased to be approximately 2.5. This critical exponent is much larger than the value found in other system and theoretical prediction. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Creative Research Initiatives.

  4. Metal-insulator transition by isovalent anion substitution in Ga1-xMnxAs: Implications to ferromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, P.R.; Alberi, K.; Tardif, S.K.Z.; Beeman, J.W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Dubon, O.D.

    2008-02-07

    We have investigated the effect of partial isovalent anion substitution in Ga1-xMnxAs on electrical transport and ferromagnetism. Substitution of only 2.4percent of As by P induces a metal-insulator transition at a constant Mn doping of x=0.046 while the replacement of 0.4 percent As with N results in the crossover from metal to insulator for x=0.037. This remarkable behavior is consistent with a scenario in which holes located within an impurity band are scattered by alloy disorder in the anion sublattice. The shorter mean free path of holes, which mediate ferromagnetism, reduces the Curie temperature TC from 113 K to 60 K (100 K to 65 K) upon the introduction of 3.1 percent P (1percent N) into the As sublattice.

  5. Tuning directional dependent metal-insulator transitions in quasi-1D quantum wires with spin-orbit density wave instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tanmoy

    2016-07-01

    We study directional dependent band gap evolutions and metal-insulator transitions (MITs) in model quantum wire systems within the spin-orbit density wave (SODW) model. The evolution of MIT is studied as a function of varying anisotropy between the intra-wire hopping ({{t}\\parallel} ) and inter-wire hopping ({{t}\\bot} ) with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that as long as the anisotropy ratio (β ={{t}\\bot}/{{t}\\parallel} ) remains below 0.5, and the Fermi surface nesting is tuned to {{\\mathbf{Q}}1}=≤ft(π,0\\right) , an exotic SODW induced MIT easily develops, with its critical interaction strength increasing with increasing anisotropy. As β \\to 1 (2D system), the nesting vector switches to {{\\mathbf{Q}}2}=≤ft(π,π \\right) , making this state again suitable for an isotropic MIT. Finally, we discuss various physical consequences and possible applications of the directional dependent MIT.

  6. Direct measurement of sheet resistance Rsquare in cuprate systems: evidence of a fermionic scenario in a metal-insulator transition.

    PubMed

    Orgiani, P; Aruta, C; Balestrino, G; Born, D; Maritato, L; Medaglia, P G; Stornaiuolo, D; Tafuri, F; Tebano, A

    2007-01-19

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) has been studied in Ba(0.9)Nd(0.1)CuO(2+x)/CaCuO2 ultrathin cuprate structures. Such structures allow for the direct measurement of the 2D sheet resistance R( square), eliminating ambiguity in the definition of the effective thickness of the conducting layer in high temperature superconductors. The MIT occurs at room temperature for experimental values of R(square) close to the 25.8 kOmega universal quantum resistance. All data confirm the assumption that each CaCuO2 layer forms a 2D superconducting sheet within the superconducting block, which can be described as weak-coupled equivalent sheets in parallel.

  7. Joule Heating-Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in Epitaxial VO2/TiO2 Devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Dasheng; Sharma, Abhishek A; Gala, Darshil K; Shukla, Nikhil; Paik, Hanjong; Datta, Suman; Schlom, Darrell G; Bain, James A; Skowronski, Marek

    2016-05-25

    DC and pulse voltage-induced metal-insulator transition (MIT) in epitaxial VO2 two terminal devices were measured at various stage temperatures. The power needed to switch the device to the ON-state decrease linearly with increasing stage temperature, which can be explained by the Joule heating effect. During transient voltage induced MIT measurement, the incubation time varied across 6 orders of magnitude. Both DC I-V characteristic and incubation times calculated from the electrothermal simulations show good agreement with measured values, indicating Joule heating effect is the cause of MIT with no evidence of electronic effects. The width of the metallic filament in the ON-state of the device was extracted and simulated within the thermal model.

  8. Tuning the metal-insulator transition temperature of Sm0.5Nd0.5NiO3 thin films via strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, H. Jeffrey; Singh, Vijay; Zhang, Le; Hong, Xia

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of substrate induced strain and film thickness on the metal-insulator transition of the correlated oxide Sm0.5Nd0.5NiO3 (SNNO). We have fabricated epitaxial 3 - 40 nm thick SNNO films on (001) LaAlO3 (LAO), (001) SrTiO3 (STO), and (110) NdGaO3 (NGO) via off-axis RF magnetron sputtering. The SNNO films are atomically smooth with (001) orientation as determined by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction. SNNO films grown on LAO, subject to compressive strain, exhibit a sharp metal-insulator transition at lower temperatures. Conversely, films grown on STO and NGO, subject to tensile strain, exhibit a smeared albeit above room temperature metal-insulator transition. For all substrates, we have observed that the metal-insulator transition temperature (TMI) increases monotonically with decreasing film thickness until the electrically dead layer is reached (below 4 nm). We discuss the effect of strain and oxygen deficiencies on the TMI of SNNO thin films.

  9. Magnetic and metal-insulator transitions in coupled spin-fermion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mondaini, R.; Paiva, T.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2014-10-14

    We use quantum Monte Carlo to determine the magnetic and transport properties of coupled square lattice spin and fermionic planes as a model for a metal-insulator interface. Specifically, layers of Ising spins with an intra-layer exchange constant J interact with the electronic spins of several adjoining metallic sheets via a coupling JH. When the chemical potential cuts across the band center, that is, at half-filling, the Neel temperature of antiferromagnetic (J > 0) Ising spins is enhanced by the coupling to the metal, while in the ferromagnetic case (J < 0) the metallic degrees of freedom reduce the ordering temperature. In the former case, a gap opens in the fermionic spectrum, driving insulating behavior, and the electron spins also order. This induced antiferromagnetism penetrates more weakly as the distance from the interface increases, and also exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on JH. For doped lattices an interesting charge disproportionation occurs where electrons move to the interface layer to maintain half-filling there.

  10. Magnetic and metal-insulator transitions in coupled spin-fermion systems

    DOE PAGES

    Mondaini, R.; Paiva, T.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2014-10-14

    We use quantum Monte Carlo to determine the magnetic and transport properties of coupled square lattice spin and fermionic planes as a model for a metal-insulator interface. Specifically, layers of Ising spins with an intra-layer exchange constant J interact with the electronic spins of several adjoining metallic sheets via a coupling JH. When the chemical potential cuts across the band center, that is, at half-filling, the Neel temperature of antiferromagnetic (J > 0) Ising spins is enhanced by the coupling to the metal, while in the ferromagnetic case (J < 0) the metallic degrees of freedom reduce the ordering temperature.more » In the former case, a gap opens in the fermionic spectrum, driving insulating behavior, and the electron spins also order. This induced antiferromagnetism penetrates more weakly as the distance from the interface increases, and also exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on JH. For doped lattices an interesting charge disproportionation occurs where electrons move to the interface layer to maintain half-filling there.« less

  11. Quantum transport in 3D Weyl semimetals: Is there a metal-insulator transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the transport properties of three-dimensional Weyl fermions in a disordered environment. The resulting conductivity depends only on the Fermi energy and the scattering rate. First we study the conductivity at the spectral node for a fixed scattering rate and obtain a continuous transition from an insulator at weak disorder to a metal at stronger disorder. Within the self-consistent Born approximation the scattering rate depends on the Fermi energy. Then it is crucial that the limits of the conductivity for a vanishing Fermi energy and a vanishing scattering rate do not commute. As a result, there is also metallic behavior in the phase with vanishing scattering rate and only a quantum critical point remains as an insulating phase. The latter turns out to be a critical fixed point in terms of a renormalization-group flow.

  12. Martensitic accommodation strain and the metal-insulator transition in manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzorov, V.; Kim, B. G.; Kiryukhin, V.; Gershenson, M. E.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we report polarized optical microscopy and electrical transport studies of manganese oxides that reveal that the charge ordering transition in these compounds exhibits typical signatures of a martensitic transformation. We demonstrate that specific electronic properties of charge-ordered manganites stem from a combination of martensitic accommodation strain and effects of strong electron correlations. This intrinsic strain is strongly affected by the grain boundaries in ceramic samples. Consistently, our studies show a remarkable enhancement of low field magnetoresistance and the grain size effect on the resistivity in polycrystalline samples and suggest that the transport properties of this class of manganites are governed by the charge-disordered insulating phase stabilized at low temperature by virtue of martensitic accommodation strain. High sensitivity of this phase to strains and magnetic field leads to a variety of striking phenomena, such as unusually high magnetoresistance (1010%) in low magnetic fields.

  13. Volume-based considerations for the metal-insulator transition of CMR oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, J.J. |; Hundley, M.F.; Cornelius, A.L.; Andres, K.

    1998-03-01

    The sensitivity of {rho} [electrical resistivity] to changes in volume which occur through: (1) applied pressure, (2) variations in temperature, and (3) phase transitions, is evaluated for some selected CMR oxides. It is argued that the changes in volume associated with phase changes are large enough to produce self pressures in the range of 0.18 to 0.45 GPa. The extreme sensitivity of the electrical resistivity to pressure indicates that these self pressures are responsible for large features in the electrical resistivity and are an important component for occurrence the metallicity below {Tc}. It is suggested that this is related to a strong volume dependence of the electron phonon coupling in the CMR oxides.

  14. Universal role of quantum uncertainty in Anderson metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W. W.; Zhang, Z. J.; Gong, L. Y.; Zhao, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    We explore quantum uncertainty, based on Wigner-Yanase skew information, in various one-dimensional single-electron wave functions. For the power-law function and eigenfunctions in the Aubry-André model, the electronic localization properties are well-defined. For them, we find that quantum uncertainty is relatively small and large for delocalized and localized states, respectively. And around the transition points, the first-order derivative of the quantum uncertainty exhibits singular behavior. All these characters can be used as signatures of the transition from a delocalized phase to a localized one. With this criterion, we also study the quantum uncertainty in one-dimensional disorder system with long-range correlated potential. The results show that the first-order derivative of spectrum-averaged quantum uncertainty is minimal at a certain correlation exponent αm for a finite system, and has perfect finite-size scaling behaviors around αm. By extrapolating αm, the threshold value αc ≃ 1.56 ± 0.02 is obtained for the infinite system. Thus we give another perspective and propose a consistent interpretation for the discrepancies about localization property in the long-range correlated potential model. These results suggest that the quantum uncertainty can provide us with a new physical intuition to the localization transition in these models.

  15. Field Effect and Strongly Localized Carriers in the Metal-Insulator Transition Material VO(2).

    PubMed

    Martens, K; Jeong, J W; Aetukuri, N; Rettner, C; Shukla, N; Freeman, E; Esfahani, D N; Peeters, F M; Topuria, T; Rice, P M; Volodin, A; Douhard, B; Vandervorst, W; Samant, M G; Datta, S; Parkin, S S P

    2015-11-06

    The intrinsic field effect, the change in surface conductance with an applied transverse electric field, of prototypal strongly correlated VO(2) has remained elusive. Here we report its measurement enabled by epitaxial VO(2) and atomic layer deposited high-κ dielectrics. Oxygen migration, joule heating, and the linked field-induced phase transition are precluded. The field effect can be understood in terms of field-induced carriers with densities up to ∼5×10(13)  cm(-2) which are trongly localized, as shown by their low, thermally activated mobility (∼1×10(-3)  cm(2)/V s at 300 K). These carriers show behavior consistent with that of Holstein polarons and strongly impact the (opto)electronics of VO(2).

  16. Monolayer MoS2 metal insulator transition based memcapacitor modeling with extension to a ternary device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Abdul Karim; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-09-01

    Memcapacitor model based on its one possible physical realization is developed and simulated in order to know its limitation before making a real device. The proposed device structure consists of vertically stacked dielectric layer and MoS2 monolayer between two external metal plates. The Metal Insulator Transition (MIT) phenomenon of MoS2 monolayer is represented in terms of percolation probabilty which is used as the system state. Cluster based site percolation theory is used to mimic the MIT of MoS2 which shows slight discontinuous change in MoS2 monolayer conductivity. The metal to insulator transition switches the capacitance of the device in hysterical way. An Ioffe Regel criterion is used to determine the MIT state of MoS2 monolayer. A good control of MIT time in the range of psec is also achieved by changing a single parameter in the model. The model shows memcapacitive behavior with an edge of fast switching (in psec range) over the previous general models. The model is then extended into vertical cascaded version which behaves like a ternary device instead of binary.

  17. Reversible metal-insulator transition of Ar-irradiated LaAl O3 /SrTi O3 interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurino, P. P.; Kalabukhov, A.; Tuzla, N.; Olsson, E.; Klein, A.; Erhart, P.; Boikov, Y. A.; Serenkov, I. T.; Sakharov, V. I.; Claeson, T.; Winkler, D.

    2015-10-01

    The conducting state of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (q2DEG), formed at the heterointerface between the two wide-bandgap insulators LaAl O3 (LAO) and SrTi O3 , can be made completely insulating by low-energy, 150-eV, A r+ irradiation. The metallic behavior of the interface can be recovered by high-temperature oxygen annealing. The electrical transport properties of the recovered q2DEG are exactly the same as before the irradiation. Microstructural investigations confirm that the transition is not due to physical etching or crystal lattice distortion of the LAO film below its critical thickness. They also reveal a correlation between electrical state, LAO film surface amorphization, and argon ion implantation. The experimental results are in agreement with density functional theory calculations of Ar implantation and migration in the LAO film. This suggests that the metal-insulator transition may be caused by charge trapping in the defect amorphous layer created during the ion irradiation.

  18. A persistent metal-insulator transition at the surface of an oxygen-deficient, epitaxial manganite film.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Paul C; Gao, Min; Guo, Hangwen; Cao, Guixin; Siemons, Wolter; Gao, Hongjun; Ward, Thomas Z; Shen, Jian; Gai, Zheng

    2013-10-21

    The oxygen stoichiometry has a large influence on the physical and chemical properties of complex oxides. Most of the functionality in e.g. catalysis and electrochemistry depends in particular on control of the oxygen stoichiometry. In order to understand the fundamental properties of intrinsic surfaces of oxygen-deficient complex oxides, we report on in situ temperature dependent scanning tunnelling spectroscopy experiments on pristine oxygen deficient, epitaxial manganite films. Although these films are insulating in subsequent ex situ in-plane electronic transport experiments at all temperatures, in situ scanning tunnelling spectroscopic data reveal that the surface of these films exhibits a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at 120 K, coincident with the onset of ferromagnetic ordering of small clusters in the bulk of the oxygen-deficient film. The surprising proximity of the surface MIT transition temperature of nonstoichiometric films with that of the fully oxygenated bulk suggests that the electronic properties in the surface region are not significantly affected by oxygen deficiency in the bulk. This carries important implications for the understanding and functional design of complex oxides and their interfaces with specific electronic properties in catalysis, oxide electronics and electrochemistry.

  19. Tunable metal-insulator transition in Nd1-xYxNiO3 (x = 0.3, 0.4) perovskites thin film at near room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tao; Qi, Zeming; Wang, Yuyin; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Guobin; Liu, Miao

    2015-07-01

    Metal-insulator transition (MIT) occurs due to the charge disproportionation and lattice distortions in rare-earth nickelates. Existing studies revealed that the MIT behavior of rare-earth nickelates is fairly sensitive to external stress/pressure, suggesting a viable route for MIT strain engineering. Unlike applying extrinsic strain, the MIT can also be modulated by through rare-earth cation mixing, which can be viewed as intrinsic quantum stress. We choose Nd1-XYXNiO3 (x = 0.3, 0.4) perovskites thin films as a prototype system to exhibit the tunable sharp MIT at near room temperature. By adjusting Y concentration, the transition temperature of the thin films can be changed within the range of 340-360 K. X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and in situ infrared spectroscopy are employed to probe the structural and optical property variation affected by composition and temperature. The infrared transmission intensity decreases with temperature across the MIT, indicating a pronounced thermochromic effect. Meanwhile, the XAFS result exhibits that the crystal atomistic structure changes accompanying with the Y atoms incorporation and MIT phase transition. The heavily doped Y atoms result in the pre-edge peak descent and Ni-O bond elongation, suggesting an enhanced charge disproportionation effect and the weakening of hybridization between Ni-3d and O-2p orbits.

  20. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, K. Uday; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2017-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes) in low temperatures (25-300 K). The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl˜1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the electron mean free path) and degenerate semiconductors. The transport of charge carriers (electrons) in these disordered ITO thin films takes place via the de-localized states. The disorder effects lead to the well-known `metal-insulator transition' (MIT) which is observed at 110 K in these ITO thin films. The MIT in ITO thin films is explained by the quantum correction to the conductivity (QCC); this approach is based on the inclusion of quantum-mechanical interference effects in Boltzmann's expression of the conductivity of the disordered systems. The insulating behaviour observed in ITO thin films below the MIT temperature is attributed to the combined effect of the weak localization and the electron-electron interactions.

  1. Electric field induced metal-insulator transition and colossal magnetoresistance in CdCr2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C. P.; Lin, C. C.; Her, J. L.; Taran, S.; Chou, C. C.; Chan, C. L.; Huang, C. L.; Berger, H.; Yang, H. D.

    2008-03-01

    Multiferroic ordering existing in a single material is a recent hot topic in the field of condensed matter physics due to its potential application in device control. The chromium chalcogenide spinel CdCr2S4 is one of the attractive materials investigated by Hemberger et al. recently.[1] Based on the electrical measurement, there is no discontinuity through the ferromagnetic ordering at TC ˜ 85K.[2] We measure the temperature dependent resistance under various electric fields to investigate the electrical properties of the present material. To our knowledge, we first observe the electric field induced metal-insulator transition in this material around TC. Moreover, a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR), which is comparable to that of manganese-based CMR material, is also observed near TC. The origin for these properties is discussed. [1] J. Hemberger, P. Lunkenheimer, R. Fichtl, H.-A. Krug von Nidda, V. Tsurkan, A. Loidl, Nature 434, 364 (2006). [2] P. K. Baltzer, H. W. Lehmann, and M. Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 493 (1965).

  2. Variable-range hopping conduction and metal-insulator transition in amorphous RexSi1-x thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisunov, K. G.; Vinzelberg, H.; Arushanov, E.; Schumann, J.

    2011-09-01

    Resistivity, ρ(T), of the amorphous RexSi1-x thin films with x = 0.285-0.351 is investigated in the interval of T ~ 300-0.03 K. At x = 0.285-0.324 the activated behavior of ρ(T) is governed by the Mott and the Shklovskii-Efros variable-range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanisms in different temperature intervals and the three-dimensional regime of the hopping. Between x = 0.328 and 0.351 the activationless dependence of ρ(T) takes place. The critical behavior of the characteristic VRH temperatures and of the Coulomb gap, Δ, pertinent to proximity to the metal-insulator transition at the critical value of xc ≈ 0.327, is observed. The analysis of the critical behavior of Δ yields directly the critical exponent of the dielectric permittivity, η = 2.1 ± 0.2, in agreement with the theoretical prediction, η = 2. On the other hand, the values of the critical exponent of the correlation length ν ~ 0.8-1.1 close to the expected value of unity can be obtained from the analysis of the critical behavior of the VRH characteristic temperatures under an additional assumption of a strong underbarrier scattering of hopping charge carriers in conditions, when the concentration of scattering centers considerably exceeds the concentration of sites involved in the hopping.

  3. Electronic properties and the nature of metal-insulator transition in NdNiO3 prepared at ambient oxygen pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooda, M. K.; Yadav, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    We report the electronic properties of the NdNiO3, prepared at the ambient oxygen pressure condition. The metal-insulator transition temperature is observed at 192 K, but the low temperature state is found to be less insulating compared to the NdNiO3 prepared at high oxygen pressure. The electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of the compound show large hysteresis below the metal-insulator transition. The large value of the effective mass (m*~8me) in the metallic state indicates the narrow character of the 3d band. The electric conduction at low temperatures (T=2-20 K) is governed by the variable range hopping of the charge carriers.

  4. Pressure dependence of the metal-insulator transition in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Cl: optical and transport studies.

    PubMed

    Löhle, A; Rose, E; Singh, S; Beyer, R; Tafra, E; Ivek, T; Zhilyaeva, E I; Lyubovskaya, R N; Dressel, M

    2017-02-08

    The two-dimensional organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2-Hg(SCN)2Cl exhibits a pronounced metal-insulator transition at [Formula: see text] K. From the splitting of the molecular vibrations, the phase transition can be unambiguously assigned to charge-ordering with [Formula: see text]. We have investigated the pressure evolution of this behavior by temperature-dependent electrical transport measurements and optical investigations applying hydrostatic pressure up to 12 kbar. The data reveal a mean-field like down-shift of [Formula: see text] with a critical pressure of [Formula: see text] kbar and a metallic state above the suppression of the charge-ordered state; no traces of superconductivity could be identified down to T  =  1.5 K. As the charge order [Formula: see text] sets in abruptly with decreasing temperature, its size remains unaffected by pressure. However, the fraction of charge imbalanced molecules decreases until it is completely absent above 1.6 kbar.

  5. Charge disproportionation without charge transfer in the rare-earth nickelates as a possible mechanism for the metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Steven; Mukherjee, Anamitra; Elfimov, Ilya; Berciu, Mona; Sawatzky, George

    2014-03-01

    We study a model for the metal-insulator (MI) transition in the rare-earth nickelates RNiO3, based upon a negative charge transfer energy and coupling to a rock-salt like lattice distortion of the NiO6 octahedra. Using exact diagonalization and the Hartree-Fock approximation we demonstrate that electrons couple strongly to these distortions. For small distortions the system is metallic, with ground state of predominantly d8 ligand character, where ligand denotes a ligand hole. For sufficiently large distortions (δdNi - O ~ 0 . 05 - 0 . 10 Å), however, a gap opens at the Fermi energy as the system enters a periodically distorted state alternating along the three crystallographic axes, with (d8 ligand2) S = 0(d8) S = 1 character, where S is the total spin. Thus the MI transition may be viewed as being driven by an internal volume ``collapse'' where the NiO6 octahedra with two ligand holes shrink around their central Ni, while the remaining octahedra expand accordingly, resulting in the superstructure observed in x-ray diffraction in the insulating phase. This insulating state is an example of charge ordering achieved without any actual movement of the charge, similar to that reported in a prior DMFT study.

  6. Charge Disproportionation without Charge Transfer in the Rare-Earth-Element Nickelates as a Possible Mechanism for the Metal-Insulator Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Steve; Mukherjee, Anamitra; Elfimov, Ilya; Berciu, Mona; Sawatzky, George A.

    2014-03-01

    We study a model for the metal-insulator (M-I) transition in the rare-earth-element nickelates RNiO3, based upon a negative charge transfer energy and coupling to a rocksaltlike lattice distortion of the NiO6 octahedra. Using exact diagonalization and the Hartree-Fock approximation we demonstrate that electrons couple strongly to these distortions. For small distortions the system is metallic, with a ground state of predominantly d8L character, where L_ denotes a ligand hole. For sufficiently large distortions (δdNi-O˜0.05-0.10 Å), however, a gap opens at the Fermi energy as the system enters a periodically distorted state alternating along the three crystallographic axes, with (d8L_2)S =0(d8)S=1 character, where S is the total spin. Thus the M-I transition may be viewed as being driven by an internal volume "collapse" where the NiO6 octahedra with two ligand holes shrink around their central Ni, while the remaining octahedra expand accordingly, resulting in the (1/2, 1/2, 1/2) superstructure observed in x-ray diffraction in the insulating phase. This insulating state is an example of charge ordering achieved without any actual movement of the charge.

  7. Localization-driven metal-insulator transition in epitaxial hole-doped Nd1-x Sr x NiO3 ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Chang, Lei; Yin, Xinmao; Rusydi, Andrivo; You, Lu; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Liang; Wang, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Advances in thin film growth technologies make it possible to obtain ultra-thin perovskite oxide films and open the window for controlling novel electronic phases for use in functional nanoscale electronics, such as switches and sensors. Here, we study the thickness-dependent transport characteristics of high-quality ultrathin Nd0.9Sr0.1NiO3 (Sr-NNO) films, which were grown on LaAlO3 (0 0 1) single-crystal substrates by using pulsed laser deposition method. Thick Sr-NNO films (25 unit cells) exhibit metallic behavior with the electrical resistivity following the T  n (n  <  2) law corresponding to a non-Fermi liquid system, while a temperature driven metal-insulator transition (MIT) is observed with films of less than 15 unit cells. The transition temperature increases with reducing film thickness, until the insulating characteristic is observed even at room temperature. The emergence of the insulator ground state can be attributed to weak localization driven MIT expected by considering Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit. Furthermore, the magneto-transport study of Sr-NNO ultrathin films also confirms that the observed MIT is due to the disorder-induced localization rather than the electron-electron interactions.

  8. Interfacial reaction between metal-insulator transition material NbO2 thin film and wide band gap semiconductor GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posadas, Agham; Kvit, Alexander; Demkov, Alexander

    Materials that undergo a metal-insulator transition (MIT) are potentially useful for a wide variety of applications including electronic and opto-electronic switches, memristors, sensors, and coatings. In most such materials, the MIT is driven by temperature. In one such material, NbO2, the MIT mechanism is primarily of the Peierls-type, in which the dimerization of the Nb atoms without electron correlation causes the transition from metallic to semiconducting. We describe our initial work at combining NbO2 and GaN in epitaxial form, which could be potentially useful in resistive switching devices operating at very high temperatures. We grow NbO2 films on GaN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using reactive molecular beam epitaxy from a metal evaporation source and molecular oxygen. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are found to grow with a single out of plane orientation but with three symmetry-related orientation domains in the plane. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the phase pure NbO2 is formed but that a chemical reaction occurs between the GaN and NbO2 during the growth forming a polycrystalline interfacial layer. We perform STEM-EELS analysis of the film and the interface to further elucidate their chemical and structural properties.

  9. Pressure dependence of the metal-insulator transition in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Cl: optical and transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhle, A.; Rose, E.; Singh, S.; Beyer, R.; Tafra, E.; Ivek, T.; Zhilyaeva, E. I.; Lyubovskaya, R. N.; Dressel, M.

    2017-02-01

    The two-dimensional organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2-Hg(SCN)2Cl exhibits a pronounced metal-insulator transition at {{T}\\text{CO}}=30 K. From the splitting of the molecular vibrations, the phase transition can be unambiguously assigned to charge-ordering with 2{δρ}=0.2e . We have investigated the pressure evolution of this behavior by temperature-dependent electrical transport measurements and optical investigations applying hydrostatic pressure up to 12 kbar. The data reveal a mean-field like down-shift of {{T}\\text{CO}}≤ft( p\\right) with a critical pressure of {{p}c}=0.7+/- 0.1 kbar and a metallic state above the suppression of the charge-ordered state; no traces of superconductivity could be identified down to T  =  1.5 K. As the charge order {δρ} sets in abruptly with decreasing temperature, its size remains unaffected by pressure. However, the fraction of charge imbalanced molecules decreases until it is completely absent above 1.6 kbar.

  10. Mg doping of thermochromic VO{sub 2} films enhances the optical transmittance and decreases the metal-insulator transition temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mlyuka, N. R.; Niklasson, G. A.; Granqvist, C. G.

    2009-10-26

    Thermochromic films of Mg{sub x}V{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} were made by reactive dc magnetron sputtering onto heated glass. The metal-insulator transition temperature decreased by {approx}3 K/at. %Mg, while the optical transmittance increased concomitantly. Specifically, the transmittance of visible light and of solar radiation was enhanced by {approx}10% when the Mg content was {approx}7 at. %. Our results point at the usefulness of these films for energy efficient fenestration.

  11. Compositionally controlled metal-insulator transition in Tl{sub 2-x}In{sub x}TeO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Siritanon, Theeranun; Sleight, A.W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2011-04-15

    Tl{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} and In{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} are both known to crystallize in the Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}-type structure. We find Tl{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} is metallic, whereas In{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} is an insulator. We have prepared a complete Tl{sub 2-x}In{sub x}TeO{sub 6} series in a search for a compositionally controlled metal-insulator transition that might be expected if a complete solid solution can be obtained. Unit cell edges and volume vary monotonically with no indication of a miscibility gap. The metal-insulator transition occurs at an x value of about 1.4, which can be rationalized on a percolation model. No superconductivity could be detected down to 5 K. -- Graphical abstract: A complete solid solution between Tl{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} and In{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} is formed. A compositionally controlled metal-insulator transition occurs in Tl{sub 2-x}In{sub x}TeO{sub 6} at an x value of about 1.5. No superconductivity could be detected down to 5 K. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} A complete solid solution between Tl{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} and In{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} is formed. {yields} A compositionally controlled metal-insulator transition occurs in Tl{sub 2-x}In{sub x}TeO{sub 6} at an x value of about 1.5, which can be rationalized on a percolation model. {yields} No superconductivity could be detected down to 5 K.

  12. Metal-insulator transition in 3d transition-metal oxides with ABO 3 and A 2BO 4 type structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisaki, H.; Ido, T.; Magoshi, K.; Mochizuki, M.; Yamatsu, H.; Ito, T.; Uchida, S.

    1991-12-01

    3d transition-metal oxides with perovskite and K 2NiF 4 crystal structures, (La,Sr)VO 3, (La,Sr)FeO 3, (La,Sr)CoO 3, LaNiO 3 and (La,Sr) 2NiO 4 systems are investigated focusing on the effect of carrier doping performed by the A-site ion substitution. Both (La,Sr)VO 3 and (La,Sr)CoO 3 systems show an insulator to metal transition by Sr substitution, however, the magnetic behavior differs drastically. The mid-infrared structure induced by Sr substitution is observed in the optical spectra of (La,Sr) 2NiO 4 system. Relation between the behavior of metal-insulator transition and the variation of the electronic and/or spin structure in these systems is discussed in comparison with the high-T c copper oxides.

  13. Mechanisms of spin-flipping and metal-insulator transition in nano-Fe3O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dito Fauzi, Angga; Aziz Majidi, Muhammad; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2017-04-01

    Fe3O4 is a half-metallic ferrimagnet with {{T}\\text{C}}∼ 860 K exhibiting metal-insulator transition (MIT) at  ∼120 K. In bulk form, the saturation magnetization is 0.6 Tesla (∼471 emu cm‑3). A recent experimental study has shown that the saturation magnetization of nano-Fe3O4 thin films can achieve up to  ∼760 emu cm‑3, attributed to spin-flipping of Fe ions at tetrahedral sites assisted by oxygen vacancies (V O). Such a system has shown to have higher MIT temperature (∼150 K). The spin-flipping is a new phenomenon in Fe3O4, while the MIT is a long-standing one. Here, we propose a model and calculations to investigate the mechanisms of both phenomena. Our results show that, for the system without V O, the ferrimagnetic configuration is energetically favorable. Remakably, upon inclusion of V O, the ground-state configuration switches into ferromagnetic. As for the MIT, by proposing temperature dependences of some hopping integrals in the model, we demonstrate that the system without and with V O undergo the MIT in slightly different ways, leading to higher MIT temperature for the system with V O, in agreement with the experimental data. Our results also show that the MIT in both systems occur concomitantly with the redistribution of electrons among the three Fe ions in each Fe3O4 formula unit. As such temperature dependences of hopping integrals may arise due to dynamic Jahn–Teller effects, our phenomenological theory may provide a way to reconcile existing theories relating the MIT to the structural transition and the charge ordering.

  14. Proton spin-lattice relaxation mechanisms and the metal-insulator transition in cerium hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamir, D.; Barnes, R. G.; Salibi, N.; Cotts, R. M.; Phua, T.-T.; Torgeson, D. R.; Peterson, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) experiments have been done on cerium hydride (CeHx) samples to search for correlations between NMR properties and known electrical conductivity changes as a function of hydrogen concentration and temperature. Data are presented for the 1H spin-lattice relaxation rate R1 (=1T1) and some line shapes for 2.10<=x<=2.92 for temperatures from about 100 to 375 K. Although two 1H resonances are observed at some temperatures, proton spin-lattice relaxation is characterized by a single relaxation time at each x and T. To a good approximation R1=AT+R, where AT is attributed to direct dipolar coupling between protons and the electronic magnetic dipole moment of Ce3+, and R is an essentially temperature-independent term attributed to indirect [Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY)] coupling to the Ce3+ moment. The AT term is so large that for most experiments the proton-proton dipolar and proton-conduction-electron couplings are negligible. The x dependence of the constant A is consistent with the dipolar coupling. The constant R decreases in a steep manner as x is increased above x~2.65 just below the regime 2.75transition occurs in CeHx. It is proposed that R~Nd(EF) and that the RKKY interaction includes coupling through the d-band density of states. The marked decreases in R1 and in the electrical conductivity that are associated with the concentration-dependent transition are thus attributed to the vanishing electron density of states at the Fermi surface. No temperature-dependent transition in R1 is found. Results are consistent with a Mott transition model in which the electron donors are hydrogen vacancies.

  15. Intrinsic evolutions of optical functions, band gap, and higher-energy electronic transitions in VO2 film near the metal-insulator transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. W.; Yu, Q.; Liang, J. R.; Jiang, K.; Hu, Z. G.; Liu, J.; Chen, H. D.; Chu, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    Transmittance spectra of (011) vanadium dioxide (VO2) film have been studied in the temperature range of 45-80 °C. Owing to increasing carrier concentration, the near-infrared extinction coefficient and optical conductivity around metal-insulator transition (MIT) rapidly increase with the temperature. Moreover, three electronic transitions can be uniquely assigned and show the hysteresis behavior near the MIT region. It was found that the optical band gap decreases from 0.457 to 0.042 eV before the MIT, then reduces to zero for the metal state. This confirms the fact that the a1g and egπ bands are moved close and finally overlap with the temperature.

  16. Exotic topological states near a quantum metal-insulator transition in pyrochlore iridates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhaoming

    Pyrochlore iridates have attracted great interest as prime candidates that may host topologically nontrivial states, spin ice ordering and quantum spin liquid states, in particular through the interplay between different degrees of freedom, such as local moments and mobile electrons. Based on our extensive study using our high quality single crystals, we will discuss such examples, i.e. chiral spin liquid in a quadratic band touching state, Weyl semimetallic state and chiral domain wall transport nearby a quantum insulator-semimetal transition in pyrochlore iridates. This work is based on the collaboration with Nakatsuji Satoru, Kohama Yoshimitsu, Tomita Takahiro, Kindo Koichi, Jun J. Ishikawa, Balents Leon, Ishizuka Hiroaki, Timothy H. Hsieh. ZM. Tian was supported by JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship (No.P1402).

  17. Three-dimensional electronic structures and the metal-insulator transition in Ruddlesden-Popper iridates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, A.; Fujiwara, H.; Tachibana, S.; Iwasaki, D.; Higashino, Y.; Yoshimi, C.; Nakagawa, K.; Nakatani, Y.; Yamagami, K.; Aratani, H.; Kirilmaz, O.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R.; Watanabe, H.; Shirakawa, T.; Yunoki, S.; Naitoh, A.; Takase, K.; Matsuno, J.; Takagi, H.; Sekiyama, A.; Saitoh, Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we systematically investigate three-dimensional (3D) momentum (ℏ k )-resolved electronic structures of Ruddlesden-Popper-type iridium oxides Srn +1IrnO3 n +1 using soft-x-ray (SX) angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Our results provide direct evidence of an insulator-to-metal transition that occurs upon increasing the dimensionality of the IrO2-plane structure. This transition occurs when the spin-orbit-coupled jeff=1 /2 band changes its behavior in the dispersion relation and moves across the Fermi energy. In addition, an emerging band along the Γ (0,0,0)-R (π ,π ,π ) direction is found to play a crucial role in the metallic characteristics of SrIrO3. By scanning the photon energy over 350 eV, we reveal the 3D Fermi surface in SrIrO3 and kz-dependent oscillations of photoelectron intensity in Sr3Ir2O7 . In contrast to previously reported results obtained using low-energy photons, folded bands derived from lattice distortions and/or magnetic ordering make significantly weak (but finite) contributions to the k -resolved photoemission spectrum. At the first glance, this leads to the ambiguous result that the observed k -space topology is consistent with the unfolded Brillouin zone (BZ) picture derived from a nonrealistic simple square or cubic Ir lattice. Through careful analysis, we determine that a superposition of the folded and unfolded band structures has been observed in the ARPES spectra obtained using photons in both ultraviolet and SX regions. To corroborate the physics deduced using low-energy ARPES studies, we propose to utilize SX-ARPES as a powerful complementary technique, as this method surveys more than one whole BZ and provides a panoramic view of electronic structures.

  18. Metal-insulator transition in variably doped (Bi(1-x)Sb(x))2Se3 nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chee Huei; He, Rui; Wang, ZhenHua; Qiu, Richard L J; Kumar, Ajay; Delaney, Conor; Beck, Ben; Kidd, T E; Chancey, C C; Sankaran, R Mohan; Gao, Xuan P A

    2013-05-21

    Topological insulators are novel quantum materials with metallic surface transport but insulating bulk behavior. Often, topological insulators are dominated by bulk contributions due to defect induced bulk carriers, making it difficult to isolate the more interesting surface transport characteristics. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of nanosheets of a topological insulator Bi2Se3 with variable Sb-doping levels to control the electron carrier density and surface transport behavior. (Bi(1-x)Sb(x))2Se3 thin films of thickness less than 10 nm are prepared by epitaxial growth on mica substrates in a vapor transport setup. The introduction of Sb in Bi2Se3 effectively suppresses the room temperature electron density from ∼4 × 10(13) cm(-2) in pure Bi2Se3 (x = 0) to ∼2 × 10(12) cm(-2) in (Bi(1-x)Sb(x))2Se3 at x ∼ 0.15, while maintaining the metallic transport behavior. At x ≳ ∼0.20, a metal-insulator transition (MIT) is observed, indicating that the system has transformed into an insulator in which the metallic surface conduction is blocked. In agreement with the observed MIT, Raman spectroscopy reveals the emergence of vibrational modes arising from Sb-Sb and Sb-Se bonds at high Sb concentrations, confirming the appearance of the Sb2Se3 crystal structure in the sample. These results suggest that nanostructured chalcogenide films with controlled doping can be a tunable platform for fundamental studies and electronic applications of topological insulator systems.

  19. Localization, mobility edges, and metal-insulator transition in a class of one-dimensional slowly varying deterministic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Sarma, S.; He, Song; Xie, X. C.

    1990-03-01

    We study the localization properties of the one-dimensional nearest-neighbor tight-binding Schrödinger equation, un+1+un-1+Vnun=Eun, where the on-site potential Vn is neither periodic (the ``Bloch'' case) nor random (the ``Anderson'' case), but is aperiodic or pseudorandom. In particular, we consider in detail a class of slowly varying potential with a typical example being Vn=λ cos(παnν) with 0<ν<1. We develop an asymptotic semiclassical technique to calculate exactly (in the large-n limit) the density of states and the Lyapunov exponent for this model. We also carry out numerical work involving direct diagonalization and recursive transfer-matrix calculations to study localization properties of the model. Our theoretical results are essentially in exact agreement with the numerical results. Our most important finding is that, for λ<2, there is a metal-insulator transition in this one-dimensional model (ν<1) with the mobility edges located at energies Ec=+/-||2-λ||. Eigenstates at the band center (||E||<||Ec||) are all extended whereas the band-edge states (||E||>||Ec||) are all localized. Another interesting finding is that, in contrast to higher-dimensional random-disorder situations, the density of states, D(E), in this model is not necessarily smooth through the mobility edge, but may diverge according to D(E)~||E-Ec||-δ. The Lyapunov exponent γ (or, the inverse localization length) behaves at Ec as γ(E)~||E-Ec||β, with β=1-δ. We solve the exact critical behavior of the general model, deriving analytic expressions for D(E), γ(E), and the exponents δ and β. We find that λ, α, and ν are all irrelevant variables in the renormalization-group sense for the localization critical properties of the model. We also give detailed numerical results for a number of different forms of Vn.

  20. Magnetism and Metal-Insulator Transition in Fe(Sb1−xTex)2

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, C.; Hu, R.; Mitrovic, V.F.

    2009-02-09

    We have investigated structural, magnetic, and transport properties of Fe(Sb{sub 1-x}Te{sub x}){sub 2} single crystals. Whereas metallic ground state is induced for x = 0.001, canted antiferromagnetism is observed for 0.1 {le} x {le} 0.4 with an intermediate ferromagnetic phase for x = 0.2. With higher Te doping, semiconducting behavior is restored and the variable range hopping conduction mechanism dominates at low temperatures for 0.4 {le} x {le} 0.6. We discuss our results within the framework of inverted metal to insulator in correlated electron insulators.

  1. Resistance noise at the metal-insulator transition in thermochromic VO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topalian, Zareh; Li, Shu-Yi; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.; Kish, Laszlo B.

    2015-01-01

    Thermochromic VO2 films were prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto heated sapphire substrates and were used to make 100-nm-thick samples that were 10 μm wide and 100 μm long. The resistance of these samples changed by a factor ˜2000 in the 50 < Ts < 70 °C range of temperature Ts around the "critical" temperature Tc between a low-temperature semiconducting phase and a high-temperature metallic-like phase of VO2. Power density spectra S(f) were extracted for resistance noise around Tc and demonstrated unambiguous 1/f behavior. Data on S(10 Hz)/Rs2 scaled as Rsx, where Rs is sample resistance; the noise exponent x was -2.6 for Ts < Tc and +2.6 for Ts > Tc. These exponents can be reconciled with the Pennetta-Trefán-Reggiani theory [Pennetta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5238 (2000)] for lattice percolation with switching disorder ensuing from random defect generation and healing in steady state. Our work hence highlights the dynamic features of the percolating semiconducting and metallic-like regions around Tc in thermochromic VO2 films.

  2. Topological textures and metal-insulator transition in Reentrant Integer Quantum Hall Effect: role of disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyanda-Geller, Yuli; Simion, George

    2015-03-01

    We investigate a ground state of the two-dimensional (2D) electron liquid in the presence of disorder for Landau level filling factors, for which the re-entrant integer quantum Hall effect is observed. Our particular interest is the range of filling factors, which in a clean 2D system is favorable to formation of the two-electron (2e) bubble crystal. For the smooth random potential due to charged impurities placed far away from the 2D gas, the ground state is a lightly distorted 2e bubble crystal. However, for positively or negatively charged residual impurities located approximately within about three magnetic lengths from the 2D electrons, the ground state contains charged 2e complexes formed either by positively charged impurity and 3e defect bubble, or negatively charged impurity and 2e defect bubble. In the vicinity of 1e and 3e defect bubbles, the 2e bubbles of the crystal change their shape from round to elongated forming hedgehog (for 1e defect) or vortex (for 3e defect) textures. The topological textures due to these complexes interact with vortex and hedgehog excitations, generated as temperature increases that are not bound by residual impurities. The temperature of insulator to metal transition calculated with both bound and unbound defects agrees with experiment. Research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0010544.

  3. Giant positive magnetoresistance and field-induced metal insulator transition in Cr2NiGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanick, S.; Dutta, P.; Chatterjee, S.; Giri, S.; Majumdar, S.

    2017-01-01

    We report the magneto-transport properties of the newly synthesized Heusler compound Cr2NiGa which crystallizes in a disordered cubic B2 structure belonging to the Pm\\bar{3} m space group. The sample is found to be paramagnetic down to 2 K with metallic characteristics. On application of a magnetic field, a significantly large increase in resistivity is observed which corresponds to magnetoresistance as high as 112% at 150 kOe of field at the lowest temperature. Most remarkably, the sample shows a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity below about 50 K under the application of field  ⩾80 kOe, signifying a field-induced metal to ‘insulating’ transition. The observed magnetoresistance follows Kohler’s rule below 20 K indicating the validity of the semiclassical model of electronic transport in metals with a single relaxation time. A multi-band model for electronic transport, originally proposed for semimetals, is found to be appropriate to describe the magneto-transport behavior of the sample.

  4. Metal-insulator transition in a weakly interacting disordered electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekuma, C. E.; Yang, S.-X.; Terletska, H.; Tam, K.-M.; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Moreno, J.; Jarrell, M.

    2015-11-01

    The interplay of interactions and disorder is studied using the Anderson-Hubbard model within the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation. Treating the interacting, nonlocal cluster self-energy [Σc[G ˜] (i ,j ≠i ) ] up to second order in the perturbation expansion of interactions, U2, with a systematic incorporation of nonlocal spatial correlations and diagonal disorder, we explore the initial effects of electron interactions (U ) in three dimensions. We find that the critical disorder strength (WcU), required to localize all states, increases with increasing U ; implying that the metallic phase is stabilized by interactions. Using our results, we predict a soft pseudogap at the intermediate W close to WcU and demonstrate that the mobility edge (ωɛ) is preserved as long as the chemical potential, μ , is at or beyond the mobility edge energy.

  5. The Unusual Metal-Insulator Transition in Ca(2-x)Sr(x)RuO(4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, T. Maurice

    2002-03-01

    The isoelectronic compounds Ca_2-xSr_xRuO4 offer a rare opportunity to follow the evolution of the electronic structure from a multiband metal, Sr_2RuO_4, to a Mott insulator, Ca_2RuO_4. The evolution is not at all monotonic but proceeds through a series of intermediate regions with unexpected behavior [1]. Sr_2RuO4 is a good metal with the 4 electrons in the t_2g-subshell of the Ru^4+-ions distributed equally in 3 bands. These in turn separate into a d_xy-band which disperses in both directions in the RuO_2-planes and d_xz/d_yz-bands dispersing only in one direction. The hybridization between these components occurs only through very weak interplanar processes. Substituting Ca for Sr leads to band narrowing through a rotation of the RuO_4-octahedra. A series of electronic structure calculations [2] using the LDA+DMFT method to incorporate strong correlations, predict an unusual state with 3 electrons localizing in the narrower d_xz/d_yz bands while the last electron remains itinerant in the broader d_xy-band. The observation of a strongly enhanced and temperature dependent spin susceptibility in the metallic state at x=0.5 is attributed to the S=1/2 local moments of the localized hole in the d_xz/d_yz-orbitals. The superexchange interaction between the local moments is strongly dependent on the specific orbital occupation and so glassy behavior in the orbital ordering can account for the glassy behavior observed in the susceptibility in the range 0.2 < x < 0.5. The final transition to a Mott insulator at x < 0.2 is driven by a compression of the RuO_4-octahedra and a switch to an electronic configuration with a filled d_xy-orbital and 2 electrons in the d_xz/d_yz orbitals which has a S=1 local moment expected for a Ru^4+-ion. [1] S. Nakatsuji and Y. Maeno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2666 (2000). [2] V.I. Anisimov, I.A. Nekrasov, D.E. Kondakov, T.M. Rice, and M. Sigrist, cond-mat0107095 and Eur. Phys. Jour. B (in press).

  6. Metal-Insulator Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Nevill

    1978-01-01

    Explains how changes in temperature, pressure, magnetic field or alloy composition can affect the electronic band structure of substances, leading in some cases to dramatic changes in conductivity. (GA)

  7. Metal-insulator transition in Nd{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}NiO{sub 3}: Entropy change and electronic delocalization

    SciTech Connect

    Jardim, R. F. Andrade, S.; Barbeta, V. B.; Escote, M. T.; Cordero, F.; Torikachvili, M. S.

    2015-05-07

    The metal-insulator (MI) phase transition in Nd{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}NiO{sub 3}, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.35, has been investigated through the pressure dependence of the electrical resistivity ρ(P, T) and measurements of specific heat C{sub P}(T). The MI transition temperature (T{sub MI}) increases with increasing Eu substitution and decreases with increasing pressure. Two distinct regions for the Eu dependence of dT{sub MI}/dP were found: (i) for x ≤ 0.15, dT{sub MI}/dP is nearly constant and ∼−4.3 K/kbar; (ii) for x ≥ 0.15, dT{sub MI}/dP increases with x and it seems to reach a saturation value ∼−6.2 K/kbar for the x = 0.35 sample. This change is accompanied with a strong decrease in the thermal hysteresis in ρ(P, T) between the cooling and warming cycles, observed in the vicinity of T{sub MI}. The entropy change (ΔS) at T{sub MI} for the sample x = 0, estimated by using the dT{sub MI}/dP data and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, resulted in ΔS ∼ 1.2 J/mol K, a value in line with specific heat measurements. When the Eu concentration is increased, the antiferromagnetic (AF) and the MI transitions are separated in temperature, permitting that an estimate of the entropy change due to the AF/Paramagnetic transition be carried out, yielding ΔS{sub M} ∼ 200 mJ/mol K. This value is much smaller than that expected for a s = 1/2 spin system. The analysis of ρ(P, T) and C{sub P}(T) data indicates that the entropy change at T{sub MI} is mainly due to the electronic delocalization and not related to the AF transition.

  8. The metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide: A view at bulk and surface contributions for thin films and the effect of annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.; West, K. G.; Lu, J. W.; Pei, Y.; Wolf, S. A.; Reinke, P.; Sun, Y.

    2009-06-01

    Vanadium dioxide is investigated as potential oxide barrier in spin switches, and in order to incorporate VO2 layers in complex multilayer devices, it is necessary to understand the relation between bulk and surface/interface properties. Highly oriented VO2 thin films were grown on (0001) sapphire single crystal substrates with reactive bias target ion beam deposition. In the analysis of the VO2 films, bulk-sensitive methods [x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transport measurements] and surface sensitive techniques [photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy] were employed. The samples were subjected to heating cycles with annealing temperatures of up to 425 and 525K. Prior to annealing the VO2 films exhibit the transition from the monoclinic to the tetragonal phase with the concurrent change in conductivity by more than a factor of 103 and their phase purity is confirmed by XRD. Annealing to 425K and thus cycling across the metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature has no impact on the bulk properties of the VO2 film but the surface undergoes irreversible electronic changes. The observation of the valence band with PES during the annealing illustrates that the surface adopts a partially metallic character, which is retained after cooling. Annealing to a higher temperature (525K ) triggers a modification of the bulk, which is evidenced by a considerable reduction in the MIT characteristics, and a degradation in crystallite morphology. The local measurement of the conductivity with scanning tunneling spectroscopy shows the transition of the surface from predominantly semiconducting surface prior to annealing to a surface with an overwhelming contribution from metallic sections afterward. The spatial distribution of metallic regions cannot be linked in a unique manner to the crystallite size or location within the crystallites. The onset of oxygen depletion at the surface is held responsible for this behavior. The onset of bulk

  9. Ground-state oxygen holes and the metal-insulator transition in the negative charge-transfer rare-earth nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert J.; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Zubko, Pavlo; Balandeh, Shadi; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Sawatzky, George; Schmitt, Thorsten

    2016-10-01

    The metal-insulator transition and the intriguing physical properties of rare-earth perovskite nickelates have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Nonetheless, a complete understanding of these materials remains elusive. Here we combine X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopies to resolve important aspects of the complex electronic structure of rare-earth nickelates, taking NdNiO3 thin film as representative example. The unusual coexistence of bound and continuum excitations observed in the RIXS spectra provides strong evidence for abundant oxygen holes in the ground state of these materials. Using cluster calculations and Anderson impurity model interpretation, we show that distinct spectral signatures arise from a Ni 3d8 configuration along with holes in the oxygen 2p valence band, confirming suggestions that these materials do not obey a conventional positive charge-transfer picture, but instead exhibit a negative charge-transfer energy in line with recent models interpreting the metal-insulator transition in terms of bond disproportionation.

  10. Ground-state oxygen holes and the metal-insulator transition in the negative charge-transfer rare-earth nickelates.

    PubMed

    Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert J; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N; Zubko, Pavlo; Balandeh, Shadi; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Sawatzky, George; Schmitt, Thorsten

    2016-10-11

    The metal-insulator transition and the intriguing physical properties of rare-earth perovskite nickelates have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Nonetheless, a complete understanding of these materials remains elusive. Here we combine X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopies to resolve important aspects of the complex electronic structure of rare-earth nickelates, taking NdNiO3 thin film as representative example. The unusual coexistence of bound and continuum excitations observed in the RIXS spectra provides strong evidence for abundant oxygen holes in the ground state of these materials. Using cluster calculations and Anderson impurity model interpretation, we show that distinct spectral signatures arise from a Ni 3d(8) configuration along with holes in the oxygen 2p valence band, confirming suggestions that these materials do not obey a conventional positive charge-transfer picture, but instead exhibit a negative charge-transfer energy in line with recent models interpreting the metal-insulator transition in terms of bond disproportionation.

  11. Noise and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare C.

    2006-03-01

    Noise is present in many physical systems and is often viewed as a nuisance. Yet it can also be a probe of microscopic fluctuations. There have been indications recently that the noise in the resistivity increases in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. But what are the characteristics of the noise associated with well-understood first and second order phase transitions? It is well known that critical fluctuations are associated with second order phase transitions, but do these fluctuations lead to enhanced noise? We have addressed these questions using Monte Carlo simulations to study the noise in the 2D Ising model which undergoes a second order phase transition, and in the 5-state Potts model which undergoes a first order phase transition. We monitor these systems as the temperature drops below the critical temperature. At each temperature, after equilibration is established, we obtain the time series of quantities characterizing the properties of the system, i.e., the energy and magnetization per site. We apply different methods, such as the noise power spectrum, the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the second spectrum of the noise, to analyze the fluctuations in these quantities.

  12. Gold clusters on Nb-doped SrTiO3: effects of metal-insulator transition on heterogeneous Au nanocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Miao; Feng, Yuan Ping; Zhang, Chun

    2012-07-21

    Doping induced metal-insulator transition (MIT) in transition-metal (TM) oxides has been the topic of continued interest outside the field of catalysis chemistry. In this paper, via ab initio (GGA+U) calculations, we show that Nb-doping induced MIT in SrTiO(3) causes a dimensionality crossover of supported Au clusters, and at the same time, greatly enhances the stability and catalytic activity of these clusters. Underlying the predicted high catalytic activity of Au clusters towards the CO oxidation is the MIT induced interaction between the O(2) antibonding 2π* orbital and Au conduction bands, leading to a shift in the population of electrons from Au to the antibonding orbital and the activation of the O(2) molecule. We expect these results to provide a new methodology for the control of catalytic performance of TM-oxide supported Au nanoclusters.

  13. Effects of low-energy excitations on spectral properties at higher binding energy: the metal-insulator transition of VO(2).

    PubMed

    Gatti, Matteo; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Reining, Lucia

    2015-03-20

    The effects of electron interaction on spectral properties can be understood in terms of coupling between excitations. In transition-metal oxides, the spectral function close to the Fermi level and low-energy excitations between d states have attracted particular attention. In this work we focus on photoemission spectra of vanadium dioxide over a wide (10 eV) range of binding energies. We show that there are clear signatures of the metal-insulator transition over the whole range due to a cross coupling of the delocalized s and p states with low-energy excitations between the localized d states. This coupling can be understood by advanced calculations based on many-body perturbation theory in the GW approximation. We also advocate the fact that tuning the photon energy up to the hard-x-ray range can help to distinguish fingerprints of correlation from pure band-structure effects.

  14. Low-temperature oriented growth of vanadium dioxide films on CoCrTa metal template on Si and vertical metal-insulator transition

    SciTech Connect

    Okimura, Kunio; Mian, Md.Suruz

    2012-09-15

    The authors achieved oriented growth of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) films on CoCrTa metal template grown on an Si substrate. Low-temperature ({approx}250 Degree-Sign C) deposition of VO{sub 2} films using inductively coupled-plasma-assisted sputtering technique realized an abrupt interface between VO{sub 2} and CoCrTa layers, suppressing the oxidation and diffusion of metal components. The films revealed a metal-insulator transition with resistance change of over 2 orders of magnitude. The CoCrTa film, in which Co hexagonal crystalline grains with c-axis orientation were surrounded by segregated Cr and Ta, serves for the oriented growth of VO{sub 2} crystalline film, enabling higher orders of transition in resistance and low voltage switching, even for the vertical (out-of-plane) direction.

  15. Thickness-Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in Sb-doped SnO2 Ultrathin Films: The Role of Quantum Confinement

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Chang; Zhu, Weiguang; Zhang, Zheng; Soon Tok, Eng; Ling, Bo; Pan, Jisheng

    2015-01-01

    A thickness induced metal-insulator transition (MIT) was firstly observed in Sb-doped SnO2 (SnO2:Sb) epitaxial ultrathin films deposited on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Both electrical and spectroscopic studies provide clear evidence of a critical thickness for the metallic conductivity in SnO2:Sb thin films and the oxidation state transition of the impurity element Sb. With the shrinkage of film thickness, the broadening of the energy band gap as well as the enhancement of the impurity activation energy was studied and attributed to the quantum confinement effect. Based on the scenario of impurity level pinning and band gap broadening in quantum confined nanostructures, we proposed a generalized energy diagram to understand the thickness induced MIT in the SnO2:Sb system. PMID:26616286

  16. Electron lone pair distortion facilitated metal-insulator transition in β-Pb{sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wangoh, L.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Marley, P. M.; Banerjee, S.; Sallis, S.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2014-05-05

    The electronic structure of β-Pb{sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires has been studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The recent synthesis of defect-free β-Pb{sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires resulted in the discovery of an abrupt voltage-induced metal insulator transition. First principle calculations predicted an additional V-O-Pb hybridized “in-gap” state unique to this vanadium bronze playing a significant role in facilitating the transition. We confirm the existence, energetic position, and orbital character of the “in-gap” state. Moreover, we reveal that this state is a hybridized Pb 6s–O 2p antibonding lone pair state resulting from the asymmetric coordination of the Pb{sup 2+} ions.

  17. Orbital magnetic field driven metal-insulator transition in spinless extended Falicov-Kimball model on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Umesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Ground state properties of spinless, extended Falicov-Kimball model (FKM) on a finite size triangular lattice with orbital magnetic field normal to the lattice are studied using numerical diagonalization and Monte-Carlo simulation methods. We show that the ground state configurations of localized electrons strongly depend on the magnetic field. Magnetic field induces a metal to insulator transition accompanied by segregated phase to an ordered regular phase except at density nf = 1 / 2 of localized electrons. It is proposed that magnetic field can be used as a new tool to produce segregated phase which was otherwise accessible only either with correlated hopping or with large on-site interactions.

  18. Improved metal-insulator-transition characteristics of ultrathin VO{sub 2} epitaxial films by optimized surface preparation of rutile TiO{sub 2} substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, Koen; Aetukuri, Nagaphani; Jeong, Jaewoo; Samant, Mahesh G.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2014-02-24

    Key to the growth of epitaxial, atomically thin films is the preparation of the substrates on which they are deposited. Here, we report the growth of atomically smooth, ultrathin films of VO{sub 2} (001), only ∼2 nm thick, which exhibit pronounced metal-insulator transitions, with a change in resistivity of ∼500 times, at a temperature that is close to that of films five times thicker. These films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on single crystalline TiO{sub 2}(001) substrates that were treated by dipping in acetone, HCl and HF in successive order, followed by an anneal at 700–750  °C in flowing oxygen. This pretreatment removes surface contaminants, TiO{sub 2} defects, and provides a terraced, atomically smooth surface.

  19. Substrate-mediated strain effect on the role of thermal heating and electric field on metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide nanobeams

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Woo; Jung, Wan-Gil; Hyun-Cho; Bae, Tae-Sung; Chang, Sung-Jin; Jang, Ja-Soon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Kim, Bong-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Single-crystalline vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures have recently attracted great attention because of their single domain metal-insulator transition (MIT) nature that differs from a bulk sample. The VO2 nanostructures can also provide new opportunities to explore, understand, and ultimately engineer MIT properties for applications of novel functional devices. Importantly, the MIT properties of the VO2 nanostructures are significantly affected by stoichiometry, doping, size effect, defects, and in particular, strain. Here, we report the effect of substrate-mediated strain on the correlative role of thermal heating and electric field on the MIT in the VO2 nanobeams by altering the strength of the substrate attachment. Our study may provide helpful information on controlling the properties of VO2 nanobeam for the device applications by changing temperature and voltage with a properly engineered strain. PMID:26040637

  20. Thermoelectric effect across the metal-insulator domain walls in VO2 microbeams.

    PubMed

    Cao, J; Fan, W; Zheng, H; Wu, J

    2009-12-01

    We report on measurements of Seebeck effect in single-crystal VO(2) microbeams across their metal-insulator phase transition. One-dimensionally aligned metal-insulator domain walls were reversibly created and eliminated along single VO(2) beams by varying temperature, which allows for accurate extraction of the net contribution to the Seebeck effect from these domain walls. We observed significantly lower Seebeck coefficient in the metal-insulator coexisting regime than predicted by a linear combination of contributions from the insulator and metal domains. This indicates that the net contribution of the domain walls has an opposite sign from that of the insulator and metal phases separately. Possible origins that may be responsible for this unexpected effect were discussed in the context of complications in this correlated electron material.

  1. Changes in the electronic structure and spin dynamics across the metal-insulator transition in LaLa1-xSrxCoO3

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. X.; Hoch, M. J. R.; Moulton, W. G.; Kuhns, P. L.; Reyes, A. P.; Boebinger, G. S.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.

    2016-01-25

    The magnetoelectronic properties of La1-xSrxCoO3, which include giant magnetoresistance, are strongly dependent on the level of hole doping. The system evolves, with increasing x, from a spin glass insulator to a metallic ferromagnet with a metal-insulator (MI) transition at xC ~ 0.18. Nanoscale phase separation occurs in the insulating phase and persists, to some extent, into the just-metallic phase. The present experiments at 4.2 K have used 139La NMR to investigate the transition from hopping dynamics for x < xC to Korringa-like ferromagnetic metal behavior for x > xC. A marked decrease in the spin-lattice relaxation rate is found in the vicinity of xC as the MI transition is crossed. Lastly, this behavior is accounted for in terms of the evolution of the electronic structure and dynamics with cluster size.

  2. Theory of the magnetic and metal-insulator transitions in RNiO3 bulk and layered structures.

    PubMed

    Lau, Bayo; Millis, Andrew J

    2013-03-22

    A slave rotor--Hartree-Fock formalism is presented for studying the properties of the p-d model describing perovskite transition metal oxides, and a flexible and efficient numerical formalism is developed for its solution. The methodology is shown to yield, within a unified formulation, the significant aspects of the rare-earth nickelate phase diagram, including the paramagnetic metal state observed for the LaNiO3 and the correct ground-state magnetic order of insulating compounds. It is then used to elucidate ground state changes occurring as morphology is varied from bulk to strained and unstrained thin-film form. For ultrathin films, epitaxial strain and charge transfer to the apical out-of-plane oxygen sites are shown to have significant impact on the phase diagram.

  3. Theory of the Magnetic and Metal-Insulator Transitions in RNiO3 Bulk and Layered Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Bayo; Millis, Andrew J.

    2013-03-01

    A slave rotor—Hartree-Fock formalism is presented for studying the properties of the p-d model describing perovskite transition metal oxides, and a flexible and efficient numerical formalism is developed for its solution. The methodology is shown to yield, within a unified formulation, the significant aspects of the rare-earth nickelate phase diagram, including the paramagnetic metal state observed for the LaNiO3 and the correct ground-state magnetic order of insulating compounds. It is then used to elucidate ground state changes occurring as morphology is varied from bulk to strained and unstrained thin-film form. For ultrathin films, epitaxial strain and charge transfer to the apical out-of-plane oxygen sites are shown to have significant impact on the phase diagram.

  4. Theory of the magnetic and metal-insulator transitions in RNiO3 bulk and layered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Bayo; Millis, Andrew J.

    2013-03-01

    A slave rotor-Hartree Fock formalism is presented for studying the properties of the p-d model describing perovskite transition metal oxides, and a flexible and efficient numerical formalism is developed for its solution. The methodology is shown to yield, within an unified formulation, the significant aspects of the rare earth nickelate phase diagram, including the paramagnetic metal state observed for the LaNiO3 and the correct ground-state magnetic order of insulating compounds. It is then used to elucidate ground state changes occurring as morphology is varied from bulk to strained and un-strained thin-film form. For ultrathin films, epitaxial strain and charge-transfer to the apical out-of-plane oxygen sites are shown to have significant impact on the phase diagram. This effort is supported by US National Science Foundation under grant NSF-DMR-1006282

  5. Metal-insulator transition in CuIr2S4: XAS results, structure revisited, electronic structure proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Interestingly, the magnetism in the spinel compound Fe3O4 (loadstone), constitutes the correlated electron material/problem of the greatest antiquity known to man. The Verwy transition problem in Fe3O4 is, by comparison, young at only 67 years of age. Recently experimental and theoretical insights into such exotic magnetic, charge, and orbital orderings in transition metal (T) spinel compounds have been rapidly emerging. The leitmotifs in these works involve: frustrated tripartite crossing 1D chains of edge-sharing T-ligand octahedra; T-d(t2g) orbital ordering onto subsets of these chains which involve d-d overlap; dimmer formation on these chains; and/or charge ordering on the chains dependent on band filling. Understanding the low temperature structural and metal (M) to insulator (I) transition in the spinel compound CuIr2S4 provides a key link in the generalization to other such systems. S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements across this M-I transition reflect a dramatic Ir d-electronic state redistribution^1. These results stimulated a detailed re-evaluation of the of I-phase crystal structure in terms of: decoupled chains of IrS6 octahedra along the (110)-type directions; and an Ir^3+ (Ir^4+-Ir^4+) Ir^3+ repeat pattern ordering, where the (Ir^4+-Ir^4+) pair forms a dimmer. Further, the electronic state changes, evidenced by the XAS, motivated a model in which the I-phase involves: an orbital ordering of the highest lying t2g electron into 1D chains; the 3/4 filling of this 1D band dictating the periodicity of the orbital/charge ordering; and the direct t2g-t2g dimmer bonding production of an antibonding state prominent in the S-K edge spectrum. The generalization of these concepts to other transition metal spinels will be addressed. ^1M. Croft, W. Caliebe, H. Woo, T. A. Tyson, D. Sills, Y. S. Hor, S-W. Cheong, V. Kiryukhin, and S-J. Oh, Phys. Rev. B 67 (Rapid Comm.), 201102 (2003)

  6. Field-dependent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and interfacial metal-insulator transition in CoFeB/MgO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsukov, Igor; Fu, Yu; Safranski, C.; Chen, Yu-Jin; Youngblood, B.; Goncalves, A.; Sampaio, L.; Arias, R.; Spasova, M.; Farle, M.; Krivorotov, I.

    2015-03-01

    The CoFeB/MgO systems play a central role in magnetic tunnel junction devices due to the high tunneling magnetoresistance ratio. A strong perpendicular anisotropy (PMA) and voltage-controlled anisotropy are beneficial for spintronics application. We study PMA in thin films of Ta/Co20Fe60B20/MgO in the thickness range of 0.9-2.5 nm and find that it can be best described by the first two order terms. Surprisingly, we find PMA to be strongly field-dependent. Our results show that the field dependence has significant implications for determining and customizing magnetic anisotropy in spintronic applications. Our data suggest that it can be caused by an inhomogeneous interfacial spin pinning with a possibly ferrimagnetic phase at the CoFeB/MgO interface. We perform magnetometry and transport measurements and find a magnetization peak and resistance transitions at 160K, which are consistent with the presence of an interfacial oxide phase undergoing a Morin-like transition.

  7. Key role of lattice symmetry in the metal-insulator transition of NdNiO3 films

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jack Y.; Kim, Honggyu; Mikheev, Evgeny; Hauser, Adam J.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Bulk NdNiO3 exhibits a metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) as the temperature is lowered that is also seen in tensile strained films. In contrast, films that are under a large compressive strain typically remain metallic at all temperatures. To clarify the microscopic origins of this behavior, we use position averaged convergent beam electron diffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy to characterize strained NdNiO3 films both above and below the MIT temperature. We show that a symmetry lowering structural change takes place in case of the tensile strained film, which undergoes an MIT, but is absent in the compressively strained film. Using space group symmetry arguments, we show that these results support the bond length disproportionation model of the MIT in the rare-earth nickelates. Furthermore, the results provide insights into the non-Fermi liquid phase that is observed in films for which the MIT is absent. PMID:27033955

  8. Key role of lattice symmetry in the metal-insulator transition of NdNiO3 films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jack Y.; Kim, Honggyu; Mikheev, Evgeny; Hauser, Adam J.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Here, bulk NdNiO3 exhibits a metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) as the temperature is lowered that is also seen in tensile strained films. In contrast, films that are under a large compressive strain typically remain metallic at all temperatures. To clarify the microscopic origins of this behavior, we use position averaged convergent beam electron diffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy to characterize strained NdNiO3 films both above and below the MIT temperature. We show that a symmetry lowering structural change takes place in case of the tensile strained film, which undergoes an MIT, but is absent in the compressively strained film. Using space group symmetry arguments, we show that these results support the bond length disproportionation model of the MIT in the rare-earth nickelates. Furthermore, the results provide insights into the non-Fermi liquid phase that is observed in films for which the MIT is absent.

  9. Hopping conduction in p-type MoS{sub 2} near the critical regime of the metal-insulator transition

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Tae-Eon; Jang, Chaun E-mail: presto@kist.re.kr; Suh, Joonki; Wu, Junqiao; Seo, Dongjea; Park, Joonsuk; Lin, Der-Yuh; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Choi, Heon-Jin; Chang, Joonyeon E-mail: presto@kist.re.kr

    2015-11-30

    We report on temperature-dependent charge and magneto transport of chemically doped MoS{sub 2}, p-type molybdenum disulfide degenerately doped with niobium (MoS{sub 2}:Nb). The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity is characterized by a power law, ρ(T) ∼ T{sup −0.25}, which indicates that the system resides within the critical regime of the metal-insulator (M-I) transition. By applying high magnetic field (∼7 T), we observed a 20% increase in the resistivity at 2 K. The positive magnetoresistance shows that charge transport in this system is governed by the Mott-like three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) at low temperatures. According to relationship between magnetic-field and temperature dependencies of VRH resistivity, we extracted a characteristic localization length of 19.8 nm for MoS{sub 2}:Nb on the insulating side of the M-I transition.

  10. Modulation of metal-insulator transitions by field-controlled strain in NdNiO3/SrTiO3/PMN-PT (001) heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Seungyang; Oh, Chadol; Eom, Man Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Ryu, Jungho; Son, Junwoo; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2016-02-01

    The band width control through external stress has been demonstrated as a useful knob to modulate metal-insulator transition (MIT) in RNiO3 as a prototype correlated materials. In particular, lattice mismatch strain using different substrates have been widely utilized to investigate the effect of strain on transition temperature so far but the results were inconsistent in the previous literatures. Here, we demonstrate dynamic modulation of MIT based on electric field-controlled pure strain in high-quality NdNiO3 (NNO) thin films utilizing converse-piezoelectric effect of (001)-cut - (PMN-PT) single crystal substrates. Despite the difficulty in the NNO growth on rough PMN-PT substrates, the structural quality of NNO thin films has been significantly improved by inserting SrTiO3 (STO) buffer layers. Interestingly, the MIT temperature in NNO is downward shifted by ~3.3 K in response of 0.25% in-plane compressive strain, which indicates less effective TMI modulation of field-induced strain than substrate-induced strain. This study provides not only scientific insights on band-width control of correlated materials using pure strain but also potentials for energy-efficient electronic devices.

  11. Modulation of metal-insulator transitions by field-controlled strain in NdNiO3/SrTiO3/PMN-PT (001) heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seungyang; Oh, Chadol; Eom, Man Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Ryu, Jungho; Son, Junwoo; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2016-02-26

    The band width control through external stress has been demonstrated as a useful knob to modulate metal-insulator transition (MIT) in RNiO3 as a prototype correlated materials. In particular, lattice mismatch strain using different substrates have been widely utilized to investigate the effect of strain on transition temperature so far but the results were inconsistent in the previous literatures. Here, we demonstrate dynamic modulation of MIT based on electric field-controlled pure strain in high-quality NdNiO3 (NNO) thin films utilizing converse-piezoelectric effect of (001)-cut Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3)O3-(PbTiO3) (PMN-PT) single crystal substrates. Despite the difficulty in the NNO growth on rough PMN-PT substrates, the structural quality of NNO thin films has been significantly improved by inserting SrTiO3 (STO) buffer layers. Interestingly, the MIT temperature in NNO is downward shifted by ~3.3 K in response of 0.25% in-plane compressive strain, which indicates less effective TMI modulation of field-induced strain than substrate-induced strain. This study provides not only scientific insights on band-width control of correlated materials using pure strain but also potentials for energy-efficient electronic devices.

  12. Modulation of metal-insulator transitions by field-controlled strain in NdNiO3/SrTiO3/PMN-PT (001) heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Seungyang; Oh, Chadol; Eom, Man Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Ryu, Jungho; Son, Junwoo; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2016-01-01

    The band width control through external stress has been demonstrated as a useful knob to modulate metal-insulator transition (MIT) in RNiO3 as a prototype correlated materials. In particular, lattice mismatch strain using different substrates have been widely utilized to investigate the effect of strain on transition temperature so far but the results were inconsistent in the previous literatures. Here, we demonstrate dynamic modulation of MIT based on electric field-controlled pure strain in high-quality NdNiO3 (NNO) thin films utilizing converse-piezoelectric effect of (001)-cut - (PMN-PT) single crystal substrates. Despite the difficulty in the NNO growth on rough PMN-PT substrates, the structural quality of NNO thin films has been significantly improved by inserting SrTiO3 (STO) buffer layers. Interestingly, the MIT temperature in NNO is downward shifted by ~3.3 K in response of 0.25% in-plane compressive strain, which indicates less effective TMI modulation of field-induced strain than substrate-induced strain. This study provides not only scientific insights on band-width control of correlated materials using pure strain but also potentials for energy-efficient electronic devices. PMID:26916618

  13. Tunable metal-insulator transition in Nd{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}NiO{sub 3} (x = 0.3, 0.4) perovskites thin film at near room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Tao; Qi, Zeming Wang, Yuyin; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Guobin; Wang, Yu; Liu, Miao

    2015-07-13

    Metal-insulator transition (MIT) occurs due to the charge disproportionation and lattice distortions in rare-earth nickelates. Existing studies revealed that the MIT behavior of rare-earth nickelates is fairly sensitive to external stress/pressure, suggesting a viable route for MIT strain engineering. Unlike applying extrinsic strain, the MIT can also be modulated by through rare-earth cation mixing, which can be viewed as intrinsic quantum stress. We choose Nd{sub 1−X}Y{sub X}NiO{sub 3} (x = 0.3, 0.4) perovskites thin films as a prototype system to exhibit the tunable sharp MIT at near room temperature. By adjusting Y concentration, the transition temperature of the thin films can be changed within the range of 340–360 K. X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and in situ infrared spectroscopy are employed to probe the structural and optical property variation affected by composition and temperature. The infrared transmission intensity decreases with temperature across the MIT, indicating a pronounced thermochromic effect. Meanwhile, the XAFS result exhibits that the crystal atomistic structure changes accompanying with the Y atoms incorporation and MIT phase transition. The heavily doped Y atoms result in the pre-edge peak descent and Ni-O bond elongation, suggesting an enhanced charge disproportionation effect and the weakening of hybridization between Ni-3d and O-2p orbits.

  14. Key role of lattice symmetry in the metal-insulator transition of NdNiO3 films

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Jack Y.; Kim, Honggyu; Mikheev, Evgeny; ...

    2016-04-01

    Here, bulk NdNiO3 exhibits a metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) as the temperature is lowered that is also seen in tensile strained films. In contrast, films that are under a large compressive strain typically remain metallic at all temperatures. To clarify the microscopic origins of this behavior, we use position averaged convergent beam electron diffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy to characterize strained NdNiO3 films both above and below the MIT temperature. We show that a symmetry lowering structural change takes place in case of the tensile strained film, which undergoes an MIT, but is absent in the compressively strained film. Usingmore » space group symmetry arguments, we show that these results support the bond length disproportionation model of the MIT in the rare-earth nickelates. Furthermore, the results provide insights into the non-Fermi liquid phase that is observed in films for which the MIT is absent.« less

  15. Chromium-niobium co-doped vanadium dioxide films: Large temperature coefficient of resistance and practically no thermal hysteresis of the metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kenichi; Shibuya, Keisuke; Suzuki, Megumi; Sakai, Kenichi; Fujita, Jun-ichi; Sawa, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of chromium (Cr) and niobium (Nb) co-doping on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the thermal hysteresis of the metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) films. We determined the TCR and thermal-hysteresis-width diagram of the V1-x-yCrxNbyO2 films by electrical-transport measurements and we found that the doping conditions x ≳ y and x + y ≥ 0.1 are appropriate for simultaneously realizing a large TCR value and an absence of thermal hysteresis in the films. By using these findings, we developed a V0.90Cr0.06Nb0.04O2 film grown on a TiO2-buffered SiO2/Si substrate that showed practically no thermal hysteresis while retaining a large TCR of 11.9%/K. This study has potential applications in the development of VO2-based uncooled bolometers.

  16. Synthetic beta-K(0.33)V2O5 nanorods: a metal-insulator transition in vanadium oxide bronze.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Yan, Wensheng; Xie, Yi

    2011-12-02

    We found a linear relationship between the metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature and the A(+) ionic radius of the beta-A(0.33)V(2)O(5) bronze family, leading our attention to beta-K(0.33)V(2)O(5) which has been neglected for a long time. We have introduced a facile hydrothermal method to obtain the single-crystalline beta-K(0.33)V(2)O(5) nanorods. As expected, both the temperature-dependence of the resistivity and magnetization demonstrated MITs at about 72 K for beta-K(0.33)V(2)O(5), thus matching well with the linear relationship described above. The beta-K(0.33)V(2)O(5) was assigned as a new member of the beta-A(0.33)V(2)O(5) bronze family for their similar crystal and electronic structures and their MIT property; this addition enriches the beta-A(0.33)V(2)O(5) bronze family.

  17. Metal-Insulator Transition and the Temperature of the Pseudogap Anomaly Opening in Praseodymium Doped Y1-zPrzBa2Cu3O7-δ Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, R. V.; Nazyrov, Z. F.; Goulatis, I. L.; Chroneos, A.; Pinto Simoes, V. M.

    2013-02-01

    The influence of praseodymium doping on the electrical resistivity in the ab-plane of Y1-zPrzBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals, is investigated. It is determined that as the concentration of praseodymium (0.0 ≤ z ≤ 0.5) is rising there occurs a significant shift of the temperature regions, corresponding to the metal-insulator transitions, as well as to the regime of the implementation of the pseudogap anomaly. The part of the curves related to the metal-insulator transition are well described by means of an asymptotic dependence that corresponds to the implementation of a quantum critical regime in the system, the so-called law of the "one third".

  18. Metal-insulator transition in Ba3Fe1 -xRu2 +xO9 : Interplay between site disorder, chemical percolation, and electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middey, S.; Aich, Payel; Meneghini, C.; Mukherjee, K.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Siruguri, V.; Mahadevan, P.; Ray, Sugata

    2016-11-01

    Perovskites containing barium metal at the A site often take up unusual hexagonal structures having more than one type of possible sites for the B cation to occupy. This opens up various different B -B - or B -O-B -type connectivities and consequent physical properties which are naturally missing in cubic perovskites. BaRuO3 is one such system where doping of Ru (4 d4 ) by other transition metals (Mn +) creates similar conditions, giving rise to various M -Ru interactions. Interestingly, the 6 H hexagonal structure of doped barium ruthenate triple perovskite (Ba3M Ru2O9 ) seems to possess some internal checks because within the structure M ion always occupies the 2 a site and Ru goes to the 4 f site, allowing only M -O-Ru 180∘ and Ru-O-Ru 90∘ interactions to occur. The only exception is observed in the case of the Fe dopant, which allows us to study almost the full Ba3Fe1 -xRu2 +xO9 series of compounds with wide ranges of x because here Fe ions have the ability to freely go to the 4 f sites and Ru readily takes up the 2 a positions. Therefore, here one has the opportunity to probe the evolution of electronic and magnetic properties as a function of doping by going from BaRuO3 (paramagnetic metal) to BaFeO3 (ferromagnetic insulator). Our detailed experimental and theoretical results show that the series does exhibit a percolative metal-insulator transition with an accompanying but not coincidental magnetic transition as a function of x .

  19. Simultaneous metal-insulator and antiferromagnetic transitions in orthorhombic perovskite iridate S r0.94I r0.78O2.68 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Terzic, J.; Ye, Feng; Wan, X. G.; Wang, D.; Wang, Jinchen; Wang, Xiaoping; Schlottmann, P.; Yuan, S. J.; Cao, G.

    2016-06-01

    The orthorhombic perovskite SrIr O3 is a semimetal, an intriguing exception in iridates where the strong spin-orbit interaction coupled with electron correlations tends to impose an insulating state. We report results of our investigation of bulk single-crystal S r0.94I r0.78O2.68 or Ir-deficient, orthorhombic perovskite SrIr O3 . It retains the same crystal structure as stoichiometric SrIr O3 but exhibits a sharp, simultaneous antiferromagnetic (AFM) and metal-insulator (MI) transition occurring in the basal-plane resistivity at 185 K. Above it, the basal-plane resistivity features an extended regime of almost linear temperature dependence up to 800 K but the strong electronic anisotropy renders an insulating behavior in the out-of-plane resistivity. The Hall resistivity undergoes an abrupt sign change and grows below 40 K, which along with the Sommerfeld constant of 20 mJ /mol K2 suggests a multiband effect. All results including our first-principles calculations underscore a delicacy of the paramagnetic, metallic state in SrIr O3 that is in close proximity to an AFM insulating state. The contrasting ground states in isostructural S r0.94I r0.78O2.68 and SrIr O3 illustrate a critical role of lattice distortions and Ir deficiency in rebalancing the ground state in the iridates. Finally, the concurrent AFM and MI transitions reveal a direct correlation between the magnetic transition and formation of an activation gap in the iridate, which is conspicuously absent in S r2Ir O4 .

  20. Universality classes of metal-insulator transitions in strongly correlated electron systems and mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Masatoshi

    2005-08-01

    We study three regimes of the Mott transitions characterized by classical, marginally quantum, and quantum. In the classical regime, the quantum degeneracy temperature is lower than the critical temperature of the Mott transition Tc , below which the first-order transition occurs. The quantum regime describes the Tc=0 boundary of the continuous transition. The marginal quantum region appears sandwiched by these two regimes. The classical transition is described by the Ising universality class. However, the Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson scheme breaks down when the quantum effects dominate. The marginal quantum critical region is categorized to an unusual universality class, where the order parameter exponent β , the susceptibility exponent γ , and the field exponent δ are given by β=d/2 , γ=2-d/2 , and δ=4/d , respectively, with d being the spatial dimensionality. It is shown that the transition is always at the upper critical dimension irrespective of the spatial dimensions. Therefore the mean-field exponents and the hyperscaling description become both valid at any dimension. The obtained universality classes agree with the recent experimental results on the Mott criticality in organic conductors such as κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl and transition-metal compounds such as V2O3 . The marginal quantum criticality is characterized by the critically enhanced electron-density fluctuations at small wave number. The characteristic energy scale of the density fluctuation extends to the order of the Mott gap in contrast to the spin and orbital fluctuation scales and causes various unusual properties. The mode coupling theory shows that the marginal quantum criticality further generates non-Fermi-liquid properties in the metallic side. The effects of the long-range Coulomb force in the filling-control Mott transition are also discussed. A mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity emerges from the density fluctuations at small wave number inherent in the marginal quantum

  1. Tuning the metal-insulator transition in d1 and d2 perovskites by epitaxial strain: A first-principles-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sclauzero, Gabriele; Dymkowski, Krzysztof; Ederer, Claude

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the effect of epitaxial strain on the Mott metal-insulator transition (MIT) in perovskite systems with d1 and d2 electron configurations of the transition metal (TM) cation. We first discuss the general trends expected from the changes in the crystal-field splitting and in the hopping parameters that are induced by epitaxial strain. We argue that the strain-induced crystal-field splitting generally favors the Mott-insulating state, whereas the strain-induced changes in the hopping parameters favor the metallic state under compressive strain and the insulating state under tensile strain. Thus the two effects can effectively cancel each other under compressive strain, while they usually cooperate under tensile strain, in this case favoring the insulating state. We then validate these general considerations by performing electronic structure calculations for several d1 and d2 perovskites, using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We isolate the individual effects of strain-induced changes in either hopping or crystal-field by performing DMFT calculations where we fix one type of parameter to the corresponding unstrained DFT values. These calculations confirm our general considerations for SrVO3 (d1) and LaVO3 (d2), whereas the case of LaTiO3 (d1) is distinctly different, due to the strong effect of the octahedral tilt distortion in the underlying perovskite crystal structure. Our results demonstrate the possibility to tune the electronic properties of correlated TM oxides by using epitaxial strain, which allows to control the strength of electronic correlations and the vicinity to the Mott MIT.

  2. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: The Mott metal - insulator transition in the two-dimensional Hubbard model at half-filling with lifetime effects within the moment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, J. J.; Schafroth, S.

    1998-06-01

    We explore the effect of the self-energy, 0953-8984/10/23/002/img5, having a single pole, 0953-8984/10/23/002/img6, with spectral weight 0953-8984/10/23/002/img7 and quasi-particle lifetime 0953-8984/10/23/002/img8, on the density of states. We obtain the set of parameters 0953-8984/10/23/002/img6, 0953-8984/10/23/002/img7, and 0953-8984/10/23/002/img8 by means of the moment approach (exact sum rules) of Nolting. Due to our choice of self-energy, the system is not a Fermi liquid for any value of the interaction, a result which also holds in the moment approach of Nolting without lifetime effects. Our self-energy satisfies the Kramers - Kronig relationships since it is analytic in one of the complex half-planes. By increasing the value of the local interaction, 0953-8984/10/23/002/img12, at half-filling 0953-8984/10/23/002/img13, there is a transition from a paramagnetic metal to a paramagnetic insulator (a Mott metal - insulator transition) for values of 0953-8984/10/23/002/img12 of the order of 0953-8984/10/23/002/img15 (W is the bandwidth) which is in agreement with numerical results for finite lattices and for an infinite number of dimensions 0953-8984/10/23/002/img16. These results expose the main weakness of the spherical approximation of Nolting: a finite gap for any finite value of the interaction, i.e., an insulator for any finite value of 0953-8984/10/23/002/img12. Lifetime effects are absolutely indispensable to making our scheme work better than that based on improving the narrowing band factor, 0953-8984/10/23/002/img18, beyond that obtained from the spherical approximation of Nolting.

  3. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III–V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows. PMID:22163382

  4. Controlling the sharpness of metal-insulator transition in epitaxial (La1-xPrx)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.35) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pingfan; Huang, Zhen; Tan, Xuelian; Chen, Binbin; Zhi, Bowen; Gao, Guanyin; Chen, Feng; Wu, Wenbin

    2014-10-01

    We report that epitaxial strain and chemical doping can be used cooperatively to tune the sharpness of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in epitaxial (La1-xPrx)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LPCMO) films. Compared to multiple MITs in anisotropically strained LPCMO/(LaAlO3)0.3(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7(001)C (LSAT) films with a phase-separated ground state, the lattice-matched LPCMO/NdGaO3(110)Or (NGO) films show a sharp MIT near the Curie temperature (TC), with a ferromagnetic-metallic ground state. The sharpness of MIT, as evaluated by the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), can be two times larger in LPCMO/NGO films than in LPCMO/LSAT films. Moreover, for LPCMO/NGO films, TCR greatly relies on the Pr doping level x, where a maximum TCR value of 88.17% K-1 can be obtained at x = 0.25, but shows less dependence on the film thicknesses. These results suggest that the combination of epitaxial strain and chemical doping could be employed to control not only the ground state of the manganite films, but the sharpness of MIT at various TC, providing the feasibility to design manganite-based infrared devices in a broad temperature range.

  5. Superconductivity and crystal structural origins of the metal-insulator transition in Ba6 -xSrxNb10O30 tetragonal tungsten bronzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodiaznyi, Taras; Sakurai, Hiroya; Isobe, Masaaki; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Forbes, Scott; Mozharivskyj, Yurij; Munsie, Timothy J. S.; Luke, Graeme M.; Gurak, Mary; Clarke, David R.

    2015-12-01

    Ba6 -xSrxNb10O30 solid solution with 0 ≤ x ≤6 forms the filled tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure. The Ba-end member crystallizes in the highest symmetry P 4 /m b m space group (a =b =12.5842 (18 )Å and c =3.9995 (8 )Å ) and so do all the compositions with 0 ≤ x ≤5 . The Sr-end member of the solid solution crystallizes in the tentatively assigned A m a m space group (a *=17.506 (4 )Å , b *=34.932 (7 )Å , and c *=7.7777 (2 )Å ). The latter space group is related to the parent P 4 /m b m TTB structure as a * ≈ √{2 }a ,b * ≈2 √{2 }a ,c *=2 c . Low-temperature specific heat measurements indicate that the Ba-rich compositions with x ≤2 are conventional BCS superconductors with TC ≤1.6 K and superconducting energy gaps of ≤0.38 meV. The values of the TC in the cation-filled Nb-based TTBs reported here are comparable with those of the unfilled KxWO3 and NaxWO3 TTBs having large alkali ion deficiency. As the unit cell volume decreases with increasing x , an unexpected metal-insulator transition (MIT) in Ba6 -xSrxNb10O30 occurs at x ≥3 . We discuss the possible origins of the MIT in terms of the carrier concentration, symmetry break, and Anderson localization.

  6. The metal-insulator phase transition in mixed potassium-rubidium electro-sodalites.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Georg K H

    2004-09-01

    The collapse under pressure of the antiferromagnetic ground state of the potassium-rubidium electro-sodalite is studied using the linearized augmented plane wave with local orbitals method. Special considerations needed for setting up this basis for systems such as the electro-sodalites are discussed. It is demonstrated that the magnetism collapses at a unit-cell volume similar to potassium electro-sodalite and rubidium electro-sodalite. A critical pressure of 8 GPa is predicted. The mechanism behind the collapse is a mixing of the F-center states with the highly diffuse unoccupied p states of the alkali atoms.

  7. Materials Characterization and Microelectronic Implementation of Metal-insulator Transition Materials and Phase Change Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    the black and red curves have 9 points, the green curve has 8 points, the blue curve has 7 points, the cyan curve has 6 points, and the magenta...chemometrics technique," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 90, no. 4, 2007. [125] C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper and P. F

  8. Decoupling of structural and electronic phase transitions in VO2.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhensheng; Han, Tzong-Ru T; Mahanti, Subhendra D; Duxbury, Phillip M; Yuan, Fei; Ruan, Chong-Yu; Wang, Kevin; Wu, Junqiao

    2012-10-19

    Using optical, TEM, and ultrafast electron diffraction experiments we find that single crystal VO(2) microbeams gently placed on insulating substrates or metal grids exhibit different behaviors, with structural and metal-insulator transitions occurring at the same temperature for insulating substrates, while for metal substrates a new monoclinic metal phase lies between the insulating monoclinic phase and the metallic rutile phase. The structural and electronic phase transitions in these experiments are strongly first order and we discuss their origins in the context of current understanding of multiorbital splitting, strong correlation effects, and structural distortions that act cooperatively in this system.

  9. Spin-orbit contribution to the Hall coefficient approaching the metal-insulator transition: An explanation for the critical behavior of Ge:Sb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castner, T. G.

    1990-09-01

    It is demonstrated that the band spin-orbit contribution to the Hall conductivity σyx can qualitatively explain the critical behavior of the Hall coefficient RH for Ge:Sb reported by Field and Rosenbaum. The spin-orbit contribution to σyx for n-type Ge has been experimentally determined by Chazalviel and leads to an R-1H versus (n/nc-1) dependence that is consistent with the Ge:Sb data. This result demonstrates a significant extraordinary contribution to RH for some very weakly paramagnetic metal-insulator systems when closely approaching the critical density nc.

  10. Phases and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-09-01

    In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...

  11. Nonadiabatic effects in a generalized Jahn-Teller lattice model: Heavy and light polarons, pairing, and the metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majerníková, Eva; Riedel, J.; Shpyrko, S.

    2002-05-01

    The self-consistent ground state polaron potential of one-dimensional lattice of two-level molecules with spinless electrons and two dispersionless phonon modes with linear coupling and quantum phonon-assisted (nonadiabatic) transitions between the levels is found anharmonic in phonon displacements. As a function of these, the potential shows a crossover from two nonequivalent broad minima to a single narrow minimum which correspond to the positions of the levels in the ground state. Generalized variational approach respecting the mixing of levels (reflection) via a variational parameter implies prominent nonadiabatic effects: (i) In the limit of the symmetric E⊗e Jahn-Teller situation they cause transition between the regime of the predominantly one-level ``heavy'' polaron and a ``light'' polaron oscillating between the levels due to phonon assistance with almost vanishing polaron displacement. Vanishing polaron selflocalization implies enhancement of the electron transfer due to decrease of the ``heavy'' polaron mass (undressing) at the point of the transition. There can occur pairing of ``light'' polarons due to exchange of virtual phonons. Continuous transition to new energy ground state close to the transition from ``heavy'' polaron phase to ``light'' (bi)polaron phase occurs. In the ``heavy'' phase, we have found anomalous (anharmonic) enhancements of quantum fluctuations of the phonon coordinate, conjugated momentum and their product in the ground state as functions of the effective coupling which reach their maxima at E⊗e JT symmetry. They decrease rapidly to their harmonic values as soon as the ``light'' phase is stabilized. (ii) Nonadiabatic dependence of the polaron mass (Debye-Waller screening) on the optical phonon frequency appears. (iii) The contribution of Rabi oscillations to the transfer enhances significantly quantum shift of the insulator-metal transition line to higher values of the critical effective electron-phonon coupling supporting so

  12. Role of microstructures on the M1-M2 phase transition in epitaxial VO2 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yanda; Zhang, Yin; Gao, Min; Yuan, Zhen; Xia, Yudong; Jin, Changqing; Tao, Bowan; Chen, Chonglin; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) with its unique sharp resistivity change at the metal-insulator transition (MIT) has been extensively considered for the near-future terahertz/infrared devices and energy harvesting systems. Controlling the epitaxial quality and microstructures of vanadium dioxide thin films and understanding the metal-insulator transition behaviors are therefore critical to novel device development. The metal-insulator transition behaviors of the epitaxial vanadium dioxide thin films deposited on Al2O3 (0001) substrates were systematically studied by characterizing the temperature dependency of both Raman spectrum and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our findings on the correlation between the nucleation dynamics of intermediate monoclinic (M2) phase with microstructures will open a new avenue for the design and integration of advanced heterostructures with controllable multifunctionalities for sensing and imaging system applications. PMID:24798056

  13. The metal-insulator transition in nanocrystalline Pr0.67Ca0.33MnO3: the correlation between supercooling and kinetic arrest.

    PubMed

    Rawat, R; Chaddah, P; Bag, Pallab; Das, Kalipada; Das, I

    2012-10-17

    The transition and hysteresis widths of a disorder broadened first order magnetic transition vary in H-T space which influences the co-existing phase fraction at low temperature arising due to kinetic arrest of the first order transition. We explored the role of change in the relative width of the supercooling/superheating band and kinetic arrest band for a ferromagnetic metallic to antiferromagnetic insulating transition. It is shown that for a correlated kinetic arrest and supercooling bands, the topology of the devitrification curves (or transformation across the (H(K),T(K)) band during warming) changes with the change in the relative width of these two bands. In addition to this, for a broader kinetic arrest band, the transformation temperature across the superheating band under constant H now depends on the arrested phase fraction. These predictions have been tested on nanocrystalline Pr(0.67)Ca(0.33)MnO(3), which is known to show a large variation in hysteresis width in H-T space. This is the first report where correlation between the kinetic arrest band and the supercooling band has been shown experimentally, in contrast to the universal observation of anticorrelation reported so far.

  14. Infrared spectroscopic study of the local structural changes across the metal insulator transition in nickel-doped GdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5}

    SciTech Connect

    Yasodha, P.; Premila, M.; Bharathi, A.; Valsakumar, M.C.; Rajaraman, R.; Sundar, C.S.

    2010-11-15

    Phonons in GdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5} have been identified using infrared spectroscopy and their mode assignments have been carried out using ab initio lattice dynamical calculations. Metal insulator transitions in undoped and nickel-doped GdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5} have been probed using infrared absorption spectroscopy. The phonon modes corresponding to the bending mode of the CoO{sub 6} octahedra/pyramids are seen to soften, broaden and develop an asymmetry across the insulator-metal transition pointing to extensive electron phonon interaction effects in these systems. Correlated changes of the phonon line shape parameters associated with the transition indicate a suppression of T{sub MIT} with increased nickel doping of the cobalt sublattice. Temperature dependence of the octahedral stretching mode frequencies in undoped GdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5} points to distinct structural distortions accompanying the high temperature metallic transition. - Graphical abstract: Softening of the bending mode across T{sub MIT}.

  15. Depressed Phase Transition in Solution-Grown VO2 Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, L.; Jaye, C; Fu, Z; Fischer, D; Banerjee, S

    2009-01-01

    The first-order metal-insulator phase transition in VO{sub 2} is characterized by an ultrafast several-orders-of-magnitude change in electrical conductivity and optical transmittance, which makes this material an attractive candidate for the fabrication of optical limiting elements, thermochromic coatings, and Mott field-effect transistors. Here, we demonstrate that the phase-transition temperature and hysteresis can be tuned by scaling VO{sub 2} to nanoscale dimensions. A simple hydrothermal protocol yields anisotropic free-standing single-crystalline VO{sub 2} nanostructures with a phase-transition temperature depressed to as low as 32 C from 67 C in the bulk. The observations here point to the importance of carefully controlling the stochiometry and dimensions of VO{sub 2} nanostructures to tune the phase transition in this system.

  16. Depressed phase transition in solution-grown VO2 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Luisa; Jaye, Cherno; Fu, Zugen; Fischer, Daniel A; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2009-07-01

    The first-order metal-insulator phase transition in VO(2) is characterized by an ultrafast several-orders-of-magnitude change in electrical conductivity and optical transmittance, which makes this material an attractive candidate for the fabrication of optical limiting elements, thermochromic coatings, and Mott field-effect transistors. Here, we demonstrate that the phase-transition temperature and hysteresis can be tuned by scaling VO(2) to nanoscale dimensions. A simple hydrothermal protocol yields anisotropic free-standing single-crystalline VO(2) nanostructures with a phase-transition temperature depressed to as low as 32 degrees C from 67 degrees C in the bulk. The observations here point to the importance of carefully controlling the stoichiometry and dimensions of VO(2) nanostructures to tune the phase transition in this system.

  17. Suppression of the metal-insulator transition by magnetic field in (Pr{sub 1−y}Y{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} (y = 0.0625)

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, Tomoyuki Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Knížek, Karel; Jirák, Zdeněk

    2014-06-21

    The (Pr{sub 1−y}Y{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} compound (y = 0.0625, T{sub MI-SS}=40 K), at the lower limit for occurrence of the first-order metal-insulator (MI) and simultaneous spin-state (SS) transitions, has been studied using electrical resistivity and magnetization measurements in magnetic fields up to 17 T. The isothermal experiments demonstrate that the low-temperature insulating phase can be destabilized by an applied field and the metallic phase returns well below the transition temperature T{sub MI-SS}. The reverse process with decreasing field occurs with a significant hysteresis. The temperature scans taken at fixed magnetic fields reveal a parabolic-like decrease in T{sub MI-SS} with increasing field strength and a complete suppression of the MI-SS transition in fields above 9 T.

  18. Finite-size driven topological and metal-insulator transition in (Bi1-xInx)2 Se3thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Maryam; Shapourian, Hassan; Koirala, Nikesh; Brahlek, Matthew; Moon, Jisoo; Oh, Seongshik

    In a topological insulator (TI), if one of its heavy elements is replaced by a light one, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength decreases and eventually the TI transforms into a normal insulator beyond a critical level of substitution.This is the standard description of the topological phase transition (TPT). However, this notion of TPT, driven solely by the SOC (or something equivalent), is not complete for finite size samples considering that the thickness of the topological surface states diverges at the critical point. Here, on specially-engineered (BixIn1-x)2 Se3 thin films, using systematic transport measurments we show that not only the SOC but also the finite sample size can induce TPT. This study sheds light on the role of spatial confinement as an extra tuning parameter controlling the topological critical point.

  19. Relationship between superconductor and metal-insulator transitions in a large class of tetragonal 1:2:3 cuprates Ca-R-Ba-Cu-O (R=La,Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmidt, D.; Knizhnik, A.; Direktovitch, Y.; Reisner, G. M.; Eckstein, Y.

    1995-11-01

    We report superconductor and transport properties of a large class of tetragonal 1:2:3 cuprates represented by the chemical formula (CaxR1-x)[Ba3-z-xRz-(1-x)]Cu3Oy, where R=La or Nd and existing as high-purity materials in a large range of z and x. At a given z, these materials maintain, through compensating cosubstitutions, a constant charge Q of the noncopper cations (Q=6+z) independent of x. By accurate control of oxygen content y, both cation and anion charge sources were kept constant. Under these isoelectronic conditions (constant electron concentration n) big changes in transition temperature Tc, resistivity ρ and thermopower (TEP) S occur, suggesting that the microscopic hole density in the CuO2 planes h changes. Having a single Tmaxc (maximal Tc), this material family behaves as a single material. Besides, for all values of Q, x, and y and for each R we show that Tc, ρ, and S can each be represented by a single curve when plotted as a function of y-yM-I(Q,x), where yM-I denotes the value of y at the metal-insulator (M-I) transition. Therefore, there exists a one to one correspondence between h and y-yM-I, but there is no straightforward relation between h and n. We found an empirical formula describing the functional dependence of yM-I on Q and x. This allows one to estimate yM-I, Tc, ρ, and S in many materials. Our results are interpreted in terms of a simple band picture which is modified to consider the existence of low-mobility states in the vicinity of EF. This accounts for the relatively low TEP at the M-I transition.

  20. Enhanced ferromagnetic and metal insulator transition in Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 thin films: Role of oxygen vacancy induced quenched disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, M. K.; Siwach, P. K.; Kaur, A.; Singh, H. K.

    2010-11-01

    Effect of quenched disorder (QD) caused by oxygen vacancy (OV) and substrate induced inhomogeneous compressive strain, on the magnetic and transport properties of oriented polycrystalline Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 thin films is investigated. QD is related intimately to the ordering/disordering of the OVs and controls the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic/insulator-metal transition. OV ordered films show enhanced TC/TIM˜165 K, which is depressed by oxygen annealing. OV disordering realized by quenching reduces TC/TIM. The first order IM transition observed in SSMO single crystals is transformed into nonhysteretic and continuous one in the OV ordered films. QD appears to be diluted by OV disorder/annihilation and results in stronger carrier localization.

  1. Characterization of quantum phase transition using holographic entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2016-06-01

    The entanglement exhibits extremal or singular behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs) in many condensed matter models. These intriguing phenomena, however, still call for a widely accepted understanding. In this paper we study this issue in holographic framework. We investigate the connection between the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) and the quantum phase transition (QPT) in a lattice-deformed Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory. Novel backgrounds exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT) have been constructed in which both metallic phase and insulating phase have vanishing entropy density in zero temperature limit. We find that the first order derivative of HEE with respect to lattice parameters exhibits extremal behavior near QCPs. We propose that it would be a universal feature that HEE or its derivatives with respect to system parameters can characterize QPT in a generic holographic system. Our work opens a window for understanding the relation between entanglement and the QPT from a holographic perspective.

  2. Cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. |

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

  3. Electric field effect near the metal-insulator transition of a two-dimensional electron system in SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadi, Kaveh; Shoron, Omor F.; Marshall, Patrick B.; Mikheev, Evgeny; Stemmer, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    SmTiO3/SrTiO3 interfaces exhibit a two-dimensional electron system with carrier densities in the order of 3 × 1014 cm-2 due to the polar discontinuity at the interface. Here, electric field effect is used to investigate an electron system at this interface whose carrier density has been depleted substantially by the gate metal and by reducing the thickness of the SmTiO3. At zero applied gate voltage, the sheet resistance exceeds the quantum resistance, h/e2, by more than an order of magnitude, and the SrTiO3 channel is in the hopping transport regime. The electric field modulates the carrier density in the channel, which approaches the transition to a metal at positive gate bias. The channel resistances are found to scale by a single parameter that depends on the gate voltage, similar to two-dimensional electron systems in high-quality semiconductors.

  4. Separation of intra- and intergranular magnetotransport properties in nanocrystalline diamond films on the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens, S. D.; Pobedinskas, P.; Vacik, J.; Petráková, V.; Ruttens, B.; D'Haen, J.; Nesládek, M.; Haenen, K.; Wagner, P.

    2011-08-01

    A systematic study on the morphology and electronic properties of thin heavily boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films is presented. The films have nominally the same thickness (≈150 nm) and are grown with a fixed B/C ratio (5000 ppm) but with different C/H ratios (0.5-5%) in the gas phase. The morphology of the films is investigated by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy measurements, which confirm that lower C/H ratios lead to a larger average grain size. Magnetotransport measurements reveal a decrease in resistivity and a large increase in mobility, approaching the values obtained for single-crystal diamond as the average grain size of the films increases. In all films, the temperature dependence of resistivity decreases with larger grains and the charge carrier density and mobility are thermally activated. It is possible to separate the intra- and intergrain contributions for resistivity and mobility, which indicates that in these complex systems Matthiessen's rule is followed. The concentration of active charge carriers is reduced when the boron-doped NCD is grown with a lower C/H ratio. This is due to lower boron incorporation, which is confirmed by neutron depth profiling.

  5. Spin-orbit tuned metal-insulator transitions in single-crystal Sr₂Ir1–xRhxO₄ (0≤x≤1)

    DOE PAGES

    Qi, T. F.; Korneta, O. B.; Li, L.; ...

    2012-09-06

    Sr₂IrO₄ is a magnetic insulator driven by spin-orbit interaction (SOI) whereas the isoelectronic and isostructural Sr₂RhO₄ is a paramagnetic metal. The contrasting ground states have been shown to result from the critical role of the strong SOI in the iridate. Our investigation of structural, transport, magnetic, and thermal properties reveals that substituting 4d Rh⁴⁺ (4d⁵) ions for 5d Ir⁴⁺ (5d⁵) ions in Sr₂IrO₄ directly reduces the SOI and rebalances the competing energies so profoundly that it generates a rich phase diagram for Sr₂Ir1–xRhxO₄ featuring two major effects: (1) Light Rh doping (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.16) prompts a simultaneous andmore » precipitous drop in both the electrical resistivity and the magnetic ordering temperature TC, which is suppressed to zero at x = 0.16 from 240 K at x = 0. (2) However, with heavier Rh doping [0.24 < x < 0.85 (±0.05)] disorder scattering leads to localized states and a return to an insulating state with spin frustration and exotic magnetic behavior that only disappears near x = 1. The intricacy of Sr₂Ir1–xRhxO₄ is further highlighted by comparison with Sr₂Ir1–xRuxO₄ where Ru⁴⁺ (4d⁴) drives a direct crossover from the insulating to metallic states.« less

  6. Characterization of Metal-Insulator-Transition (MIT) Phase Change Materials (PCM) for Reconfigurable Components, Circuits, and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    50nm TiW adhesion layer. Then, the 100nm GeTe pillar was then deposited between two silicon dioxide (SiO2) pillars. Figure 7: Structure of GeTe... Silicon with the application of an electric field...GeTe film and (b) silicon substrate of GeTe film. ..................................................... 79  Figure 51: Crack in crystalline GeTe wire

  7. Holographic magnetic phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew

    2009-09-15

    We study four-dimensional interacting fermions in a strong magnetic field, using the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model of intersecting D4- and D8-branes in the deconfined, chiral-symmetric parallel phase. We find that as the magnetic field is varied, while staying in the parallel phase, the fermions exhibit a first-order phase transition in which their magnetization jumps discontinuously. Properties of this transition are consistent with a picture in which some of the fermions jump to the lowest Landau level. Similarities to known magnetic phase transitions are discussed.

  8. Direct observation of nanoscale Peltier and Joule effects at metal-insulator domain walls in vanadium dioxide nanobeams.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Tela; Suh, Joonki; Vermeersch, Bjorn; Liu, Kai; Gu, Yijia; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Kevin X; Wu, Junqiao; Shakouri, Ali

    2014-05-14

    The metal to insulator transition (MIT) of strongly correlated materials is subject to strong lattice coupling, which brings about the unique one-dimensional alignment of metal-insulator (M-I) domains along nanowires or nanobeams. Many studies have investigated the effects of stress on the MIT and hence the phase boundary, but few have directly examined the temperature profile across the metal-insulating interface. Here, we use thermoreflectance microscopy to create two-dimensional temperature maps of single-crystalline VO2 nanobeams under external bias in the phase coexisting regime. We directly observe highly localized alternating Peltier heating and cooling as well as Joule heating concentrated at the M-I domain boundaries, indicating the significance of the domain walls and band offsets. Utilizing the thermoreflectance technique, we are able to elucidate strain accumulation along the nanobeam and distinguish between two insulating phases of VO2 through detection of the opposite polarity of their respective thermoreflectance coefficients. Microelasticity theory was employed to predict favorable domain wall configurations, confirming the monoclinic phase identification.

  9. Analytical approach to the quantum-phase transition in the one-dimensional spinless Holstein model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, S.; Hübsch, A.; Becker, K. W.

    2006-05-01

    We study the one-dimensional Holstein model of spinless fermions interacting with dispersion-less phonons by using a recently developed projector-based renormalization method (PRM). At half-filling the system shows a metal-insulator transition to a Peierls distorted state at a critical electron-phonon coupling where both phases are described within the same theoretical framework. The transition is accompanied by a phonon softening at the Brillouin zone boundary and a gap in the electronic spectrum. For different filling, the phonon softening appears away from the Brillouin zone boundary and thus reflects a different type of broken symmetry state.

  10. Quantum Phase Transitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Quantum Thoery Phase transitions Subir Sachdev Harvard University Office of Sponsored Research 1350...magnetism, and solvable models obtained from string theory. After introducing the basic theory, it moves on to a detailed description of the canonical...students and researchers in condensed matter physics and particle and string theory. Print | Close Quantum Phase Transitions 2nd Edition Subir Sachdev

  11. Electronic Griffiths Phases and Quantum Criticality at Disordered Mott Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrosavljevic, Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    The effects of disorder are investigated in strongly correlated electronic systems near the Mott metal-insulator transition. Correlation effects are foundootnotetextE. C. Andrade, E. Miranda, and V. Dobrosavljevic, Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 206403 (2009). to lead to strong disorder screening, a mechanism restricted to low-lying electronic states, very similar to what is observed in underdoped cuprates. These results suggest, however, that this effect is not specific to disordered d-wave superconductors, but is a generic feature of all disordered Mott systems. In addition, the resulting spatial inhomogeneity rapidly increasesootnotetextE. C. Andrade, E. Miranda, and V. Dobrosavljevic, Phys. Rev. Lett., 104 (23), 236401 (2010). as the Mott insulator is approached at fixed disorder strength. This behavior, which can be described as an Electronic Griffiths Phase, displays all the features expected for disorder-dominated Infinite-Randomness Fixed Point scenario of quantum criticality.

  12. Electroweak phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  13. Electroweak phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  14. String mediated phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.

  15. Molecular to atomic phase transition in hydrogen under high pressure.

    PubMed

    McMinis, Jeremy; Clay, Raymond C; Lee, Donghwa; Morales, Miguel A

    2015-03-13

    The metallization of high-pressure hydrogen, together with the associated molecular to atomic transition, is one of the most important problems in the field of high-pressure physics. It is also currently a matter of intense debate due to the existence of conflicting experimental reports on the observation of metallic hydrogen on a diamond-anvil cell. Theoretical calculations have typically relied on a mean-field description of electronic correlation through density functional theory, a theory with well-known limitations in the description of metal-insulator transitions. In fact, the predictions of the pressure-driven dissociation of molecules in high-pressure hydrogen by density functional theory is strongly affected by the chosen exchange-correlation functional. In this Letter, we use quantum Monte Carlo calculations to study the molecular to atomic transition in hydrogen. We obtain a transition pressure of 447(3) GPa, in excellent agreement with the best experimental estimate of the transition 450 GPa based on an extrapolation to zero band gap from experimental measurements. Additionally, we find that C2/c is stable almost up to the molecular to atomic transition, in contrast to previous density functional theory (DFT) and DFT+quantum Monte Carlo studies which predict large stability regimes for intermediary molecular phases.

  16. Tools for Studying Quantum Emergence near Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Masatoshi; Onoda, Shigeki; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Shinji

    2003-12-01

    We review recent studies on developing tools for quantum complex phenomena. The tools have been applied for clarifying the perspective of the Mott transitions and the phase diagram of metals, Mott insulators and magnetically ordered phases in the two-dimensional Hubbard model. The path-integral renormalization-group (PIRG) method has made it possible to numerically study correlated electrons even with geometrical frustration effects without biases . It has numerically clarified the phase diagram at zero temperature, T = 0, in the parameter space of the onsite Coulomb repulsion, the geometrical frustration amplitude and the chemical potential. When the bandwidth is controlled at half filling, the first-order transition between insulating and metallic phases is evidenced. In contrast, the filling-control transition shows diverging critical fluctuations for spin and charge responses with decreasing doping concentration. Near the Mott transition, a nonmagnetic spin-liquid phase appears in a region with large frustration effects. The phase is characterized remarkably by gapless spin excitations and the vanishing dispersion of spin excitations. Magnetic orders quantum mechanically melt through diverging magnon mass. The correlator projection method (CPM) is formulated as an extension of the operator projection theory. This method also allows an extension of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) with systematic inclusion of the momentum dependence in the self-energy. It has enabled determining the phase diagram at T > 0, where the boundary surface of the first-order metal-insulator transition at half filling terminates on the critical end curve at T = Tc. The critical end curve is characterized by the diverging compressibility. The single particle spectra show strong renormalization of low-energy spectra, generating largely momentum dependent and flat dispersion. The results of two tools consistently suggest that the strong competitions of various phases with underlying

  17. Detecting phase transitions and crossovers in Hubbard models using the fidelity susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li; Wang, Yilin; Wang, Lei; Werner, Philipp

    2016-12-01

    A generalized version of the fidelity susceptibility of single-band and multiorbital Hubbard models is systematically studied using single-site dynamical mean-field theory in combination with a hybridization expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver. We find that the fidelity susceptibility is extremely sensitive to changes in the state of the system. It can be used as a numerically inexpensive tool to detect and characterize a broad range of phase transitions and crossovers in Hubbard models, including (orbital-selective) Mott metal-insulator transitions, magnetic phase transitions, high-spin to low-spin transitions, Fermi-liquid to non-Fermi-liquid crossovers, and spin-freezing crossovers.

  18. Non percolative nature of the metal-insulator transition and persistence of local Jahn-Teller distortions in the rhombohedral regime of La1-xCaxMnO3

    SciTech Connect

    Shatnawi, Mouath; Bozin, Emil S.; Mitchell, J. F.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2016-04-25

    Evolution of the average and local crystal structure of Ca-doped LaMnO3 has been studied across the metal to insulator (MI) and the orthorhombic to rhombohedral (OR) structural phase transitions over a broad temperature range for two Ca concentrations (x = 0.18,0.22). Combined Rietveld and high real space resolution atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering data was carried out with aims of exploring the possibility of nanoscale phase separation (PS) in relation to MI transition, and charting the evolution of local Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion of MnO6 octahedra across the OR transition at TS~720 K. The study utilized explicit two-phase PDF structural modeling, revealing that away from TMI there is no evidence for nanoscale phase coexistence. The local JT distortions disappear abruptly upon crossing into the metallic regime both with doping and temperature, with only a small temperature-independent signature of quenched disorder being observable at low temperature as compared to CaMnO3. The results hence do not support the percolative scenario for the MI transition in La1–xCaxMnO3 based on PS, and question its ubiquity in the manganites. In contrast to LaMnO3 that exhibits long-range orbital correlations and sizable octahedral distortions at low temperature, the doped samples with compositions straddling the MI boundary exhibit correlations (in the insulating regime) limited to only ~1 nm with observably smaller distortions. In the x = 0.22 sample local JT distortions are found to persist across the OR transition and deep into the R phase (up to ~1050 K), where they are crystallographically prohibited. As a result, their magnitude and subnanometer spatial extent remain unchanged.

  19. Non percolative nature of the metal-insulator transition and persistence of local Jahn-Teller distortions in the rhombohedral regime of La1-xCaxMnO3

    DOE PAGES

    Shatnawi, Mouath; Bozin, Emil S.; Mitchell, J. F.; ...

    2016-04-25

    Evolution of the average and local crystal structure of Ca-doped LaMnO3 has been studied across the metal to insulator (MI) and the orthorhombic to rhombohedral (OR) structural phase transitions over a broad temperature range for two Ca concentrations (x = 0.18,0.22). Combined Rietveld and high real space resolution atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering data was carried out with aims of exploring the possibility of nanoscale phase separation (PS) in relation to MI transition, and charting the evolution of local Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion of MnO6 octahedra across the OR transition at TS~720 K. The study utilizedmore » explicit two-phase PDF structural modeling, revealing that away from TMI there is no evidence for nanoscale phase coexistence. The local JT distortions disappear abruptly upon crossing into the metallic regime both with doping and temperature, with only a small temperature-independent signature of quenched disorder being observable at low temperature as compared to CaMnO3. The results hence do not support the percolative scenario for the MI transition in La1–xCaxMnO3 based on PS, and question its ubiquity in the manganites. In contrast to LaMnO3 that exhibits long-range orbital correlations and sizable octahedral distortions at low temperature, the doped samples with compositions straddling the MI boundary exhibit correlations (in the insulating regime) limited to only ~1 nm with observably smaller distortions. In the x = 0.22 sample local JT distortions are found to persist across the OR transition and deep into the R phase (up to ~1050 K), where they are crystallographically prohibited. As a result, their magnitude and subnanometer spatial extent remain unchanged.« less

  20. Emergence and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkema, Arnold

    2006-05-01

    Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and phase transitions of single-crystalline vanadium(IV) oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Luisa

    The influence of finite size in altering the phase stabilities of strongly correlated materials gives rise to the interesting prospect of achieving additional tunability of solid-solid phase transitions such as those involved in metal-insulator switching, ferroelectricity, and superconductivity. The peculiarities in the electronic structure of the seemingly simple binary vanadium oxide VO 2, as manifested in a pronounced metal-insulator phase transition in proximity to room temperature, have made it the subject of extensive theoretical and experimental investigations over the last several decades. VO2 exhibits a first-order metal-insulator phase transition near room temperature at 68 °C in the bulk. Associated with the phase transition are dramatic changes in the electrical conductivity, optical properties of VO2 at all wavelengths, and a structural transition from an insulating, low-temperature monoclinic phase to a metallic, high-temperature tetragonal phase. Such properties make VO2 a suitable material for Mott field-effect transistors, optical switching devices, thermochromic coatings, and electronic devices exhibiting sharp thresholdlike variation of electrical and optical properties in response to external stimuli such as temperature and voltage. Scaling VO2 to nanoscale dimensions has recently been possible and has allowed well-defined VO2 nanostructures to serve as model systems for measurements of intrinsic properties without obscuration from grain boundary connectivities and domain dynamics. Geometric confinement, substrate interactions, and varying defect densities of VO2 nanostructures gives rise to an electronic and structural phase diagram that is substantially altered from the bulk. In my talk, I will outline two distinct hydrothermal approaches for the synthesis of 1D single-crystalline VO2 nanostructures exhibiting a substantial diminution in the metal-insulator phase transition temperature based on (a) the hydrothermal hydration, exfoliation, and

  2. Millimeter Wave Metal-Insulator-Metal Detector/Mixer Diode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    AO-A138 391 MILLIMETER WAVE METAL-INSULATOR- METAL DETECTOR /MIXER 1/1 DIODE(VI NORTH CAROLIN A AGRICULTURAL A NO TECHNI CA L STATE UNIV GREENSRO. C TV...163-A I V AFWAL-TR-83-1179 MILLIMETER WAVE METAL-INSULATOR- METAL DETECTOR /MIXER DIODE CHUNG YU NORTH CAROLINA A&T STATE UNIVERSITY GREENSBORO, NORTH...TITLE (ad subsorle.I S. TYPE CrjflT&PEO OER MILLIMETER WAVE May, 1981--July, 1983 METAL-INSULATOR- METAL DETECTOR /MIXER G. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  3. Metal-insulator transition upon heating and negative-differential-resistive-switching induced by self-heating in BaCo{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}S{sub 1.8}

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, B.; Genossar, J.; Chashka, K. B.; Patlagan, L.; Reisner, G. M.

    2014-04-14

    The layered compound BaCo{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S{sub 2−y} (0.05 < x < 0.2 and 0.05 < y < 0.2) exhibits an unusual first-order structural and electronic phase transition from a low-T monoclinic paramagnetic metal to a high-T tetragonal antiferromagnetic insulator around 200 K with huge hysteresis (∼40 K) and large volume change (∼0.01). Here, we report on unusual voltage-controlled resistive switching followed by current-controlled resistive switching induced by self-heating in polycrystalline BaCo{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S{sub 2−y} (nominal x = 0.1 and y = 0.2). These were due to the steep metal to insulator transition upon heating followed by the activated behavior of the resistivity above the transition. The major role of Joule heating in switching is supported by the absence of nonlinearity in the current as function of voltage, I(V), obtained in pulsed measurements, in the range of electric fields relevant to d.c. measurements. The voltage-controlled negative differential resistance around the threshold for switching was explained by a simple model of self-heating. The main difficulty in modeling I(V) from the samples resistance as function of temperature R(T) was the progressive increase of R(T), and to a lesser extend the decrease of the resistance jumps at the transitions, caused by the damage induced by cycling through the transitions by heating or self-heating. This was dealt with by following systematically R(T) over many cycles and by using the data of R(T) in the heating cycle closest to that of the self-heating one.

  4. Optical transmission theory for metal-insulator-metal periodic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard-Dionne, Andre-Pierre; Meunier, Michel

    2017-01-01

    A semi-analytical formalism for the optical properties of a metal-insulator-metal periodic nanostructure using coupled-mode theory is presented. This structure consists in a dielectric layer in between two metallic layers with periodic one-dimensional nanoslit corrugation. The model is developed using multiple-scattering formalism, which defines transmission and reflection coefficients for each of the interface as a semi-infinite medium. Total transmission is then calculated using a summation of the multiple paths of light inside the structure. This method allows finding an exact solution for the transmission problem in every dimension regime, as long as a sufficient number of diffraction orders and guided modes are considered for the structure. The resonant modes of the structure are found to be related to the metallic slab only and to a combination of both the metallic slab and dielectric layer. This model also allows describing the resonant behavior of the system in the limit of a small dielectric layer, for which discontinuities in the dispersion curves are found. These discontinuities result from the out-of-phase interference of the different diffraction orders of the system, which account for field interaction for both inner interfaces of the structure.

  5. Optical transmission theory for metal-insulator-metal periodic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard-Dionne, Andre-Pierre; Meunier, Michel

    2016-11-01

    A semi-analytical formalism for the optical properties of a metal-insulator-metal periodic nanostructure using coupled-mode theory is presented. This structure consists in a dielectric layer in between two metallic layers with periodic one-dimensional nanoslit corrugation. The model is developed using multiple-scattering formalism, which defines transmission and reflection coefficients for each of the interface as a semi-infinite medium. Total transmission is then calculated using a summation of the multiple paths of light inside the structure. This method allows finding an exact solution for the transmission problem in every dimension regime, as long as a sufficient number of diffraction orders and guided modes are considered for the structure. The resonant modes of the structure are found to be related to the metallic slab only and to a combination of both the metallic slab and dielectric layer. This model also allows describing the resonant behavior of the system in the limit of a small dielectric layer, for which discontinuities in the dispersion curves are found. These discontinuities result from the out-of-phase interference of the different diffraction orders of the system, which account for field interaction for both inner interfaces of the structure.

  6. Phase transitions in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrahsheh, Fawaz Y.

    Disorder can have a wide variety of consequences for the physics of phase transitions. Some transitions remain unchanged in the presence of disorder while others are completely destroyed. In this thesis we study the effects of disorder on several classical and quantum phase transitions in condensed matter systems. After a brief introduction, we study the ferromagnetic phase transition in a randomly layered Heisenberg magnet using large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results provide numerical evidence for the exotic infinite-randomness scenario. We study classical and quantum smeared phase transitions in substitutional alloys A1-xBx. Our results show that the disorder completely destroys the phase transition with a pronounced tail of the ordered phase developing for all compositions x < 1. In addition, we find that short-ranged disorder correlations can have a dramatic effect on the transition. Moreover, we show an experimental realization of the composition-tuned ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic quantum phase transition in Sr1-xCa xRuO3. We investigate the effects of disorder on first-order quantum phase transitions on the example of the N-color quantum Ashkin-Teller model. By means of a strong disorder renormalization group, we demonstrate that disorder rounds the first-order transition to a continuous one for both weak and strong coupling between the colors. Finally, we investigate the superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition of one-dimensional bosons with off-diagonal disorder by means of large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations. Beyond a critical disorder strength, we find nonuniversal, disorder dependent critical behavior.

  7. Fluctuation driven electroweak phase transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  8. Phase transitions via selective elemental vacancy engineering in complex oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang A.; Jeong, Hoidong; Woo, Sungmin; Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Sung-Dae; Choi, Minseok; Roh, Seulki; Yu, Hosung; Hwang, Jungseek; Kim, Sung Wng; Choi, Woo Seok

    2016-04-01

    Defect engineering has brought about a unique level of control for Si-based semiconductors, leading to the optimization of various opto-electronic properties and devices. With regard to perovskite transition metal oxides, O vacancies have been a key ingredient in defect engineering, as they play a central role in determining the crystal field and consequent electronic structure, leading to important electronic and magnetic phase transitions. Therefore, experimental approaches toward understanding the role of defects in complex oxides have been largely limited to controlling O vacancies. In this study, we report on the selective formation of different types of elemental vacancies and their individual roles in determining the atomic and electronic structures of perovskite SrTiO3 (STO) homoepitaxial thin films fabricated by pulsed laser epitaxy. Structural and electronic transitions have been achieved via selective control of the Sr and O vacancy concentrations, respectively, indicating a decoupling between the two phase transitions. In particular, O vacancies were responsible for metal-insulator transitions, but did not influence the Sr vacancy induced cubic-to-tetragonal structural transition in epitaxial STO thin film. The independent control of multiple phase transitions in complex oxides by exploiting selective vacancy engineering opens up an unprecedented opportunity toward understanding and customizing complex oxide thin films.

  9. Phase transitions via selective elemental vacancy engineering in complex oxide thin films

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang A.; Jeong, Hoidong; Woo, Sungmin; Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Sung-Dae; Choi, Minseok; Roh, Seulki; Yu, Hosung; Hwang, Jungseek; Kim, Sung Wng; Choi, Woo Seok

    2016-01-01

    Defect engineering has brought about a unique level of control for Si-based semiconductors, leading to the optimization of various opto-electronic properties and devices. With regard to perovskite transition metal oxides, O vacancies have been a key ingredient in defect engineering, as they play a central role in determining the crystal field and consequent electronic structure, leading to important electronic and magnetic phase transitions. Therefore, experimental approaches toward understanding the role of defects in complex oxides have been largely limited to controlling O vacancies. In this study, we report on the selective formation of different types of elemental vacancies and their individual roles in determining the atomic and electronic structures of perovskite SrTiO3 (STO) homoepitaxial thin films fabricated by pulsed laser epitaxy. Structural and electronic transitions have been achieved via selective control of the Sr and O vacancy concentrations, respectively, indicating a decoupling between the two phase transitions. In particular, O vacancies were responsible for metal-insulator transitions, but did not influence the Sr vacancy induced cubic-to-tetragonal structural transition in epitaxial STO thin film. The independent control of multiple phase transitions in complex oxides by exploiting selective vacancy engineering opens up an unprecedented opportunity toward understanding and customizing complex oxide thin films. PMID:27033718

  10. High efficient unidirectional surface plasmon excitation utilizing coupling between metal-insulator-metal waveguide and metal-insulator interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhixiang; Xu, Ke; Pan, Deng

    2017-04-01

    A new structure is proposed, which can realize parallel coupling between metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide and plasmon on metal-insulator (MI) interface. An example for wavelength of 680 nm shows the coupling efficiency can be high as 82%, with short coupling length of 1.2 μm. By using MIM waveguide with proper length, a unidirectional plasmon generator is realized. The generator shows excitation efficiency as high as 78%, with high extinction ratio as 1:170. It also shows a good tolerance for the wavelength. The results are of vital importance for optical integration and unidirectional plasmon excitation.

  11. Structural phase transition and phonon instability in Cu12Sb4S13

    DOE PAGES

    May, Andrew F.; Delaire, Olivier A.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; ...

    2016-02-08

    In this study, a structural phase transition has been discovered in the synthetic tetrahedrite Cu12Sb4S13 at approximately 88 K. Upon cooling, the material transforms from its known cubic symmetry to a tetragonal unit cell that is characterized by an in-plane ordering that leads to a doubling of the unit cell volume. Specific heat capacity measurements demonstrate a hysteresis of more than two degrees in the associated anomaly. A similar hysteresis was observed in powder x-ray diffraction measurements, which also indicate a coexistence of the two phases, and together these results suggest a first-order transition. This structural transition coincides with amore » recently-reported metal-insulator transition, and the structural instability is related to the very low thermal conductivity κ in these materials. Inelastic neutron scattering was used to measure the phonon density of states in Cu12Sb4S13 and Cu10Zn2Sb4S13, both of which possess a localized, low-energy phonon mode associated with strongly anharmonic copper displacements that suppress κ. In Cu12Sb4S13, signatures of the phase transition are observed in the temperature dependence of the localized mode, which disappears at the structural transition. In contrast, in the cubic Zn-doped material, the mode is at slightly higher-energy but observable for all temperatures, though it softens upon cooling.« less

  12. Abrupt Depletion Layer Approximation for the Metal Insulator Semiconductor Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    Determines the excess surface change carrier density, surface potential, and relative capacitance of a metal insulator semiconductor diode as a function of the gate voltage, using the precise questions and the equations derived with the abrupt depletion layer approximation. (Author/GA)

  13. Metal-insulator-metal capacitor using electrosprayed nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véliz, Bremnen; Bermejo, Sandra; Coll, Arnau; Castañer, Luis

    2014-07-01

    An electrospray technique has been used to deposit SiO2 nanoparticles as insulator layer of a metal-insulator-metal device. Impedance spectroscopy measurements show that a 4.4 factor increase in capacitance is achieved compared to a continuous dielectric layer of the same permittivity and dimensions.

  14. Phase transition in Liouville theory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D. )

    1989-11-15

    We suggest that the vortices arising in a Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in Liouville theory correspond to transitions between different genera, producing the plumber's nightmare'' and other phases that have been predicted in fluid membrane theory from energetic considerations. This transition has previously been invoked by Cates to explain the degeneration of numerical simulations of Gaussian random surfaces into branched polymers. The difficulty in quantizing Liouville theory for {ital d}{gt}1 is conjectured to be due to our insistence on working at a fixed genus.

  15. Phase transition in Liouville theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, D.

    1989-11-01

    We suggest that the vortices arising in a Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in Liouville theory correspond to transitions between different genera, producing the ``plumber's nightmare'' and other phases that have been predicted in fluid membrane theory from energetic considerations. This transition has previously been invoked by Cates to explain the degeneration of numerical simulations of Gaussian random surfaces into branched polymers. The difficulty in quantizing Liouville theory for d>1 is conjectured to be due to our insistence on working at a fixed genus.

  16. Griffiths singularity of quantum phase transition in ion-gated ZrNCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    Recent technological advances of thin films fabrication, especially mechanical exfoliation, led to discoveries of less-disordered highly-crystalline two-dimensional (2D) superconductors; atomically thin NbSe2 and ion-gated 2D materials, which show intrinsic properties of 2D superconductors with minimal disorder; for example, metallic ground state, and unconventional 2D Ising superconductivity due to pure spin-valley locking effect. In this talk, we focus on magnetotransport properties of an ionic-liquid gated ZrNCl, which exhibited Griffiths singularity-like behavior in superconductor-metal-insulator transition induced by magnetic fields at low carrier concentrations. The overall behavior is quite similar to the recent results of superconducting Ga thin films, in which quantum Griffiths singularity was observed in vortex-glass state. We will discuss the relationship between Griffiths singularity and quantum tunneling or flux flow of vortices phase (vortex liquid) in our system

  17. Phase Transitions in Brownian Pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierl, Marcel; Dieterich, Wolfgang; Einax, Mario; Maass, Philipp

    2014-04-01

    We study stochastic particle transport between two reservoirs along a channel, where the particles are pumped against a bias by a traveling wave potential. It is shown that phase transitions of period-averaged densities or currents occur inside the channel when exclusion interactions between the particles are taken into account. These transitions reflect those known for the asymmetric simple exclusion process. We argue that their occurrence is a generic feature of Brownian motors operating in open systems.

  18. Dispersion of metal-insulator-metal plasmon polaritons probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuttge, Martin; Cai, Wei; Garcia de Abajo, F. Javier; Polman, Albert

    2009-07-15

    Cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy is used to excite and characterize the resonant modes of Fabry-Perot resonators for surface plasmon polaritons confined in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) geometry. The smallest MIM plasmon wavelength derived from the observed mode pattern is found to be 160 nm in cavities with a 10 nm SiO{sub 2} layer for a free-space wavelength of 645 nm. The measured wavelength agrees well with values from analytical dispersion relation calculations. Calculations of the excitation probability show that the resonant excitation of MIM plasmons depends strongly on the electron energy due to phase retardation effects resulting from the finite electron velocity.

  19. Low-Power All-Optical Bistable Device of Twisted-Nematic Liquid Crystal Based on Surface Plasmons in a Metal-Insulator-Metal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien Thanh, Pham; Tanaka, Daisuke; Fujimura, Ryushi; Takanishi, Yoichi; Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    A low-power all-optical bistable device of twisted-nematic liquid crystal (TN-LC) is reported, on the basis of coupled surface plasmons (SPs) in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure. The lowest threshold switching illumination was 0.3 mW/mm2, which is much lower than the value we previously reported for a similar all-optical TN-LC device based on the coupled SPs in a gold grating. The threshold illumination is lower at higher temperature up to the phase transition. The TN-LC device is promising for two-dimensional optical memories or spatial light modulators, since the structure is simple and free from electronic circuits.

  20. Carrier tuning the metal-insulator transition of epitaxial La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin film on Nb doped SrTiO3 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, J. M.; Li, P. G.; Liu, H.; Tao, S. L.; Ma, H.; Shen, J. Q.; Pan, M. J.; Zhang, Z. J.; Wang, S. L.; Yuan, G. L.

    2016-04-01

    La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) thin films were deposited on (001)SrTiO3(STO) and n-type doped Nb:SrTiO3(NSTO) single crystal substrates respectively. The metal to insulator transition temperature(TMI) of LSMO film on NSTO is lower than that on STO, and the TMI of LSMO can be tuned by changing the applied current in the LSMO/NSTO p-n junction. Such behaviors were considered to be related to the carrier concentration redistribution in LSMO film caused by the change of depletion layer thickness in p-n junction which depends greatly on the applied electric field. The phenomenon could be used to configure artificial devices and exploring the underlying physics.

  1. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.

  2. Phase transition transistors based on strongly-correlated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Masaki

    2013-03-01

    The field-effect transistor (FET) provides electrical switching functions through linear control of the number of charges at a channel surface by external voltage. Controlling electronic phases of condensed matters in a FET geometry has long been a central issue of physical science. In particular, FET based on a strongly correlated material, namely ``Mott transistor,'' has attracted considerable interest, because it potentially provides gigantic and diverse electronic responses due to a strong interplay between charge, spin, orbital and lattice. We have investigated electric-field effects on such materials aiming at novel physical phenomena and electronic functions originating from strong correlation effects. Here we demonstrate electrical switching of bulk state of matter over the first-order metal-insulator transition. We fabricated FETs based on VO2 with use of a recently developed electric-double-layer transistor technique, and found that the electrostatically induced carriers at a channel surface drive all preexisting localized carriers of 1022 cm-3 even inside a bulk to motion, leading to bulk carrier delocalization beyond the electrostatic screening length. This non-local switching of bulk phases is achieved with just around 1 V, and moreover, a novel non-volatile memory like character emerges in a voltage-sweep measurement. These observations are apparently distinct from those of conventional FETs based on band insulators, capturing the essential feature of collective interactions in strongly correlated materials. This work was done in collaboration with K. Shibuya, D. Okuyama, T. Hatano, S. Ono, M. Kawasaki, Y. Iwasa, and Y. Tokura. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSAP) through its ``Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program).''

  3. Quantum phase transitions in ultrathin films of metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Anthony Michael

    1997-11-01

    Conductance measurements of ultrathin films of amorphous bismuth are presented. The measurements were performed at temperatures down to 0.15K as a function of temperature and film thickness. Such films are known to become superconducting when the conductance reaches ˜4esp2/h. Careful analysis of the insulating state reveals a crossover near esp2/h, with hopping conduction below and weak localization above. A corresponding change in behavior is also evident in plots of G vs. d at esp2/h. A crossover conductance, Gsbcr ˜ (30 ± 1kOmega)sp{-1}, was extracted by examining the derivative of the G vs. d curves. A scaling analysis is performed yielding an excellent collapse of the data with critical exponents nu z = 6.9 ± 0.7. Ultrathin films of Pd (which is not superconducting) also show a crossover, but at Gsbcr ˜ (56 ± 6kOmega)sp{-1}. The Bi and Pd data sets are collapsed together onto the same curve yielding nu z = 7.2 ± 1.0 for Pd. The success of the scaling analysis supports the view that the crossover is the finite temperature signature of a quantum phase transition occurring at T = 0. The transition is between phases identified as (weakly localized) metal and insulator, which may make this the first observation of a metal-insulator transition in a two-dimensional system. The scaling analysis developed for the crossover at esp2/h was applied to the superconductor-insulator transition as well. While the collapse of the data is poor, the analysis yields a single value of the critical exponent nu z = 1.99 ± 0.09. A previous analysis yielded two separate (and inconsistent) values of nu z on the insulating and superconducting sides. The analysis was also applied to the case of the field-driven superconductor-insulator transition. The resulting collapse is excellent yielding a critical exponent nu z = 0.637 ± 0.010. The scaling parameter deviates from a power law in T above 0.7K. Since the data presented only extends down to 0.5K, the critical region accessed is

  4. Magnetic fields from phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Everett, Allen

    1998-11-01

    The generation of primordial magnetic fields from cosmological phase transitions is discussed, paying particular attention to the electroweak transition and to the various definitions of the ``average'' field that have been put forward. It is emphasized that only the volume average has dynamical significance as a seed for galactic dynamos. On rather general grounds of causality and energy conservation, it is shown that, in the absence of MHD effects that transfer power in the magnetic field from small to large scales, processes occurring at the electroweak transition cannot generate fields stronger than 10-20 G on a scale of 0.5 Mpc. However, it is implausible that this upper bound could ever be reached, as it would require all the energy in the Universe to be turned into a magnetic field coherent at the horizon scale. Non-linear MHD effects seem therefore to be necessary if the electroweak transition is to create a primordial seed field.

  5. Electron-phonon coupling and structural phase transitions in early transition metal oxides and chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Katie Elizabeth

    promising catalyst for electrocatalytic water splitting and can catalyze the hydrogen evolution reaction that is utilized within photoelectrochemical cells. Chapters 4 and 5 delve into the synthesis and doping of VO2, which undergoes a metal to insulator transition. Chapter 4 develops a detailed understanding of the influence of doping on the MIT and reports the activation energies of the monoclinic→rutile (insulator→metal) and rutile→monoclinic (metal?insulator) transitions. The dynamical effects of doping on hysteresis are considered for both Mo- and W-doped VO2. Chapter 5 reports the development of synthetic route to produce optical grade VO2 with considerable size control. Smart window applications for this material require small particle sizes in order to reduce visible light scattering. This chapter systematically explores hydrothermal syntheses for the preparation of VO2 and allows for development of mechanistic postulates for obtaining size control.

  6. Spin-orbit tuned metal-insulator transitions in single-crystal Sr₂Ir1–xRhxO₄ (0≤x≤1)

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, T. F.; Korneta, O. B.; Li, L.; Butrouna, K.; Cao, V. S.; Wan, Xiangang; Schlottmann, P.; Kaul, R. K.; Cao, G.

    2012-09-06

    Sr₂IrO₄ is a magnetic insulator driven by spin-orbit interaction (SOI) whereas the isoelectronic and isostructural Sr₂RhO₄ is a paramagnetic metal. The contrasting ground states have been shown to result from the critical role of the strong SOI in the iridate. Our investigation of structural, transport, magnetic, and thermal properties reveals that substituting 4d Rh⁴⁺ (4d⁵) ions for 5d Ir⁴⁺ (5d⁵) ions in Sr₂IrO₄ directly reduces the SOI and rebalances the competing energies so profoundly that it generates a rich phase diagram for Sr₂Ir1–xRhxO₄ featuring two major effects: (1) Light Rh doping (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.16) prompts a simultaneous and precipitous drop in both the electrical resistivity and the magnetic ordering temperature TC, which is suppressed to zero at x = 0.16 from 240 K at x = 0. (2) However, with heavier Rh doping [0.24 < x < 0.85 (±0.05)] disorder scattering leads to localized states and a return to an insulating state with spin frustration and exotic magnetic behavior that only disappears near x = 1. The intricacy of Sr₂Ir1–xRhxO₄ is further highlighted by comparison with Sr₂Ir1–xRuxO₄ where Ru⁴⁺ (4d⁴) drives a direct crossover from the insulating to metallic states.

  7. Sliding Over a Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosatti, Erio; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Santoro, Giuseppe E.

    2011-03-01

    The frictional response experienced by a stick-slip slider when a phase transition occurs in the underlying solid substrate is a potentially exciting, poorly explored problem. We show, based on 2-dimensional simulations modeling the sliding of a nanotip, that indeed friction may be heavily affected by a continuous structural transition. First, friction turns nonmonotonic as temperature crosses the transition, peaking at the critical temperature Tc where fluctuations are strongest. Second, below Tc friction depends upon order parameter directions, and is much larger for those where the frictional slip can cause a local flip. This may open a route towards control of atomic scale friction by switching the order parameter direction by an external field or strain, with possible application to e.g., displacive ferroelectrics such as BaTi O3 , as well as ferro- and antiferro-distortive materials. Supported by project ESF FANAS/AFRI sponsored by the Italian Research Council (CNR).

  8. Low-voltage current noise in long quantum superconductor/insulator/normal-metal/insulator/superconductor junctions.

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, N. B.; Galperin, Y. M.; Vinokur, V.; Materials Science Division; Helsinki Univ. Tech.; L.D. Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Univ. Oslo; A.F. Ioffe Physico-Tech. Inst. of Russian Academy of Sciences

    2007-01-01

    The current noise in long superconductor/insulator/normal-metal/insulator/superconductor junctions at low temperatures is sensitive to the population of the subgap states, which is far from equilibrium even at low bias voltages. A nonequilibrium distribution is established due to an interplay between voltage-driven interlevel Landau-Zener transitions and intralevel inelastic relaxation. The Fano factor (the ratio of the zero-frequency noise to the dc current) is enhanced drastically, being proportional to the number of times which a particle flies along the Andreev trajectory before it escapes from the level due to inelastic scattering. For weak Landau-Zener transitions, the enhancement is even larger due to a smaller dc current.

  9. Disorder-induced localization in crystalline phase-change materials.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, T; Jost, P; Volker, H; Woda, M; Merkelbach, P; Schlockermann, C; Wuttig, M

    2011-03-01

    Localization of charge carriers in crystalline solids has been the subject of numerous investigations over more than half a century. Materials that show a metal-insulator transition without a structural change are therefore of interest. Mechanisms leading to metal-insulator transition include electron correlation (Mott transition) or disorder (Anderson localization), but a clear distinction is difficult. Here we report on a metal-insulator transition on increasing annealing temperature for a group of crystalline phase-change materials, where the metal-insulator transition is due to strong disorder usually associated only with amorphous solids. With pronounced disorder but weak electron correlation, these phase-change materials form an unparalleled quantum state of matter. Their universal electronic behaviour seems to be at the origin of the remarkable reproducibility of the resistance switching that is crucial to their applications in non-volatile-memory devices. Controlling the degree of disorder in crystalline phase-change materials might enable multilevel resistance states in upcoming storage devices.

  10. Phases and phase transitions in disordered quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojta, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    These lecture notes give a pedagogical introduction to phase transitions in disordered quantum systems and to the exotic Griffiths phases induced in their vicinity. We first review some fundamental concepts in the physics of phase transitions. We then derive criteria governing under what conditions spatial disorder or randomness can change the properties of a phase transition. After introducing the strong-disorder renormalization group method, we discuss in detail some of the exotic phenomena arising at phase transitions in disordered quantum systems. These include infinite-randomness criticality, rare regions and quantum Griffiths singularities, as well as the smearing of phase transitions. We also present a number of experimental examples.

  11. Superconducting tantalum nitride-based normal metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, S.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2014-03-24

    We report the development of superconducting tantalum nitride (TaN{sub x}) normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions. For the insulating barrier, we used both AlO{sub x} and TaO{sub x} (Cu-AlO{sub x}-Al-TaN{sub x} and Cu-TaO{sub x}-TaN{sub x}), with both devices exhibiting temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics which follow the simple one-particle tunneling model. The superconducting gap follows a BCS type temperature dependence, rendering these devices suitable for sensitive thermometry and bolometry from the superconducting transition temperature T{sub C} of the TaN{sub x} film at ∼5 K down to ∼0.5 K. Numerical simulations were also performed to predict how junction parameters should be tuned to achieve electronic cooling at temperatures above 1 K.

  12. Metal-insulator quantum critical point beneath the high Tc superconducting dome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Suchitra E.; Harrison, N.; Altarawneh, M. M.; Mielke, C. H.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Hardy, W. N.

    2010-01-01

    An enduring question in correlated systems concerns whether superconductivity is favored at a quantum critical point (QCP) characterized by a divergent quasiparticle effective mass. Despite such a scenario being widely postulated in high Tc cuprates and invoked to explain non-Fermi liquid transport signatures, experimental evidence is lacking for a critical divergence under the superconducting dome. We use ultrastrong magnetic fields to measure quantum oscillations in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x, revealing a dramatic doping-dependent upturn in quasiparticle effective mass at a critical metal-insulator transition beneath the superconducting dome. Given the location of this QCP under a plateau in Tc in addition to a postulated QCP at optimal doping, we discuss the intriguing possibility of two intersecting superconducting subdomes, each centered at a critical Fermi surface instability. PMID:20304800

  13. Work and quantum phase transitions: quantum latency.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, E; Bragança, H; Dorner, R; França Santos, M; Vedral, V; Modi, K; Goold, J

    2014-06-01

    We study the physics of quantum phase transitions from the perspective of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. For first-order quantum phase transitions, we find that the average work done per quench in crossing the critical point is discontinuous. This leads us to introduce the quantum latent work in analogy with the classical latent heat of first order classical phase transitions. For second order quantum phase transitions the irreversible work is closely related to the fidelity susceptibility for weak sudden quenches of the system Hamiltonian. We demonstrate our ideas with numerical simulations of first, second, and infinite order phase transitions in various spin chain models.

  14. Tunable color filters based on metal-insulator-metal resonators.

    PubMed

    Diest, Kenneth; Dionne, Jennifer A; Spain, Merrielle; Atwater, Harry A

    2009-07-01

    We report a method for filtering white light into individual colors using metal-insulator-metal resonators. The resonators are designed to support photonic modes at visible frequencies, and dispersion relations are developed for realistic experimental configurations. Experimental results indicate that passive Ag/Si(3)N(4)/Au resonators exhibit color filtering across the entire visible spectrum. Full field electromagnetic simulations were performed on active resonators for which the resonator length was varied from 1-3 microm and the output slit depth was systematically varied throughout the thickness of the dielectric layer. These resonators are shown to filter colors based on interference between the optical modes within the dielectric layer. By careful design of the output coupling, the resonator can selectively couple to intensity maxima of different photonic modes and, as a result, preferentially select any of the primary colors. We also illustrate how refractive index modulation in metal-insulator-metal resonators can yield actively tunable color filters. Simulations using lithium niobate as the dielectric layer and the top and bottom Ag layers as electrodes, indicate that the output color can be tuned over the visible spectrum with an applied field.

  15. QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.

    1999-03-20

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  16. Dynamics of a Quantum Phase Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Dorner, Uwe; Zoller, Peter

    2005-09-02

    We present two approaches to the dynamics of a quench-induced phase transition in the quantum Ising model. One follows the standard treatment of thermodynamic second order phase transitions but applies it to the quantum phase transitions. The other approach is quantum, and uses Landau-Zener formula for transition probabilities in avoided level crossings. We show that predictions of the two approaches of how the density of defects scales with the quench rate are compatible, and discuss the ensuing insights into the dynamics of quantum phase transitions.

  17. Cloud regimes as phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stechmann, Samuel N.; Hottovy, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Clouds are repeatedly identified as a leading source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Of particular importance are stratocumulus clouds, which can appear as either (i) closed cells that reflect solar radiation back to space or (ii) open cells that allow solar radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Here we show that these clouds regimes -- open versus closed cells -- fit the paradigm of a phase transition. In addition, this paradigm characterizes pockets of open cells as the interface between the open- and closed-cell regimes, and it identifies shallow cumulus clouds as a regime of higher variability. This behavior can be understood using an idealized model for the dynamics of atmospheric water as a stochastic diffusion process. With this new conceptual viewpoint, ideas from statistical mechanics could potentially be used for understanding uncertainties related to clouds in the climate system and climate predictions.

  18. Phase transition in the organic conductor (TTM-TTP)I{3} studied by infrared and Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świetlik, R.; Yakushi, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Mori, T.

    2004-04-01

    Polarised infrared reflectance (600 10000 cm-1) as well as Raman scattering spectra of the organic conductor (TTM-TTP)I{3} were investigated as a function of temperature, below and above the metal insulator phase transition at T=160 K. The IR electronic dispersion was analysed in terms of a Lorentz model and optical transport parameters were determined. The phase transition at 160 K has nearly no influence on IR spectra. The Raman scattering was studied for different excitations (λ =514.5, 632.6 and 785 nm). Within the C=C stretching region three Raman bands at 1436, 1453 and 1486 cm-1 were found and assigned to the three TTM-TTP modes of ag symmetry. Due to the phase transition the band at 1486 cm-1 splits into two lines at about 1487 and 1500 cm-1. We relate this splitting to an asymmetric deformation of TTM-TTP. Key words. TTM-TTP salt - organic metal - IR and Raman spectra - phase transition.

  19. Aspects of the electroweak phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Huet, P.

    1992-11-01

    The electroweak phase transition is reviewed in light of some recent developments. Emphasis is on the issue whether the transition is first or second order and its possible role in the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe.

  20. Current fluctuations at a phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerschenfeld, A.; Derrida, B.

    2011-10-01

    The ABC model is a simple diffusive one-dimensional non-equilibrium system which exhibits a phase transition. Here we show that the cumulants of the currents of particles through the system become singular near the phase transition. At the transition, they exhibit an anomalous dependence on the system size (an anomalous Fourier's law). An effective theory for the dynamics of the single mode which becomes unstable at the transition allows one to predict this anomalous scaling.

  1. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Nanowire Network Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Oener, Sebastian Z; van de Groep, Jorik; Macco, Bart; Bronsveld, Paula C P; Kessels, W M M; Polman, Albert; Garnett, Erik C

    2016-06-08

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) junctions provide the charge separating properties of Schottky junctions while circumventing the direct and detrimental contact of the metal with the semiconductor. A passivating and tunnel dielectric is used as a separation layer to reduce carrier recombination and remove Fermi level pinning. When applied to solar cells, these junctions result in two main advantages over traditional p-n-junction solar cells: a highly simplified fabrication process and excellent passivation properties and hence high open-circuit voltages. However, one major drawback of metal-insulator-semiconductor solar cells is that a continuous metal layer is needed to form a junction at the surface of the silicon, which decreases the optical transmittance and hence short-circuit current density. The decrease of transmittance with increasing metal coverage, however, can be overcome by nanoscale structures. Nanowire networks exhibit precisely the properties that are required for MIS solar cells: closely spaced and conductive metal wires to induce an inversion layer for homogeneous charge carrier extraction and simultaneously a high optical transparency. We experimentally demonstrate the nanowire MIS concept by using it to make silicon solar cells with a measured energy conversion efficiency of 7% (∼11% after correction), an effective open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 560 mV and estimated short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 33 mA/cm(2). Furthermore, we show that the metal nanowire network can serve additionally as an etch mask to pattern inverted nanopyramids, decreasing the reflectivity substantially from 36% to ∼4%. Our extensive analysis points out a path toward nanowire based MIS solar cells that exhibit both high Voc and Jsc values.

  2. Local bias-induced phase transitions

    DOE PAGES

    Seal, Katyayani; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Jesse, Stephen; ...

    2008-11-27

    Electrical bias-induced phase transitions underpin a wide range of applications from data storage to energy generation and conversion. The mechanisms behind these transitions are often quite complex and in many cases are extremely sensitive to local defects that act as centers for local transformations or pinning. Furthermore, using ferroelectrics as an example, we review methods for probing bias-induced phase transitions and discuss the current limitations and challenges for extending the methods to field-induced phase transitions and electrochemical reactions in energy storage, biological and molecular systems.

  3. Phase transitions in the web of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    The Internet age is changing the structure of science, and affecting interdisciplinary interactions. Publication profiles connecting mathematics with molecular biology and condensed matter physics over the last 40 years exhibit common phase transitions indicative of the critical role played by specific interdisciplinary interactions. The strengths of the phase transitions quantify the importance of interdisciplinary interactions.

  4. Phase transition in a super superspin glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, R.; De Toro, J. A.; Salazar, D.; Lee, S. S.; Cheong, J. L.; Nordblad, P.

    2013-06-01

    We here confirm the occurrence of spin glass phase transition and extract estimates of associated critical exponents of a highly monodisperse and densely compacted system of bare maghemite nanoparticles. This system has earlier been found to behave like an archetypal spin glass, with, e.g., a sharp transition from paramagnetic to non-equilibrium behavior, suggesting that this system undergoes a spin glass phase transition at a relatively high temperature, Tg ∼ 140 K.

  5. Analysis of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. P.; Meng, J.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    A microscopic analysis, based on nuclear energy density functionals, is presented for shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes. Low-lying excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian, with parameters determined by constrained relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data, and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N = 90, that corresponds to a first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.

  6. Cancer as a dynamical phase transition.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul Cw; Demetrius, Lloyd; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2011-08-25

    This paper discusses the properties of cancer cells from a new perspective based on an analogy with phase transitions in physical systems. Similarities in terms of instabilities and attractor states are outlined and differences discussed. While physical phase transitions typically occur at or near thermodynamic equilibrium, a normal-to-cancer (NTC) transition is a dynamical non-equilibrium phenomenon, which depends on both metabolic energy supply and local physiological conditions. A number of implications for preventative and therapeutic strategies are outlined.

  7. Quantum phase transitions in disordered magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozadze, David

    We study the effects of quenched weak disorder on quantum phase transitions in disordered magnets. The presence of disorder in the system can lead to a variety of exotic phenomena, e.g., the smearing of transitions or quantum Griffiths singularities. Phase transitions are smeared if individual spatial regions can order independently of the bulk system. In paper I, we study smeared quantum phase transitions in binary alloys A1-xBx that are tuned by changing the composition x. We show that in this case the ordered phase is extended over all compositions x < 1. We also study the composition dependence of observables. In paper II, we investigate the influence of spatial disorder correlations on smeared phase transitions. As an experimental example, we demonstrate in paper III, that the composition-driven ferromagnetic-toparamagnetic quantum phase transition in Sr1-xCaxRuO3 is smeared. When individual spatial regions cannot order but fluctuate slowly, the phase transition is characterized by strong singularities in the quantum Griffiths phase. In paper IV, we develop a theory of the quantum Griffiths phases in disordered ferromagnetic metals. We show that the quantum Griffiths singularities are stronger than the usual power-law quantum Griffiths singularities in insulating magnets. In paper V, we present an efficient numerical method for studying quantum phase transitions in disordered systems with O(N) order parameter symmetry in the large-N limit. Our algorithm solves iteratively the large-N self-consistent equations for the renormalized distances from criticality. Paper VI is devoted to the study of transport properties in the quantum Griffiths phase associated with the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition in a metal. We find unusual behavior of transport properties which is in contrast to the normal Fermi-liquid behavior.

  8. Exploring structural phase transitions of ion crystals

    PubMed Central

    Yan, L. L.; Wan, W.; Chen, L.; Zhou, F.; Gong, S. J.; Tong, X.; Feng, M.

    2016-01-01

    Phase transitions have been a research focus in many-body physics over past decades. Cold ions, under strong Coulomb repulsion, provide a repealing paradigm of exploring phase transitions in stable confinement by electromagnetic field. We demonstrate various conformations of up to sixteen laser-cooled 40Ca+ ion crystals in a home-built surface-electrode trap, where besides the usually mentioned structural phase transition from the linear to the zigzag, two additional phase transitions to more complicated two-dimensional configurations are identified. The experimental observation agrees well with the numerical simulation. Heating due to micromotion of the ions is analysed by comparison of the numerical simulation with the experimental observation. Our investigation implies very rich and complicated many-body behaviour in the trapped-ion systems and provides effective mechanism for further exploring quantum phase transitions and quantum information processing with ultracold trapped ions. PMID:26865229

  9. Microscopic Description of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.

    2007-08-31

    The relativistic mean-field framework, extended to include correlations related to restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of the quadrupole deformation, is applied to a study of shape transitions in Nd isotopes. It is demonstrated that the microscopic self-consistent approach, based on global effective interactions, can describe not only general features of transitions between spherical and deformed nuclei, but also the singular properties of excitation spectra and transition rates at the critical point of quantum shape phase transition.

  10. Tuning the metal-insulator crossover and magnetism in SrRuO3 by ionic gating

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Hee Taek; Gao, Bin; Xie, Wei; Cheong, Sang -Wook; Podzorov, Vitaly

    2014-10-13

    Reversible control of charge transport and magnetic properties without degradation is a key for device applications of transition metal oxides. Chemical doping during the growth of transition metal oxides can result in large changes in physical properties, but in most of the cases irreversibility is an inevitable constraint. We report a reversible control of charge transport, metal-insulator crossover and magnetism in field-effect devices based on ionically gated archetypal oxide system - SrRuO3. In these thin-film devices, the metal-insulator crossover temperature and the onset of magnetoresistance can be continuously and reversibly tuned in the range 90–250 K and 70–100 K, respectively, by application of a small gate voltage. We infer that a reversible diffusion of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice dominates the response of these materials to the gate electric field. These findings provide critical insights into both the understanding of ionically gated oxides and the development of novel applications.

  11. Tuning the metal-insulator crossover and magnetism in SrRuO3 by ionic gating

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, Hee Taek; Gao, Bin; Xie, Wei; ...

    2014-10-13

    Reversible control of charge transport and magnetic properties without degradation is a key for device applications of transition metal oxides. Chemical doping during the growth of transition metal oxides can result in large changes in physical properties, but in most of the cases irreversibility is an inevitable constraint. We report a reversible control of charge transport, metal-insulator crossover and magnetism in field-effect devices based on ionically gated archetypal oxide system - SrRuO3. In these thin-film devices, the metal-insulator crossover temperature and the onset of magnetoresistance can be continuously and reversibly tuned in the range 90–250 K and 70–100 K, respectively,more » by application of a small gate voltage. We infer that a reversible diffusion of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice dominates the response of these materials to the gate electric field. These findings provide critical insights into both the understanding of ionically gated oxides and the development of novel applications.« less

  12. Astrophysical Implications of the QCD Phase Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Sagert, I.; Hempel, M.; Pagliara, G.; Fischer, T.; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl W.; Liebendoerfer, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The possible role of a first order QCD phase transition at nonvanishing quark chemical potential and temperature for cold neutron stars and for supernovae is delineated. For cold neutron stars, we use the NJL model with a nonvanishing color superconducting pairing gap, which describes the phase transition to the 2SC and the CFL quark matter phases at high baryon densities. We demonstrate that these two phase transitions can both be present in the core of neutron stars and that they lead to the appearance of a third family of solution for compact stars. In particular, a core of CFL quark matter can be present in stable compact star configurations when slightly adjusting the vacuum pressure to the onset of the chiral phase transition from the hadronic model to the NJL model. We show that a strong first order phase transition can have a strong impact on the dynamics of core collapse supernovae. If the QCD phase transition sets in shortly after the first bounce, a second outgoing shock wave can be generated which leads to an explosion. The presence of the QCD phase transition can be read off from the neutrino and antineutrino signal of the supernova.

  13. Phase transitions in liquid crystal + aerosil gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanoglu, Mehmet Kerim

    Liquid Crystals (LCs) are found in many different phases, the most well-known, basic ones being Isotropic (I), Nematic (N), and Smectic-A (SmA). LCs show a rich variety of phase transitions between these phases. This makes them very interesting materials in which to study the basics of phase transitions and related topics. In the low symmetry phases, LCs show both positional and directional orders. X-ray scattering is an important tool to study these phase transitions as it probes the instantaneous positional correlations in these phases. Random forces have a nontrivial effect on ordering in nature, and the problem of phase transitions in the presence of a random field is a current and not well-understood topic. It has been found that aerosils posses a quenched randomness in the mixture of LC+aerosil samples, forming a gel random network which destroys long-range order (LRO) in the SmA phase. This can be modeled as a random field problem. In the N to SmA phase transition in 4O.8 LC (butyloxybenzlidene octylaniline), orientational order (N ) is modified by a 1-D density wave describing 2-D fluid layer spacing structure (SmA). Likewise the I to Sm A phase transition in 10CB LC (decylcyanobiphenyl), a transitional ordered phase develops without going through an orientational ordered phase. To study these phase transitions with aerosil dispersion carries the opportunity to probe the effect of induced quenched random disorder on phase transitions, which are 2nd order in the first case and 1st order in the second case. A two-component line-shape analysis is developed to define the phases in all temperature ranges. It consists of the thermal and the static structure factors. The reentered nematic (RN) phase of the [6:8]OCB+aerosil gels ([6:8]OCB is a mixture of hexyloxycyanobiphenyl and octyloxcyanobiphenyl) is another interesting case in which to study the quenched random disorder effects. The weak SmA phase of [6:8]OCB+aerosil gels is followed by a RN phase at low

  14. Optical properties of non-dilute metal insulator composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncer, Enis; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2008-09-01

    The description of the optical properties of metal-insulator composites in the non-dilute region is a long standing problem. In this letter we extract the spectral density function of cobalt-amorphous aluminum oxide composites from optical and near-infrared data. The spectral functions are accurately computed numerically with the help of a recently developed technique. It is observed that the spectral features of the prepared composites change with increasing cobalt content. For low concentrations of cobalt, only one depolarization peak is found that corresponds to the Maxwell Garnett approximation. For concentrations higher than 11% cobalt, three effective depolarization factors are resolved that move towards low spectral parameter values with increasing cobalt content. Such a multi-peak structure arises naturally in fractal equivalent circuit models for the optical properties. A comparison with a deterministic fractal model is presented to illustrate the strength of the spectral density representation and to better comprehend our results. We conclude that the observed behavior gives important information on the relation of the optical characteristics to the composite micro-structure.

  15. Metal-Insulator Photocathode Heterojunction for Directed Electron Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Nemeth, Karoly; Harkay, Katherine C.; Spentzouris, Linda

    2014-02-14

    New photocathode materials capable of producing intense and directed electron pulses are needed for development of next generation light sources and dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Ideal photocathodes should have high photoemission quantum efficiency (QE) and be capable of delivering collimated and well-shaped pulses of consistent charge under high-field operating conditions. High-brightness and low-intrinsic emittance electron pulses have been predicted for hybrid metal-insulator photocathode designs constructed from three to four monolayer MgO films on atomically flat silver. Here we use angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm directional photoemission and a large increase in QE under ultraviolet laser excitation of an ultrathin MgO film on Ag(001). We observe new low-binding energy photoemission, not seen for Ag(001), and greater electron emission in the normal direction. Under 4.66 eV laser excitation, the photoemission quantum efficiency of the MgO/Ag(001) hybrid photocathode is a factor of seven greater than that for clean Ag(001).

  16. Electroweak phase transition in ultraminimal technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Jaervinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco; Ryttov, Thomas A.

    2009-05-01

    We unveil the temperature-dependent electroweak phase transition in new extensions of the standard model in which the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken via strongly coupled, nearly conformal dynamics achieved by the means of multiple matter representations. In particular, we focus on the low energy effective theory introduced to describe ultra minimal walking technicolor at the phase transition. Using the one-loop effective potential with ring improvement, we identify regions of parameter space, which yield a strong first-order transition. A striking feature of the model is the existence of a second phase transition associated to the electroweak-singlet sector. The interplay between these two transitions leads to an extremely rich phase diagram.

  17. Generalized Entanglement and Quantum Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somma, Rolando; Barnum, Howard; Knill, Emanuel; Ortiz, Gerardo; Viola, Lorenzo

    2006-07-01

    Quantum phase transitions in matter are characterized by qualitative changes in some correlation functions of the system, which are ultimately related to entanglement. In this work, we study the second-order quantum phase transitions present in models of relevance to condensed-matter physics by exploiting the notion of generalized entanglement [Barnum et al., Phys. Rev. A 68, 032308 (2003)]. In particular, we focus on the illustrative case of a one-dimensional spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. Our approach leads to tools useful for distinguishing between the ordered and disordered phases in the case of broken-symmetry quantum phase transitions. Possible extensions to the study of other kinds of phase transitions as well as of the relationship between generalized entanglement and computational efficiency are also discussed.

  18. Generalized Entanglement and Quantum Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somma, Rolando; Barnum, Howard; Knill, Emanuel; Ortiz, Gerardo; Viola, Lorenzo

    Quantum phase transitions in matter are characterized by qualitative changes in some correlation functions of the system, which are ultimately related to entanglement. In this work, we study the second-order quantum phase transitions present in models of relevance to condensed-matter physics by exploiting the notion of generalized entanglement [Barnum et al., Phys. Rev. A 68, 032308 (2003)]. In particular, we focus on the illustrative case of a one-dimensional spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. Our approach leads to tools useful for distinguishing between the ordered and disordered phases in the case of broken-symmetry quantum phase transitions. Possible extensions to the study of other kinds of phase transitions as well as of the relationship between generalized entanglement and computational efficiency are also discussed.

  19. Phase transitions in QCD and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campell, Bruce A.; Ellis, John; Kalara, S.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Olive, Keith A.

    1991-02-01

    We develop a unified effective field theory approach to the high-temperature phase transitions in QCD and string theory, incorporating winding modes (time-like Polyakov loops, vortices) as well as low-mass states (pseudoscalar mesons and glueballs, matter and dilaton supermultiplets). Anomalous scale invariance and the Z3 structure of the centre of SU(3) decree a first-order phase transition with simultaneous deconfinement and Polyakov loop condensation in QCD, whereas string vortex condensation is a second-order phase transition breaking a Z2 symmetry. We argue that vortex condensation is accompanied by a dilaton phase transition to a strong coupling regime, and comment on the possible role of soliton degrees of freedom in the high-temperature string phase. On leave of absence from the School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

  20. Phase transition of aragonite in abalone nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yuanlin; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Wenjian

    2013-04-01

    Nacre is composed of about 95 vol.% aragonite and 5 vol.% biopolymer and famous for its "brick and mortar" microstructure. The phase transition temperature of aragonite in nacre is lower than the pure aragonite. In situ XRD was used to identify the phase transition temperature from aragonite to calcite in nacre, based on the analysis of TG-DSC of fresh nacre and demineralized nacre. The results indicate that the microstructure and biopolymer are the two main factors that influence the phase transition temperature of aragonite in nacre.

  1. Programmable mechanical resonances in MEMS by localized joule heating of phase change materials.

    PubMed

    Manca, Nicola; Pellegrino, Luca; Kanki, Teruo; Yamasaki, Syouta; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Siri, Antonio Sergio; Marré, Daniele

    2013-11-26

    A programmable micromechanical resonator based on a VO2 thin film is reported. Multiple mechanical eigenfrequency states are programmed using Joule heating as local power source, gradually driving the phase transition of VO2 around its Metal-Insulator transition temperature. Phase coexistence of domains is used to tune the stiffness of the device via local control of internal stresses and mechanical properties. This study opens perspectives for developing mechanically configurable nanostructure arrays.

  2. Discovering phase transitions with unsupervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Unsupervised learning is a discipline of machine learning which aims at discovering patterns in large data sets or classifying the data into several categories without being trained explicitly. We show that unsupervised learning techniques can be readily used to identify phases and phases transitions of many-body systems. Starting with raw spin configurations of a prototypical Ising model, we use principal component analysis to extract relevant low-dimensional representations of the original data and use clustering analysis to identify distinct phases in the feature space. This approach successfully finds physical concepts such as the order parameter and structure factor to be indicators of a phase transition. We discuss the future prospects of discovering more complex phases and phase transitions using unsupervised learning techniques.

  3. Phase transition phenomenon: A compound measure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bo Soo; Park, Chanhi; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Wonho

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the well-documented phenomenon of phase transition in financial markets using combined information from both return and volume changes within short time intervals. We suggest a new measure for the phase transition behaviour of markets, calculated as a return distribution conditional on local variance in volume imbalance, and show that this measure successfully captures phase transition behaviour under various conditions. We analyse the intraday trade and quote dataset from the KOSPI 200 index futures, which includes detailed information on the original order size and the type of each initiating investor. We find that among these two competing factors, the submitted order size yields more explanatory power on the phenomenon of market phase transition than the investor type.

  4. Persistent homology analysis of phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Donato, Irene; Gori, Matteo; Pettini, Marco; Petri, Giovanni; De Nigris, Sarah; Franzosi, Roberto; Vaccarino, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    Persistent homology analysis, a recently developed computational method in algebraic topology, is applied to the study of the phase transitions undergone by the so-called mean-field XY model and by the ϕ^{4} lattice model, respectively. For both models the relationship between phase transitions and the topological properties of certain submanifolds of configuration space are exactly known. It turns out that these a priori known facts are clearly retrieved by persistent homology analysis of dynamically sampled submanifolds of configuration space.

  5. Deep-level spectroscopy in metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, A.; Muñoz, E.; Chauveau, J. M.; Hierro, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study we present a method for measuring bulk traps using deep-level spectroscopy techniques in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. We will focus on deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), although this can be extended to deep-level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and similar techniques. These methods require the modulation of a depletion region either from a Schottky junction or from a highly asymmetric p-n junction, junctions that may not be realizable in many current material systems. This is the case of wide-bandgap semiconductor families that present a doping asymmetry or have a high residual carrier concentration or surface carrier accumulation, such as InGaN or ZnO. By adding a thin insulating layer and forming an MIS structure this problem can be circumvented and DLTS/DLOS can be performed under certain conditions. A model for the measurement of bulk traps in MIS structures is thus presented, focusing on the similarities with standard DLTS, maintaining when possible links to existing knowledge on DLTS and related techniques. The model will be presented from an equivalent circuit point of view. The effect of the insulating layer on DLTS is evaluated by a combination of simulations and experiments, developing methods for the measurement of these type of devices. As a validation, highly doped ZnO:Ga MIS devices have been successfully characterized and compared with a reference undoped sample using the methods described in this work, obtaining the same intrinsic levels previously reported in the literature but in material doped as high as 1× {{10}18} cm-3.

  6. Contemporary research of dynamically induced phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions.

  7. Contemporary Research of Dynamically Induced Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions. Supported by the DoD/DOE Joint Munitions Technology Development Program.

  8. Reflective plasmonic waveplates based on metal-insulator-metal subwavelength rectangular annular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhonghui; Wang, Chinhua; Xu, Fuyang; Lou, Yimin; Cao, Bing; Li, Xiaofeng

    2014-04-01

    We propose and present a quarter-wave plate using metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with sub-wavelength rectangular annular arrays (RAA) patterned in the upper Au film. It is found that by manipulating asymmetric width of the annular gaps along two orthogonal directions, the reflected amplitude and phase of the two orthogonal components can be well controlled via the RAA metasurface tuned by the MIM cavity effect, in which the localized surface plasmon resonance dip can be flattened with the cavity length. A quarter-wave plate has been realized through an optimized design at 1.55 μm, in which the phase difference variation of less than 2% of the π/2 between the two orthogonal components can be obtained in an ultra-wide wavelength range of about 130 nm, and the reflectivity is up to ˜90% within the whole working wavelength band. It provides a great potential for applications in advanced nanophotonic devices and integrated photonic systems.

  9. Supercooling and phase coexistence in cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Megevand, Ariel; Sanchez, Alejandro D.

    2008-03-15

    Cosmological phase transitions are predicted by particle physics models, and have a variety of important cosmological consequences, which depend strongly on the dynamics of the transition. In this work we investigate in detail the general features of the development of a first-order phase transition. We find thermodynamical constraints on some quantities that determine the dynamics, namely, the latent heat, the radiation energy density, and the false-vacuum energy density. Using a simple model with a Higgs field, we study numerically the amount and duration of supercooling and the subsequent reheating and phase coexistence. We analyze the dependence of the dynamics on the different parameters of the model, namely, the energy scale, the number of degrees of freedom, and the couplings of the scalar field with bosons and fermions. We also inspect the implications for the cosmological outcomes of the phase transition.

  10. Electroweak phase transition in nearly conformal technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, James M.; Jaervinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    We examine the temperature-dependent electroweak phase transition in extensions of the standard model in which the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken via strongly coupled, nearly conformal dynamics. In particular, we focus on the low energy effective theory used to describe minimal walking technicolor at the phase transition. Using the one-loop effective potential with ring improvement, we identify significant regions of parameter space which yield a sufficiently strong first-order transition for electroweak baryogenesis. The composite particle spectrum corresponding to these regions can be produced and studied at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. We note the possible emergence of a second phase transition at lower temperatures. This occurs when the underlying technicolor theory possesses a nontrivial center symmetry.

  11. Theory of smeared quantum phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, José A; Vojta, Thomas

    2008-06-20

    We present an analytical strong-disorder renormalization group theory of the quantum phase transition in the dissipative random transverse-field Ising chain. For Ohmic dissipation, we solve the renormalization flow equations analytically, yielding asymptotically exact results for the low-temperature properties of the system. We find that the interplay between quantum fluctuations and Ohmic dissipation destroys the quantum critical point by smearing. We also determine the phase diagram and the behavior of observables in the vicinity of the smeared quantum phase transition.

  12. Random fields at a nonequilibrium phase transition.

    PubMed

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas

    2012-10-26

    We study nonequilibrium phase transitions in the presence of disorder that locally breaks the symmetry between two equivalent macroscopic states. In low-dimensional equilibrium systems, such random-field disorder is known to have dramatic effects: it prevents spontaneous symmetry breaking and completely destroys the phase transition. In contrast, we show that the phase transition of the one-dimensional generalized contact process persists in the presence of random-field disorder. The ultraslow dynamics in the symmetry-broken phase is described by a Sinai walk of the domain walls between two different absorbing states. We discuss the generality and limitations of our theory, and we illustrate our results by large-scale Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parang, M.; Chao, D.

    1999-01-01

    Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.

  14. Phase transitions in Abelian lattice gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheluvaraja, Srinath

    2000-02-01

    We study the phase transition in the U (1) lattice gauge theory using the Wilson-Polyakov line as the order parameter. The Wilson-Polyakov line remains very small at strong coupling and becomes non-zero at weak coupling, signalling a confinement-to-deconfinement phase transition. The decondensation of monopole loops is responsible for this phase transition. A finite size scaling analysis of the susceptibility of the Wilson line gives a ratio for icons/Journals/Common/gamma" ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/> /icons/Journals/Common/nu" ALT="nu" ALIGN="TOP"/> which is quite close to the corresponding value in the three-dimensional planar model. A scaling behaviour of the monopole loop distribution function is also established at the point of the second-order phase transition. A measurement of the plaquette susceptibility at the transition point shows that it does not scale with the four-dimensional volume as is expected of a first-order bulk transition.

  15. Shaping Crystal-Crystal Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiyu; van Anders, Greg; Dshemuchadse, Julia; Glotzer, Sharon

    Previous computational and experimental studies have shown self-assembled structure depends strongly on building block shape. New synthesis techniques have led to building blocks with reconfigurable shape and it has been demonstrated that building block reconfiguration can induce bulk structural reconfiguration. However, we do not understand systematically how this transition happens as a function of building block shape. Using a recently developed ``digital alchemy'' framework, we study the thermodynamics of shape-driven crystal-crystal transitions. We find examples of shape-driven bulk reconfiguration that are accompanied by first-order phase transitions, and bulk reconfiguration that occurs without any thermodynamic phase transition. Our results suggest that for well-chosen shapes and structures, there exist facile means of bulk reconfiguration, and that shape-driven bulk reconfiguration provides a viable mechanism for developing functional materials.

  16. Phase transitions in multiplicative competitive processes.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Niebur, Ernst

    2005-07-01

    We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to statistical mechanics. The theory is applicable to bacterial competition, predicting novel population dynamics near criticality.

  17. Phase transitions in multiplicative competitive processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Niebur, Ernst

    2005-07-01

    We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to statistical mechanics. The theory is applicable to bacterial competition, predicting novel population dynamics near criticality.

  18. Thermogeometric phase transition in a unified framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav

    2017-04-01

    Using geomterothermodynamics (GTD), we investigate the phase transition of black hole in a metric independent way. We show that for any black hole, curvature scalar (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular at the point where specific heat diverges. Previously such a result could only be shown by taking specific examples on a case by case basis. A different type of phase transition, where inverse specific heat diverges, is also studied within this framework. We show that in the latter case, metric (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular instead of curvature scalar. Since a metric singularity may be a coordinate artifact, we propose that GTD indicates that it is the singularity of specific heat and not inverse specific heat which indicates a phase transition of black holes.

  19. Quantum phase transitions with dynamical flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, Yago; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.

    2016-07-01

    We study the properties of a D6-brane probe in the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) background with smeared massless dynamical quarks in the Veneziano limit. Working at zero temperature and nonvanishing charge density, we show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition in which the topology of the brane embedding changes from a black hole to a Minkowski embedding. In the unflavored background the phase transition is of second order and takes place when the charge density vanishes. We determine the corresponding critical exponents and show that the scaling behavior near the quantum critical point has multiplicative logarithmic corrections. In the background with dynamical quarks the phase transition is of first order and occurs at nonzero charge density. In this case we compute the discontinuity of several physical quantities as functions of the number Nf of unquenched quarks of the background.

  20. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Mégevand, Ariel

    2013-07-01

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  1. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx. greater than 5), structures existing on scales of 100 M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ((Delta)T/T) (approx. less than 10(exp -5)) can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random Gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of approx. 100 M pc for large scale structure as well as approx. 1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition.

  2. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-11-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Shape phase transitions and critical points

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2009-05-04

    We investigate different aspects connected with shape phase transitions in nuclei and the possible occurrence of dynamical symmetries at the critical points. We discuss in particular the behaviour of the neighbour odd nuclei at the vicinity of the critical points in the even nuclei. We consider both the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the gamma-unstable deformation (characterized within the collective Bohr hamiltonian by the E(5) critical point symmetry) and the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation (characterized by the X(5) symmetry). The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2, a set of orbitals that is known to lead to possible supersymmetric cases. The coupling of the odd particle to the Bohr hamiltonian does lead in fact in the former case at the critical point to the E(5/12) boson-fermion dynamical symmetry. An alternative approach to the two shape transitions is based on the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. In this case suitably parametrized boson-fermion hamiltonians can describe the evolution of the odd system along the shape transitions. At the critical points both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions were found to display characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The behaviour of the odd nuclei can therefore be seen as necessary complementary signatures of the occurrence of the phase transitions.

  4. The transition to the metallic state in low density hydrogen.

    PubMed

    McMinis, Jeremy; Morales, Miguel A; Ceperley, David M; Kim, Jeongnim

    2015-11-21

    Solid atomic hydrogen is one of the simplest systems to undergo a metal-insulator transition. Near the transition, the electronic degrees of freedom become strongly correlated and their description provides a difficult challenge for theoretical methods. As a result, the order and density of the phase transition are still subject to debate. In this work, we use diffusion quantum Monte Carlo to benchmark the transition between paramagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic body centered cubic atomic hydrogen in its ground state. We locate the density of the transition by computing the equation of state for these two phases and identify the phase transition order by computing the band gap near the phase transition. These benchmark results show that the phase transition is continuous and occurs at a Wigner-Seitz radius of rs = 2.27(3) a0. We compare our results to previously reported density functional theory, Hedin's GW approximation, and dynamical mean field theory results.

  5. Jumping phase control in interband photonic transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Zhu, Jiang; Gao, Zhuoyang; Zhu, Haibin; Jiang, Chun

    2014-03-10

    Indirect interband photonic transition provides a nonmagnetic and linear scheme to achieve optical isolation in integrated photonics. In this paper, we demonstrate that the nonreciprocal transition can be induced through two pathways respectively by different modulation designs. At the end of those pathways, the two final modes have π phaseshift. We call this phenomenon jumping phase control since this approach provides a method to control the mode phase after the conversion. This approach also yields a novel way to generate nonreciprocal phaseshift and may contribute to chip-scale optoelectronic applications.

  6. Solid-liquid phase transition in argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Tang, H. T.

    1978-01-01

    Starting from the Lennard-Jones interatomic potential, a modified cell theory has been used to describe the solid-liquid phase transition in argon. The cell-size variations may be evaluated by a self-consistent condition. With the inclusion of cell-size variations, the transition temperature, the solid and liquid densities, and the liquid-phase radial-distribution functions have been calculated. These ab initio results are in satisfactory agreement with molecular-dynamics calculations as well as experimental data on argon.

  7. Metamagnetic Anomalies near Dynamic Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riego, P.; Vavassori, P.; Berger, A.

    2017-03-01

    We report the existence of anomalous metamagnetic fluctuations in the vicinity of the dynamic phase transition (DPT) that do not occur for the corresponding thermodynamic behavior of simple ferromagnets. Our results demonstrate that key characteristics associated with the DPT are qualitatively different from conventional thermodynamic phase transitions. We also provide evidence that these differences are tunable by showing that the presence of metamagnetic fluctuations and the size of the critical scaling regime depend strongly on the amplitude of the oscillating field that is driving the DPT in the first place.

  8. Entangled states and superradiant phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Aparicio Alcalde, M.; Cardenas, A. H.; Svaiter, N. F.; Bezerra, V. B.

    2010-03-15

    The full Dicke model is composed of a single bosonic mode and an ensemble of N identical two-level atoms. In the model, the coupling between the bosonic mode and the atoms generates resonant and nonresonant processes. We also consider a dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms, which is able to generate entangled states in the atomic system. By assuming thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature {beta}{sup -1}, the transition from fluorescent to superradiant phase and the quantum phase transition are investigated. It is shown that the critical behavior of the full Dicke model is not modified by the introduction of the dipole-dipole interaction.

  9. Phase transition in sarcosine phosphite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanov, V. V.; Popov, S. N.; Pankova, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    Single crystals of sarcosine phosphite (SarcH3PO3) have been grown. The amino acid sarcosine is an isomer of the protein amino acid alanine. Both amino acids are described by the same chemical formula but have different structures; or, more specifically, in contrast to the alanine molecule, the sarcosine molecule has a symmetric structure. It has been found that the sarcosine phosphite compound undergoes a structural phase transition at a temperature of approximately 200 K. This result has demonstrated that compounds of achiral amino acids are more susceptible to structural phase transitions.

  10. Finite-Size and Composition-Driven Topological Phase Transition in (Bi1-xInx)2Se3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Maryam; Shapourian, Hassan; Koirala, Nikesh; Brahlek, Matthew J; Moon, Jisoo; Oh, Seongshik

    2016-09-14

    In a topological insulator (TI), if its spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength is gradually reduced, the TI eventually transforms into a trivial insulator beyond a critical point of SOC, at which point the bulk gap closes: this is the standard description of the topological phase transition (TPT). However, this description of TPT, driven solely by the SOC (or something equivalent) and followed by closing and reopening of the bulk band gap, is valid only for infinite-size samples, and little is known how TPT occurs for finite-size samples. Here, using both systematic transport measurements on interface-engineered (Bi1-xInx)2Se3 thin films and theoretical simulations (with animations in the Supporting Information), we show that description of TPT in finite-size samples needs to be substantially modified from the conventional picture of TPT due to surface-state hybridization and bulk confinement effects. We also show that the finite-size TPT is composed of two separate transitions, topological-normal transition (TNT) and metal-insulator transition (MIT), by providing a detailed phase diagram in the two-dimensional phase space of sample size and SOC strength.

  11. Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.

  12. Caloric materials near ferroic phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Moya, X; Kar-Narayan, S; Mathur, N D

    2014-05-01

    A magnetically, electrically or mechanically responsive material can undergo significant thermal changes near a ferroic phase transition when its order parameter is modified by the conjugate applied field. The resulting magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) effects are compared here in terms of history, experimental method, performance and prospective cooling applications.

  13. Chaos: Butterflies also Generate Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leplaideur, Renaud

    2015-10-01

    We exhibit examples of mixing subshifts of finite type and of continuous potentials such that there are phase transitions but the pressure is always strictly convex. More surprisingly, we show that the pressure can be analytic on some interval although there exist several equilibrium states.

  14. Phase Transitions with Semi-Diffuse Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, James M.

    2003-07-16

    In this paper we examine new ''phase-field'' models with semi-diffuse interfaces. These models have the property that the -1/+1 planar phase transitions take place over a finite interval. The models also support multiple interface solutions with interfaces centered at arbitrary points L{sub 1} < L{sub 2} < ... < L{sub N}. These solutions correspond to local minima of an entropy functional rather than saddle points and are dynamically stable. The classical models have no such exact solutions but they do support solutions with N equally spaced transition points where the order parameter transitions between valves p{sub min}(N) and p{sub max}(N) satisfying -1 < p{sub min}(N) < 0 < p{sub max} (N) < 1. These solutions of the classical model are saddle points of the entropy functional associated with those models and are not dynamically stable.

  15. Double-Diffusive Layers and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dude, Sabine; Hansen, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Researching the thermal evolution of the Earth's mantle on numerical base is very challenging. During the last decade different approaches are put forward in oder to understand the picture of the today's Earth's mantle. One way is to incorporate all the known features and physics (plate tectonics, phase transitions, CMB-topography, ...) into numerical models and make them as complex (or 'complete') as possible to capture Earth's mantle processes and surface signals. Another way is, to take a step back and look at less complex models which account for single processes and their interaction and evolution. With these 'simpler' models one is able look in detail into the physical processes and dependencies on certain parameters. Since the knowledge of slab stagnation in the transitions zone of the Earth's mantle the question whether the mantle is or at least has been layered to some degree is still under debate. On this basis we address two important features that lead to layered mantle convection and may affect each other and with this the thermal evolution of the mantle. It is commonly known the main mantle mineral olivine pass through various phase changes with depth [1]. Detailed numerical studies had been carried out to ascertain the influence on convective motion and planetary evolution [2]. It is still heavily discussed whether the endothermic phase change at 660km depth can lead an isolated lower mantle. Most of the numerical studies favour a model which has phases of layering that are disrupted by catastrophic events. In the last years double-diffusive convection has also been intensively studied with regard to planetary mantle evolution such as pile formation and core-mantle boundary topography [3]. However, another striking feature still posing open questions are evolving layers self-organised from a previous non layered state. Considering a chemical component that influences the density of a fluid in addition to the temperature leads to dynamical phenomena

  16. Nonuniversal surface behavior of dynamic phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riego, Patricia; Berger, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the dynamic phase transition (DPT) of the kinetic Ising model in systems with surfaces within the mean-field approximation. Varying the surface exchange coupling strength Js, the amplitude of the externally applied oscillating field h0, and its period P , we explore the dynamic behavior of the layer-dependent magnetization and the associated DPTs. The surface phase diagram shows several features that resemble those of the equilibrium case, with an extraordinary bulk transition and a surface transition for high Js values, independent from the value of h0. For low Js, however, h0 is found to be a crucial parameter that leads to nonuniversal surface behavior at the ordinary bulk transition point. Specifically, we observed here a bulk-supported surface DPT for high field amplitudes h0 and correspondingly short critical periods Pc, whereas this surface transition simultaneous to the bulk one is suppressed for slow critical dynamics occurring for low values of h0. The suppression of the DPT for low h0 not only occurs for the topmost surface layer, but also affects a significant number of subsurface layers. We find that the key physical quantity that explains this nonuniversal behavior is the time correlation between the dynamic surface and bulk magnetizations at the bulk critical point. This time correlation has to pass a threshold value to trigger a bulk-induced DPT in the surface layers. Otherwise, dynamic phase transitions are absent at the surface in stark contrast to the equilibrium behavior of the corresponding thermodynamic Ising model. Also, we have analyzed the penetration depth of the dynamically ordered phase for the surface DPT that occurs for large Js values. Here we find that the penetration depth depends strongly on Js and behaves identically to the corresponding equilibrium Ising model.

  17. Holographic phase transitions at finite chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, David; Matsuura, Shunji; Myers, Robert C.; Thomson, Rowan M.

    2007-11-01

    Recently, holographic techniques have been used to study the thermal properties of Script N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theory, with gauge group SU(Nc) and coupled to Nf << Nc flavours of fundamental matter, at large Nc and large 't Hooft coupling. Here we consider the phase diagram as a function of temperature and baryon chemical potential μb. For fixed μb < NcMq there is a line of first order thermal phase transitions separating a region with vanishing baryon density and one with nonzero density. For fixed μb>Nc Mq there is no phase transition as a function of the temperature and the baryon density is always nonzero. We also compare the present results for the grand canonical ensemble with those for canonical ensemble in which the baryon density is held fixed [1].

  18. The comfortable driving model revisited: traffic phases and phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Florian; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2013-07-01

    We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast them with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides ‘hard’ rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow to a wide moving jam often involves an intermediate transition: first from free flow to synchronized flow and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so-called F → S transition (from free flow to synchronized traffic) is much more likely than a direct F → J transition. The model under consideration has a functional relationship between traffic flow and traffic density. The fundamental hypothesis of the three-phase traffic theory, however, postulates that the steady states of synchronized flow occupy a two-dimensional region in the flow-density plane. Due to the obvious discrepancy between the model investigated here and the postulate of the three-phase traffic theory, the good agreement that we found could not be expected. For a more detailed analysis, we also studied vehicle dynamics at a microscopic level and provide a comparison of real detector data with simulated data of the identical highway segment.

  19. Determining computational complexity from characteristic `phase transitions'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monasson, Rémi; Zecchina, Riccardo; Kirkpatrick, Scott; Selman, Bart; Troyansky, Lidror

    1999-07-01

    Non-deterministic polynomial time (commonly termed `NP-complete') problems are relevant to many computational tasks of practical interest-such as the `travelling salesman problem'-but are difficult to solve: the computing time grows exponentially with problem size in the worst case. It has recently been shown that these problems exhibit `phase boundaries', across which dramatic changes occur in the computational difficulty and solution character-the problems become easier to solve away from the boundary. Here we report an analytic solution and experimental investigation of the phase transition in K -satisfiability, an archetypal NP-complete problem. Depending on the input parameters, the computing time may grow exponentially or polynomially with problem size; in the former case, we observe a discontinuous transition, whereas in the latter case a continuous (second-order) transition is found. The nature of these transitions may explain the differing computational costs, and suggests directions for improving the efficiency of search algorithms. Similar types of transition should occur in other combinatorial problems and in glassy or granular materials, thereby strengthening the link between computational models and properties of physical systems.

  20. Percolation quantum phase transitions in diluted magnets.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Thomas; Schmalian, Jörg

    2005-12-02

    We show that the interplay of geometric criticality and quantum fluctuations leads to a novel universality class for the percolation quantum phase transition in diluted magnets. All critical exponents involving dynamical correlations are different from the classical percolation values, but in two dimensions they can nonetheless be determined exactly. We develop a complete scaling theory of this transition, and we relate it to recent experiments in La2Cu(1-p)(Zn,Mg)(p)O4. Our results are also relevant for disordered interacting boson systems.

  1. Phase Transition of DNA Coated Nanogold Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Ching-Hwa; Sun, Young; Harris, Nolan; Wickremasinghe, Nissanka

    2004-03-01

    Melting and hybridization of DNA-coated gold nanoparticle networks are investigated with optical absorption spectroscopy and tansmission electron microscopy. Single-stranded DNA-coated nanogold are linked with complementary, single-stranded linker DNA to form particle networks. Network formation results in a solution color change, which can be used for DNA detection. Compared to free DNA, networked DNA-nanoparticle systems result in a sharp melting transition. Melting curves calculated from percolation theory agree with our experimental results(1). (1) C.-H. Kiang, ``Phase Transition of DNA-Linked Gold Nanoparticles,'' Physica A, 321 (2003) 164--169.

  2. Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoane, Luís F.; Solé, Ricard

    2015-09-01

    The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem, finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated with different arrangements of the connections, but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence or the nature of the phase transitions encountered. Instead, the functions under optimization do play a determinant role. This reinforces the view that phase transitions do not arise from intrinsic properties of a system alone, but from the interplay of that system with its external constraints.

  3. Dimensional phase transition in small Yukawa clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, T. E.; Wells, K. D.

    2010-01-15

    We investigate the one- to two-dimensional zigzag transition in clusters consisting of a small number of particles interacting through a Yukawa (Debye) potential and confined in a two-dimensional biharmonic potential well. Dusty (complex) plasma clusters with n<=19 monodisperse particles are characterized experimentally for two different confining wells. The well anisotropy is accurately measured, and the Debye shielding parameter is determined from the longitudinal breathing frequency. Debye shielding is shown to be important. A model for this system is used to predict equilibrium particle configurations. The experiment and model exhibit excellent agreement. The critical value of n for the zigzag transition is found to be less than that predicted for an unshielded Coulomb interaction. The zigzag transition is shown to behave as a continuous phase transition from a one-dimensional to a two-dimensional state, where the state variables are the number of particles, the well anisotropy and the Debye shielding parameter. A universal critical exponent for the zigzag transition is identified for transitions caused by varying the Debye shielding parameter.

  4. Model of coherent transport in metal-insulator-midband gap semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. I.; Danilyuk, A. L.

    1997-08-01

    A kinetic model of coherent transport with self-organized carrier transfer via midband gap semiconductor states in metal-insulator-midband gap semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structure at room temperature is proposed. The coherent transport at room temperature can be a result of continuous oscillations of charge carriers at midband gap semiconductor states.

  5. High-channel-count plasmonic filter with the metal-insulator-metal Fibonacci-sequence gratings.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yongkang; Liu, Xueming; Wang, Leiran

    2010-02-01

    Fibonacci-sequence gratings based on metal-insulator-metal waveguides are proposed. The spectrum properties of this structure are numerically investigated by using the transfer matrix method. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed structure can generate high-channel-count plasmonic stop bands and can find significant applications in highly integrated dense wavelength division multiplexing networks.

  6. Peltier effect in normal metal-insulator-heavy fermion metal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltsev, A. V.; Rowe, D. M.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Kuznetsova, L. A.; Min, Gao

    2003-04-01

    A theoretical study has been undertaken of the Peltier effect in normal metal-insulator-heavy fermion metal junctions. The results indicate that, at temperatures below the Kondo temperature, such junctions can be used as electronic microrefrigerators to cool the normal metal electrode and are several times more efficient in cooling than the normal metal-heavy fermion metal junctions.

  7. Phase Transitions in Models of Bird Flocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulidi, H.; van der Weele, K.; Antonopoulos, Ch. G.; Bountis, T.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to elucidate the transition from collective to random behavior exhibited by various mathematical models of bird flocking. In particular, we compare Vicsek's model [Vicsek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226-1229 (1995)] with one based on topological considerations. The latter model is found to exhibit a first order phase transition from flocking to decoherence, as the "noise parameter" of the problem is increased, whereas Vicsek's model gives a second order transition. Refining the topological model in such a way that birds are influenced mostly by the birds in front of them, less by the ones at their sides and not at all by those behind them (because they do not see them), we find a behavior that lies in between the two models. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism for preserving the flock's cohesion, without imposing artificial boundary conditions or attractive forces.

  8. Gravitational Waves from a Dark Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we show that a large class of models with a composite dark sector undergo a strong first order phase transition in the early Universe, which could lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal. We summarize the basic conditions for a strong first order phase transition for SU (N ) dark sectors with nf flavors, calculate the gravitational wave spectrum and show that, depending on the dark confinement scale, it can be detected at eLISA or in pulsar timing array experiments. The gravitational wave signal provides a unique test of the gravitational interactions of a dark sector, and we discuss the complementarity with conventional searches for new dark sectors. The discussion includes the twin Higgs and strongly interacting massive particle models as well as symmetric and asymmetric composite dark matter scenarios.

  9. Phase transition in the countdown problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Bartolo

    2012-07-01

    We present a combinatorial decision problem, inspired by the celebrated quiz show called Countdown, that involves the computation of a given target number T from a set of k randomly chosen integers along with a set of arithmetic operations. We find that the probability of winning the game evidences a threshold phenomenon that can be understood in the terms of an algorithmic phase transition as a function of the set size k. Numerical simulations show that such probability sharply transitions from zero to one at some critical value of the control parameter, hence separating the algorithm's parameter space in different phases. We also find that the system is maximally efficient close to the critical point. We derive analytical expressions that match the numerical results for finite size and permit us to extrapolate the behavior in the thermodynamic limit.

  10. Phase transition in the countdown problem.

    PubMed

    Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Bartolo

    2012-07-01

    We present a combinatorial decision problem, inspired by the celebrated quiz show called Countdown, that involves the computation of a given target number T from a set of k randomly chosen integers along with a set of arithmetic operations. We find that the probability of winning the game evidences a threshold phenomenon that can be understood in the terms of an algorithmic phase transition as a function of the set size k. Numerical simulations show that such probability sharply transitions from zero to one at some critical value of the control parameter, hence separating the algorithm's parameter space in different phases. We also find that the system is maximally efficient close to the critical point. We derive analytical expressions that match the numerical results for finite size and permit us to extrapolate the behavior in the thermodynamic limit.

  11. Phase transitions: An overview with a view

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiser, M.

    1997-10-01

    The dynamics of phase transitions plays a crucial role in the so- called interface between high energy particle physics and cosmology. Many of the interesting results generated during the last fifteen years or so rely on simplified assumptions concerning the complex mechanisms typical of nonequilibrium field theories. After reviewing well-known results concerning the dynamics of first and second order phase transitions, I argue that much is yet to be understood, in particular in situations where homogeneous nucleation theory does not apply. I present a method to deal with departures from homogeneous nucleation, and compare its efficacy with numerical simulations. Finally, I discuss the interesting problem of matching numerical simulations of stochastic field theories with continuum models.

  12. A nonequilibrium phase transition in immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Qi, An-Shen

    2004-07-01

    The dynamics of immune response correlated to signal transduction in immune thymic cells (T cells) is studied. In particular, the problem of the phosphorylation of the immune-receptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) is explored. A nonlinear model is established on the basis of experimental observations. The behaviours of the model can be well analysed using the concepts of nonequilibrium phase transitions. In addition, the Riemann-Hugoniot cusp catastrophe is demonstrated by the model. Due to the application of the theory of nonequilibrium phase transitions, the biological phenomena can be clarified more precisely. The results can also be used to further explain the signal transduction and signal discrimination of an important type of immune T cell.

  13. Structural phase transitions in layered perovskitelike crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    Possible symmetry changes due to small tilts of octahedra are considered for layered perovskite-like crystals containing slabs of several ({ell}) layers of comer-sharing octahedra. In the crystals with {ell} > 1, four types of distortions are possible; as a rule, these distortions correspond to the librational modes of the parent lattice. Condensation of these soft modes is the reason for structural phase transitions or sequences of phase transitions. The results obtained are compared with the known experimental data for a number of layered ferroelectric and ferroelastic perovskite-like compounds. An application of the results to the initial stage of determining unknown structures is discussed with particular attention paid to high-temperature superconductors. 76 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Evolution of structure during phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.E.; Wilcoxon, J.P.; Anderson, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    Nanostructured materials can be synthesized by utilizing the domain growth that accompanies first-order phase separation. Structural control can be achieved by appropriately selecting the quench depth and the quench time, but in order to do this in a mindful fashion one must understand the kinetics of domain growth. The authors have completed detailed light scattering studies of the evolution of structure in both temperature- and field-quenched phase transitions in two and three dimensional systems. They have studied these systems in the quiescent state and in shear and have developed theoretical models that account for the experimental results.

  15. Phase transitions in unstable cancer cell populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, R. V.

    2003-09-01

    The dynamics of cancer evolution is studied by means of a simple quasispecies model involving cells displaying high levels of genetic instability. Both continuous, mean-field and discrete, bit-string models are analysed. The string model is simulated on a single-peak landscape. It is shown that a phase transition exists at high levels of genetic instability, thus separating two phases of slow and rapid growth. The results suggest that, under a conserved level of genetic instability the cancer cell population will be close to the threshold level. Implications for therapy are outlined.

  16. Structural phase transitions in monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha June; Chang, Kee Joo

    2015-03-01

    The recent discovery of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has provided opportunities to develop ultimate thin channel devices. In contrast to graphene, the existence of moderate band gap and strong spin-orbit coupling gives rise to exotic electronic properties which vary with layer thickness, lattice structure, and symmetry. TMDs commonly appear in two structures with distinct symmetries, trigonal prismatic 2H and octahedral 1T phases which are semiconducting and metallic, respectively. In this work, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides (MoX2, where X = S, Se, Te) through first-principles density functional calculations. We find a tendency that the semiconducting 2H phase is more stable than the metallic 1T phase. We show that a spontaneous symmetry breaking of 1T phase leads to various distorted octahedral (1T') phases, thus inducing a metal-to-semiconductor transition. We discuss the effects of carrier doping on the structural stability and the modification of the electronic structure. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Grant No. NRF-2005-0093845 and Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Grant No. SSTFBA1401-08.

  17. Extracellular ice phase transitions in insects.

    PubMed

    Hawes, T C

    2014-01-01

    At temperatures below their temperature of crystallization (Tc), the extracellular body fluids of insects undergo a phase transition from liquid to solid. Insects that survive the transition to equilibrium (complete freezing of the body fluids) are designated as freeze tolerant. Although this phenomenon has been reported and described in many Insecta, current nomenclature and theory does not clearly delineate between the process of transition (freezing) and the final solid phase itself (the frozen state). Thus freeze tolerant insects are currently, by convention, described in terms of the temperature at which the crystallization of their body fluids is initiated, Tc. In fact, the correct descriptor for insects that tolerate freezing is the temperature of equilibrium freezing, Tef. The process of freezing is itself a separate physical event with unique physiological stresses that are associated with ice growth. Correspondingly there are a number of insects whose physiological cryo-limits are very specifically delineated by this transitional envelope. The distinction also has considerable significance for our understanding of insect cryobiology: firstly, because the ability to manage endogenous ice growth is a fundamental segregator of cryotype; and secondly, because our understanding of internal ice management is still largely nascent.

  18. Topological phase transitions in frustrated magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southern, B. W.; Peles, A.

    2006-06-01

    The role of topological excitations in frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnets between two and three spatial dimensions is considered. In particular, the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a stacked triangular geometry with a finite number of layers is studied using Monte Carlo methods. A phase transition that is purely topological in nature occurs at a finite temperature for all film thicknesses. The results indicate that topological excitations are important for a complete understanding of the critical properties of the model between two and three dimensions.

  19. Phase transitions in Nowak Sznajd opinion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wołoszyn, Maciej; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2007-05-01

    The Nowak modification of the Sznajd opinion dynamics model on the square lattice assumes that with probability β the opinions flip due to mass-media advertising from down to up, and vice versa. Besides, with probability α the Sznajd rule applies that a neighbour pair agreeing in its two opinions convinces all its six neighbours of that opinion. Our Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field theory find sharp phase transitions in the parameter space.

  20. Dynamical quantum phase transitions (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagin, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    During recent years the interest to dynamics of quantum systems has grown considerably. Quantum many body systems out of equilibrium often manifest behavior, different from the one predicted by standard statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in equilibrium. Since the dynamics of a many-body quantum system typically involve many excited eigenstates, with a non-thermal distribution, the time evolution of such a system provides an unique way for investigation of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. Last decade such new subjects like quantum quenches, thermalization, pre-thermalization, equilibration, generalized Gibbs ensemble, etc. are among the most attractive topics of investigation in modern quantum physics. One of the most interesting themes in the study of dynamics of quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium is connected with the recently proposed important concept of dynamical quantum phase transitions. During the last few years a great progress has been achieved in studying of those singularities in the time dependence of characteristics of quantum mechanical systems, in particular, in understanding how the quantum critical points of equilibrium thermodynamics affect their dynamical properties. Dynamical quantum phase transitions reveal universality, scaling, connection to the topology, and many other interesting features. Here we review the recent achievements of this quickly developing part of low-temperature quantum physics. The study of dynamical quantum phase transitions is especially important in context of their connection to the problem of the modern theory of quantum information, where namely non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum system plays the major role.

  1. Recent theoretical advances on superradiant phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksic, Alexandre; Nataf, Pierre; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2013-03-01

    The Dicke model describing a single-mode boson field coupled to two-level systems is an important paradigm in quantum optics. In particular, the physics of ``superradiant phase transitions'' in the ultrastrong coupling regime is the subject of a vigorous research activity in both cavity and circuit QED. Recently, we explored the rich physics of two interesting generalizations of the Dicke model: (i) A model describing the coupling of a boson mode to two independent chains A and B of two-level systems, where chain A is coupled to one quadrature of the boson field and chain B to the orthogonal quadrature. This original model leads to a quantum phase transition with a double symmetry breaking and a fourfold ground state degeneracy. (ii) A generalized Dicke model with three-level systems including the diamagnetic term. In contrast to the case of two-level atoms for which no-go theorems exist, in the case of three-level system we prove that the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn sum rule does not always prevent a superradiant phase transition.

  2. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  3. Phase transitions in complex network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Shane

    Two phase transitions in complex networks are analyzed. The first of these is a percolation transition, in which the network develops a macroscopic connected component as edges are added to it. Recent work has shown that if edges are added "competitively" to an undirected network, the onset of percolation is abrupt or "explosive." A new variant of explosive percolation is introduced here for directed networks, whose critical behavior is explored using numerical simulations and finite-size scaling theory. This process is also characterized by a very rapid percolation transition, but it is not as sudden as in undirected networks. The second phase transition considered here is the emergence of instability in Boolean networks, a class of dynamical systems that are widely used to model gene regulation. The dynamics, which are determined by the network topology and a set of update rules, may be either stable or unstable, meaning that small perturbations to the state of the network either die out or grow to become macroscopic. Here, this transition is analytically mapped onto a well-studied percolation problem, which can be used to predict the average steady-state distance between perturbed and unperturbed trajectories. This map applies to specific Boolean networks with few restrictions on network topology, but can only be applied to two commonly used types of update rules. Finally, a method is introduced for predicting the stability of Boolean networks with a much broader range of update rules. The network is assumed to have a given complex topology, subject only to a locally tree-like condition, and the update rules may be correlated with topological features of the network. While past work has addressed the separate effects of topology and update rules on stability, the present results are the first widely applicable approach to studying how these effects interact. Numerical simulations agree with the theory and show that such correlations between topology and update

  4. Two interacting charged particles in an Aharonov-Bohm ring: Bound state transitions, symmetry breaking, persistent currents, and Berry's phase

    SciTech Connect

    Moulopoulos, Konstantinos; Constantinou, Martha

    2004-12-15

    By using a Green's function procedure we determine exactly the energy spectrum and the associated eigenstates of a system of two oppositely charged particles interacting through a contact potential and moving in a one-dimensional ring threaded by a magnetic flux. Critical interactions for the appearance of bound states are analytically determined and are viewed as limiting cases of many-body results from the area of interaction-induced metal-insulator transitions in charged quantal mixtures. Analytical expressions on one-body probability and charge current densities for this overall neutral system are derived and their single-valuedness leads to the possibility of states with broken symmetry, with possible experimental signatures in exciton spectra. Persistent currents are analytically determined and their properties investigated from the point of view of an interacting mesoscopic system. A cyclic adiabatic process on the interaction potential is also identified, with the associated Berry's phase directly linked to the electric (persistent) currents, the probability currents having no contribution for a neutral system.

  5. Dicke phase transition without total spin conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Torre, Emanuele G.; Shchadilova, Yulia; Wilner, Eli Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Demler, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    We develop a fermionic path-integral formalism to analyze the phase diagram of open nonequilibrium systems. The formalism is applied to analyze an ensemble of two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode optical cavity, described by the Dicke model. While this model is often used as the paradigmatic example of a phase transition in driven-dissipative systems, earlier theoretical studies were limited to the special case when the total spin of the atomic ensemble is conserved. This assumption is not justified in most experimental realizations. Our approach allows us to analyze the problem in a more general case, including the experimentally relevant case of dissipative processes that act on each atom individually and do not conserve the total spin. We obtain a general expression for the position of the transition, which contains as special cases the two previously known regimes: (i) nonequilibrium systems with losses and conserved spin and (ii) closed systems in thermal equilibrium and with the Gibbs-ensemble averaging over the values of the total spin. We perform a detailed study of different types of baths and point out the possibility of a surprising nonmonotonic dependence of the transition on the baths' parameters.

  6. Quantum Phase Transitions in Antiferromagnets and Superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdev, Subir

    2000-03-01

    A general introduction to the non-zero temperature dynamic and transport properties of low-dimensional systems near a quantum phase transition shall be presented. Basic results will be reviewed in the context of experiments on the spin-ladder compounds. Recent large N computations (M. Vojta and S. Sachdev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 3916 (1999) on an extended t-J model motivate a global scenario of the quantum phases and transitions in the high temperature superconductors, and connections will be made to numerous experiments. A universal theory (S. Sachdev, C. Buragohain, and M. Vojta, Science, in press M. Vojta, C. Buragohain, and S. Sachdev, cond- mat/9912020) of quantum impurities in spin-gap antiferromagnets near a magnetic ordering transition will be compared quantitatively to experiments on Zn doped Y Ba2 Cu3 O7 (Fong et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1939 (1999)

  7. Phase transitions of nuclear matter beyond mean field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Nguyen Van Long; Le Viet Hoa

    2007-10-15

    The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach is applied to study the phase transition of nuclear matter modeled by the four-nucleon interaction. It is shown that in the Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA) a first-order phase transition takes place at low temperature, whereas the phase transition is of second order at higher temperature.

  8. Kuramoto-type phase transition with metronomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boda, Sz; Ujvári, Sz; Tunyagi, A.; Néda, Z.

    2013-11-01

    Metronomes placed on the perimeter of a disc-shaped platform, which can freely rotate in a horizontal plane, are used for a simple classroom illustration of the Kuramoto-type phase transition. The rotating platform induces a global coupling between the metronomes, and the strength of this coupling can be varied by tilting the metronomes’ swinging plane relative to the radial direction on the disc. As a function of the tilting angle, a transition from spontaneously synchronized to unsynchronized states is observable. By varying the number of metronomes on the disc, finite-size effects are also exemplified. A realistic theoretical model is introduced and used to reproduce the observed results. Computer simulations of this model allow a detailed investigation of the emerging collective behaviour in this system.

  9. Dynamical phase transitions in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, Ingrid

    2012-02-01

    The nucleus is described as an open many-body quantum system with a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator the eigenvalues of which are complex, in general. The eigenvalues may cross in the complex plane (exceptional points), the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching the crossing points and the widths bifurcate. By varying only one parameter, the eigenvalue trajectories usually avoid crossing and width bifurcation occurs at the critical value of avoided crossing. An analog spectroscopic redistribution takes place for discrete states below the particle decay threshold. By this means, a dynamical phase transition occurs in the many-level system starting at a critical value of the level density. Hence the properties of the low-lying nuclear states (described well by the shell model) and those of highly excited nuclear states (described by random ensembles) differ fundamentally from one another. The statement of Niels Bohr on the collective features of compound nucleus states at high level density is therefore not in contradiction to the shell-model description of nuclear (and atomic) states at low level density. Dynamical phase transitions are observed experimentally in different quantum mechanical systems by varying one or two parameters.

  10. Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, A. I.; Drumev, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott's SU(3) basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3) basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.

  11. Swarms, phase transitions, and collective intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    A model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The model is intended to be realistic, but turns out to fit naturally into the category of connectionist models, Like all connectionist models, its properties can be divided into the categories of structure, dynamics, and learning. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell hag a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding constitutes of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. It is hoped that the present mode; might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular this model can be used to explore the relation of phase transitions to at least three important issues encountered in artificial life. Firstly, that of emergence as complex adaptive behavior. Secondly, as an exploration of second order phase transitions in biological systems. Lastly, to derive behavioral criteria for the evolution of collective behavior in social organisms. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. Monte carlo simulations are used as illustrations.

  12. Swarms, phase transitions, and collective intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-12-31

    A model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The model is intended to be realistic, but turns out to fit naturally into the category of connectionist models, Like all connectionist models, its properties can be divided into the categories of structure, dynamics, and learning. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell hag a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding constitutes of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. It is hoped that the present mode; might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular this model can be used to explore the relation of phase transitions to at least three important issues encountered in artificial life. Firstly, that of emergence as complex adaptive behavior. Secondly, as an exploration of second order phase transitions in biological systems. Lastly, to derive behavioral criteria for the evolution of collective behavior in social organisms. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. Monte carlo simulations are used as illustrations.

  13. Quantum coherence and quantum phase transitions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Chao; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2016-01-01

    We study the connections between local quantum coherence (LQC) based on Wigner-Yanase skew information and quantum phase transitions (QPTs). When applied on the one-dimensional Hubbard, XY spin chain with three-spin interaction, and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger models, the LQC and its derivatives are used successfully to detect different types of QPTs in these spin and fermionic systems. Furthermore, the LQC is effective as the quantum discord (QD) in detecting QPTs at finite temperatures, where the entanglement has lost its effectiveness. We also demonstrate that the LQC can exhibit different behaviors in many forms compared with the QD. PMID:27193057

  14. Phase transition of physically confined 2-decanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Harrisonn; Amanuel, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    We have studied phase transition of physically confined 2-decanol in nano porous silica using power compensated differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Like bulk, the physically confined also exhibit hysteresis between its melting and freezing temperature. However, its thermal history plays significant role in determining its freezing temperature. The melting temperature, on the other hand, did not show similar changes with respect to thermal history, suggesting that it is truly driven thermodynamically rather than kinetically. In addition, there seems to be a cutoff in size where crystallization front could not proceed.

  15. Dependence of phase transitions on small changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoop, R.

    1993-06-01

    In this contribution, the generalized thermodynamic formalism is applied to a nonhyperbolic dynamical system in two comparable situations. The change from one situation to the other is small in the sense that the grammar and the singularities of the system are preserved. For the discussion of the effects generated by this change, the generalized entropy functions are calculated and the sets of the specific scaling functions which reflect the phase transition of the system are investigated. It is found that even under mild variations, this set is not invariant.

  16. Chiral phase transition from string theory.

    PubMed

    Parnachev, Andrei; Sahakyan, David A

    2006-09-15

    The low energy dynamics of a certain D-brane configuration in string theory is described at weak t'Hooft coupling by a nonlocal version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We study this system at finite temperature and strong t'Hooft coupling, using the string theory dual. We show that for sufficiently low temperatures chiral symmetry is broken, while for temperatures larger then the critical value, it gets restored. We compute the latent heat and observe that the phase transition is of the first order.

  17. Early Work on Defect Driven Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosterlitz, J. Michael; Thouless, David J.

    2016-12-01

    This article summarizes the early history of the theory of phase transitions driven by topological defects, such as vortices in superfluid helium films or dislocations and disclinations in two-dimensional solids. We start with a review of our two earliest papers, pointing out their errors and omissions as well as their insights. We then describe the work, partly done by Kosterlitz but mostly done by other people, which corrected these oversights, and applied these ideas to experimental systems, and to numerical and experimental simulations.

  18. Symmetry Relationship and Strain-Induced Transitions between Insulating M1 and M2 and Metallic R phases of Vanadium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, A.; Luk’yanchuk, I.A.; Ivanov, I.N.; Budai, J.D.; Tischler, J.Z.; Strelcov, E.; Kolmakov, A.; Kalinin, S.V.

    2010-12-07

    The ability to synthesize VO{sub 2} in the form of single-crystalline nanobeams and nano- and microcrystals uncovered a number of previously unknown aspects of the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in this oxide. In particular, several reports demonstrated that the MIT can proceed through competition between two monoclinic (insulating) phases M1 and M2 and the tetragonal (metallic) R phase under influence of strain. The nature of such phase behavior has been not identified. Here we show that the competition between M1 and M2 phases is purely lattice-symmetry-driven. Within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau formalism, both M phases correspond to different directions of the same four-component structural order parameter, and as a consequence, the M2 phase can appear under a small perturbation of the M1 structure such as doping or stress. We analyze the strain-controlled phase diagram of VO{sub 2} in the vicinity of the R-M2-M1 triple point using the Ginzburg-Landau formalism and identify and experimentally verify the pathways for strain-control of the transition. These insights open the door toward more systematic approaches to synthesis of VO{sub 2} nanostructures in desired phase states and to use of external fields in the control of the VO{sub 2} phase states. Additionally, we report observation of the triclinic T phase at the heterophase domain boundaries in strained quasi-two-dimensional VO{sub 2} nanoplatelets, and theoretically predict phases that have not been previously observed.

  19. Quantum Phase Transition in Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, K.; Girvin, S. M.

    1997-03-01

    One-dimensional Josephson junction arrays of SQUIDS exhibit a novel superconductor-insulator phase transition. The critical regime can be accessed by tuning the effective Josephson coupling energy using a weak magnetic field applied to the SQUIDS. The role of instantons induced by quantum fluctuations will be discussed. One novel feature of these systems which can be explained in terms of quantum phase slips is that in some regimes, the array resistance decreases with increasing length of the array. We calculate the finite temperature crossover function for the array resistance and compare our theoretical results with the recent experiments by D. Haviland and P. Delsing at Chalmers. This work is supported by DOE grant #DE-FG02-90ER45427 and by NSF DMR-9502555.

  20. Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, Maksim

    metric to 16S rRNA metagenomic studies of 6 vertebrate gastrointestinal microbiomes and find that they assembled through a highly non-neutral process. I then consider a phase transition that may occur in nutrient-poor environments such as ocean surface waters. In these systems, I find that the experimentally observed genome streamlining, specialization and opportunism may well be generic statistical phenomena.

  1. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orders of a phase-separated manganite probed throughout the B -T phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windsor, Y. W.; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Scagnoli, V.; Garganourakis, M.; de Souza, R. A.; Medarde, M.; Cheong, S.-W.; Staub, U.

    2016-12-01

    We employ resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD) to isolate the signal from the CE-type antiferromagnetic phase of (La,Pr)1- xC axMn O3 (with x ≈3 /8 ), and follow only this phase through the known phases of the material in the B -T phase diagram. This material is known to exhibit a range of electronic ordering phenomena, most notably a metal-insulator transition (associated with colossal magnetoresistance) and phase separation between the antiferromagnetic phase and a ferromagnetic phase. Bulk magnetization measurements under the same B -T conditions were also conducted, giving a full picture of both phases for direct side-by-side comparison. The comparison specifically focuses on the metal-insulator transition. Upon magnetic field ramping to this transition, we find that the CE-type order undergoes a sharp quench at high temperatures (above phase coexistence temperatures) but that at lower temperatures, where the CE order is metastable, the transition broadens significantly. At the lowest temperatures, where a spin glass-type phase is expected, a slow annihilation of remanent CE domains is observed. Finally, a refined phase diagram is presented.

  2. Nuclear Binding Near a Quantum Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Li, Ning; Rokash, Alexander; Alarcón, Jose Manuel; Du, Dechuan; Klein, Nico; Lu, Bing-nan; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam

    2016-09-01

    How do protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei? This is the central question of ab initio nuclear structure theory. While the answer may seem as simple as the fact that nuclear forces are attractive, the full story is more complex and interesting. In this work we present numerical evidence from ab initio lattice simulations showing that nature is near a quantum phase transition, a zero-temperature transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Using lattice effective field theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations for systems with up to twenty nucleons. For even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons, we discover a first-order transition at zero temperature from a Bose-condensed gas of alpha particles (4He nuclei) to a nuclear liquid. Whether one has an alpha-particle gas or nuclear liquid is determined by the strength of the alpha-alpha interactions, and we show that the alpha-alpha interactions depend on the strength and locality of the nucleon-nucleon interactions. This insight should be useful in improving calculations of nuclear structure and important astrophysical reactions involving alpha capture on nuclei. Our findings also provide a tool to probe the structure of alpha cluster states such as the Hoyle state responsible for the production of carbon in red giant stars and point to a connection between nuclear states and the universal physics of bosons at large scattering length.

  3. Phase transition in the ABC model.

    PubMed

    Clincy, M; Derrida, B; Evans, M R

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-beta/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero beta(c). The value of beta(c)=2pi square root 3 and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions.

  4. Phase transitions of monolayers on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Joshua; Dzyubenko, Boris; Vilches, Oscar; Cobden, David

    We have studied physisorbed layers of monatomic and diatomic gases on graphene. We used devices in which few-layer graphene, ranging from monolayer to trilayer, is suspended across a trench between two platinum contacts and are cleaned by thermal and current annealing. We found that the density of adsorbates is revealed by the conductance, similar to the case with nanotubes. The conductance change for a monolayer can be large. On trilayer graphene the adsorbed gases can be seen to exhibit transitions between two-dimensional phases identical to those on bulk graphite, including incommensurate and commensurate solid, fluid and vapor and multiple layers. New features appear in the conductance at the boundaries of the commensurate phase of Kr. We are able to measure single-particle binding energies very accurately and see how it depends on thickness; investigate the effects of changing disorder by gradually current annealing; and search for new phases in the case of monolayer graphene where atoms adsorbed on both sides can interact. We can map out the 2d phase diagrams very quickly by ohmic heating, which gives nearly instantaneous control of the temperature.

  5. Phase transition in the ABC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clincy, M.; Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-β/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero βc. The value of βc=2π(3) and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions.

  6. Phase transitions and doping in semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Ayaskanta

    impurities (or doping) allows further control over the electrical and optical properties of nanocrystals. However, while impurity doping in bulk semiconductors is now routine, doping of nanocrystals remains challenging. In particular, evidence for electronic doping, in which additional electrical carriers are introduced into the nanocrystals, has been very limited. Here, we adopt a new approach to electronic doping of nanocrystals. We utilize a partial cation exchange to introduce silver impurities into cadmium selenide (CdSe) and lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystals. Results indicate that the silver-doped CdSe nanocrystals show a significant increase in fluorescence intensity, as compared to pure CdSe nanocrystals. We also observe a switching from n- to p-type doping in the silver-doped CdSe nanocrystals with increased silver amounts. Moreover, the silver-doping results in a change in the conductance of both PbSe and CdSe nanocrystals and the magnitude of this change depends on the amount of silver incorporated into the nanocrystals. In the bulk, silver chalcogenides (Ag2E, E=S, Se, and Te) possess a wide array of intriguing properties, including superionic conductivity. In addition, they undergo a reversible temperature-dependent phase transition which induces significant changes in their electronic and ionic properties. While most of these properties have been examined extensively in bulk, very few studies have been conducted at the nanoscale. We have recently developed a versatile synthesis that yields colloidal silver chalcogenide nanocrystals. Here, we study the size dependence of their phase-transition temperatures. We utilize differential scanning calorimetry and in-situ X-ray diffraction analyses to observe the phase transition in nanocrystal assemblies. We observe a significant deviation from the bulk alpha (low-temperature) to beta (high-temperature) phase-transition temperature when we reduce their size to a few nanometers. Hence, these nanocrystals provide great

  7. Multifractality and Network Analysis of Phase Transition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yang, Chunbin; Han, Jihui; Su, Zhu; Zou, Yijiang

    2017-01-01

    Many models and real complex systems possess critical thresholds at which the systems shift dramatically from one sate to another. The discovery of early-warnings in the vicinity of critical points are of great importance to estimate how far the systems are away from the critical states. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and visibility graph method have been employed to investigate the multifractal and geometrical properties of the magnetization time series of the two-dimensional Ising model. Multifractality of the time series near the critical point has been uncovered from the generalized Hurst exponents and singularity spectrum. Both long-term correlation and broad probability density function are identified to be the sources of multifractality. Heterogeneous nature of the networks constructed from magnetization time series have validated the fractal properties. Evolution of the topological quantities of the visibility graph, along with the variation of multifractality, serve as new early-warnings of phase transition. Those methods and results may provide new insights about the analysis of phase transition problems and can be used as early-warnings for a variety of complex systems. PMID:28107414

  8. Metal-Insulator-Metal Diode Process Development for Energy Harvesting Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    performed using a high -temperature deposition and ion milling process . I-V measurements will be performed on General Order of Operations: 1...Fabricate MIM diodes using one of two processes a. Low-temperature deposition recipes in conjunction with a lift-off process b. High -temperature...Metal-Insulator-Metal Diode Process Development for Energy Harvesting Applications by Matthew Chin, Stephen Kilpatrick, and Dr. Richard

  9. Novel Way to Characterize Metal-Insulator-Metal Devices via Nanoindentation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Periasamy, P.; Packard, C. E.; O?Hayre, R. P.; Berry, J. J.; Parilla, P. A.; Ginley, D. S.

    2011-07-01

    Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) devices are crucial components for applications ranging from optical rectennas for harvesting sunlight to infrared detectors. To date, the relationship between materials properties and device performance in MIM devices is not fully understood, partly due to the difficulty in making and reproducing reliable devices. One configuration that is popular due to its simplicity and ease of fabrication is the point-contact diode where a metal tip serves as one of the metals in the MIM device. The intrinsic advantage of the point-contact configuration is that it is possible to achieve very small contact areas for the device thereby allowing very high-frequency operation. In this study, precise control over the contact area and penetration depth of an electrically conductive tip into a metal/insulator combination is achieved using a nanoindenter with in-situ electrical contact resistance measurement capabilities. A diamond probe tip, doped (degeneratively) with boron for conductivity, serves as the point contact and second 'metal' (b-Diamond) of the MIM diode. The base layer consists of Nb/Nb2O5 thin films on Si substrates and serves as the first metal /insulator combination of the MIM structure. The current-voltage response of the diodes is measured under a range of conditions to assess the validity and repeatability of the technique. Additionally, we compare the results of this technique to those acquired using a bent-wire approach and find that Nb/Nb2O5/b-Diamond MIM devices show an excellent asymmetry (60-300) and nonlinearity values (~6-9). This technique shows great promise for screening metal-insulator combinations for performance without the uncertainty that stems from a typical bent-wire point-contact.

  10. Flexible perovskite solar cells based on the metal-insulator-semiconductor structure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yicheng; Zhou, Wenke; Fu, Rui; Pan, Huiyue; Zhao, Qing

    2016-09-14

    The metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure is applied to perovskite solar cells, in which the traditional compact layer TiO2 is replaced by Al2O3 as the hole blocking material to realize an all-low-temperature process. Flexible devices based on this structure are also realized with excellent flexibility, which hold 85% of their initial efficiency after bending 100 times.

  11. Modeling, Fabrication, and Electrical Testing of Metal-Insulator-Metal Diode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    K. Design and Develop- ment of Batch Fabricatable Metal-Insulator-Metal Diode and Microstrip Slot Antenna as Rectenna Elements. Sensors and...rectifying radiation absorbed by a nano- antenna designed for the terahertz frequency range (visible and infrared wavelengths) (1, 2). For this application...referred to as “rectification reversal” is due to the switching between Fowler-Nordheim and direct tunneling. Rectification reversal can be explained by

  12. Investigation of high efficiency silicon MINP solar cells. [metal-insulator n/p

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.; Addis, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper includes results of both theoretical and experimental studies of silicon metal insulator n/p cells. Performance calculations are described which give expected efficiencies as a function of base resistivity. Fabrication and characterization of cells are discussed, and detailed analyses of current loss mechanisms are presented. Using 0.2-ohm cm FZ material and Mg tunneling contacts, AM 1 efficiencies in the range of 16.5-17 percent have been achieved.

  13. Slow light in metal-insulator-metal waveguide by negative Goos-Hänchen shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Geum-Yoon; Chheang, Vuthy; Kim, Doo-Gun; Kim, Tae-Ryong; Jun, Li; Kim, Hong-Seung; Choi, Young-Wan

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrated group velocity delay using a metal-insulator-metal structure for slow light that would be very simple to fabricate. A negative Goos-Hänchen shift of the surface plasmon resonance can be caused by incident radiation while reflecting, resulting in a general group delay. Using this phenomenon, we induced a group delay of 70 fs using a very simple 20-μm-long waveguide.

  14. Quark-hadron phase transition in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atazadeh, K.

    2016-11-01

    We study the quark-hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark-hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.

  15. Structural phase transition and phonon instability in Cu12Sb4S13

    SciTech Connect

    May, Andrew F.; Delaire, Olivier A.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Susner, Michael A.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Kirkham, Melanie J.; McGuire, Michael A.

    2016-02-08

    In this study, a structural phase transition has been discovered in the synthetic tetrahedrite Cu12Sb4S13 at approximately 88 K. Upon cooling, the material transforms from its known cubic symmetry to a tetragonal unit cell that is characterized by an in-plane ordering that leads to a doubling of the unit cell volume. Specific heat capacity measurements demonstrate a hysteresis of more than two degrees in the associated anomaly. A similar hysteresis was observed in powder x-ray diffraction measurements, which also indicate a coexistence of the two phases, and together these results suggest a first-order transition. This structural transition coincides with a recently-reported metal-insulator transition, and the structural instability is related to the very low thermal conductivity κ in these materials. Inelastic neutron scattering was used to measure the phonon density of states in Cu12Sb4S13 and Cu10Zn2Sb4S13, both of which possess a localized, low-energy phonon mode associated with strongly anharmonic copper displacements that suppress κ. In Cu12Sb4S13, signatures of the phase transition are observed in the temperature dependence of the localized mode, which disappears at the structural transition. In contrast, in the cubic Zn-doped material, the mode is at slightly higher-energy but observable for all temperatures, though it softens upon cooling.

  16. Does sex induce a phase transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, P. M. C.; Moss de Oliveira, S.; Stauffer, D.; Cebrat, S.; Pękalski, A.

    2008-05-01

    We discovered a dynamic phase transition induced by sexual reproduction. The dynamics is a pure Darwinian rule applied to diploid bit-strings with both fundamental ingredients to drive Darwin's evolution: (1) random mutations and crossings which act in the sense of increasing the entropy (or diversity); and (2) selection which acts in the opposite sense by limiting the entropy explosion. Selection wins this competition if mutations performed at birth are few enough, and thus the wild genotype dominates the steady-state population. By slowly increasing the average number m of mutations, however, the population suddenly undergoes a mutational degradation precisely at a transition point mc. Above this point, the “bad” alleles (represented by 1-bits) spread over the genetic pool of the population, overcoming the selection pressure. Individuals become selectively alike, and evolution stops. Only below this point, m < mc, evolutionary life is possible. The finite-size-scaling behaviour of this transition is exhibited for large enough “chromosome” lengths L, through lengthy computer simulations. One important and surprising observation is the L-independence of the transition curves, for large L. They are also independent on the population size. Another is that mc is near unity, i.e. life cannot be stable with much more than one mutation per diploid genome, independent of the chromosome length, in agreement with reality. One possible consequence is that an eventual evolutionary jump towards larger L enabling the storage of more genetic information would demand an improved DNA copying machinery in order to keep the same total number of mutations per offspring.

  17. Weyl semimetals and topological phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Shuichi

    Weyl semimetals are semimetals with nondegenerate 3D Dirac cones in the bulk. We showed that in a transition between different Z2 topological phases, i.e. between the normal insulator (NI) and topological insulator (TI), the Weyl semimetal phase necessarily appears when inversion symmetry is broken. In the presentation we show that this scenario holds for materials with any space groups without inversion symmetry. Namely, let us take any band insulator without inversion symmetry, and assume that the gap is closed by a change of an external parameter. In such cases we found that the system runs either into (i) a Weyl semimetal or (ii) a nodal-line semimetal, but no insulator-to-insulator transition happens. This is confirmed by classifying the gap closing in terms of the space groups and the wavevector. In the case (i), the number of Weyl nodes produced at the gap closing ranges from 2 to 12 depending on the symmetry. In (ii) the nodal line is protected by mirror symmetry. In the presentation, we explain some Weyl semimetal and nodal-line semimetals which we find by using this classification. As an example, we explain our result on ab initio calculation on tellurium (Te). Tellurium consists of helical chains, and therefore lacks inversion and mirror symmetries. At high pressure the band gap of Te decreases and finally it runs into a Weyl semimetal phase, as confirmed by our ab initio calculation. In such chiral systems as tellurium, we also theoretically propose chiral transport in systems with such helical structures; namely, an orbital magnetization is induced by a current along the chiral axis, in analogy with a solenoid.

  18. Control of magnetism across metal to insulator transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Venta, J.; Wang, Siming; Ramirez, J. G.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic properties (coercivity and magnetization) of ferromagnetic films are strongly affected by the proximity to materials that undergo a metal to insulator transition. Here, we show that stress associated with structural changes across the metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 and V2O3 produces a magnetoelastic anisotropy in ferromagnetic films (Co and Ni) deposited on top of the oxides. The changes in coercivity are as large as 168% and occur in a very narrow temperature range. This effect can be controlled and inverted by the thickness and the deposition temperature of the ferromagnetic films, which is very flexible for important technological applications.

  19. Phase transitions in biogenic amorphous calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yutao

    Geological calcium carbonate exists in both crystalline phases and amorphous phases. Compared with crystalline calcium carbonate, such as calcite, aragonite and vaterite, the amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is unstable. Unlike geological calcium carbonate crystals, crystalline sea urchin spicules (99.9 wt % calcium carbonate and 0.1 wt % proteins) do not present facets. To explain this property, crystal formation via amorphous precursors was proposed in theory. And previous research reported experimental evidence of ACC on the surface of forming sea urchin spicules. By using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), we studied cross-sections of fresh sea urchin spicules at different stages (36h, 48h and 72h after fertilization) and observed the transition sequence of three mineral phases: hydrated ACC → dehydrated ACC → biogenic calcite. In addition, we unexpectedly found hydrated ACC nanoparticles that are surrounded by biogenic calcite. This observation indicates the dehydration from hydrated ACC to dehydrated ACC is inhibited, resulting in stabilization of hydrated ACC nanoparticles. We thought that the dehydration was inhibited by protein matrix components occluded within the biomineral, and we designed an in vitro assay to test the hypothesis. By utilizing XANES-PEEM, we found that SM50, the most abundant occluded matrix protein in sea urchin spicules, has the function to stabilize hydrated ACC in vitro.

  20. QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS-VOLUME 15.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAFER,T.

    1998-11-04

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some. efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  1. Exotic quantum phase transitions of strongly interacting topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagle, Kevin; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke

    2015-03-01

    Using determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that an extended Hubbard model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice has two novel quantum phase transitions. The first is a quantum phase transition between the weakly interacting gapless Dirac fermion phase and a strongly interacting fully gapped and symmetric trivial phase, which cannot be described by the standard Gross-Neveu model. The second is a quantum critical point between a quantum spin Hall insulator with spin Sz conservation and the previously mentioned strongly interacting fully gapped phase. At the latter quantum critical point the single-particle excitations remain gapped, while spin and charge gaps both close. We argue that the first quantum phase transition is related to the Z16 classification of the topological superconductor 3He-B phase with interactions, while the second quantum phase transition is a topological phase transition described by a bosonic O (4 ) nonlinear sigma model field theory with a Θ term.

  2. Information Dynamics at a Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowinski, Damian; Gleiser, Marcelo

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new way of investigating phase transitions in the context of information theory. We use an information-entropic measure of spatial complexity known as configurational entropy (CE) to quantify both the storage and exchange of information in a lattice simulation of a Ginzburg-Landau model with a scalar order parameter coupled to a heat bath. The CE is built from the Fourier spectrum of fluctuations around the mean-field and reaches a minimum at criticality. In particular, we investigate the behavior of CE near and at criticality, exploring the relation between information and the emergence of ordered domains. We show that as the temperature is increased from below, the CE displays three essential scaling regimes at different spatial scales: scale free, turbulent, and critical. Together, they offer an information-entropic characterization of critical behavior where the storage and fidelity of information processing is maximized at criticality.

  3. Scaling theory of topological phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Topologically ordered systems are characterized by topological invariants that are often calculated from the momentum space integration of a certain function that represents the curvature of the many-body state. The curvature function may be Berry curvature, Berry connection, or other quantities depending on the system. Akin to stretching a messy string to reveal the number of knots it contains, a scaling procedure is proposed for the curvature function in inversion symmetric systems, from which the topological phase transition can be identified from the flow of the driving energy parameters that control the topology (hopping, chemical potential, etc) under scaling. At an infinitesimal operation, one obtains the renormalization group (RG) equations for the driving energy parameters. A length scale defined from the curvature function near the gap-closing momentum is suggested to characterize the scale invariance at critical points and fixed points, and displays a universal critical behavior in a variety of systems examined.

  4. MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tevzadze, Alexander G.; Kisslinger, Leonard; Kahniashvili, Tina; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-11-01

    We study the evolution of QCD phase transition-generated magnetic fields (MFs) in freely decaying MHD turbulence of the expanding universe. We consider an MF generation model that starts from basic non-perturbative QCD theory and predicts stochastic MFs with an amplitude of the order of 0.02 {mu}G and small magnetic helicity. We employ direct numerical simulations to model the MHD turbulence decay and identify two different regimes: a 'weakly helical' turbulence regime, when magnetic helicity increases during decay, and 'fully helical' turbulence, when maximal magnetic helicity is reached and an inverse cascade develops. The results of our analysis show that in the most optimistic scenario the magnetic correlation length in the comoving frame can reach 10 kpc with the amplitude of the effective MF being 0.007 nG. We demonstrate that the considered model of magnetogenesis can provide the seed MF for galaxies and clusters.

  5. Valleytronics and phase transition in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, Tayyaba

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic and transport properties of silicene in the presence of perpendicular electromagnetic fields and a ferromagnetic material are studied. It is shown that for small exchange field, the magnetic moment associated with each valley is opposite for the other and it gives a shift in band energy, by a Zeeman-like coupling term. Thus opening a new horizon for valley-orbit coupling. Magnetic proximity effect is seen to adjust the spintronics of each valley. Valley polarization is calculated using the semi classical formulation of electron dynamics. It can be modified and measured due to its contribution in Hall conductivity. Quantum phase transitions are observed in silicene, providing a tool to control the topological state experimentally. The strong dependence of the physical properties on valley degree of freedom is an important step towards valleytronics.

  6. Optical Properties of Some Metal-Insulator Composites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Tae Won

    Ni-MgO granular composites were prepared by coprecipitation of NiO-MgO solid solutions and their preferential reduction in a hydrogen atmosphere. Measured reflection spectra of the composites were better described by the Effective Medium Approximation (EMA) than by the Maxwell-Garnett theory (MGT). The conductivities and the dielectric constants were derived by a Kramers-Kronig transformation, and they showed a qualitative agreement with the EMA. In the far -infrared region, the percolation transition was observed in the reflection spectra, and also seen in the derived conductivities and the dielectric constants. The far-infrared absorption of Ag-smoke--teflon composites was studied. Because of the high resistivity of the oxide layer, the far-infrared electric dipole absorption was enhanced by three or four orders of magnitude, and it became comparable to the magnetic dipole absorption. The effects of the oxide coating on the infrared and visible absorption of silver smoke were also studied using Ag-smoke --KBr composites. In the infrared and visible region, the complete Mie theory gave better descriptions of our experimental results than the MGT. Comparison of our experimental data and the Mie calculation showed that the oxide coating on the particles did not strongly affect the extinction coefficient of the Ag-smoke--KBr composite in the near-infrared and visible range. The "anomalous" far-infrared absorption of small metal particles was investigated thoroughly using oxide -free Ag--teflon composites and Ag-smoke--teflon composites. For the oxide-free Ag particles, large enhancement of the absorption coefficient over the prediction of the MGT was observed and explained by enhancement of magnetic dipole absorption based on the increase of the eddy current paths due to clustering. For the Ag-smoke--teflon composite, excellent agreement between the experimental absorption and the MGT was obtained when the particle size distribution and oxide coating were taken into

  7. Phase transitions in Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Lathouwers, Emma

    In Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), a Markov process is not directly accessible. In the simplest case, a two-state Markov model ``emits'' one of two ``symbols'' at each time step. We can think of these symbols as noisy measurements of the underlying state. With some probability, the symbol implies that the system is in one state when it is actually in the other. The ability to judge which state the system is in sets the efficiency of a Maxwell demon that observes state fluctuations in order to extract heat from a coupled reservoir. The state-inference problem is to infer the underlying state from such noisy measurements at each time step. We show that there can be a phase transition in such measurements: for measurement error rates below a certain threshold, the inferred state always matches the observation. For higher error rates, there can be continuous or discontinuous transitions to situations where keeping a memory of past observations improves the state estimate. We can partly understand this behavior by mapping the HMM onto a 1d random-field Ising model at zero temperature. We also present more recent work that explores a larger parameter space and more states. Research funded by NSERC, Canada.

  8. Phase Transitions in Living Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams-Garcia, Rashid Vladimir

    Our nervous systems are composed of intricate webs of interconnected neurons interacting in complex ways. These complex interactions result in a wide range of collective behaviors with implications for features of brain function, e.g., information processing. Under certain conditions, such interactions can drive neural network dynamics towards critical phase transitions, where power-law scaling is conjectured to allow optimal behavior. Recent experimental evidence is consistent with this idea and it seems plausible that healthy neural networks would tend towards optimality. This hypothesis, however, is based on two problematic assumptions, which I describe and for which I present alternatives in this thesis. First, critical transitions may vanish due to the influence of an environment, e.g., a sensory stimulus, and so living neural networks may be incapable of achieving "critical" optimality. I develop a framework known as quasicriticality, in which a relative optimality can be achieved depending on the strength of the environmental influence. Second, the power-law scaling supporting this hypothesis is based on statistical analysis of cascades of activity known as neuronal avalanches, which conflate causal and non-causal activity, thus confounding important dynamical information. In this thesis, I present a new method to unveil causal links, known as causal webs, between neuronal activations, thus allowing for experimental tests of the quasicriticality hypothesis and other practical applications.

  9. Where the electroweak phase transition ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürtler, M.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Schiller, A.

    1997-10-01

    We give a more precise characterization of the end of the electroweak phase transition in the framework of the effective three-dimensional SU(2)-Higgs lattice model than has been given before. The model has now been simulated at gauge couplings βG=12 and 16 for Higgs boson masses M*H=70, 74, 76, and 80 GeV up to lattices 963 and the data have been used for reweighting. The breakdown of finite volume scaling of the Lee-Yang zeroes indicates the change from a first order transition to a crossover at λ3/g23=0.102(2) in rough agreement with results of Karsch, Neuhaus, Patkós, and Rank at βG=9 and smaller lattices. The infinite volume extrapolation of the discontinuity Δ<φ+φ>/g23 turns out to be zero at λ3/g23=0.107(2) being an upper limit. We comment on the limitations of the second method.

  10. Topological and geometrical aspects of phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, F. A. N.; Rehn, J. A.; Coutinho-Filho, M. D.

    2014-03-01

    In the first part of this review, we use a topological approach to describe the frustration- and field-induced phase transitions exhibited by the infinite-range XY model on the AB2 chain, including noncollinear spin structures. For this purpose, we have computed the Euler characteristic, χ, as well as other topological invariants, which are found to behave similarly as a function of the energy level in the context of Morse theory. Our findings and those available in the literature suggest that the cusp-like singularity exhibited by χ at the critical energy, Ec, put together with the divergence of the density of Jacobian's critical points emerge as necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of finite-temperature topology-induced phase transitions. In the second part, we present an alternative solution of the Ising chain in a field under free and periodic boundary conditions, in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles, from a unified combinatorial and topological perspective. In particular, the computation of the per-site entropy as a function of the energy unveils a residual value for critical values of the magnetic field, a phenomenon for which we provide a topological interpretation and a connection with the Fibonacci sequence. We also show that, in the thermodynamic limit, the per-site microcanonical entropy is equal to the logarithm of the per-site Euler characteristic. Finally, we emphasize that our combinatorial approach to the canonical ensemble allows exact computation of the thermally averaged value <χ>(T) of the Euler characteristic; our results show that the conjecture <χ>(Tc)= 0, where Tc is the critical temperature, is valid for the Ising chain.

  11. Global quantum discord and quantum phase transition in XY model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-11-15

    We study the relationship between the behavior of global quantum correlations and quantum phase transitions in XY model. We find that the two kinds of phase transitions in the studied model can be characterized by the features of global quantum discord (GQD) and the corresponding quantum correlations. We demonstrate that the maximum of the sum of all the nearest neighbor bipartite GQDs is effective and accurate for signaling the Ising quantum phase transition, in contrast, the sudden change of GQD is very suitable for characterizing another phase transition in the XY model. This may shed lights on the study of properties of quantum correlations in different quantum phases.

  12. Magnetically ordered phase near transition to Bose-glass phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syromyatnikov, A. V.; Sizanov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss a magnetically ordered ("superfluid") phase near quantum transition to the Bose-glass phase in a simple modeling system, a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with spatial dimension d >2 in an external magnetic field with disorder in exchange coupling constants. Our analytical consideration is based on hydrodynamic description of long-wavelength excitations. Results obtained are valid in the entire critical region near the quantum critical point (QCP), allowing us to describe a possible crossover from one critical behavior to another. We demonstrate that the system behaves in full agreement with predictions by M. P. Fisher et al. [Phys. Rev. B 40, 546 (1989), 10.1103/PhysRevB.40.546] in close vicinity to the QCP. We find as an extension to that analysis that the anomalous dimension η =2 -d and β =ν d /2 , where β and ν are critical exponents of the order parameter and the correlation length, respectively. The density of states per spin of low-energy localized excitations is found to be independent of d ("superuniversal"). We show that many recent experimental and numerical results obtained in various three-dimensional (3D) systems can be described by our formulas using percolation critical exponents. Then, it is a possibility that a percolation critical regime arises in the ordered phase in some 3D systems not very close to the QCP.

  13. A difference in using atomic layer deposition or physical vapour deposition TiN as electrode material in metal-insulator-metal and metal-insulator-silicon capacitors.

    PubMed

    Groenland, A W; Wolters, R A M; Kovalgin, A Y; Schmitz, J

    2011-09-01

    In this work, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) capacitors are studied using titanium nitride (TiN) as the electrode material. The effect of structural defects on the electrical properties on MIS and MIM capacitors is studied for various electrode configurations. In the MIM capacitors the bottom electrode is a patterned 100 nm TiN layer (called BE type 1), deposited via sputtering, while MIS capacitors have a flat bottom electrode (called BE type 2-silicon substrate). A high quality 50-100 nm thick SiO2 layer, made by inductively-coupled plasma CVD at 150 degrees C, is deposited as a dielectric on top of both types of bottom electrodes. BE type 1 (MIM) capacitors have a varying from low to high concentration of structural defects in the SiO2 layer. BE type 2 (MIS) capacitors have a low concentration of structural defects and are used as a reference. Two sets of each capacitor design are fabricated with the TiN top electrode deposited either via physical vapour deposition (PVD, i.e., sputtering) or atomic layer deposition (ALD). The MIM and MIS capacitors are electrically characterized in terms of the leakage current at an electric field of 0.1 MV/cm (I leak) and for different structural defect concentrations. It is shown that the structural defects only show up in the electrical characteristics of BE type 1 capacitors with an ALD TiN-based top electrode. This is due to the excellent step coverage of the ALD process. This work clearly demonstrates the sensitivity to process-induced structural defects, when ALD is used as a step in process integration of conductors on insulation materials.

  14. Nonequilibrium quantum phase transitions in the Dicke model.

    PubMed

    Bastidas, V M; Emary, C; Regler, B; Brandes, T

    2012-01-27

    We establish a set of nonequilibrium quantum phase transitions in the Dicke model by considering a monochromatic nonadiabatic modulation of the atom-field coupling. For weak driving the system exhibits a set of sidebands which allow the circumvention of the no-go theorem which otherwise forbids the occurrence of superradiant phase transitions. At strong driving we show that the system exhibits a rich multistable structure and exhibits both first- and second-order nonequilibrium quantum phase transitions.

  15. Quantum phase transitions and local magnetism in Mott insulators: A local probe investigation using muons, neutrons, and photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandsen, Benjamin A.

    destroyed at the quantum phase transition. Taken together, these findings point unambiguously to a first-order quantum phase transition in these systems. We also conducted x-ray and neutron PDF experiments, which suggest that the distinct atomic structures associated with the insulating and metallic phases similarly coexist near the quantum phase transition. These results have significant implications for our understanding of the Mott metal-insulator quantum phase transition in real materials. The second part of this thesis centers on the derivation and development of the magnetic pair distribution function (mPDF) technique and its application to the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator MnO. The atomic PDF method involves Fourier transforming the x-ray or neutron total scattering intensity from reciprocal space into real space to directly reveal the local atomic correlations in a material, which may deviate significantly from the average crystallographic structure of that material. Likewise, the mPDF method involves Fourier transforming the magnetic neutron total scattering intensity to probe the local correlations of magnetic moments in the material, which may exist on short length scales even when the material has no long-range magnetic order. After deriving the fundamental mPDF equations and providing a proof-of-principle by recovering the known magnetic structure of antiferromagnetic MnO, we used this technique to investigate the short-range magnetic correlations that persist well into the paramagnetic phase of MnO. By combining the mPDF measurements with ab initio calculations of the spin-spin correlation function in paramagnetic MnO, we were able to quantitatively account for the observed mPDF. We also used the mPDF data to evaluate competing ab initio theories, thereby resolving some longstanding questions about the magnetic exchange interactions in MnO.

  16. Decoupling the Lattice Distortion and Charge Doping Effects on the Phase Transition Behavior of VO2 by Titanium (Ti(4+)) Doping.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanfei; Fan, Lele; Liu, Qinghua; Chen, Shi; Huang, Weifeng; Chen, Feihu; Liao, Guangming; Zou, Chongwen; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-05-07

    The mechanism for regulating the critical temperature (TC) of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in ions-doped VO2 systems is still a matter of debate, in particular, the unclear roles of lattice distortion and charge doping effects. To rule out the charge doping effect on the regulation of TC, we investigated Ti(4+)-doped VO2 (Ti(x)V(1-x)O2) system. It was observed that the TC of Ti(x)V(1-x)O2 samples first slightly decreased and then increased with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy was used to explore the electronic states and local lattice structures around both Ti and V atoms in Ti(x)V(1-x)O2 samples. Our results revealed the local structure evolution from the initial anatase to the rutile-like structure around the Ti dopants. Furthermore, the host monoclinic VO2 lattice, specifically, the VO6 octahedra would be subtly distorted by Ti doping. The distortion of VO6 octahedra and the variation of TC showed almost the similar trend, confirming the direct effect of local structural perturbations on the phase transition behavior. By comparing other ion-doping systems, we point out that the charge doping is more effective than the lattice distortion in modulating the MIT behavior of VO2 materials.

  17. Decoupling the Lattice Distortion and Charge Doping Effects on the Phase Transition Behavior of VO2 by Titanium (Ti4+) Doping

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanfei; Fan, Lele; Liu, Qinghua; Chen, Shi; Huang, Weifeng; Chen, Feihu; Liao, Guangming; Zou, Chongwen; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism for regulating the critical temperature (TC) of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in ions-doped VO2 systems is still a matter of debate, in particular, the unclear roles of lattice distortion and charge doping effects. To rule out the charge doping effect on the regulation of TC, we investigated Ti4+-doped VO2 (TixV1-xO2) system. It was observed that the TC of TixV1-xO2 samples first slightly decreased and then increased with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy was used to explore the electronic states and local lattice structures around both Ti and V atoms in TixV1-xO2 samples. Our results revealed the local structure evolution from the initial anatase to the rutile-like structure around the Ti dopants. Furthermore, the host monoclinic VO2 lattice, specifically, the VO6 octahedra would be subtly distorted by Ti doping. The distortion of VO6 octahedra and the variation of TC showed almost the similar trend, confirming the direct effect of local structural perturbations on the phase transition behavior. By comparing other ion-doping systems, we point out that the charge doping is more effective than the lattice distortion in modulating the MIT behavior of VO2 materials. PMID:25950809

  18. Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.

  19. Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Li, Li-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole is probed by the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce this conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.

  20. Highly birefringent crystal for Raman transitions with phase modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Nieves; Abediyeh, Vahide; Hamzeloui, Saeed; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Gomez, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    We present a system to excite Raman transitions with minimum phase noise. The system uses a phase modulator to generate the phase locked beams required for the transition. We use a long calcite crystal to filter out one of the sidebands, avoiding the cancellation that appears at high detunings for phase modulation. The measured phase noise is limited by the quality of the microwave synthesizer. We use the calcite crystal a second time to produce a co-propagating Raman pair with perpendicular polarizations to drive velocity insensitive Raman transitions. Support from CONACYT and Fundacion Marcos Moshinsky.

  1. Phase transitions in random quantum satisfiability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laumann, Chris; Moessner, Roderich; Scardicchio, Antonello; Sondhi, Shivaji

    2009-03-01

    The potential power of quantum computers is a subject of great current interest and the raison d'etre for the intense effort and progress to build them. Naturally much theoretical interest has focused on algorithms that outperform their classical counterpart but recent developments in quantum complexity theory suggest that we already know problems, those shown to be QMA-complete, whose worst case instances would take a quantum computer exponentially long to solve. As in classical complexity theory the supposed difficulty of QMA complete problems follows from the existence of polynomial transformations relating any of the large class of QMA problems to instances of QMA-complete questions. This does not directly address the question of why this problem has hard instances and what features they posses. In this work we attempt to investigate the features of hard instances of a QMA complete problem introduced by S. Bravyi: quantum k-SAT. We use techniques of statistical physics of disordered systems in order to study a random ensemble of quantum k-SAT instances parametrized by clause density α in a program that is analogous to recent studies of classical random k-SAT. We establish a phase transition in satisfiability as a function of clause density and show that the problem almost always reduces to identifying a classical graph property.

  2. Consistent lattice Boltzmann equations for phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, D. N.; Philippi, P. C.; Mattila, K. K.

    2014-11-01

    Unlike conventional computational fluid dynamics methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) describes the dynamic behavior of fluids in a mesoscopic scale based on discrete forms of kinetic equations. In this scale, complex macroscopic phenomena like the formation and collapse of interfaces can be naturally described as related to source terms incorporated into the kinetic equations. In this context, a novel athermal lattice Boltzmann scheme for the simulation of phase transition is proposed. The continuous kinetic model obtained from the Liouville equation using the mean-field interaction force approach is shown to be consistent with diffuse interface model using the Helmholtz free energy. Density profiles, interface thickness, and surface tension are analytically derived for a plane liquid-vapor interface. A discrete form of the kinetic equation is then obtained by applying the quadrature method based on prescribed abscissas together with a third-order scheme for the discretization of the streaming or advection term in the Boltzmann equation. Spatial derivatives in the source terms are approximated with high-order schemes. The numerical validation of the method is performed by measuring the speed of sound as well as by retrieving the coexistence curve and the interface density profiles. The appearance of spurious currents near the interface is investigated. The simulations are performed with the equations of state of Van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, Redlich-Kwong-Soave, Peng-Robinson, and Carnahan-Starling.

  3. Phase transitions in models of human cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2016-08-01

    If only the fittest survive, why should one cooperate? Why should one sacrifice personal benefits for the common good? Recent research indicates that a comprehensive answer to such questions requires that we look beyond the individual and focus on the collective behavior that emerges as a result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and societies. Although undoubtedly driven also by culture and cognition, human cooperation is just as well an emergent, collective phenomenon in a complex system. Nonequilibrium statistical physics, in particular the collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transitions, has already been recognized as very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. Here we briefly review research done in the realm of the public goods game, and we outline future research directions with an emphasis on merging the most recent advances in the social sciences with methods of nonequilibrium statistical physics. By having a firm theoretical grip on human cooperation, we can hope to engineer better social systems and develop more efficient policies for a sustainable and better future.

  4. Phononic Crystal Tunable via Ferroelectric Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaowei; Cai, Feiyan; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Fei; Sun, Rong; Fu, Xianzhu; Xiong, Rengen; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-09-01

    Phononic crystals (PCs) consisting of periodic materials with different acoustic properties have potential applications in functional devices. To realize more smart functions, it is desirable to actively control the properties of PCs on demand, ideally within the same fabricated system. Here, we report a tunable PC made of Ba0.7Sr0.3Ti O3 (BST) ceramics, wherein a 20-K temperature change near room temperature results in a 20% frequency shift in the transmission spectra induced by a ferroelectric phase transition. The tunability phenomenon is attributed to the structure-induced resonant excitation of A0 and A1 Lamb modes that exist intrinsically in the uniform BST plate, while these Lamb modes are sensitive to the elastic properties of the plate and can be modulated by temperature in a BST plate around the Curie temperature. The study finds opportunities for creating tunable PCs and enables smart temperature-tuned devices such as the Lamb wave filter or sensor.

  5. Emergence and reduction combined in phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, Jeremy; Bouatta, Nazim

    2012-06-01

    In another paper (Butterfield 2011), one of us argued that emergence and reduction are compatible, and presented four examples illustrating both. The main purpose of this paper is to develop this position for the example of phase transitions. We take it that emergence involves behaviour that is novel compared with what is expected: often, what is expected from a theory of the system's microscopic constituents. We take reduction as deduction, aided by appropriate definitions. Then the main idea of our reconciliation of emergence and reduction is that one makes the deduction after taking a limit of an appropriate parameter N. Thus our first main claim will be that in some situations, one can deduce a novel behaviour, by taking a limit N → ∞. Our main illustration of this will be Lee-Yang theory. But on the other hand, this does not show that the N = ∞ limit is "physically real". For our second main claim will be that in such situations, there is a logically weaker, yet still vivid, novel behaviour that occurs before the limit, i.e. for finite N. And it is this weaker behaviour which is physically real. Our main illustration of this will be the renormalization group description of cross-over phenomena.

  6. The control of developmental phase transitions in plants.

    PubMed

    Huijser, Peter; Schmid, Markus

    2011-10-01

    Plant development progresses through distinct phases: vegetative growth, followed by a reproductive phase and eventually seed set and senescence. The transitions between these phases are controlled by distinct genetic circuits that integrate endogenous and environmental cues. In recent years, however, it has become evident that the genetic networks that underlie these phase transitions share some common factors. Here, we review recent advances in the field of plant phase transitions, highlighting the role of two microRNAs - miR156 and miR172 - and their respective targets during these transitions. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary conservation of the functions of these miRNAs in regulating the control of plant developmental phase transitions.

  7. Memory Impedance in TiO2 based Metal-Insulator-Metal Devices

    PubMed Central

    Qingjiang, Li; Khiat, Ali; Salaoru, Iulia; Papavassiliou, Christos; Hui, Xu; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2014-01-01

    Large attention has recently been given to a novel technology named memristor, for having the potential of becoming the new electronic device standard. Yet, its manifestation as the fourth missing element is rather controversial among scientists. Here we demonstrate that TiO2-based metal-insulator-metal devices are more than just a memory-resistor. They possess resistive, capacitive and inductive components that can concurrently be programmed; essentially exhibiting a convolution of memristive, memcapacitive and meminductive effects. We show how non-zero crossing current-voltage hysteresis loops can appear and we experimentally demonstrate their frequency response as memcapacitive and meminductive effects become dominant. PMID:24682245

  8. Metal-insulator-semi-conductor studies of lead telluride. [capacitance and conductance-voltage characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilly, D. A.; Joslin, D. E.; Kan, H. K. A.

    1976-01-01

    The capacitance and conductance-voltage characteristics were measured on metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors fabricated with zirconium dioxide films on single-crystal lead telluride. At 77 K, on both n- and p-type substrates, evidence of surface potential control was obtained. Comparison of the measured capacitance-voltage characteristics with those calculated from the equilibrium solution of the one-dimensional Poisson equation indicated qualitative agreement, although the slope of the measured capacitance in the region near the capacitance minimum was less steep than calculated.

  9. Metal-insulator-metal photomonitor for optical waveguides at telecom wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Baghdasaryan, Hovik; Marciniak, Marian; Otomo, Akira

    2016-12-01

    A compact photodetector for an optical waveguide that is easy to integrate is necessary for optical on-chip devices. We demonstrate that a metallic contact covering an optical waveguide can monitor guided light in the 680 to 1550 nm wavelength range without blocking it. The contact is made of Au, titania, and Ti thin films that form a metal-insulator-metal structure. A concise design and facile fabrication process make our device particularly suitable for optical waveguides made of insulators such as polymers and dielectrics.

  10. Uniaxial phase transition in Si: Ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.

    2003-04-01

    Based on a previously proposed thermodynamic analysis, [C. Cheng, W. H. Huang, and H. J. Li, Phys. Rev. B 63, 153202 (2001)] we study the relative stabilities of five Si phases under uniaxial compression using ab initio methods. The five phases are diamond, βSn, simple-hexagonal (sh), simple-cubic, and hexagonal closed-packed structures. The possible phase-transition patterns were investigated by considering the phase transitions between any two chosen phases of the five phases. By analyzing the different contributions to the relative phase stability, we identified the most important factors in reducing the phase-transition pressures at uniaxial compression. We also show that it is possible to have phase transitions occur only when the phases are under uniaxial compression, in spite of no phase transition when under hydrostatic compression. Taking all five phases into consideration, the phase diagram at uniaxial compression was constructed for pressures up to 20 GPa. The stable phases were found to be diamond, βSn, and sh structures, i.e., the same as those when under hydrostatic condition. According to the phase diagram, direct phase transition from the diamond to the sh phase is possible if the applied uniaxial pressures, on increasing, satisfy the condition Px>Pz. Similarly, the sh-to-βSn transition on increasing pressures is also possible if the applied uniaxial pressures are varied from the condition of Px>Pz, on which the phase of sh is stable to the condition Px

  11. Unconventional phase transitions in a constrained single polymer chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klushin, L. I.; Skvortsov, A. M.

    2011-11-01

    Phase transitions were recognized among the most fascinating phenomena in physics. Exactly solved models are especially important in the theory of phase transitions. A number of exactly solved models of phase transitions in a single polymer chain are discussed in this review. These are three models demonstrating the second order phase transitions with some unusual features: two-dimensional model of β-structure formation, the model of coil-globule transition and adsorption of a polymer chain grafted on the solid surface. We also discuss models with first order phase transitions in a single macromolecule which admit not only exact analytical solutions for the partition function with explicit finite-size effects but also the non-equilibrium free energy as a function of the order parameter (Landau function) in closed analytical form. One of them is a model of mechanical desorption of a macromolecule, which demonstrates an unusual first order phase transition with phase coexistence within a single chain. Features of first and second order transitions become mixed here due to phase coexistence which is not accompanied by additional interfacial free energy. Apart from that, there exist several single-chain models belonging to the same class (adsorption of a polymer chain tethered near the solid surface or liquid-liquid interface, and escape transition upon compressing a polymer between small pistons) that represent examples of a highly unconventional first order phase transition with several inter-related unusual features: no simultaneous phase coexistence, and hence no phase boundary, non-concave thermodynamic potential and non-equivalence of conjugate ensembles. An analysis of complex zeros of partition functions upon approaching the thermodynamic limit is presented for models with and without phase coexistence.

  12. Interplay between micelle formation and waterlike phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzelmann, G.; Figueiredo, W.; Girardi, M.

    2010-02-01

    A lattice model for amphiphilic aggregation in the presence of a structured waterlike solvent is studied through Monte Carlo simulations. We investigate the interplay between the micelle formation and the solvent phase transition in two different regions of temperature-density phase diagram of pure water. A second order phase transition between the gaseous (G) and high density liquid (HDL) phases that occurs at very high temperatures, and a first order phase transition between the low density liquid (LDL) and (HDL) phases that takes place at lower temperatures. In both cases, we find the aggregate size distribution curve and the critical micellar concentration as a function of the solvent density across the transitions. We show that micelle formation drives the LDL-HDL first order phase transition to lower solvent densities, while the transition G-HDL is driven to higher densities, which can be explained by the markedly different degrees of micellization in both cases. The diffusion coefficient of surfactants was also calculated in the LDL and HDL phases, changing abruptly its behavior due to the restructuring of waterlike solvent when we cross the first order LDL-HDL phase transition. To understand such behavior, we calculate the solvent density and the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule close to micelles. The curves of the interfacial solvent density and the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in the first hydration signal a local phase change of the interfacial water, clarifying the diffusion mechanism of free surfactants in the solvent.

  13. Quantum phase transitions in the presence of disorder and dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotabage, Chetan

    A quantum phase transition is a phase transition at absolute zero occurring under variations in an external non-thermal parameter such as magnetic field or pressure. Quantum phase transitions are one among the important topics currently investigated in condensed matter physics. They are observed in various systems, e.g., in the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition in LiHoF 4 or in the superconductor-metal phase transition in nanowires. A particular class of quantum phase transitions, which is phase transitions in the presence of disorder and dissipation, is investigated here. An example of this class is the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition in Ni 1-xVx or CePd 1-xRhx caused by variations in chemical composition. In these system, disorder is due to random positions of doping element and the dynamics of order-parameter fluctuations is dissipative due to conduction electrons. These quantum phase transitions are explained using the following approach: The Landau-Ginzberg-Wilson functional, which is derived from a microscopic Hamiltonian, is treated by the strong-disorder renormalization group method. For ohmic damping, phase transitions are strongly influenced by disorder and the critical point is an infinite-randomness fixed point, which is in the universality class same as that of the random transverse-field Ising model. The scaling form of observable quantities is activated type rather than conventional power-law type. For superohmic damping, the strong-disorder renormalization group method yields one of the recursion relationships different from ohmic damping. This difference indicates a more conventional transition for superohmic damping.

  14. 78 FR 30951 - SBIR/STTR Phase I to Phase II Transition Benchmarks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SBIR/STTR Phase I to Phase II Transition Benchmarks AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice for Small Business Innovation Research Program Phase I to Phase II Transition...

  15. Method for identifying and probing phase transitions in materials

    DOEpatents

    Asay, Blaine W.; Henson, Bryan F.; Sander, Robert K.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Son, Steven F.; Dickson, Peter M.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a method for identifying and probing phase transitions in materials. A polymorphic material capable of existing in at least one non-centrosymmetric phase is interrogated with a beam of laser light at a chosen wavelength and frequency. A phase transition is induced in the material while it is interrogated. The intensity of light scattered by the material and having a wavelength equal to one half the wavelength of the interrogating laser light is detected. If the phase transition results in the production of a non-centrosymmetric phase, the intensity of this scattered light increases; if the phase transition results in the disappearance of a non-centrosymmetric phase, the intensity of this scattered light decreases.

  16. Broadening of a nonequilibrium phase transition by extended structural defects.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Thomas

    2004-08-01

    We study the effects of quenched extended impurities on nonequilibrium phase transitions in the directed percolation universality class. We show that these impurities have a dramatic effect: they completely destroy the sharp phase transition by smearing. This is caused by rare strongly coupled spatial regions which can undergo the phase transition independently from the bulk system. We use extremal statistics to determine the stationary state as well as the dynamics in the tail of the smeared transition, and we illustrate the results by computer simulations.

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Arata; Kimura, Taro

    2016-12-01

    We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.

  18. Surface phonons near structural phase transitions of fluoridic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prade, J.; Kulkarni, A. D.; De Wette, F. W.; Reiger, R.; Schröder, U.; Kress, W.

    1989-04-01

    The fluoridic perovskite KMnF 3 exhibits an antiferrodistortive phase transition which goes along with a soft mode at the R-point of the Brillouin zone. We investigate in this paper the surface phonons of the KF(001) surface at temperatures near this phase transition. The calculations are carried out for relaxed and reconstructed (001) slabs.

  19. Bi-phase transition diagrams of metallic thin multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.C.; Liu, W.; Jiang, Q. . E-mail: jiangq@jlu.edu.cn

    2005-02-01

    Phase transitions of metallic multilayers induced by differences in interface energy are considered thermodynamically, based on a thermodynamic model for interface energy and the Goldschmidt premise for lattice contraction. Bi-phase transition diagrams of Co/Cr, Zr/Nb, Ti/Nb and Ti/Al multilayers are constructed, which are in agreement with experimental results.

  20. High pressure ferroelastic phase transition in SrTiO₃.

    PubMed

    Salje, E K H; Guennou, M; Bouvier, P; Carpenter, M A; Kreisel, J

    2011-07-13

    High pressure measurements of the ferroelastic phase transition of SrTiO₃ (Guennou et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 054115) showed a linear pressure dependence of the transition temperature between the cubic and tetragonal phase. Furthermore, the pressure induced transition becomes second order while the temperature dependent transition is near a tricritical point. The phase transition mechanism is characterized by the elongation and tilt of the TiO₆ octahedra in the tetragonal phase, which leads to strongly nonlinear couplings between the structural order parameter, the volume strain and the applied pressure. The phase diagram is derived from the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship and is directly related to a pressure dependent Landau potential. The nonlinearities of the pressure dependent strains lead to an increase of the fourth order Landau coefficient with increasing pressure and, hence, to a tricritical-second order crossover. This behaviour is reminiscent of the doping related crossover in isostructural KMnF₃.

  1. Chiral phase transition in QED3 at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Pei-Lin; Xiao, Hai-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations, we employ two kinds of criteria (one kind is the chiral condensate, the other kind is thermodynamic quantities, such as the pressure, the entropy, and the specific heat) to investigate the nature of chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors. It is found that the chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors are all typical second-order phase transitions; the critical temperature and order of the chiral phase transition obtained from the chiral condensate and susceptibility are the same with that obtained by the thermodynamic quantities, which means that they are equivalent in describing the chiral phase transition; the critical temperature decreases as the number of fermion flavors increases and there is a boundary that separates the Tc-Nf plane into chiral symmetry breaking and restoration regions.

  2. The Condensation Phase Transition in Random Graph Coloring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapst, Victor; Coja-Oghlan, Amin; Hetterich, Samuel; Raßmann, Felicia; Vilenchik, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a non-rigorous formalism called the "cavity method", physicists have put forward intriguing predictions on phase transitions in diluted mean-field models, in which the geometry of interactions is induced by a sparse random graph or hypergraph. One example of such a model is the graph coloring problem on the Erdős-Renyi random graph G( n, d/ n), which can be viewed as the zero temperature case of the Potts antiferromagnet. The cavity method predicts that in addition to the k-colorability phase transition studied intensively in combinatorics, there exists a second phase transition called the condensation phase transition (Krzakala et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:10318-10323, 2007). In fact, there is a conjecture as to the precise location of this phase transition in terms of a certain distributional fixed point problem. In this paper we prove this conjecture for k exceeding a certain constant k 0.

  3. Fluctuation-driven electroweak phase transition. [in early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  4. Plasmonic mode interferences and Fano resonances in Metal-Insulator- Metal nanostructured interface

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Rana; Lévêque, Gaëtan; Marae-Djouda, Joseph; Montay, Guillame; Madi, Yazid; Plain, Jérôme; Herro, Ziad; Kazan, Michel; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Maurer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Metal-insulator-metal systems exhibit a rich underlying physics leading to a high degree of tunability of their spectral properties. We performed a systematic study on a metal-insulator-nanostructured metal system with a thin 6 nm dielectric spacer and showed how the nanoparticle sizes and excitation conditions lead to the tunability and coupling/decoupling of localized and delocalized plasmonic modes. We also experimentally evidenced a tunable Fano resonance in a broad spectral window 600 to 800 nm resulting from the interference of gap modes with white light broad band transmitted waves at the interface playing the role of the continuum. By varying the incident illumination angle shifts in the resonances give the possibility to couple or decouple the localized and delocalized modes and to induce a strong change of the asymmetric Fano profile. All these results were confirmed with a crossed comparison between experimental and theoretical measurements, confirming the nature of different modes. The high degree of control and tunability of this plasmonically rich system paves the way for designing and engineering of similar systems with numerous applications. In particular, sensing measurements were performed and a figure of merit of 3.8 was recorded ranking this sensor among the highest sensitive in this wavelength range. PMID:26399425

  5. Insulator charging limits direct current across tunneling metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Vilan, Ayelet

    2016-01-07

    Molecular electronics studies how the molecular nature affects the probability of charge carriers to tunnel through the molecules. Nevertheless, transport is also critically affected by the contacts to the molecules, an aspect that is often overlooked. Specifically, the limited ability of non-metallic contacts to maintain the required charge balance across the fairly insulating molecule often have dramatic effects. This paper shows that in the case of lead/organic monolayer-silicon junctions, a charge balance is responsible for an unusual current scaling, with the junction diameter (perimeter), rather than its area. This is attributed to the balance between the 2D charging at the metal/insulator interface and the 3D charging of the semiconductor space-charge region. A derivative method is developed to quantify transport across tunneling metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions; this enables separating the tunneling barrier from the space-charge barrier for a given current-voltage curve, without complementary measurements. The paper provides practical tools to analyze specific molecular junctions compatible with existing silicon technology, and demonstrates the importance of contacts' physics in modeling charge transport across molecular junctions.

  6. Quantum phase transitions of topological insulators without gap closing.

    PubMed

    Rachel, Stephan

    2016-10-12

    We consider two-dimensional Chern insulators and time-reversal invariant topological insulators and discuss the effect of perturbations breaking either particle-number conservation or time-reversal symmetry. The appearance of trivial mass terms is expected to cause quantum phase transitions into trivial phases when such a perturbation overweighs the topological term. These phase transitions are usually associated with a bulk-gap closing. In contrast, the chiral Chern insulator is unaffected by particle-number breaking perturbations. Moreover, the [Formula: see text] topological insulator undergoes phase transitions into topologically trivial phases without bulk-gap closing in the presence of any of such perturbations. In certain cases, these phase transitions can be circumvented and the protection restored by another U(1) symmetry, e.g. due to spin conservation. These findings are discussed in the context of interacting topological insulators.

  7. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Hu

    2009-06-30

    A novel absorption process called Phase Transitional Absorption was invented. What is the Phase Transitional Absorption? Phase Transitional Absorption is a two or multi phase absorption system, CO{sub 2} rich phase and CO{sub 2} lean phase. During Absorption, CO{sub 2} is accumulated in CO{sub 2} rich phase. After separating the two phases, CO{sub 2} rich phase is forward to regeneration. After regeneration, the regenerated CO{sub 2} rich phase combines CO{sub 2} lean phase to form absorbent again to complete the cycle. The advantage for Phase Transitional Absorption is obvious, significantly saving on regeneration energy. Because CO{sub 2} lean phase was separated before regeneration, only CO{sub 2} rich phase was forward to regeneration. The absorption system we developed has the features of high absorption rate, high loading and working capacity, low corrosion, low regeneration heat, no toxic to environment, etc. The process evaluation shows that our process is able to save 80% energy cost by comparing with MEA process.

  8. Quantum phase transition in strongly correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Longhua

    In this thesis, we investigated the strongly correlated phenomena in bilayer quantum Hall effect, inhomogeneous superconductivity and Boson Hubbard model. Bilayer quantum Hall system is studied in chapter 2. By using the Composite Boson (CB) theory developed by J. Ye, we derive the ground state, quasihole and a quasihole-pair wave functions from the CB theory and its dual action. We find that the ground state wave function is the product of two parts, one in the charge sector which is the well known Halperin's (111) wave function and the other in the spin sector which is non-trivial at any finite d due to the gapless mode. So the total groundstate wave function differs from the well known (111) wave function at any finite d. In addition to commonly known multiplicative factors, the quasihole and quasihole-pair wave functions also contain non-trivial normalization factors multiplying the correct ground state wave function. Then we continue to study the quantum phase transition from the excitonic superfluid (ESF) to a possible pseudo-spin density wave (PSDW) at some intermediate distances driven by the magneto-roton minimum collapsing at a finite wavevector. We analyze the properties of the PSDW and explicitly show that a square lattice is the favored lattice. We suggest that correlated hopping of vacancies in the active and passive layers in the PSDW state leads to very large and temperature-dependent drag, consistent with the experimental data. Comparisons with previous microscopic numerical calculations are made. Further experimental implications are given. In chapter 3, we investigate inhomogeneous superconductivity. Starting from the Ginzburg-Landau free energy describing the normal state to Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state transition, we evaluate the free energy of seven most common lattice structures: stripe, square, triangular, Simple Cubic (SC), Face centered Cubic (FCC), Body centered Cubic (BCC) and Quasicrystal (QC). We find that the stripe

  9. Photoinduced charge transfer phase transition in cesium manganese hexacyanoferrate

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Tokoro, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2007-05-01

    Cesium manganese hexacyanoferrate, Cs{sub 1.51}Mn[Fe(CN){sub 6}], shows a thermal phase transition between Mn{sup II}-NC-Fe{sup III} [high-temperature (HT) phase] and Mn{sup III}-NC-Fe{sup II} [low-temperature (LT) phase] with phase transition temperatures of 170 K (HT{yields}LT) and 230 K (LT{yields}HT). The LT phase shows ferromagnetism with Curie temperature of 7 K and coercive field of 60 Oe. Irradiating with 532 nm laser light converts the LT phase into the photoinduced (PI) phase, which does not have spontaneous magnetization. The electronic state of the PI phase corresponds to that of the HT phase and the relaxation temperature from the PI to the LT phase is observed at 90 K.

  10. The effects of Venusian mantle convection with multiple phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbach, V.; Yuen, D. A.; Christensen, U. R.

    1992-01-01

    Recently there was a flurry of activities in studying the effects of phase transitions in the Earth's mantle. From petrological and geophysical considerations, phase-transitions would also play an important role in venusian dynamics. The basic differences between the two planets are the surface boundary conditions, both thermally and mechanically. In this vein we have studied time-dependent mantle convection with multiple phase transitions and depth-dependent thermal expansivity (alpha is approximately rho(exp -6)), based on high-pressure and temperature measurements. Both the olivine-spinel and spinel-perovskite transitions were simulated by introducing an effective thermal expansivity, as described. Used together with the extended Boussinesq Approximation this method serves as a powerful tool to examine the effects of phase transitions on convection at relatively low computational costs.

  11. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blinov, Nikita; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim

    2015-07-21

    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  12. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blinov, Nikita; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu

    2015-07-01

    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  13. Deviatoric stress-induced phase transitions in diamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Lin, Yu; Dahl, Jeremy E. P.; Carlson, Robert M. K.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2014-10-21

    The high-pressure behavior of diamantane was investigated using angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy in diamond anvil cells. Our experiments revealed that the structural transitions in diamantane were extremely sensitive to deviatoric stress. Under non-hydrostatic conditions, diamantane underwent a cubic (space group Pa3) to a monoclinic phase transition at below 0.15 GPa, the lowest pressure we were able to measure. Upon further compression to 3.5 GPa, this monoclinic phase transformed into another high-pressure monoclinic phase which persisted to 32 GPa, the highest pressure studied in our experiments. However, under more hydrostatic conditions using silicone oil as a pressure medium, the transition pressure to the first high-pressure monoclinic phase was elevated to 7–10 GPa, which coincided with the hydrostatic limit of silicone oil. In another experiment using helium as a pressure medium, no phase transitions were observed to the highest pressure we reached (13 GPa). In addition, large hysteresis and sluggish transition kinetics were observed upon decompression. Over the pressure range where phase transitions were confirmed by XRD, only continuous changes in the Raman spectra were observed. This suggests that these phase transitions are associated with unit cell distortions and modifications in molecular packing rather than the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds under pressure.

  14. High pressure structural phase transitions of PbPo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencherif, Y.; Boukra, A.; Zaoui, A.; Ferhat, M.

    2012-09-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the high pressure phase transitions and dynamical properties of the less known lead polonium compound. The calculated ground state parameters for the NaCl phase show good agreement with the experimental data. The obtained results show that the intermediate phase transition for this compound is the orthorhombic Pnma phase. The PbPo undergoes from the rocksalt to Pnma phase at 4.20 GPa. Further structural phase transition from intermediate to CsCl phase has been found at 8.5 GPa. In addition, phonon dispersion spectra were derived from linear-response to density functional theory. In particular, we show that the dynamical properties of PbPo exhibit some peculiar features compared to other III-V compounds. Finally, thermodynamics properties have been also addressed from quasiharmonic approximation.

  15. Clusterization and phase-transitions in atomic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Darai, J.; Cseh, J.; Hess, P. O.

    2011-10-28

    The question of phases and phase-transitions of cluster states is reviewed. First some features of the algebraic models are recalled. Then we address the question, what the experimental spectrum of {sup 20}Ne suggests on the phase of the {sup 16}O+{alpha} system.

  16. Problem-Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Travis J; Butner, Jonathan E; Fiore, Stephen M

    2017-02-18

    Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit distinct distributions of communication processes. We also tested whether there was a relationship between entropy values at transition points and CPS performance. We found that a proportion of entropy peaks was robust and that the relative occurrence of communication codes varied significantly across phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams' CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions to improve understanding of phase transitions during CPS, and collaborative cognition, more broadly.

  17. Superradiant phase transitions with three-level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksic, Alexandre; Nataf, Pierre; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2013-02-01

    We determine the phase diagram of N identical three-level systems interacting with a single photonic mode in the thermodynamical limit (N→∞) by accounting for the so-called diamagnetic term and the inequalities imposed by the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn (TRK) oscillator strength sum rule. The key role of transitions between excited levels and the occurrence of first-order phase transitions is discussed. We show that, in contrast to two-level systems, in the three-level case the TRK inequalities do not always prevent a superradiant phase transition in the presence of a diamagnetic term.

  18. Disorder-induced rounding of certain quantum phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Thomas

    2003-03-14

    We study the influence of quenched disorder on quantum phase transitions in systems with overdamped dynamics. For Ising order-parameter symmetry disorder destroys the sharp phase transition by rounding because a static order parameter can develop on rare spatial regions. This leads to an exponential dependence of the order parameter on the coupling constant. At finite temperatures the static order on the rare regions is destroyed. This restores the phase transition and leads to a double-exponential relation between critical temperature and coupling strength. We discuss the behavior based on Lifshitz-tail arguments and illustrate the results by simulations of a model system.

  19. Handbook of Phase Transition Sulfides, Selenides and Tellurides,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    fCAa24 o c()0 an E -b.Sldln () ahdln - 2 M ; do-a.5ie .I OII A-32. CdSe Cadnim Monoselenlde Cadmium selenide is a metal-nonmetal phase transition...RD-R146 658 HANDBOOK OF PHASE TRANSITION SULFIDES SELENIDES AND 1/3 rELLURIDES(U) TACTICAL WEAPONS GUIDANCE AND CONTROL INFORMATION ANALYSIS CE. W J...CIAL- WE:a\\FONf* C7UIDAt-NCE: & =ONrR DL. INP1:XRMATK3N At-LASIS C:EN*T7R HANDBOOK OF PHASE TRANSITION SULFIDES, SELENIDES AND TELLURIDES WALTER J

  20. Topology-driven magnetic quantum phase transition in topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinsong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Tang, Peizhe; Zhang, Zuocheng; Feng, Xiao; Li, Kang; Wang, Li-Li; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chaoxing; Duan, Wenhui; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun; Ma, Xucun; Wang, Yayu

    2013-03-29

    The breaking of time reversal symmetry in topological insulators may create previously unknown quantum effects. We observed a magnetic quantum phase transition in Cr-doped Bi2(SexTe1-x)3 topological insulator films grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Across the critical point, a topological quantum phase transition is revealed through both angle-resolved photoemission measurements and density functional theory calculations. We present strong evidence that the bulk band topology is the fundamental driving force for the magnetic quantum phase transition. The tunable topological and magnetic properties in this system are well suited for realizing the exotic topological quantum phenomena in magnetic topological insulators.