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Sample records for metal-molecule interfaces trends

  1. Resolving metal-molecule interfaces at single-molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komoto, Yuki; Fujii, Shintaro; Nakamura, Hisao; Tada, Tomofumi; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-05-01

    Electronic and structural detail at the electrode-molecule interface have a significant influence on charge transport across molecular junctions. Despite the decisive role of the metal-molecule interface, a complete electronic and structural characterization of the interface remains a challenge. This is in no small part due to current experimental limitations. Here, we present a comprehensive approach to obtain a detailed description of the metal-molecule interface in single-molecule junctions, based on current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Contrary to conventional conductance studies, this I-V approach provides a correlated statistical description of both, the degree of electronic coupling across the metal-molecule interface, and the energy alignment between the conduction orbital and the Fermi level of the electrode. This exhaustive statistical approach was employed to study single-molecule junctions of 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA), 1,4-butanediamine (C4DA), and 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). A single interfacial configuration was observed for both BDA and C4DA junctions, while three different interfacial arrangements were resolved for BDT. This multiplicity is due to different molecular adsorption sites on the Au surface namely on-top, hollow, and bridge. Furthermore, C4DA junctions present a fluctuating I-V curve arising from the greater conformational freedom of the saturated alkyl chain, in sharp contrast with the rigid aromatic backbone of both BDA and BDT.

  2. Resolving metal-molecule interfaces at single-molecule junctions

    PubMed Central

    Komoto, Yuki; Fujii, Shintaro; Nakamura, Hisao; Tada, Tomofumi; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Electronic and structural detail at the electrode-molecule interface have a significant influence on charge transport across molecular junctions. Despite the decisive role of the metal-molecule interface, a complete electronic and structural characterization of the interface remains a challenge. This is in no small part due to current experimental limitations. Here, we present a comprehensive approach to obtain a detailed description of the metal-molecule interface in single-molecule junctions, based on current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Contrary to conventional conductance studies, this I-V approach provides a correlated statistical description of both, the degree of electronic coupling across the metal-molecule interface, and the energy alignment between the conduction orbital and the Fermi level of the electrode. This exhaustive statistical approach was employed to study single-molecule junctions of 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA), 1,4-butanediamine (C4DA), and 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). A single interfacial configuration was observed for both BDA and C4DA junctions, while three different interfacial arrangements were resolved for BDT. This multiplicity is due to different molecular adsorption sites on the Au surface namely on-top, hollow, and bridge. Furthermore, C4DA junctions present a fluctuating I-V curve arising from the greater conformational freedom of the saturated alkyl chain, in sharp contrast with the rigid aromatic backbone of both BDA and BDT. PMID:27221947

  3. The nature of the metal-molecule interface revealed through tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreil, Justin P.

    large offsets in the G(V) minimum [G(V)min] conductance due to polar hydroxyl groups native to the AlOx surface introducing large asymmetry in the barrier. Upon addition of the carboxylic and phosphonic acid monolayers, the G(V)min shifted closer to zero bias. For tunnel junctions made with benzoic acid SAMs and Pb, several trends emerged. First, as the coverage of the SAM increased, the G(V)min decreased. Second, as the size of the para-substituent increased, the G(V)min decreased. Finally when a reactive para-substituent such as thiol is used, the barrier asymmetry is completely reversed due to a bond formation at the S-Pb interface. G(V) measurements obtained on various alkanoic acid SAMs showed no offset in the G(V)min. The data obtained was fit to a model to extract the tunnel barrier properties. The results showed that when a reactive terminal group such as thiol is used, the effective thickness of the tunnel barrier is larger than samples made with CH3 terminated SAMs. This suggests that less of the top metal can penetrate through monolayers when a chemical reaction occurs at the metal-molecule interface. Data obtained for tunnel junctions made with octadecylphosphonic acid SAMs showed very little penetration of the top metal likely due to higher saturation coverage and better packing.

  4. Demographic trends, the wildland-urban interface, and wildfire management

    Treesearch

    Roger B. Hammer; Susan I. Stewart; Volker C. Radeloff

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of the demographic trends that have impacted and will continue to impact the "wicked" wildfire management problem in the United States, with particular attention to the emergence of the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Although population growth has had an impact on the emergence of the WUI, the deconcentration of...

  5. Image effects in transport at metal-molecule interfaces.

    PubMed

    Verzijl, C J O; Celis Gil, J A; Perrin, M L; Dulić, D; van der Zant, H S J; Thijssen, J M

    2015-11-07

    We present a method for incorporating image-charge effects into the description of charge transport through molecular devices. A simple model allows us to calculate the adjustment of the transport levels, due to the polarization of the electrodes as charge is added to and removed from the molecule. For this, we use the charge distributions of the molecule between two metal electrodes in several charge states, rather than in gas phase, as obtained from a density-functional theory-based transport code. This enables us to efficiently model level shifts and gap renormalization caused by image-charge effects, which are essential for understanding molecular transport experiments. We apply the method to benzene di-amine molecules and compare our results with the standard approach based on gas phase charges. Finally, we give a detailed account of the application of our approach to porphyrin-derivative devices recently studied experimentally by Perrin et al. [Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 282 (2013)], which demonstrates the importance of accounting for image-charge effects when modeling transport through molecular junctions.

  6. Global trends in infectious diseases at the wildlife–livestock interface

    PubMed Central

    Wiethoelter, Anke K.; Beltrán-Alcrudo, Daniel; Kock, Richard; Mor, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    The role and significance of wildlife–livestock interfaces in disease ecology has largely been neglected, despite recent interest in animals as origins of emerging diseases in humans. Scoping review methods were applied to objectively assess the relative interest by the scientific community in infectious diseases at interfaces between wildlife and livestock, to characterize animal species and regions involved, as well as to identify trends over time. An extensive literature search combining wildlife, livestock, disease, and geographical search terms yielded 78,861 publications, of which 15,998 were included in the analysis. Publications dated from 1912 to 2013 and showed a continuous increasing trend, including a shift from parasitic to viral diseases over time. In particular there was a significant increase in publications on the artiodactyls–cattle and bird–poultry interface after 2002 and 2003, respectively. These trends could be traced to key disease events that stimulated public interest and research funding. Among the top 10 diseases identified by this review, the majority were zoonoses. Prominent wildlife–livestock interfaces resulted largely from interaction between phylogenetically closely related and/or sympatric species. The bird–poultry interface was the most frequently cited wildlife–livestock interface worldwide with other interfaces reflecting regional circumstances. This review provides the most comprehensive overview of research on infectious diseases at the wildlife–livestock interface to date. PMID:26195733

  7. Global trends in infectious diseases at the wildlife-livestock interface.

    PubMed

    Wiethoelter, Anke K; Beltrán-Alcrudo, Daniel; Kock, Richard; Mor, Siobhan M

    2015-08-04

    The role and significance of wildlife-livestock interfaces in disease ecology has largely been neglected, despite recent interest in animals as origins of emerging diseases in humans. Scoping review methods were applied to objectively assess the relative interest by the scientific community in infectious diseases at interfaces between wildlife and livestock, to characterize animal species and regions involved, as well as to identify trends over time. An extensive literature search combining wildlife, livestock, disease, and geographical search terms yielded 78,861 publications, of which 15,998 were included in the analysis. Publications dated from 1912 to 2013 and showed a continuous increasing trend, including a shift from parasitic to viral diseases over time. In particular there was a significant increase in publications on the artiodactyls-cattle and bird-poultry interface after 2002 and 2003, respectively. These trends could be traced to key disease events that stimulated public interest and research funding. Among the top 10 diseases identified by this review, the majority were zoonoses. Prominent wildlife-livestock interfaces resulted largely from interaction between phylogenetically closely related and/or sympatric species. The bird-poultry interface was the most frequently cited wildlife-livestock interface worldwide with other interfaces reflecting regional circumstances. This review provides the most comprehensive overview of research on infectious diseases at the wildlife-livestock interface to date.

  8. Phospholipids at the Interface: Current Trends and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pichot, Roman; Watson, Richard L.; Norton, Ian T.

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipids are one of the major structural elements of biological membranes. Due to their amphiphilic character, they can adopt various molecular assemblies when dispersed in water, such as bilayer vesicles or micelles, which give them unique interfacial properties and render them very attractive in terms of foam or emulsion stabilization. This article aims at reviewing the properties of phospholipids at the air/water and oil/water interfaces, as well as the recent advances in using these natural components as stabilizers, alone or in combination with other compounds such as proteins. A discussion regarding the challenges and opportunities offered by phospholipids-stabilized structure concludes the review. PMID:23736688

  9. P300 brain computer interface: current challenges and emerging trends

    PubMed Central

    Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Allison, Brendan Z.; Guger, Christoph; Sellers, Eric W.; Kleih, Sonja C.; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables communication without movement based on brain signals measured with electroencephalography (EEG). BCIs usually rely on one of three types of signals: the P300 and other components of the event-related potential (ERP), steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), or event related desynchronization (ERD). Although P300 BCIs were introduced over twenty years ago, the past few years have seen a strong increase in P300 BCI research. This closed-loop BCI approach relies on the P300 and other components of the ERP, based on an oddball paradigm presented to the subject. In this paper, we overview the current status of P300 BCI technology, and then discuss new directions: paradigms for eliciting P300s; signal processing methods; applications; and hybrid BCIs. We conclude that P300 BCIs are quite promising, as several emerging directions have not yet been fully explored and could lead to improvements in bit rate, reliability, usability, and flexibility. PMID:22822397

  10. Interfacial charge transfer absorption: Application to metal molecule assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutz, Carol; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Sutin, Norman

    2006-05-01

    Optically induced charge transfer between adsorbed molecules and a metal electrode was predicted by Hush to lead to new electronic absorption features, but has been only rarely observed experimentally. Interfacial charge transfer absorption (IFCTA) provides information concerning the barriers to charge transfer between molecules and the metal/semiconductor and the magnitude of the electronic coupling and could thus provide a powerful tool for understanding interfacial charge-transfer kinetics. Here, we utilize a previously published model [C. Creutz, B.S. Brunschwig, N. Sutin, J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 10251] to predict IFCTA spectra of metal-molecule assemblies and compare the literature observations to these predictions. We conclude that, in general, the electronic coupling between molecular adsorbates and the metal levels is so small that IFCTA is not detectable. However, few experiments designed to detect IFCTA have been done. We suggest approaches to optimizing the conditions for observing the process.

  11. Increasing trend of wearables and multimodal interface for human activity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Preeti; Mathew, Lini; Syal, Poonam

    2017-04-15

    Activity recognition technology is one of the most important technologies for life-logging and for the care of elderly persons. Elderly people prefer to live in their own houses, within their own locality. If, they are capable to do so, several benefits can follow in terms of society and economy. However, living alone may have high risks. Wearable sensors have been developed to overcome these risks and these sensors are supposed to be ready for medical uses. It can help in monitoring the wellness of elderly persons living alone by unobtrusively monitoring their daily activities. The study aims to review the increasing trends of wearable devices and need of multimodal recognition for continuous or discontinuous monitoring of human activity, biological signals such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrooculogram (EOG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG) and parameters along with other symptoms. This can provide necessary assistance in times of ominous need, which is crucial for the advancement of disease-diagnosis and treatment. Shared control architecture with multimodal interface can be used for application in more complex environment where more number of commands is to be used to control with better results in terms of controlling.

  12. Chemical trends of stability and band alignment of lattice-matched II-VI/III-V semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hui-Xiong; Luo, Jun-Wei; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-02-01

    Using the first-principles density functional theory method, we systematically investigate the structural and electronic properties of heterovalent interfaces of the lattice-matched II-VI/III-V semiconductors, i.e., ZnTe/GaSb, ZnSe/GaAs, ZnS/GaP, and ZnO/GaN. We find that, independent of the orientations, the heterovalent superlattices with period n =6 are energetically more favorable to form nonpolar interfaces. For the [001] interface, the stable nonpolar interfaces are formed by mixing 50% group-III with 50% group-II atoms or by mixing 50% group-V with 50% group-VI atoms; for the [111] nonpolar interfaces, the mixings are 25% group-III (II) and 75% group-II (III) atoms or 25% group-V (VI) and 75% group-VI (V) atoms. For all the nonpolar interfaces, the [110] interface has the lowest interfacial energy because it has the minimum number of II-V or III-VI "wrong bonds" per unit interfacial area. The interfacial energy increases when the atomic number of the elements decreases, except for the ZnO/GaN system. The band alignments between the II-VI and III-V compounds are drastically different depending on whether they have mixed-cation or mixed-anion interfaces, but the averaged values are nearly independent of the orientations. Similarly, other than ZnO/GaN, the valence-band offsets also increase as the atomic number of the elements decreases. The abnormal trends in interfacial energy and band alignment for ZnO/GaN are primarily attributed to the very short bond lengths in this system. The underlying physics behind these trends are explained.

  13. Azobenzenes as light-controlled molecular electronic switches in nanoscale metal-molecule-metal junctions.

    PubMed

    Mativetsky, Jeffrey M; Pace, Giuseppina; Elbing, Mark; Rampi, Maria A; Mayor, Marcel; Samorì, Paolo

    2008-07-23

    Conductance switching associated with the photoisomerization of azobenzene-based (Azo) molecules was observed in nanoscopic metal-molecule-metal junctions. The junctions were formed by using a conducting atomic force microscope (C-AFM) approach, where a metallic AFM tip was used to electrically contact a gold-supported Azo self-assembled monolayer. The measured 30-fold increase in conductance is consistent with the expected decrease in tunneling barrier length resulting from the conformational change of the Azo molecule.

  14. Correction: Intermolecular network analysis of the liquid and vapor interfaces of pentane and water: microsolvation does not trend with interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Ghadar, Yasaman; Clark, Aurora E

    2015-07-07

    Correction for 'Intermolecular network analysis of the liquid and vapor interfaces of pentane and water: microsolvation does not trend with interfacial properties' by Yasaman Ghadar et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 12475-12487.

  15. Wildland–Urban Interface Forest Entrepreneurs: A Look at a New Trend

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Hull; Katie Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Wildland–Urban interface forest (WUIF) entrepreneurs are finding a niche in fragmenting forests. Most successful entrepreneurs are either scaling down from their forestry and logging backgrounds or scaling up from green industry. They are skilled in some aspects of working with WUIF owners but often need additional tools, including people and marketing skills, business...

  16. Demographic trends in the Eastern US and the wildland urban interface: implications for fire management

    Treesearch

    John Stanturf; Michael C. Wimberly

    2013-01-01

    Over the last century, the United States has evolved from a predominantly rural to an urbanized society with an exurban area currently referred to as the wildland urban interface (WUI). This WUI is critical as it occupies three to five times as much land area as urban areas with emerging and latent conflicts between traditional resource management and preferences of...

  17. Unveiling universal trends for the energy level alignment in organic/oxide interfaces.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José I; Flores, Fernando; Ortega, José; Rangan, Sylvie; Ruggieri, Charles M; Bartynski, Robert A

    2017-09-20

    In this perspective we present a comprehensive analysis of the energy level alignment at the interface between an organic monolayer (organic = perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride, PTCDA, zinc tetraphenylporphyrin, Zn-TPP, and tetracyanoquinodimethane, TCNQ) and a prototypical oxide surface, TiO2(110), looking for universal behaviours. PTCDA shows a physisorbed interaction with TiO2 and a small interface dipole potential with its highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level located in the oxide energy gap and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level located above the oxide conduction band minimum, EC. We analyse how the interface barrier depends on an external bias potential between the organic layer and the oxide surface, Δ, and find for this interface that the screening parameter S = d|(EC - HOMO)|dΔ is close to 1. In the second case, the Zn-TPP monolayer shows a moderate chemisorbed interaction with some charge transfer from the molecule to the oxide and a significant interface dipole potential, in such a way that S decreases to around 0.8. In the TCNQ/TiO2(110) case, the TCNQ molecules present a strong chemical interaction with the oxide; the LUMO energy level is located in the oxide energy gap in such a way that one electron is transferred from the oxide to the organic molecule; we also find that in this case S ≈ 0.5. All these cases can be integrated within a universal behaviour when (EC - HOMO) is calculated as a function of Δ; that function presents a zig-zag curve with a central part having an S-slope, and two plateaus associated with either the LUMO or the HOMO energy levels crossing the oxide Fermi level. In these plateaus, a Coulomb blockade regime arises and a pace charge layer develops in the oxide surface.

  18. Spelling with non-invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces--current and future trends.

    PubMed

    Cecotti, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have become a large research field that include challenges mainly in neuroscience, signal processing, machine learning and user interface. A non-invasive BCI can allow the direct communication between humans and computers by analyzing electrical brain activity, recorded at the surface of the scalp with electroencephalography. The main purpose for BCIs is to enable communication for people with severe disabilities. Spelling is one of the first BCI application, it corresponds to the main communication mean for people who are unable to speak. While spelling can be the most basic application it remains a benchmark for communication applications and one challenge in the BCI community for some patients. This paper proposes a review of the current main strategies, and their limitations, for spelling words. It includes recent BCIs based on P300, steady-state visual evoked potentials and motor imagery. By considering some challenges in BCI spellers and virtual keyboards, some pragmatic issues are pointed out to eliminate false hopes about BCI for both disabled and healthy people.

  19. Current trends in hardware and software for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs).

    PubMed

    Brunner, P; Bianchi, L; Guger, C; Cincotti, F; Schalk, G

    2011-04-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a non-muscular communication channel to people with and without disabilities. BCI devices consist of hardware and software. BCI hardware records signals from the brain, either invasively or non-invasively, using a series of device components. BCI software then translates these signals into device output commands and provides feedback. One may categorize different types of BCI applications into the following four categories: basic research, clinical/translational research, consumer products, and emerging applications. These four categories use BCI hardware and software, but have different sets of requirements. For example, while basic research needs to explore a wide range of system configurations, and thus requires a wide range of hardware and software capabilities, applications in the other three categories may be designed for relatively narrow purposes and thus may only need a very limited subset of capabilities. This paper summarizes technical aspects for each of these four categories of BCI applications. The results indicate that BCI technology is in transition from isolated demonstrations to systematic research and commercial development. This process requires several multidisciplinary efforts, including the development of better integrated and more robust BCI hardware and software, the definition of standardized interfaces, and the development of certification, dissemination and reimbursement procedures.

  20. Current trends in hardware and software for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, P.; Bianchi, L.; Guger, C.; Cincotti, F.; Schalk, G.

    2011-04-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a non-muscular communication channel to people with and without disabilities. BCI devices consist of hardware and software. BCI hardware records signals from the brain, either invasively or non-invasively, using a series of device components. BCI software then translates these signals into device output commands and provides feedback. One may categorize different types of BCI applications into the following four categories: basic research, clinical/translational research, consumer products, and emerging applications. These four categories use BCI hardware and software, but have different sets of requirements. For example, while basic research needs to explore a wide range of system configurations, and thus requires a wide range of hardware and software capabilities, applications in the other three categories may be designed for relatively narrow purposes and thus may only need a very limited subset of capabilities. This paper summarizes technical aspects for each of these four categories of BCI applications. The results indicate that BCI technology is in transition from isolated demonstrations to systematic research and commercial development. This process requires several multidisciplinary efforts, including the development of better integrated and more robust BCI hardware and software, the definition of standardized interfaces, and the development of certification, dissemination and reimbursement procedures.

  1. The Interface Among Poverty, Air Mattress Industry Trends, Policy, and Infant Safety.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jennifer J; Salm Ward, Trina C

    2017-06-01

    Infants can suffocate on air mattresses, even when the mattress is fully inflated. The interfacing issues of poverty, the bedbug epidemic, and changes in the design and marketing of air mattresses may be increasing consumer use of air mattresses as primary sleep environments and thus increasing the potential for infant death. Despite recent changes to improve air mattress safety labeling, the National Child Death Review Case Reporting System found that between 2004 and 2015 across 24 states, an air mattress was the incident sleep place for 108 infants whose deaths were either during sleep or in a sleep environment. At the same time, design components such as inflatable headboards and memory foam pillow tops potentially increase the hazard to infants, and marketing changes represent air mattresses as a preferred low-cost primary sleep environment. Analysis of current data surveillance systems, published position statements, and consumer materials from national organizations and federal agencies reveal opportunities for changing policy to better protect infants from this hazard.

  2. Nano-fabrication of molecular electronic junctions by targeted modification of metal-molecule bonds.

    PubMed

    Jafri, S Hassan M; Löfås, Henrik; Blom, Tobias; Wallner, Andreas; Grigoriev, Anton; Ahuja, Rajeev; Ottosson, Henrik; Leifer, Klaus

    2015-09-23

    Reproducibility, stability and the coupling between electrical and molecular properties are central challenges in the field of molecular electronics. The field not only needs devices that fulfill these criteria but they also need to be up-scalable to application size. In this work, few-molecule based electronics devices with reproducible electrical characteristics are demonstrated. Our previously reported 5 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) coated with ω-triphenylmethyl (trityl) protected 1,8-octanedithiol molecules are trapped in between sub-20 nm gap spacing gold nanoelectrodes forming AuNP-molecule network. When the trityl groups are removed, reproducible devices and stable Au-thiol junctions are established on both ends of the alkane segment. The resistance of more than 50 devices is reduced by orders of magnitude as well as a reduction of the spread in the resistance histogram is observed. By density functional theory calculations the orders of magnitude decrease in resistance can be explained and supported by TEM observations thus indicating that the resistance changes and strongly improved resistance spread are related to the establishment of reproducible and stable metal-molecule bonds. The same experimental sequence is carried out using 1,6-hexanedithiol functionalized AuNPs. The average resistances as a function of molecular length, demonstrated herein, are comparable to the one found in single molecule devices.

  3. Transport gap renormalization at a metal-molecule interface using DFT-NEGF and spin unrestricted calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celis Gil, J. A.; Thijssen, J. M.

    2017-08-01

    A method is presented for predicting one-particle energies for a molecule in a junction with one metal electrode, using density functional theory methods. In contrast to previous studies, in which restricted spin configurations were analyzed, we take spin polarization into account. Furthermore, in addition to junctions in which the molecule is weakly coupled, our method is also capable of describing junctions in which the molecule is chemisorbed to the metal contact. We implemented a fully self-consistent scissor operator to correct the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap in transport calculations for single molecule junctions. We present results for various systems and compare our results with those obtained by other groups.

  4. Accurate characterization and understanding of interface trap density trends between atomic layer deposited dielectrics and AlGaN/GaN with bonding constraint theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanan, Narayanan; Lee, Bongmook; Misra, Veena

    2015-06-15

    Many dielectrics have been proposed for the gate stack or passivation of AlGaN/GaN based metal oxide semiconductor heterojunction field effect transistors, to reduce gate leakage and current collapse, both for power and RF applications. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is preferred for dielectric deposition as it provides uniform, conformal, and high quality films with precise monolayer control of film thickness. Identification of the optimum ALD dielectric for the gate stack or passivation requires a critical investigation of traps created at the dielectric/AlGaN interface. In this work, a pulsed-IV traps characterization method has been used for accurate characterization of interface traps with a variety of ALD dielectrics. High-k dielectrics (HfO{sub 2}, HfAlO, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are found to host a high density of interface traps with AlGaN. In contrast, ALD SiO{sub 2} shows the lowest interface trap density (<2 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}) after annealing above 600 °C in N{sub 2} for 60 s. The trend in observed trap densities is subsequently explained with bonding constraint theory, which predicts a high density of interface traps due to a higher coordination state and bond strain in high-k dielectrics.

  5. Intermolecular network analysis of the liquid and vapor interfaces of pentane and water: microsolvation does not trend with interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Ghadar, Yasaman; Clark, Aurora E

    2014-06-28

    Liquid:vapor and liquid:liquid interfaces exhibit complex organizational structure and dynamics at the molecular level. In the case of water and organic solvents, the hydrophobicity of the organic, its conformational flexibility, and compressibility, all influence interfacial properties. This work compares the interfacial tension, width, molecular conformations and orientations at the vapor and aqueous liquid interfaces of two solvents, n-pentane and neopentane, whose varying molecular shapes can lead to significantly different interfacial behavior. Particular emphasis has been dedicated toward understanding how the hydrogen bond network of water responds to the pentane relative to the vapor interface and the sensitivity of the network to the individual pentane isomer and system temperature. Interfacial microsolvation of the immiscible solvents has been examined using graph theoretical methods that quantify the structure and dynamics of microsolvated species (both H2O in C5H12 and C5H12 in H2O). At room temperature, interfacial water at the pentane phase boundary is found to have markedly different organization and dynamics than at the vapor interface (as indicated by the hydrogen bond distributions and hydrogen bond persistence in solution). While the mesoscale interfacial properties (e.g. interfacial tension) are sensitive to the specific pentane isomer, the distribution and persistence of microsolvated species at the interface is nearly identical for both systems, irrespective of temperature (between 273 K and 298 K). This has important implications for understanding how properties defined by the interfacial organization are related to the underlying solvation reactions that drive formation of the phase boundary.

  6. Conductive probe AFM study of Pt-thiol and Au-thiol contacts in metal-molecule-metal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Min; Bechhoefer, John

    2013-01-01

    The charge transport mechanism between 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT, C8H16S2H2) and platinum and gold electrodes is studied by breaking bonds between single ODT molecules and atomic metal junctions using conductive probe atomic force microscopy. Histograms of conductance values show peaks that are obscured by background processes that differ from the metal-molecule-metal conduction path of interest. We introduce a new method to reduce greatly such backgrounds by dividing by a 1-octanethiol (OMT, C8H17SH) reference histogram, without data selection. The method reveals three series of conductance values for both platinum and gold contacts, which we associate with geometrically different configurations between thiol and metal atoms. The ordering of conductance values, Pt-ODT-Pt > Pt-ODT-Au> Au-ODT-Au, is consistent with a relative dependence on both the number of electron channels and the density of states.

  7. Modeling light-induced charge transfer dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal junction: bridging classical electrodynamics and quantum dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zixuan; Ratner, Mark A; Seideman, Tamar

    2014-12-14

    We develop a numerical approach for simulating light-induced charge transport dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal conductance junction. The finite-difference time-domain method is used to simulate the plasmonic response of the metal structures. The Huygens subgridding technique, as adapted to Lorentz media, is used to bridge the vastly disparate length scales of the plasmonic metal electrodes and the molecular system, maintaining accuracy. The charge and current densities calculated with classical electrodynamics are transformed to an electronic wavefunction, which is then propagated through the molecular linker via the Heisenberg equations of motion. We focus mainly on development of the theory and exemplify our approach by a numerical illustration of a simple system consisting of two silver cylinders bridged by a three-site molecular linker. The electronic subsystem exhibits fascinating light driven dynamics, wherein the charge density oscillates at the driving optical frequency, exhibiting also the natural system timescales, and a resonance phenomenon leads to strong conductance enhancement.

  8. Modeling light-induced charge transfer dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal junction: Bridging classical electrodynamics and quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zixuan; Ratner, Mark A.; Seideman, Tamar

    2014-12-14

    We develop a numerical approach for simulating light-induced charge transport dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal conductance junction. The finite-difference time-domain method is used to simulate the plasmonic response of the metal structures. The Huygens subgridding technique, as adapted to Lorentz media, is used to bridge the vastly disparate length scales of the plasmonic metal electrodes and the molecular system, maintaining accuracy. The charge and current densities calculated with classical electrodynamics are transformed to an electronic wavefunction, which is then propagated through the molecular linker via the Heisenberg equations of motion. We focus mainly on development of the theory and exemplify our approach by a numerical illustration of a simple system consisting of two silver cylinders bridged by a three-site molecular linker. The electronic subsystem exhibits fascinating light driven dynamics, wherein the charge density oscillates at the driving optical frequency, exhibiting also the natural system timescales, and a resonance phenomenon leads to strong conductance enhancement.

  9. Expanding the (kaleido)scope: exploring current literature trends for translating electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces for motor rehabilitation in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney-Lang, E.; Auyeung, B.; Escudero, J.

    2016-12-01

    Rehabilitation applications using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have recently shown encouraging results for motor recovery. Effective BCI neurorehabilitation has been shown to exploit neuroplastic properties of the brain through mental imagery tasks. However, these applications and results are currently restricted to adults. A systematic search reveals there is essentially no literature describing motor rehabilitative BCI applications that use electroencephalograms (EEG) in children, despite advances in such applications with adults. Further inspection highlights limited literature pursuing research in the field, especially outside of neurofeedback paradigms. Then the question naturally arises, do current literature trends indicate that EEG based BCI motor rehabilitation applications could be translated to children? To provide further evidence beyond the available literature for this particular topic, we present an exploratory survey examining some of the indirect literature related to motor rehabilitation BCI in children. Our goal is to establish if evidence in the related literature supports research on this topic and if the related studies can help explain the dearth of current research in this area. The investigation found positive literature trends in the indirect studies which support translating these BCI applications to children and provide insight into potential pitfalls perhaps responsible for the limited literature. Careful consideration of these pitfalls in conjunction with support from the literature emphasize that fully realized motor rehabilitation BCI applications for children are feasible and would be beneficial. • BCI intervention has improved motor recovery in adult patients and offer supplementary rehabilitation options to patients. • A systematic literature search revealed that essentially no research has been conducted bringing motor rehabilitation BCI applications to children, despite advances in BCI. • Indirect studies discovered

  10. Controlled manipulation of the Co-Alq3 interface by rational design of Alq3 derivatives.

    PubMed

    Großmann, Nicolas; Magri, Andrea; Laux, Martin; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Thielen, Philip; Schäfer, Bernhard; Fuhr, Olaf; Ruben, Mario; Cinchetti, Mirko; Aeschlimann, Martin

    2016-11-15

    Recently, research has revealed that molecules can be used to steer the local spin properties of ferromagnetic surfaces. One possibility to manipulate ferromagnetic-metal-molecule interfaces in a controlled way is to synthesize specific, non-magnetic molecules to obtain a desired interaction with the ferromagnetic substrate. Here, we have synthesized derivatives of the well-known semiconductor Alq3 (with q = 8-hydroxyquinolinate), in which the 8-hydroxyquinolinate ligands are partially or completely replaced by similar ligands bearing O- or N-donor sets. The goal of this study was to investigate how the presence of (i) different donor atom sets and (ii) aromaticity in different conjugated π-systems influences the spin properties of the metal-molecule interface formed with a Co(100) surface. The spin-dependent metal-molecule-interface properties have been measured by spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, backed up by DFT calculations. Overall, our results show that, in the case of the Co-molecule interface, chemical synthesis of organic ligands leads to specific electronic properties of the interface, such as exciton formation or highly spin-polarized interface states. We find that these properties are even additive, i.e. they can be engineered into one single molecular system that incorporates all the relevant ligands.

  11. Wind speed variability over the Canary Islands, 1948-2014: focusing on trend differences at the land-ocean interface and below-above the trade-wind inversion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Menendez, Melisa; McVicar, Tim R.; Acevedo, Adrian; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Cuevas, Emilio; Minola, Lorenzo; Chen, Deliang

    2017-08-01

    This study simultaneously examines wind speed trends at the land-ocean interface, and below-above the trade-wind inversion layer in the Canary Islands and the surrounding Eastern North Atlantic Ocean: a key region for quantifying the variability of trade-winds and its response to large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. Two homogenized data sources are used: (1) observed wind speed from nine land-based stations (1981-2014), including one mountain weather station (Izaña) located above the trade-wind inversion layer; and (2) simulated wind speed from two atmospheric hindcasts over ocean (i.e., SeaWind I at 30 km for 1948-2014; and SeaWind II at 15 km for 1989-2014). The results revealed a widespread significant negative trend of trade-winds over ocean for 1948-2014, whereas no significant trends were detected for 1989-2014. For this recent period wind speed over land and ocean displayed the same multi-decadal variability and a distinct seasonal trend pattern with a strengthening (late spring and summer; significant in May and August) and weakening (winter-spring-autumn; significant in April and September) of trade-winds. Above the inversion layer at Izaña, we found a predominance of significant positive trends, indicating a decoupled variability and opposite wind speed trends when compared to those reported in boundary layer. The analysis of the Trade Wind Index (TWI), the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) and the Eastern Atlantic Index (EAI) demonstrated significant correlations with the wind speed variability, revealing that the correlation patterns of the three indices showed a spatio-temporal complementarity in shaping wind speed trends across the Eastern North Atlantic.

  12. Controlling the formation process and atomic structures of single pyrazine molecular junction by tuning the strength of the metal-molecule interaction.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Satoshi; Takahashi, Ryoji; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-04-12

    The formation process and atomic structures were investigated for single pyrazine molecular junctions sandwiched by three different Au, Ag, and Cu electrodes using a mechanically controllable break junction technique in ultrahigh vacuum conditions at 300 K. We demonstrated that the formation process of the single-molecule junction crucially depended on the choice of the metal electrodes. While single-molecule junction showing two distinct conductance states were found for the Au electrodes, only the single conductance state was evident for the Ag electrodes, and there was no junction formation for the Cu electrodes. These results suggested that metal-molecule interaction dominates the formation process and probability of the single-molecule junction. In addition to the metal-molecule interaction, temperature affected the formation process of the single-molecule junction. The single pyrazine molecular junction formed between Au electrodes exhibited significant temperature dependence where the junction-formation probability was about 8% at 300 K, while there was no junction-formation at 100 K. Instead of the junction formation, an Au atomic wire was formed at the low temperature. This study provides insight into the tuning of the junction-forming process for single-molecule junctions, which is needed to construct device structures on a single molecule scale.

  13. Nonmonotonic Evolution and Thermodynamic Trends at Metal/(Hg,Cd)Te Interfaces: Yb/Hg0.78Cd0.22Te.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-23

    AND M. UNCLRSSIFIED D J PETERMAN ET AL, 23 OCT 87 TR-14 F/ O 20/12 NL MEOMOEE, 16 II1.25~ - II4 -. ii?1 FILE coF~ NONMONOTONIC EVOLUTION AND...of metal/(Hg,Cd)Te interface formation. For ex- ample, in studies of Ag,1 Cr , 2 𔃽 and Sm, we observed that the rate of surface-Cd depletion with...photoemission from thick, freshly-evaporated Cr films. Interface evolution with metal coverage was studied by analyzing EDCs of the valence band, and

  14. Energy level alignment and quantum conductance of functionalized metal-molecule junctions: Density functional theory versus GW calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Chengjun; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Strange, Mikkel; Solomon, Gemma C.

    2013-11-14

    We study the effect of functional groups (CH{sub 3}*4, OCH{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}, Cl, CN, F*4) on the electronic transport properties of 1,4-benzenediamine molecular junctions using the non-equilibrium Green function method. Exchange and correlation effects are included at various levels of theory, namely density functional theory (DFT), energy level-corrected DFT (DFT+Σ), Hartree-Fock and the many-body GW approximation. All methods reproduce the expected trends for the energy of the frontier orbitals according to the electron donating or withdrawing character of the substituent group. However, only the GW method predicts the correct ordering of the conductance amongst the molecules. The absolute GW (DFT) conductance is within a factor of two (three) of the experimental values. Correcting the DFT orbital energies by a simple physically motivated scissors operator, Σ, can bring the DFT conductances close to experiments, but does not improve on the relative ordering. We ascribe this to a too strong pinning of the molecular energy levels to the metal Fermi level by DFT which suppresses the variation in orbital energy with functional group.

  15. Flicker Noise as a Probe of Electronic Interaction at Metal-Single Molecule Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Adak, Olgun; Rosenthal, Ethan; Meisner, Jeffery; Andrade, Erick F; Pasupathy, Abhay N; Nuckolls, Colin; Hybertsen, Mark S; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-06-10

    Charge transport properties of metal-molecule interfaces depend strongly on the character of molecule-electrode interactions. Although through-bond coupled systems have attracted the most attention, through-space coupling is important in molecular systems when, for example, through-bond coupling is suppressed due to quantum interference effects. To date, a probe that clearly distinguishes these two types of coupling has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we investigate the origin of flicker noise in single molecule junctions and demonstrate how the character of the molecule-electrode coupling influences the flicker noise behavior of single molecule junctions. Importantly, we find that flicker noise shows a power law dependence on conductance in all junctions studied with an exponent that can distinguish through-space and through-bond coupling. Our results provide a new and powerful tool for probing and understanding coupling at the metal-molecule interface.

  16. Gold-titania interface toughening and thermal conductance enhancement using an organophosphonate nanolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Philippe K.; O'Brien, Peter; Ramanath, Ganpati; Cardona Quintero, Y.; Ramprasad, R.; Hubert Mutin, P.; Lane, Michael

    2013-05-20

    We demonstrate that a mercaptan-terminated organophosphonate nanolayer at gold-titania interfaces can give rise to two- to three-fold enhancement in the interfacial fracture toughness and thermal conductance. Electron spectroscopy reveals that interfacial delamination occurs at the metal-molecule interface near the gold-sulfur bonds, consistent with density functional theory calculations of bond energies. Qualitative correlation between interfacial fracture toughness and bond energies suggest that organophosphonate nanolayers are resilient to humidity-induced degradation. These results, and the versatility of organophosphonates as surface functionalization agents for technologically relevant materials, unlock uncharted avenues for molecular engineering of interfaces in materials and devices for a variety of applications.

  17. Design of Interfaces for Information Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionini, Gary; Komlodi, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Examines the current state of user interface design for information seeking. Topics include technology push and interdisciplinarity; research and development; literature trends; user-centered interface design; information seeking in electronic environments; online information retrieval system interfaces; online public access catalog interfaces;…

  18. Chemically Designed Molecular Interfaces in Cross-Linked Poly(ethylene glycol)/Silica Nanocomposites Reveal Strong Size-Dependent Trends in Gas Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Norman; Urban, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Polymer nanocomposite membranes can exhibit gas separation performance that surpasses conventional polymeric membranes. While promising, the optimization of nanocomposite membranes requires a fundamental understanding of the transport mechanism and interfacial effects between the inorganic and polymer phase that is currently limited to empirical relationships. Synthesized nanocomposites often consist of poorly distributed and polydisperse inorganic nanomaterials. It is known that polymer dynamics can change drastically upon introduction of an inorganic phase, which can dramatically alter molecular transport behavior. Here, we systematically explore the role of nanoparticle sizes from 12 to 130 nm on polymer dynamics and permeability in a series of cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol)/silica nanocomposite membranes. The nanocomposites are well-dispersed and display excellent homogeneity throughout. Size-dependent broadening of the Tg indicates strong attractive interactions especially at high surface area loadings, which lead to deviations in permeability not captured by Maxwell's model. Chemical modifications of silica at this interface can yield significantly different polymer dynamics than previously observed with enhanced transport and mechanical properties.

  19. Productivity issues at organizational interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The need for close interdependence between large numbers of diverse and specialized work groups makes the Space Program extremely vulnerable to loss of productivity at organizational interfaces. Trends within the program also suggest that the number and diversity of interfaces will grow in the near term. Continued maintenance of R&D excellence will require that interface performance issues be included in any future productivity improvement effort. The types and characteristics of organizational interfaces are briefly presented, followed by a review of factors which impact their productivity. Approaches to assessing and improving interface effectiveness are also discussed.

  20. Metals, Molecules, Life and Death

    SciTech Connect

    George, Graham

    2004-08-31

    In our normal everyday lives we are exposed to an incredibly complex chemical soup consisting of an enormous variety of different chemical compounds. Many of these compounds contain metal atoms which, once inside us, can either fulfill roles that are essential to health, or act as poisons. Studies at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) reveal the molecular details of metals in living systems; how they interact with one another, how they confer beneficial properties, and how they act as poisons.

  1. The Evolution of Neuroprosthetic Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, Dayo O.; Serruya, Mijail D.; Harris, James P.; Burrell, Justin C.; Petrov, Dmitriy; Chen, H. Isaac; Wolf, John A.; Cullen, D. Kacy

    2017-01-01

    The ideal neuroprosthetic interface permits high-quality neural recording and stimulation of the nervous system while reliably providing clinical benefits over chronic periods. Although current technologies have made notable strides in this direction, significant improvements must be made to better achieve these design goals and satisfy clinical needs. This article provides an overview of the state of neuroprosthetic interfaces, starting with the design and placement of these interfaces before exploring the stimulation and recording platforms yielded from contemporary research. Finally, we outline emerging research trends in an effort to explore the potential next generation of neuroprosthetic interfaces. PMID:27652455

  2. Instructional Time Trends. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Julie Rowland

    2015-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Education Commission of the States has tracked instructional time and frequently receives requests for information about policies and trends. In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation…

  3. Program Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Articles by Moss, Van Huss, Raynor, Lynch, and Sullivan discuss the trends in all areas of vocational education. Includes information on how new technologies, life-styles, and job demands have changed or should change vocational education. (JOW)

  4. Beating the Stoner criterion using molecular interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma'Mari, Fatma Al; Moorsom, Timothy; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Deacon, William; Prokscha, Thomas; Luetkens, Hubertus; Lee, Steve; Sterbinsky, George E.; Arena, Dario A.; MacLaren, Donald A.; Flokstra, Machiel; Ali, Mannan; Wheeler, May C.; Burnell, Gavin; Hickey, Bryan J.; Cespedes, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    Only three elements are ferromagnetic at room temperature: the transition metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The Stoner criterion explains why iron is ferromagnetic but manganese, for example, is not, even though both elements have an unfilled 3d shell and are adjacent in the periodic table: according to this criterion, the product of the density of states and the exchange integral must be greater than unity for spontaneous spin ordering to emerge. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to alter the electronic states of non-ferromagnetic materials, such as diamagnetic copper and paramagnetic manganese, to overcome the Stoner criterion and make them ferromagnetic at room temperature. This effect is achieved via interfaces between metallic thin films and C60 molecular layers. The emergent ferromagnetic state exists over several layers of the metal before being quenched at large sample thicknesses by the material's bulk properties. Although the induced magnetization is easily measurable by magnetometry, low-energy muon spin spectroscopy provides insight into its distribution by studying the depolarization process of low-energy muons implanted in the sample. This technique indicates localized spin-ordered states at, and close to, the metal-molecule interface. Density functional theory simulations suggest a mechanism based on magnetic hardening of the metal atoms, owing to electron transfer. This mechanism might allow for the exploitation of molecular coupling to design magnetic metamaterials using abundant, non-toxic components such as organic semiconductors. Charge transfer at molecular interfaces may thus be used to control spin polarization or magnetization, with consequences for the design of devices for electronic, power or computing applications (see, for example, refs 6 and 7).

  5. Beating the Stoner criterion using molecular interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ma'Mari, Fatma Al; Moorsom, Timothy; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Deacon, William; Prokscha, Thomas; Luetkens, Hubertus; Lee, Steve; Sterbinsky, George E; Arena, Dario A; MacLaren, Donald A; Flokstra, Machiel; Ali, Mannan; Wheeler, May C; Burnell, Gavin; Hickey, Bryan J; Cespedes, Oscar

    2015-08-06

    Only three elements are ferromagnetic at room temperature: the transition metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The Stoner criterion explains why iron is ferromagnetic but manganese, for example, is not, even though both elements have an unfilled 3d shell and are adjacent in the periodic table: according to this criterion, the product of the density of states and the exchange integral must be greater than unity for spontaneous spin ordering to emerge. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to alter the electronic states of non-ferromagnetic materials, such as diamagnetic copper and paramagnetic manganese, to overcome the Stoner criterion and make them ferromagnetic at room temperature. This effect is achieved via interfaces between metallic thin films and C60 molecular layers. The emergent ferromagnetic state exists over several layers of the metal before being quenched at large sample thicknesses by the material's bulk properties. Although the induced magnetization is easily measurable by magnetometry, low-energy muon spin spectroscopy provides insight into its distribution by studying the depolarization process of low-energy muons implanted in the sample. This technique indicates localized spin-ordered states at, and close to, the metal-molecule interface. Density functional theory simulations suggest a mechanism based on magnetic hardening of the metal atoms, owing to electron transfer. This mechanism might allow for the exploitation of molecular coupling to design magnetic metamaterials using abundant, non-toxic components such as organic semiconductors. Charge transfer at molecular interfaces may thus be used to control spin polarization or magnetization, with consequences for the design of devices for electronic, power or computing applications (see, for example, refs 6 and 7).

  6. Soft Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles de Gennes, Pierre; Edwards, Introduction By Sam

    1997-04-01

    Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. Dirac's college, St. John's of Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This volume contains a much expanded version of the 1994 Dirac Lecture by Nobel Laureate Pierre Gilles de Gennes. The book presents an impressionistic tour of the physics of soft interfaces. Full of insight and interesting asides, it not only provides an accessible introduction to this topic, but also lays down many markers and signposts that will be of interest to researchers in physics or chemistry. Features discussions of wetting and dewetting, the dynamics of different types of interface and adhesion and polymer/polymer welding.

  7. Food Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  8. Skiing trends

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...

  9. Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of data which highlight trends in all sectors relevant to environmental policy. These data are presented in the form of charts and maps contained in 13 sections under the following headings: people and the land; critical areas (wetlands, wild areas, parks, historic places, and risk zones); human settlements; transportation;…

  10. Interface resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, Juha

    1983-11-01

    Interface resistance is studied by using the Landauer formula which relates the resistance to the quantum mechanical transmission coefficient. A simple rederivation of the Landauer formula is given. Using a step-like potential barrier as a model for the metal-semiconductor contact an analytical expression for the effective Richardson constant is derived. As an other application the grain boundary resistance in polycrystalline semiconductors is studied. The short-range potential fluctuation associated with the grain boundary is described by a rectangular potential barrier. The results for the grain boundary limited mobility cover both the strong and weak scattering regimes.

  11. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  12. What Tomorrow May Bring: Trends in Technology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molebash, Philip E.

    This paper analyzes trends in technology and how they relate to education and then extrapolates these trends in order to predict the future of technology and education. The paper examines how the trends of Moore's Law, the graphical user interface, telecommunications/networks and Metcalfe's Law, the Internet and the World Wide Web, technology…

  13. Interface standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R.; Wong, V.

    1983-01-01

    Central-station applications create a large and attractive market for photovoltaics in the near future. However, some significant barriers lie between the industry of today and realization of that market. Manufacturing capacity and price are two principal impediments. The Utilities, which are the future system owners, are gaining experience with central-station PV power through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Hesperia and similar small central-station installations. SMUD has recognized that competition must be maintained to help reduce prices. So little standardization exists that the cost is driven upward to redefine mechanical and electrical interfaces for each vendor. New structues are required for each vendor and nonoptimum field geometries result from attempts to include more than one vendor in an array field. Standards at some hardware level are required.

  14. Interface standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R.; Wong, V.

    1983-01-01

    Central-station applications create a large and attractive market for photovoltaics in the near future. However, some significant barriers lie between the industry of today and realization of that market. Manufacturing capacity and price are two principal impediments. The Utilities, which are the future system owners, are gaining experience with central-station PV power through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Hesperia and similar small central-station installations. SMUD has recognized that competition must be maintained to help reduce prices. So little standardization exists that the cost is driven upward to redefine mechanical and electrical interfaces for each vendor. New structues are required for each vendor and nonoptimum field geometries result from attempts to include more than one vendor in an array field. Standards at some hardware level are required.

  15. Relating Interface Evolution to Interface Mechanics Based on Interface Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Devendra; Biswas, Sudipta; Prakash, Chandra; Tomar, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    The current article focuses on recent work done in understanding the role of processing techniques on interface evolution and connecting interface evolution to interface thickness-dependent properties. Special emphasis is placed on interface evolution during the sintering process of tungsten ( W). Sintering with additives such as nickel significantly changes grain boundary properties in W, leading to issues such as grain boundary embrittlement. When one has to mechanically describe properties of polycrystalline W with an account of the influence of grain boundary embrittlement, one must explicitly consider grain boundary properties. This issue is the focus of the present work on the mechanical properties of interfaces. Overall, a phase field modeling-based approach is shown to be an excellent computational tool for predicting the interface evolution. The influences of the interface thickness, chemistry, and orientation of phases around interfaces are analyzed using extended finite element simulations for polycrystalline W.

  16. TMS communications software. Volume 1: Computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype bus communications system, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) as well as for evaluation of the bus concept is considered. Hardware and software interfaces to the MODCOMP and NOVA minicomputers are included. The system software required to drive the interfaces in each TMS computer is described. Documentation of other software for bus statistics monitoring and for transferring files across the bus is also included.

  17. TMS communications hardware. Volume 1: Computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Weinrich, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    A prototpye coaxial cable bus communications system was designed to be used in the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) to connect intelligent graphics terminals (based around a Data General NOVA/3 computer) to a MODCOMP IV host minicomputer. The direct memory access (DMA) interfaces which were utilized for each of these computers are identified. It is shown that for the MODCOMP, an off-the-shell board was suitable, while for the NOVAs, custon interface circuitry was designed and implemented.

  18. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  19. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  20. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data.

  1. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  2. Media independent interface. Interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Media Independent Interface (MII) is specified, using current standards in the industry. The MII is described in hierarchical fashion. At the base are IEEE/International Standards Organization (ISO) documents (standards) which describe the functionality of the software modules or layers and their interconnection. These documents describe primitives which are to transcent the MII. The intent of the MII is to provide a universal interface to one or more Media Access Contols (MACs) for the Logical Link Controller and Station Manager. This interface includes both a standardized electrical and mechanical interface and a standardized functional specification which defines the services expected from the MAC.

  3. Media independent interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The work done on the Media Independent Interface (MII) Interface Control Document (ICD) program is described and recommendations based on it were made. Explanations and rationale for the content of the ICD itself are presented.

  4. Graphical Interfaces for Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollan, J. D.; And Others

    This document presents a discussion of the development of a set of software tools to assist in the construction of interfaces to simulations and real-time systems. Presuppositions to the approach to interface design that was used are surveyed, the tools are described, and the conclusions drawn from these experiences in graphical interface design…

  5. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  6. Quantization of interface currents

    SciTech Connect

    Kotani, Motoko; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann; Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  7. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  8. Microconical interface fitting and interface grasping tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L. (Inventor); Wightman, William D. (Inventor); Johnston, Alistair P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A small and light weight microconical interface fitting may be attached to the surface of a space vehicle or equipment to provide an attachment device for an astronaut or robot to capture the space vehicle or equipment. The microconical interface fitting of the present invention has an axisymmetrical conical body having a base portion with a torque reaction surface for preventing rotation of the interface grasping tool; a cavitated, sunken or hollowed out intermediate locking portion which has a cavity shaped for receiving the latches of the grasping tool and an upper guiding portion for guiding the grasping tool into axial alignment with the microconical interface fitting. The capture is accomplished with an interface grasping tool. The grasping tool comprises an outer sleeve with a handle attached, an inner sleeve which may be raised and lowered within the outer sleeve with a plurality of latches supported at the lower end and a cam to raise and lower the inner sleeve. When the inner sleeve is at its lowest position, the latches form the largest diameter opening for surrounding the microconical fitting and the latches form the smallest diameter or a locking, grasping position when raised to the highest position within the outer sleeve. The inner sleeve may be at an intermediate, capture position which permits the latches to be biased outwardly when contacting the microconical fitting under very low forces to grasp the fitting and permits capture (soft docking) without exact alignment of the fitting and the tool.

  9. Trends In Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  10. Marketing Trends to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  11. Marketing Trends to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  12. Heroin: Statistics and Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids ... Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids ...

  13. Trends in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)

  14. Trends in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)

  15. User interface support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Clayton; Wilde, Nick

    1989-01-01

    Space construction will require heavy investment in the development of a wide variety of user interfaces for the computer-based tools that will be involved at every stage of construction operations. Using today's technology, user interface development is very expensive for two reasons: (1) specialized and scarce programming skills are required to implement the necessary graphical representations and complex control regimes for high-quality interfaces; (2) iteration on prototypes is required to meet user and task requirements, since these are difficult to anticipate with current (and foreseeable) design knowledge. We are attacking this problem by building a user interface development tool based on extensions to the spreadsheet model of computation. The tool provides high-level support for graphical user interfaces and permits dynamic modification of interfaces, without requiring conventional programming concepts and skills.

  16. Viscoelasticity of stepped interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirlo, S. A.; Demkowicz, M. J.

    2013-10-01

    Using molecular dynamics modeling, we show that interfaces in sputter deposited Cu-Nb superlattices exhibit time-dependent elasticity, i.e., viscoelasticity, under shear loading. In the high temperature and small strain rate limit, the interfacial shear modulus approaches a value proportional to the density of steps in the interface. It may therefore be possible to tailor the low-frequency shear moduli of interfaces by controlling their step densities.

  17. Multimodal neuroelectric interface development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Rosipal, Roman; Clanton, Sam T.; Matthews, Bryan; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Matthews, Robert; Krupka, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing electromyographic and electroencephalographic methods, which draw control signals for human-computer interfaces from the human nervous system. We have made progress in four areas: 1) real-time pattern recognition algorithms for decoding sequences of forearm muscle activity associated with control gestures; 2) signal-processing strategies for computer interfaces using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals; 3) a flexible computation framework for neuroelectric interface research; and d) noncontact sensors, which measure electromyogram or EEG signals without resistive contact to the body.

  18. Persistent interface fluid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard S; Fine, I Howard; Packer, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent interface fluid that would not resolve despite normal intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial replacement with Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Dissection, elevation, and repositioning of the laser in situ keratomileusis flap were required to resolve the interface fluid. Circumferential corneal graft-host margin scar formation acting as a mechanical strut may have been the cause of the intractable interface fluid.

  19. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  20. Multimodal neuroelectric interface development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Rosipal, Roman; Clanton, Sam T.; Matthews, Bryan; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Matthews, Robert; Krupka, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing electromyographic and electroencephalographic methods, which draw control signals for human-computer interfaces from the human nervous system. We have made progress in four areas: 1) real-time pattern recognition algorithms for decoding sequences of forearm muscle activity associated with control gestures; 2) signal-processing strategies for computer interfaces using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals; 3) a flexible computation framework for neuroelectric interface research; and d) noncontact sensors, which measure electromyogram or EEG signals without resistive contact to the body.

  1. Fracture interface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Boliang; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    1996-01-01

    Interface waves on a single fracture in an elastic solid are investigated theoretically and numerically using plane wave analysis and a boundary element method. The finite mechanical stiffness of a fracture is modeled as a displacement discontinuity. Analysis for inhomogeneous plane wave propagation along a fracture yields two dispersive equations for symmetric and antisymmetric interface waves. The basic form of these equations are similar to the classic Rayleigh equation for a surface wave on a half-space, except that the displacements and velocities of the symmetric and antisymmetric fracture interface waves are each controlled by a normalized fracture stiffness. For low values of the normalized fracture stiffness, the symmetric and antisymmetric interface waves degenerate to the classic Rayleigh wave on a traction-free surface. For large values of the normalized fracture stiffness, the antisymmetric and symmetric interface waves become a body S wave and a body P wave, respectively, which propagate parallel to the fracture. For intermediate values of the normalized fracture stiffness, both interface waves are dispersive. Numerical modeling performed using a boundary element method demonstrates that a line source generates a P-type interface wave, in addition to the two Rayleigh-type interface waves. The magnitude of the normalized fracture stiffness is observed to control the velocities of the interface waves and the partitioning of seismic energy among the various waves near the fracture.

  2. Trends in transport aircraft avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of avionics onboard present commercial transport aircraft was conducted to identify trends in avionics systems characteristics and to determine the impact of technology advances on equipment weight, cost, reliability, and maintainability. Transport aircraft avionics systems are described under the headings of communication, navigation, flight control, and instrumentation. The equipment included in each section is described functionally. However, since more detailed descriptions of the equipment can be found in other sources, the description is limited and emphasis is put on configuration requirements. Since airborne avionics systems must interface with ground facilities, certain ground facilities are described as they relate to the airborne systems, with special emphasis on air traffic control and all-weather landing capability.

  3. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H. Carter

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  4. Metaphors for Interface Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Edwin

    This discussion of the utilization by computer designers and users of metaphors as organizing structures for dealing with the complexity of behavior of human/computer interfaces begins by identifying three types of metaphor that describe various aspects of human-computer interface design, i.e., activity, mode of interaction, and task domain. The…

  5. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H. Carter

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  6. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  7. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  8. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  9. NASA trend analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  10. Operator interface for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  11. Scalable coherent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H. ); Gustavson, D.B. ); James, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Strength of Polymer Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-25

    FRACTURE, FATIGUE, LAMINATION, DIFFUSION r c.~wC~&La 1 ~ 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numbe.) "- Studies df...nature of diffuse interfaces. Several experimental methods are used to probe the weld structure and compare with theoretical scaling laws. Results are...the polymer chains, the chemical compatibility, and the fractal nature of diffuse interfaces. Several experimental methods are used to probe the weld

  13. Polarizable Ions at Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Yan

    2009-04-01

    A nonperturbative theory is presented which allows us to calculate the solvation free energy of polarizable ions near water-vapor and water-oil interfaces. The theory predicts that larger halogen anions are adsorbed at the interface, while the alkali metal cations are repelled from it. The density profiles calculated theoretically are similar to those obtained using molecular dynamics simulations with polarizable force fields.

  14. Data Reorganization Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Data Reorganization Interface Kenneth Cain Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Phone: (978)-967-1645 Email Address: kcain@mc.com Abstract...6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Computer Systems...18 © 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Data Reorganization Interface (DRI) Kenneth Cain Jr. Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. High Performance

  15. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  16. Serial interface controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  17. MER SPICE Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayfi, Elias

    2004-01-01

    MER SPICE Interface is a software module for use in conjunction with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and the SPICE software system of the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (SPICE is used to acquire, record, and disseminate engineering, navigational, and other ancillary data describing circumstances under which data were acquired by spaceborne scientific instruments.) Given a Spacecraft Clock value, MER SPICE Interface extracts MER-specific data from SPICE kernels (essentially, raw data files) and calculates values for Planet Day Number, Local Solar Longitude, Local Solar Elevation, Local Solar Azimuth, and Local Solar Time (UTC). MER SPICE Interface was adapted from a subroutine, denoted m98SpiceIF written by Payam Zamani, that was intended to calculate SPICE values for the Mars Polar Lander. The main difference between MER SPICE Interface and m98SpiceIf is that MER SPICE Interface does not explicitly call CHRONOS, a time-conversion program that is part of a library of utility subprograms within SPICE. Instead, MER SPICE Interface mimics some portions of the CHRONOS code, the advantage being that it executes much faster and can efficiently be called from a pipeline of events in a parallel processing environment.

  18. Engineering Orthopedic Tissue Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    While a wide variety of approaches to engineering orthopedic tissues have been proposed, less attention has been paid to the interfaces, the specialized areas that connect two tissues of different biochemical and mechanical properties. The interface tissue plays an important role in transitioning mechanical load between disparate tissues. Thus, the relatively new field of interfacial tissue engineering presents new challenges—to not only consider the regeneration of individual orthopedic tissues, but also to design the biochemical and cellular composition of the linking tissue. Approaches to interfacial tissue engineering may be distinguished based on if the goal is to recreate the interface itself, or generate an entire integrated tissue unit (such as an osteochondral plug). As background for future efforts in engineering orthopedic interfaces, a brief review of the biology and mechanics of each interface (cartilage–bone, ligament–bone, meniscus–bone, and muscle–tendon) is presented, followed by an overview of the state-of-the-art in engineering each tissue, including advances and challenges specific to regenerating the interfaces. PMID:19231983

  19. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  20. [Recent demographic trends].

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1983 is presented. The most significant trend was a decline in the number of marriages to the lowest level since World War II. Topics covered include fertility, nuptiality and divorce, mortality, natural increase, migration, and adoptions. Selected vital statistics for the first six months of 1984 are also presented.

  1. Some Current Population Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Conrad

    Population trends in the 1960's and early 1970's are examined in this 1972 speech in terms of overall national trends, the growth of metropolitan areas, the rural population, geographic shifts, internal migration, the black population, and living arrangements. It is noted that population growth in the 1960's was unevenly distributed within age…

  2. Trends in methodological differences

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Stynes; Malcolm I. Bevins; Tommy L. Brown

    1980-01-01

    Inconsistency in data collection has confounded attempts to identify and forecast outdoor recreation trends. Problems are highlighted through an evaluation of the methods employed in national outdoor recreation participation surveys and projections. Recommendations are advanced for improving data collection, trend measurement, and forecasting within outdoor recreation...

  3. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  6. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  7. Trends in Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald P.

    Based on the findings of a content analysis of representative literature on educational technology, this report examines the trends in educational technology from October 1, 1990 through September 30, 1991. Ten trends for 1991 are identified and discussed: (1) the creation of technology-based teaching/learning products is based largely on…

  8. TRENDS IN ADULT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, JUSTIN H.

    TRENDS EVIDENT IN ADULT READING DURING THE 1960'S IN THE AREAS OF ADMINISTRATION, PROGRAMS, TEACHING, TECHNIQUES, RESEARCH PROJECTS, AND METHODS OF PROMOTION OF READING PROGRAMS ARE DISCUSSED. TWO INSTANCES OF COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION BASED ON INTENSE AND OFTEN FALLACIOUS ADVERTISING AND ON PUBLIC IGNORANCE ARE CITED. A POSITIVE TREND IN THE AREA…

  9. Controlling suspended sediment samplers by programmable calculator and interface circuitry

    Treesearch

    Rand E. Eads; Mark R. Boolootian

    1985-01-01

    A programmable calculator connected to an interface circuit can control automatic samplers and record streamflow data. The circuit converts a voltage representing water stage to a digital signal. The sampling program logs streamflow data when there is a predefined deviation from a linear trend in the water elevation. The calculator estimates suspended sediment...

  10. Controlling suspended samplers by programmable calculator and interface circuitry

    Treesearch

    Rand E. Eads; Mark R. Boolootian

    1985-01-01

    A programmable calculator connected to an interface circuit can control automatic samplers and record streamflow data. The circuit converts a voltage representing water stage to a digital signal. The sampling program logs streamflow data when there is a predefined deviation from a linear trend in the water elevation. The calculator estimates suspended sediment...

  11. Environmental materials and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig.

  12. The interplay between interface structure, energy level alignment and chemical bonding strength at organic-metal interfaces.

    PubMed

    Willenbockel, M; Lüftner, D; Stadtmüller, B; Koller, G; Kumpf, C; Soubatch, S; Puschnig, P; Ramsey, M G; Tautz, F S

    2015-01-21

    What do energy level alignments at metal-organic interfaces reveal about the metal-molecule bonding strength? Is it permissible to take vertical adsorption heights as indicators of bonding strengths? In this paper we analyse 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) on the three canonical low index Ag surfaces to provide exemplary answers to these questions. Specifically, we employ angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy for a systematic study of the energy level alignments of the two uppermost frontier states in ordered monolayer phases of PTCDA. Data are analysed using the orbital tomography approach. This allows the unambiguous identification of the orbital character of these states, and also the discrimination between inequivalent species. Combining this experimental information with DFT calculations and the generic Newns-Anderson chemisorption model, we analyse the alignments of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) with respect to the vacuum levels of bare and molecule-covered surfaces. This reveals clear differences between the two frontier states. In particular, on all surfaces the LUMO is subject to considerable bond stabilization through the interaction between the molecular π-electron system and the metal, as a consequence of which it also becomes occupied. Moreover, we observe a larger bond stabilization for the more open surfaces. Most importantly, our analysis shows that both the orbital binding energies of the LUMO and the overall adsorption heights of the molecule are linked to the strength of the chemical interaction between the molecular π-electron system and the metal, in the sense that stronger bonding leads to shorter adsorption heights and larger orbital binding energies.

  13. Interface Analysis of ID Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Castelle G.; Trimby, Madeline J.

    This chapter considers methods of interface analysis, the stage in the instructional development process that involves the identification, interpretation, and prioritization of essential points of contact among systems and subsystem boundaries. The structure of interfaces, types of interfaces, interface characteristics, and a procedural model for…

  14. Human influences on forest ecosystems: the southern wildland-urban interface assessment: summary report

    Treesearch

    Edward A. Macie; L. Annie Hermansen

    2003-01-01

    This summary report synthesizes the findings contained in the Southern Wildland-Urban Interface Assessment (General Technical Report SRS-55). The Assessment provides a review of critical wildland-urban interface issues, challenges, and needs for the Southern United States. Topics include population and demographic trends, economic and tax issues, land use planning and...

  15. Image processing utilizing an APL interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmola, Carl; Kapp, Oscar H.

    1991-03-01

    The past few years have seen the growing use of digital techniques in the analysis of electron microscope image data. This trend is driven by the need to maximize the information extracted from the electron micrograph by submitting its digital representation to the broad spectrum of analytical techniques made available by the digital computer. We are developing an image processing system for the analysis of digital images obtained with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This system, run on an IBM PS/2 model 70/A21, uses menu-based image processing and an interactive APL interface which permits the direct manipulation of image data.

  16. High temperature interface superconductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, wemore » conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.« less

  17. High temperature interface superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, we conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  18. High temperature interface superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  19. An Abstract Data Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  20. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependent FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers is contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the ransition temperature.

  1. Trends in Programming Languages for Neuroscience Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Andrew P.; Hines, Michael L.; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing. PMID:20198154

  2. Electronic Structure of Semiconductor Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    no localized Interface states In the thermal gap If all the SI atoms at the Interface are saturated. In a second paper, 13 we showed how localized...OF INTERFACE STATES Various authors3 8 have called attention to the fact that there is often a sharp peak In the density of Si /Si0 2 interface states ...generating bulk amorphous Si clusters from random hard-sphere configuratlons. 7 , 8 Finally, the local electronic density of states near the interface Is

  3. [Population trends in Luxembourg].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Population trends in Luxembourg in 1988 are reviewed. Separate consideration is given to fertility, nuptiality and divorce, mortality, natural increase and migration, adoption, age and sex structure, and spatial distribution. Data are provided separately for the foreign resident population.

  4. [Recent demographic trends].

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Population trends in Luxembourg in 1987 are reviewed. Separate consideration is given to fertility, nuptiality and divorce, mortality, natural increase and migration, adoption, and family policy. Comparisons are made with the situation in other European countries.

  5. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Risk by Age Trends What CDC Is Doing Research African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Public Service Announcements Print ...

  6. Bomber design trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Some basic trends in bomber aircraft are traced from the pre-World War I era to the present time. The historic review includes bombers of many countries. The primary discussion, however, will be based on U.S. bomber programs and, to the extent possible, on USSR bomber programs. The bomber aircraft will be examined in terms of performance and mission capability.Characteristics will include power or thrust loading, wing loading, maximum speed, cruising speed, weight and weight distribution, and payload. These trends can be used to indicate the rationale for certain design types. Performance characteristics can be used to indicate potential mission objectives. The overall design trends should be useful in revealing the influence of mission objectives, the influence of advanced technology and, in turn, may be useful in predicting likely future trends.

  7. Trends in stratospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Newman, P. A.; Rosenfield, J. E.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Boville, B. A.; Chandra, S.; Fels, S.; Fleming, E.; Gelman, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stratospheric temperatures for long-term and recent trends and the determination of whether observed changes in upper stratospheric temperatures are consistent with observed ozone changes are discussed. The long-term temperature trends were determined up to 30mb from radiosonde analysis (since 1970) and rocketsondes (since 1969 and 1973) up to the lower mesosphere, principally in the Northern Hemisphere. The more recent trends (since 1979) incorporate satellite observations. The mechanisms that can produce recent temperature trends in the stratosphere are discussed. The following general effects are discussed: changes in ozone, changes in other radiatively active trace gases, changes in aerosols, changes in solar flux, and dynamical changes. Computations were made to estimate the temperature changes associated with the upper stratospheric ozone changes reported by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus-7 and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) instruments.

  8. Fertilizer trends 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Contents of this publication are as follows: TVA fertilizer program; the fertilizer market; trends in nutrient use; nitrogen; phosphate; potash; sulfur; Canada; North American production capacity data; and statistical sources and suggested references.

  9. Trends in mass murder.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2002-06-01

    From 1976 to 1996, the proportion of murder incidents with 5 or more victims showed no linear trend or association with selected social indicators, e.g., birth rate, unemployment rate, and homicide rate.

  10. Optical encryption interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  11. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  12. Virtual interface environment workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  13. Profile Interface Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allows semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.

  14. Virtual interface environment workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  15. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  16. Ozone Trend Detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The detection of anthropogenic disturbances in the Earth's ozone layer was studied. Two topics were addressed: (1) the level at which a trend in total ozoning is detected by existing data sources; and (2) empirical evidence in the prediction of the depletion in total ozone. Error sources are identified. The predictability of climatological series, whether empirical models can be trusted, and how errors in the Dobson total ozone data impact trend detectability, are discussed.

  17. The TRENDS High-Contrast Imaging Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepp, Justin

    2014-08-01

    We have established a multi-disciplinary program that combines precise Doppler measurements with high-contrast imaging. Using long-term RV accelerations (or 'trends'), we take a much-needed short-cut for identifying promising high-contrast imaging targets. The goal of this project is to directly detect and characterize the companions responsible for accelerating their host stars. By working at the interface of two powerful and complementary planet detection techniques, we are able to construct 3d-orbits, calculate dynamical masses, and explicitly calibrate theoretical atmospheric models for substellar objects in a regime where they currently break-down (low temperatures). Using a sample of non-detections, the TRENDS program also provides the ability to robustly determine the occurrence rate of giant planets from 0-20 AU through statistical inference.

  18. Soldier-Computer Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-27

    understandable units. (5) Immediate Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information so that they know...operation, system response time, and special commands. d. Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information on...considerations (handedness, physical strength, wearing of eyeglasses, and facility of spoken English). TABLE 3. SOLDIER-COMPUTER INTERFACE CRITERIA

  19. A Thermistor Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  20. Interfacing the Digital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Steve

    In the last 5 years, there has been at times heated debate not only about how best to present digital and specifically networked art in an institutional context but also whether to do so at all. Not all of the discussion revolves around issues of physical interfaces to such works, but their onsite presentation is a critical concern for both…

  1. Videodisc-Computer Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Dean

    1984-01-01

    Lists microcomputer-videodisc interfaces currently available from 26 sources, including home use systems connected through remote control jack and industrial/educational systems utilizing computer ports and new laser reflective and stylus technology. Information provided includes computer and videodisc type, language, authoring system, educational…

  2. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  3. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture is under development for use as a multipurpose interface environment. Initial applications of the system are in telerobotics, data-management and human factors research. System configuration and research directions are described.

  4. Interface It Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, Bruce D.; Bahe, Margaret E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several ways to build data collection devices for microcomputers. The interface devices connect with either the computer's game port or an analog-to-digital converter. Discusses how teachers have designed the equipment and appropriate software to use with the computer in biology teaching. (TW)

  5. Semiconductor Oxide Interface States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    essentially coincides. The density of state curves of the interface states based on the Terman method are shown in Fig. 7 for the three conditions: (i...terrestrial applications. A visit was made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with Dr. Brandhorst on August 31, 1979. The PI has attended DOE meetings on

  6. A Thermistor Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  7. Interfacing with a DMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Suggests purchasing a digital multimer (DMM) with an IEEE-488 option to interface an instrument to a microcomputer, indicating that a DMM is well protected from overloads and is easy to connect. An example of its use in an experiment involving hydrolysis of tertiary butyl alcohol (with program listing) is given. (JN)

  8. Interfacing with a DMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Suggests purchasing a digital multimer (DMM) with an IEEE-488 option to interface an instrument to a microcomputer, indicating that a DMM is well protected from overloads and is easy to connect. An example of its use in an experiment involving hydrolysis of tertiary butyl alcohol (with program listing) is given. (JN)

  9. the EXFOR interface

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D. A.

    2011-03-10

    The x4i package is an interface to the EXFOR nuclear data library. It simplifies retrieval of EXFOR entries and can automatically parse them, allowing one to extract cross-section (and other) data in a simple, plot-able format. x4i also understands and can parse the entire reaction string, allowing one to build a strategy for processing the data

  10. Interface It Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, Bruce D.; Bahe, Margaret E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several ways to build data collection devices for microcomputers. The interface devices connect with either the computer's game port or an analog-to-digital converter. Discusses how teachers have designed the equipment and appropriate software to use with the computer in biology teaching. (TW)

  11. Thermodynamics of linear and star polymers at fluid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Taddese, Tseden; Carbone, Paola; Cheung, David L

    2015-01-07

    Performing molecular dynamics simulations on model systems we study the structural changes and thermodynamic stability of polymers of varying topology (linear and star-shaped) at interface between two liquids. We find that homopolymers are attracted to the interface in both good and poor solvent conditions showing that they are surface active molecules even though not amphiphilic. In most cases changing polymer topology had only a minor effect on the desorption free energy. A noticeable dependence on polymer topology is only seen for relatively high molecular weight polymers at interface between two good solvents. Examining separately the enthalpic and entropic components of the desorption free energy suggests that its largest contribution is the decrease in the enthalpic part of interfacial free energy caused by the adsorption of the polymer at the interface. Finally we propose a simple method to qualitatively predict the trend of the interfacial free energy as a function of the polymer molecular weight.

  12. Foreword: Quasicrystals at Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournée, Vincent; Ledieu, Julian; Thiel, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    The term 'quasicrystals' stands for quasiperiodic crystals and by no means signifies that they are imperfect crystals. Quasicrystals represent a well-ordered state of matter just like periodic crystals, characterized by diffraction peaks as sharp as those for nearly perfect crystals such as silicon. But their long range order is aperiodic, and therefore they cannot be described by the periodic repetition of a small unit cell like normal crystals. Instead, quasiperiodic structures can be described as the three-dimensional restriction of a periodic structure embedded in a hyperspace of dimension N > 3. For example, a six-dimensional cubic lattice is used to generate the icosahedral quasilattice in three-dimensions. This is a general property of quasiperiodic functions, an archetype being the function f(x) = cos(x) + cos(√2x), which is the sum of two periodic functions with incommensurate periods. This function can be regarded as the restriction along the line with irrational slope y = √2x of the function F(x, y) = cos(x) + cos(y), which is periodic in the (x, y) plan. Quasicrystalline materials were discovered 25 years ago by D Shechtman et al in rapidly solidified Al-Mn alloys. Many quasicrystals have been identified since then in binary and ternary systems. Most of them present non-crystallographic rotational symmetry like five-fold or ten-fold axes. Interest in this new class of materials was further driven by their potentially useful physical properties, either in the form of functional coatings or as reinforcement particle in composites. These practical aspects in turn raised fundamental questions about the nature of interfaces between periodic and quasiperiodic materials. Interfaces are regions of high energy compared to the bulk, where atomic positions need to be adjusted on both sides of the interface to accommodate the two different lattices. How to describe interfaces and how nature minimizes the interface energy between a periodic and a quasiperiodic

  13. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  14. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum re-oriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  15. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  16. SCADA -- AM/FM interface: Platforms, technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.F. )

    1994-05-01

    Efficient utility operations is enhanced by close interoperation between automated mapping/facility management (AM/FM) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Important benefits of such integration are improvements in service quality and reduced maintenance costs. Development of an AM/FM -- SCADA interface to provide automatic database and display generation for SCADA through AM/FM functions is continuing by Valmet Automation. To minimize or eliminate vendor-dependence, the AM/FM-SCADA interface is compliant with the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) utility communication architecture (UCA). The utility industry is changing at an unprecedented rate. To remain a leader, or even to keep pace, utilities must be flexible and innovative. Competition forces companies to become more streamlined and efficient. These forces make the requirements for automation go beyond simple SCADA. Among several developing trends in the industry is the emergence of AM/FM. Collectively, these trends indicate the need to increase efficiency in the design, operation and maintenance of the transmission and distribution system. To accomplish its mission, SCADA and AM/FM must be a highly integrated system to provide timely information to its users. Open systems, the client-server paradigm and better information integration tools facilitate meeting these needs. UCA specification provides the technological glue, to achieve application integration between heterogeneous systems.

  17. Trends in source gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

  18. Immunochemistry at interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, H; Stenberg, M

    1989-01-01

    The immunochemistry of antibody binding to solid-phase immobilized antigen is reviewed. Experimental data are compared with different theoretical models of reaction mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces. It was found that reactions at the solid-liquid interface can become limited by the diffusion rate due to depletion of reactants close to the surface, even though the intrinsic bimolecular reaction at the surface is reaction-rate limited. The forward reaction-rate constant decreases with increasing concentration of bound antibodies at the surface, and when not limited by diffusion the forward reaction rate can be more than 1000-fold slower than the corresponding reaction in a liquid solution. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. The dissociation of bound antibodies is a slow process at solid phases. The antigen-antibody complexes formed are practically irreversible. Some evidence is presented which indicates that the stability of these complexes can be due to attractive lateral interactions between bound antibodies. PMID:2649437

  19. Multifunctional microcontrollable interface module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Mark B.; Zavracky, Paul M.; Rensing, Noa M.; Crawford, J.; Hockman, Angela H.; Aquilino, P. D.; Girolamo, Henry J.

    2001-08-01

    This paper reports the development of a complete eyeglass- mounted computer interface system including display, camera and audio subsystems. The display system provides an SVGA image with a 20 degree horizontal field of view. The camera system has been optimized for face recognition and provides a 19 degree horizontal field of view. A microphone and built-in pre-amp optimized for voice recognition and a speaker on an articulated arm are included for audio. An important feature of the system is a high degree of adjustability and reconfigurability. The system has been developed for testing by the Military Police, in a complete system comprising the eyeglass-mounted interface, a wearable computer, and an RF link. Details of the design, construction, and performance of the eyeglass-based system are discussed.

  20. Interface scattering in polycrystalline thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Adrian; Haney, Paul M.

    2014-03-28

    We study the effect of electron and phonon interface scattering on the thermoelectric properties of disordered, polycrystalline materials (with grain sizes larger than electron and phonons' mean free path). Interface scattering of electrons is treated with a Landauer approach, while that of phonons is treated with the diffuse mismatch model. The interface scattering is embedded within a diffusive model of bulk transport, and we show that, for randomly arranged interfaces, the overall system is well described by effective medium theory. Using bulk parameters similar to those of PbTe and a square barrier potential for the interface electron scattering, we identify the interface scattering parameters for which the figure of merit ZT is increased. We find the electronic scattering is generally detrimental due to a reduction in electrical conductivity; however, for sufficiently weak electronic interface scattering, ZT is enhanced due to phonon interface scattering.

  1. SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Raines, Matthew; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have very limited diagnostic and no prognostic capabilities, while current smart sensor designs do not have the capability to communicate over Fieldbus networks. The aim is to interface smart sensors with PLCs so that health and status information, such as failure mode identification and measurement tolerance, can be communicated via an industrial Fieldbus such as ControlNet. The SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface (SIFI) is an embedded device that acts as a communication module in a networked smart sensor. The purpose is to enable a smart sensor to communicate health and status information to other devices, such as PLCs, via an industrial Fieldbus networking protocol. The SNE (Smart Network Element) is attached to a commercial off-the-shelf Any bus-S interface module through the SIFI. Numerous Anybus-S modules are available, each one designed to interface with a specific Fieldbus. Development of the SIFI focused on communications using the ControlNet protocol, but any of the Anybus-S modules can be used. The SIFI communicates with the Any-bus module via a data buffer and mailbox system on the Anybus module, and supplies power to the module. The Anybus module transmits and receives data on the Fieldbus using the proper protocol. The SIFI is intended to be connected to other existing SNE modules in order to monitor the health and status of a transducer. The SIFI can also monitor aspects of its own health using an onboard watchdog timer and voltage monitors. The SIFI also has the hardware to drive a touchscreen LCD (liquid crystal display) unit for manual configuration and status monitoring.

  2. Interface Board Connector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-20

    circuit board components are generally soldered. Typically, a printed circuit board is mechanically supported by a dielectric base plate . The printed...transmission line on balun board 1. [0032] Element seat plates 12 of connectors 10 are supported by dielectric 14 and prior art partition...1. As noted previously with respect to FIG. 2, the configuration of plate 12 depends on the architecture of the interface board . For illustrative

  3. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  4. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  5. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  6. Ground Station Digital Interface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    reduction equipment. Aircraft evaluation studies involve the measurement of many physical quantities. Some quantities such as vibration displacement...Panel Components 28 3.11 Computer Interrupt Controller 28 4. PERFORMANCE OF INTERFACE UNIT 28 5. REVIEW OF DATA REDUCTION SYSTEM 29 6. SUMMARY 30...requirement for aircraft performance studies. In a system for airborne data 1ogging- 2 adopted at these laboratories the acquired data are stored on magnetic

  7. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependant FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers if contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the transition temperature. During the next project the P.I. proposes to (1) extend the variable frequency FMR measurements to low temperature, where extremely large interface anisotropies are known to obtain in Ni/Mo and Ni/V and are proposed to exist in Ni/W; (2) obtain accurate dc anisotropies via a novel, variable temperature torque magnetometer currently under construction; (3) expand upon his initial findings in Fe/Cu multilayer investigations; (4) begin anisotropy investigations on Co/Ag and CoCr/Ag multilayers where the easy magnetization direction depends upon the Cr concentration; (4) make and characterize Bi based superconductors according to resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power and construct YBaCuO based superconducting loop-gap'' resonators for use in his magnetic resonance work. 2 figs.

  8. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  9. User Interface Software Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    97. 19. Mark A. Flecchia and R. Daniel Bergeron. Specifying Complex Dialogs in ALGAE. Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI+GI󈨛, Toronto, Ont...Spreadsheet Model. Tech. Rept. GIT-GVU-93-20, Georgia Tech Graphics, Visualization and Usability Center, May, 1993. 35. Daniel H.H. Ingalls. "I’he Smalltalk...Interactive Graphical Applications". Comm. ACM 36,4 (April 1993), 41-55. User Interface Software Tools -39 38. Anthony Karrer and Walt Scacchi . Requirements

  10. Semiconductor Properties Near Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-31

    electron multi- plication with a scintillation counter. This detECtor , described in the appendix, provides very low background without sacrifice of...k ADA095 858 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES F/G 20/12I SEMICONDUCTOR PROPERTIES NEAR INTERFACES.(U) JUL GO0 DB WITTRY. S Y YIN, F GUO...improvements in the Ion Microprobe Mass Analyzer; in the course of the investioations in improved inn detector was developed and a microcomrnu*e

  11. PINE -- Electronic mail interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, G. R.

    The PINE mail interface is a user-friendly mail utility for Unix systems. It has been adopted by Starlink as the recommended mail utility because of its ease of use compared with the mail utilities supplied as standard with the Unix operating system. PINE is intended to be intuitive and "to be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals". Here however are a few brief notes to get you started.

  12. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependent FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers is contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the transition temperature. During the next project period the P.I. proposes to (1) extend the variable frequency FMR measurements to low temperature, where extremely large interface anisotropies are known to obtain in Ni/Mo and Ni/V and are proposed to exist in Ni/W; (2) obtain accurate dc anisotropies via a novel, variable temperature torque magnetometer currently under construction; (3) expand upon his initial findings in Fe/Cu multilayer investigations; (4) begin anisotropy investigations on Co/Ag and CoCr/Ag multilayers where the easy magnetization direction depends upon the Cr concentration; (4) make and characterize Bi based superconductors according to resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power and construct YBaCuO based superconducting loop-gap'' resonators for use in his magnetic resonance work.

  13. User Interface Design Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    the beginning of our research) led us to Glade (glade.gnome.org), a cross- platform GUI builder platform that saves its descriptive files in XML format...Major consideration was initially given to Java Netbeans and Java Eclipse, and later extended to Glade .) The saved XML files fully describe... Glade -designed user interfaces. Glade libraries are available for numerous programming languages on many computing platforms. This makes the choice of

  14. Optical Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Melissa R.; Cardin, Jessica A.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded optical actuators and indicators have changed the landscape of neuroscience, enabling targetable control and readout of specific components of intact neural circuits in behaving animals. Here, we review the development of optical neural interfaces, focusing on hardware designed for optical control of neural activity, integrated optical control and electrical readout, and optical readout of population and single-cell neural activity in freely moving mammals. PMID:25014785

  15. Systems interface biology.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-10-22

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines.

  16. The THOSE remote interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  17. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  18. ADAM -- Interface Module Reference Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, A. J.; Kelly, B. D.; Wright, S. L.

    ADAM Interface Modules provide an interface between ADAM application programs and the rest of the system. This document describes in detail the facilities available with ADAM Interface Modules and the rules for using them. It is intended as a reference manual and should shed light on some of the finer points of the ADAM parameter system. Readers requiring an introduction to Interface Modules should read SG/4.

  19. Numerical and experimental study of the nonlinear interaction between a shear wave and a frictional interface.

    PubMed

    Blanloeuil, Philippe; Croxford, Anthony J; Meziane, Anissa

    2014-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction of shear waves with a frictional interface are presented and modeled using simple Coulomb friction. Analytical and finite difference implementations are proposed with both in agreement and showing a unique trend in terms of the generated nonlinearity. A dimensionless parameter ξ is proposed to uniquely quantify the nonlinearity produced. The trends produced in the numerical study are then validated with good agreement experimentally. This is carried out loading an interface between two steel blocks and exciting this interface with different amplitude normal incidence shear waves. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results, suggesting the simple friction model does a reasonable job of capturing the fundamental physics. The resulting approach offers a potential way to characterize a contacting interface; however, the difficulty in activating that interface may ultimately limit its applicability.

  20. The Trend-in-trend Research Design for Causal Inference.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xinyao; Small, Dylan S; Leonard, Charles E; Hennessy, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time trends in prevalence that are correlated with time trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased. The trend-in-trend design first divides the study population into strata based on the cumulative probability of exposure given covariates, which effectively stratifies on time trend in exposure, provided there is a trend. Next, a covariates-free maximum likelihood model estimates the odds ratio (OR) using data on exposure prevalence and outcome frequency within cumulative probability of exposure strata, across multiple periods. In simulations, the trend-in-trend design produced ORs with negligible bias in the presence of unmeasured confounding. In empiric applications, trend-in-trend reproduced the known positive association between rofecoxib and myocardial infarction (observed OR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4), and known null associations between rofecoxib and severe hypoglycemia (OR = 1.1 [0.92, 1.3]) and nonvertebral fracture (OR = 0.84 [0.64, 1.1]). The trend-in-trend method may be useful in settings where there is a strong time trend in exposure, such as a newly approved drug or other medical intervention. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B178.

  1. The Trend-in-trend Research Design for Causal Inference

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xinyao; Small, Dylan S.; Leonard, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time trends in prevalence that are correlated with time trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased. The trend-in-trend design first divides the study population into strata based on the cumulative probability of exposure given covariates, which effectively stratifies on time trend in exposure, provided there is a trend. Next, a covariates-free maximum likelihood model estimates the odds ratio (OR) using data on exposure prevalence and outcome frequency within cumulative probability of exposure strata, across multiple periods. In simulations, the trend-in-trend design produced ORs with negligible bias in the presence of unmeasured confounding. In empiric applications, trend-in-trend reproduced the known positive association between rofecoxib and myocardial infarction (observed OR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4), and known null associations between rofecoxib and severe hypoglycemia (OR = 1.1 [0.92, 1.3]) and nonvertebral fracture (OR = 0.84 [0.64, 1.1]). The trend-in-trend method may be useful in settings where there is a strong time trend in exposure, such as a newly approved drug or other medical intervention. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B178. PMID:27775954

  2. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  3. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces. PMID:7479721

  4. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed

    Kamm, C

    1995-10-24

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  5. User Interfaces for Voice Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Candace

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  6. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  7. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  8. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  9. Active control system trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yore, E. E.; Gunderson, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The active control concepts which achieve the benefit of improved mission performance and lower cost and generate system trends towards improved dynamic performance, more integration, and digital fly by wire mechanization are described. Analytical issues and implementation requirements and tools and approaches developed to address the analytical and implementation issues are briefly discussed.

  10. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  11. Global Warming Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Philip D.; Wigley, Tom M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Results from the analysis of land and marine records from the past century are presented. It is indicated that the planet earth has warmed about one-half of a degree celsius. The uncertainty of these measurements and future warming trends are discussed. (CW)

  12. [Recent demographic trends].

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    Population dynamics in Luxembourg in 1986 are reviewed. Separate consideration is given to fertility, nuptiality and divorce, mortality, natural increase and migration, adoption, and family policy. Some consideration is given to preliminary data for 1987 and to mortality trends among those affected by compulsory labor during World War II.

  13. [Recent demographic trends].

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    The demographic situation in Luxembourg in 1985 is reviewed. Separate consideration is given to fertility, nuptiality and divorce, mortality, and migration. Significant trends include the continued decline in fertility among the foreign population, a new peak in the number of divorces, and a decline in infant mortality to under 10 per 1,000 for the first time.

  14. Historical Trends in Childlessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Donald T.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the rates of childlessness over time are explored using European, Australian, American, and Japanese data from censuses, national registers, and large-scale surveys. The trends are remarkably similar across the countries for which data are available: a peak in childlessness rates for the 1880-1910 birth cohorts, a more or less…

  15. Children's Books: Current Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Joan Stidham

    A major trend in children's literature is the growing academic recognition of the field--indicated by the large number of new texts that have been published since 1975. Scholarly periodicals in the field have likewise grown since the 1970s. Library science, elementary education and English literature have fostered the development of children's…

  16. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  17. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  18. Technological trends in automobiles.

    PubMed

    Horton, E J; Compton, W D

    1984-08-10

    Current technological trends in the automotive industry reflect many diverse disciplines. Electronics and microprocessors, new engine transmission concepts, composite and ceramic materials, and computer-aided design and manufacture will combine to make possible the creation of advanced automobiles offering outstanding quality, fuel economy, and performance. A projected "average" vehicle of the 1990's is described to illustrate the application of these new concepts.

  19. Trend Monitoring and Forecasting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-11

    information, including suggestions for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Recently, almost all web services , including Twitter, Google, Internet News, and Wikipedia, analyze their user...smart service by utilizing them. In this project, we achieved the following aims: 1) identifying the relevance of trending topic to a target domain, 2

  20. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  1. Trends in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…

  2. Travel and tourism trends

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez

    1995-01-01

    Demographic trends which impact leisure time activities are highlighted, with particular emphasis given to the impacts of the growth of minority populations. Data was collected from recreationists to National Forests and from residents of an urban community. The data indicate a shift in outdoor recreation activities.

  3. Locker Room Design Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  4. Trends in Interior Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    Examines how an understanding of interior design trends can help planners address their present and future furniture needs. Examines how new types of construction and their associated concerns are requiring new approaches from the facility designers and manufacturers of product solutions. (GR)

  5. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Molenda, Michael; Sullivan, Michael; Klein, James D.; Brinkerfhoff, Jonathan; Koroghlanian, Carol; Moore, D. Michael; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.; Liu, Y.; Emerson, John D.; Boes, Lisa; Mosteller, Frederick; Ely, Donald P.; Belanger, Yvonne; Ellsworth, James B.; Lowe, Carrie A.; Russell, Shayne; Thomas, Lajeane; Richey, Rita C.; Earle, Rodney S.

    2002-01-01

    The articles in this section of "Educational Media and Technology Yearbook" identify current trends and issues in the field of instructional technology. Two subsections are also included: ERIC Digests, which are reprints of ERIC reports available on the Internet, and a subsection on a variety of standards that emerged during the past…

  6. Trends in Delaware's Forests

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    Forests protect watersheds, provide opportunities for recreation and settings for aesthetic enjoyment, serve as habitat for wildlife, and produce wood and other forest products. The forests of Delaware contribute greatly to the quality of life of the residents, making the State a better place in which to live. This brochure highlights significant trends in Delaware?s...

  7. Outdoor recreation participation trends

    Treesearch

    H. Ken Cordell; Barbara L. McDonald; R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; Jack Martin; Jim Bason; Vernon R. Leeworthy

    1999-01-01

    As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends, the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. The primary source of data is the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). The NSRE is the latest in the continuing series of National Recreation...

  8. Five Trends for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Li, Rose Maria

    2007-01-01

    The authors look at important demographic trends that will have an effect on schools, including roller-coaster enrollments and increasing diversity. For example, compared with 10 years ago, the average child entering a U.S. school today is less likely to live in a family with two married parents but is more likely to have a living grandparent,…

  9. Population Trends and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, W. Parker

    1980-01-01

    Future trends in population are described as they relate to developed and developing nations. It is suggested that for the next 20 years there will be a decrease in population growth rates for all areas of the world except Africa. (Author/SA)

  10. Trends in Educational Expenditure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    This study provides an overview of expenditures for education and training by educational institutions in Australia, 1991-2001. The study used newly available data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and administrative data from the main sectors' reports on the size and trends in public and private education expenditures. It analyzed…

  11. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  12. Trends Reshaping Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F.; Peek, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines current educational trends in the community colleges, based on critical issues addressed at the 2002 Community College Futures Assembly (CCFA) in Orlando, Florida. Describes the CCFA as an independent policy forum, sponsored by the University of Florida, that convenes annually. Discusses the top three critical issues presented: the needs…

  13. Evaluation of Project Trend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unco, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report is a descriptive evaluation of the five pilot sites of Project TREND (Targeting Resources on the Educational Needs of the Disadvantaged). The five Local Education Agency (LEA) pilot sites are the educational systems of: (1) Akron, Ohio; (2) El Paso, Texas; (3) Newark, New Jersey; (4) Portland, Oregon; and, (5) San Jose (Unified),…

  14. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  15. Locker Room Design Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  16. Today's Recruitment Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Joe

    1996-01-01

    Five trends in the creation of college student recruitment publications are identified: (1) using market research and marketing principles; (2) targeting specific groups; (3) honesty about campus personality and reputation; (4) cost-effectiveness; and (5) creativity in using effective copy and design. (MSE)

  17. The Top Ten Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Trends shaping the workplace are increased skill requirements; more educated, diverse work force; continued corporate restructuring; change in size and composition of training departments; instructional technology advances; new training delivery methods; focus on performance improvement; integrated high-performance work systems; companies becoming…

  18. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Sullivan, Michael; Molenda, Michael; Foley, Anne L.; Morgan, Janet; McKenney, Susan; Harada, Violet H.; Lee, Jung

    2003-01-01

    Contains five articles covering general trends and issues in instructional technology, including: developments in corporate training, higher education, and K-12 education; women's contributions to the leading instructional technology journals; developing science education materials via computer-based support; learning in the Information Age; and…

  19. Global Warming Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Philip D.; Wigley, Tom M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Results from the analysis of land and marine records from the past century are presented. It is indicated that the planet earth has warmed about one-half of a degree celsius. The uncertainty of these measurements and future warming trends are discussed. (CW)

  20. Language Trends 2010 Secondary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

  1. Five Trends for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Li, Rose Maria

    2007-01-01

    The authors look at important demographic trends that will have an effect on schools, including roller-coaster enrollments and increasing diversity. For example, compared with 10 years ago, the average child entering a U.S. school today is less likely to live in a family with two married parents but is more likely to have a living grandparent,…

  2. Rural Conditions and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazie, Sara Mills, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Agriculture periodical gives current statistical information on rural America. This issue contains articles about the impact on rural areas of economic trends, employment, and industry changes. A general overview indicates that moderate improvements in rural employment since 1986 have been tempered by slow income growth.…

  3. Trends in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Discusses major potential trends in rehabilitation (identified through informal interviews with 94 individuals representing various organizations, progessions, or programs) e.g., services for the severely handicapped, return to the vocational emphasis, increased interagency cooperation, and consumer involvement. Modification of programs as a…

  4. Trends in Anthropology, #116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belshaw, Cyril; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on trends and future perspectives in the field of anthropology. Articles include "Challenges for the Future of Social and Cultural Anthropology"; "Anthropology in the Twenty-First Century"; "A New Interdisciplinary Impulse and the Anthropology of the 1990s"; and "Liberation Anthropology for the Year 2000." (GEA)

  5. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  6. Children's Books: Current Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Joan Stidham

    A major trend in children's literature is the growing academic recognition of the field--indicated by the large number of new texts that have been published since 1975. Scholarly periodicals in the field have likewise grown since the 1970s. Library science, elementary education and English literature have fostered the development of children's…

  7. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  8. The role of space data systems interface standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, R.; Kummer, H.; Wanke, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper will discuss data systems interface standards including the goals and benefits in their application to space flight programs. Recent trends toward increased international cooperation in space research and applications missions have resulted in a greater emphasis on compatible interface standards among the participating agencies. The discussion will highlight the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), a consortium of 19 space agencies formed in 1982 in order to provide a technical forum for developing guidelines for compatible data systems standards among cooperating space agencies worldwide. CCSDS effort is seen as contributing significantly to the objectives of the IAF's Symposium on Space Exploration.

  9. [Research progress and trend on grassland agroecology].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jizhou; Li, Xianglin; Hou, Fujiang

    2002-08-01

    The connotation, progress, research frontiers and developmental trend of grassland agroecology are discussed in this paper. The interface theory, structure and function, coupling and discordance, and health assessment of grassland agroecosystems were recognized as the four research frontiers of the discipline. There exist three primary interfaces in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., vegetation-site, grassland-animal and production-management. Research into a series of the ecological processes that occurred at these interfaces is the key to revealing the features of the system behavior. There are four sections in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., pre-plant, plant, animal and post-biotic sections. System coupling and discordance are the two important concepts to describe interactions among the production sections. System coupling among the sections can lead to system improvement by exerting the potential of system capacity. Health of an ecosystem is a reflection of its structure and function, and health assessment is a measurement of its orderliness and service value.

  10. Direct measurement of acid-base interaction energy at solid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Anish; Prasad, Shishir; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2010-12-07

    We have studied acid-base interactions at solid-liquid and solid-solid interfaces using interface-sensitive sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. The shift of the sapphire hydroxyl peak in contact with several polar and nonpolar liquids and polymers was used to determine the interaction energy. The trend in the interaction energies cannot be explained by measuring only water contact angles. Molecular rearrangements at the sapphire interface, to maximize the interaction of the acid-base groups, play a dominant role, and these effects are not accounted for in the current theoretical models. These results provide important insights into understanding adhesion, friction, and wetting on solid interfaces.

  11. Case study for the evaluation and selection of man-machine interface (MMI) software

    SciTech Connect

    Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Macdonald, J.; Bibeau, R.; Gomez, B.; Sellon, D.

    1996-06-01

    The authors evaluated three of the top man-machine interface (MMI) software systems. The main categories upon which they based their evaluation on were the following: operator interface; network and data distribution; input/output (I/O) interface; application development; alarms; real-time and historical trending; support, documentation, and training; processing tools (batch, recipe, logic); reports; custom interfacing; start-up/recovery; external database; and multimedia. They also present their MMI requirements and guidelines for the selection and evaluation of these MMI systems.

  12. Wireless Tech Trends 2010. Trend: smartphones.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2010-02-01

    THE LANDSCAPE: Physician use of handhelds is by no means a new concept. But as the devices--particularly the RIM BlackBerry, Apple iPhone and Google Android--become more sophisticated and more applications become available, the game is changing, quickly. And with so many hospitals upgrading their infrastructures to offer ubiquitous wireless coverage, clinicians are using smartphones in the hospital setting to access online tools such as drug references, and communicate with colleagues. For ClOs, it's a no-brainer--physicians and nurses are already carrying these devices, so why not capitalize on the trend by enabling users to access clinical information and link to patient records. A number of organizations have adopted this thinking and are on the road to enabling EMR access via mobile devices. And while there are certainly sticking points, it's an area that many say is poised for significant growth in the next few years. Many innovative organizations are looking to provide access to electronic records and other clinical data through smartphones. Plans are already being formulated to leverage the devices to facilitate patient handoff and sign-out, as well as to link charge capture with quality measures. Cutting-edge organizations are looking to create actionable information for clinicians through software that can analyze data, track patients'progress, and send out alerts when conditions worsen.

  13. Single-interface Casimir torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2016-10-01

    A different type of Casimir-type interaction is theoretically predicted: a single-interface torque at a junction of an anisotropic material and a vacuum or another material system. The torque acts to reorient the polarizable microscopic units of the involved materials near the interface, and thus to change the internal structure of the materials. The single-interface torque depends on the zero-point energy of the interface localized and extended modes. Our theory demonstrates that the single-interface torque is essential to understand the Casimir physics of material systems with anisotropic elements and may influence the orientation of the director of nematic liquid crystals.

  14. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  15. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439

  16. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé's parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms.

  17. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic analysis computer program has been developed with a built-in finite element analysis program NESSUS/FEM. However, the NESSUS/FEM program is specialized for engine structures and may not contain sufficient features for other applications. In addition, users often become well acquainted with a particular finite element code and want to use that code for probabilistic structural analysis. For these reasons, this work was undertaken to develop an interface between NESSUS and NASTRAN such that NASTRAN can be used for the finite element analysis and NESSUS can be used for the probabilistic analysis. In addition, NESSUS was restructured such that other finite element codes could be more easily coupled with NESSUS. NESSUS has been enhanced such that NESSUS will modify the NASTRAN input deck for a given set of random variables, run NASTRAN and read the NASTRAN result. The coordination between the two codes is handled automatically. The work described here was implemented within NESSUS 6.2 which was delivered to NASA in September 1995. The code runs on Unix machines: Cray, HP, Sun, SGI and IBM. The new capabilities have been implemented such that a user familiar with NESSUS using NESSUS/FEM and NASTRAN can immediately use NESSUS with NASTRAN. In other words, the interface with NASTRAN has been implemented in an analogous manner to the interface with NESSUS/FEM. Only finite element specific input has been changed. This manual is written as an addendum to the existing NESSUS 6.2 manuals. We assume users have access to NESSUS manuals and are familiar with the operation of NESSUS including probabilistic finite element analysis. Update pages to the NESSUS PFEM manual are contained in Appendix E. The finite element features of the code and the probalistic analysis capabilities are summarized.

  18. Films of bacteria at interfaces.

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Liana; Molaei, Mehdi; Niepa, Tagbo H R; Lee, Daeyeon; Leheny, Robert L; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2017-09-01

    Bacteria are often discussed as active colloids, self-propelled organisms whose collective motion can be studied in the context of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. In such studies, the behavior of bacteria confined to interfaces or in the proximity of an interface plays an important role. For instance, many studies have probed collective behavior of bacteria in quasi two-dimensional systems such as soap films. Since fluid interfaces can adsorb surfactants and other materials, the stress and velocity boundary conditions at interfaces can alter bacteria motion; hydrodynamic studies of interfaces with differing boundary conditions are reviewed. Also, bacteria in bulk can become trapped at or near fluid interfaces, where they colonize and form structures comprising secretions like exopolysaccharides, surfactants, living and dead bacteria, thereby creating Films of Bacteria at Interfaces (FBI). The formation of FBI is discussed at air-water, oil-water, and water-water interfaces, with an emphasis on film mechanics, and with some allusion to genetic functions guiding bacteria to restructure fluid interfaces. At air-water interfaces, bacteria form pellicles or interfacial biofilms. Studies are reviewed that reveal that pellicle material properties differ for different strains of bacteria, and that pellicle physicochemistry can act as a feedback mechanism to regulate film formation. At oil-water interfaces, a range of FBI form, depending on bacteria strain. Some bacteria-laden interfaces age from an initial active film, with dynamics dominated by motile bacteria, through viscoelastic states, to form an elastic film. Others remain active with no evidence of elastic film formation even at significant interface ages. Finally, bacteria can adhere to and colonize ultra-low surface tension interfaces such as aqueous-aqueous systems common in food industries. Relevant literature is reviewed, and areas of interest for potential application are discussed, ranging from health

  19. Dynamics of curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Escudero, Carlos

    2009-08-15

    Stochastic growth phenomena on curved interfaces are studied by means of stochastic partial differential equations. These are derived as counterparts of linear planar equations on a curved geometry after a reparametrization invariance principle has been applied. We examine differences and similarities with the classical planar equations. Some characteristic features are the loss of correlation through time and a particular behavior of the average fluctuations. Dependence on the metric is also explored. The diffusive model that propagates correlations ballistically in the planar situation is particularly interesting, as this propagation becomes nonuniversal in the new regime.

  20. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  1. Bidirectional Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Matthew R.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2016-01-01

    A bidirectional neural interface is a device that transfers information into and out of the nervous system. This class of devices has potential to improve treatment and therapy in several patient populations. Progress in very-large-scale integration (VLSI) has advanced the design of complex integrated circuits. System-on-chip (SoC) devices are capable of recording neural electrical activity and altering natural activity with electrical stimulation. Often, these devices include wireless powering and telemetry functions. This review presents the state of the art of bidirectional circuits as applied to neuroprosthetic, neurorepair, and neurotherapeutic systems. PMID:26753776

  2. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS and NASTRAN computer codes were successfully integrated. The enhanced NESSUS code will use NASTRAN for the structural Analysis and NESSUS for the probabilistic analysis. Any quantities in the NASTRAN bulk data input can be random variables. Any NASTRAN result that is written to the output2 file can be returned to NESSUS as the finite element result. The interfacing between NESSUS and NASTRAN is handled automatically by NESSUS. NESSUS and NASTRAN can be run on different machines using the remote host option.

  3. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  4. [Recent demographic trends].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1982 is presented. A decline in fertility, the first since 1977, is noted, together with an increase in divorce, as well as a negative migration balance for the first time since 1967. Topics covered include natural increase and migration, fertility, marriage and divorce, mortality, adoption, and legislation affecting the family. Special consideration is given to the mortality experience of those who were subjected to compulsory labor during World War II.

  5. Trends in tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Calverley, M J; Seals, R R

    1994-06-01

    The production and use of tobacco have been accepted parts of the American life-style for over 500 years. Tobacco use in the United States has gone through many stages over the years. The present article reviews the trends of tobacco use over the last 100 years and the public health strategies recently initiated to control tobacco use and promote public health. Finally, suggestions regarding the dentist's role in limiting tobacco use and promoting public health are presented.

  6. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting.

  7. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith D; Hemmert, Karl Scott

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  8. Ozone and temperature trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Fioletov, Vitali; Bishop, Lane; Godin, Sophie; Bojkov, Rumen D.; Kirchhoff, Volker; Chanin, Marie-Lise; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Chu, William

    1991-01-01

    An update of the extensive reviews of the state of knowledge of measured ozone trends published in the Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel is presented. The update contains a review of progress since these reports, including reviewing of the ozone records, in most cases through March 1991. Also included are some new, unpublished reanalyses of these records including a complete reevaluation of 29 stations located in the former Soviet Union. The major new advance in knowledge of the measured ozone trend is the existence of independently calibrated satellite data records from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAG) instruments. These confirm many of the findings, originally derived from the Dobson record, concerning northern mid-latitude changes in ozone. We now have results from several instruments, whereas the previously reported changes were dependent on the calibration of a single instrument. This update will compare the ozone records from many different instruments to determine whether or not they provide a consistent picture of the ozone change that has occurred in the atmosphere. The update also briefly considers the problem of stratospheric temperature change. As in previous reports, this problem received significantly less attention, and the report is not nearly as complete. This area needs more attention in the future.

  9. Strong electron correlations in biomimetic transition metal molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labute, Montiago Xavier

    The first-row transition metals (Fe, Co, V,...) are key players in the active sites of proteins and enzymes responsible for diverse biological processes such as NO regulation and photosynthesis. Many small transition metal complexes possess chemical coordination environments in the vicinity of the metal atom that are reminiscent of these active sites. We have studied the electronic structure of these molecules and discussed the relevance for their biological analogues. The specific question on which we wish to focus is: Do strong correlations (resulting from the localized character of the TM 3d-orbitals) contribute significantly to the reaction energetics of these molecules and, if so, can these effects be observed by experiment? To accomplish these ends we focus on the cobalt valence tautomer molecules and the phenomenon of electron transfer in aqueous hexaammine cobalt ions. We utilize theoretical methods in order to study the cobalt valence tautomer molecules which undergo an interconversion with temperature that is reminiscent of the changes in structure and spin that the heme group experiences as the result of Fe-ligand interactions. We perform fully ab initio calculations using the GGA implementation of density functional theory with the computer code SIESTA. In addition, a simple Anderson Impurity Model has been employed that more properly accounts for the Coulomb interaction among the 3d electrons on the cobalt atom. The calculated Co K x-ray absorption near-edge spectra XANES agrees well with experimental data and a prediction for the Co L-edge XAS that could be tested in future experiments is also presented. We believe that there are structures in both spectra that may only be explained by a strong admixture of configurations. It is conjectured that strong electron correlations help explain the non-Arrhenius rate behavior observed in the high-spin to low-spin relaxation rate at low temperatures. Work on electron-transfer in CoNH32 +/3+6aq using these methods is discussed. Relevant physics for single complexes is presented and then the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the bridged Co2+ and Co3+ complexes is plotted. The electronic transfer matrix element HDA is extracted directly from the surface topography. Finally there are comments on how a mechanism similar to valence tautomerism might be relevant for iron-poryphrin groups that are present in the active sites of many metalloproteins such as myoglobin and cytochrome oxidase.

  10. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  11. Mysteries at Ice Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fain, Samuel C., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Michael Faraday noted that ``two pieces of thawing ice, if put together, adhere and become one...the effect will take place in air, or in water, or in vacuo." Why? He proposed that ``a particle of water, which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice only on one side, could not retain the liquid state if it were touched by ice on both sides."footnote M. Faraday, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 10, 440 (1860) The existence of special properties at interfaces of ice is generally agreed and has important environmental consequences.(J. G. Dash, H. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58), 115 (1995) Why do different experiments infer different properties for this layer? Impurities and electric fields at the interfaces may be responsible for some of the variations in experimental results.footnote V. F. Petrenko, U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 94-22 (1994) Some background on the physical properties of ice will be discussed, including recent force microscopy measurements done at the University of Washington.footnote C.R. Slaughterbeck, E.W. Kukes, B. Pittenger, D.J. Cook, P.C. Williams, V.L. Eden, S.C. Fain, Jr., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (in press) Supported by NSF Grant DMR-91-19701.

  12. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  13. Surface inspection operator interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, Russell C.

    1992-03-01

    Surface inspection systems are widely used in many industries including steel, tin, aluminum, and paper. These systems generally use machine vision technology to detect defective surface regions and can generate very high data output rates which can be difficult for line operators to absorb and use. A graphical, windowing interface is described which provides the operators with an overview of the surface quality of the inspected web while still allowing them to select individual defective regions for display. A touch screen is used as the only operator input. This required alterations to some screen widgets due to subtle ergonomic differences of touch screen input over mouse input. The interface, although developed for inspecting coated steel, has been designed to be adaptable to other surface inspection applications. Facility is provided to allow the detection, classification, and display functions of the inspection system to be readily changed. Modifications can be implemented on two main levels; changes that reflect the configuration of the hardware system and control the detection and classification components of the surface inspection system are accessible only to authorized staff while those affecting the display and alarm settings of defect types may be changed by operators and this can generally be done dynamically.

  14. Laparoscopic simulation interface

    DOEpatents

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2006-04-04

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  15. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  16. Thermal interface conductance across metal alloy-dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Justin P.; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Davis, Robert F.; Gellman, Andrew J.; Malen, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of thermal interface conductance as a function of metal alloy composition. Composition spread alloy films of A uxC u1 -x and A uxP d1 -x solid solutions were deposited on single crystal sapphire substrates via dual electron-beam evaporation. High throughput measurements of thermal interface conductance across the (metal alloy)-sapphire interfaces were made by positional scanning of frequency domain thermoreflectance measurements to sample a continuum of Au atomic fractions (x ˜0 →1 ) . At a temperature of 300 K, the thermal interface conductance at the A uxC u1 -x -sapphire interfaces monotonically decreased from 197 ±39 MW m-2K-1 to 74 ±11 MW m-2K-1 for x =0 →0.95 ±0.02 and at the A uxP d1 -x -sapphire interfaces from 167 ±35 MW m-2K-1 to 60 ±10 MW m-2K-1 for x =0.03 →0.97 ±0.02 . To shed light on the phonon physics at the interface, a Diffuse Mismatch Model for thermal interface conductance with alloys is presented and agrees reasonably with the thermal interface conductance data.

  17. XPI: The Xanadu Parameter Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Oneel, B.; Jacobs, P.

    1992-01-01

    XPI is a table driven parameter interface which greatly simplifies both command driven programs such as BROWSE and XIMAGE as well as stand alone single-task programs. It moves all of the syntax and semantic parsing of commands and parameters out of the users code into common code and externally defined tables. This allows the programmer to concentrate on writing the code unique to the application rather than reinventing the user interface and for external graphical interfaces to interface with no changes to the command driven program. XPI also includes a compatibility library which allows programs written using the IRAF host interface (Mandel and Roll) to use XPI in place of the IRAF host interface.

  18. Ion distributions in electrolyte confined by multiple dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yufei; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Jadhao, Vikram; de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-03-01

    The distribution of ions at dielectric interfaces between liquids characterized by different dielectric permittivities is crucial to nanoscale assembly processes in many biological and synthetic materials such as cell membranes, colloids and oil-water emulsions. The knowledge of ionic structure of these systems is also exploited in energy storage devices such as double-layer super-capacitors. The presence of multiple dielectric interfaces often complicates computing the desired ionic distributions via simulations or theory. Here, we use coarse-grained models to compute the ionic distributions in a system of electrolyte confined by two planar dielectric interfaces using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations and liquid state theory. We compute the density profiles for various electrolyte concentrations, stoichiometric ratios and dielectric contrasts. The explanations for the trends in these profiles and discuss their effects on the behavior of the confined charged fluid are also presented.

  19. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-04-01

    The liquid interface is a narrow, highly anisotropic region, characterized by rapidly varying density, polarity, and molecular structure. I review several aspects of interfacial solvation and show how these affect reactivity at liquid/liquid interfaces. I specifically consider ion transfer, electron transfer, and SN2 reactions, showing that solvent effects on these reactions can be understood by examining the unique structure and dynamics of the liquid interface region.

  20. Reaction dynamics at liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-04-01

    The liquid interface is a narrow, highly anisotropic region, characterized by rapidly varying density, polarity, and molecular structure. I review several aspects of interfacial solvation and show how these affect reactivity at liquid/liquid interfaces. I specifically consider ion transfer, electron transfer, and SN2 reactions, showing that solvent effects on these reactions can be understood by examining the unique structure and dynamics of the liquid interface region.

  1. Intelligent interface design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent interface concepts and systematic approaches to assessing their functionality are discussed. Four general features of intelligent interfaces are described: interaction efficiency, subtask automation, context sensitivity, and use of an appropriate design metaphor. Three evaluation methods are discussed: Functional Analysis, Part-Task Evaluation, and Operational Testing. Design and evaluation concepts are illustrated with examples from a prototype expert system interface for environmental control and life support systems for manned space platforms.

  2. Standardized Spacecraft Onboard Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph F.; Plummer, Chris; Plancke, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), an international organization of national space agencies, is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of onboard spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be, in part, based on the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by describing three orthogonal views: the Services View that describes data communications services, the Interoperability view shows how to exchange data and messages between different spacecraft elements, and the Protocol view, that describes the SOIF protocols and services. We will also provide a description of the present state of the services that will be provided to SOIF users, and are the basis of the utility of these standards.

  3. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  4. Brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that give their users communication and control capabilities that do not depend on muscles. The user's intentions are determined from activity recorded by electrodes on the scalp, on the cortical surface, or within the brain. BCIs can enable people who are paralyzed by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brainstem stroke, or other disorders to convey their needs and wishes to others, to operate word-processing programs or other software, or possibly to control a wheelchair or a neuroprosthesis. BCI technology might also augment rehabilitation protocols aimed at restoring useful motor function. With continued development and clinical implementation, BCIs could substantially improve the lives of those with severe disabilities.

  5. Porphyrins at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auwärter, Willi; Écija, David; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V.

    2015-02-01

    Porphyrins and other tetrapyrrole macrocycles possess an impressive variety of functional properties that have been exploited in natural and artificial systems. Different metal centres incorporated within the tetradentate ligand are key for achieving and regulating vital processes, including reversible axial ligation of adducts, electron transfer, light-harvesting and catalytic transformations. Tailored substituents optimize their performance, dictating their arrangement in specific environments and mediating the assembly of molecular nanoarchitectures. Here we review the current understanding of these species at well-defined interfaces, disclosing exquisite insights into their structural and chemical properties, and also discussing methods by which to manipulate their intramolecular and organizational features. The distinct characteristics arising from the interfacial confinement offer intriguing prospects for molecular science and advanced materials. We assess the role of surface interactions with respect to electronic and physicochemical characteristics, and describe in situ metallation pathways, molecular magnetism, rotation and switching. The engineering of nanostructures, organized layers, interfacial hybrid and bio-inspired systems is also addressed.

  6. Human-computer interface

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  7. WWW to DICOM interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevera, George J.; Feingold, Eric R.; Horii, Steven C.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation and use of a WWW interface to a DICOM PACS that allows users to select, move, and display images that are currently available in the PACS and to view their corresponding radiology reports. This system allows our users to query the archive from any workstation (such as Unix, DOS, and Mac) that supports a WWW browser. To use this system, the user first runs a WWW browser such as Mosaic, Netscape, or Lynx and specifies a URL on one of our Unix workstations. This URL refers to an HTML file that contains a query form. This query form contains a number of fields such as patient name and medical record number. The user may specify any or all fields as well as wildcards in fields such as the name field. Once the form is completed, the user presses a button to submit the request. The HTML form submits the query to a C program that executes on the Unix server. This program accepts as input the form field values that the user specified. This program then communicates with the archive via DICOM requests to determine those patients that match the search criteria. The user may then choose a patient which in turn causes the studies for this patient to be displayed. Finally, the user may select a study which causes those images to be retrieved from the archive and displayed via the Web browser. The result of this system is an easy to use interface to a DICOM PACS with the option to query and move images from the PACS. In summary, a system that integrates the ease of use of WWW browsers with a DICOM PACS is discussed. We are currently incorporating information from our RIS as well. This allows us to obtain extensive patient demographics, exam information, and textual radiological reports and associate this information with information from the PACS.

  8. APST interfaces in LINCS

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    APST is an acronym for the four highest of the seven layers of the LINCS hierarchy of communication protocols: (from high to low) Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport. Routines in each but the lowest of these APST layers can utilize the facilities of any lower APST layer (normally, but not necessarily, the immediately next lower layer) by invoking various primitives (macros that in most cases are subroutine calls) defining the upper interface of the lower layer. So there are three APST interfaces: Presentation layer, used by the Application layer; Session layer, normally used by the Presentation layer; and Transport layer, normally used by the Session layer. Logically, each end of a stream (unidirectional sequence of transmitted information) is handled by three modules, one module each for the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers, and each of these modules deals with only that one end of that one stream. The internal workings of the layers, particularly the Transport layer, do not necessarily exhibit this same modularization; for example, the two oppositely directed streams between the same two ends (constituting an association) may interact within a layer. However, such interaction is an implementational detail of no direct interest to those utilizing the layer. The present document does not describe implementation, nor does it discuss in any detail how the modules employ packet headings and data formats to communicate with their partner modules at the other end of a stream. There being one logical module per end of stream is a characteristic only of the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers. An Application layer module usually manages several streams, orchestrating them to achieve some desired purpose. The modules of the layers (Network, Link, and Physical) below the APST layers each handle many streams, multiplexing them through the nodes and channels of the network to transmit them from their origins to their destinations.

  9. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  10. Modern trends in lipomodeling

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Lipomodeling is the process of relocating autologous fat to change the shape, volume, consistency, and profile of tissues, with the aim of reconstructing, rejuvenating, and regenerating body features. There have been several important advancements in lipomodeling procedures during the last thirty years. Four clinical steps are important for the success of engraftment: fat harvesting, fat processing, fat reinjection, and preconditioning of the recipient site. With the discovery of adipose derived stem cells and dedifferentiated cells, fat cells become a major tool of regenerative medicine. This article reviews recent trends in lipomodeling trying to understand most of the issues in this field. PMID:28401032

  11. Trends in PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2000-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT).

  12. [Trends in surgery].

    PubMed

    Cerantola, Y; Christoforidis, D; Halkic, N; Matter, M; Romy, S; Suter, M; Tempia-Caliera, A; Demartines, N; Givel, J-C

    2009-01-21

    More than the number of real novelties, trends and preliminary results characterise the annual development in surgery. The wealth and diversity of topics to be covered require arbitrary choices, therefore not necessarily complete. The constant development of choledocolithiasis management, dominated by minimal invasive technology, treatments of unusual nature of two frequent proctological conditions, fistulae and haemorrhoids, the increasing importance of metabolic bariatric surgery, as well as the strict rules of effective melanoma treatment, represent as many directions in which the operating procedure, although unseen, continue to gain quality and security.

  13. Trends in Neurocognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Preface The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive aging. Although there is a growing consensus that the aging brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field also is hampered by the complexity of the aging process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of aging are discussed. PMID:22714020

  14. Interfacing Ada and other languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul; West, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Interfacing two separately developed compilers is a complex task. The complexity arises because few design standards exist for compiler development. This, coupled with the many complicated design decisions inherent in compiler construction, usually guarantees noncompatibility. The interface subroutine which would link the two different run time environments would resolve as many of the dissimilarities as possible. The differences that could not be resolved would be responsible for the restrictions placed on the interface. Albeit restrictions would exist, the resulting interface may be well worthwhile.

  15. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  16. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Karthik V.

    2014-09-15

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  17. Interfaces in perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Xin; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-06-03

    The interfacial atomic and electronic structures, charge transfer processes, and interface engineering in perovskite solar cells are discussed in this review. An effective heterojunction is found to exist at the window/perovskite absorber interface, contributing to the relatively fast extraction of free electrons. Moreover, the high photovoltage in this cell can be attributed to slow interfacial charge recombination due to the outstanding material and interfacial electronic properties. However, some fundamental questions including the interfacial atomic and electronic structures and the interface stability need to be further clarified. Designing and engineering the interfaces are also important for the next-stage development of this cell.

  18. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Karthik V.

    2014-09-01

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  19. Brain computer interface for operating a robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisar, Humaira; Balasubramaniam, Hari Chand; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2013-10-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a hardware/software based system that translates the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals produced by the brain activity to control computers and other external devices. In this paper, we will present a non-invasive BCI system that reads the EEG signals from a trained brain activity using a neuro-signal acquisition headset and translates it into computer readable form; to control the motion of a robot. The robot performs the actions that are instructed to it in real time. We have used the cognitive states like Push, Pull to control the motion of the robot. The sensitivity and specificity of the system is above 90 percent. Subjective results show a mixed trend of the difficulty level of the training activities. The quantitative EEG data analysis complements the subjective results. This technology may become very useful for the rehabilitation of disabled and elderly people.

  20. Multimodal human-machine interface based on a brain-computer interface and an electrooculography interface.

    PubMed

    Iáñez, Eduardo; Ùbeda, Andrés; Azorín, José M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a multimodal interface that combines a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) with an electrooculography (EOG) interface. The non-invasive spontaneous BCI registers the electrical brain activity through surface electrodes. The EOG interface detects the eye movements through electrodes placed on the face around the eyes. Both kind of signals are registered together and processed to obtain the mental task that the user is thinking and the eye movement performed by the user. Both commands (mental task and eye movement) are combined in order to move a dot in a graphic user interface (GUI). Several experimental tests have been made where the users perform a trajectory to get closer to some targets. To perform the trajectory the user moves the dot in a plane with the EOG interface and using the BCI the dot changes its height.

  1. Global trends, needs, issues.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, R G

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, Pharmaceutical Plant Management struggles with the competing priorities of lowering costs, rising customer expectations, more demanding government regulations, and the need to reduce cycle times especially in the introduction of new products. All of this takes place in an environment of global competition, regulatory harmonization, mergers and downsizing, and employee insecurity. Employees are expected to do more with less, work with more sophisticated equipment and processes, take more personal responsibility for quality and productivity, work in teams, etc. In summary, we are talking about CHANGE, the speed of which will accelerate in the years to come. This presentation will discuss how some pharmaceutical plants are addressing these challenges. Examples will be given in the areas of validation, process reengineering, risk analysis, role of the quality function and people. It is my contention that most of the global trends today are insufficient to meet the challenges that we face. I hope that this presentation will generate some ideas on what the global trends should be.

  2. Some trends in aircraft design: Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Trends and programs currently underway on the national scene to improve the structural interface in the aircraft design process are discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration shares a partnership with the educational and industrial community in the development of the tools, the criteria, and the data base essential to produce high-performance and cost-effective vehicles. Several thrusts to build the technology in materials, structural concepts, analytical programs, and integrated design procedures essential for performing the trade-offs required to fashion competitive vehicles are presented. The application of advanced fibrous composites, improved methods for structural analysis, and continued attention to important peripheral problems of aeroelastic and thermal stability are among the topics considered.

  3. Weak interfaces for UV cure nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, Frances; Fornof, Ann; Simonyi, Eva; Miller, Dolores; Truong, Hoa

    2008-03-01

    Nanoimprint lithography using a photocurable organic resist provides a means of patterning substrates with a spatial resolution in the few nm range. The usefulness of the technique is limited by defect generation during template removal, which involves fracture at the interface between the template and the newly cured polymer. Although it is critical to have the lowest possible interfacial fracture toughness (Gc less than 0.1 Jm-2) to avoid cohesive failure in the polymer, there is little understanding on how to achieve this using reacting low viscosity resist fluids. Studies of debonding of a series of free-radical cured polyhedral silsesquioxane crosslinker formulations containing selected reactive diluents from fluorosilane-coated quartz template materials will be described. At constant diluent fraction the storage modulus of cured resists follows trends in initial reaction rate, not diluent Tg. Adhesion is uncorrelated with both Tg and storage modulus. XPS studies of near-interface compositions indicate that component segregation within the resist fluid on contact with the template, prior to cure, plays a significant role in controlling the fracture process.

  4. The interface engine: experimental consequences.

    PubMed

    Tauer, Klaus; Kozempel, Steffen; Rother, Gudrun

    2007-08-15

    A light microscopy study confirms spontaneous emulsification at the quiescent, thermally equilibrated interface between pure oil and pure water during the chemical equilibration period. The process is qualitatively explained within the frame of the classical nucleation theory assuming a mixed interface layer between the two liquids in contact allowing supersaturation.

  5. Adaptive fast interface tracking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Jelena; Runborg, Olof

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a fast time adaptive numerical method for interface tracking. The method uses an explicit multiresolution description of the interface, which is represented by wavelet vectors that correspond to the details of the interface on different scale levels. The complexity of standard numerical methods for interface tracking, where the interface is described by N marker points, is O (N / Δt), when a time step Δt is used. The methods that we propose in this paper have O (TOL - 1 / p log ⁡ N + Nlog ⁡ N) computational cost, at least for uniformly smooth problems, where TOL is some given tolerance and p is the order of the time stepping method that is used for time advection of the interface. The adaptive method is robust in the sense that it can handle problems with both smooth and piecewise smooth interfaces (e.g. interfaces with corners) while keeping a low computational cost. We show numerical examples that verify these properties.

  6. Overview of Graphical User Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulser, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of graphical user interfaces for online public access catalogs (OPACs) covers the history of OPACs; OPAC front-end design, including examples from Indiana University and the University of Illinois; and planning and implementation of a user interface. (10 references) (EA)

  7. Colloids at Curved Fluid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebe, Kathleen

    2016-11-01

    Fluid interfaces are remarkable sites for colloidal assembly. When a colloid attaches to a fluid interface, it distorts a region around it; this distortion has an associated capillary energy, the product of its area and interfacial tension. The particle's capillary energy depends on the local interface curvature. By molding the interface, we can define curvature fields that drive microparticles along pre-determined paths. This example captures the emergent nature of the interactions. We discuss curvature fields as analogues to external electro-magnetic fields, and define curvatures that drive particles to well-defined locations, and to equilibrium sites far from boundaries. Particle-particle and particle-curvature interactions can guide particles into structures via interaction among many particles. This work demonstrates the potential importance of curvature capillary interactions in schemes to make reconfigurable materials, since interfaces and their associated capillary energy landscapes can be readily reconfigured. Analogies in other soft systems will be described. Support acknowledged from NSF DMR 1607878.

  8. Temperature trend biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  9. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  10. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management. PMID:15247993

  11. Breastfeeding Trends and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nuaimi, Nisreen; Katende, Godfrey; Arulappan, Judie

    2017-01-01

    Optimal breastfeeding practices entail the early initiation of breastfeeding soon after delivery of the baby, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and the continuation of breastfeeding complemented by solid food up until two years of age. Breastfeeding has wide-ranging health benefits for both the mother and her child; however, many factors contribute to low rates of exclusive breastfeeding. This article highlights the benefits of optimal breastfeeding as well as trends and determinants associated with breastfeeding both worldwide and in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Strategies to optimise breastfeeding and overcome breastfeeding barriers in the GCC region are recommended, including community health and education programmes and ‘baby-friendly’ hospital initiatives. Advocates of breastfeeding are needed at the national, community and family levels. In addition, more systematic research should be conducted to examine breastfeeding practices and the best strategies to promote breastfeeding in this region. PMID:28690886

  12. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  13. Power User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  14. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  15. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  16. User interface enhancement report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Gangel, J.; Shields, G.; Fala, G.

    1985-01-01

    The existing user interfaces to TEMPUS, Plaid, and other systems in the OSDS are fundamentally based on only two modes of communication: alphanumeric commands or data input and grapical interaction. The latter are especially suited to the types of interaction necessary for creating workstation objects with BUILD and with performing body positioning in TEMPUS. Looking toward the future application of TEMPUS, however, the long-term goals of OSDS will include the analysis of extensive tasks in space involving one or more individuals working in concert over a period of time. In this context, the TEMPUS body positioning capability, though extremely useful in creating and validating a small number of particular body positions, will become somewhat tedious to use. The macro facility helps somewhat, since frequently used positions may be easily applied by executing a stored macro. The difference between body positioning and task execution, though subtle, is important. In the case of task execution, the important information at the user's level is what actions are to be performed rather than how the actions are performed. Viewed slightly differently, the what is constant over a set of individuals though the how may vary.

  17. Inland Water Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, S. J.; Lenters, J. D.; Schladow, G.; Healey, N.

    2016-12-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal and implications for ecosystem change in inland waters.

  18. Trends in childhood disease.

    PubMed

    Pallapies, Dirk

    2006-09-28

    Child mortality has declined remarkably during the last decades. While neonatal disorders, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria as well as being underweight account for most of the child deaths worldwide, children's health discussions in Europe and the USA focus on other issues such as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders, male genital malformations, and childhood cancer. There is clear evidence of increasing rates of asthma in various countries during the last decades, although rates in some countries may now have stabilised or even decline as recent UK data indicate. Although an increase in the frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and attention deficit disorder has frequently been discussed, the limited data in this field does not justify such a conclusion. While geographic heterogeneity regarding reproductive outcomes is apparent, global trends have not been identified. Interpretation of the available information on asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders and reproductive outcomes is hampered by inconstant diagnostic criteria over place and time and the lack of good and comprehensive population-based surveillance data, which makes it impossible to ascertain trends in actual disease frequency. Data indicate that developed countries have a gradually increasing incidence in leukaemia with a corresponding drop in the incidence of lymphoma. Increases in brain tumour frequency may be related to the development and wide application of new diagnostic capabilities, rather than a true change in the incidence of malignant disease. With a better prognosis for childhood cancer survival, secondary cancers following chemotherapy appear to be increasing. A wide range of environmental factors is thought to have an impact on children's health. These factors include nutrition (protein, vitamins, antioxidants), lifestyle and behaviour choices such as tobacco and alcohol use, parental health, socio-economic status, choice of living environment (urban versus rural, etc

  19. Fiber Optics Component Testing: Requirements And Trends-Fibers, Cables, Connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, John A.

    1983-03-01

    A review of requirements for testing of fibre optic components is presented, with emphasis on connectors, the connector/cable interface, and fibre and cable parameters affecting the connector/connector interface parameters. The review will be developed from the point of view of an ultimate user of a connectorized cable, and will correlate system requirements with the parameters to be tested and the trends in developing test techniques which properly assign performance responsibility to the cognizant component supplier.

  20. Interface Structure of MoO3 on Organic Semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    White, Robin T.; Thibau, Emmanuel S.; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We have systematically studied interface structure formed by vapor-phase deposition of typical transition metal oxide MoO3 on organic semiconductors. Eight organic hole transport materials have been used in this study. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to measure the evolution of the physical, chemical and electronic structure of the interfaces at various stages of MoO3 deposition on these organic semiconductor surfaces. For the interface physical structure, it is found that MoO3 diffuses into the underlying organic layer, exhibiting a trend of increasing diffusion with decreasing molecular molar mass. For the interface chemical structure, new carbon and molybdenum core-level states are observed, as a result of interfacial electron transfer from organic semiconductor to MoO3. For the interface electronic structure, energy level alignment is observed in agreement with the universal energy level alignment rule of molecules on metal oxides, despite deposition order inversion. PMID:26880185

  1. Interface roughening and pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Stéphane; Hansen, Alex

    1994-04-01

    We study a simple model for thé pinning of an interface by impurities with random strengths, and thé depinning due to thé applied pressure, in a quasi-static propagation lirait. The model is very close to thé so called "Robin Hood" model introduced by Zaitsev. It is designed to describe e.g. thé invasion of a wetting fluid (imbibition) in a heterogeneous porous medium containing a second immiscible fluid. The relation between this model and other previously proposed approaches is discussed. The front of thé invaded domain is shown to develop a self-affine structure with an increase of thé roughness as a power-law of thé injected volume. The value of thé apparent roughness exponent can be favorably compared to some experimental measurements although we argue that thé true roughness exponent is out of reach of commonly used methods. We show that thé distribution f(d, Δ t) of distances d between discrete local invasions at a time interval Δ t can be described by a scaling law f(d, Δ t) = d^{-1}\\varphi(d/sqrt{Δ t}). This form can be obtained from thé identification of a hierarchical structure of "bursts" in thé pressure signal. Those "bursts" are quahtatively similar to those observed in quasistatic drainage, (i.e. invasion percolation), although characterized by différent scaling indices. Nous étudions un modèle simple pour analyser l'accrochage d'une interface sur des impuretés et le décrochage sous l'effet d'une pression appliquée, dans une limite quasi-statique. Ce modèle est très voisin du modèle "Robin Hood" introduit par Zaitsev. Il s'applique en particulier à l'invasion d'un fluide mouillant (imbibition) dans un milieu poreux hétérogène contenant un fluide immiscible. Nous discutons les relations entre ce modèle et d'autres approches proposées pour décrire ce phénomène. Le front d'invasion acquiert une structure auto-affine, avec un développement de la rugosité selon une loi de puissance du volume injecté. La valeur de l

  2. Multimodal Neuroelectric Interface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Totah, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing multimodal neuroelectric technologies for augmented human-system interaction. Neuroelectric technologies will add completely new modes of interaction that operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of real-time electromyographic (EMG) pattern recognition for a direct neuroelectric human-computer interface. We recorded EMG signals from an elastic sleeve with dry electrodes, while a human subject performed a range of discrete gestures. A machine-teaming algorithm was trained to recognize the EMG patterns associated with the gestures and map them to control signals. Successful applications now include piloting two Class 4 aircraft simulations (F-15 and 757) and entering data with a "virtual" numeric keyboard. Current research focuses on on-line adaptation of EMG sensing and processing and recognition of continuous gestures. We are also extending this on-line pattern recognition methodology to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This will allow us to bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. Our system can reliably detect P-rhythm (a periodic EEG signal from motor cortex in the 10 Hz range) with a lightweight headset containing saline-soaked sponge electrodes. The data show that EEG p-rhythm can be modulated by real and imaginary motions. Current research focuses on using biofeedback to train of human subjects to modulate EEG rhythms on demand, and to examine interactions of EEG-based control with EMG-based and manual control. Viewgraphs on these neuroelectric technologies are also included.

  3. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  4. Dynamics of interfaces in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, A.T. )

    1994-08-01

    The dynamics of an interface between the normal and superconducting phases under nonstationary external conditions is studied within the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations of superconductivity, modified to include thermal fluctuations. An equation of motion for the interface is derived in two steps. First, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a diffusion equation for the magnetic field in the normal phase, with nonlinear boundary conditions at the interface. These boundary conditions are a continuity equation which relates the gradient of the field at the interface to the normal velocity of the interface and a modified Gibbs-Thomson boundary condition for the field at the interface. Second, the boundary integral method is used to integrate out the magnetic field in favor of an equation of motion for the interface. This equation of motion, which is highly nonlinear and nonlocal, exhibits a diffusive instability (the Mullins-Sekerka instability) when the superconducting phase expands into the normal phase (i.e., when the external field is reduced below the critical field). In the limit of infinite diffusion constant the equation of motion becomes local in time and can be derived variationally from a static energy functional which includes the bulk-free energy difference between the two phases, the interfacial energy, and a long range self-interaction of the interface of the Biot-Savart form. In this limit the dynamics is identical to the interfacial dynamics of ferrofluid domains recently proposed by S.A. Langer et al. As shown by these authors, the Biot-Savart interaction leads to mechanical instabilities of the interface, resulting in highly branched labyrinthine patterns. The application of these ideas to the study of labyrinthine patterns in the intermediate state of type-I superconductors is briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  5. Nano-size Effect of Interface Energy and Its Effect on Interface Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, L. H.; You, X. M.; Ma, H. S.; Wei, Y. G.

    2010-05-21

    An analytical model about size-dependent interface energy of metal/ceramic interfaces in nanoscale is developed by introducing both the chemical energy and the structure stain energy contributions. The dependence of interface energy on the interface thickness is determined by the melting enthalpy, the molar volume, and the shear modulus of two materials composing the interfaces, etc. The analytic prediction of the interface energy and the atomic scale simulation of the interface fracture strength are compared with each other for Ag/MgO and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces, the fracture strength of the interface with the lower chemical interface energy is found to be larger. The potential of Ag/MgO interface related to the interface energy is calculated, and the interface stress and the interface fracture strength are estimated further. The effect of the interface energy on the interface strength and the behind mechanism are discussed.

  6. Superconducting interfaces between insulating oxides.

    PubMed

    Reyren, N; Thiel, S; Caviglia, A D; Kourkoutis, L Fitting; Hammerl, G; Richter, C; Schneider, C W; Kopp, T; Rüetschi, A-S; Jaccard, D; Gabay, M; Muller, D A; Triscone, J-M; Mannhart, J

    2007-08-31

    At interfaces between complex oxides, electronic systems with unusual electronic properties can be generated. We report on superconductivity in the electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating dielectric perovskite oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. The behavior of the electron gas is that of a two-dimensional superconductor, confined to a thin sheet at the interface. The superconducting transition temperature of congruent with 200 millikelvin provides a strict upper limit to the thickness of the superconducting layer of congruent with 10 nanometers.

  7. ARINC 653 Interface in RTEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, J.; Filipe, S.; Coutinho, M.; Santos, S.; Windsor, J.

    2007-08-01

    The ARINC 653 specification is assuming a key role in the provision of a standard operating system interface for safety-critical applications in the aeronautic market and it is foreseen to acquire a similar status on the space market. The ARINC 653 application interface is inde- pendent from the underlying hardware and from a given operating system implementation. This paper describes how RTEMS, the Real-Time Executive for Multiproces- sor Systems, can be adapted to offer the application interface and the functionality required by the ARINC 653 standard. The use of RTEMS is highly relevant given its qualification for on-board software of unmanned space programs.

  8. Hopping diffusion across material interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, J.; Wallis, R. F.; Balkanski, M.

    1993-11-01

    We generalize a one-dimensional lattice-gas model of particle diffusion across material interfaces to include a finite-width interface region, and an energy barrier at the interface. We use overvoltage measurements on InSe and dielectric loss measurements on B 2O+ 3-0.5 Li 2O-0.15 Li 2SO 4 to determine the hopping rates in the two materials. Numerical and analytical results for the particle density versus position are presented for representative values of the energy barrier and a range of hopping rates. The presence of the energy barrier is found to be a dominant factor in the problem.

  9. Fiber-matrix interface failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabenberg, Lew; Marcus, Harris L.; Park, Hun Sub; Zong, Gui Sheng; Brown, Lloyd D.

    1989-01-01

    Interface fractures of aluminum-graphite composites under transverse loading are expected to occur within the graphite fibers, but very near the interface. Residual stresses in aluminum, reinforced with the new high modulus pitch-based fibers, are much lower than would be expected based on simple elasticity calculations. The excess stress may be relaxed by shearing internal to the fibers or at the interface rather than by plastic flow of the matrix. The internal shearing also occurs during repeated thermal cycling of these composites; the fibers are repeatedly intruded, then extruded, during repeated temperature excursions.

  10. Geophysical trends from 12+ years of AIRS radiance trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Strow, Larrabee; Tangborn, Andrew; Hepplewhite, Chris; Motteler, Howard; Schou, Paul; Buczkowski, Steve

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder has daily been providing low noise, stable top-of-the atmosphere hyperspectral radiances since 2002. Here we present analysis from 12 year linear radiance trends obtained from two AIRS radiance subsets : (1) clear-sky scenes over ocean and (2) all-sky scenes along the nadir track, which are used to retrieve a geophysical trends using an optimal estimation approach. The retrieved clear sky trends compare favorably with ERA and MERRA re-analysis trends, and in-situ trends for the minor gases. Analysis of all-sky trends show they agree better with ERA than either MERRA or the AIRS Level-2 retrievals. The radiance trends provide highly accurate measurements of atmospheric variability with easily understood error characteristics, unlike typical Level 2 retrievals. These approaches should provide highly accurate measurements of a variety of climate trends (temperature and humidity profiles, land surface temperature, cloud radiative forcing) as the AIRS (or AIRS + JPSS/CrIS + IASI) instrument time-series extends to 15+ years.

  11. Trends in nutrients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  12. Suicide: current trends.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates.

  13. [Population trends and poverty].

    PubMed

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  14. Trends in animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  15. Interfacing Microcomputers with Laboratory Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of microcomputer-controlled gamma scintillation spectrometer and chromatographic data analyzer, including design and construction of interface electronics and production of software. Includes diagrams of electric circuits and project evaluation indicating that both instruments functioned as intended. (JN)

  16. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Kitta, Joseph P.

    1994-07-21

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  17. Antisite defects at oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanghui; Millis, Andrew

    We use ab initio calculations to estimate formation energies of cation (transition metal) antisite defects at oxide interfaces and to understand the basic physical effects that drive or suppress the formation of these defects. We find that antisite defects are favored in systems with substantial charge transfer across the interface, while Jahn-Teller distortions and itinerant ferromagnetism can prevent antisite defects and help stabilize atomically sharp interfaces. Our results enable identification of classes of systems that are more and less susceptible to the formation of antisite defects and motivate a range of experimental studies and further theoretical calculations to further explicate the oxide interface systems. This research was supported by National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1120296 (H. Chen) and DOE-ER-046169 (A. J. Millis).

  18. The HEASARC graphical user interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Jacobs, P.; Oneel, B.

    1992-01-01

    An OSF/Motif-based graphical user interface has been developed to facilitate the use of the database and data analysis software packages available from the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC). It can also be used as an interface to other, similar, routines. A small number of tables are constructed to specify the possible commands and command parameters for a given set of analysis routines. These tables can be modified by a designer to affect the appearance of the interface screens. They can also be dynamically changed in response to parameter adjustments made while the underlying program is running. Additionally, a communication protocol has been designed so that the interface can operate locally or across a network. It is intended that this software be able to run on a variety of workstations and X terminals.

  19. Getting a Grip on Interfacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assetto, Antonio R.; Dowden, Edward

    1988-01-01

    Introduces the unique interfacing equipment for measuring muscle strength over time. Explains the materials, setup method, operation, and typical display. Suggests other activities with which to utilize this device. (YP)

  20. SKITTER/implement mechanical interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    SKITTER (Spacial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) is a three-legged transport vehicle designed to perform under the unique environment of the moon. The objective of this project was to design a mechanical interface for SKITTER. This mechanical latching interface will allow SKITTER to use a series of implements such as drills, cranes, etc., and perform different tasks on the moon. The design emphasized versatility and detachability; that is, the interface design is the same for all implements, and connection and detachment is simple. After consideration of many alternatives, a system of three identical latches at each of the three interface points was chosen. The latching mechanism satisfies the design constraints because it facilitates connection and detachment. Also, the moving parts are protected from the dusty environment by housing plates.

  1. Colloids at NAPL-Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Thomas; Metz, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids in subsurface are relevant in the scope of contaminated sites as well as for enhanced oil recovery. In both cases colloids and engineered nanoparticles are applied to increase the efficiency of NAPL removal. Particle tracking experiments using fluoresecent latex beads and opaque particles have been run in micromodels mimicking the pore structure of subsurface media. The results show that the interface between NAPL and water is highly dynamic, especially in its early stage. There is a distinct circular flow pattern at the interface, effectively increasing the interfacial area. Concentration gradients measured with Raman Microspectrometry at low Peclet numbers suggest that the mass transfer of dissolved contaminants from the NAPL into the water is highly affected by the interface dynamics. On the other hand the interfaces themselves are less accessible, which has implications for the remediation of contaminated sites.

  2. Brain-Computer Interface Workshop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    At a g.tec-sponsored Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) workshop at the National Institute of Aerospace in Hampton, Va., volunteers were able to spell out words on a computer screen using using a g.tec...

  3. Electronic interfaces to silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Cox, Jonathan A.; Zortman, William A.; Savignon, Daniel J.

    2014-03-01

    We describe the interface circuits to silicon photonics modulators, optical filters, and detectors that will be required to enable silicon photonics micro-ring and micro-disk devices to be integrated in dense wavelength division multiplexing circuitry.

  4. Superfluid interfaces in quantum solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burovski, Evgeni; Kuklov, Anatoly; Prokof'ev, Nikolay

    2005-03-01

    One scenario for the non-classical moment of inertia of solid ^4He discovered by Kim and Chan [Science, 305, 1941 (2004)] is the superfluidity of micro-crystallite interfaces. On the basis of the most simple model of a quantum crystal---the checkerboard lattice solid---we show that the superfluidity of interfaces between solid domains can exist in a wide range of parameters. At strong enough inter-particle interaction, a superfluid interface becomes an insulator via a quantum phase transition. Under the conditions of particle-hole symmetry, the transition is of the standard U(1) universality class in d=3 , while in d=2 the onset of superfluidity is accompanied by the interface roughening, driven by fractionally charged topological excitations.

  5. Superfluid Interfaces in Quantum Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burovski, Evgeni; Kozik, Evgeni; Kuklov, Anatoly; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2005-04-01

    One scenario for the nonclassical moment of inertia of solid 4He discovered by Kim and Chan [Nature (London), NATUAS, 0028-0836 427, 225 (2004), 10.1038/nature02220] is the superfluidity of microcrystallite interfaces. On the basis of the most simple model of a quantum crystal—the checkerboard lattice solid—we show that the superfluidity of interfaces between solid domains can exist in a wide range of parameters. At strong enough interparticle interaction, a superfluid interface becomes an insulator via a quantum phase transition. Under the conditions of particle-hole symmetry, the transition is of the standard U(1) universality class in 3D, while in 2D the onset of superfluidity is accompanied by the interface roughening, driven by fractionally charged topological excitations.

  6. Interfacing with an EVA Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2011-01-01

    A NASA spacesuit under the EVA Technology Domain consists of a suit system; a PLSS; and a Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) system. Ross described the basic functions, components, and interfaces of the PLSS, which consists of oxygen, ventilation, and thermal control subsystems; electronics; and interfaces. Design challenges were reviewed from a packaging perspective. Ross also discussed the development of the PLSS over the last two decades.

  7. Laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface (LVABI) was developed to serve as the interface between three laser velocimeter high speed burst counters and a minicomputer. A functional description is presented of the instrument and its unique features which allow the studies of flow velocity vector analysis, turbulence power spectra, and conditional sampling of other phenomena. Typical applications of the laser velocimeter using the LVABI are presented to illustrate its various capabilities.

  8. Satellite services handbook. Interface guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Satellite interfaces for on orbit servicing, both manned and unmanned are identified, and is intended to be used by designers of space vehicles, both foreign and domestic. A primary concern is for design of interfaces with the astronaut in the loop, especially extravehicular activity, but also intravehicular activity and operations that are remote but have man-in-the-loop. The main emphasis is on servicing in low earth orbits from the Space Shuttle and also from the Space Station or other platforms.

  9. The theory of interface slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a new tool which was developed to facilitate reuse-based software engineering, by addressing the following problems, needs, and issues: (1) size of systems incorporating reused modules; (2) knowledge requirements for program modification; (3) program understanding for reverse engineering; (4) module granularity and domain management; and (5) time and space complexity of conventional slicing. The definition of a form of static program analysis called interface slicing is addressed.

  10. Satellite services handbook. Interface guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Satellite interfaces for on orbit servicing, both manned and unmanned are identified, and is intended to be used by designers of space vehicles, both foreign and domestic. A primary concern is for design of interfaces with the astronaut in the loop, especially extravehicular activity, but also intravehicular activity and operations that are remote but have man-in-the-loop. The main emphasis is on servicing in low earth orbits from the Space Shuttle and also from the Space Station or other platforms.

  11. Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, Reza; Golyshev, V. D.; Gonik, M.; Tsvetivsky, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The major focus of this investigation is to study the fundamentals of layer spreading mechanisms during growth of doped Ge (a facet forming material), and to determine the conditions for morphological instability of vicinal solid-liquid interfaces. The investigation will also lead to the determination of the effect of dopants on the layer growth kinetics, step free energy, and dopant capture by the advancing ledges. The theoretical treatment of growth of faceted interfaces indicates that the kinetics of a step on a growing vicinal interface considerably depends on its angle of inclination, the melt concentration, and characteristics of flow currents in the melt. The morphological stability of the interface also depends on these parameters, as well as on the density and spreading velocity of the steps. However, the treatment of the instability of the interface by the layer growth mechanism is rather difficult because it requires exact knowledge of the thermal and solutal fields, hydrodynamics of the melt, and supercooling at the interface. The results of recent space experiments of the principal investigator involving directional solidification of faceted Bi-Sn alloys have shown that the morphological stability of various crystallographic orientations is significantly affected by the anistropy in interfacial properties of the faceted alloy in general, and the interface kinetics in particular. These findings have also raised many important and fundamental questions, particularly with respect to the behavior of interfacial steps, which need to be addressed via additional groundbased and microgravity experiments. For the present investigation we will use a novel crystal growth technique which provides axial heat flux close to the solid-liquid boundary. The Axial Heat Processing (AHP) technique allows for precise control and determination of the heat and mass transfer close to the crystallization front, and the establishment of a planar interface over the entire cross

  12. Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, Reza; Golyshev, V. D.; Gonik, M.; Tsvetivsky, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The major focus of this investigation is to study the fundamentals of layer spreading mechanisms during growth of doped Ge (a facet forming material), and to determine the conditions for morphological instability of vicinal solid-liquid interfaces. The investigation will also lead to the determination of the effect of dopants on the layer growth kinetics, step free energy, and dopant capture by the advancing ledges. The theoretical treatment of growth of faceted interfaces indicates that the kinetics of a step on a growing vicinal interface considerably depends on its angle of inclination, the melt concentration, and characteristics of flow currents in the melt. The morphological stability of the interface also depends on these parameters, as well as on the density and spreading velocity of the steps. However, the treatment of the instability of the interface by the layer growth mechanism is rather difficult because it requires exact knowledge of the thermal and solutal fields, hydrodynamics of the melt, and supercooling at the interface. The results of recent space experiments of the principal investigator involving directional solidification of faceted Bi-Sn alloys have shown that the morphological stability of various crystallographic orientations is significantly affected by the anistropy in interfacial properties of the faceted alloy in general, and the interface kinetics in particular. These findings have also raised many important and fundamental questions, particularly with respect to the behavior of interfacial steps, which need to be addressed via additional groundbased and microgravity experiments. For the present investigation we will use a novel crystal growth technique which provides axial heat flux close to the solid-liquid boundary. The Axial Heat Processing (AHP) technique allows for precise control and determination of the heat and mass transfer close to the crystallization front, and the establishment of a planar interface over the entire cross

  13. Coal-shale interface detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  14. Coal-shale interface detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  15. TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of regional trends in atmospheric concentrations in sulfur dioxide (502) and particulate sulfate (50~- ) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CAsTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used t...

  16. Trends in Digital Media 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The world of CALL is changing rapidly, but there are three major trends that can be perceived as significant to language teaching and learning and likely to remain so over the next several years. This paper will discuss these trends--convergence, searchability, and collaboration--and offer examples of interesting websites that illustrate them.…

  17. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  18. 10 Core External Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    This is an institutional report summarizing 10 core external environmental trends and their implications for El Camino College and the surrounding community. The report offers a brief description for the following trends: (1) there is more emphasis on colleges becoming learning institutions rather than teaching institutions; (2) the current and…

  19. Trends Shaping Education--2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This new biennial publication presents the latest available information on 26 major current trends in education, grouped in 9 broad themes (ageing, global challenges, the new economic landscape, work and jobs, the learning society, ICT, citizenship and the state, social connections and values, and sustainable affluence). For each trend, there is a…

  20. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  1. Health Trends among College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    Trends in college freshmen's health nationwide based on an annual survey administered from 1966-95 are described, highlighting alcohol and drugs, physical health, psychological health, and sexual attitudes. Major trends include declines in beer drinking and physical and emotional self-confidence, and increase in stress and cigarette smoking. (SM)

  2. Trends Shaping Education--2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This new biennial publication presents the latest available information on 26 major current trends in education, grouped in 9 broad themes (ageing, global challenges, the new economic landscape, work and jobs, the learning society, ICT, citizenship and the state, social connections and values, and sustainable affluence). For each trend, there is a…

  3. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  4. HRD Future and Trends. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on the future of human resource development (HRD) and trends in HRD. "Searching for the Future of Human Resource Development" (Wendy E.A. Ruona, Susan A. Lynham, Tom Chermack) reports on a survey of 55 HRD and HRD-related practitioners and academics that examined trends in the HRD…

  5. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  6. Diablo Valley College Trends, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les; And Others

    This report provides 31 charts showing trends in enrollment; transfer students; and ethnic and gender characteristics of students, faculty, and staff at Diablo Valley College (DVC), in California, up to fall 1992. Following a brief introduction highlighting statewide trends, charts are provided for the following areas: (1) DVC fall enrollments…

  7. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  8. General Achievement Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  10. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  11. Trends in Philippine Library History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Vicente S.

    This paper divides Philippine library history into three periods, establishing a relationship between historical events and library trends. During the Spanish period, modern library trends were introduced through the establishment of the Sociedad Economica in 1780, but did not influence Philippine library culture until the later part of the 19th…

  12. TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of regional trends in atmospheric concentrations in sulfur dioxide (502) and particulate sulfate (50~- ) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CAsTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used t...

  13. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  14. Spoken Dialogue Interfaces: Integrating Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; Stavropoulou, Pepi; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    Usability is a fundamental requirement for natural language interfaces. Usability evaluation reflects the impact of the interface and the acceptance from the users. This work examines the potential of usability evaluation in terms of issues and methodologies for spoken dialogue interfaces along with the appropriate designer-needs analysis. It unfolds the perspective to the usability integration in the spoken language interface design lifecycle and provides a framework description for creating and testing usable content and applications for conversational interfaces. Main concerns include the problem identification of design issues for usability design and evaluation, the use of customer experience for the design of voice interfaces and dialogue, and the problems that arise from real-life deployment. Moreover it presents a real-life paradigm of a hands-on approach for applying usability methodologies in a spoken dialogue application environment to compare against a DTMF approach. Finally, the scope and interpretation of results from both the designer and the user standpoint of usability evaluation are discussed.

  15. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  16. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  17. Interfaces in supersymmetric field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galakhov, Dmitrii

    Supersymmetry has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of non-perturbative dynamics in quantum field theory, gravity and string theory. In this thesis we consider supersymmetric interfaces. Interfaces are defects defined by spatially changing coupling constants. Interfaces can be used to probe the non-perturbative low energy dynamics of an underlying supersymmetric quantum field theory. We study interfaces in a set of four-dimensional quantum field theories with N = 2 supersymmetry known as theories of class S. Using these defects we probe the spin content of the spectrum of quantum states saturating the Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld bound. We also apply supersymmetric defects to the construction of knot and link invariants via quantum field theory. We associate to a knot -- presented as a tangle -- an interface de ned by a spatially varying superpotential in a 2d supersymmetric Landau-Ginzburg model. We construct explicitly the Hilbert space of ground states on this interface as the cohomology of a nilpotent supercharge and prove that this Hilbert space is bi-graded by integers and is an invariant of the knot (or link). In explicit examples we show that the corresponding Poincare polynomial coincides with the Poincar e polynomial of the renowned Khovanov homology that categori es the Jones polynomial.

  18. Adaptive interface for spoken dialog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusan, Sorin; Flanagan, James

    2002-05-01

    Speech has become increasingly important in human-computer interaction. Spoken dialog interfaces rely on automatic speech recognition, speech synthesis, language understanding, and dialog management. A main issue in dialog systems is that they typically are limited to pre-programmed vocabularies and sets of sentences. The research reported here focuses on developing an adaptive spoken dialog interface capable of acquiring new linguistic units and their corresponding semantics during the human-computer interaction. The adaptive interface identifies unknown words and phrases in the users utterances and asks the user for the corresponding semantics. The user can provide the meaning or the semantic representation of the new linguistic units through multiple modalities, including speaking, typing, pointing, touching, or showing. The interface then stores the new linguistic units in a semantic grammar and creates new objects defining the corresponding semantic representation. This process takes place during natural interaction between user and computer and, thus, the interface does not have to be rewritten and compiled to incorporate the newly acquired language. Users can personalize the adaptive spoken interface for different domain applications, or according to their personal preferences. [Work supported by NSF.

  19. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  20. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications are presented in this standard. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. This document should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology: it generally connotes quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this document. The basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends along with relevant examples are presented.

  1. Global fertility and population trends.

    PubMed

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends.

  2. Case study on the evolution of hetero-oligomer interfaces based on the differences in paralogous proteins

    PubMed Central

    Aoto, Saki; Yura, Kei

    2015-01-01

    We addressed the evolutionary trace of hetero-oligomer interfaces by comparing the structures of paralogous proteins; one of them is a monomer or homo-oligomer and the other is a hetero-oligomer. We found different trends in amino acid conservation pattern and hydrophobicity between homo-oligomer and hetero-oligomer. The degree of amino acid conservation in the interface of homo-oligomer has no obvious difference from that in the surface, whereas the degree of conservation is much higher in the interface of hetero-oligomer. The interface of homo-oligomer has a few very conserved residue positions, whereas the residue conservation in the interface of hetero-oligomer tends to be higher. In addition, the interface of hetero-oligomer has a tendency of being more hydrophobic compared with the one in homo-oligomer. We conjecture that these differences are related to the inherent symmetry in homo-oligomers that cannot exist in hetero-oligomers. Paucity of the structural data precludes statistical tests of these tendencies, yet the trend can be applied to the prediction of the interface of hetero-oligomer. We obtained putative interfaces of the subunits in CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor), one of the human pre-mRNA 3′-processing complexes. The locations of predicted interface residues were consistent with the known experimental data. PMID:27493859

  3. Energy conversion and fuel production from electrochemical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Nenad

    2012-02-01

    Design and synthesis of energy efficient and stable electrochemical interfaces (materials and double layer components) with tailor properties for accelerating and directing chemical transformations is the key to developing new alternative energy systems -- fuel cells, electrolizers and batteries. In aqueous electrolytes, depending on the nature of the reacting species, the supporting electrolyte, and the metal electrodes, two types of interactions have traditionally been considered: (i) direct -- covalent - bond formation between adsorbates and electrodes, involving chemisorption, electron transfer, and release of the ion hydration shell; and (ii) relatively weak non-covalent metal-ion forces that may affect the concentration of ions in the vicinity of the electrode but do not involve direct metal-adsorbate bonding. The range of physical phenomena associated with these two classes of bonds is unusually broad, and are of paramount importance to understand activity of both metal-electrolyte two phase interfaces and metal-Nafion-electrolyte three phase interfaces. Furthermore, in the past, researcher working in the field of fuel cells (converting hydrogen and oxygen into water) and electrolyzers (splitting water back to H2 and O2) ) seldom focused on understanding the electrochemical compliments of these reactions in battery systems, e.g., the lithium-air system. In this lecture, we address the importance of both covalent and non-covalent interactions in controlling catalytic activity at the two-phase and three-phase interfaces. Although the field is still in its infancy, a great deal has already been learned and trends are beginning to emerge that give new insight into the relationship between the nature of bonding interactions and catalytic activity/stability of electrochemical interfaces. In addition, to bridge the gap between the ``water battery'' (fuel cell <-> electrolyzer) and the Li-air battery systems we demonstrate that this would require fundamentally new

  4. Developing a Critical View on E-Learning Trend Reports: Trend Watching or Trend Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Trend watching reports are an indispensable resource in the e-learning domain. Many HRD departments consider these reports as essential cornerstones for the development of their e-learning strategy. But what is the quality of the forecasts made in these reports? In this article, several methods of forecasting trends are discussed, resulting in a…

  5. Developing a Critical View on E-Learning Trend Reports: Trend Watching or Trend Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Trend watching reports are an indispensable resource in the e-learning domain. Many HRD departments consider these reports as essential cornerstones for the development of their e-learning strategy. But what is the quality of the forecasts made in these reports? In this article, several methods of forecasting trends are discussed, resulting in a…

  6. [Fertility trends in Haiti].

    PubMed

    Guengant, J; May, J F

    1992-01-01

    5 surveys and the 1971 and 1981 censuses have provided differing and apparently contradictory assessments of fertility levels in Haiti over the past 2 decades. This work surveys the published fertility estimates to ascertain whether any trends are discernable and analyzes to what extent variations in total fertility rates can be explained by variations in proximate fertility determinants. 3 methods of data collection were used in the surveys. The 1971-73 survey was conducted in multiple rounds. The 1977 Haiti Fertility Survey, the 1987 Survey of Mortality, Morbidity, and Service Utilization, and the 1989 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey involved partial or total reconstruction of the respondents' fertility histories. The 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey only included the date of the most recent birth. The data corresponding to the 1970s suggest an overall fertility decline from 6 children per women in the late 1960s to slightly over 5 in the mid-1970s. Results of the 1983 and 1987 surveys, on the other hand, indicate a fertility increase, with total fertility rates of 6.2 for 1982-83, 6.3 for 1982-86, and 7.0 for the first half of 1987. The 1989 survey indicated a total fertility rate of 4.6 for 1984-89. Two somewhat different conclusions may be drawn from the data. The first is that, taking into account the variable quality and precision of the data, Haitian total fertility rates appear to have remained between 5.5 and 6.5 during the past 20 years. This conclusion is supported by the fact that almost all of the observed and adjusted total fertility rates fall within the range of 5.5-6.5. The second possible conclusion is that after a decline from around 6 in the late 1960s to 5.5 in the mid-1970s, the total fertility rate increased again to over 6 in the early 1980s. The linear adjustment of observed and adjusted results of the 5 surveys lends support to this conclusion. Analysis of results of the 1977, 1983, and 1987 surveys using Brass's method tends to

  7. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  8. Work-Family Interface for Same-Sex, Dual-Earner Couples: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.

    2005-01-01

    The author highlights information for career counselors to consider when addressing work-family interface with individuals who are members of same-sex, dual-earner couples or families. D. E. Super's (1990) life-span, life-space theory is the framework used to organize the literature review and discussion of current trends. Issues related to the…

  9. User Interfaces for Patient-Centered Communication of Health Status and Care Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox-Patterson, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend toward patients participating in their own healthcare has opened up numerous opportunities for computing research. This dissertation focuses on how technology can foster this participation, through user interfaces to effectively communicate personal health status and care progress to hospital patients. I first characterize the…

  10. Human influences on forest ecosystems: the southern wildland-urban interface assessment

    Treesearch

    Edward A. Macie; L. Annie Hermansen; [Editors

    2002-01-01

    This publication provides a review of critical wildland-urban interface issues, challenges, and needs for the Southern United States. Chapter topics include population and demographic trends; economic and tax issues; land use planning and policy; urban effects on forest ecosystems; challenges for forest resource management and conservation; social consequences of...

  11. User Interfaces for Patient-Centered Communication of Health Status and Care Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox-Patterson, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend toward patients participating in their own healthcare has opened up numerous opportunities for computing research. This dissertation focuses on how technology can foster this participation, through user interfaces to effectively communicate personal health status and care progress to hospital patients. I first characterize the…

  12. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  13. Trends at a Glance | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Methodology for Characterizing Trends | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Operations Interface Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Paul M.; Takallu, M. A.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Weiser, Jarold; Turner, Dexter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of proposed cockpit interfaces to support Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) operations for aircraft performing dependent parallel approaches (DPA). NASA has proposed an airborne system called Pair Dependent Speed (PDS) which uses their Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) algorithm to manage spacing intervals. Interface elements were designed to facilitate the input of APS-DPA spacing parameters to ASTAR, and to convey PDS system information to the crew deemed necessary and/or helpful to conduct the operation, including: target speed, guidance mode, target aircraft depiction, and spacing trend indication. In the study, subject pilots observed recorded simulations using the proposed interface elements in which the ownship managed assigned spacing intervals from two other arriving aircraft. Simulations were recorded using the Aircraft Simulation for Traffic Operations Research (ASTOR) platform, a medium-fidelity simulator based on a modern Boeing commercial glass cockpit. Various combinations of the interface elements were presented to subject pilots, and feedback was collected via structured questionnaires. The results of subject pilot evaluations show that the proposed design elements were acceptable, and that preferable combinations exist within this set of elements. The results also point to potential improvements to be considered for implementation in future experiments.

  16. Physics through the 1990s: Scientific interfaces and technological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The volume examines the scientific interfaces and technological applications of physics. Twelve areas are dealt with: biological physics-biophysics, the brain, and theoretical biology; the physics-chemistry interface-instrumentation, surfaces, neutron and synchrotron radiation, polymers, organic electronic materials; materials science; geophysics-tectonics, the atmosphere and oceans, planets, drilling and seismic exploration, and remote sensing; computational physics-complex systems and applications in basic research; mathematics-field theory and chaos; microelectronics-integrated circuits, miniaturization, future trends; optical information technologies-fiber optics and photonics; instrumentation; physics applications to energy needs and the environment; national security-devices, weapons, and arms control; medical physics-radiology, ultrasonics, MNR, and photonics. An executive summary and many chapters contain recommendations regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs.

  17. Physics through the 1990s: Scientific interfaces and technological applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume examines the scientific interfaces and technological applications of physics. Twelve areas are dealt with: biological physics-biophysics, the brain, and theoretical biology; the physics-chemistry interface-instrumentation, surfaces, neutron and synchrotron radiation, polymers, organic electronic materials; materials science; geophysics-tectonics, the atmosphere and oceans, planets, drilling and seismic exploration, and remote sensing; computational physics-complex systems and applications in basic research; mathematics-field theory and chaos; microelectronics-integrated circuits, miniaturization, future trends; optical information technologies-fiber optics and photonics; instrumentation; physics applications to energy needs and the environment; national security-devices, weapons, and arms control; medical physics-radiology, ultrasonics, MNR, and photonics. An executive summary and many chapters contain recommendations regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs.

  18. Fluxes across a thermohaline interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, M.; Lueck, R. G.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of velocity and temperature microstructure and hydrography were made with a towed vehicle moving in and around a single interface in a double-diffusive staircase. The interface was traversed 222 times in a saw-tooth pattern over a track 35 km long. The salinity and potential temperature and density in the mixed layers adjacent to the interface were spatially uniform except for one 8 km long anomaly. The rate of dissipation of kinetic energy was uniformly low in the interface and in the mixed layers, except for one section 600 m long where a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability generated turbulence. For the non-turbulent section of the interface, the mean rate of dissipation was 30.2 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the mixed layers and 9.5 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the interface. The non-dimensional dissipation rate, ɛ/vN 2, was almost always less than 16 in the interface and therfore, there was no turblent buoyancy flux according to ROHRet al. (1988, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 195, 77-111). The average double-diffusive flux of buoyancy by heat was 3.6 × 10 -10 W kg -1. Under certain assumptions the ratio of the flux of buoyancy by heat and salt can be estimated to be 0.53 ± 0.10, in good agreement with laboratory and theoretical estimates for salt fingers. The average Cox number was about 8 in the interface, consistent with the theories of STERN (1975, Ocean circulation physics, Academic Press) and KUNZE (1987, Journal of Marine Research, 45 533-556), but displayed an inverse dependence on the vertical temperature gradient which was not predicted. As a result, the flux of buoyancy, as well as the individual contributions by heat and salt, were independent of the local mean vertical temperature gradient and the buoyancy frequency. The length of the turbulent section of the interface was only 1.7% of the total length observed. However, the turbulence was intense—the mean rate of dissipation was 2.5 × 10 -8 W kg -1—and may have sufficiently enhanced the flux of heat to

  19. An Overview of U.S. Trends in Educational Software Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Linda B.

    1989-01-01

    Describes trends in educational software design in the United States for elementary and secondary education. Highlights include user-friendly software; learner control; interfacing the computer with other media, including television, telecommunications networks, and optical disk technology; microworlds; graphics; word processing; database…

  20. Nitrate Trends in Minnesota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wall, Dave; Christopherson, Dave; Lorenz, Dave; Martin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term trends (30 to 35 years) of flow-adjusted concentrations of nitrite+nitrate-N (hereinafter referred to as nitrate) in a way that would allow us to discern changing trends. Recognizing that these trends are commonly different from one river to another river and from one part of the state to another, our objective was to examine as many river monitoring sites across the state as possible for which sufficient long term streamflow and concentration data were available.

  1. Interface dynamics of competing tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podewitz, Nils; Jülicher, Frank; Gompper, Gerhard; Elgeti, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Tissues can be characterized by their homeostatic stress, i.e. the value of stress for which cell division and cell death balance. When two different tissues grow in competition, a difference of their homeostatic stresses determines which tissue grows at the expense of the second. This then leads to the propagation of the interface separating the tissues. Here, we study structural and dynamical properties of this interface by combining continuum theory with mesoscopic simulations of a cell-based model. Using a simulation box that moves with the interface, we find that a stationary state exists in which the interface has a finite width and propagates with a constant velocity. The propagation velocity in the simulations depends linearly on the homeostatic stress difference, in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions. This agreement is also seen for the stress and velocity profiles. Finally, we analyzed the interface growth and roughness as a function of time and system size. We estimated growth and roughness exponents, which differ from those previously obtained for simple tissue growth.

  2. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  3. Interface fluctuations during rapid drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, Monem; Toussaint, Renaud; Schäfer, Gerhard; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Moura, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    We experimentally study the interface dynamics of an immiscible fluid as it invades a monolayer of saturated porous medium through rapid drainage. The seemingly stable and continuous motion of the interface at macroscale, involves numerous abrupt pore-scale jumps and local reconfigurations of the interface. By computing the velocity fluctuations along the invasion front from sequences of images captured at high frame rate, we are able to study both the local and global behavior. The latter displays an intermittent behavior with power-law distributed avalanches in size and duration. As the system is drained potential surface energy is stored at the interface up to a given threshold in pressure. The energy released generates elastic waves at the confining plate, which we detect using piezoelectric type acoustic sensors. By detecting pore-scale events emanating from the depinning of the interface, we look to develop techniques for localizing the displacement front. To assess the quality of these techniques, optical monitoring is done in parallel using a high speed camera.

  4. Active matter clusters at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development and flocks of birds. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit whose movement depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed clusters which exert forces but no active torques, encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds and clusters with active torques, they show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times, becoming trapped at the interface and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection of the low velocity clusters. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  5. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casajus Ramo, A.; Sapunov, M.

    2010-04-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  6. Geophysical trends from 12+ years of AIRS radiance trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Strow, L. L.; Tangborn, A.; Hepplewhite, C.; Motteler, H.

    2014-12-01

    AIRS has been providing low noise, stable top-of-the atmospherehyperspectral radiances since 2002. In this presentation we use tworadiance subsets; (1) clear-sky scenes over ocean and (2) all-skyscenes along the nadir track. The linear trends of the AIRS spectralradiances are used to retrieve a variety of geophysical trends usingan optimal estimation approach. These retrieved clear sky trendscompare favorably with ERA and MERRA re-analysis trends, and in-situtrends for the minor gases. Preliminary analysis of all-sky trends(using radiance time derivatives) agree better with ERA than eitherMERRA or the AIRS Level-2 retrievals. Trends in cloud radiativeforcing are also examined using probability distribution functions(pdfs) of the AIRS radiances for regional subsets. These are comparedto ERA simulated radiances. These radiance and radiance PDF trendsprovide highly accurate measurements of atmospheric variability witheasily understood error characteristics, unlike Level 2 retrievals.These analysis approaches should provide highly accurate measurementsof a variety of climate trends (temperature and humidity profiles,land surface temperature, cloud radiative forcing) as the AIRS (orAIRS + JPSS/CrIS) instrument time-series soon extends to 15+ years.

  7. EVA-glass interface bond stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The ethylene vinyl acetate/glass interface bond stability was investigated. Special methods to determine the structure of polymer/glass interface were developed. Structural changes related to hydrothermal degradation of polymer/glass interface are examined. Methods to inhibit the degradation reaction which occur at polymer/glass interface are developed.

  8. The Evaluation of Interface Design on CDROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer; Slack, Frances

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the design and evaluation of user interfaces on CD-ROM. Defines interfaces, dialogs and interaction and explores diversity in, and issues associated with, standardization in interface design for CD-ROMs. Reviews current criteria and guidelines for the evaluation of CD-ROM interfaces and proposes alternative guidelines.…

  9. Human/Computer Interfacing in Educational Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarti, Luigi

    1992-01-01

    This discussion of educational applications of user interfaces covers the benefits of adopting database techniques in organizing multimedia materials; the evolution of user interface technology, including teletype interfaces, analogic overlay graphics, window interfaces, and adaptive systems; application design problems, including the…

  10. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  11. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  12. Industry sources of trend data - skiing

    Treesearch

    William F., Jr. Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    With precious few exceptions, ski industry trend data does not exist. This paper will enumerate sources of trend data known to the author. The paper considers the probable causes of the lack of ski industry trend data and means to ameliorate the lack of trend data. Finally, the paper presents a rationale for acquiring improved ski industry trend data.

  13. Nanofluidic interfaces in microfluidic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Millet, Larry J.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-09-24

    The integration of nano- and microfluidic technologies enables the construction of tunable interfaces to physical and biological systems across relevant length scales. The ability to perform chemical manipulations of miniscule sample volumes is greatly enhanced through these technologies and extends the ability to manipulate and sample the local fluidic environments at subcellular, cellular and community or tissue scales. Here we describe the development of a flexible surface micromachining process for the creation of nanofluidic channel arrays integrated within SU-8 microfluidic networks. The use of a semi-porous, silicon rich, silicon nitride structural layer allows rapid release of the sacrificial silicon dioxide during the nanochannel fabrication. Nanochannel openings that form the interface to biological samples are customized using focused ion beam milling. The compatibility of these interfaces with on-chip microbial culture is demonstrated.

  14. The transmission interface constraint problem

    SciTech Connect

    Baldick, R.; Kahn, E.

    1993-10-01

    Electric power transmission systems exhibit a number of complex constraints on their operation and usage. When a network is subject to a constraint that limits the amount of power that can be moved from one region to another, there is said to be an interface limit. The power systems literature gives no general treatment of the engineering-economics of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Particular aspects of interface limits are typically discussed in sophisticated technical detail, but the general engineering-economic trade-offs involved in relieving interface constraints have not been systematically addressed. We approach this problem in the spirit of a heuristic model. Such models are quite valuable under current industry conditions because they delineate technical opportunities and choices in situations where there may be conflicting views among competing parties and regulatory authorities. We organize and enumerate the choices, clarify the practical conditions that dictate the optimum in particular cases, and help to motivate the final choices made by planners.

  15. Usable Interface Design for Everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Lozano, Carlos; Salcines, Enrique García; Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; Ramírez, José Miguel; Recellado, José Gabriel Zato; Montoya, Rafael Sanchez; Bell, John; Marin, Francisco Alcantud

    When designing "interfaces for everyone" for interactive systems, it is important to consider factors such as cost, the intended market, the state of the environment, etc. User interfaces are fundamental for the developmental process in any application, and its design must be contemplated from the start. Of the distinct parts of a system (hardware and software), it is the interface that permits the user access to computer resources. The seven principles of "Universal Design" or "Design for Everyone" focus on a universal usable design, but at the same time acknowledge the influences of internal and external factors. Structural changes in social and health services could provide an increase in the well-being of a country's citizens through the use of self-care programming and proactive management/prevention of disease. Automated home platforms can act as an accessibility instrument which permits users to avoid, compensate, mitigate, or neutralize the deficiencies and dependencies caused by living alone.

  16. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  17. Interfacing with the Computational Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew; Fetz, Eberhard E.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience is just beginning to understand the neural computations that underlie our remarkable capacity to learn new motor tasks. Studies of natural movements have emphasized the importance of concepts such as dimensionality reduction within hierarchical levels of redundancy, optimization of behavior in the presence of sensorimotor noise and internal models for predictive control. These concepts also provide a framework for understanding the improvements in performance seen in myoelectric-controlled interface (MCI) and brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigms. Recent experiments reveal how volitional activity in the motor system combines with sensory feedback to shape neural representations and drives adaptation of behavior. By elucidating these mechanisms, a new generation of intelligent interfaces can be designed to exploit neural plasticity and restore function after neurological injury. PMID:21659037

  18. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  19. Intersurf: dynamic interface between proteins.

    PubMed

    Ray, Nicolas; Cavin, Xavier; Paul, Jean-Claude; Maigret, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Protein docking is a fundamental biological process that links two proteins. This link is typically defined by an interaction between two large zones of the protein boundaries. Visualizing such an interface is useful to understand the process thanks to 3D protein structures, to estimate the quality of docking simulation results, and to classify interactions in order to predict docking affinity between classes of interacting zones. Since the interface may be defined by a surface that separates the two proteins, it is possible to create a map of interaction that allows comparisons to be performed in 2D. This paper presents a very fast algorithm that extracts an interface surface and creates a valid and low-distorted interaction map. Another benefit of our approach is that a pre-computed part of the algorithm enables the surface to be updated in real-time while residues are moved.

  20. Nanofluidic interfaces in microfluidic networks

    DOE PAGES

    Millet, Larry J.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-09-24

    The integration of nano- and microfluidic technologies enables the construction of tunable interfaces to physical and biological systems across relevant length scales. The ability to perform chemical manipulations of miniscule sample volumes is greatly enhanced through these technologies and extends the ability to manipulate and sample the local fluidic environments at subcellular, cellular and community or tissue scales. Here we describe the development of a flexible surface micromachining process for the creation of nanofluidic channel arrays integrated within SU-8 microfluidic networks. The use of a semi-porous, silicon rich, silicon nitride structural layer allows rapid release of the sacrificial silicon dioxidemore » during the nanochannel fabrication. Nanochannel openings that form the interface to biological samples are customized using focused ion beam milling. The compatibility of these interfaces with on-chip microbial culture is demonstrated.« less

  1. Computational Approaches to Interface Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Tools which make use of computational processes - mathematical, algorithmic and/or knowledge-based - to perform portions of the design, evaluation and/or construction of interfaces have become increasingly available and powerful. Nevertheless, there is little agreement as to the appropriate role for a computational tool to play in the interface design process. Current tools fall into broad classes depending on which portions, and how much, of the design process they automate. The purpose of this panel is to review and generalize about computational approaches developed to date, discuss the tasks which for which they are suited, and suggest methods to enhance their utility and acceptance. Panel participants represent a wide diversity of application domains and methodologies. This should provide for lively discussion about implementation approaches, accuracy of design decisions, acceptability of representational tradeoffs and the optimal role for a computational tool to play in the interface design process.

  2. Trends in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Darrell

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed the views of both clinical and counseling psychologists regarding current trends in counseling and psychotherapy. Found psychoanalysis to be declining in popularity, while cognitive-behavioral options represented one of the strongest theoretical emphases today. (Author/GC)

  3. Arsenic | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. [Recent demographic trends in Luxembourg].

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    Demographic trends in Luxembourg are reviewed for 1981. Sections are included on fertility; mortality; population change, including natural increase and migration; nuptiality and divorce; and family-related legislation. Preliminary data for the first half of 1982 are also included.

  5. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  6. Prevention | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Home | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Acknowledgements | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Temperature Trends in Montane Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Sadro, S.; Jellison, R.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term temperature trends in lakes integrate hydrological and meteorological factors. We examine temperature trends in a small montane lake with prolonged ice-cover and large seasonal snowfall and in a large saline lake. Emerald Lake, located in the Sierra Nevada (California), is representative of high-elevation lakes throughout the region. No significant trend in outflow temperature was apparent from 1991to 2012. Snowfall in the watershed accounted for 93% of the variability in average summer lake temperatures. Mono Lake (California) lies in a closed, montane basin and is hypersaline and monomictic or meromictic. Temperature profiles have been collected from 1982 to 2010. In the upper water column, the July-August-September water temperatures increased 0.8-1.0°C over the 29 years. This rate of warming is less than published estimates based on satellite-derived skin temperatures and will discussed in the context of general limnological interpretation of temperature trends.

  10. Sunburn | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Healthy food trends -- brussels sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... the vitamin C is lost with this cooking method. Where to Find Brussels Sprouts Brussels sprouts are ... with the sauce. Source: United States Department of Agriculture Alternative Names Healthy food trends - Brussels cabbage; Healthy ...

  12. Survival | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Incidence | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Cadmium | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Diagnosis | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Benzene | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Radon | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Nitrate | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Mortality | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Weight | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. American Trends in School Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passantino, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses school design trends for increasing student populations and accommodating new teaching paradigms and technology. Also discussed is school planning and the question of whom the school of the future should serve and its role in the community. (GR)

  3. Introduction | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Mortality | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Acknowledgements | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Survival | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Benzene | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Trends in Higher Education Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effects which changes in computer technology are having on the organization, staffing, and budgets at institutions of higher education. Trends in computer hardware, computer software, and in office automation are also discussed. (JN)

  9. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding.

  10. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1

  11. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  12. DHMI: dynamic holographic microscopy interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xuefei; Zheng, Yujie; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-12-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a powerful in-vitro biological imaging tool. In this paper, we report a fully automated off-axis digital holographic microscopy system completed with a graphical user interface in the Matlab environment. The interface primarily includes Fourier domain processing, phase reconstruction, aberration compensation and autofocusing. A variety of imaging operations such as region of interest selection, de-noising mode (filtering and averaging), low frame rate imaging for immediate reconstruction and high frame rate imaging routine ( 27 fps) are implemented to facilitate ease of use.

  13. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  14. A Portable Natural Language Interface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    interfaces have been solved; there are still gaps in both theory and in implementation. No natural language interface yet implemented has full linguistic ...the structure of the phrase in which it appears. 2.1 THE THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Our work in this project was influenced by several linguistic theories ...WEEEEEEEiiEEEEEEEEEEEohE EEEEEEEEEEol ~~*L2.5lie. M j~.5 114 1 e. - -w w w w e’ -,w Iw W -ra S S -.- OiIC FILE COPY RADC-TR-87-15 Final Technical Rport September 1967 A

  15. Segmental interpenetration at polymer interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, T.P.; Fleming, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    During the first year of this proposal significant strides have been made in understanding the nature of the interface in symmetric, diblock copolymers and the nature of the interface formed between immiscible homopolymers. Emphasis has been placed on the symmetric, diblock copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) since these diblock copolymers and the corresponding homopolymers are available over a wide range of molecular weight with narrow molecular weight distributions. In addition, the homopolymers and copolymers can be obtained with different levels of deuteration. Thus, these materials form a model system by which systematic studies on the interfacial behavior of homopolymers and block copolymers can be performed.

  16. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  17. Interface standards for computer equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The ability to configure data systems using modules provided by independent manufacturers is complicated by the wide range of electrical, mechanical, and functional characteristics exhibited within the equipment provided by different manufacturers of computers, peripherals, and terminal devices. A number of international organizations were and still are involved in the creation of standards that enable devices to be interconnected with minimal difficulty, usually involving only a cable or data bus connection that is defined by the standard. The elements covered by an interface standard are covered and the most prominent interface standards presently in use are identified and described.

  18. Inhomogeneous interface laser mirror coatings.

    PubMed

    Ledger, A M

    1979-09-01

    Methods of improving the durability of thin-film laser mirror coatings for 10.6 microm using thorium fluoride, zinc selenide, and zinc sulfide materials have been investigated. The largest improvement in film durability was obtained by using inhomogeneous interface fabrication for all the dielectric-dielectric interfaces and by incorporating cerium fluoride protective overcoating material into the film design. Experimental results are given for enhanced reflectors, polarization-selective coatings, and buried-grating aperture-sharing coatings designed for high-power laser applications.

  19. A database for TMT interface control documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Roberts, Scott; Brighton, Allan; Rogers, John

    2016-08-01

    The TMT Software System consists of software components that interact with one another through a software infrastructure called TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their roles. The use of common component types and shared middleware services allows standardized software interfaces for the components. A software system called the TMT Interface Database System was constructed to support the documentation of the interfaces for components based on CSW. The programmer describes a subsystem and each of its components using JSON-style text files. A command interface file describes each command a component can receive and any commands a component sends. The event interface files describe status, alarms, and events a component publishes and status and events subscribed to by a component. A web application was created to provide a user interface for the required features. Files are ingested into the software system's database. The user interface allows browsing subsystem interfaces, publishing versions of subsystem interfaces, and constructing and publishing interface control documents that consist of the intersection of two subsystem interfaces. All published subsystem interfaces and interface control documents are versioned for configuration control and follow the standard TMT change control processes. Subsystem interfaces and interface control documents can be visualized in the browser or exported as PDF files.

  20. EDITORIAL: The interface between geophysics and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Journal of Geophysics and Engineering (JGE) aims to publicize and promote research and developments in geophysics and in related areas of engineering. As stated in the journal scope, JGE is positioned to bridge the gap between earth physics and geo-engineering, where it reflects a growing trend in both industry and academia. JGE covers those aspects of engineering that bear closely on geophysics or on the targets and problems that geophysics addresses. Typically this will be engineering focused on the subsurface, particularly petroleum engineering, rock mechanics, geophysical software engineering, drilling technology, remote sensing, instrumentation and sensor design. There is a trend, visible throughout academia, for rapid expansion in cross-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary working. Many of the most important and exciting problems and advances are being made at the boundaries between traditional subject areas and, increasingly, techniques from one discipline are finding applications in others. There is a corresponding increasing requirement for researchers to be aware of developments in adjacent areas and for papers published in one area to be readily accessible, both in terms of location and language, to those in others. One such area that is expanding rapidly is that at the interface between geophysics and engineering. There are three principal developments. Geophysics, and especially applied geophysics, is increasingly constrained by the limits of technology, particularly computing technology. Consequently, major advances in geophysics are often predicated upon major developments in engineering and many research geophysicists are working in multi-disciplinary teams with engineers. Engineering problems relevant to the sub-surface are increasingly looking to advances in geophysics to provide part of the solution. Engineering systems, for example, for tunnel boring or petroleum reservoir management, are using high-resolution geophysical

  1. Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Trend Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Rebecca; Le Compte, Aaron; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are being increasingly used to monitor glycemia in people with diabetes. One advantage with CGM is the ability to monitor the trend of sensor glucose (SG) over time. However, there are few metrics available for assessing the trend accuracy of CGM devices. The aim of this study was to develop an easy to interpret tool for assessing trend accuracy of CGM data. SG data from CGM were compared to hourly blood glucose (BG) measurements and trend accuracy was quantified using the dot product. Trend accuracy results are displayed on the Trend Compass, which depicts trend accuracy as a function of BG. A trend performance table and Trend Index (TI) metric are also proposed. The Trend Compass was tested using simulated CGM data with varying levels of error and variability, as well as real clinical CGM data. The results show that the Trend Compass is an effective tool for differentiating good trend accuracy from poor trend accuracy, independent of glycemic variability. Furthermore, the real clinical data show that the Trend Compass assesses trend accuracy independent of point bias error. Finally, the importance of assessing trend accuracy as a function of BG level is highlighted in a case example of low and falling BG data, with corresponding rising SG data. This study developed a simple to use tool for quantifying trend accuracy. The resulting trend accuracy is easily interpreted on the Trend Compass plot, and if required, performance table and TI metric. PMID:24876437

  2. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    rinaldi, eleonora; colella, simone; santoleri, rosalia

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, seen as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool in order to understand the response of marine ecosystem to human pressures. This is particularly important along the coastal regions, in which the strong anthropization and the irrational exploitation of resources represent a persistent threat to the biodiversity. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using Ocean Color (OC) data to monitor the environmental changes in Mediterranean Sea and to develop a method for detecting trend from OC data that can constitute a new indicator of the water quality within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation. In this study the Mediterranean merged Case1-Case2 chlorophyll product, produced by CNR-ISAC and distributed in the framework of MyOcean, is analyzed. This product is obtained by using two different bio-optical algorithms for open ocean (Case1) and coastal turbid (Case2) waters; this improves the quality of the Chl satellite estimates, especially near the coast. In order to verify the real capability of the this product for estimating Chl trend and for selecting the most appropriated statistical test to detect trend in the Mediterranean Sea, a comparison between OC and in situ data are carried out. In-situ Chl data are part of the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet) of the European Environmental Agency (EEA). Four different statistical approaches to estimate trend have been selected and used to compare trend values obtained with in-situ and OC data. Results show that the best agreement between in-situ and OC trend is achieved using the Mann- Kendall test. The Mediterranean trend map obtained applying this test to the de-seasonalized OC time series shows that, in accordance with the results of many authors, the case 1 waters of Mediterranean sea are characterized by a negative trend. However, the most intense trend signals, both negative

  3. Solid state dielectric screening versus band gap trends and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, Ram; Wang, Alan X.; Wager, John F.

    2016-10-01

    High-frequency (optical) and low-frequency (static) dielectric constant versus band gap trends, as well as index of refraction versus band gap trends are plotted for 107 inorganic semiconductors and insulators. These plots are describable via power-law fitting. Dielectric screening trends that emerge from this analysis have important optical and electronic implications. For example, barrier lowering during Schottky emission, phonon-assisted or Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, or Frenkel-Poole emission from a trap is found to be significantly more pronounced with increasing band gap due to a reduction in the optical dielectric constant with increasing band gap. The decrease in the interface state density with increasing band gap is another optical dielectric constant trend. The tendency for a material with a wider band gap to be more difficult to dope is attributed to an increase in the ionization energy of the donor or acceptor dopant, which in turn, depends on the optical dielectric constant and the effective mass. Since the effective mass for holes is almost always larger than that for electrons, p-type doping is more challenging than n-type doping in a wide band gap material. Finally, the polar optical phonon-limited mobility depends critically upon the reciprocal difference of the optical and the static dielectric constant. Consequently, electron and hole mobility tend to decrease with increasing band gap in a polar material.

  4. The human/robot interface.

    PubMed

    Wiker, S F

    1993-10-01

    The use of telerobotic technology in space exploration is examined. Early aspirations for anthropomorphic designs and advances in the field are reviewed. The application of human factors engineering to robotics design and the human-machine interface are examined. New strategies in design and automation are presented.

  5. Gluing Soft Interfaces by Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhen; Dobrynin, Andrey

    Using a combination of the molecular dynamics simulations and scaling analysis we studied reinforcement of interface between two soft gel-like materials by spherical nanoparticles. Analysis of the simulations shows that the depth of penetration of a nanoparticle into a gel is determined by a balance of the elastic energy of the gel and nanoparticle deformations and the surface energy of nanoparticle/gel interface. In order to evaluate work of adhesion of the reinforced interface, the potential of mean force for separation of two gels was calculated. These simulations showed that the gel separation proceeds through formation of necks connecting nanoparticle with two gels. The shapes of the necks are controlled by a fine interplay between nanoparticle/gel surface energies and elastic energy of the neck deformation. Our simulations showed that by introducing nanoparticles at soft interfaces, the work required for separation of two gels could be 10-100 times larger than the work of adhesion between two gels without nanoparticle reinforcement. These results provide insight in understanding the mechanism of gluing soft gels and biological tissues by nano- and micro-sized particles. NSF DMR-1409710.

  6. Human-computer interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, S.E.

    1995-04-01

    Modern military forces assume that computer-based information is reliable, timely, available, usable, and shared. The importance of computer-based information is based on the assumption that {open_quotes}shared situation awareness, coupled with the ability to conduct continuous operations, will allow information age armies to observe, decide, and act faster, more correctly and more precisely than their enemies.{close_quotes} (Sullivan and Dubik 1994). Human-Computer Interface (HCI) design standardization is critical to the realization of the previously stated assumptions. Given that a key factor of a high-performance, high-reliability system is an easy-to-use, effective design of the interface between the hardware, software, and the user, it follows logically that the interface between the computer and the military user is critical to the success of the information-age military. The proliferation of computer technology has resulted in the development of an extensive variety of computer-based systems and the implementation of varying HCI styles on these systems. To accommodate the continued growth in computer-based systems, minimize HCI diversity, and improve system performance and reliability, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is continuing to adopt interface standards for developing computer-based systems.

  7. The Human Interface Technology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Washington Technology Center.

    This booklet contains information about the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (HITL), which was established by the Washington Technology Center at the University of Washington to transform virtual world concepts and research into practical, economically viable technology products. The booklet is divided into seven sections: (1) a brief…

  8. Willow: a uniform search interface.

    PubMed Central

    Ketchell, D S; Freedman, M M; Jordan, W E; Lightfoot, E M; Heyano, S; Libbey, P A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Willow Project is to develop a uniform search interface that allows a diverse community of users to retrieve information from heterogeneous network-based information resources. Willow separates the user interface from the database management or information retrieval system. It provides a graphic user interface to a variety of information resources residing on diverse hosts, and using different search engines and idiomatic query languages through networked-based client-server and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols. It is based on a "database driver'' model, which allows new database hosts to be added without altering Willow itself. Willow employs a multimedia extension mechanism to launch external viewers to handle data in almost any form. Drivers are currently available for a local BRS/SEARCH system and the Z39.50 protocol. Students, faculty, clinicians, and researchers at the University of Washington are currently offered 30 local and remote databases via Willow. They conduct more than 250,000 sessions a month in libraries, medical centers and clinics, laboratories, and offices, and from home. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is implementing Willow as its uniform search interface to Z39.50 hosts. PMID:8750388

  9. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  10. Graphical fiber shaping control interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Eric T.; Ninomiya, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present an improved graphical user interface for defining single-pass novel shaping techniques on glass processing machines that allows for streamlined process development. This approach offers unique modularity and debugging capability to researchers during the process development phase not usually afforded with similar scripting languages.

  11. Tapered-Fin Thermal Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulin, Elizabeth C.

    1992-01-01

    Two meshing sets of tapered fins used as thermal interface with relatively low clamping forces. When in contact, fins provide large area for transfer of heat. Taper ensures easy mating and demating of fins and transfers clamping force to surfaces in contact; improving contact and transfer of heat. Fins arranged in rows, concentric rings, or other configurations.

  12. Spray algorithm without interface construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kadhem Majhool, Ahmed Abed; Watkins, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This research is aimed to create a new and robust family of convective schemes to capture the interface between the dispersed and the carrier phases in a spray without the need to build up the interface boundary. The selection of the Weighted Average Flux (WAF) scheme is due to this scheme being designed to deal with random flux scheme which is second-order accurate in space and time. The convective flux in each cell face utilizes the WAF scheme blended with Switching Technique for Advection and Capturing of Surfaces (STACS) scheme for high resolution flux limiters. In the next step, the high resolution scheme is blended with the WAF scheme to provide the sharpness and boundedness of the interface by using switching strategy. In this work, the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of non-reactive turbulent spray is set in terms of theoretical proposed methodology namely spray moments of drop size distribution, presented by Beck and Watkins [1]. The computational spray model avoids the need to segregate the local droplet number distribution into parcels of identical droplets. The proposed scheme is tested on capturing the spray edges in modelling hollow cone sprays without need to reconstruct two-phase interface. A test is made on simple comparison between TVD scheme and WAF scheme using the same flux limiter on convective flow hollow cone spray. Results show the WAF scheme gives a better prediction than TVD scheme. The only way to check the accuracy of the presented models is by evaluating the spray sheet thickness.

  13. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  14. Interface Reconstruction with Directional Walking

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, J

    2009-05-22

    Young's interface reconstruction with three-dimensional arbitrary mesh, in general, is rather tedious to implement compared to the case of a regular mesh. The main difficulty comes from the construction of a planar facet that bounds a certain volume inside a cell. Unlike the five basic configurations with a Cartesian mesh, there can be a great number of different configurations in the case of a general mesh. We represent a simple method that can derive the topology/geometry of the intersection of arbitrary planar objects in a uniform way. The method is based on a directional walking on the surface of objects, and links the intersection points with the paths of the walking naturally defining the intersection of objects. The method works in both two and three dimensions. The method does not take advantage of convexity, thus decomposition of an object is not necessary. Therefore, the solution with this method will have a reduced number of edges and less data storage, compared with methods that use shape decomposition. The treatment is general for arbitrary polyhedrons, and no look-up tables are needed. The same operation can easily be extended for curved geometry. The implementation of this new algorithm shall allow the interface reconstruction on an arbitrary mesh to be as simple as it is on a regular mesh. Furthermore, we exactly compute the integral of partial cell volume bounded by quadratic interface. Therefore, interface reconstruction with higher than second order accuracy can be achieved on an arbitrary mesh.

  15. Development of Virtual Auditory Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    However, externalized in azimuth and elevation (Wightman & the design of auditory interfaces has lagged behind. Kistler, 1989; Begault & Wenzel, 1993...D.R., Sadralodabai, T., Saberi, K. & Strybel, Begault , D.R. & Wenzel, E.M. (1993). Headphone T.Z. (1991). Aurally aided visual search in the

  16. Coal-rock interface detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, S. D.; Crouch, C. E.; Jones, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coal-rock interface detector is presented which employs a radioactive source and radiation sensor. The source and sensor are separately and independently suspended and positioned against a mine surface of hydraulic pistons, which are biased from an air cushioned source of pressurized hydraulic fluid.

  17. Compound semiconductor surfaces and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsen, C. W.

    All semiconductor devices and integrated circuits require dielectric layers for interconnect isolation, gate oxides, passivation, etc. Thermally grown SiO2 is the primary dielectric film for silicon technology. This ONR contract investigated the chemistry and electrical properties of the interface between III-V compound semiconductors and electrical properties of grown and deposited oxides. When this study began, very little was known about these oxides or their interfaces. The results of the research supported by this contract has added substantially to the fundamental understanding of the oxide growth, properties and electronic structure. Much of the experimental work was obtained with surface analytical techniques and significant contributions were also made in this field. The original ONR contract began in October 1975 and initially concentrated on the grown oxides of InP and GaAs. This work evolved over the years to include the study of deposited insulator/InP interfaces and trapping at the interface. The ONR contract has supported the publication of 31 journal articles and book chapters and numerous conference presentations.

  18. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  19. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  20. Brush/Fin Thermal Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Timothy R.; Seaman, Christopher L.; Ellman, Brett M.

    2004-01-01

    Brush/fin thermal interfaces are being developed to increase heat-transfer efficiency and thereby enhance the thermal management of orbital replaceable units (ORUs) of electronic and other equipment aboard the International Space Station. Brush/fin thermal interfaces could also be used to increase heat-transfer efficiency in terrestrial electronic and power systems. In a typical application according to conventional practice, a replaceable heat-generating unit includes a mounting surface with black-anodized metal fins that mesh with the matching fins of a heat sink or radiator on which the unit is mounted. The fins do not contact each other, but transfer heat via radiation exchange. A brush/fin interface also includes intermeshing fins, the difference being that the gaps between the fins are filled with brushes made of carbon or other fibers. The fibers span the gap between intermeshed fins, allowing heat transfer by conduction through the fibers. The fibers are attached to the metal surfaces as velvet-like coats in the manner of the carbon fiber brush heat exchangers described in the preceding article. The fiber brushes provide both mechanical compliance and thermal contact, thereby ensuring low contact thermal resistance. A certain amount of force is required to intermesh the fins due to sliding friction of the brush s fiber tips against the fins. This force increases linearly with penetration distance, reaching 1 psi (6.9 kPa) for full 2-in. (5.1 cm) penetration for the conventional radiant fin interface. Removal forces can be greater due to fiber buckling upon reversing the sliding direction. This buckling force can be greatly reduced by biasing the fibers at an angle perpendicularly to the sliding direction. Means of containing potentially harmful carbon fiber debris, which is electrically conductive, have been developed. Small prototype brush/fin thermal interfaces have been tested and found to exhibit temperature drops about onesixth of that of conventional

  1. Geometric similarity between protein-RNA interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Zou, Jianwei; Tian, Feifei; Shang, Zhicai

    2009-12-01

    A new method is described to measure the geometric similarity between protein-RNA interfaces quantitatively. The method is based on a procedure that dissects the interface geometry in terms of the spatial relationships between individual amino acid nucleotide pairs. Using this technique, we performed an all-on-all comparison of 586 protein-RNA interfaces deposited in the current Protein Data Bank, as the result, an interface-interface similarity score matrix was obtained. Based upon this matrix, hierarchical clustering was carried out which yielded a complete clustering tree for the 586 protein-RNA interfaces. By investigating the organizing behavior of the clustering tree and the SCOP classification of protein partners in complexes, a geometrically nonredundant, diverse data set (representative data set) consisting of 45 distinct protein-RNA interfaces was extracted for the purpose of studying protein-RNA interactions, RNA regulations, and drug design. We classified protein-RNA interfaces into three types. In type I, the families and interface structural classes of the protein partners, as well as the interface geometries are all similar. In type II, the interface geometries and the interface structural classes are similar, whereas the protein families are different. In type III, only the interface geometries are similar but the protein families and the interface structural classes are distinct. Furthermore, we also show two new RNA recognition themes derived from the representative data set.

  2. Thermal Performance and Reliability Characterization of Bonded Interface Materials (BIMs): Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    DeVoto, D.; Paret, P.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.; Bar-Cohen, A.; Matin, K.

    2014-08-01

    Thermal interface materials are an important enabler for low thermal resistance and reliable electronics packaging for a wide array of applications. There is a trend towards bonded interface materials (BIMs) because of their potential for low thermal resistivity (< 1 mm2K/W). However, BIMs induce thermomechanical stresses in the package and can be prone to failures and integrity risks. Deteriorated interfaces can result in high thermal resistance in the package and degradation and/or failure of the electronics. DARPA's Thermal Management Technologies program has addressed this challenge, supporting the development of mechanically-compliant, low resistivity nano-thermal interface (NTI) materials. In this work, we describe the testing procedure and report the results of NREL's thermal performance and reliability characterization of an initial sample of four different NTI-BIMs.

  3. J-integral for interface crack on micro-arc oxidation ceramic coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cheng; Tao, Huiyu; Cai, Dayong; Xu, Jinyong; Tang, Yan; Huang, Ranran

    2017-01-01

    By use of extended finite element analysis method, a calculation of J-integral for interface crack on Micro-arc Oxidation(MAO) ceramic coating on aluminum alloy was conducted. The feasibility of using J-integral as a fracture parameter to characterize the interfacial fracture toughness is discussed. The relation between J-integral and length of interface crack, thickness of ceramic coating is studied. Analysis result indicates that with the expansion of the interface crack length, resistance bi-material interface enhancements, and interfacial fracture toughness enhances, the J-integral increases with the increase of crack length. When the thickness of the ceramic coating is upon 40μm-100μm, interfacial fracture toughness is better. J-integral value shows a decreasing trend with the increase of the thickness of the ceramic coating.

  4. Technique for converting non-conforming hexahedral-to-hexahedral interfaces into conforming interfaces

    DOEpatents

    Staten, Matthew L.; Shepherd, Jason F.; Ledoux, Frank; Shimada, Kenji; Merkley, Karl G.; Carbonera, Carlos

    2013-03-05

    A technique for conforming an interface between a first mesh and a second mesh is disclosed. A first interface surface in the first mesh and a second interface surface in the second mesh residing along the interface are identified. The first and second interface surfaces are initially non-conforming along the interface. Chords within the first and second interface surfaces that fall within a threshold separation distance of each other are paired. Sheets having chords that reside within the first or second interface surfaces are recursively inserted into or extracted from one or both of the first and second meshes until all remaining chords within the first interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the second interface surface and all remaining chords within the second interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the first interface surface.

  5. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm

  6. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the

  7. Ionic Structure at Dielectric Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yufei

    The behavior of ions in liquids confined between macromolecules determines the outcome of many nanoscale assembly processes in synthetic and biological materials such as colloidal dispersions, emulsions, hydrogels, DNA, cell membranes, and proteins. Theoretically, the macromolecule-liquid boundary is often modeled as a dielectric interface and an important quantity of interest is the ionic structure in a liquid confined between two such interfaces. The knowledge gleaned from the study of ionic structure in such models can be useful in several industrial applications, such as biosensors, lithium-ion batteries double-layer supercapacitors for energy storage and seawater desalination. Electrostatics plays a critical role in the development of such functional materials. Many of the functions of these materials, result from charge and composition heterogeneities. There are great challenges in solving electrostatics problems in heterogeneous media with arbitrary shapes because electrostatic interactions remains unknown but depend on the particular density of charge distributions. Charged molecules in heterogeneous media affect the media's dielectric response and hence the interaction between the charges is unknown since it depends on the media and on the geometrical properties of the interfaces. To determine the properties of heterogeneous systems including crucial effects neglected in classical mean field models such as the hard core of the ions, the dielectric mismatch and interfaces with arbitrary shapes. The effect of hard core interactions accounts properly for short range interactions and the effect of local dielectric heterogeneities in the presence of ions and/or charged molecules for long-range interactions are both analyzed via an energy variational principle that enables to update charges and the medium's response in the same simulation time step. In particular, we compute the ionic structure in a model system of electrolyte confined by two planar dielectric

  8. Temperature trends in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübken, Franz-Josef; Berger, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    We have performed trend studies in the mesosphere in the period 1961-2009 with LIMA (Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere model) which is based on ECMWF below approximately 40 km and adapts temporal variations of CO2 and O3 according to observations. There is general agreement between LIMA and observations. Temperatures in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere vary non-uniformly with time, mainly due to the influence of ozone. We have therefore separated the influence of CO2(t) and O3(t) when determining trends. It is important to distinguish between trends on pressure altitudes, zp, and geometric altitudes, zgeo, where the latter includes the effect of shrinking due to cooling at lower heights. Maximum total temperature trends reach approximately -1,3 K/dec at zp ~60 km and -1.8 K/dec at zgeo ~70 km, respectively. Carbon dioxide is the main driver of these trends in the mesosphere, whereas ozone contributes approximately one third, both on geometric and pressure heights. Depending on the time period chosen, the ozone effect on trends can be significantly smaller or larger. Temperature trends on geometric and pressure altitudes can differ by as much as -0.9 K/dec in the mesosphere. The altitudes of pressure levels in the mesosphere decrease up to several hundred meters. The shift maximizes at mesopause levels where it accumulates to more than 1 km. Most of the shrinking occurs in the mesosphere and a smaller fraction (~20%) in the stratosphere. For the first time, we have performed long term runs with LIMA applying the 20th Century Reanalysis from NCEP/NCAR dating back to 1871. Again, trends are non-uniform with time. Since the late 19th century temperatures in the mesosphere have dropped by approximately 5-7 K on pressure altitudes, and up to 10-12 K on geometric altitudes. This is much more then typical trends in the troposphere and stratosphere. It is therefore justified to summarize that the mesosphere (at least in summer and at middle latitudes) reacts

  9. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This Standard presents descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. Use of this Standard is not mandatory; however, it should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend Analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology, but rather connotes, generally, quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this Standard. The document presents the basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends, together with relevant examples. A list of references provides additional sources of information.

  10. Trends in operating room devices.

    PubMed

    Laufman, H

    1976-01-01

    Although trends in the use of operating room devices have generally followed advances in technology, the trends are not always influenced as much by surgical need as they are by industrial expediency and commercial promotion. Nonetheless, a broad view of trends in OR devices definitely points to efforts at greater compatibility between devices made by different manufacturers. To mention a few examples, operating tables are being made more compatible with OR X-ray equipment; surgical lighting is being designed for greater compatibility with air-handling systems and video equipment; power consoles have reduced the clutter of tubes, hoses, and wires in complicated operations, and have become more functional in keeping with the trend away from electrical power and toward nitrogen power for driving surgical tools; cabinetry is being designed to employ clean-air principles; and surgical apparel and barrier materials are undergoing close scrutiny for their effectiveness against moist bacterial strike-through in lengthy wet operations. Operating room devices form an important segment of the devices classified by the FDA, and are expected to benefit by the application of standards in performance and safety. This trend will affect not only the devices themselves, but all other facets of operating room design and engineering.

  11. ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE.

    PubMed

    Sousa da Silva, Alan W; Vranken, Wim F

    2012-07-23

    ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE) is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis) and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data). ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein-ligand complexes from the PDB. ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications.

  12. Recent Advances in Electrospun Nanofiber Interfaces for Biosensing Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sapountzi, Eleni; Braiek, Mohamed; Chateaux, Jean-François; Lagarde, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning has emerged as a very powerful method combining efficiency, versatility and low cost to elaborate scalable ordered and complex nanofibrous assemblies from a rich variety of polymers. Electrospun nanofibers have demonstrated high potential for a wide spectrum of applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, energy conversion and storage, or physical and chemical sensors. The number of works related to biosensing devices integrating electrospun nanofibers has also increased substantially over the last decade. This review provides an overview of the current research activities and new trends in the field. Retaining the bioreceptor functionality is one of the main challenges associated with the production of nanofiber-based biosensing interfaces. The bioreceptors can be immobilized using various strategies, depending on the physical and chemical characteristics of both bioreceptors and nanofiber scaffolds, and on their interfacial interactions. The production of nanobiocomposites constituted by carbon, metal oxide or polymer electrospun nanofibers integrating bioreceptors and conductive nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles) has been one of the major trends in the last few years. The use of electrospun nanofibers in ELISA-type bioassays, lab-on-a-chip and paper-based point-of-care devices is also highly promising. After a short and general description of electrospinning process, the different strategies to produce electrospun nanofiber biosensing interfaces are discussed. PMID:28813013

  13. Current trends in nursing theories.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju

    2012-06-01

    To explore current trends in nursing theories through an integrated literature review. The literature related to nursing theories during the past 10 years was searched through multiple databases and reviewed to determine themes reflecting current trends in nursing theories. The trends can be categorized into six themes: (a) foci on specifics; (b) coexistence of various types of theories; (c) close links to research; (d) international collaborative works; (e) integration to practice; and (f) selective evolution. We need to make our continuous efforts to link research and practice to theories, to identify specifics of our theories, to develop diverse types of theories, and to conduct international collaborative works. Our paper gives implications for future theoretical development in diverse clinical areas of nursing research and practice. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  15. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  16. Trends in College Pricing, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about rising tuition and how students can afford to finance their major investments in postsecondary education are widespread. Solid insights into these questions require accurate and up-to-date information about prices. "Trends in College Pricing, 2013" reports on the prices charged by colleges and universities in 2013-14, how…

  17. Trends in College Pricing, 2011. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The published prices on which the analysis in "Trends in College Pricing" is based come from data reported by institutions on the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges. This survey, which is distributed to nearly 4,000 postsecondary institutions across the country, collects a wealth of data on enrollment, admission, degrees and majors,…

  18. NAEP Trends: Main NAEP vs. Long-Term Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E.; Chromy, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to (a) compare the trend lines after some adjustments for level and scale only and determine if and how they differ; (b) describe the methodology of each assessment and identify similarities and differences; and (c) attempt to explain any observed differences based on comparable subsets or on special analysis.…

  19. Trends in College Pricing, 2011. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The published prices on which the analysis in "Trends in College Pricing" is based come from data reported by institutions on the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges. This survey, which is distributed to nearly 4,000 postsecondary institutions across the country, collects a wealth of data on enrollment, admission, degrees and majors,…

  20. Trends in Student Aid, 2011. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Payea, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    "Trends in Student Aid," an annual College Board publication since 1983, is a compendium of detailed, up-to-date information on the funding that is available to help students pay for college. This report sorts aid into grants, loans, tax benefits, and Federal Work-Study assistance. It documents funding from federal and state governments, colleges…

  1. Trends in Student Aid, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Payea, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Trends in Student Aid, an annual College Board publication since 1983, is a compendium of detailed, up-to-date information on the funding that is available to help students pay for college. This report documents grant aid from federal and state governments, colleges and universities, employers, and other private sources, as well as loans, tax…

  2. Trends in College Pricing, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about rising tuition and how students can afford to finance their major investments in postsecondary education are widespread. Solid insights into these questions require accurate and up-to-date information about prices. "Trends in College Pricing, 2013" reports on the prices charged by colleges and universities in 2013-14, how…

  3. Trends in Student Aid, 2011. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Payea, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    "Trends in Student Aid," an annual College Board publication since 1983, is a compendium of detailed, up-to-date information on the funding that is available to help students pay for college. This report sorts aid into grants, loans, tax benefits, and Federal Work-Study assistance. It documents funding from federal and state governments, colleges…

  4. Command Interface ASIC - Analog Interface ASIC Chip Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Baldes; Jaffe, Burton; Burke, Gary; Lung, Gerald; Pixler, Gregory; Plummer, Joe; Katanyoutanant,, Sunant; Whitaker, William

    2003-01-01

    A command interface application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and an analog interface ASIC have been developed as a chip set for remote actuation and monitoring of a collection of switches, which can be used to control generic loads, pyrotechnic devices, and valves in a high-radiation environment. The command interface ASIC (CIA) can be used alone or in combination with the analog interface ASIC (AIA). Designed primarily for incorporation into spacecraft control systems, they are also suitable for use in high-radiation terrestrial environments (e.g., in nuclear power plants and facilities that process radioactive materials). The primary role of the CIA within a spacecraft or other power system is to provide a reconfigurable means of regulating the power bus, actuating all valves, firing all pyrotechnic devices, and controlling the switching of power to all switchable loads. The CIA is a mixed-signal (analog and digital) ASIC that includes an embedded microcontroller with supporting fault-tolerant switch control and monitoring circuitry that is capable of connecting to a redundant set of interintegrated circuit (I(sup 2)C) buses. Commands and telemetry requests are communicated to the CIA. Adherence to the I(sup 2)C bus standard helps to reduce development costs by facilitating the use of previously developed, commercially available components. The AIA is a mixed-signal ASIC that includes the analog circuitry needed to connect the CIA to a custom higher powered version of the I(sup 2)C bus. The higher-powered version is designed to enable operation with bus cables longer than those contemplated in the I(sup 2)C standard. If there are multiple higher-power I(sup 2)C-like buses, then there must an AIA between the CIA and each such bus. The AIA includes two identical interface blocks: one for the side-A I(sup 2)C clock and data buses and the other for the side B buses. All the AIAs on each side are powered from a common power converter module (PCM). Sides A and B

  5. Determination of fiber-matrix interface failure parameters from off-axis tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Rajiv A.; Crews, John H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Critical fiber-matrix (FM) interface strength parameters were determined using a micromechanics-based approach together with failure data from off-axis tension (OAT) tests. The ply stresses at failure for a range of off-axis angles were used as input to a micromechanics analysis that was performed using the personal computer-based MICSTRAN code. FM interface stresses at the failure loads were calculated for both the square and the diamond array models. A simple procedure was developed to determine which array had the more severe FM interface stresses and the location of these critical stresses on the interface. For the cases analyzed, critical FM interface stresses were found to occur with the square array model and were located at a point where adjacent fibers were closest together. The critical FM interface stresses were used together with the Tsai-Wu failure theory to determine a failure criterion for the FM interface. This criterion was then used to predict the onset of ply cracking in angle-ply laminates for a range of laminate angles. Predictions for the onset of ply cracking in angle-ply laminates agreed with the test data trends.

  6. Responsive cell-material interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dhowre, Hala S; Rajput, Sunil; Russell, Noah A; Zelzer, Mischa

    2015-01-01

    Major design aspects for novel biomaterials are driven by the desire to mimic more varied and complex properties of a natural cellular environment with man-made materials. The development of stimulus responsive materials makes considerable contributions to the effort to incorporate dynamic and reversible elements into a biomaterial. This is particularly challenging for cell-material interactions that occur at an interface (biointerfaces); however, the design of responsive biointerfaces also presents opportunities in a variety of applications in biomedical research and regenerative medicine. This review will identify the requirements imposed on a responsive biointerface and use recent examples to demonstrate how some of these requirements have been met. Finally, the next steps in the development of more complex biomaterial interfaces, including multiple stimuli-responsive surfaces, surfaces of 3D objects and interactive biointerfaces will be discussed.

  7. Brookhaven fastbus/unibus interface

    SciTech Connect

    Benenson, G.; Bauernfeind, J.; Larsen, R.C.; Leipuner, L.B.; Morse, W.M.; Adair, R.K.; Black, J.K.; Campbell, S.R.; Kasha, H.; Schmidt, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A typical high energy physics experiment requires both a high speed data acquisition and processing system, for data collection and reduction; and a general purpose computer to handle further reduction, bookkeeping and mass storage. Broad differences in architecture, format or technology, will often exist between these two systems, and interface design can become a formidable task. The PDP-11 series minicomputer is widely used in physics research, and the Brookhaven FASTBUS is the only standard high speed data acquisition system which is fully implemented in a current high energy physics experiment. This paper will describe the design and operation of an interface between these two systems. The major issues are elucidated by a preliminary discussion on the basic principles of Bus Systems, and their application to Brookhaven FASTBUS and UNIBUS.

  8. Practical Interfacing in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2003-05-01

    This text describes in practical terms how to use a desk-top computer to monitor and control laboratory experiments. The author clearly explains how to design electronic circuits and write computer programs to sense, analyse and display real-world quantities, including displacement, temperature, force, sound, light, and biomedical potentials. The book includes numerous laboratory exercises and appendices that provide practical information on microcomputer architecture and interfacing, including complete circuit diagrams and component lists. Topics include analog amplification and signal processing, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital conversion, electronic sensors and actuators, digital and analog interfacing circuits, and programming. Only a very basic knowledge of electronics is assumed, making it ideal for college-level laboratory courses and for practising engineers and scientists. Everything you need to know about using a PC to monitor and control laboratory experiments Full of practical circuit designs and C-code examples Ideal for students and practising scientists

  9. Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, David; Murphy, Catherine; Martin, Lane

    2014-10-21

    Our research program on Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces advanced understanding of the mesoscale science of heat conduction. At the length and time scales of atoms and atomic motions, energy is transported by interactions between single-particle and collective excitations. At macroscopic scales, entropy, temperature, and heat are the governing concepts. Key gaps in fundamental knowledge appear at the transitions between these two regimes. The transport of thermal energy at interfaces plays a pivotal role in these scientific issues. Measurements of heat transport with ultrafast time resolution are needed because picoseconds are the fundamental scales where the lack of equilibrium between various thermal excitations becomes a important factor in the transport physics. A critical aspect of our work has been the development of experimental methods and model systems that enabled more precise and sensitive investigations of nanoscale thermal transport.

  10. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  11. Aqueous Solvation at Biomimetic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benderskii, Alexander V.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2002-03-01

    The process of solvation has been investigated at model aqueous interfaces designed to mimic surfaces of biomembranes. Second Harmonic Generation spectroscopy of a solvatochromic dye coumarin 314 is employed as the surface-selective probe technique. Monolayers of lipid amphiphiles at the air/water interface are used as model systems with neutral or charged hydrophilic headgroups of the surfactants chosen to represent common functional groups present at biological aqueous interfaces such as cell membranes. The red shift of the probe transition was measured using the steady-state frequency-resolved SHG spectroscopy to characterize the equilibrium solvation energies, i.e. the polarity at the lipid interfaces. Femtosecond time-resolved SHG measurements revealed two diffusive components of the solvation dynamics, associated with rearrangement of the water hydrogen bond network. Dynamics at the air/water interface, t1=250 fs and t2=2.0 ps, are similar to the timescales reported for bulk water t1 200 fs and t2 1.2 ps. The dynamical properties of water near the surfactant interfaces are significantly modified by the electrostatic and H-bonding interactions with the hydrophilic lipid headgroups. Neutral carboxyl headgroups (200 Å2/molecule) result in slowing of t1 to 400 fs and suppression of the slower t2 component. Different anionic lipids, carboxylate and sulfate, produce similar effects, slowing the t1 and t2 components without significantly affecting their relative amplitudes. Studies as a function of the sulfate surfactant concentration revealed that at low to intermediate surface coverage (500 to 250 Å2/molecule), the t1 component is unaffected, t1=250 fs, while the t2 component is lengthened first to 4.4 ps and then to 5.2 ps. At the highest surface coverage studied, 100 Å2/molecule, t1 changes to 600 fs, while t2 shows "saturation" at 5.4 ps. Different behavior of the two dynamical timescales t1 and t2 as a function of the surface charge density and chemical

  12. Is structural interface standardization beneficial?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dombert, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Factors applicable to fixed angle, large field and fixed angle, large building flat plate photovoltaic (PV) generator arrays are discussed in the context of standardization. It is concluded that structural interface standardization may be highly desirable in any one major project, but not at this time in the overall PV industry. Attempts to mandate such standardization will act as a deterrent to long-range improvements. In specific projects, structural standardization should be defined at the largest practical interface, leaving the maximum possible freedom to the module and array manufacturer. There is a corollary area, however, where detailed standards would benefit the industry; the matter of Standard Practices. Work being done towards definition of acceptable/desirable practices in materials, finishes, fastening and locking methods, grounding techniques, lightning protection, etc., and in handling the environmental ranges, should be continued.

  13. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Thierry; Schweizer, Marco; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    Interfacial thermodynamics has deep ramifications in understanding the boundary conditions of transport theories. We present a formulation of local equilibrium for interfaces that extends the thermodynamics of the ``dividing surface,'' as introduced by Gibbs, to nonequilibrium settings such as evaporation or condensation. By identifying the precise position of the dividing surface in the interfacial region with a gauge degree of freedom, we exploit gauge-invariance requirements to consistently define the intensive variables for the interface. The model is verified under stringent conditions by employing high-precision nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of a coexisting vapor-liquid Lennard-Jones fluid. We conclude that the interfacial temperature is determined using the surface tension as a ``thermometer,'' and can be significantly different from the temperatures of the adjacent phases.

  14. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Marco; Öttinger, Hans Christian; Savin, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Interfacial thermodynamics has deep ramifications in understanding the boundary conditions of transport theories. We present a formulation of local equilibrium for interfaces that extends the thermodynamics of the "dividing surface," as introduced by Gibbs, to nonequilibrium settings such as evaporation or condensation. By identifying the precise position of the dividing surface in the interfacial region with a gauge degree of freedom, we exploit gauge-invariance requirements to consistently define the intensive variables for the interface. The model is verified under stringent conditions by employing high-precision nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of a coexisting vapor-liquid Lennard-Jones fluid. We conclude that the interfacial temperature is determined using the surface tension as a "thermometer," and it can be significantly different from the temperatures of the adjacent phases. Our findings lay foundations for nonequilibrium interfacial thermodynamics.

  15. Microprocessor-based interface for oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean floor imaging system incorporates five identical microprocessor-based interface units each assigned to specific sonar instrument to simplify system. Central control module based on same microprocessor eliminates need for custom tailoring hardware interfaces for each instrument.

  16. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  17. Microprocessor-based interface for oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean floor imaging system incorporates five identical microprocessor-based interface units each assigned to specific sonar instrument to simplify system. Central control module based on same microprocessor eliminates need for custom tailoring hardware interfaces for each instrument.

  18. Reinventing the energy modelling-policy interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Neil; Fais, Birgit; Daly, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    Energy modelling has a crucial underpinning role for policy making, but the modelling-policy interface faces several limitations. A reinvention of this interface would better provide timely, targeted, tested, transparent and iterated insights from such complex multidisciplinary tools.

  19. A statistical test to show negligible trend

    Treesearch

    Philip M. Dixon; Joseph H.K. Pechmann

    2005-01-01

    The usual statistical tests of trend are inappropriate for demonstrating the absence of trend. This is because failure to reject the null hypothesis of no trend does not prove that null hypothesis. The appropriate statistical method is based on an equivalence test. The null hypothesis is that the trend is not zero, i.e., outside an a priori specified equivalence region...

  20. Deriving and Manipulating Module Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    later adaptation. Should a new editing operation be added at a later time, the initial components can be reused in another com- bining process...thereby obtaining a new composite at that works for all of the operations including the new one. There ae also ramificadons for the application of formud...4 1.3.4 What is New ............................ 6 1.4 Srucm of the Thesis ........................... 6 2 Module Interface Tanforutlim System 9 2.1