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Sample records for metal-poor binary star

  1. Wide Binaries among High-Velocity and Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C.; Herrera, M. A.; Poveda, A.

    The properties of old disk and halo binaries are of interest for the understanding of the processes of formation and early dynamical evolution of the Galaxy. The luminosity function of the components of wide binaries and multiples, their mass function, the fraction of halo or old disk stars that are members of wide binaries, and the distribution of its separations are some of the basic properties that are poorly understood, mainly because of the paucity of known wide binaries among halo and old disk stars. The present work is an attempt to ameliorate this situation. We have elaborated a list of 130 halo and old disk wide binaries by searching for common proper motion companions to the high-velocity and metal-poor stars studied by Schuster and Nissen (1988, 1993). Based on Stromgren photometry, these authors have derived distances, metallicities and ages for their stars. Since each star has a large and well determined proper motion it was possible to compare this value with that of NLTT stars of its vicinity. In this way we were able to identify 130 high-velocity and metal-poor common proper motion binary systems. Each system was carefully checked to avoid misidentifications, and when possible, distances were updated using the Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes. We have determined the distribution of angular separations for our wide binaries. Reliable distances are available for all of our systems, so this distribution can be converted into a separation distribution in AU. We find that 12 systems have separations in excess of 10000 AU, and their existence poses interesting dynamical problems. Since many systems also have known radial velocities, space velocities for them can be determined, and galactic orbits have been computed and characterized. The secondaries of these wide binaries are interesting in themselves, since they represent a sampling of the faint end of the main sequence of old disk and halo stars.

  2. Binary Blue Metal-poor Stars: Evidence for Asymptotic Giant Branch Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W.; Cowan, John J.

    2003-07-01

    We present new abundance analyses of six blue metal-poor (BMP) stars with very low iron abundances ([Fe/H]<-2), based on new high-resolution echelle spectra. Three are spectroscopic binaries, and three have constant radial velocities. The chemical compositions of these two groups are very different, as the binary BMP stars have large enhancements of carbon and neutron-capture elements that are products of s-process nucleosynthesis. One star, CS 29497-030, has an extreme enhancement of lead, [Pb/Fe]=+3.7, the largest abundance in any star yet discovered. It probably also has an oxygen overabundance compared to the other BMP stars of our sample. The binary BMP stars must have attained their status via mass transfer during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolutions of their companion stars, which are now unseen and most likely are compact objects. We have not found any examples of AGB mass transfer among BMP binaries with [Fe/H]>-2.

  3. Blue metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.; Sneden, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    We review the discovery of blue metal-poor (BMP) stars and the resolution of this population into blue stragglers and intermediate-age Main-Sequence stars by use of binary fractions. We show that the specific frequencies of blue stragglers in the halo field and in globular clusters differ by an order of magnitude. We attribute this difference to the different modes of production of these two populations. We report carbon and s-process enrichment among very metal-poor field blue stragglers and discuss how this result can be used to further resolve field blue stragglers into groups formed during RGB and AGB evolution of their erstwhile primary companions.

  4. Fluorine in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: a binary scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaro, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Izzard, R. G.; Campbell, S. W.; Karakas, A. I.; Cristallo, S.; Pols, O. R.; Lattanzio, J. C.; Straniero, O.; Gallino, R.; Beers, T. C.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: A super-solar fluorine abundance was observed in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star HE 1305+0132 ([F/Fe] = +2.90, [Fe/H] = -2.5). We propose that this observation can be explained using a binary model that involve mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star companion and, based on this model, we predict F abundances in CEMP stars in general. We discuss wether F can be used to discriminate between the formation histories of most CEMP stars: via binary mass transfer or from the ejecta of fast-rotating massive stars. Methods: We compute AGB yields using different stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis codes to evaluate stellar model uncertainties. We use a simple dilution model to determine the factor by which the AGB yields should be diluted to match the abundances observed in HE 1305+0132. We further employ a binary population synthesis tool to estimate the probability of F-rich CEMP stars. Results: The abundances observed in HE 1305+0132 can be explained if this star accreted 3-11% of the mass lost by its former AGB companion. The primary AGB star should have dredged-up at least 0.2 {M}⊙ of material from its He-rich region into the convective envelope via third dredge-up, which corresponds to AGB models of Z ≃ 0.0001 and mass ≃2 {M}⊙. Many AGB model uncertainties, such as the treatment of convective borders and mass loss, require further investigation. We find that in the binary scenario most CEMP stars should also be FEMP stars, that is, have [F/Fe] > +1, while fast-rotating massive stars do not appear to produce fluorine. We conclude that fluorine is a signature of low-mass AGB pollution in CEMP stars, together with elements associated with the slow neutron-capture process.

  5. Wide Binaries among High-Velocity and Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C.; Herrera, M. A.; Poveda, A.

    1998-11-01

    The properties of old disk and halo binaries are of interest for the understanding of the processes of formation and early dynamical evolution of the Galaxy. The luminosity function of the components of wide binaries and multiples, their mass function, the fraction of halo or old disk stars that are members of wide binaries, and the distribution of their separations are some of the basic properties that are poorly understood, mainly because of the paucity of known wide binaries among halo and old disk stars. The present work is an attempt to ameliorate this situation. We have elaborated a list of 133 wide binaries mostly belonging to the halo or high-velocity disk, by searching for common proper motion companions to the high-velocity and metal-poor stars studied by Schuster and collaborators (1988, 1993). Based on Stromgren photometry, these authors have derived distances, metallicities and ages for their stars. Since each star has a large and well determined proper motion, it was possible to compare this value with that of NLTT stars of its vicinity. In this way we were able to identify over 100 high-velocity and metal-poor common proper motion binary systems. Each system was carefully checked to avoid misidentifications; in most of the cases, distances were improved using the Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes. We have determined the distribution of angular separations for our wide binaries. Reliable distances are available for all of our systems, so this distribution can be converted into a separation distribution in AU. We find 11 systems that have projected semiaxes in excess of 10000 AU, or 16 systems with expected semiaxes larger than 10000 AU, their existence poses interesting dynamical problems. Since many systems also have known radial velocities, space velocities for them can be determined, and galactic orbits have been computed and characterized. The secondaries of these wide binaries are interesting by themselves, since they represent a sampling of the

  6. High-resolution spectroscopy of extremely metal-poor stars from SDSS/Segue. II. Binary fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Honda, Satoshi E-mail: takuma.suda@nao.ac.jp E-mail: honda@nhao.jp

    2015-02-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] <−3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported 3 double-lined spectroscopic binaries and 11 CEMP stars, which we consider along with a sample of EMP stars from the literature compiled in the SAGA database. We have conducted measurements of the velocity components for stacked absorption features of different spectral lines for each double-lined spectroscopic binary. Our estimate indicates that the fraction of binary stars having orbital periods shorter than 1000 days is at least 10%, and possibly as high as 20% if the majority of CEMP stars are formed in such short-period binaries. This result suggests that the period distribution of EMP binary systems is biased toward short periods, unless the binary fraction of low-mass EMP stars is significantly higher than that of other nearby stars.

  7. Binary properties of CH and carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.; Van Winckel, H.; Merle, T.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Udry, S.; Masseron, T.; Lenaerts, L.; Waelkens, C.

    2016-02-01

    The HERMES spectrograph installed on the 1.2-m Mercator telescope has been used to monitor the radial velocity of 13 low-metallicity carbon stars, among which seven carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and six CH stars (including HIP 53522, a new member of the family, as revealed by a detailed abundance study). All stars but one show clear evidence for binarity. New orbits are obtained for eight systems. The sample covers an extended range in orbital periods, extending from 3.4 d (for the dwarf carbon star HE 0024-2523) to about 54 yr (for the CH star HD 26, the longest known among barium, CH, and extrinsic S stars). Three systems exhibit low-amplitude velocity variations with periods close to 1 yr superimposed on a long-term trend. In the absence of an accurate photometric monitoring of these systems, it is not clear yet whether these variations are the signature of a very low-mass companion or of regular envelope pulsations. The period - eccentricity (P - e) diagram for the 40 low-metallicity carbon stars with orbits now available shows no difference between CH and CEMP-s stars (the latter corresponding to those CEMP stars enriched in s-process elements, as are CH stars). We suggest that they must be considered as one and the same family and that their different names only stem from historical reasons. Indeed, these two families have as well very similar mass-function distributions, corresponding to companions with masses in the range 0.5-0.7 M⊙, indicative of white-dwarf companions, adopting 0.8-0.9 M⊙ for the primary component. This result confirms that CH and CEMP-s stars obey the same mass-transfer scenario as their higher-metallicity analogues, barium stars. The P - e diagrams of barium, CH, and CEMP-s stars are indeed very similar. They reveal two different groups of systems: one with short orbital periods (P< 1000 d) and mostly circular or almost circular orbits, and another with longer period and eccentric (e> 0.1) orbits. These two groups either

  8. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. III. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars - CEMP-s stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Detailed spectroscopic studies of metal-poor halo stars have highlighted the important role of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in understanding the early production and ejection of carbon in the Galaxy and in identifying the progenitors of the CEMP stars among the first stars formed after the Big Bang. Recent work has also classified the CEMP stars by absolute carbon abundance, A(C), into high- and low-C bands, mostly populated by binary and single stars, respectively. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binary systems among the CEMP-s stars, which exhibit strong enhancements of neutron-capture elements associated with the s-process. This allows us to test whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their dramatic carbon excesses. Methods: We have systematically monitored the radial velocities of a sample of 22 CEMP-s stars for several years with ~monthly, high-resolution, low S/N échelle spectra obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) at La Palma, Spain. From these spectra, radial velocities with an accuracy of ≈100 m s-1 were determined by cross-correlation with optimised templates. Results: Eighteen of the 22 stars exhibit clear orbital motion, yielding a binary frequency of 82 ± 10%, while four stars appear to be single (18 ± 10%). We thus confirm that the binary frequency of CEMP-s stars is much higher than for normal metal-poor giants, but not 100% as previously claimed. Secure orbits are determined for eleven of the binaries and provisional orbits for six long-period systems (P > 3000 days), and orbital circularisation timescales are discussed. Conclusions: The conventional scenario of local mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant branch (AGB) binary companion does appear to account for the chemical composition of most CEMP-s stars. However, the excess of C and s-process elements in some single CEMP-s stars was apparently transferred to their

  9. Pulsating Blue Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.; Landolt, Arlo U.

    1999-12-01

    The blue metal-poor (BMP) star CS 22966-043 is an SX Phoenicis star and the primary of a spectroscopic binary with a provisional orbital period of ~430 days. Radial velocity and UBV photometric observations of this star made in 1998 require downward revision of the orbital period to 319 days. The BMP star CS 29499-057 also appears to be an SX Phoenicis star with small amplitude (ΔV~0.04 mag) and short period (P=0.0417 days), on the basis of photometric and radial velocity observations obtained in 1998. There is some indication that it too may be the primary of a spectroscopic binary. Three other BMP stars have radial velocity standard deviations greater than those of 17 BMP radial velocity standards. We suggest that they may be small-amplitude SX Phoenicis stars. Finally, the BMP star CS 29497-017 is shown to be a short-period velocity variable (P=0.302 days) on the basis of observations accumulated over an interval of 2200 days, but we were unable to detect a light variation in 1998 July. Therefore, the nature of the velocity variation of this object remains uncertain.

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. V. TOWARD AN EMPIRICAL METAL-POOR MASS–LUMINOSITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Horch, Elliott P.; Van Altena, William F.; Demarque, Pierre; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Ciardi, David R.; Teske, Johanna K.; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G. E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: thenry@astro.gsu.edu

    2015-05-15

    In an effort to better understand the details of the stellar structure and evolution of metal-poor stars, the Gemini North telescope was used on two occasions to take speckle imaging data of a sample of known spectroscopic binary stars and other nearby stars in order to search for and resolve close companions. The observations were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, which takes data in two filters simultaneously. The results presented here are of 90 observations of 23 systems in which one or more companions was detected, and six stars where no companion was detected to the limit of the camera capabilities at Gemini. In the case of the binary and multiple stars, these results are then further analyzed to make first orbit determinations in five cases, and orbit refinements in four other cases. The mass information is derived, and since the systems span a range in metallicity, a study is presented that compares our results with the expected trend in total mass as derived from the most recent Yale isochrones as a function of metal abundance. These data suggest that metal-poor main-sequence stars are less massive at a given color than their solar-metallicity analogues in a manner consistent with that predicted from the theory.

  11. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in SDSS/Segue. II. Comparison of CEMP-star frequencies with binary population-synthesis models

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young Sun; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2014-06-20

    We present a comparison of the frequencies of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) giant and main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars with predictions from binary population-synthesis models involving asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) mass transfer. The giant and MSTO stars are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. We consider two initial mass functions (IMFs)—a Salpeter IMF, and a mass function with a characteristic mass of 10 M {sub ☉}. For giant stars, the comparison indicates a good agreement between the observed CEMP frequencies and the AGB binary model using a Salpeter IMF for [Fe/H] > – 1.5, and a characteristic mass of 10 M {sub ☉} for [Fe/H] < – 2.5. This result suggests that the IMF shifted from high- to low-mass dominated in the early history of the Milky Way, which appears to have occurred at a 'chemical time' between [Fe/H] =–2.5 and [Fe/H] =–1.5. The CEMP frequency for the turnoff stars with [Fe/H] < – 3.0 is much higher than the AGB model prediction from the high-mass IMF, supporting the previous assertion that one or more additional mechanisms, not associated with AGB stars, are required for the production of carbon-rich material below [Fe/H] =–3.0. We also discuss possible effects of first dredge-up and extra mixing in red giants and internal mixing in turnoff stars on the derived CEMP frequencies.

  12. THE BINARY FREQUENCY OF r-PROCESS-ELEMENT-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS: CHEMICAL TAGGING IN THE PRIMITIVE HALO OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Terese; Andersen, Johannes; Nordstroem, Birgitta; Buchhave, Lars A.; Beers, Timothy C. E-mail: ja@astro.ku.dk E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu

    2011-12-10

    A few rare halo giants in the range [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -2.9 {+-} 0.3 exhibit r-process element abundances that vary as a group by factors up to [r/Fe] {approx}80, relative to those of the iron peak and below. Yet, the astrophysical production site of these r-process elements remains unclear. We report initial results from four years of monitoring the radial velocities of 17 r-process-enhanced metal-poor giants to detect and characterize binaries in this sample. We find three (possibly four) spectroscopic binaries with orbital periods and eccentricities that are indistinguishable from those of Population I binaries with giant primaries, and which exhibit no signs that the secondary components have passed through the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution or exploded as supernovae. The other 14 stars in our sample appear to be single-including the prototypical r-process-element-enhanced star CS 22892-052, which is also enhanced in carbon, but not in s-process elements. We conclude that the r-process (and potentially carbon) enhancement of these stars was not a local event due to mass transfer or winds from a binary companion, but was imprinted on the natal molecular clouds of these (single and binary) stars by an external source. These stars are thus spectacular chemical tracers of the inhomogeneous nature of the early Galactic halo system.

  13. LITHIUM ABUNDANCES IN CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Masseron, Thomas; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Lucatello, Sara; Karakas, Amanda; Plez, Bertrand; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert E-mail: jaj@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2012-05-20

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are believed to show the chemical imprints of more massive stars (M {approx}> 0.8 M{sub Sun }) that are now extinct. In particular, it is expected that the observed abundance of Li should deviate in these stars from the standard Spite lithium plateau. We study here a sample of 11 metal-poor stars and a double-lined spectroscopic binary with -1.8 < [Fe/H] < -3.3 observed with the Very Large Telescope/UVES spectrograph. Among these 12 metal-poor stars, there are 8 CEMP stars for which we measure or constrain the Li abundance. In contrast to previous arguments, we demonstrate that an appropriate regime of dilution permits the existence of 'Li-Spite plateau and C-rich' stars, whereas some of the 'Li-depleted and C-rich' stars call for an unidentified additional depletion mechanism that cannot be explained by dilution alone. We find evidence that rotation is related to the Li depletion in some CEMP stars. Additionally, we report on a newly recognized double-lined spectroscopic binary star in our sample. For this star, we develop a new technique from which estimates of stellar parameters and luminosity ratios can be derived based on a high-resolution spectrum alone, without the need for input from evolutionary models.

  14. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements and/or of carbon. The key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether these peculiarities reflect the composition of the natal clouds, or if they are due to later (post-birth) mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion. If the former case applies, the observed excess of certain elements was implanted within selected clouds in the early ISM from a production site at interstellar distances. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among these chemically peculiar stars. This information provides the basis for deciding whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their unusual compositions. This paper discusses our study of a sample of 17 moderately (r-I) and highly (r-II) r-process-element enhanced VMP and EMP stars. Methods: High-resolution, low signal-to-noise spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. From these spectra, radial velocities with an accuracy of ~100 m s-1 were determined by cross-correlation against an optimized template. Results: Fourteen of the programme stars exhibit no significant radial-velocity variation over this temporal window, while three are binaries with orbits of typical eccentricity for their periods, resulting in a normal binary frequency of ~18 ± 6% for the sample. Conclusions: Our results confirm our preliminary conclusion from 2011, based on partial data, that the chemical peculiarity of the r-I and r-II stars is not caused by any putative binary companions. Instead, it was imprinted on the natal molecular clouds of these stars by an external, distant source. Models of the ISM in early galaxies

  15. Oxygen Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright, J. P.

    1999-05-01

    The oxygen abundances of metal-poor late-type stars can be obtained by one four methods: 1) the [O I] forbidden lines at 6300 and 6363 Angstroms, 2) the O I triplet at 7774 Angstroms, 3) OH lines at 3100-3150 Angstroms, and 4) IR CO and OH bands. Each of these methods have their strengths and weaknesses, and finding common agreement between the methods has sometimes been elusive. Recently two groups (Israelian et al, 1998, ApJ, 507, 805 and Boesgaard et al, 1999, AJ, 117, 492) have presented results from the UV OH lines and the O I triplet that suggest that the [O/Fe]-ratio continues to increase as [Fe/H] decreases. This differs from the 'traditional' result that held that [O/Fe] plateaus at +0.5 as [Fe/H] decreases. Conversely, Fulbright and Kraft (AJ, July 1999) show that in two very metal-poor stars the [O I] 6300 Angstroms line gives abundances 0.5 dex lower than obtained in the above studies. In this talk, I hope to discuss these papers and speculate on potental causes to the discrepency.

  16. What Are These Blue Metal-Poor Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.; Sneden, Christopher

    2000-08-01

    The radial velocity behavior and chemical compositions of sixty-two blue metal-poor (BMP) stars have been established from more than 1200 echelle spectra obtained at Las Campanas Observatory from 1992 through 1999. Analysis of survey spectra provides abundances for this sample, which we use to calibrate the K line versus B-V relation. Forty-four of the stars have [Fe/H]<-1, while eighteen lie on -1<[Fe/H]<0. One star, the SX Phe variable CS 22966-043, appears to be the most extreme example of a rare abundance class characterized by α-element deficiencies, high [Cr/Fe], [Mn/Fe], and [Ti/Fe], and extremely low [Sr/Fe] and [Ba/Fe]. Of the 62 stars, 17 appear to have constant radial velocities, while 42 are definite or probable members of binary systems. The binary fraction of BMP stars appears to be independent of chemical composition. The high binary fraction fBMP~0.6 of BMP stars compared with that found for the F- and G-type stars near the Sun, the systematically low mass functions of these binaries, and the paucity of double-lined binaries among them lead us to suggest that at least half of the BMP binaries are blue stragglers and that these blue stragglers are formed by McCrea mass transfer rather than by the various merger processes that are currently believed to produce most blue stragglers in globular clusters. This conclusion is supported by the abnormally high proportion of BMP binaries with long periods and small orbital eccentricities, properties these binaries share with McClure's carbon star binaries. The great majority of field blue stragglers (BSs) probably are created by Roche-lobe overflow during red giant branch evolution. Primaries of more widely separated binaries that survive this phase of stellar evolution may engage in mass transfer during subsequent asymptotic giant branch evolution to form s-process abundance enhanced carbon stars. Our result requires a major downward revision of the fraction of BMP stars attributed to a captured

  17. Searching for Dust around Hyper Metal Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, Kim A.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Divell, Mike; Côté, Stephanie; Lambert, David L.; Starkenburg, Else

    2014-08-01

    We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <-5, and other metal-poor stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excesses. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g., a warm debris disk (T <= 290 K), or debris disks with inner radii <=1 AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-asymptotic giant branch spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g., a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 μm is detected at the 2σ level; if the excess is real and associated with this star, it may indicate the presence of (recent) dust-gas winnowing or a binary system.

  18. Testing Metal-Poor Stellar Models and Isochrones with HST Parallaxes of Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboyer, B.; McArthur, B. E.; O’Malley, E.; Benedict, G. F.; Feiden, G. A.; Harrison, T. E.; McWilliam, A.; Nelan, E. P.; Patterson, R. J.; Sarajedini, A.

    2017-02-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) fine guidance sensor observations were used to obtain parallaxes of eight metal-poor ([Fe/H] < ‑1.4) stars. The parallaxes of these stars determined by the new Hipparcos reduction average 17% accuracy, in contrast to our new HST parallaxes, which average 1% accuracy and have errors on the individual parallaxes ranging from 85 to 144 μas. These parallax data were combined with HST Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry in the F606W and F814W filters to obtain the absolute magnitudes of the stars with an accuracy of 0.02–0.03 mag. Six of these stars are on the main sequence (MS) (with ‑2.7 < [Fe/H] < ‑1.8) and are suitable for testing metal-poor stellar evolution models and determining the distances to metal-poor globular clusters (GCs). Using the abundances obtained by O’Malley et al., we find that standard stellar models using the VandenBerg & Clem color transformation do a reasonable job of matching five of the MS stars, with HD 54639 ([Fe/H] = ‑2.5) being anomalous in its location in the color–magnitude diagram. Stellar models and isochrones were generated using a Monte Carlo analysis to take into account uncertainties in the models. Isochrones that fit the parallax stars were used to determine the distances and ages of nine GCs (with ‑2.4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ ‑1.9). Averaging together the age of all nine clusters led to an absolute age of the oldest, most metal-poor GCs of 12.7 ± 1.0 Gyr, where the quoted uncertainty takes into account the known uncertainties in the stellar models and isochrones, along with the uncertainty in the distance and reddening of the clusters.

  19. Chemical abundances in metal-poor stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, Kim; Norris, John; Shetrone, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, but also r-process challenged stars, and a disparate fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. A more pristine and chemically inhomogeneous interstellar medium, combined with stoichastic star formation in a metal-poor environment, is thought to cause these detectable differences in the early SN II contributions. We are also now finding stars in dwarf galaxies that appear to be iron-enhanced, i.e., stars that have formed in pockets of SN Ia enriched gas. A comparison of their chemical abundances with individual SN Ia models can provide unique constraints on the SN Ia progenitors.

  20. THE RAVE SURVEY: RICH IN VERY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Ruchti, Gregory R.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, Eva; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Siviero, A.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Steinmetz, M.

    2010-11-20

    Very metal-poor stars are of obvious importance for many problems in chemical evolution, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Finding complete samples of such stars which are also bright enough to allow high-precision individual analyses is of considerable interest. We demonstrate here that stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <-2 dex, and down to below -4 dex, can be efficiently identified within the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of bright stars, without requiring additional confirmatory observations. We determine a calibration of the equivalent width of the calcium triplet lines measured from the RAVE spectra onto true [Fe/H], using high spectral resolution data for a subset of the stars. These RAVE iron abundances are accurate enough to obviate the need for confirmatory higher-resolution spectroscopy. Our initial study has identified 631 stars with [Fe/H] {<=}-2, from a RAVE database containing approximately 200,000 stars. This RAVE-based sample is complete for stars with [Fe/H] {approx_lt}-2.5, allowing statistical sample analysis. We identify three stars with [Fe/H] {approx_lt}-4. Of these, one was already known to be 'ultra metal-poor', one is a known carbon-enhanced metal-poor star, but we obtain [Fe/H] = -4.0, rather than the published [Fe/H] = -3.3, and derive [C/Fe] = +0.9, and [N/Fe] = +3.2, and the third is at the limit of our signal-to-noise ratio. RAVE observations are ongoing and should prove to be a rich source of bright, easily studied, very metal-poor stars.

  1. The best and brightest metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Casey, Andrew R. E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2014-12-10

    The chemical abundances of large samples of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be used to investigate metal-free stellar populations, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis as well as the formation and galactic chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its progenitor halos. However, current progress on the study of EMP stars is being limited by their faint apparent magnitudes. The acquisition of high signal-to-noise spectra for faint EMP stars requires a major telescope time commitment, making the construction of large samples of EMP star abundances prohibitively expensive. We have developed a new, efficient selection that uses only public, all-sky APASS optical, 2MASS near-infrared, and WISE mid-infrared photometry to identify bright metal-poor star candidates through their lack of molecular absorption near 4.6 microns. We have used our selection to identify 11,916 metal-poor star candidates with V < 14, increasing the number of publicly available candidates by more than a factor of five in this magnitude range. Their bright apparent magnitudes have greatly eased high-resolution follow-up observations that have identified seven previously unknown stars with [Fe/H] ≲ –3.0. Our follow-up campaign has revealed that 3.8{sub −1.1}{sup +1.3}% of our candidates have [Fe/H] ≲ –3.0 and 32.5{sub −2.9}{sup +3.0}% have –3.0 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –2.0. The bulge is the most likely location of any existing Galactic Population III stars, and an infrared-only variant of our selection is well suited to the identification of metal-poor stars in the bulge. Indeed, two of our confirmed metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] ≲ –2.7 are within about 2 kpc of the Galactic center. They are among the most metal-poor stars known in the bulge.

  2. Discovery of a Lead-Enriched Blue Metal-Poor Field Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, C.; Preston, G. W.; Cowan, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    We have obtained new high resolution spectra of several blue metal-poor (BMP) stars of the Galactic field halo population. Such stars lie on the main sequence but are 500-1000 K warmer than the position of the metal-poor turnoff; more than half of them are binaries (Preston & Sneden 2000, AJ, 120, 1014). Of our 10 BMP program stars, six are very metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ --2.1). Of these six, three are known binaries, and three have constant radial velocities. Our abundance analysis reveals significant differences between the binaries and the non-variables: all of the binaries have substantial overabundances of carbon and heavy elements easily synthesized in slow neutron-capture nucleosynthesis (the s-process): <[C/Fe]> = +1.9, <[Sr/Fe]> = +1.1, and <[Ba/Fe]> = +1.4. No enhancements of these elements are seen in the constant velocity stars. Thus the BMP metal-poor binaries must have gained their peculiar abundances via mass transfer during the AGB phases of their companions, which now should be compact objects. One of the BMP binaries, CS 29497-030, exhibits a strong line of Pb I at 4057 Å. The derived [Pb/Fe] = +3.7 is the largest lead overabundance reported to date in s-process-enriched stars. The relative [Pb/(Ba or Sr)] abundance ratios are consistent with two other recently discovered very lead-rich stars (van Eck et al. 2001, Nature, 412, 793; Carretta et al. 2002, AJ, 124, 481). This research has been supported by NSF grants AST-9987162 to C.S. and AST-9986974 to J.J.C.

  3. The s-Process Nucleosynthesis in Extremely Metal-Poor Stars as the Generating Mechanism of Carbon Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Takuma; Yamada, Shimako; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars plays a key role in characterising the formation and evolution of the first stars and the Galaxy since the extremely-metal-poor (EMP) stars with [Fe/H] ≤ -2.5 share the common features of carbon enhancement in their surface chemical compositions. The origin of these stars is not yet established due to the controversy of the origin of CEMP stars without the enhancement of s-process element abundances, i.e., so called CEMP-no stars. In this paper, we elaborate the s-process nucleosynthesis in the EMP AGB stars and explore the origin of CEMP stars. We find that the efficiency of the s-process is controlled by O rather than Fe at [Fe/H] ≲ -2. We demonstrate that the relative abundances of Sr, Ba, Pb to C are explained in terms of the wind accretion from AGB stars in binary systems.

  4. The chemical composition of TS 01, the most oxygen-deficient planetary nebula. AGB nucleosynthesis in a metal-poor binary star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasińska, G.; Morisset, C.; Tovmassian, G.; Rauch, T.; Richer, M. G.; Peña, M.; Szczerba, R.; Decressin, T.; Charbonnel, C.; Yungelson, L.; Napiwotzki, R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Jamet, L.

    2010-02-01

    The planetary nebula TS 01 (also called PN G 135.9+55.9 or SBS 1150+599A) with its record-holding low oxygen abundance and its double degenerate close binary core (period 3.9 h) is an exceptional object located in the Galactic halo. We have secured observational data in a complete wavelength range to pin down the abundances of half a dozen elements in the nebula. The abundances are obtained via detailed photoionization modelling which takes into account all the observational constraints (including geometry and aperture effects) using the pseudo-3D photoionization code Cloudy_3D. The spectral energy distribution of the ionizing radiation is taken from appropriate model atmospheres. Incidentally we find from the new observational constraints that both stellar components contribute to the ionization: the “cool” one provides the bulk of hydrogen ionization, while the “hot” one is responsible for the presence of the most highly charged ions, which explains why previous attempts to model the nebula experienced difficulties. The nebular abundances of C, N, O, and Ne are found to be 1/3.5, 1/4.2, 1/70, and 1/11 of the solar value respectively, with uncertainties of a factor 2. Thus the extreme O deficiency of this object is confirmed. The abundances of S and Ar are less than 1/30 of solar. The abundance of He relative to H is 0.089 ± 0.009. Standard models of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis cannot explain the abundance pattern observed in the nebula. To obtain an extreme oxygen deficiency in a star whose progenitor has an initial mass of about 1 M⊙ requires an additional mixing process, which can be induced by stellar rotation and/or by the presence of the close companion. We have computed a stellar model with an initial mass of 1 M⊙, appropriate metallicity, and initial rotation of 100 km s-1, and find that rotation greatly improves the agreement between the predicted and observed abundances. Based on observations obtained at the Canada

  5. Extremely metal-poor stars from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, H.-G.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Behara, N. T.; González Hernández, J. I.; Sbordone, L.

    2008-12-01

    We give a progress report on the activities within the CIFIST Team related to the search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's (SDSS) spectroscopic catalogue. So far, the search has provided 25 candidates with metallicities around or smaller than -3. For 15 candidates, high-resolution spectroscopy with UVES at the VLT has confirmed their EMP status. Work is under way to extend the search to the SDSS's photometric catalogue by augmenting the SDSS photometry and by gauging the capabilities of X-shooter when going to significantly fainter targets.

  6. A Differential Abundance Analysis of Very Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, Erin M.; McWilliam, Andrew; Chaboyer, Brian; Thompson, Ian

    2017-04-01

    We have performed a differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis, ultimately relative to the Sun, of nine very metal-poor main-sequence (MS) halo stars, near [Fe/H] = ‑2 dex. Our abundances range from -2.66≤slant [{Fe}/{{H}}]≤slant -1.40 dex with conservative uncertainties of 0.07 dex. We find an average [α/Fe] = 0.34 ± 0.09 dex, typical of the Milky Way. While our spectroscopic atmosphere parameters provide good agreement with Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes, there is significant disagreement with temperature and gravity parameters indicated by observed colors and theoretical isochrones. Although a systematic underestimate of the stellar temperature by a few hundred degrees could explain this difference, it is not supported by current effective temperature studies and would create large uncertainties in the abundance determinations. Both 1D and < 3{{D}}> hydrodynamical models combined with separate 1D non-LTE effects do not yet account for the atmospheres of real metal-poor MS stars, but a fully 3D non-LTE treatment may be able to explain the ionization imbalance found in this work.

  7. A Study of Variability Among the Blue Metal Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, Arlo U.; Preston, George W.

    2002-08-01

    The blue metal poor (BMP) stars of interest in this proposal are stars whose [Fe/H] < -1.0. Preston's long-term spectrographic program at Las Campanas has shown many of these stars to be variable in velocity. Initial observations by Landolt have shown that about one- half of the BMPs tested are variable in light. Telescope time is being requested to do photometry of selected BMPs with the following goals: to establish the pulsation amplitudes and periods of BMPs found to vary in light, to establish upper limits of pulsation amplitude for the remainder, to define the color boundaries of the BMP instability strip, to estimate the fraction of pulsators in this strip, and to compare the pulsation properties of the BMP stars with their Delta Scuti cousins in the solar neighborhood and the SX Phe stars in globular clusters. This current proposal is a continuation of the exploration of the instability strip for these stars; the initial run was completed a week ago.

  8. A Study of Variability Among the Blue Metal Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, Arlo U.; Preston, George W.

    2005-08-01

    The blue metal poor (BMP) stars of interest in this proposal are stars whose [Fe/H] < -1.0. Preston's long-term spectrographic program at Las Campanas has shown many of these stars to be variable in velocity. Initial observations by Landolt have showed that three of the BMPs tested were variable in light. Limited data from this effort indicate that several other BMPs are suspected to be light variables. Telescope time is being requested to do photometry of selected BMPs with the following goals: to establish the pulsation amplitudes and periods of BMPs found to vary in light, to establish upper limits of pulsation amplitude for the remainder, to define the color boundaries of the BMP instability strip, to estimate the fraction of pulsators in this strip, and to compare the pulsation properties of the BMP stars with their Delta Scuti cousins in the solar neighborhood and the SX Phe stars in globular clusters. This current proposal is a continuation of the photometric exploration of the instability strip for these stars, essential to complement the in hand spectroscopic data. These requested runs should complete the project.

  9. Asteroseismic modelling of the metal-poor star τ Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y. K.; Gai, N.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Asteroseismology is an efficient tool not only for testing stellar structure and evolutionary theory but also constraining the parameters of stars for which solar-like oscillations are presently detected. As an important southern asteroseismic target τ Ceti, is a metal-poor star. The main features of the oscillations and some frequencies of τ Ceti have been identified. Many scientists propose to comprehensively observe this star as part of the Stellar Observations Network Group. Aims: Our goal is to obtain the optimal model and reliable fundamental parameters for the metal-poor star τ Ceti by combining all non-asteroseismic observations with these seismological data. Methods: Using the Yale stellar evolution code (YREC), a grid of stellar model candidates that fall within all the error boxes in the HR diagram have been constructed, and both the model frequencies and large- and small- frequency separations are calculated using the Guenther's stellar pulsation code. The χ2ν c minimization is performed to identify the optimal modelling parameters that reproduce the observations within their errors. The frequency corrections of near-surface effects to the calculated frequencies using the empirical law, as proposed by Kjeldsen and coworkers, are applied to the models. Results: We derive optimal models, corresponding to masses of about 0.775-0.785 M⊙ and ages of about 8-10 Gyr. Furthermore, we find that the quantities derived from the non-asteroseismic observations (effective temperature and luminosity) acquired spectroscopically are more accurate than those inferred from interferometry for τ Ceti, because our optimal models are in the error boxes B and C, which are derived from spectroscopy results.

  10. A Photometric Method for Discovering Extremely Metal Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Adam

    2015-01-01

    I present a new non-parametric machine-learning method for predicting stellar metallicity ([Fe/H]) based on photometric colors from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The method is trained using a large sample of ~150k stars with SDSS spectra and atmospheric parameter estimates (Teff, log g, and [Fe/H]) from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). For bright stars (g < 18 mag) with 4500 K < Teff < 7000 K and log g > 2, corresponding to the stars for which the SSPP estimates are most reliable, the method is capable of predicting [Fe/H] with a typical scatter of ~0.16 dex. This scatter is smaller than the typical uncertainty associated with [Fe/H] measurements from a low-resolution spectrum. The method is suitable for the discovery of extremely metal poor (EMP) stars ([Fe/H] < -3), as high purity (P > 50%), but low efficiency (E ~ 10%), samples of EMP star candidates can be generated from the sources with the lowest predicted [Fe/H]. To improve the efficiency of EMP star discovery, an alternative machine-learning model is constructed where the number of non-EMP stars is down-sampled in the training set, and a new regression model is fit. This alternate model improves the efficiency of EMP candidate selection by a factor of ~2. To test the efficacy of the model, I have obtained low-resolution spectra of 56 candidate EMP stars. I measure [Fe/H] for these stars using the well calibrated Ca II K line method, and compare our spectroscopic measurements to those from the machine learning model. Once applied to wide-field surveys, such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, and LSST, the model will identify thousands of previously unknown EMP stars.

  11. HIERARCHICAL FORMATION OF THE GALACTIC HALO AND THE ORIGIN OF HYPER METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Komiya, Yutaka; Habe, Asao; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2009-05-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Galactic halo are unique probes into the early universe and the first stars. We construct a new program to calculate the formation history of EMP stars in the early universe with the chemical evolution, based on the merging history of the Galaxy. We show that the hierarchical structure formation model reproduces the observed metallicity distribution function and also the total number of observed EMP stars, when we take into account the high-mass initial mass function and the contribution of binaries, as proposed by Komiya et al. The low-mass survivors divide into two groups of those born before and after the mini-halos are polluted by their own first supernovae. The former has observational counterparts in the hyper metal-poor (HMP) stars below [Fe/H] < -4, while the latter represents the majority of EMP stars with {approx}<[Fe/H]> - 4. In this Letter, we focus on the origin of the extremely small iron abundances of HMP stars. We compute the change in the surface abundances of individual stars through the accretion of the metal-enriched interstellar gas along with the dynamical and chemical evolution of the Galaxy, to demonstrate that after-birth pollution of Population III stars is sufficiently effective to explain the observed abundances of HMP stars. Metal pre-enrichment by possible pair instability supernovae is also discussed, to derive constraints on their roles and on the formation of the first low-mass stars.

  12. Extremely metal-poor stars in SDSS fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; François, P.; Sbordone, L.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Spite, M.; Molaro, P.; Spite, F.; Cayrel, R.; Hammer, F.; Hill, V.; Nonino, M.; Randich, S.; Stelzer, B.; Zaggia, S.

    2011-03-01

    Some insight on the first generation of stars can be obtained from the chemical composition of their direct descendants, extremely metal-poor stars (EMP), with metallicity less than or equal to 1/1000 of the solar metallicity. Such stars are exceedingly rare, the most successful surveys, for this purpose, have so far provided only about 100 stars with 1/1 000 the solar metallicity and 4 stars with about 1/10 000 of the solar metallicity. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has the potential to provide a large number of candidates of extremely low metallicity. X-shooter has the unique capability of performing the necessary follow-up spectroscopy providing accurate metallicities and abundance ratios for several elements (Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, Sr, ...) for EMP candidates. We here report on the results for the first two stars observed in the course of our Franco-Italian X-shooter GTO. The two stars were targeted to be of metallicity around -3.0, the analysis of the X-shooter spectra showed them to be of metallicity around -2.0, but with a low α to iron ratio, which explains the underestimate of the metallicity from the SDSS spectra. The efficiency of X-shooter allows an in situ study of the outer halo, for the two stars studied here we estimate distances of 3.9 and 9.1 kpc, these are likely the most distant dwarf stars studied in detail to date. Based on spectra obtained with X-shooter at the 8.2-m Kueyen ESO telescope, GTO programmes 085.D-0194 and 086.D.0094.

  13. Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Gao, Yu; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-10-16

    The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with few or no 'metals' (that is, elements heavier than helium). The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation, but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with an oxygen abundance (relative to hydrogen) below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epochs. Carbon monoxide emission is unreliable as a tracer of gas at low metallicities, and while dust has been used to trace gas in low-metallicity galaxies, low spatial resolution in the far-infrared has typically led to large uncertainties. Here we report spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below ten per cent of the solar value, and show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps in these galaxies. The efficiencies are less than a tenth of those found in normal, metal rich galaxies today, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe.

  14. The lithium isotopic ratio in very metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, K.; Melendez, J.; Asplund, M.; Collet, R.; Magic, Z.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Un-evolved, very metal-poor stars are the most important tracers of the cosmic abundance of lithium in the early universe. Combining the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis model with Galactic production through cosmic ray spallation, these stars at [Fe / H] < - 2 are expected to show an undetectably small 6Li / 7Li isotopic signature. Evidence to the contrary may necessitate an additional pre-galactic production source or a revision of the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. It would also cast doubts on Li depletion from stellar atmospheres as an explanation for the factor 3-5 discrepancy between the predicted primordial 7Li from the Big Bang and the observed value in metal-poor dwarf/turn-off stars. Aims: We revisit the isotopic analysis of four halo stars, two with claimed 6Li-detections in the literature, to investigate the influence of improved model atmospheres and line formation treatment. Methods: For the first time, a combined 3D, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modelling technique for Li, Na, and Ca lines is utilised to constrain the intrinsic line-broadening and to determine the Li isotopic ratio. We discuss the influence of 3D NLTE effects on line profile shapes and assess the realism of our modelling using the Ca excitation and ionisation balance. Results: By accounting for NLTE line formation in realistic 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres, we can model the Li resonance line and other neutral lines with a consistency that is superior to LTE, with no need for additional line asymmetry caused by the presence of 6Li. Contrary to the results from 1D and 3D LTE modelling, no star in our sample has a significant (2σ) detection of the lighter isotope in NLTE. Over a large parameter space, NLTE modelling systematically reduces the best-fit Li isotopic ratios by up to five percentage points. As a bi-product, we also present the first ever 3D NLTE Ca and Na abundances of halo stars, which reveal significant departures from LTE

  15. Towards ab initio extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Jeremy S.; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2016-12-01

    Extremely metal-poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal-enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 M⊙ Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 1051 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 M⊙, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blast wave deposited metals only superficially, in a thin, unresolved layer. The first metal-enriched stars can form at a very low metallicity, of only 2-5 × 10-4 Z⊙, and can inherit the parent cloud's highly elliptical, radially extended orbit in the dark matter gravitational potential.

  16. FORMATION HISTORY OF METAL-POOR HALO STARS WITH THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL AND THE EFFECT OF INTERSTELLAR MATTER ACCRETION ON THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Komiya, Yutaka; Habe, Asao; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate star formation and chemical evolution in the early universe by considering the merging history of the Galaxy in the {Lambda} cold dark matter scenario according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We give some possible constraints from comparisons with observation of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, made available by the recent large-scale surveys and by the follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy. We demonstrate that (1) the hierarchical structure formation can explain the characteristics of the observed metallicity distribution function including a break around [Fe/H] = -4; (2) a high-mass initial mass function (IMF) of peak mass {approx}10 M{sub sun} with the contribution of binaries, derived from the statistics of carbon-enhanced EMP stars, predicts the frequency of low-mass survivors consistent with the number of EMP stars observed for -4 {approx_lt} [Fe/H] {approx_lt} -2.5; (3) the stars formed from primordial gas before the first supernova (SN) explosions in their host mini-halos are assigned to the hyper metal-poor (HMP) stars with [Fe/H] {approx} -5; and (4) there is no indication of significant changes in the IMF and the binary contribution at metallicities -4 {approx_gt} [Fe/H] {approx_gt} -2.5, or even larger, as far as the field stars of the Galactic halo are concerned. We further study the effects of surface pollution through the accretion of interstellar matter (ISM) along the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy for low-mass Population III and EMP survivors. Because of the shallower potential of smaller halos, the accretion of ISM in the mini-halos in which these stars were born dominates the surface metal pollution. This can account for the surface iron abundances as observed for the HMP stars if the cooling and concentration of gas in their birth mini-halos are taken into account. We also study the feedback effect from the very massive Population III stars. The metal pre-pollution by pair-instability SNe is shown to be

  17. Fluorine in a Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun

    2007-09-01

    The fluorine abundance of the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star HE 1305+0132 has been derived by analysis of the molecular HF (1-0) R9 line at 2.3357 μm in a high-resolution (R=50,000) spectrum obtained with the Phoenix spectrometer and Gemini-South telescope. Our abundance analysis makes use of a CNO-enhanced ATLAS12 model atmosphere characterized by a metallicity and CNO enhancements determined utilizing medium-resolution (R=3000) optical and near-IR spectra. The effective iron abundance is found to be [Fe/H]=-2.5, making HE 1305+0132 the most Fe-deficient star, by more than an order of magnitude, for which the abundance of fluorine has been measured. Using spectral synthesis, we derive a supersolar fluorine abundance of A(19F)=4.96+/-0.21, corresponding to a relative abundance of [F/Fe]=+2.90. A single line of the Phillips C2 system is identified in our Phoenix spectrum, and along with multiple lines of the first-overtone vibration-rotation CO (3-1) band head, C and O abundances of A(12C)=8.57+/-0.11 and A(16O)=7.04+/-0.14 are derived. We consider the striking fluorine overabundance in the framework of the nucleosynthetic processes thought to be responsible for the C-enhancement of CEMP stars and conclude that the atmosphere of HE 1305+0132 was polluted via mass transfer by a primary companion during its asymptotic giant branch phase. This is the first study of fluorine in a CEMP star, and it demonstrates that this rare nuclide can be a key diagnostic of nucleosynthetic processes in the early Galaxy.

  18. The chemical compositions of two nitrogen-rich, metal-poor, halo dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beveridge, Renee C.; Sneden, Cristopher

    1994-07-01

    New high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra have been obtained for HD 25329 and HD 74000, dwarf stars that are metal-poor but nitrogen-rich members of the galactic halo. An atmosphere parameter and chemical composition analysis confirms earlier assertions of both their metal poverty, (Fe/H) approximately equals -2, and their high gravity, log g greater than 4. The relative abundances of the alpha-capture and iron-peak elements are normal for metal-poor stars. Overabundances of sodium, and possibly aluminum as well, are derived, but there are no pronounced depletions of oxygen; thus these stars do not show the sodium/oxygen or nitrogen/oxygen anticorrelations seen in globular cluster giants. All very heavy elements synthesized through s-process neutron-capture nucleosynthesis are enhanced in these stars. It is likely that the enrichments of nitrogen, sodium, aluminum, and the very heavy elements in these stars originated in material dredged up from the helium-burning shells of former AGB stars, but there is no direct evidence for binary companions for these stars.

  19. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. II. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF 190 METAL-POOR STARS INCLUDING 10 NEW STARS WITH [Fe/H] {<=} -3.5 , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous chemical abundance analysis of 16 elements in 190 metal-poor Galactic halo stars (38 program and 152 literature objects). The sample includes 171 stars with [Fe/H] {<=} -2.5, of which 86 are extremely metal poor, [Fe/H] {<=} -3.0. Our program stars include 10 new objects with [Fe/H] {<=} -3.5. We identify a sample of 'normal' metal-poor stars and measure the trends between [X/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the dispersion about the mean trend for this sample. Using this mean trend, we identify objects that are chemically peculiar relative to 'normal' stars at the same metallicity. These chemically unusual stars include CEMP-no objects, one star with high [Si/Fe], another with high [Ba/Sr], and one with unusually low [X/Fe] for all elements heavier than Na. The Sr and Ba abundances indicate that there may be two nucleosynthetic processes at lowest metallicity that are distinct from the main r-process. Finally, for many elements, we find a significant trend between [X/Fe] versus T {sub eff}, which likely reflects non-LTE and/or three-dimensional effects. Such trends demonstrate that care must be exercised when using abundance measurements in metal-poor stars to constrain chemical evolution and/or nucleosynthesis predictions.

  20. New Kinematic Results for the Blue Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, R.; Beers, T. C.; Layden, A. C.

    1995-05-01

    Preston, Beers, & Shectman (1994, AJ 108, 538) have identified a substantial number of blue metal-poor main sequence (BMP) stars within a few kpc of the Galactic plane. These stars, chosen to be blueward of the main-sequence turnoff of an old metal-deficient population, have been referred to in the past as halo blue stragglers. However, the BMPs appear in great numbers (on the order of 400 kpc(-3) ) relative to evolved members of the halo, and exhibit kinematics which do not seem to indicate membership in either the thick disk or halo population. Thus the identification with halo blue stragglers no longer seems viable. Rather, these authors submit that the BMPs are young metal-deficient stars shorn from collisions between dwarf galaxies and the disk of the Milky Way in the past 10 Gyrs. We present a kinematic analysis for 221 BMP stars (with [Fe/H] <= -1.0) chosen from the ongoing HK survey. The systemic rotation velocity is found to be Vrot = 105; +/- ; 17 km/s, somewhat lower than the value reported by Preston et al., but still consistent within the stated uncertainties. The velocity ellipsoid we derive for the enlarged sample of BMPs is also consistent with that obtained by Preston et al. (90 km/s for all three components). We search for changes in the kinematics of the BMPs with abundance, dividing the sample at a metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.2. We obtain Vrot = 132 ; +/- ; 19 km/s and Vrot = 8 +/- 31 km/s for the metal-richer and metal-poorer halves of this sample, respectively, though the velocity ellipsoids remain roughly the same. This behavior suggests that there may be a rapid change in the mixing fractions for the BMP sample at low metallicity, either due to mis-identification of halo FHB stars, or inclusion of true halo blue straggler stars. If the BMPs are confined to metallicities [Fe/H] > -2.2, as our results suggest, then stronger constraints can be placed on the nature of the accreted parent populations.

  1. Germanium, Arsenic, and Selenium Abundances in Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.

    2012-09-01

    The elements germanium (Ge, Z = 32), arsenic (As, Z = 33), and selenium (Se, Z = 34) span the transition from charged-particle or explosive synthesis of the iron-group elements to neutron-capture synthesis of heavier elements. Among these three elements, only the chemical evolution of germanium has been studied previously. Here we use archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope and observations from several ground-based facilities to study the chemical enrichment histories of seven stars with metallicities -2.6 <= [Fe/H] <= -0.4. We perform a standard abundance analysis of germanium, arsenic, selenium, and several other elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. When combined with previous derivations of germanium abundances in metal-poor stars, our sample reveals an increase in the [Ge/Fe] ratios at higher metallicities. This could mark the onset of the weak s-process contribution to germanium. In contrast, the [As/Fe] and [Se/Fe] ratios remain roughly constant. These data do not directly indicate the origin of germanium, arsenic, and selenium at low metallicity, but they suggest that the weak and main components of the s-process are not likely sources. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This research made use of StarCAT, hosted by the Mikulski Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (MAST). These data are associated with Programs GO-7348, GO-7433, GO-8197, GO-9048, GO-9455, and GO-9804.Based on data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Science Archive Facility. These data are associated with Programs 67.D-0439(A), 074.C-0364(A), 076.B-0055(A), and 080.D-0347(A).This research has made use of the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA), which is operated by

  2. The Most Metal-poor Stars. II. Chemical Abundances of 190 Metal-poor Stars Including 10 New Stars with [Fe/H] <= -3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Christlieb, N.; Asplund, M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous chemical abundance analysis of 16 elements in 190 metal-poor Galactic halo stars (38 program and 152 literature objects). The sample includes 171 stars with [Fe/H] <= -2.5, of which 86 are extremely metal poor, [Fe/H] <= -3.0. Our program stars include 10 new objects with [Fe/H] <= -3.5. We identify a sample of "normal" metal-poor stars and measure the trends between [X/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the dispersion about the mean trend for this sample. Using this mean trend, we identify objects that are chemically peculiar relative to "normal" stars at the same metallicity. These chemically unusual stars include CEMP-no objects, one star with high [Si/Fe], another with high [Ba/Sr], and one with unusually low [X/Fe] for all elements heavier than Na. The Sr and Ba abundances indicate that there may be two nucleosynthetic processes at lowest metallicity that are distinct from the main r-process. Finally, for many elements, we find a significant trend between [X/Fe] versus T eff, which likely reflects non-LTE and/or three-dimensional effects. Such trends demonstrate that care must be exercised when using abundance measurements in metal-poor stars to constrain chemical evolution and/or nucleosynthesis predictions. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal 281.D-5015).

  3. The EASE Scenario: A New Origin for Metal-Poor Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehin, Emmanuel; Magain, Pierre; Noels, Arlette; Parmentier, Geneviève; Thoul, Anne

    We have analysed high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 21 mildly metal-poor stars. The correlations between the relative abundances of 16 elements have been studied, with a special emphasis on the neutron-capture ones. This analysis reveals the existence of two sub-populations of field metal-poor stars which differ by the behaviour of the s-process elements versus the α and r-process elements. We suggest a scenario for the formation of metal-poor stars, which closely relates the origin of these stars to the evolution of globular clusters.

  4. Looking for imprints of the first stellar generations in metal-poor bulge field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Chiappini, C.; Barbuy, B.; Freeman, K.; Ness, M.; Depagne, E.; Cantelli, E.; Pignatari, M.; Hirschi, R.; Frischknecht, U.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.

    2016-09-01

    detected in our sample. The heavy elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, and Eu also exhibit oversolar abundances. Three out of the five stars analysed here show slightly enhanced [Y/Ba] ratios similar to those found in other metal-poor bulge globular clusters (NGC 6522 and M 62). Conclusions: This sample shows enhancement in the first-to-second peak abundance ratios of heavy elements, as well as dominantly s-process element excesses. This can be explained by different nucleosynthesis scenarios: (a) the main r-process plus extra mechanisms, such as the weak r-process; (b) mass transfer from asymptotic giant branch stars in binary systems; (c) an early generation of fast-rotating massive stars. Larger samples of moderately metal-poor bulge stars, with detailed chemical abundances, are needed to better constrain the source of dominantly s-process elements in the early Universe. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO), under programmes 089.B-0208(A).

  5. Radiative levitation in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with s-process enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrozis, E.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    A significant fraction of all metal-poor stars are carbon-rich. Most of these carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars also show enhancement in elements produced mainly by the s-process (CEMP-s stars), and evidence suggests that the origin of these non-standard abundances can be traced to mass transfer from a binary asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion. Thus, observations of CEMP-s stars are commonly used to infer the nucleosynthesis output of low-metallicity AGB stars. A crucial step in this exercise is understanding what happens to the accreted material after mass transfer ceases. Here we present models of the post-mass-transfer evolution of CEMP-s stars considering the physics of thermohaline mixing and atomic diffusion, including radiative levitation. We find that stars with typical CEMP-s star masses, M ≈ 0.85 M⊙, have very shallow convective envelopes (Menv ≲ 10-7 M⊙). Hence, the surface abundance variations arising from the competition between gravitational settling and radiative levitation should be orders of magnitude larger than observed (e.g. [C/Fe] < -1 or [C/Fe] > +4). Lower-mass stars (M ≈ 0.80 M⊙) retain thicker convective envelopes and thus show variations more in line with observations, but are generally too unevolved (log g > 4) when they reach the age of the Universe. We are therefore unable to reproduce the spread in the observed abundances with these models and conclude that some other physical process must largely suppress atomic diffusion in the outer layers of CEMP-s stars. We demonstrate that this could be achieved by some additional (turbulent) mixing process operating at the base of the convective envelope, as found by other authors. Alternatively, mass-loss rates around 10-13 M⊙yr-1 could also negate most of the abundance variations by eroding the surface layers and forcing the base of the convective envelope to move inwards in mass. Since atomic diffusion cannot have a substantial effect on the surface abundances of CEMP

  6. AN ELEMENTAL ASSAY OF VERY, EXTREMELY, AND ULTRA-METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.; Christlieb, N.; Hansen, C. J.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Yong, D.; Bessell, M. S.; Norris, J. E.; Asplund, M.; Frebel, A.; Pérez, A. E. García

    2015-07-10

    We present a high-resolution elemental-abundance analysis for a sample of 23 very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < −2.0) stars, 12 of which are extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H] < −3.0), and 4 of which are ultra-metal-poor ([Fe/H] < −4.0). These stars were targeted to explore differences in the abundance ratios for elements that constrain the possible astrophysical sites of element production, including Li, C, N, O, the α-elements, the iron-peak elements, and a number of neutron-capture elements. This sample substantially increases the number of known carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor (NEMP) stars—our program stars include eight that are considered “normal” metal-poor stars, six CEMP-no stars, five CEMP-s stars, two CEMP-r stars, and two CEMP-r/s stars. One of the CEMP-r stars and one of the CEMP-r/s stars are possible NEMP stars. We detect lithium for three of the six CEMP-no stars, all of which are Li depleted with respect to the Spite plateau. The majority of the CEMP stars have [C/N] > 0. The stars with [C/N] < 0 suggest a larger degree of mixing; the few CEMP-no stars that exhibit this signature are only found at [Fe/H] < −3.4, a metallicity below which we also find the CEMP-no stars with large enhancements in Na, Mg, and Al. We confirm the existence of two plateaus in the absolute carbon abundances of CEMP stars, as suggested by Spite et al. We also present evidence for a “floor” in the absolute Ba abundances of CEMP-no stars at A(Ba) ∼ −2.0.

  7. The oldest and most metal-poor stars in the APOSTLE Local Group simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, Else; Oman, Kyle A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Crain, Robert A.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Frenk, Carlos S.; Sawala, Till; Schaye, Joop

    2017-02-01

    We examine the spatial distribution of the oldest and most metal-poor stellar populations of Milky Way-sized galaxies using the A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment (APOSTLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Group. In agreement with earlier work, we find strong radial gradients in the fraction of the oldest (tform < 0.8 Gyr) and most metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.5) stars, both of which increase outwards. The most metal-poor stars form over an extended period of time; half of them form after z = 5.3, and the last 10 per cent after z = 2.8. The age of the metal-poor stellar population also shows significant variation with environment; a high fraction of them are old in the galaxy's central regions and an even higher fraction in some individual dwarf galaxies, with substantial scatter from dwarf to dwarf. We investigate the dependence of these results on the assumptions made for metal mixing. Overall, over half of the stars that belong to both the oldest and most metal-poor population are found outside the solar circle. Somewhat counter-intuitively, we find that dwarf galaxies with a large fraction of metal-poor stars that are very old are systems where metal-poor stars are relatively rare, but where a substantial old population is present. Our results provide guidance for interpreting the results of surveys designed to hunt for the earliest and most pristine stellar component of our Milky Way.

  8. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. III. THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION AND CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR FRACTION , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in a sample that includes 86 stars with [Fe/H] {<=} -3.0, based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, of which some 32 objects lie below [Fe/H] = -3.5. After accounting for the completeness function, the 'corrected' MDF does not exhibit the sudden drop at [Fe/H] = -3.6 that was found in recent samples of dwarfs and giants from the Hamburg/ESO survey. Rather, the MDF decreases smoothly down to [Fe/H] = -4.1. Similar results are obtained from the 'raw' MDF. We find that the fraction of CEMP objects below [Fe/H] = -3.0 is 23% {+-} 6% and 32% {+-} 8% when adopting the Beers and Christlieb and Aoki et al. CEMP definitions, respectively. The former value is in fair agreement with some previous measurements, which adopt the Beers and Christlieb criterion.

  9. Detailed Abundances of Two Very Metal-poor Stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2012-12-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[α/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at -3 < [Fe/H] < -2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] Lt -3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] ~ -3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo. Data herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  10. CS 22873-139: A very metal-poor main-sequence spectroscopic binary with colors indicative of intermediate age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.

    1994-12-01

    CS 22873-139, a metal-deficient ((Fe/H) = -3.1), high-velocity (Vrad = +243 km/s) star with observed UBV colors (B-V = 0.37, U-B = -0.22) that locate it near the main-sequence turnoff of an old metal-poor population (Preston et al. (1991); Beers et al. (1992)), is, in fact, a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 19.16 days, eccentricity e = 0.26, and a mass ratio of approximately 0.88. The observed colors, corrected for reddening, can be matched by those for a family of artificial binaries constructed by use of colors and luminosities taken from isochrones for ages between 3 and 13 Gy, but the strengths of metal lines in the primary and secondary spectra require that the age of the system be less than approximately 8 Gy. The inferred unreddened colors of the primary, (B-V)0,p = 0.30, (U-B)0,p = -0.19, lie blueward of any globular cluster turnoff and near the low-abundance (upper) U-B boundary of BMP stars in the UBV two-color diagram, as discussed by Preston et al. (1994). Were the primary product of binary merger in an initial triple star system, Harrington's (1977) stability criterion requires for the initial close binary a1 less than 5.2 solar radii and P less than 1.5 days. According to Vilhu (1982) such a system will merge in about 109 years, a time much shorter than the main-sequence age deduced for this system, so even if binary merger had taken place the conclusion that CS 22873-139 must be a relatively young metal-poor star is preserved.

  11. Abundances of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars as constraints on their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Nordström, B.; Hansen, T. T.; Kennedy, C. R.; Placco, V. M.; Beers, T. C.; Andersen, J.; Cescutti, G.; Chiappini, C.

    2016-04-01

    Context. An increasing fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars is found as their iron abundance, [Fe/H], decreases below [Fe/H] =-2.0. The CEMP-s stars have the highest absolute carbon abundances, [C/H], and are thought to owe their enrichment in carbon and the slow neutron-capture (s-process) elements to mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant branch (AGB) binary companion. The most Fe-poor CEMP stars are normally single, exhibit somewhat lower [C/H] than CEMP-s stars, but show no s-process element enhancement (CEMP-no stars). Abundance determinations of CNO offer clues to their formation sites. Aims: Our aim is to use the medium-resolution spectrograph X-Shooter/VLT to determine stellar parameters and abundances for C, N, Sr, and Ba in several classes of CEMP stars in order to further classify and constrain the astrophysical formation sites of these stars. Methods: Atmospheric parameters for our programme stars were estimated from a combination of V-K photometry, model isochrone fits, and estimates from a modified version of the SDSS/SEGUE spectroscopic pipeline. We then used X-Shooter spectra in conjunction with the 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium spectrum synthesis code MOOG, 1D ATLAS9 atmosphere models to derive stellar abundances, and, where possible, isotopic 12C/13C ratios. Results: Abundances (or limits) of C, N, Sr, and Ba are derived for a sample of 27 faint metal-poor stars for which the X-Shooter spectra have sufficient signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). These moderate resolution, low S/N (~10-40) spectra prove sufficient to perform limited chemical tagging and enable assignment of these stars into the CEMP subclasses (CEMP-s and CEMP-no). According to the derived abundances, 17 of our sample stars are CEMP-s and 3 are CEMP-no, while the remaining 7 are carbon-normal. For four CEMP stars, the subclassification remains uncertain, and two of them may be pulsating AGB stars. Conclusions: The derived stellar abundances trace the formation

  12. High-resolution spectroscopic studies of ultra metal-poor stars found in the LAMOST survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haining; Aoki, Wako; Zhao, Gang; Honda, Satoshi; Christlieb, Norbert; Suda, Takuma

    2015-10-01

    We report on the observations of two ultra metal-poor (UMP) stars with [Fe/H] ˜ -4.0, including one new discovery. The two stars are studied in the on-going and quite efficient project to search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with LAMOST and Subaru. Detailed abundances or upper limits of abundances have been derived for 15 elements from Li to Eu based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted in the Subaru Telescope. The abundance patterns of both UMP stars are consistent with the "normal population" among the low-metallicity stars. Both of the two program stars show carbon-enhancement without any excess of heavy neutron-capture elements, indicating that they belong to the subclass of (carbon-enhanced metal-poor) CEMP-no stars, as is the case of most UMP stars previously studied. The [Sr/Ba] ratios of both CEMP-no UMP stars are above [Sr/Ba] ˜ -0.4, suggesting the origin of the carbon-excess is not compatible with the mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch companion where the s-process has operated. Lithium abundance is measured in the newly discovered UMP star LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1, making it the second UMP turnoff star with Li detection. The Li abundance of LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1 is slightly lower than the values obtained for less metal-poor stars with similar temperatures, and provides a unique data point at [Fe/H] ˜ -4.2 to support the "meltdown" of the Li Spite plateau at extremely low metallicity. Comparison with the other two UMP and HMP (hyper metal-poor, with [Fe/H] < -5.0) turnoff stars suggests that the difference in lighter elements such as CNO and Na might cause notable difference in lithium abundances among CEMP-no stars.

  13. Does star formation proceed differently in metal-poor galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2014-10-01

    The importance of molecular gas in the star-formation process has been questioned by recent theoretical studies. When metals are scarce, star formation could proceed before the molecular fraction becomes significant, making cold atomic gas the key pre-requisite for star formation. The best case studies are blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), with their prominent star-formation episode and yet with little or no evidence of molecular gas. Current observations do not provide strong constraints on the presence of dense atomic gas in BCDs nor on the fraction of molecular gas.We propose to examine the HI region of 9 nearby BCDs selected from the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey. Our program relies on the synergy of Hubble and Herschel, by calculating the gas cooling rate from the fine-structure level of ionized carbon, a parameter that can be determined both in the FUV with COS (probing the diffuse gas through the 1335.7A CII* absorption) and in the FIR with Herschel (probing the denser gas through the [CII] 157um emission). This comparison allows us to constrain the volume filling factor of dense vs. diffuse gas. The program we propose will allow us to examine how this fraction varies with metallicity, star-formation rate, and total gas mass. We will also be able to quantify the mass of molecular gas and evaluate its actual importance for star formation. Finally, a secondary objective is to characterize the main gas heating mechanisms in the HI region of BCDs and in particular the validity of the photoelectric effect paradigm in sources with a low dust-to-gas ratio, with potential implications for high-redshift galaxies.

  14. The Abundances of Metal-poor Stars in the Outer Halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, David K.; Rockosi, C. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Bolte, M.; SEGUE Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We present a program measuring the abundance ratios of stars in the outer halo of the Milky Way. Using the metal-poor candidates from SDSS-SEGUE and follow-up spectra with ESI on Keck we efficiently measure metallicity, alpha-ratio abundances, and certain neutron-capture abundance ratios for stars out to distances of about 30 kpc, thereby placing them in situ in the outer halo (Carollo et al. 2007). By studying metal-poor stars in this relatively unexplored region we can look for evidence of different star formation environments which can provide a important constraint on current Galaxy formation scenarios (e.g., Bullock & Johnston 2005), and potentially discover interesting individual stars. In an initial sample of 25 stars, we have already discovered one new highly r-process-enhanced metal-poor star and a new type of very metal-poor star with a unique [Ca/Mg] of 1.2. In terms of the larger sample, we are also seeing hints of a different alpha-element population, possible evidence of varied star formation environments in the outer halo. DKL acknowledges the support from the NSF grant AST-0802292 through the Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship program.

  15. Metal-poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope. III. New Extremely and Ultra Metal-poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE and Insights on the Formation of Ultra Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Lee, Young Sun; Jacobson, Heather R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Pena, Jose M.; Chan, Conrad; Heger, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of one extremely metal-poor (EMP; [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -3) and one ultra metal-poor (UMP; [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -4) star selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration survey. These stars were identified as EMP candidates based on their medium-resolution (R ˜ 2000) spectra, and were followed up with high-resolution (R ˜ 35,000) spectroscopy with the Magellan/Clay Telescope. Their derived chemical abundances exhibit good agreement with those of stars with similar metallicities. We also provide new insights on the formation of the UMP stars, based on comparisons with a new set of theoretical models of supernovae (SNe) nucleosynthesis. The models were matched with 20 UMP stars found in the literature, together with one of the program stars (SDSS J1204+1201), with [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-4.34. From fitting their abundances, we find that the SNe progenitors, for stars where carbon and nitrogen are measured, had masses ranging from 20.5 {M}⊙ to 28 {M}⊙ and explosion energies from 0.3 to 0.9× {10}51 {erg}. These results are highly sensitive to the carbon and nitrogen abundance determinations, which is one of the main drivers for a future high-resolution follow-up of UMP candidates. In addition, we are able to reproduce the different CNO abundance patterns found in UMP stars with a single progenitor type by varying its mass and explosion energy. Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  16. First stars. XIII. Two extremely metal-poor RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Nordström, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Spite, M.; Andersen, J.; Beers, T. C.; Cayrel, R.; Spite, F.; Molaro, P.; Barbuy, B.; Depagne, E.; François, P.; Hill, V.; Plez, B.; Sivarani, T.

    2011-03-01

    Context. The chemical composition of extremely metal-poor stars (EMP stars; [Fe/H] < ~ -3) is a unique tracer of early nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. As such stars are rare, we wish to find classes of luminous stars which can be studied at high spectral resolution. Aims: We aim to determine the detailed chemical composition of the two EMP stars CS 30317-056 and CS 22881-039, originally thought to be red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars, and compare it to earlier results for EMP stars as well as to nucleosynthesis yields from various supernova (SN) models. In the analysis, we discovered that our targets are in fact the two most metal-poor RR Lyrae stars known. Methods: Our detailed abundance analysis, taking into account the variability of the stars, is based on VLT/UVES spectra (R ≃ 43 000) and 1D LTE OSMARCS model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. For comparison with SN models we also estimate NLTE corrections for a number of elements. Results: We derive LTE abundances for the 16 elements O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr and Ba, in good agreement with earlier values for EMP dwarf, giant and RHB stars. Li and C are not detected in either star. NLTE abundance corrections are newly calculated for O and Mg and taken from the literature for other elements. The resulting abundance pattern is best matched by model yields for supernova explosions with high energy and/or significant asphericity effects. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, except for Li and C, the surface composition of EMP RR Lyr stars is not significantly affected by mass loss, mixing or diffusion processes; hence, EMP RR Lyr stars should also be useful tracers of the chemical evolution of the early Galactic halo. The observed abundance ratios indicate that these stars were born from an ISM polluted by energetic, massive (25-40 M⊙) and /or aspherical supernovae, but the NLTE corrections for Sc and certain other elements do play a role in the choice of model. Based on

  17. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Howes, L M; Casey, A R; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-11-26

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon.

  18. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL-POOR STARS FROM LAMOST: EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hailong; Christlieb, Norbert; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn

    2015-01-10

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.

  19. First Stars. III. A detailed elemental abundance study of four extremely metal-poor giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, P.; Depagne, E.; Hill, V.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Plez, B.; Beers, T. C.; Barbuy, B.; Cayrel, R.; Andersen, J.; Bonifacio, P.; Molaro, P.; Nordström, B.; Primas, F.

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports detailed abundance analyses for four extremely metal-poor (XMP) giant stars with [Fe/H]<-3.8, based on high-resolution, high-S/N spectra from the ESO VLT (Kueyen/UVES) and LTE model atmosphere calculations. The derived [alpha /Fe] ratios in our sample exhibit a small dispersion, confirming previous findings in the literature, i.e. a constant overabundance of the alpha -elements with a very small (if any) dependence on [Fe/H]. In particular, the very small scatter we determine for [Si/Fe] suggests that this element shows a constant overabundance at very low metallicity, a conclusion which could not have been derived from the widely scattered [Si/Fe] values reported in the literature for less metal-poor stars. For the iron-peak elements, our precise abundances for the four XMP stars in our sample confirm the decreasing trend of Cr and Mn with decreasing [Fe/H], as well as the increasing trend for Co and the absence of any trend for Sc and Ni. In contrast to the significant spread of the ratios [Sr/Fe] and [Ba/Fe], we find [Sr/Ba] in our sample to be roughly solar, with a much lower dispersion than previously found for stars in the range -3.5 < [Fe/H] < -2.5. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (Large Programme ID 165.N-0276(A)). The complete version of Table 5 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or via http:/ /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J /A+A/403/1105

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars (Masseron+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masseron, T.; Johnson, J. A.; Plez, B.; van Eck, S.; Primas, F.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.

    2010-04-01

    We compiled abundances from analyses of high-resolution spectra (R>40000) of CEMP stars (Tables 1 and 2), Ba stars, and non-C-enhanced metal-poor stars (Tables 3 and 4). C-rich stars are defined as stars with [C/Fe]>0.9. In this paper, all plots are compiled exclusively of data from these tables, including our own data from Paper II (Masseron et al., in prep.). All these data are renormalised by the Asplund (2005ARA&A..43..481A) solar abundances. (5 data files).

  1. Abundance correlations in mildly metal-poor stars. II. Light elements (C to Ca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decauwer, H.; Jehin, E.; Parmentier, G.; Magain, P.

    2005-04-01

    Accurate relative abundances have been obtained for carbon, oxygen, sodium, aluminium, silicon, and calcium in a sample of mildly metal-poor stars. This analysis complements a previous study carried out by Jehin et al. ([CITE], A&A, 341, 241), which provided the basis for the EASE scenario. This scenario postulates that field metal-poor stars were born in self-enriched proto-globular cluster clouds. By further investigating the correlations between the different α-element abundances, we propose a modified scenario for the formation of intermediate metallicity stars, in which the stars exhibiting lower than average α/Fe abundance ratios would form in low mass clouds, unable to sustain the formation of very massive stars (M ⪆ 30~M_⊙). Moreover, the carbon-to-iron ratio is found to decrease as one climbs the so-called Population IIb branch, i.e. when the s-element abundance increases. In the framework of the EASE scenario, we interpret this anticorrelation between the carbon and the s-element abundances as a signature of a hot bottom burning process in the metal-poor AGB stars which expelled the matter subsequently accreted by our Population IIb stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO Programmes 56.E-0384, 57.E-0400 and 59.E-0257).

  2. Mass-loss predictions for evolved very metal-poor massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muijres, L.; Vink, J. S.; de Koter, A.; Hirschi, R.; Langer, N.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The first couple of stellar generations may have been massive, of order 100 M⊙, and to have played a dominant role in galaxy formation and the chemical enrichment of the early Universe. Some fraction of these objects may have died as pair-instability supernovae or gamma-ray bursts. The winds of these stars may have played an important role in determining these outcomes. As the winds are driven by radiation pressure on spectral lines, their strengths are expected to vary with metallicity. Until now, most mass-loss predictions for metal-poor O-type stars have assumed a scaled-down solar-abundance pattern. However, Population III evolutionary tracks show significant surface enrichment through rotational mixing of CNO-processed material, because even metal-poor stars switch to CNO-burning early on. Aims: We address the question of whether the CNO surface enhanced self-enrichment in the first few generations of stars could impact their mass-loss properties. Methods: We employ Monte Carlo simulations to establish the local line-force and solve for the momentum equation of the stellar outflow, testing whether an outflow can actually be established by assessing the net acceleration at the sonic point of the flow. Stellar evolution models of rotating metal-poor stars are used to specify the surface chemical composition, focussing on the phases of early enrichment. Results: We find that the mass-loss rates of CNO enhanced metal-poor stars are higher than those of non-enriched stars, but they are much lower than those rates where the CNO abundance is included in the total abundance Z. Metal-poor stars hotter than ~50 000 K, in the metallicity range investigated here (with an initial metallicity Z ≲ 10-4) are found to have no wind, as the high-ionization species of the CNO elements have too few strong lines to drive an outflow. We present a heuristic formula that provides mass-loss estimates for CNO-dominated winds in relation to scaled-down solar abundances

  3. Hot, Massive Stars in the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy, I Zw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.

    2010-01-01

    The extremely metal-poor galaxy I Zw 18, is the Rosetta Stone for understanding z=7-8 galaxies now being discovered by Hubb|e's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). Using HST/STIS images and recently obtained HST/COS ultraviolet spectra, we derive information about the hot, massive stars in this galaxy including stellar abundances, constraints on the stellar IMF and mass distribution of young clusters containing hot, massive stars.

  4. Something borrowed, something blue: The nature of blue metal-poor stars inferred from their colours and chemical abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Jofré, P.; Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.; Sneden, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Blue metal-poor (BMP) stars are main sequence stars that appear bluer and more luminous than normal turnoff stars. They were originally singled out by using B-V and U-B colour cuts.Early studies found that a larger fraction of field BMP stars were binaries compared to normal halo stars. Thus, BMP stars are ideal field blue straggler candidates for investigating internal stellar evolution processes and binary interaction. In particular, the presence or depletion in lithium in their spectra is a powerful indicator of their origin. They are either old, halo blue stragglers experiencing internal mixing processes or mass transfer (Li-depletion), or intermediate-age, single stars of possibly extragalactic origin (2.2 dex halo plateau Li). However, we note that internal mixing processes can lead to an increased level of Li. Hence, this study combines photometry and spectroscopy to unveil the origin of various BMP stars. We first show how to separate binaries from young blue stars using photometry, metallicity and lithium. Using a sample of 80 BMP stars (T > 6300 K), we find that 97% of the BMP binaries have V-Ks0 < 1.08 ± 0.03, while BMP stars that are not binaries lie above this cut in two thirds of the cases. This cut can help classify stars that lack radial velocities from follow-up observations. We then trace the origin of two BMP stars from the photometric sample by conducting a full chemical analysis using new high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. Based on their radial velocities, Li, α and s- and r-process abundances we show that BPS CS22874-042 is a single star (A(Li) = 2.38 ± 0.10 dex) while with A(Li)= 2.23 ± 0.07 dex CD-48 2445 is a binary, contrary to earlier findings. Our analysis emphasises that field blue stragglers can be segregated from single metal-poor stars, using (V-Ks) colours with a fraction of single stars polluting the binary sample, but not vice versa. These two groups can only be properly separated by using information from

  5. THE r-PROCESS IN METAL-POOR STARS AND BLACK HOLE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R. N.; Famiano, M. A.; Meyer, B. S.; Motizuki, Y.; Kajino, T.; Roederer, I. U.

    2012-01-15

    Nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in metal-poor stars is generally thought to occur via the r-process because the r-process is a primary process that would have operated early in the Galaxy's history. This idea is strongly supported by the fact that the abundance pattern in many metal-poor stars matches well the inferred solar r-process abundance pattern in the mass range between the second and third r-process abundance peaks. Nevertheless, a significant number of metal-poor stars do not share this standard r-process template. In this Letter, we suggest that the nuclides observed in many of these stars are produced by the r-process, but that it is prevented from running to completion in more massive stars by collapse to black holes before the r-process is completed, creating a 'truncated r-process', or 'tr-process'. We find that the observed fraction of tr-process stars is qualitatively what one would expect from the initial mass function and that an apparent sharp truncation observed at around mass 160 could result from a combination of collapses to black holes and the difficulty of observing the higher mass rare-earth elements. We test the tr-process hypothesis with r-process calculations that are terminated before all r-process trajectories have been ejected. We find qualitative agreement between observation and theory when black hole collapse and observational realities are taken into account.

  6. THE EXTREME OVERABUNDANCE OF MOLYBDENUM IN TWO METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2011-11-20

    We report determinations of the molybdenum abundances in five mildly to extremely metal-poor turnoff stars using five Mo II lines near 2000 A. In two of the stars, the abundance of molybdenum is found to be extremely enhanced, as high or higher than the neighboring even-Z elements ruthenium and zirconium. Of the several nucleosynthesis scenarios envisioned for the production of nuclei in this mass range in the oldest stars, a high-entropy wind acting in a core-collapse supernova seems uniquely capable of the twin aspects of a high molybdenum overproduction confined to a narrow mass range. Whatever the details of the nucleosynthesis mechanism, however, this unusual excess suggests that very few individual nucleosynthesis events were responsible for the synthesis of the light trans-Fe heavy elements in these cases, an unexpected result given that both are only moderately metal-poor.

  7. Detection of second-generation asymptotic giant branch stars in metal-poor globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple stellar populations are actually known to be present in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). The first generation (FG) displays a halo-like chemical pattern, while the second generation (SG) one is enriched in Al and Na (depleted in Mg and O).Both generations of stars are found at different evolutionary stages like the main-sequence turnoff, the subgiant branch, and the red giant branch (RGB), but the SG seems to be absent - especially in metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) GCs - in more evolved evolutionary stages such as the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. This suggests that not all SG stars experience the AGB phase and that AGB-manqué stars may be quite common in metal-poor GCs, which represents a fundamental problem for the theories of GC formation and evolution and stellar evolution. Very recently, we have combined the H-band Al abundances obtained by the APOGEE survey with ground-based optical photometry, reporting the first detection of SG Al-rich AGB stars in several metal-poor GCs with different observational properties such as horizontal branch (HB) morphology, metallicity, and age. The APOGEE observations thus resolve the apparent problem for stellar evolution, supporting the existing horizontal branch star canonical models, and may help to discern the nature of the GC polluters.

  8. Are the Formation and Abundances of Metal-poor Stars the Result of Dust Dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Conroy, Charlie

    2017-02-01

    Large dust grains can fluctuate dramatically in their local density, relative to the gas, in neutral turbulent disks. Small, high-redshift galaxies (before reionization) represent ideal environments for this process. We show via simple arguments and simulations that order-of-magnitude fluctuations are expected in local abundances of large grains (>100 Å) under these conditions. This can have important consequences for star formation and stellar metal abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. Low-mass stars can form in dust-enhanced regions almost immediately after some dust forms even if the galaxy-average metallicity is too low for fragmentation to occur. We argue that the metal abundances of these “promoted” stars may contain interesting signatures as the CNO abundances (concentrated in large carbonaceous grains and ices) and Mg and Si (in large silicate grains) can be enhanced and/or fluctuate almost independently. Remarkably, the otherwise puzzling abundance patterns of some metal-poor stars can be well fit by standard IMF-averaged core-collapse SNe yields if we allow for fluctuating local dust-to-gas ratios. We also show that the observed log-normal distribution of enhancements in these species agrees with our simulations. Moreover, we confirm that Mg and Si are correlated in these stars the abundance ratios are similar to those in local silicate grains. Meanwhile [Mg/Ca], predicted to be nearly invariant from pure SNe yields, shows very large enhancements and variations up to factors of ≳100 as expected in the dust-promoted model, preferentially in the [C/Fe]-enhanced metal-poor stars. Together, this suggests that (1) dust exists in second-generation star formation, (2) local dust-to-gas ratio fluctuations occur in protogalaxies and can be important for star formation, and (3) the light element abundances of these stars may be affected by the local chemistry of dust where they formed, rather than directly tracing nucleosynthesis from earlier

  9. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

  10. The HK-II Survey: Kinematics of Metal-Poor Stars in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, J.; Beers, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The digitized HK-II survey (Rhee 2000, Ph.D. thesis, MSU) was originated as a follow-on to the HK-I survey of Beers and colleagues (e.g., Beers et al. 1992, AJ, 103, 1987). HK-I was based on visually-selected candidate metal-poor stars from objective-prism plates. Unfortunately, in the absence of color information, this selection technique introduced a rather severe temperature-related bias. As a result, the HK-I candidates do not include large numbers of metal-deficient giants. In HK-II, candidate metal-poor stars are quantitatively selected from digitized objective-prism spectra with JHK color information from the recently completeted 2MASS catalog. This approach eliminates much of the temperature bias. We have begun to survey candidate very metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≤ -2.0) giants from HK-II, over the magnitude range 11.0 ≤ B ≤ 16.0, covering some ˜7000 deg2 of intermediate to high Galactic-latitudes. Ongoing medium-resolution ( ˜ 1-2Å ) spectroscopic follow-up using NOAO observing facilities has allowed us to obtain, to date, some 1000 spectra (400, 450, and 150 spectra for red giants, subgiants near the main-sequence turnoff, and FHB/A stars, respectively) for the HK-II metal-poor star candidates. In particular, the detection rate of bona fide very metal-poor giants is about 45 %, which is quite encouraging. Most of the "mistakes" are slightly more metal-rich giants, with -2.0 < [Fe/H] < -1.0. Metallicities and radial velocities are determined from our spectroscopy, and proper motions for most of the program stars are obtained from the recently released UCAC2 astrometric survey catalog. Here we present an analysis of the full space motions for numerous metal-poor stars from the HK-II survey. A comparision of the chemical and kinematic properties between high- and low-halo populations (that is, giants vs. sub-giants) will aid us in understanding the formation history of the Milky Way. J.R. acknowledges partial support for this work by NASA through the AAS

  11. A SEARCH FOR UNRECOGNIZED CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Christlieb, Norbert; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Reimers, Dieter; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2010-03-15

    We have developed a new procedure to search for carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars from the Hamburg/ESO (HES) prism-survey plates. This method employs an extended line index for the CH G band, which we demonstrate to have superior performance when compared to the narrower G-band index formerly employed to estimate G-band strengths for these spectra. Although CEMP stars have been found previously among candidate metal-poor stars selected from the HES, the selection on metallicity undersamples the population of intermediate-metallicity CEMP stars (-2.5 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=} -1.0); such stars are of importance for constraining the onset of the s-process in metal-deficient asymptotic giant branch stars (thought to be associated with the origin of carbon for roughly 80% of CEMP stars). The new candidates also include substantial numbers of warmer carbon-enhanced stars, which were missed in previous HES searches for carbon stars due to selection criteria that emphasized cooler stars. A first subsample, biased toward brighter stars (B< 15.5), has been extracted from the scanned HES plates. After visual inspection (to eliminate spectra compromised by plate defects, overlapping spectra, etc., and to carry out rough spectral classifications), a list of 669 previously unidentified candidate CEMP stars was compiled. Follow-up spectroscopy for a pilot sample of 132 candidates was obtained with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR 4.1 m telescope. Our results show that most of the observed stars lie in the targeted metallicity range, and possess prominent carbon absorption features at 4300 A. The success rate for the identification of new CEMP stars is 43% (13 out of 30) for [Fe/H] < -2.0. For stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5, the ratio increases to 80% (four out of five objects), including one star with [Fe/H] < -3.0.

  12. The first chemical enrichment in the universe and the formation of hyper metal-poor stars.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Umeda, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Maeda, Keiichi

    2005-07-15

    The recent discovery of a hyper-metal-poor (HMP) star, with a metallicity Fe/H smaller than 1/100,000 of the solar ratio, together with one earlier HMP star, has raised a challenging question whether these HMP stars are the actual first-generation, low-mass stars of the universe. We argue that these HMP stars are second-generation stars formed from gases that were chemically enriched by the first-generation supernovae. The key to this solution is the very unusual abundance patterns of these HMP stars and the similarities and differences between them. We can reproduce these abundance features with core-collapse "faint" supernova models that include extensive matter mixing and fallback during explosions.

  13. Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge: A population potpourri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; McWilliam, Andrew; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.

    2016-03-01

    We present a comprehensive chemical abundance analysis of five red giants and two horizontal branch (HB) stars towards the southern edge of the Galactic bulge, at (l, b) ~ (0°,-11°). Based on high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we derived up to 23 chemical element abundances and identify a mixed bag of stars, representing various populations in the central regions of the Galaxy. Although cosmological simulations predict that the inner Galaxy was host to the first stars in the Universe, we see no chemical evidence of the ensuing massive supernova explosions: all of our targets exhibit halo-like, solar [Sc/Fe] ratios, which is in contrast to the low values predicted from Population III nucleosynthesis. One of the targets is a CEMP-s star at [Fe/H] = -2.52 dex, and another target is a moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.53 dex) CH star with strong enrichment in s-process elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe] = 1.35). These individuals provide the first contenders of these classes of stars towards the bulge. Four of the carbon-normal stars exhibit abundance patterns reminiscent of halo star across a metallicity range spanning -2.0 to -2.6 dex, i.e., enhanced α-elements and solar Fe-peak and neutron-capture elements, and the remaining one is a regular metal-rich bulge giant. The position, distance, and radial velocity of one of the metal-poor HB stars coincides with simulations of the old trailing arm of the disrupted Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. While their highly uncertain proper motions prohibit a clear kinematic separation, the stars' chemical abundances and distances suggest that these metal-poor candidates, albeit located towards the bulge, are not of the bulge, but rather inner halo stars on orbits that make them pass through the central regions. Thus, we caution similar claims of detections of metal-poor stars as true habitants of the bulge. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas

  14. THE ORIGIN OF LOW [α/Fe] RATIOS IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-04-10

    We show that the low ratios of α elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) to Fe recently found for a small fraction of extremely metal-poor stars can be naturally explained with the nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae, i.e., 13-25 M {sub ☉} supernovae, or hypernovae. For the case without carbon enhancement, the ejected iron mass is normal, consistent with observed light curves and spectra of nearby supernovae. On the other hand, the carbon enhancement requires much smaller iron production, and the low [α/Fe] of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars can also be reproduced with 13-25 M {sub ☉} faint supernovae or faint hypernovae. Iron-peak element abundances, in particular Zn abundances, are important to put further constraints on the enrichment sources from galactic archaeology surveys.

  15. A new model for the origin of very metal poor stars and their chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyed, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The genesis and chemical patterns of the metal-poor stars in the galactic halo remain an open question. Current models do not seem to give a satisfactory explanation for the observed abundances of lithium in the galactic metal-poor stars and the existence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor (NEMP) stars. In order to deal with some of these theoretical issues, we suggest an alternative explanation, where some of the Pop III supernovae (SNe) are followed by the detonation of their neutron stars [quark-novae (QNe)]. In QNe occurring a few days to a few weeks following the preceding SN explosion, the neutron-rich relativistic QN ejecta leads to spallation of 56Ni processed in the ejecta of the preceding SN explosion and thus to `iron/metal impoverishment' of the primordial gas swept by the combined SN+QN ejecta. We show that the generation of stars formed from fragmentation of pristine clouds swept up by the combined SN+QN ejecta acquires a metallicity with -7.5 < [Fe/H] < -1.5 for dual explosions with 2 < tdelay (d) < 30. Spallation leads to the depletion of 56Ni and formation of sub-Ni elements such as Ti, V, Cr and Mn providing a reasonable account of the trends observed in galactic halo metal-poor stars. CEMP stars form in dual explosions with short delays (tdelay < 5 d). These lead to important destruction of 56Ni (and thus to a drastic reduction of the amount of Fe in the swept-up cloud) while preserving the carbon processed in the outer layers of the SN ejecta. Lithium is produced from the interaction of the neutron-rich QN ejecta with the outer (oxygen-rich) layers of the SN ejecta. A lithium plateau with 2 < A(Li) < 2.4 can be produced in our model as well as a corresponding 6Li plateau with 6Li/7Li < 0.3.

  16. Detailed Abundances in Extremely Metal Poor Dwarf Stars Extracted from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbordone, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2012-08-01

    We report on the result of an ongoing campaign to determine chemical abundances in extremely metal poor (EMP) turn-off (TO) stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) low resolution spectra. This contribution focuses principally on the largest part of the sample (18 stars out of 29), observed with UVES@VLT and analyzed by means of the automatic abundance analysis code MyGIsFOS to derive atmosphere parameters and detailed compositions. The most significant findings include i) the detection of a C-rich, strongly Mg-enhanced star ([Mg/Fe]=1.45); ii) a group of Mn-rich stars ([Mn/Fe]>-0.4); iii) a group of Ni-rich stars ([Ni/Fe]>0.2). Li is measured in twelve stars, while for three upper limits are derived.

  17. Stellar oxygen abundances. 3: The oxygen abundance of the very metal poor halo star BD -13 deg 3442

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Jeremy R.

    1994-01-01

    A spectrum of the very metal poor ((Fe/H) approximately -3) halo star BD -13 deg 3442 is presented and used to determine this star's oxygen abundance. Our determination makes BD -13 deg 3442 the most metal poor dwarf (though a somewhat evolved one) with an O abundance determination. The O abundance (determined from the 7774 A O I triped) and (O/Fe) ratio is compared to that of two other metal-poor stars. The (O/Fe) ratio of BD -13 deg 3442 is found to be approximately 0.35 dex larger than that of the other two halo stars. Possible implications of this result are discussed.

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE LEAST EVOLVED GALAXIES: BOÖTES II

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D.; Geha, Marla

    2016-01-20

    We present high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of the four brightest confirmed red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes II (Boo II). These stars all inhabit the metal-poor tail of the Boo II metallicity distribution function. The chemical abundance pattern of all detectable elements in these stars is consistent with that of the Galactic halo. However, all four stars have undetectable amounts of neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, with upper limits comparable to the lowest ever detected in the halo or in other dwarf galaxies. One star exhibits significant radial velocity variations over time, suggesting it to be in a binary system. Its variable velocity has likely increased past determinations of the Boo II velocity dispersion. Our four stars span a limited metallicity range, but their enhanced α-abundances and low neutron-capture abundances are consistent with the interpretation that Boo II has been enriched by very few generations of stars. The chemical abundance pattern in Boo II confirms the emerging trend that the faintest dwarf galaxies have neutron-capture abundances distinct from the halo, suggesting the dominant source of neutron-capture elements in halo stars may be different than in ultra-faint dwarfs.

  19. First high-precision differential abundance analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge; Yong, David; Ramírez, Ivan; Asplund, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Context. Studies of extremely metal-poor stars indicate that chemical abundance ratios [X/Fe] have a root mean square scatter as low as 0.05 dex (12%). It remains unclear whether this reflects observational uncertainties or intrinsic astrophysical scatter arising from physical conditions in the interstellar medium at early times. Aims: We measure differential chemical abundance ratios in extremely metal-poor stars to investigate the limits of precision and to understand whether cosmic scatter or observational errors are dominant. Methods: We used high-resolution (R ~ 95 000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N = 700 at 5000 Å) HIRES/Keck spectra to determine high-precision differential abundances between two extremely metal-poor stars through a line-by-line differential approach. We determined stellar parameters for the star G64-37 with respect to the standard star G64-12. We performed EW measurements for the two stars for the lines recognized in both stars and performed spectral synthesis to study the carbon abundances. Results: The differential approach allowed us to obtain errors of σ(Teff) = 27 K, σ(log g) = 0.06 dex, σ( [Fe/H] ) = 0.02 dex and σ(vt) = 0.06 km s-1. We estimated relative chemical abundances with a precision as low as σ([X/Fe]) ≈ 0.01 dex. The small uncertainties demonstrate that there are genuine abundance differences larger than the measurement errors. The observed Li difference cannot be explained by the difference in mass because the less massive star has more Li. Conclusions: It is possible to achieve an abundance precision around ≈ 0.01-0.05 dex for extremely metal-poor stars, which opens new windows on the study of the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A67

  20. AN EXTREMELY CARBON-RICH, EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STAR IN THE SEGUE 1 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Frebel, Anna

    2010-10-10

    We report the analysis of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio, spectra of an extremely metal-poor, extremely C-rich red giant, Seg 1-7, in Segue 1-described in the literature alternatively as an unusually extended globular cluster or an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. The radial velocity of Seg 1-7 coincides precisely with the systemic velocity of Segue 1, and its chemical abundance signature of [Fe/H] = -3.52, [C/Fe] = +2.3, [N/Fe] = +0.8, [Na/Fe] = +0.53, [Mg/Fe] = +0.94, [Al/Fe] = +0.23, and [Ba/Fe] < -1.0 is similar to that of the rare and enigmatic class of Galactic halo objects designated CEMP-no (carbon-rich, extremely metal-poor with no enhancement (over solar ratios) of heavy neutron-capture elements). This is the first star in a Milky Way 'satellite' that unambiguously lies on the metal-poor, C-rich branch of the Aoki et al. bimodal distribution of field halo stars in the ([C/Fe], [Fe/H])-plane. Available data permit us only to identify Seg 1-7 as a member of an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy or as debris from the Sgr dwarf spheroidal galaxy. In either case, this demonstrates that at extremely low abundance, [Fe/H ] <-3.0, star formation and associated chemical evolution proceeded similarly in the progenitors of both the field halo and satellite systems. By extension, this is consistent with other recent suggestions that the most metal-poor dwarf spheroidal and ultra-faint dwarf satellites were the building blocks of the Galaxy's outer halo.

  1. A New Study of Copper Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobeck, J. S.; Primas, F.; Sneden, C.; Ivans, I. I.

    2008-03-01

    The history of the chemical composition of the Galaxy is dominated by the nucleosynthesis occurring in many generations of stars. Very metal-poor stars represent one of the main diagnostic tools to probe the earliest phases of the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. Any variation in the elemental abundance ratios observed at different metallicites can then be compared with the yields derived from SNe of different masses to determine which ones have contributed to the Galactic chemical enrichment and when. Here, the preliminary result of a recent analysis that has focused on the iron-group element copper is presented, which has the main goal of better constraining its nucleosynthetic origin.

  2. Hot, Massive Stars in the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy, I Zw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor galaxy, I Zw 18, is the Rosetta Stone for understanding galaxies in the early universe by providing constraints on the IMF of massive stars, the role of galaxies in reionization of the universe, mixing of newly synthesized material in the ISM, and gamma-ray bursts at low metallicity, and on the earliest generations of stars producing the observed abundance pattern. We describe these constraints as derived from analyses of HST/COS spectra of I Zw 18 including stellar atmosphere analysis and photo-ionization modeling of both the emission and absorption spectra of the nebular material and interstellar medium.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars (Placco+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, V. M.; Frebel, A.; Beers, T. C.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the observed frequencies of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars as a function of the metallicity in the Galaxy, using data from the literature with available high-resolution spectroscopy. Our analysis excludes stars exhibiting clear overabundances of neutron-capture elements and takes into account the expected depletion of surface carbon abundance that occurs due to CN processing on the upper red giant branch. This allows for the recovery of the initial carbon abundance of these stars, and thus for an accurate assessment of the frequencies of carbon-enhanced stars. The correction procedure we develop is based on stellar-evolution models and depends on the surface gravity, log g, of a given star. (2 data files).

  4. A giant planet around a metal-poor star of extragalactic origin.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Johny; Klement, Rainer J; Henning, Thomas; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rochau, Boyke; Rodmann, Jens; Schulze-Hartung, Tim

    2010-12-17

    Stars in their late stage of evolution, such as horizontal branch stars, are still largely unexplored for planets. We detected a planetary companion around HIP 13044, a very metal-poor star on the red horizontal branch, on the basis of radial velocity observations with a high-resolution spectrograph at the 2.2-meter Max-Planck Gesellschaft-European Southern Observatory telescope. The star's periodic radial velocity variation of P = 16.2 days caused by the planet can be distinguished from the periods of the stellar activity indicators. The minimum mass of the planet is 1.25 times the mass of Jupiter and its orbital semimajor axis is 0.116 astronomical units. Because HIP 13044 belongs to a group of stars that have been accreted from a disrupted satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, the planet most likely has an extragalactic origin.

  5. THE SYNTHETIC-OVERSAMPLING METHOD: USING PHOTOMETRIC COLORS TO DISCOVER EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A. A.

    2015-09-20

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars ([Fe/H] ≤ −3.0 dex) provide a unique window into understanding the first generation of stars and early chemical enrichment of the universe. EMP stars are exceptionally rare, however, and the relatively small number of confirmed discoveries limits our ability to exploit these near-field probes of the first ∼500 Myr after the Big Bang. Here, a new method to photometrically estimate [Fe/H] from only broadband photometric colors is presented. I show that the method, which utilizes machine-learning algorithms and a training set of ∼170,000 stars with spectroscopically measured [Fe/H], produces a typical scatter of ∼0.29 dex. This performance is similar to what is achievable via low-resolution spectroscopy, and outperforms other photometric techniques, while also being more general. I further show that a slight alteration to the model, wherein synthetic EMP stars are added to the training set, yields the robust identification of EMP candidates. In particular, this synthetic-oversampling method recovers ∼20% of the EMP stars in the training set, at a precision of ∼0.05. Furthermore, ∼65% of the false positives from the model are very metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] ≤ −2.0 dex). The synthetic-oversampling method is biased toward the discovery of warm (∼F-type) stars, a consequence of the targeting bias from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding survey. This EMP selection method represents a significant improvement over alternative broadband optical selection techniques. The models are applied to >12 million stars, with an expected yield of ∼600 new EMP stars, which promises to open new avenues for exploring the early universe.

  6. Chemistry of the Most Metal-poor Stars in the Bulge and the z ≳ 10 Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Schlaufman, Kevin C.

    2015-08-01

    Metal-poor stars in the Milky Way are local relics of the epoch of the first stars and the first galaxies. However, a low metallicity does not prove that a star formed in this ancient era, as metal-poor stars form over a range of redshift in different environments. Theoretical models of Milky Way formation have shown that at constant metallicity, the oldest stars are those closest to the center of the Galaxy on the most tightly bound orbits. For that reason, the most metal-poor stars in the bulge of the Milky Way provide excellent tracers of the chemistry of the high-redshift universe. We report the dynamics and detailed chemical abundances of three stars in the bulge with [{Fe}/{{H}}]≲ -2.7, two of which are the most metal-poor stars in the bulge in the literature. We find that with the exception of scandium, all three stars follow the abundance trends identified previously for metal-poor halo stars. These three stars have the lowest [Sc ii/Fe] abundances yet seen in α-enhanced giant stars in the Galaxy. Moreover, all three stars are outliers in the otherwise tight [Sc ii/Fe]-[Ti ii/Fe] relation observed among metal-poor halo stars. Theoretical models predict that there is a 30% chance that at least one of these stars formed at z≳ 15, while there is a 70% chance that at least one formed at 10≲ z≲ 15. These observations imply that by z˜ 10, the progenitor galaxies of the Milky Way had both reached [{Fe}/{{H}}]˜ -3.0 and established the abundance pattern observed in extremely metal-poor stars. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  7. Identifying Bright Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars in the RAVE Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Bright metal-poor stars are of great importance for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up, since their brightness allows for detailed studies of the chemical compositions of their atmospheres, obtainable with short integration times on 4m-8m class telescopes. We have carried out a medium-resolution spectroscopic follow-up survey of very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.0) stars selected from the RAVE catalog.Over the course of four semesters we observed over 1,200 stars with the Gemini North, Gemini South, SOAR, KPNO/Mayall, and ESO/NTT telescopes. These spectra are used to confirm the estimated atmospheric parameters from RAVE, as well as to determine [C/Fe], using our spectroscopic analysis pipeline. This information has already enabled the identification of many new carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including representatives of the inner- and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way, for which high-resolution spectroscopy is in progress from the ground with the Magellan/Clay Telescope and with the South African Large Telescope (SALT). The most interesting stars from the high-resolution follow-up will be observed from space with HST/STIS or COS. In this talk I will present the results of the medium-resolution follow-up, and preliminary results from the high-resolution effort.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  8. Lithium abundances in extremely metal-poor turn-off stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbordone, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.

    We discuss the current status of the sample of Lithium abundances in extremely metal poor (EMP) turn-off (TO) stars collected by our group, and compare it with the available literature results. In the last years, evidences have accumulated of a progressive disruption of the Spite plateau in stars of extremely low metallicity. What appears to be a flat, thin plateau above [Fe/H]˜-2.8 turns, at lower metallicities, into a broader distribution for which the plateau level constitutes the upper limit, but more and more stars show lower Li abundances. The sample we have collected currently counts abundances or upper limits for 44 EMP TO stars between [Fe/H]=-2.5 and -3.5, plus the ultra-metal poor star SDSS J102915+172927 at [Fe/H]=-4.9. The ``meltdown'' of the Spite plateau is quite evident and, at the current status of the sample, does not appear to be restricted to the cool end of the effective temperature distribution. SDSS J102915+172927 displays an extreme Li depletion that contrasts with its otherwise quite ordinary set of [X/Fe] ratios.

  9. Follow-up observations of extremely metal-poor stars identified from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, D. S.; Allende Prieto, C.; González Hernández, J. I.; Carrera, R.; Rebolo, R.; Shetrone, M.; Lambert, D. L.; Fernández-Alvar, E.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The most metal-poor stars in the Milky Way witnessed the early phases of formation of the Galaxy, and have chemical compositions that are close to the pristine mixture from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, polluted by one or few supernovae. Aims: Only two dozen stars with ([Fe/H] < -4) are known, and they show a wide range of abundance patterns. It is therefore important to enlarge this sample. We present the first results of an effort to identify new extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo. Methods: Our targets have been selected from low-resolution spectra obtained as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and followed-up with medium resolution spectroscopy on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope and, in a few cases, at high resolution on the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Stellar parameters and the abundances of magnesium, calcium, iron, and strontium have been inferred from the spectra using classical model atmospheres. We have also derived carbon abundances from the G band. Results: We find consistency between the metallicities estimated from SDSS and those from new data at the level of 0.3 dex. The analysis of medium resolution data obtained with ISIS on the WHT allows us to refine the metallicities and in some cases measure other elemental abundances. Our sample contains 11 new metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -3.0, one of them with an estimated metallicity of [Fe/H] ~ -4.0. We also discuss metallicity discrepancies of some stars in common with previous works in the literature. Only one of these stars is found to be C-enhanced at about [C/Fe] ~ + 1, whereas the other metal-poor stars show C abundances at the level of [C/Fe] ~ + 0.45. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.The reduced spectra as FITS files are only available at

  10. Bright Metal-Poor Stars from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. II. A Chemodynamical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Rossi, Silvia; Lee, Young Sun; Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.; Dietz, Sarah; Masseron, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We obtain estimates of stellar atmospheric parameters for a previously published sample of 1777 relatively bright (9< B< 14) metal-poor candidates from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. The original Frebel et al. analysis of these stars was able to derive estimates of [Fe/H] and [C/Fe] only for a subset of the sample, due to limitations in the methodology then available. A new spectroscopic analysis pipeline has been used to obtain estimates of {T}{eff}, {log} g, [Fe/H], and [C/Fe] for almost the entire data set. This sample is very local—about 90% of the stars are located within 0.5 kpc of the Sun. We consider the chemodynamical properties of these stars in concert with a similarly local sample of stars from a recent analysis of the Bidelman and MacConnell “weak metal” candidates by Beers et al. We use this combined sample to identify possible members of the halo stream of stars suggested by Helmi et al. and Chiba & Beers, as well as stars that may be associated with stripped debris from the putative parent dwarf of the globular cluster Omega Centauri, suggested to exist by previous authors. We identify a clear increase in the cumulative frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with declining metallicity, as well as an increase in the fraction of CEMP stars with distance from the Galactic plane, consistent with previous results. We also identify a relatively large number of CEMP stars with kinematics consistent with the metal-weak thick-disk population, with possible implications for its origin.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of bright metal-poor stars (Schlaufman+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaufman, K. C.; Casey, A. R.

    2016-11-01

    As input to our sample selection, we use the APASS DR6 Catalog, the 2MASS All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the AllWISE Source Catalog (Henden+ 2012JAVSO..40..430H; Skrutskie+ 2006AJ....131.1163S; Wright+ 2010AJ....140.1868W; Mainzer+ 2011ApJ...731...53M). We followed up our metal-poor star candidates with the Mayall 4m/Echelle, Gemini South/GMOS-S, and Magellan/MIKE telescopes and spectrographs. We observed 98 stars with the Mayall 4m/Echelle on 2013 June 25-27. We observed 90 stars with Gemini South/GMOS-S in service mode from 2014 March to July (R~3700). We observed 416 stars with Magellan/MIKE on 2014 June 21-23 and July 8-10 (R~41000 in the blue and R~35000 in the red). (3 data files).

  12. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo CASH Project II. The Li-, r- and s-Enhanced Metal-Poor Giant ligiant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, A.; Roederer, I. U.; Shetrone, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Rhee, J.; Gallino, R.; Bisterzo, S.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T. C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2008-08-01

    We present the first detailed abundance analysis of the metal-poor giant ligiant. This star was observed as part of the University of Texas Long-Term Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. We find that this metal-poor ([Fe/H] =-2.2) star has an unusually high lithium abundance (log ɛ (Li)= +2.1), mild carbon ([C/Fe] =+0.7) and sodium ([Na/Fe] =+0.6) enhancement, as well as enhancement of both spro ([Ba/Fe] =+0.8) and rpro ([Eu/Fe] =+0.5) material. The high Li abundance can be explained by self-enrichment through extra mixing mechanisms. If so, ligiant is the most metal-poor star in which this short-lived phase of Li enrichment has been observed. The r- and spro material was not produced in this star but was either present in the gas from which ligiant formed or was transferred to it from a more massive binary companion. Despite the current non-detection of radial velocity variations (over a time span of ˜180 days), it is possible that ligiant is in a long-period binary system, similar to other stars with both r and s enrichment.

  13. Diversity of abundance patterns of neutron-capture elements in very metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Misa; Aoki, Wako; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Wanajo, Shinya

    2014-05-01

    Observations of Very Metal-Poor stars indicate that there are at least two sites to r-process; "weak r-process" and "main r-process". A question is whether these two are well separated or there exists a variation in the r-process. We present the results of abundance analysis of neutron-capture elements in the two Very Metal-Poor stars HD107752 and HD110184 in the Milky Way halo observed with the Subaru Telescope HDS. The abundance patterns show overabundace at light n-capture elements (e.g. Sr, Y), inferring the element yielding of weak r-process, while heavy neutron-capture elements (e.g. Ba, Eu) are deficient; however, the overabundance of light ones is not as significant as that previously found in stars representing the weak r-process (e.g. HD122563; Honda et al. 2006). Our study show diversity in the abundance patterns from light to heavy neutron-capture elements in VMP stars, suggesting a variation in r-process, which may depend on electron fraction of environment.

  14. Diversity of abundance patterns of neutron-capture elements in very metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Misa; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Aoki, Wako; Wanajo, Shinya

    2014-05-02

    Observations of Very Metal-Poor stars indicate that there are at least two sites to r-process; “weak r-process” and “main r-process”. A question is whether these two are well separated or there exists a variation in the r-process. We present the results of abundance analysis of neutron-capture elements in the two Very Metal-Poor stars HD107752 and HD110184 in the Milky Way halo observed with the Subaru Telescope HDS. The abundance patterns show overabundace at light n-capture elements (e.g. Sr, Y), inferring the element yielding of weak r-process, while heavy neutron-capture elements (e.g. Ba, Eu) are deficient; however, the overabundance of light ones is not as significant as that previously found in stars representing the weak r-process (e.g. HD122563; Honda et al. 2006). Our study show diversity in the abundance patterns from light to heavy neutron-capture elements in VMP stars, suggesting a variation in r-process, which may depend on electron fraction of environment.

  15. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars: Relics from the Dark Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Madau, Piero

    2014-08-01

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: the observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high-energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low-energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation, but, as a result, the second stars are born with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the observed distributions of [C/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the fraction of CEMP stars relative to non-CEMP stars as a function of [Fe/H] without any free parameters. We propose that the present lack of chemical evidence for very massive stars (gsim 140 M ⊙) that ended their lives as a highly energetic pair-instability supernova does not imply that such stars were rare or did not exist; the chemical products of these very massive first stars may have been evacuated from their host minihalos and were never incorporated into subsequent generations of stars. Finally, our models suggest that the most Fe-poor stars currently known may have seen the enrichment from a small multiple of metal-free stars, and need not have been exclusively enriched by a solitary first star. These calculations also add further support to the possibility that some of the surviving dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are the relics of the first galaxies.

  16. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: relics from the dark ages

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Madau, Piero

    2014-08-20

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: the observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high-energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low-energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation, but, as a result, the second stars are born with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the observed distributions of [C/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the fraction of CEMP stars relative to non-CEMP stars as a function of [Fe/H] without any free parameters. We propose that the present lack of chemical evidence for very massive stars (≳ 140 M {sub ☉}) that ended their lives as a highly energetic pair-instability supernova does not imply that such stars were rare or did not exist; the chemical products of these very massive first stars may have been evacuated from their host minihalos and were never incorporated into subsequent generations of stars. Finally, our models suggest that the most Fe-poor stars currently known may have seen the enrichment from a small multiple of metal-free stars, and need not have been exclusively enriched by a solitary first star. These calculations also add further support to the possibility that some of the surviving dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are the relics of the first galaxies.

  17. Detailed differential chemical analysis of a metal poor star: new evidences about planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, M. G. C. C.; Milone, A. de C.; Meléndez, J.

    2014-10-01

    The present project emphasizes on the study of metal-poor stars, with and without planets, to investigate the existence (or not) of a connection between anomalies in the chemical composition and the presence of planets by inspecting the high resolution spectra (R = 65 000), in order to derive chemical abundances with high precision using the differential technique. In this method, measurements of equivalent widths of the target star are compared to a standard star with predetermined photospheric parameters that are similar to those of the target star (effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity). Therefore, we have compared the star HD111232 (standard) with HD020794, such that the first holds a hot Jupiter-type planet and around the second one there are three super-Earths. These solar-type stars are moderately metal-poor and had their spectra collected with the MIKE spectrograph at the 6.5m Magellan telescope in the Las Campanas Observatory. Among the main results, we have derived the classical photospheric parameters and chemical abundances of refractory and volatile elements with such a high precision, particularly with errors about 0.01 dex, which is essential for the study of chemical connection between planets and star. We have also added to the differential method the spectral synthesis of molecular bands and atomic lines to recover abundances of volatile elements such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. We thus present the parameters effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity [Fe/H], microturbulence velocity and differential elemental abundances. For some elements, we have performed comparisons of the abundances measured by spectral synthesis with those obtained directly through measurements of equivalent widths. Specifically, the preliminary abundance difference δ[E/H] is 0.04(7) dex for carbon, 0.12(14) for nitrogen and 0.08(7) for oxygen.

  18. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. I. DISCOVERY, DATA, AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Yong, David; Asplund, M.; Murphy, Simon J.; Christlieb, N.; Barklem, P. S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: paul.barklem@physics.uu.se E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of 34 stars in the Hamburg/ESO Survey for metal-poor stars and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that have [Fe/H] {approx}< -3.0. Their median and minimum abundances are [Fe/H] = -3.1 and -4.1, respectively, while 10 stars have [Fe/H] < -3.5. High-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic data-equivalent widths and radial velocities-are presented for these stars, together with an additional four objects previously reported or currently being investigated elsewhere. We have determined the atmospheric parameters, effective temperature (T {sub eff}), and surface gravity (log g), which are critical in the determination of the chemical abundances and the evolutionary status of these stars. Three techniques were used to derive these parameters. Spectrophotometric fits to model atmosphere fluxes were used to derive T {sub eff}, log g, and an estimate of E(B - V); H{alpha}, H{beta}, and H{gamma} profile fitting to model atmosphere results provided the second determination of T {sub eff} and log g; and finally, we used an empirical T {sub eff}-calibrated H{delta} index, for the third, independent T {sub eff} determination. The three values of T {sub eff} are in good agreement, although the profile fitting may yield systematically cooler T {sub eff} values, by {approx}100 K. This collective data set will be analyzed in future papers in the present series to utilize the most metal-poor stars as probes of conditions in the early universe.

  19. Discovery of a Super-Li-rich Turnoff Star in the Metal-poor Globular Cluster NGC 6397

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; Lind, Karin; Rich, R. Michael

    2011-09-01

    We report on the discovery of a super-Li-rich turnoff (TO) star in the old (12 Gyr), metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.1 dex) globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, based on high-resolution MIKE/Magellan spectra. This star shows an unusually high lithium abundance of A(Li)NLTE = 4.03 ± 0.06 ± 0.14 dex (or, 4.21, accounting for possible contamination from a binary companion) that lies above the canonical Li-plateau by a factor of 100. This is the highest Li enhancement found in a Galactic GC dwarf star to date. We discuss several enhancement mechanisms, but none can unambiguously explain such a high overabundance. The spectrum of the star shows a possible indication of binarity, but its line strengths and chemical element abundance ratios are fully compatible with other TO stars in this GC, seemingly ruling out mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch companion as origin of the high A(Li). A possible cause is an interaction with a red giant that has undergone cool bottom processing. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  20. TESTING THE ASTEROSEISMIC MASS SCALE USING METAL-POOR STARS CHARACTERIZED WITH APOGEE AND KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Chaplin, William J.; Shetrone, Matthew; Mosser, Benoît; Hekker, Saskia; Harding, Paul; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Basu, Sarbani; Beers, Timothy C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bedding, Timothy R.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García, Rafael A.; and others

    2014-04-20

    Fundamental stellar properties, such as mass, radius, and age, can be inferred using asteroseismology. Cool stars with convective envelopes have turbulent motions that can stochastically drive and damp pulsations. The properties of the oscillation frequency power spectrum can be tied to mass and radius through solar-scaled asteroseismic relations. Stellar properties derived using these scaling relations need verification over a range of metallicities. Because the age and mass of halo stars are well-constrained by astrophysical priors, they provide an independent, empirical check on asteroseismic mass estimates in the low-metallicity regime. We identify nine metal-poor red giants (including six stars that are kinematically associated with the halo) from a sample observed by both the Kepler space telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey. We compare masses inferred using asteroseismology to those expected for halo and thick-disk stars. Although our sample is small, standard scaling relations, combined with asteroseismic parameters from the APOKASC Catalog, produce masses that are systematically higher (<ΔM > =0.17 ± 0.05 M {sub ☉}) than astrophysical expectations. The magnitude of the mass discrepancy is reduced by known theoretical corrections to the measured large frequency separation scaling relationship. Using alternative methods for measuring asteroseismic parameters induces systematic shifts at the 0.04 M {sub ☉} level. We also compare published asteroseismic analyses with scaling relationship masses to examine the impact of using the frequency of maximum power as a constraint. Upcoming APOKASC observations will provide a larger sample of ∼100 metal-poor stars, important for detailed asteroseismic characterization of Galactic stellar populations.

  1. Diversity of Abundance Patterns of Light Neutron-capture Elements in Very-metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Misa; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Aoki, Wako; Wanajo, Shinya

    2017-03-01

    We determine the abundances of neutron-capture elements from Sr to Eu for five very-metal-poor stars (-3 < [{Fe}/{{H}}] < -2) in the Milky Way halo to reveal the origin of light neutron-capture elements. Previous spectroscopic studies have shown evidence of at least two components in the r-process; one referred to as the “main r-process” and the other as the “weak r-process,” which is mainly responsible for producing heavy and light neutron-capture elements, respectively. Observational studies of metal-poor stars suggest that there is a universal pattern in the main r-process, similar to the abundance pattern of the r-process component of solar-system material. Still, it is uncertain whether the abundance pattern of the weak r-process shows universality or diversity, due to the sparseness of measured light neutron-capture elements. We have detected the key elements, Mo, Ru, and Pd, in five target stars to give an answer to this question. The abundance patterns of light neutron-capture elements from Sr to Pd suggest a diversity in the weak r-process. In particular, scatter in the abundance ratio between Ru and Pd is significant when the abundance patterns are normalized at Zr. Our results are compared with the elemental abundances predicted by nucleosynthesis models of supernovae with parameters such as electron fraction or proto-neutron-star mass, to investigate sources of such diversity in the abundance patterns of light neutron-capture elements. This paper presents that the variation in the abundances of observed stars can be explained with a small range of parameters, which can serve as constraints on future modeling of supernova models. Study based on data collected with the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  2. Stellar Populations and Star Formation History of the Metal-poor Dwarf Galaxy DDO 68

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, E.; Annibali, F.; Cignoni, M.; Aloisi, A.; Sohn, T.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Grocholski, A. J.; James, B.

    2016-10-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) of the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy DDO 68, based on our photometry with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. With a metallicity of only 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.15 and a very isolated location, DDO 68 is one of the most metal-poor galaxies known. It has been argued that DDO 68 is a young system that started forming stars only ˜0.15 Gyr ago. Our data provide a deep and uncontaminated optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that allows us to disprove this hypothesis since we find a population of at least ˜1 Gyr old stars. The star formation activity has been fairly continuous over all the look-back time. The current rate is quite low, and the highest activity occurred between 10 and 100 Myr ago. The average star formation rate over the whole Hubble time is ≃0.01 M ⊙ yr-1, corresponding to a total astrated mass of ≃1.3 × 108 M ⊙. Our photometry allows us to infer the distance from the tip of the red giant branch, D = 12.08 ± 0.67 Mpc; however, to let our synthetic CMD reproduce the observed ones, we need a slightly higher distance, D = 12.65 Mpc, or (m - M)0 = 30.51, still inside the errors of the previous determination, and we adopt the latter. DDO 68 shows a very interesting and complex history, with its quite disturbed shape and a long tail, probably due to tidal interactions. The SFH of the tail differs from that of the main body mainly for enhanced activity at recent epochs likely triggered by the interaction. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA Contract NAS5-26555.

  3. Detailed Iron-Group Abundances in a Very Metal-Poor Main Sequence Turnoff Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Chris; Roederer, Ian U.; Boesgaard, Ann M.; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Cowan, John J.; Sobeck, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained Keck HIRES and HST STIS high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -2.9) main-sequence turnoff star BD+03 740. A detailed chemical composition analysis based on synthetic spectrum computations has been conducted. Our initial focus has been on the iron-group elements in the Z = 21-28 range. This study takes advantage of recent improvements in neutral and ionzied species transition data for all of these elements except Sc (Z = 21) by the Wisconsin atomic physics group (see a companion presentation on Cr II at this meeting). Several metal-poor abundance surveys have concluded that there are large overabundances of Co and underabundances of Cr with respect to Fe for stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5. Neither of these anomalies is seen in BD+03 740. We discuss the implications of this result for early iron-group synthesis in the Galaxy.This work has been supported by HST STScI Program GO-14232; and NSF grants AST-1211585 and AST-1616040 to CS; AST-1516182 to JEL and EDH; NASA grant NNX16AE96G to JEL

  4. Carbon Abundance Plateaus among Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jinmi; He, Siyu; Placco, Vinicius; Carollo, Daniela; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial fraction of low-metallicity stars in the Milky Way, the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars, exhibit enhancements of their carbon-to-iron relative to the solar value ([C/Fe] > +0.7). They can be divided into several sub-classes, depending on the nature and degree of the observed enhancements of their neutron-capture elements, providing information on their likely progenitors. CEMP-s stars (which exhibit enhanced s-process elements) are thought to be enhanced by mass transfer from an evolved AGB companion, while CEMP-no stars (which exhibit no over-abundances of neutron-capture elements) appear to be associated with explosions of the very first generations of stars. High-resolution spectroscopic analyses are generally required in order to make these sub-classifications.Several recent studies have suggested the existence of bimodality in the distribution of absolute carbon abundances among CEMP stars -- most CEMP-no stars belong to a low-C band ((A(C) ˜ 6.5), while most CEMP-s stars reside on a high-C band (A(C) ˜ 8.25). The number of CEMP stars considered by individual studies is, however, quite small, so we have compiled all available high-resolution spectroscopic data for CEMP stars, in order to further investigate the existence of the claimed carbon bi-modality, and to consider what can be learned about the progenitors of CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars based on the observed distribution of A(C) on the individual plateaus.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  5. DETECTION OF THE SECOND r-PROCESS PEAK ELEMENT TELLURIUM IN METAL-POOR STARS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E.; Cowan, John J.; Beers, Timothy C.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Sneden, Christopher

    2012-03-15

    Using near-ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we detect neutral tellurium in three metal-poor stars enriched by products of r-process nucleosynthesis, BD +17 3248, HD 108317, and HD 128279. Tellurium (Te, Z = 52) is found at the second r-process peak (A Almost-Equal-To 130) associated with the N = 82 neutron shell closure, and it has not been detected previously in Galactic halo stars. The derived tellurium abundances match the scaled solar system r-process distribution within the uncertainties, confirming the predicted second peak r-process residuals. These results suggest that tellurium is predominantly produced in the main component of the r-process, along with the rare earth elements.

  6. The r-Process in Metal Poor Stars and Black Hole Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R N; Famiano, M A; Meyer, B S; Motizuki, Y; Kajino, T; Roederer, I U

    2011-11-30

    Nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in metal-poor stars is generally ascribed to the r-process, as the abundance pattern in many such stars agrees with the inferred Solar r-process abundances. Nonetheless, a significant number of these stars do not share this r-process template. they suggest that many such stars have begun an r-process, but it was prevented from running to completion in more massive stars by collapse to black holes, creating a 'truncated r-process,' or 'tr-process'. The observed fraction of tr-process stars is found to be consistent with expectations from the initial mass function (IMF), and they suggest that an apparent sharp truncation observed at around mass 160 could result from a combination of collapses to black holes and the difficulty of observing the higher mass rare earths. They test the tr-process hypothesis with calculations that are terminated before all r-process trajectories have been ejected. These produce qualitative agreement with observation when both black hole collapse and observational realities are taken into account.

  7. NEW HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN FOUR METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Thompson, Ian B.; Lawler, James E.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher

    2012-12-15

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest.

  8. An Astrometric Companion to the Nearby Metal-Poor, Low-Mass Star LHS 1589

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lépine, Sébastien; Rich, R. Michael; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Skemer, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    We report the discovery of a companion to the high proper motion star LHS 1589, a nearby high-velocity, low-mass subdwarf. The companion (LHS 1589B) is located 0.224''+/-0.004'' to the southwest of the primary (LHS 1589A), and is 0.5 mag fainter than the primary in the Ks band. The pair was resolved with the IRCAL infrared camera at Lick Observatory, operating with the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system. A low-resolution spectrum of the unresolved pair obtained at the MDM observatory shows the source to be consistent with a cool subdwarf of spectral subtype sdK7.5. A photometric distance estimate places the metal-poor system at a distance d=81+/-18 pc from the Sun. We also measure a radial velocity Vrad=67+/-8 km s-1, which, together with the proper motion and estimated distance, suggests that the pair is roaming the inner Galactic halo on a highly eccentric orbit. With a projected orbital separation s=18.1+/-4.8 AU, and a crude estimate of the system's total mass, we estimate the orbital period of the system to be in the range 75 yr metal-poor, low-mass stars. Based on observations performed with the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system at the Lick Observatory, operated by the University of California system. Based on observations conducted at the MDM observatory, operated jointly by the University of Michigan, Dartmouth College, the Ohio State University, Columbia University, and the University of Ohio.

  9. The low Sr/Ba ratio on some extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; François, P.; Sbordone, L.

    2014-11-01

    Context. It has been noted that, in classical extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, the abundance ratio of two well-observed neutron-capture elements, Sr and Ba, is always higher than [Sr/Ba] = -0.5, which is the value of the solar r-only process; however, a handful of EMP stars have recently been found with a very low Sr/Ba ratio. Aims: We try to understand the origin of this anomaly by comparing the abundance pattern of the elements in these stars and in the classical EMP stars. Methods: For a rigorous comparison with previous data, four stars with very low Sr/Ba ratios were observed and analyzed in the same way as in the First Stars program: analysis within LTE approximation through 1D (hydrostatic) model atmosphere, providing homogeneous abundances of nine neutron-capture elements. Results: In CS 22950-173, the only turnoff star of the sample, the Sr/Ba ratio is, in fact, found to be higher than the r-only solar ratio, so the star is discarded. The remaining stars (CS 29493-090, CS 30322-023, HE 305-4520) are cool evolved giants. They do not present a clear carbon enrichment, but in evolved giants C is partly burned into N, and owing to their high N abundance, they could still have initially been carbon-rich EMP stars (CEMP). The abundances of Na to Mg present similar anomalies to those in CEMP stars. The abundance patterns of the neutron-capture elements in the three stars are strikingly similar to a theoretical s-process pattern. This pattern could at first be attributed to pollution by a nearby AGB, but none of the stars presents a clear variation in the radial velocity indicating the presence of a companion. The stellar parameters seem to exclude any internal pollution in a TP-AGB phase for at least two of these stars. The possibility that the stars are early-AGB stars polluted during the core He flash does not seem compatible with the theory. Based on observations obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (ID 077.D-0299(A) PI

  10. Ultraviolet Spectral Synthesis and Oxygen in Metal-Poor Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. C.

    1999-05-01

    This report outlines the progress and pitfalls of calculating spectra from first principles in the 2300 -- 3400A region for metal-poor solar-type stars, and how they relate to the derivation of abundances of key species such as oxygen and magnesium. This work is part of a NASA-supported effort with Ben Dorman of Goddard Space Flight Center to develop ab initio spectra suitable for galaxy analysis, and also part of a HST-oriented program with Karel Schrijver of Lockheed Martin to characterize the chromospheric activity of the oldest solar-type stars. The first task has been a reanalysis of the basic stellar parameters of temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity for solar-temperature stars ranging from one-fifth to one-three hundredth solar metallicity, demanding agreement in line strengths and profiles of strong lines and weak, in both optical and ultraviolet, and in the ultraviolet flux distribution. These cross-checks are built in to ensure convergence to a unique solution, or to highlight where standard assumptions are breaking down. Once agreement is achieved for the most metal-deficient stars, the line list used for the spectral calculations is re-examined, and somewhat more metal-rich stars are matched. Abundance results for oxygen from various approaches will be described, from the near-UV OH, 6300A [O I], and near-IR O I lines, and from adopting laboratory versus theoretical versus astrophysical atomic and molecular constants.

  11. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor.

    PubMed

    Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D

    2010-03-04

    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. On the basis of the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. Verification of the iron-deficiency, however, and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are necessary to demonstrate that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming its iron abundance of less than 1/4,000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern follows that seen in low-metallicity halo stars, including the alpha-elements. Such chemical similarity indicates that the systems destroyed to form the halo billions of years ago were not fundamentally different from the progenitors of present-day dwarfs, and suggests that the early chemical enrichment of all galaxies may be nearly identical.

  12. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars and the Need for an Intermediate Neutron Capture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancliffe, Richard J.; Hampel, Melanie; Lugaro, Maria; Meyer, Bradley S.

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the Galactic Halo display enrichments in heavy elements associated with either the s (slow) or the r (rapid) neutron-capture process (e.g., barium and europium respectively), and in some cases they display evidence of both. The abundance patterns of these CEMP-s/r stars, which show both Ba and Eu enrichment, are particularly puzzling since the s and the r processes require neutron densities that are more than ten orders of magnitude apart, and hence are thought to occur in very different stellar sites. We investigate whether the abundance patterns of CEMP-s/r stars can arise from the nucleosynthesis of the intermediate neutron-capture process (the i process), which is characterised by neutron densities between those of the s and the r processes. Using nuclear network calculations, we study neutron capture nucleosynthesis at different constant neutron densities n ranging from 107 to 1015 cm-3. Neutron densities on the highest side of this range result in abundance patterns that show an increased production of heavy s- and r-process elements but similar levels of the light s-process elements. With our i-process model, we are able to reproduce the abundance patterns of 20 CEMP-s/r stars that could not be explained by s-process nucleosynthesis.

  13. Leo P: A very low-mass, extremely metal-poor, star-forming galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B.; Leo P Team

    2017-01-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy just outside the Local Group with properties that make it an ideal probe of galaxy evolution at the faint-end of the luminosity function. Using combined data from 2 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observing campaigns, the Very Large Array, the Spitzer Space telescope, as well as ground based data, we have constructed a robust evolutionary picture of Leo P. Leo P is one the most metal-poor, gas-rich galaxies ever discovered, has a stellar mass of a 5x105 Msun, comparable gas mass, and a single HII region. The star formation history reconstructed from the resolved stellar populations in Leo P shows it is unquenched, despite its very low mass. Based on the star formation history and metallicity measurements, the galaxy has lost 95% of its oxygen produced via nucleosynthesis, presumably to outflows. The neutral gas in the galaxy shows signs of rotation, although the velocity dispersion is comparable to the rotation velocity. Thus, Leo P bridges the gap between more massive dwarf irregular and less massive dwarf spheroidals on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. Furthermore, the galaxy hosts several, extremely dusty AGB candidates which will be probed with new HST and Spitzer observations. If confirmed as AGB stars, these may be our best local proxies for studying chemically unevolved star formation and subsequent dust production in metallicity environments comparable to the early universe.

  14. Abundance analyses of metal-poor stars. III - Red spectra of nine dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Logarithmic iron abundances with respect to the sun are presented for nine cool, metal-poor dwarfs, and rederived for 15 hotter dwarfs and subgiants. Equivalent widths of lines as weak as 10 mA are used in this analysis, by invoking the goodness of the wavelength coincidence between observed and theoretical line positions to discriminate against noise features and line blends. For the stars discussed by Peterson (1978), the use of furnace gf-values and an independently determined value (-4.50) for the logarithm of the solar iron-to-hydrogen ratio produces abundances which are lower by 0.2 dex than those derived from a solar/stellar line-by-line comparison with vt = 1 km/sec.

  15. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. II. A Sample of 14 Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Shetrone, Matthew; Beers, Timothy C.; Kang, Sung-ju; Thom, Christopher

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 20 elements for 16 new low-metallicity stars from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The abundances have been derived from both Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph snapshot spectra (R ~15, 000) and corresponding high-resolution (R ~35, 000) Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra. The stars span a metallicity range from [Fe/H] from -2.9 to -3.9, including four new stars with [Fe/H] < -3.7. We find four stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, confirming the trend of increasing [C/Fe] abundance ratios with decreasing metallicity. Two of these objects can be classified as CEMP-no stars, adding to the growing number of these objects at [Fe/H]< - 3. We also find four neutron-capture-enhanced stars in the sample, one of which has [Eu/Fe] of 0.8 with clear r-process signatures. These pilot sample stars are the most metal-poor ([Fe/H] <~ -3.0) of the brightest stars included in CASH and are used to calibrate a newly developed, automated stellar parameter and abundance determination pipeline. This code will be used for the entire ~500 star CASH snapshot sample. We find that the pipeline results are statistically identical for snapshot spectra when compared to a traditional, manual analysis from a high-resolution spectrum. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. Based on observations gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  16. The Intermediate Neutron-capture Process and Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Melanie; Stancliffe, Richard J.; Lugaro, Maria; Meyer, Bradley S.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the Galactic Halo display enrichments in heavy elements associated with either the s (slow) or the r (rapid) neutron-capture process (e.g., barium and europium, respectively), and in some cases they display evidence of both. The abundance patterns of these CEMP-s/r stars, which show both Ba and Eu enrichment, are particularly puzzling, since the s and the r processes require neutron densities that are more than ten orders of magnitude apart and, hence, are thought to occur in very different stellar sites with very different physical conditions. We investigate whether the abundance patterns of CEMP-s/r stars can arise from the nucleosynthesis of the intermediate neutron-capture process (the i process), which is characterized by neutron densities between those of the s and the r processes. Using nuclear network calculations, we study neutron capture nucleosynthesis at different constant neutron densities n ranging from 107-1015 cm-3. With respect to the classical s process resulting from neutron densities on the lowest side of this range, neutron densities on the highest side result in abundance patterns, which show an increased production of heavy s-process and r-process elements, but similar abundances of the light s-process elements. Such high values of n may occur in the thermal pulses of asymptotic giant branch stars due to proton ingestion episodes. Comparison to the surface abundances of 20 CEMP-s/r stars shows that our modeled i-process abundances successfully reproduce observed abundance patterns, which could not be previously explained by s-process nucleosynthesis. Because the i-process models fit the abundances of CEMP-s/r stars so well, we propose that this class should be renamed as CEMP-i.

  17. Chemical Analysis of a Carbon-enhanced Very Metal-poor Star: CD-27 14351

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Goswami, Aruna; Masseron, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present, for the first time, an abundance analysis of a very metal-poor carbon-enhanced star CD-27 14351 based on a high-resolution (R ∼ 48,000) FEROS spectrum. Our abundance analysis performed using local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres shows that the object is a cool star with stellar atmospheric parameters, effective temperature Teff = 4335 K, surface gravity log g = 0.5, microturbulence ξ = 2.42 km s‑1, and metallicity [Fe/H] = ‑2.6. The star exhibits high carbon and nitrogen abundances with [C/Fe] = 2.89 and [N/Fe] = 1.89. Overabundances of neutron-capture elements are evident in Ba, La, Ce, and Nd, with estimated [X/Fe] > 1, the largest enhancement being seen in Ce with [Ce/Fe] = 2.63. While the first peak s-process elements Sr and Y are found to be enhanced with respect to Fe, ([Sr/Fe] = 1.73 and [Y/Fe] = 1.91), the third peak s-process element Pb could not be detected in our spectrum at the given resolution. Europium, primarily an r-process element also shows an enhancement with [Eu/Fe] = 1.65. With [Ba/Eu] = 0.12, the object CD-27 14351 satisfies the classification criterion for a CEMP-r/s star. The elemental abundance distributions observed in this star are discussed in light of the chemical abundances observed in other CEMP stars in the literature.

  18. High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor r-I stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira Mello, C.; Hill, V.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Beers, T. C.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Cayrel, R.; François, P.; Schatz, H.; Wanajo, S.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Moderately r-process-enriched stars (r-I; +0.3 ≤ [Eu/Fe] ≤ +1.0) are at least four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II; [Eu/Fe] > +1.0), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. Aims: The main aim of this work is to derive abundances for a sample of seven metal-poor stars with -3.4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2.4 classified as r-I stars, to understand the role of these stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) that is (are) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. Methods: We carried out a detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph, using spectra in the wavelength ranges 3400-4500 Å, 6800-8200 Å, and 8700-10 000 Å, with resolving power R ~ 40 000 (blue arm) and R ~ 55 000 (red arm). The OSMARCS LTE 1D model atmosphere grid was employed, along with the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum. Results: We have derived abundances of the light elements Li, C, and N, the α-elements Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Al, K, and Sc, the iron-peak elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and the trans-iron elements from the first peak (Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, and Pd), the second peak (Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb), the third peak (Os and Ir, as upper limits), and the actinides (Th) regions. The results are compared with values for these elements for r-II and "normal" very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature, ages based on radioactive chronometry are explored using different models, and a number of conclusions about the r-process and the r-I stars are presented. Hydrodynamical models were used for some elements, and general behaviors for the 3D corrections

  19. Observational Constraints on First-Star Nucleosynthesis. II. Spectroscopy of an Ultra metal-poor CEMP-no Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Yoon, Jinmi; Chiti, Anirudh; Heger, Alexander; Chan, Conrad; Casey, Andrew R.; Christlieb, Norbert

    2016-12-01

    We report on the first high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of HE 0020-1741, a bright (V = 12.9), ultra metal-poor ([{Fe}/{{H}}] = -4.1), carbon-enhanced ([{{C}}/{Fe}] = +1.7) star selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. This star exhibits low abundances of neutron-capture elements ([{Ba}/{Fe}] = -1.1) and an absolute carbon abundance A(C) = 6.1 based on either criterion, HE 0020-1741 is subclassified as a carbon-enhanced metal-poor star without enhancements in neutron-capture elements (CEMP-no). We show that the light-element abundance pattern of HE 0020-1741 is consistent with predicted yields from a massive (M = 21.5 {M}⊙ ), primordial-composition, supernova (SN) progenitor. We also compare the abundance patterns of other ultra metal-poor stars from the literature with available measures of C, N, Na, Mg, and Fe abundances with an extensive grid of SN models (covering the mass range 10{--}100 {M}⊙ ), in order to probe the nature of their likely stellar progenitors. Our results suggest that at least two classes of progenitors are required at [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -4.0, as the abundance patterns for more than half of the sample studied in this work (7 out of 12 stars) cannot be easily reproduced by the predicted yields. Based on observations gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the European Southern Observatory (088.D-0344A), La Silla, Chile.

  20. New Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Heavy Elements in Four Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Thompson, Ian B.

    2012-12-01

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 8111 and

  1. New detections of arsenic, selenium, and other heavy elements in two metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Schatz, Hendrik; Beers, Timothy C.; Lawler, James E.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.

    2014-08-10

    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 ≤λ ≤ 2360 Å wavelength range for two metal-poor stars, HD 108317 and HD 128279. We derive abundances of Cu II, Zn II, As I, Se I, Mo II, and Cd II, which have not been detected previously in either star. Abundances derived for Ge I, Te I, Os II, and Pt I confirm those derived from lines at longer wavelengths. We also derive upper limits from the non-detection of W II, Hg II, Pb II, and Bi I. The mean [As/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and five others in the literature is unchanged over the metallicity range –2.8 < [Fe/H] <–0.6, ([As/Fe]) = +0.28 ± 0.14 (σ = 0.36 dex). The mean [Se/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and six others in the literature is also constant, ([Se/Fe]) = +0.16 ± 0.09 (σ = 0.26 dex). The As and Se abundances are enhanced relative to a simple extrapolation of the iron-peak abundances to higher masses, suggesting that this mass region (75 ≤A ≤ 82) may be the point at which a different nucleosynthetic mechanism begins to dominate the quasi-equilibrium α-rich freezeout of the iron peak. ([Cu II/Cu I]) = +0.56 ± 0.23 in HD 108317 and HD 128279, and we infer that lines of Cu I may not be formed in local thermodynamic equilibrium in these stars. The [Zn/Fe], [Mo/Fe], [Cd/Fe], and [Os/Fe] ratios are also derived from neutral and ionized species, and each ratio pair agrees within the mutual uncertainties, which range from 0.15 to 0.52 dex.

  2. METAL-POOR STARS OBSERVED WITH THE MAGELLAN TELESCOPE. I. CONSTRAINTS ON PROGENITOR MASS AND METALLICITY OF AGB STARS UNDERGOING s-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Christlieb, Norbert; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2013-06-20

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE 2138-3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if non-local thermodynamic equilibrium corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE 2258-6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey, and followed up with medium-resolution (R {approx} 2000) spectroscopy with GEMINI/GMOS. We report here on derived abundances (or limits) for a total of 34 elements in each star, based on high-resolution (R {approx} 30, 000) spectroscopy obtained with Magellan-Clay/MIKE. Our results are compared to predictions from new theoretical asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models of 1.3 M{sub Sun} with [Fe/H] = -2.5 and -2.8, as well as to a set of AGB models of 1.0 to 6.0 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = -2.3. The agreement with the model predictions suggests that the neutron-capture material in HE 2138-3336 originated from mass transfer from a binary companion star that previously went through the AGB phase, whereas for HE 2258-6358, an additional process has to be taken into account to explain its abundance pattern. We find that a narrow range of progenitor masses (1.0 {<=} M(M{sub Sun }) {<=} 1.3) and metallicities (-2.8 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=}-2.5) yield the best agreement with our observed elemental abundance patterns.

  3. 6Li in metal-poor halo stars: real or spurious?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, M.; Cayrel, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.

    2010-03-01

    The presence of convective motions in the atmospheres of metal-poor halo stars leads to systematic asymmetries of the emergent spectral line profiles. Since such line asymmetries are very small, they can be safely ignored for standard spectroscopic abundance analysis. However, when it comes to the determination of the 6Li/7Li isotopic ratio, q(Li)=n(6Li)/n(7Li), the intrinsic asymmetry of the 7Li line must be taken into account, because its signature is essentially indistinguishable from the presence of a weak 6Li blend in the red wing of the 7Li line. In this contribution we quantity the error of the inferred 6Li/7Li isotopic ratio that arises if the convective line asymmetry is ignored in the fitting of the λ6707 Å lithium blend. Our conclusion is that 6Li/7Li ratios derived by Asplund et al. (2006), using symmetric line profiles, must be reduced by typically Δq(Li) ≈ 0.015. This diminishes the number of certain 6Li detections from 9 to 4 stars or less, casting some doubt on the existence of a 6Li plateau.

  4. Fluorine in the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Star HE 1305+0132

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun

    2008-03-01

    The fluorine abundance of the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) star HE 1305+0132 has been derived by analysis of the molecular HF (1-0) R9 line at 2.3357 μm in a high-resolution (R = 50,000) spectrum obtained with the Phoenix spectrometer and Gemini-South telescope. Our abundance analysis makes use of a CNO-enhanced ATLAS12 model atmosphere characterized by a metallicity and CNO enhancements determined utilizing medium-resolution (R = 3,000) optical and near-IR spectra. The effective iron abundance is found to be [Fe/H] = -2.5, making HE 1305+0132 the most Fe-deficient star, by more than an order of magnitude, for which the abundance of fluorine has been measured. Using spectral synthesis, we derive a super-solar fluorine abundance of A(19F) = 4.96+/-0.21, corresponding to a relative abundance of [F/Fe] = +2.90. A single line of the Phillips C2 system is identified in our Phoenix spectrum, and along with multiple lines of the first-overtone vibration-rotation CO (3-1) band head, C and O abundances of A(12C) = 8.57+/-0.11 and A(16O) = 7.04+/-0.14 are derived. We consider the striking fluorine overabundance in the framework of the nucleosynthetic processes thought to be responsible for the C-enhancement of CEMP stars and conclude that the atmosphere of HE 1305+0132 was polluted via mass transfer by a primary companion during its asymptotic giant branch phase. This is the first study of fluorine in a CEMP star, and it demonstrates that this rare nuclide can be a key diagnostic of nucleosynthetic processes in the early Galaxy.

  5. Exploring the origin of lithium, carbon, strontium, and barium with four new ultra metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.; Hansen, C. J.; Christlieb, N. E-mail: cjhansen@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present an elemental abundance analysis for four newly discovered ultra metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO survey, with [Fe/H] ≤ –4. Based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra, we derive abundances for 17 elements in the range from Li to Ba. Three of the four stars exhibit moderate to large overabundances of carbon, but have no enhancements in their neutron-capture elements. The most metal-poor star in the sample, HE 0233–0343 ([Fe/H] = –4.68), is a subgiant with a carbon enhancement of [C/Fe] = +3.5, slightly above the carbon-enhancement plateau suggested by Spite et al. No carbon is detected in the spectrum of the fourth star, but the quality of its spectrum only allows for the determination of an upper limit on the carbon abundance ratio of [C/Fe] < +1.7. We detect lithium in the spectra of two of the carbon-enhanced stars, including HE 0233–0343. Both stars with Li detections are Li-depleted, with respect to the Li plateau for metal-poor dwarfs found by Spite and Spite. This suggests that whatever site(s) produced C either do not completely destroy lithium, or that Li has been astrated by early-generation stars and mixed with primordial Li in the gas that formed the stars observed at present. The derived abundances for the α elements and iron-peak elements of the four stars are similar to those found in previous large samples of extremely and ultra metal-poor stars. Finally, a large spread is found in the abundances of Sr and Ba for these stars, possibly influenced by enrichment from fast rotating stars in the early universe.

  6. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.

  7. Discovery of a Metal-poor, Luminous Post-AGB Star that Failed the Third Dredge-up.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, D.; Van Winckel, H.; Wood, P. R.; Asplund, M.; Karakas, A. I.; Lattanzio, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    Post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars are known to be chemically diverse. In this paper we present the first observational evidence of a star that has failed the third dredge-up (TDU). J005252.87-722842.9 is an A-type (T eff = 8250 ± 250 K) luminous (8200 ± 700 L ⊙) metal-poor ([Fe/H] = ‑1.18 ± 0.10) low-mass (M initial ≈ 1.5–2.0 M ⊙) post-AGB star in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Through a systematic abundance study, using high-resolution optical spectra from UVES, we found that this likely post-AGB object shows an intriguing photospheric composition with no confirmed carbon-enhancement (upper limit of [C/Fe] < 0.50) nor enrichment of s-process elements. We derived an oxygen abundance of [O/Fe] = 0.29 ± 0.1. For Fe and O, we took the effects of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium into account. We could not derive an upper limit for the nitrogen abundance as there are no useful nitrogen lines within our spectral coverage. The chemical pattern displayed by this object has not been observed in single or binary post-AGBs. Based on its derived stellar parameters and inferred evolutionary state, single-star nucleosynthesis models predict that this star should have undergone TDU episodes while on the AGB, and it should be carbon enriched. However, our observations are in contrast with these predictions. We identify two possible Galactic analogs that are likely to be post-AGB stars, but the lack of accurate distances (hence luminosities) to these objects does not allow us to confirm their post-AGB status. If they have low luminosities, then they are likely to be dusty post-RGB stars. The discovery of J005252.87-722842.9 reveals a new stellar evolutionary channel whereby a star evolves without any TDU episodes.

  8. Footprints of the weak s-process in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ET0097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guochao; Li, Hongjie; Liu, Nian; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Historically, the weak s-process contribution to metal-poor stars is thought to be extremely small, due to the effect of the secondary-like nature of the neutron source 22Ne(α , n)25Mg in massive stars, which means that metal-poor "weak s-process stars" could not be found. ET0097 is the first observed carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Because C is enriched and the elements heavier than Ba are not overabundant, ET0097 can be classified as a CEMP-no star. However, this star shows overabundances of lighter n-capture elements (i.e., Sr, Y and Zr). In this work, having adopted the abundance decomposition approach, we investigate the astrophysical origins of the elements in ET0097. We find that the light elements and iron-peak elements (from O to Zn) of the star mainly originate from the primary process of massive stars and the heavier n-capture elements (heavier than Ba) mainly come from the main r-process. However, the lighter n-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr should mainly come from the primary weak s-process. The contributed fractions of the primary weak s-process to the Sr, Y and Zr abundances of ET0097 are about 82 %, 84 % and 58 % respectively, suggesting that the CEMP star ET0097 should have the footprints of the weak s-process. The derived result should be a significant evidence that the weak s-process elements can be produced in metal-poor massive stars.

  9. New Detections of Arsenic, Selenium, and Other Heavy Elements in Two Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Schatz, Hendrik; Lawler, James E.; Beers, Timothy C.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.

    2014-08-01

    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 <=λ <= 2360 Å wavelength range for two metal-poor stars, HD 108317 and HD 128279. We derive abundances of Cu II, Zn II, As I, Se I, Mo II, and Cd II, which have not been detected previously in either star. Abundances derived for Ge I, Te I, Os II, and Pt I confirm those derived from lines at longer wavelengths. We also derive upper limits from the non-detection of W II, Hg II, Pb II, and Bi I. The mean [As/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and five others in the literature is unchanged over the metallicity range -2.8 < [Fe/H] <-0.6, lang[As/Fe]rang = +0.28 ± 0.14 (σ = 0.36 dex). The mean [Se/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and six others in the literature is also constant, lang[Se/Fe]rang = +0.16 ± 0.09 (σ = 0.26 dex). The As and Se abundances are enhanced relative to a simple extrapolation of the iron-peak abundances to higher masses, suggesting that this mass region (75 <=A <= 82) may be the point at which a different nucleosynthetic mechanism begins to dominate the quasi-equilibrium α-rich freezeout of the iron peak. lang[Cu II/Cu I]rang = +0.56 ± 0.23 in HD 108317 and HD 128279, and we infer that lines of Cu I may not be formed in local thermodynamic equilibrium in these stars. The [Zn/Fe], [Mo/Fe], [Cd/Fe], and [Os/Fe] ratios are also derived from neutral and ionized species, and each ratio pair agrees within the mutual uncertainties, which range from 0.15 to 0.52 dex. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-12268 and GO-12976.

  10. The Hamburg/ESO R-process Enhanced Star survey (HERES). VII. Thorium abundances in metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, J.; Christlieb, N.; Zhao, G.

    2012-01-01

    We report thorium abundances for 77 metal-poor stars in the metallicity range of -3.5 < [Fe/H] < -1.0, based on "snapshot" spectra obtained with VLT-UT2/UVES during the HERES Survey. We were able to determine the thorium abundances with better than 1σ confidence for 17 stars, while for 60 stars we derived upper limits. For five stars common with previous studies, our results were in good agreement with the literature results. The thorium abundances span a wide range of about 4.0 dex, and scatter exists in the distribution of log (Th/Eu) ratios for lower metallicity stars, supporting previous studies suggesting the r-process is not universal. We derived ages from the log (Th/Eu) ratios for 12 stars, resulting in large scattered ages, and two stars with significant enhancement of Th relative to Eu are found, indicating the "actinide boost" does not seem to be a rare phenomenon and thus highlighting the risk in using log (Th/Eu) to derive stellar ages. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (Proposal Number 68.B-0320).Tables 5 and 6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. DERIVING STELLAR EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURES OF METAL-POOR STARS WITH THE EXCITATION POTENTIAL METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Frebel, Anna; Casey, Andrew R.; Jacobson, Heather R.; Yu Qinsi

    2013-05-20

    It is well established that stellar effective temperatures determined from photometry and spectroscopy yield systematically different results. We describe a new, simple method to correct spectroscopically derived temperatures (''excitation temperatures'') of metal-poor stars based on a literature sample with -3.3 < [Fe/H] < -2.5. Excitation temperatures were determined from Fe I line abundances in high-resolution optical spectra in the wavelength range of {approx}3700-{approx}7000 A, although shorter wavelength ranges, up to 4750-6800 A, can also be employed, and compared with photometric literature temperatures. Our adjustment scheme increases the temperatures up to several hundred degrees for cool red giants, while leaving the near-main-sequence stars mostly unchanged. Hence, it brings the excitation temperatures in good agreement with photometrically derived values. The modified temperature also influences other stellar parameters, as the Fe I-Fe II ionization balance is simultaneously used to determine the surface gravity, while also forcing no abundance trend on the absorption line strengths to obtain the microturbulent velocity. As a result of increasing the temperature, the often too low gravities and too high microturbulent velocities in red giants become higher and lower, respectively. Our adjustment scheme thus continues to build on the advantage of deriving temperatures from spectroscopy alone, independent of reddening, while at the same time producing stellar chemical abundances that are more straightforwardly comparable to studies based on photometrically derived temperatures. Hence, our method may prove beneficial for comparing different studies in the literature as well as the many high-resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys that are or will be carried out in the next few years.

  12. Structural and Nucleosynthetic Evolution of Metal-poor & Metal-free Low and Intermediate Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Simon W.; Lattanzio, John C.

    2008-03-01

    We report on an investigation into stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis in the low and extremely low metallicity regime, including models of stars with a pure Big Bang composition (i.e. Z = 0). The metallicity range of the extremely metal- poor (EMP) models we have calculated is -6.5<[Fe/H]<-3.0, whilst our models are in the mass rang 0.85stars. This work formed part of SWC's PhD thesis (completed in March 2007) and a series of subsequent papers will describe the results of the study in more detail.

  13. THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE OF THE ULTRA-METAL-POOR STAR HE 0557-4840

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M.; Christlieb, N.; Eriksson, K.; Korn, A. J.

    2012-07-10

    We present a high-resolution ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the ultra-metal-poor (UMP) carbon-enhanced red giant HE 0557-4840 (T{sub eff}/log g/[Fe/H] = 4900/2.2/-4.8). Combining these data with earlier observations, the radial velocity is 212.0 {+-} 0.4 km s{sup -1}, with no evidence of variability during 2006 February to 2007 December. One-dimensional (1D) LTE model-atmosphere analysis of UV Fe and CH lines confirms the iron and carbon abundances obtained previously ([Fe/H] = -4.8 and [C/Fe]{sub 1D} = +1.7), and places a more stringent limit on nitrogen abundance of [N/Fe]{sub 1D} < +1.0. Analysis of the UV OH lines yields [O/Fe]{sub 1D} = +2.3 {+-} 0.4. When corrections are made for three-dimensional (3D) effects we obtain [C/Fe]{sub 3D} = +1.1, [N/Fe]{sub 3D} < +0.1, and [O/Fe]{sub 3D} +1.4. Comparison of the abundances of HE 0557-4840 with those of supernova models of Nomoto et al. and Joggerst et al. suggests that none is able to explain fully the observed abundance pattern. For HE 0557-4840, the Frebel et al. transition discriminant D{sub trans}(log(10{sup [C/H]} + 0.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup [O/H]}) = -3.4 {+-} 0.2, consistent with fine-structure transitions of C II and O I being a major cooling mechanism of star-forming regions at the earliest times. Of the four stars known to have [Fe/H] {approx}< -4.3, three are strongly carbon and oxygen enhanced. If the suggestion by Caffau et al. that SDSS J102915+172927 ([Fe/H] = -4.7) does not belong to the class of C-rich, O-rich, UMP stars is supported by future similar discoveries, one will need to consider multiple channels for the production of stars having [Fe/H] {approx}< -4.3.

  14. Star-to-Star Abundance Variations among Bright Giants in the Mildly Metal-poor Globular Cluster M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivans, Inese I.; Sneden, Christopher; Kraft, Robert P.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Smith, Verne V.; Langer, G. Edward; Fulbright, Jon P.

    1999-09-01

    We present a chemical composition analysis of 36 giants in the nearby mildly metal-poor (<[Fe/H]>=-1.18) ``CN-bimodal'' globular cluster M4. The stars were observed at the Lick and McDonald Observatories using high-resolution échelle spectrographs and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory using the multiobject spectrometer. Confronted with a cluster having interstellar extinction that is large and variable across the cluster face, we combined traditional spectroscopic abundance methods with modifications to the line depth ratio technique pioneered by Gray to determine the atmospheric parameters of our stars. We derive a total-to-selective extinction ratio of 3.4+/-0.4 and an average reddening of 0.33+/-0.01, which is significantly lower than that estimated by using the dust maps made by Schlegel and coworkers. We determine abundance ratios typical of halo field and cluster stars for scandium, titanium, vanadium, nickel, and europium with star-to-star variations in these elements of less than +/-0.1. Silicon, aluminum, barium, and lanthanum are overabundant with respect to what is seen in other globular clusters of similar metallicity. These overabundances confirm the results of an earlier study by Brown & Wallerstein based on a much smaller sample of M4 giants. Superposed on the primordial abundance distribution is evidence for the existence of proton capture synthesis of carbon, oxygen, neon, and magnesium. We recover some of the C, N, O, Na, Mg, and Al abundance swings and correlations found in other more metal-poor globular clusters, but the range of variation is muted. In the case of Mg and Al, this is compatible with the idea that the Al enhancements are derived from the destruction of ^25,26Mg, not ^24Mg. We determine that the C+N+O abundance sum is constant to within the observational errors and agrees with the C+N+O total that might be expected for M4 stars at birth. The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in M4 have C, N, and O

  15. Deep SDSS optical spectroscopy of distant halo stars. III. Chemical analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Alvar, E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Beers, T. C.; Lee, Y. S.; Masseron, T.; Schneider, D. P.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: We present the results of an analysis of 107 extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with metallicities lower than [Fe/H] =- 3.0, identified in medium-resolution spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our analysis provides estimates of the stellar effective temperatures and surface gravities, as well as iron, calcium, and magnesium abundances. Methods: We followed the same method as in previous papers of this series. The method is based on comparisons of the observed spectra with synthetic spectra. The abundances of Fe, Ca, and Mg were determined by fitting spectral regions that are dominated by lines of each element. In addition, we present a technique to determine upper limits for elements whose features are not detected in a given spectrum. We also analyzed our sample with the SEGUE stellar parameter pipeline to obtain additional determinations of the atmospheric parameters and iron and alpha-element abundances, which we thend compare with ours. In addition, we used these parameters to infer [C/Fe] ratios. Results: Ca is typically the only element in these spectra with a moderate to low signal-to-noise ratio and medium resolution in this metallicity regime with lines that are sufficiently strong to reliably measure its abundance. Fe and Mg exhibit weaker features that in most cases only provide upper limits. We measured [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] for EMP stars in the SDSS spectra and conclude that most of the stars exhibit the typical enhancement level for α-elements, ~+0.4, although some stars for which only [Fe/H] upper limits could be estimated indicate higher [α/Fe] ratios. We also find that 26% of the stars in our sample can be classified as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and that the frequency of CEMP stars also increases with decreasing metallicity, as has been reported for previous samples. We identify a rare, bright (g = 11.90) EMP star, SDSS J134144.61+474128.6, with [Fe/H] =- 3.27, [C/Fe] = + 0.95, and elevated magnesium ([Mg/Fe] =+ 0

  16. Fe-Group Elements in the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937: Abundances and their Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Wood, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived accurate relative abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn in the very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937. For this study we analyzed high resolution, high signal-to-noise HST/STIS and VLT/UVES spectra over a total wavelength range 2300-7000 Å. We employed only recent or newly-applied reliable laboratory transition data for all species. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species were combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. From parallel analyses of solar photospheric spectra we also derived new solar abundances of these elements. This in turn yielded internally-consistent relative HD 84937 abundances with respect to the Sun. For seven of the ten Fe-group elements the HD 84937 abundances were from both neutral and ionized transitions. In all of these cases the neutral and ionized species yield the same abundances within the measurement uncertainties. Therefore standard Saha ionization balance appears to hold in the HD 84937 atmosphere. We derived metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.32 with sample standard deviation of 0.06. Solid evidence is seen for departures from the solar abundance mix in HD 84937, for example [Co/Fe] = +0.14, [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, and <[Sc,Ti,V/Fe]> = +0.31. Combining our Sc, Ti, and V abundances for this star with those from large-sample spectroscopic surveys suggests that these elements are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] < -2. HD 84937 is unusually enriched in Sc, Ti, and V. Our analysis strongly suggests that different types of supernovae with a large scatter of explosion energies and asymmetries contributed to the creation of the Fe-group elements early in the Galaxy's history.This work has been supported in part by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (J.E.L.), by NSF grants AST-1211055 (J.E.L.), AST-1211585 (C.S.), PHY-1430152 (through JINA, J.J.C. and M.P.), EU MIRGCT-2006-046520 (M.P.), and by the ``Lendlet-2014'' Programme of the Hungarian Academy of

  17. Clear Evidence for the Presence of Second-generation Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in Metal-poor Galactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Mészáros, Sz.; Monelli, M.; Cassisi, S.; Stetson, P. B.; Zamora, O.; Shetrone, M.; Lucatello, S.

    2015-12-01

    Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are known to host multiple stellar populations: a first generation (FG) with a chemical pattern typical of halo field stars and a second generation (SG) enriched in Na and Al and depleted in O and Mg. Both stellar generations are found at different evolutionary stages (e.g., the main-sequence turnoff, the subgiant branch, and the red giant branch (RGB)). The non detection of SG asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in several metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) GCs suggests that not all SG stars ascend the AGB phase, and that failed AGB stars may be very common in metal-poor GCs. This observation represents a serious problem for stellar evolution and GC formation/evolution theories. We report fourteen SG-AGB stars in four metal-poor GCs (M13, M5, M3, and M2) with different observational properties: horizontal branch (HB) morphology, metallicity, and age. By combining the H-band Al abundances obtained by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey with ground-based optical photometry, we identify SG Al-rich AGB stars in these four GCs and show that Al-rich RGB/AGB GC stars should be Na-rich. Our observations provide strong support for present, standard stellar models, i.e., without including a strong mass-loss efficiency, for low-mass HB stars. In fact, current empirical evidence is in agreement with the predicted distribution of FG and SG stars during the He-burning stages based on these standard stellar models.

  18. Far-ultraviolet energy distributions of the metal-poor A stars HD 109995 and HD 161817

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    Low-resolution IUE spectra at wavelengths between 1300 and 3400 A of the metal-poor stars HD 109995 (A1p) and HD 161817 (A4p) have been compared with model-atmosphere energy distributions computed by Kurucz (1979). Good overall agreement is found. Effective temperatures, metal abundances, and angular diameters could be determined. Assuming an absolute visual magnitude of 0.7, the previously determined gravity log = 3 yields masses of 0.5 solar masses for both stars. It is found that the theoretical UBV colors calculated earlier agree reaonably well with the ones observed for these stars.

  19. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XL. Searching for Neptunes around metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, J. P.; Santos, N. C.; Figueira, P.; Mortier, A.; Dumusque, X.; Boisse, I.; Lo Curto, G.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Melo, C.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Sousa, S. G.; Sozzetti, A.; Udry, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. As a probe of the metallicity of proto-planetary disks, stellar metallicity is an important ingredient for giant planet formation, most likely through its effect on the timescales in which rocky or icy planet cores can form. Giant planets have been found to be more frequent around metal-rich stars, in agreement with predictions based on the core-accretion theory. In the metal-poor regime, however, the frequency of planets, especially low-mass planets, and the way it depends on metallicity are still largely unknown. Aims: As part of a planet search programme focused on metal-poor stars, we study the targets from this survey that were observed with HARPS on more than 75 nights. The main goals are to assess the presence of low-mass planets and provide a first estimate of the frequency of Neptunes and super-Earths around metal-poor stars. Methods: We performed a systematic search for planetary companions, both by analysing the periodograms of the radial-velocities and by comparing, in a statistically meaningful way, models with an increasing number of Keplerians. Results: A first constraint on the frequency of planets in our metal-poor sample is calculated considering the previous detection (in our sample) of a Neptune-sized planet around HD 175607 and one candidate planet (with an orbital period of 68.42 d and minimum mass Mpsini = 11.14 ± 2.47 M⊕) for HD 87838, announced in the present study. This frequency is determined to be close to 13% and is compared with results for solar-metallicity stars. Based on observations collected at ESO facilities under programs 082.C-0212, 085.C-0063, 086.C-0284, and 190.C-0027 (with the HARPS spectrograph at the ESO 3.6-m telescope, La Silla-Paranal Observatory).

  20. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. II. New Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugler, Julie A.; Frebel, A.; Roederer, I. U.; Sneden, C.; Shetrone, M.; Beers, T.; Christlieb, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present new abundance results from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The 500 CASH spectra were observed using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in "snapshot" mode and are analyzed using an automated stellar parameter and abundance pipeline called CASHCODE. For the 20 most metal-poor stars of the CASH sample we have obtained high resolution spectra using the Magellan Telescope in order to test the uncertainties and systematic errors associated with the snapshot quality (i.e., R 15,000 and S/N 65) HET spectra and to calibrate the newly developed CASHCODE by making a detailed comparison between the stellar parameters and abundances determined from the high resolution and snapshot spectra. We find that the CASHCODE stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and microturbulence) agree well with the results of the manual analysis of the high resolution spectra. We present the abundances of three newly discovered stars with [Fe/H] < -3.5. For the entire pilot sample, we find typical halo abundance ratios with alpha-enhancement and Fe-peak depletion and a range of n-capture elements. The full CASH sample will be used to derive statistically robust abundance trends and frequencies (e.g. carbon and n-capture), as well as placing constraints on nucleosynthetic processes that occurred in the early universe.

  1. The Magellan PFS Planet Search Program: Radial Velocity and Stellar Abundance Analyses of the 360 au, Metal-poor Binary “Twins” HD 133131A & B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teske, Johanna K.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Vogt, Steve S.; Díaz, Matías; Butler, R. Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Ian B.; Arriagada, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    We present a new precision radial velocity (RV) data set that reveals multiple planets orbiting the stars in the ˜360 au, G2+G2 “twin” binary HD 133131AB. Our six years of high-resolution echelle observations from MIKE and five years from the Planet Finder Spectrograph (PFS) on the Magellan telescopes indicate the presence of two eccentric planets around HD 133131A with minimum masses of 1.43 ± 0.03 and 0.63 ± 0.15 {{ M }}{{J}} at 1.44 ± 0.005 and 4.79 ± 0.92 au, respectively. Additional PFS observations of HD 133131B spanning five years indicate the presence of one eccentric planet of minimum mass 2.50 ± 0.05 {{ M }}{{J}} at 6.40 ± 0.59 au, making it one of the longest-period planets detected with RV to date. These planets are the first to be reported primarily based on data taken with the PFS on Magellan, demonstrating the instrument’s precision and the advantage of long-baseline RV observations. We perform a differential analysis between the Sun and each star, and between the stars themselves, to derive stellar parameters and measure a suite of 21 abundances across a wide range of condensation temperatures. The host stars are old (likely ˜9.5 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] ˜ -0.30), and we detect a ˜0.03 dex depletion in refractory elements in HD 133131A versus B (with standard errors ˜0.017). This detection and analysis adds to a small but growing sample of binary “twin” exoplanet host stars with precise abundances measured, and represents the most metal-poor and likely oldest in that sample. Overall, the planets around HD 133131A and B fall in an unexpected regime in planet mass-host star metallicity space and will serve as an important benchmark for the study of long-period giant planets. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  2. Three-dimensional surface convection simulations of metal-poor stars. The effect of scattering on the photospheric temperature stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, R.; Hayek, W.; Asplund, M.; Nordlund, Å.; Trampedach, R.; Gudiksen, B.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Three-dimensional (3D) radiative hydrodynamic model atmospheres of metal-poor late-type stars are characterized by cooler upper photospheric layers than their one-dimensional counterparts. This property of 3D model atmospheres can dramatically affect the determination of elemental abundances from temperature-sensitive spectral features, with profound consequences on galactic chemical evolution studies. Aims: We investigate whether the cool surface temperatures predicted by 3D model atmospheres of metal-poor stars can be ascribed to approximations in the treatment of scattering during the modelling phase. Methods: We use the Bifrost code to construct 3D model atmospheres of metal-poor stars and test three different ways to handle scattering in the radiative transfer equation. As a first approach, we solve iteratively the radiative transfer equation for the general case of a source function with a coherent scattering term, treating scattering in a correct and consistent way. As a second approach, we solve the radiative transfer equation in local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation, neglecting altogether the contribution of continuum scattering to extinction in the optically thin layers; this has been the default mode in our previous 3D modelling as well as in present Stagger-Code models. As our third and final approach, we treat continuum scattering as pure absorption everywhere, which is the standard case in the 3D modelling by the CO5BOLD collaboration. Results: For all simulations, we find that the second approach produces temperature structures with cool upper photospheric layers very similar to the case in which scattering is treated correctly. In contrast, treating scattering as pure absorption leads instead to significantly hotter and shallower temperature stratifications. The main differences in temperature structure between our published models computed with the Stagger- and Bifrost codes and those generated with the CO5BOLD code can be traced

  3. The space density and kinematics of blue metal-poor main sequence stars near the solar circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Shectman, Stephen A.

    1994-08-01

    From analysis of a photometrically selected sample of 175 metal-poor field stars with main sequence gravities (hereafter BMPs) and UBV colors blueward of the most metal-poor globular cluster main-sequence turnoffs, 0.15 less than (B-V)0 less than 0.35, and properties of the candidate lists of the HK objective prism survey, we calculate the space density and a suitably defined specific frequency of BMPs within approximately 2 kpc of the Sun. We consider two cases. If we adopt the luminosities and color distribution of globular cluster blue stragglers (hereafter BS) for BMPs the BMP space density is approximately 350 kpc(exp-3), from which we obtain a specific frequency SBMP approximately 8, a value 9 times larger than that of BSs in globular clusters. From this result, we conclude that cluster-type BSs are but a minor component of the field BMPs and that the remainder must be of a different nature. If we adopt luminosities of metal-poor models halfway between the Zero Age Main Sequence and the phase of core hydrogen exhaustion, we obtain a space density of 450 (+300,-150) kpc(exp-3) and a specific frequency SBMP = 10(+5,-3). From a subsample of 107 BMPs with available radial velocities we derive a galactic rotation of 128 km s-1 and an isotropic velocity dispersion of Sigma r phi theta approximately 90 km s-1, values intermediate between those of halo and thick-disk populations. From analysis of a larger sample of stars on 0.15 less than (B-V)0 less than 0.35 binned by a crude line-blanketing parameter, we find that our results are insensitive to adopted BMP selection criteria: none of these subsamples of A- and early F-type stars above the galactic plane possess disk kinematics. The region of the UBV two-color diagram occupied by BMPs could be populated by metal-deficient, main-sequence gravity stars with ages substantially younger than those of the metal-poor halo. Because we cannot imagine how or where the observed local population of BMPs could have been

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Metal-poor star uvby-beta photometry. X. (Schuster+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, W. J.; Beers, T. C.; Michel, R.; Nissen, P. E.; Garcia, G.

    2004-03-01

    Table 1 lists the Stroemgren (uvby) and H-beta photometry observed at the San Pedro Martir observatory, Mexico, plus the number of independent uvby and H-beta observations and Notes concerning the observing conditions, stellar types, and photometric variability. Table 2 contains the Stroemgren (uvby) photometry observed at the La Silla, Chile, observatory, plus the number of independent uvby observations and Notes concerning possible photometric variability. Table 3 gives a list of the 497 very metal poor stars with their positions, both equatorial and Galactic; broadband V and B-V photometry, where available; the reddenings in the stellar directions obtained by interpolation in the maps of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (1998ApJ...500..525S); our final adopted reddening according to Eq. 1; the resulting dereddened B-V; also B-V dereddened according to the intrinsic-color calibration of Schuster & Nissen (1989, Cat. ); and finally asterisks in the final two columns which indicate the stars that are CH-star candidates according to Fig. 5, and those that are photometric outliers as seen in Figs. 1 and 4, respectively. Table 4 contains the cross-identifications for a number of the very metal poor stars; these are stars identified as very-metal-poor in more than one of the overlapping fields from the HK survey. Table 5 gives the dereddened values V0, (b-y)0, m0, and c0 for our uvby photometry, the reddening excesses for (b-y) and (B-V), and the photometric classification according to our c0,(b-y)0 diagram, Fig. 6. Table 6 shows the line-strength indices from the HK survey. KP is the index that measures the strength of the CaII K line; HP2 and HG2 measure the strengths of the Balmer lines H-delta and H-gamma, respectively; GP measures the strength of the CH G-band. Table 7 lists the [Fe/H] values from our different calibration procedures with the adopted mean in column 6 and Notes in column 7. Table 8 contains observed and derived quantities for the probable

  5. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in SDSS/SEGUE. I. Carbon Abundance Estimation and Frequency of CEMP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Masseron, Thomas; Plez, Bertrand; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Yanny, Brian; Lucatello, Sara; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its Galactic sub-survey, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N >= 15 Å-1 to a precision better than 0.35 dex for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T eff = [4400, 6700] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0], [Fe/H] = [-4.0, +0.5], and [C/Fe] = [-0.25, +3.5]. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] >= +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ -2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7. Although the number of stars known with [Fe/H] < -4.0 remains small, the frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars below this value is around 75%. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] <= -3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] <= -3.5 a roughly constant value. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5, presumably due to the difficulty of identifying CEMP stars among warmer turnoff stars with weak CH G-bands. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = -2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] <= -3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to

  6. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF VERY METAL-POOR STARS HD 122563 AND HD 140283: A VIEW FROM THE INFRARED

    SciTech Connect

    Afşar, Melike; Sneden, Christopher; Kim, Hwihyun E-mail: chris@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: hwihyun@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu; and others

    2016-03-10

    From high resolution (R ≃ 45,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 400) spectra gathered with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) in the H and K photometric bands, we have derived elemental abundances of two bright, well-known metal-poor halo stars: the red giant HD 122563 and the subgiant HD 140283. Since these stars have metallicities approaching [Fe/H] = −3, their absorption features are generally very weak. Neutral-species lines of Mg, Si, S and Ca are detectable, as well as those of the light odd-Z elements Na and Al. The derived IR-based abundances agree with those obtained from optical-wavelength spectra. For Mg and Si the abundances from the infrared transitions are improvements to those derived from shorter wavelength data. Many useful OH and CO lines can be detected in the IGRINS HD 122563 spectrum, from which derived O and C abundances are consistent to those obtained from the traditional [O i] and CH features. IGRINS high resolutions H- and K-band spectroscopy offers promising ways to determine more reliable abundances for additional metal-poor stars whose optical features are either not detectable, or too weak, or are based on lines with analytical difficulties.

  7. The Chemical Compositions of Very Metal-poor Stars HD 122563 and HD 140283: A View from the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afşar, Melike; Sneden, Christopher; Frebel, Anna; Kim, Hwihyun; Mace, Gregory N.; Kaplan, Kyle F.; Lee, Hye-In; Oh, Heeyoung; Sok Oh, Jae; Pak, Soojong; Park, Chan; Pavel, Michael D.; Yuk, In-Soo; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-03-01

    From high resolution (R ≃ 45,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 400) spectra gathered with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) in the H and K photometric bands, we have derived elemental abundances of two bright, well-known metal-poor halo stars: the red giant HD 122563 and the subgiant HD 140283. Since these stars have metallicities approaching [Fe/H] = -3, their absorption features are generally very weak. Neutral-species lines of Mg, Si, S and Ca are detectable, as well as those of the light odd-Z elements Na and Al. The derived IR-based abundances agree with those obtained from optical-wavelength spectra. For Mg and Si the abundances from the infrared transitions are improvements to those derived from shorter wavelength data. Many useful OH and CO lines can be detected in the IGRINS HD 122563 spectrum, from which derived O and C abundances are consistent to those obtained from the traditional [O i] and CH features. IGRINS high resolutions H- and K-band spectroscopy offers promising ways to determine more reliable abundances for additional metal-poor stars whose optical features are either not detectable, or too weak, or are based on lines with analytical difficulties.

  8. Detection of Lead in the Carbon-rich, Very Metal-poor Star LP 625-44: A Strong Constraint on s-Process Nucleosynthesis at Low Metallicity.

    PubMed

    Aoki; Norris; Ryan; Beers; Ando

    2000-06-20

    We report the detection of the Pb i lambda4057.8 line in the very metal-poor (&sqbl0;Fe&solm0;H&sqbr0;=-2.7), carbon-rich star, LP 625-44. We determine the abundance of Pb (&sqbl0;Pb&solm0;Fe&sqbr0;=2.65) and 15 other neutron-capture elements. The abundance pattern between Ba and Pb agrees well with a scaled solar system s-process component, while the lighter elements (Sr-Zr) are less abundant than Ba. The enhancement of s-process elements is interpreted as a result of mass transfer in a binary system from a previous asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion, an interpretation strongly supported by radial velocity variations of this system. The detection of Pb makes it possible, for the first time, to compare model predictions of s-process nucleosynthesis in AGB stars with observations of elements between Sr and Pb. The Pb abundance is significantly lower than the prediction of recent models (e.g., Gallino et al.), which succeeded in explaining the metallicity dependence of the abundance ratios of light s-elements (Sr-Zr) to heavy ones (Ba-Dy) found in previously observed s-process-enhanced stars. This suggests that one should either (1) reconsider the underlying assumptions concerning the (13)C-rich s-processing site ((13)C pocket) in the present models or (2) investigate alternative sites of s-process nucleosynthesis in very metal-poor AGB stars.

  9. MOLYBDENUM, RUTHENIUM, AND THE HEAVY r-PROCESS ELEMENTS IN MODERATELY METAL-POOR MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2013-05-01

    The ratios of elemental abundances observed in metal-poor stars of the Galactic halo provide a unique present-day record of the nucleosynthesis products of its earliest stars. While the heaviest elements were synthesized by the r- and s-processes, dominant production mechanisms of light trans-ironic elements were obscure until recently. This work investigates further our 2011 conclusion that the low-entropy regime of a high-entropy wind (HEW) produced molybdenum and ruthenium in two moderately metal-poor turnoff stars that showed extreme overabundances of those elements with respect to iron. Only a few, rare nucleosynthesis events may have been involved. Here we determine abundances for Mo, Ru, and other trans-Fe elements for 28 similar stars by matching spectral calculations to well-exposed near-UV Keck HIRES spectra obtained for beryllium abundances. In each of the 26 turnoff stars with Mo or Ru line detections and no evidence for s-process production (therefore old), we find Mo and Ru to be three to six times overabundant. In contrast, the maximum overabundance is reduced to factors of three and two for the neighboring elements zirconium and palladium. Since the overproduction peaks sharply at Mo and Ru, a low-entropy HEW is confirmed as its origin. The overabundance level of the heavy r-process elements varies significantly, from none to a factor of four, but is uncorrelated with Mo and Ru overabundances. Despite their moderate metallicity, stars in this group trace the products of different nucleosynthetic events: possibly very few events, possibly events whose output depended on environment, metallicity, or time.

  10. Detection of Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Zinc in the Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Star BD+44 493

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-06-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor star BD+44°493 ([Fe/H] = -3.9) has been proposed as a candidate second-generation star enriched by metals from a single Pop III star. We report the first detections of P and S and the second detection of Zn in any extremely metal-poor carbon-enhanced star, using new spectra of BD+44°493 collected by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive [P/Fe] = -0.34 ± 0.21, [S/Fe] = +0.07 ± 0.41, and [Zn/Fe] = -0.10 ± 0.24. We increase by 10-fold the number of Si i lines detected in BD+44°493, yielding [Si/Fe] = +0.15 ± 0.22. The [S/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] ratios exclude the hypothesis that the abundance pattern in BD+44°493 results from depletion of refractory elements onto dust grains. Comparison with zero-metallicity supernova (SN) models suggests that the stellar progenitor that enriched BD+44°493 was massive and ejected much less than 0.07 M ⊙ of 56Ni, characteristic of a faint SN. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14231.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical abundances of 8 metal-poor stars (Ishigaki+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, M. N.; Aoki, W.; Arimoto, N.; Okamoto, S.

    2014-01-01

    Equivalent widths and chemical abundances of the six giant stars in Bootes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Boo-009, Boo-094, Boo-117, Boo-121, Boo-127, Boo-911) and the two Milky Way halo stars (HD216143, HD85773) are presented. For each spectral line, excitation potential, loggf values, measured equivalent widths and abundances are given. (2 data files).

  12. Spectroscopic Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Historically, spectroscopic binary stars were binary systems whose nature was discovered by the changing DOPPLER EFFECT or shift of the spectral lines of one or both of the component stars. The observed Doppler shift is a combination of that produced by the constant RADIAL VELOCITY (i.e. line-of-sight velocity) of the center of mass of the whole system, and the variable shift resulting from the o...

  13. Oxygen abundances derived from UV OH and O I IR lines in very metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García López, Ramón J.; Israelian, Garik; Rebolo, Rafael; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Molaro, Paolo; Basri, Gibor; Shchukina, Natalya

    Oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of very metal-poor stars using the O I triplet at λλ7771-5 Å and OH lines in the near UV. A detailed NLTE analysis of iron lines has been carried out for one of the observed stars, BD +23°3130, providing consistent values of effective temperature and surface gravity that are in very good agreement with independent estimates from the infrared flux method and Hipparcos parallaxes, respectively. These parameters, especially the higher gravity obtained with respect to previous analyses, reduce the discrepancies claimed between the oxygen abundances determined from OH, O I triplet and [O I] λ6300 Å lines, and give consistent abundances to within 0.16 dex for BD +23°3130 ([Fe/H]NLTE = -2.43). The oxygen abundances derived for this new sample confirm previous findings for a progressive linear increase in the oxygen-to-iron ratio with a slope -0.33±0.02 (including NLTE corrections to the iron abundances for all the stars considered) from solar metallicity to [Fe/H]~ -3, and [O/Fe] values as high as ~1.1 for stars with [Fe/H]<~ -2.5. These results can be interpreted as evidence for oxygen overproduction in the very early epoch of the formation of the Galactic halo, possibly associated with supernova events with very massive progenitor stars.

  14. CURiuos Variables Experiment (CURVE): Variable Stars in the Metal-Poor Globular Cluster M56

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrukowicz, P.; Olech, A.; Kedzierski, P.; Zloczewski, K.; Wisniewski, M.; Mularczyk, K.

    2008-06-01

    We surveyed a 6.5'x6.5' field centered on the globular cluster M56 (NGC 6779) in a search for variable stars detecting seven variables, among which two objects are new identifications. One of the new variables is an RR Lyrae star, the third star of that type in M56. Comparison of the new observations and old photometric data for an RVTauri variable V6 indicates a likely period change in the star. Its slow and negative rate of -0.005+/-0.003 d/yr would disagree with post-AGB evolution, however this could be a result of blue-loop evolution and/or random fluctuations of the period.

  15. Spectroscopic Comparison of Metal-rich RRab Stars of the Galactic Field with their Metal-poor Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadid, Merieme; Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate atmospheric properties of 35 stable RRab stars that possess the full ranges of period, light amplitude, and metal abundance found in Galactic RR Lyrae stars. Our results are derived from several thousand echelle spectra obtained over several years with the du Pont telescope of Las Campanas Observatory. Radial velocities of metal lines and the Hα line were used to construct curves of radial velocity versus pulsation phase. From these we estimated radial velocity amplitudes for metal lines (formed near the photosphere) and Hα Doppler cores (formed at small optical depths). We also measured Hα emission fluxes when they appear during primary light rises. Spectra shifted to rest wavelengths, binned into small phase intervals, and co-added were used to perform model atmospheric and abundance analyses. The derived metallicities and those of some previous spectroscopic surveys were combined to produce a new calibration of the Layden abundance scale. We then divided our RRab sample into metal-rich (disk) and metal-poor (halo) groups at [Fe/H] = ‑1.0 the atmospheres of RRab families, so defined, differ with respect to (a) peak strength of Hα emission flux, (b) Hα radial velocity amplitude, (c) dynamical gravity, (d) stellar radius variation, (e) secondary acceleration during the photometric bump that precedes minimum light, and (f) duration of Hα line-doubling. We also detected Hα line-doubling during the “bump” in the metal-poor family, but not in the metal-rich one. Although all RRab probably are core helium-burning horizontal branch stars, the metal-rich group appears to be a species sui generis.

  16. BOO-1137-AN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STAR IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY BOOeTES I

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2010-03-01

    We present high-resolution (R {approx} 40,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio (20-90) spectra of an extremely metal-poor giant star Boo-1137 in the 'ultra-faint' dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Booetes I, absolute magnitude M{sub V} {approx} -6.3. We derive an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.7, making this the most metal-poor star as yet identified in an ultra-faint dSph. Our derived effective temperature and gravity are consistent with its identification as a red giant in Booetes I. Abundances for a further 15 elements have also been determined. Comparison of the relative abundances, [X/Fe], with those of the extremely metal-poor red giants of the Galactic halo shows that Boo-1137 is 'normal' with respect to C and N, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the iron-peak elements, and the neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, in comparison with the bulk of the Milky Way halo population having [Fe/H] {approx}<-3.0. The alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti are all higher by DELTA[X/Fe] {approx} 0.2 than the average halo values. Monte Carlo analysis indicates that DELTA[alpha/Fe] values this large are expected with a probability {approx}0.02. The elemental abundance pattern in Boo-1137 suggests inhomogeneous chemical evolution, consistent with the wide internal spread in iron abundances we previously reported. The similarity of most of the Boo-1137 relative abundances with respect to halo values, and the fact that the alpha-elements are all offset by a similar small amount from the halo averages, points to the same underlying galaxy-scale stellar initial mass function, but that Boo-1137 likely originated in a star-forming region where the abundances reflect either poor mixing of supernova (SN) ejecta, or poor sampling of the SN progenitor mass range, or both.

  17. G64-12 and G64-37 Are Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    We present new high-resolution chemical-abundance analyses for the well-known high proper-motion subdwarfs G64-12 and G64-37, based on very high signal-to-noise ratio spectra ({{S}}/{{N}}˜ 700/1) with resolving power R ˜ 95,000. These high-quality data enable the first reliable determination of the carbon abundances for these two stars; we classify them as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars based on their carboni cities, which both exceed [C/Fe] = +1.0. They are sub-classified as CEMP-no Group-II stars, based on their location in the Yoon-Beers diagram of absolute carbon abundance, A(C) versus [Fe/H], as well as on the conventional diagnostic [Ba/Fe]. The relatively low absolute carbon abundances of CEMP-no stars, in combination with the high effective temperatures of these two stars ({T}{eff}˜ 6500 {{K}}), weakens their CH molecular features to the point that accurate carbon abundances can only be estimated from spectra with very high S/N. A comparison of the observed abundance patterns with the predicted yields from massive, metal-free supernova models reduces the inferred progenitor masses by factors of ˜2-3, and explosion energies by factors of ˜10-15, compared to those derived using previously claimed carbon-abundance estimates. There are certainly many more warm CEMP-no stars near the halo main-sequence turnoff that have been overlooked in past studies, directly impacting the derived frequencies of CEMP-no stars as a function of metallicity, a probe that provides important constraints on Galactic chemical evolution models, the initial mass function in the early universe, and first-star nucleosynthesis.

  18. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Metal-Poor Stars: New Detections of Phosphorus, Germanium, Arsenic, Selenium, Cadmium, Tellurium, Lutetium, Osmium, Iridium, Platinum, Gold, and More!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy with HST/STIS provides a 30% increase in the number of elements that can be detected in metal-poor stars. Although nearly every element from hydrogen through bismuth is probably present in most metal-poor stars, not all elements can be detected. The resonance lines of the dominant species of some elements are only found in the UV in late-type stars. The chemical compositions of these stars reflect the history of stellar nucleosynthesis from the first stars to today. Here, I present a summary of recent work that has expanded the chemical inventory in metal-poor stars using UV spectroscopy conducted using HST/STIS. The highlights include new detections of phosphorus, germanium, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold in metal-poor stars. These detections reveal new insights into stellar nucleosynthesis in the earliest generations of massive stars, provide new constraints on the r-process, and open new channels for chemically-tagging stars that have assembled to form the Milky Way stellar halo.

  19. Parameters and Kinematics of Carbon Enhanced Metal Poor (CEMP) Stars from the Hamburg/ESO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirupathi, Sivarani; Beers, T. C.; Lee, Y. S.; Kennedy, C.; Carollo, D.; Masseron, T.; Plez, B.; Norris, J. E.; Bessell, M.; Rossi, S.

    2007-12-01

    Several hundred CEMP stars have been selected from the Christlieb et al (2001, A&A 375, 366) catalog of carbon-rich stars, which is based on the Hamburg/ESO objective prism survey. Medium resolution (R = 2000) optical spectra were obtained for these stars covering a wavelength range of 3800-4800 A. The estimates of Teff, [Fe/H], and [C/Fe] for this sample is already available, based on application of the Rossi et al. (2005, AJ 130, 2804 ), which uses the strength of the CaII K line, the CH G-band, and J-K colors. Here we present an automated method to estimate the full set of atmospheric parameters for these data (including logg) based on synthetic spectra and photometry. For this purpose, we have generated a set of synthetic grids with carbon enhanced atmospheres with the MARCS code (Plez et al. 1992, A&A 256,551; Asplund et al. 1997, A&A 318, 521; Gustafsson et al. 2003, ASP Conf. Ser. 288, 331), which is particularly important for cool CEMP stars (for which the atmospheric structure changes with increasing carbon abundance (Masseron et al. 2006 A&A 455, 1059). More than one hundred stars of our prpogram stars have already been observed at high spectral resolution (R = 20000-25000), during the course of the HERES survey (Barklem et al. 2005, A&A 439,129; Lucatello et al. 2006 ApJ 652, 37L), which allow us to calibrate our methods. Here we describe our new methods for estimation and validation of Teff, logg, [Fe/H], [C/Fe]. We also comment on the possible origin of CEMP stars in this sample based on these derived parameters and on the inferred kinematics. TS, TCB, YSL, and CK acknowledge support from grant PHY 02-16783; Physics Frontier Center/Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), awarded by the U.S. National Science Foundation and NSF grant AST 07-07776

  20. WSO and the winds of massive stars: the gate to the metal-poor Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Miriam; Herrero, Artemio; Najarro, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    The spectrographs on-board the World Space Observatory (WSO) will provide access to the 1020-1800 Å wavelength range with unprecedented sensitivity. Previous observatories operating in the 1150-2000 Å range (such as IUE and HST-STIS) have proved extremely useful to study the winds of OB type stars, which leave their most prominent imprints in the far ultraviolet range. The addition of the λ < 1200 Å wavelengths is critical as it contains important diagnostic lines for mass loss and shocks in the wind, as found by FUSE-based analyses. WSO will enable quantitative spectroscopic analyses of blue massive stars in the Local Group beyond the Magellanic Clouds. The results will lead to the characterization of their winds as a function of metallicity, and shed new light on current urging questions regarding radiation driven winds.

  1. Abundances for metal-poor stars with accurate parallaxes. I. Basic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, R. G.; Carretta, E.; Claudi, R.; Lucatello, S.; Barbieri, M.

    2003-06-01

    We present element-to-element abundance ratios measured from high dispersion spectra for 150 field subdwarfs and early subgiants with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes (errors <20%). For 50 stars new spectra were obtained with the UVES on Kueyen (VLT UT2), the McDonald 2.7 m telescope, and SARG at TNG. Additionally, literature equivalent widths were taken from the works by Nissen & Schuster, Fulbright, and Prochaska et al. to complement our data. The whole sample includes both thick disk and halo stars (and a few thin disk stars); most stars have metallicities in the range -2<[Fe/H]<-0.6. We found our data, that of Nissen & Schuster, and that of Prochaska to be of comparable quality; results from Fulbright scatter a bit more, but they are still of very good quality and are extremely useful due to the large size of his sample. The results of the present analysis will be used in forthcoming papers to discuss the chemical properties of the dissipational collapse and accretion components of our Galaxy. Based in part on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, at the MacDonald Observatory, Texas, USA, and at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Canary Island, INAF, Italy-Spain.}\\fnmsep\\thanks{Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via \\resizebox{8.8cm}{2.2mm}htpp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/404/187}

  2. Convection and 6Li in the atmospheres of metal-poor halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Matthias; Cayrel, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.

    2010-04-01

    Based on 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres computed with the CO5BOLD code and 3D non-LTE (NLTE) line formation calculations, we study the effect of the convection-induced line asymmetry on the derived 6Li abundance for a range in effective temperature, gravity, and metallicity covering the stars of the Asplund et al. (2006) sample. When the asymmetry effect is taken into account for this sample of stars, the resulting 6Li/7Li ratios are reduced by about 1.5% on average with respect to the isotopic ratios determined by Asplund et al. (2006). This purely theoretical correction diminishes the number of significant 6Li detections from 9 to 4 (2σ criterion), or from 5 to 2 (3σ criterion). In view of this result the existence of a 6Li plateau appears questionable. A careful reanalysis of individual objects by fitting the observed lithium 6707 Å doublet both with 3D NLTE and 1D LTE synthetic line profiles confirms that the inferred 6Li abundance is systematically lower when using 3D NLTE instead of 1D LTE line fitting. Nevertheless, halo stars with unquestionable 6Li detection do exist even if analyzed in 3D-NLTE, the most prominent example being HD 84937.

  3. DISCOVERY OF MIRA VARIABLE STARS IN THE METAL-POOR SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2012-12-10

    We report the discovery of two Mira variable stars (Miras) toward the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). We performed optical long-term monitoring observations for two red stars in the Sextans dSph. The light curves of both stars in the I{sub c} band show large-amplitude (3.7 and 0.9 mag) and long-period (326 {+-} 15 and 122 {+-} 5 days) variations, suggesting that they are Miras. We combine our own infrared data with previously published data to estimate the mean infrared magnitudes. The distances obtained from the period-luminosity relation of the Miras (75.3{sup +12.8}{sub -10.9} and 79.8{sup +11.5}{sub -9.9} kpc, respectively), together with the radial velocities available, support memberships of the Sextans dSph (90.0 {+-} 10.0 kpc). These are the first Miras found in a stellar system with a metallicity as low as [Fe/H] {approx} -1.9 than any other known system with Miras.

  4. The extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68: the luminous blue variable, Hα shells and the most luminous stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustilnik, S. A.; Makarova, L. N.; Perepelitsyna, Y. A.; Moiseev, A. V.; Makarov, D. I.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents new results from the ongoing study of the unusual Lynx-Cancer void galaxy DDO 68, which has star-forming regions of record low metallicity [12+log (O/H) ∼7.14]. The results include the following. (i) A new spectrum and photometry have been obtained with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (BTA) for the luminous blue variable (LBV = DDO68-V1). Photometric data sets were complemented with others based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive images. (ii) We performed an analysis of the DDO 68 supergiant shell (SGS) and the prominent smaller Hα arcs/shells visible in the HST image coupled with kinematic maps in Hα obtained with the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the BTA. (iii) We compiled a list of about 50 of the most luminous stars (-9.1 mag < MV < -6.0 mag) identified from the HST images associated with the star-forming regions with known extremely low O/H. This is intended to pave the path for the current science to be investigated with the next generation of giant telescopes. We have confirmed earlier hints of significant variation of the LBV optical light, deriving its amplitude as ΔV ≳ 3.7 mag for the first time. New data suggest that in 2008-2010 the LBV reached MV = -10.5 mag and probably underwent a giant eruption. We argue that the structure of star-forming complexes along the SGS ('Northern Ring') perimeter provides evidence for sequential induced star-formation episodes caused by the shell gas instabilities and gravitational collapse. The variability of some luminous extremely metal-poor stars in DDO 68 can currently be monitored with medium-size telescopes at sites with superb seeing.

  5. DETECTION OF ELEMENTS AT ALL THREE r-PROCESS PEAKS IN THE METAL-POOR STAR HD 160617

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu

    2012-05-01

    We report the first detection of elements at all three r-process peaks in the metal-poor halo star HD 160617. These elements include arsenic and selenium, which have not been detected previously in halo stars, and the elements tellurium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, which have been detected previously. Absorption lines of these elements are found in archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We present up-to-date absolute atomic transition probabilities and complete line component patterns for these elements. Additional archival spectra of this star from several ground-based instruments allow us to derive abundances or upper limits of 45 elements in HD 160617, including 27 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. The average abundances of the elements at the three r-process peaks are similar to the predicted solar system r-process residuals when scaled to the abundances in the rare earth element domain. This result for arsenic and selenium may be surprising in light of predictions that the production of the lightest r-process elements generally should be decoupled from the heavier r-process elements.

  6. Binary stars - Formation by fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    1988-01-01

    Theories of binary star formation by capture, separate nuclei, fission and fragmentation are compared, assessing the success of theoretical attempts to explain the observed properties of main-sequence binary stars. The theory of formation by fragmentation is examined, discussing the prospects for checking the theory against observations of binary premain-sequence stars. It is concluded that formation by fragmentation is successful at explaining many of the key properties of main-sequence binary stars.

  7. Origins of the thick disk of the Milky Way Galaxy as traced by the elemental abundances of metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchti, Gregory Randal

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of disks in galaxies in the early universe is very important for understanding the forms of galaxies today. Recent studies of the Milky Way Galaxy, an ideal galaxy for analyzing individual stars within its disk, indicate that the formation of the Galactic disk is very complex. Most of these studies, however, contain very few stars at low metallicities. Metal-poor stars are important, because they are potential survivors of the earliest star formation in the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy. I therefore measured elemental abundances of a statistically significant sample of metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≲ - 1.0) stars in the disk of the Galaxy, chosen from the RAVE survey in order to study the early formation history of the Galactic disk. I report on a sample of 214 red giant branch, 31 red clump/horizontal branch, and 74 dwarf/sub-giant metal-poor thick-disk candidate stars. I found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios are enhanced implying that enrichment proceeded by purely core-collapse supernovae. This requires that star formation in each star forming region had a short duration. The relative lack of scatter in the [alpha/Fe] ratios implies good mixing in the interstellar medium prior to star formation. In addition, the ratios resemble that of the halo, indicating that the halo and thick disk share a similar massive star initial mass function. I further looked for radial or vertical gradients in metallicity or alpha-enhancement for the metal-poor thick disk, never before done for such a sample. I found no radial gradient and a moderate vertical gradient in my derived iron abundance, and only minimal-amplitude gradients in [alpha/Fe]. In addition, I show that the distribution of orbital eccentricities for my metal-poor thick-disk stars requires that the thick disk was formed primarily in situ, with direct accretion being extremely minimal. I conclude that the alpha-enhancement of the metal-poor thick disk, and the lack of obvious radial or

  8. The Space Density and Kinematics of Metal-Poor Blue Main Sequence Stars Near the Solar Circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, G. W.; Beers, T. C.; Shectman, S. A.

    1993-12-01

    We have used UBV photometry to identify 172 blue (0.15 <= (B-V)_o <= 0.35), metal-poor ([Fe/H] <= -1.0) main sequence stars (hereafter BMPs) among candidates from the HK objective-prism/interference-filter survey. The BMP fractions in the principal spectral groups of the survey have been used to estimate the space density of this species within 2 kpc of the sun, nu = 600 kpc(-3) . Accordingly, the specific frequency of the field BMPs, reckoned as the number of BMPs per field horizontal-branch star, is 12, which is 12 times greater than the largest value of specific frequency found among the seven globular clusters that have been searched for blue stragglers to their centers. From radial velocities which are available for 104 of these stars we obtain a Galactic rotation of Vrot ~ 130 kms(-1) , and a velocity ellipsoid of (sigma_r ~ 85, sigma_ φ ~ 85, sigma_ θ ~ 85) kms(-1) , a quartet of values unlike those of either the halo or thick-disk populations. These results indicate that the great majority of BMPs cannot be field analogues of the blue stragglers found in halo globular clusters. Rather, we suggest that BMPs are comparatively young main sequence stars formed in one or more Milky Way satellites, similar perhaps to Fornax or Carina, that have been captured by the Galaxy during the past 3 to 10 Gyrs. Our results reinforce earlier arguments by Rodgers, Harding, & Sadler (1981, ApJ 244, 912) and by Lance (1988, ApJ 344, 927) on the basis of more limited data for less metal-deficient early-type stars. Such satellite captures may be viewed as an extension to relatively recent times of the Searle-Zinn fragment dissipation process. At earliest times satellites were both numerous and gassy, and collisions among them produced a nearly non-rotating halo of stars. As the number of satellites decreased, mergers with the disk became the dominant interaction, and the tendency for dynamical friction to select satellites with prograde orbits led to the now-observed kinematic

  9. Probing the Site for r-Process Nucleosynthesis with Abundances of Barium and Magnesium in Extremely Metal-poor Stars.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto; Shigeyama; Yoshii

    2000-03-01

    We suggest that if the astrophysical site for r-process nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy is confined to a narrow mass range of Type II supernova (SN II) progenitors, with a lower mass limit of Mms=20 M middle dot in circle, a unique feature in the observed distribution of [Ba/Mg] versus [Mg/H] for extremely metal-poor stars can be adequately reproduced. We associate this feature, a bifurcation of the observed elemental ratios into two branches in the Mg abundance interval -3.7stars which were formed in the dense shells of the interstellar medium swept up by SNe II with Mms<20 M middle dot in circle that do not synthesize r-process elements, and it applies to stars with observed Mg abundances in the range &sqbl0;Mg&solm0;H&sqbr0;<-2.7. The Ba abundances in these stars reflect those of the interstellar gas at the (later) time of their formation. The existence of a [Ba/Mg] i-branch strongly suggests that SNe II that are associated with stars of progenitor mass Mms

  10. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: CEMP-s and CEMP-no subclasses in the halo system of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, Daniela; Freeman, Ken; Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Martell, Sarah L. E-mail: kcf@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: vplacco@gemini.edu E-mail: smartell@aao.gov.au

    2014-06-20

    We explore the kinematics and orbital properties of a sample of 323 very metal-poor stars in the halo system of the Milky Way, selected from the high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up studies of Aoki et al. and Yong et al. The combined sample contains a significant fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars (22% or 29%, depending on whether a strict or relaxed criterion is applied for this definition). Barium abundances (or upper limits) are available for the great majority of the CEMP stars, allowing for their separation into the CEMP-s and CEMP-no subclasses. A new method to assign membership to the inner- and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way is developed, making use of the integrals of motion, and applied to determine the relative fractions of CEMP stars in these two subclasses for each halo component. Although limited by small-number statistics, the data suggest that the inner halo of the Milky Way exhibits a somewhat higher relative number of CEMP-s stars than CEMP-no stars (57% versus 43%), while the outer halo possesses a clearly higher fraction of CEMP-no stars than CEMP-s stars (70% versus 30%). Although larger samples of CEMP stars with known Ba abundances are required, this result suggests that the dominant progenitors of CEMP stars in the two halo components were different; massive stars for the outer halo, and intermediate-mass stars in the case of the inner halo.

  11. Metal-poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope. II. Discovery of Four Stars with [Fe/H] <= -3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Lee, Young Sun; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Rossi, Silvia; Santucci, Rafael M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the discovery of seven low-metallicity stars selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, six of which are extremely metal-poor (EMP, [Fe/H] <= -3.0), with four having [Fe/H] <= -3.5. Chemical abundances or upper limits are derived for these stars based on high-resolution (R ~ 35,000) Magellan/MIKE spectroscopy, and are in general agreement with those of other very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature. Accurate metallicities and abundance patterns for stars in this metallicity range are of particular importance for studies of the shape of the metallicity distribution function of the Milky Way's halo system, in particular for probing the nature of its low-metallicity tail. In addition, taking into account suggested evolutionary mixing effects, we find that six of the program stars (with [Fe/H] <= -3.35) possess atmospheres that were likely originally enriched in carbon, relative to iron, during their main-sequence phases. These stars do not exhibit overabundances of their s-process elements, and hence may be, within the error bars, additional examples of the so-called CEMP-no class of objects. Based on observations gathered with: The 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope (SO2011B-002), which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU); and the New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the European Southern Observatory (088.D-0344A), La Silla, Chile.

  12. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  13. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) extends to low stellar mass and high SFR. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFRs, with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 decimal exponent (dex) above the redshift (z) approximately equal to 1 stellar mass-SFR relation, and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 decimal exponent (dex) below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 decimal exponent (dex), but significant dispersion remains (0.29 decimal exponent (dex) with 0.16 decimal exponent (dex) due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years that suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 97.3 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas, but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  14. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in SDSS/SEGUE. I. Carbon Abundance Estimation and Frequency of CEMP Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Masseron, Thomas; Plez, Bertrand; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Yanny, Brian; Lucatello, Sara; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela

    2013-10-17

    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the SDSS and SEGUE. By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N > 15 to a precision better than 0.35 dex. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] > +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ -2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] < -2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] < -3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] < -3.5. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] < -2.5. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = -2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] < -2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] < -3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to distance from the Galactic mid-plane (|Z| < 5 kpc), the frequency of the CEMP giants does not increase at low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -2.5), but rather, decreases, due to the dilution of C-rich material in stars that have undergone mixing with CNO-processed material from their interiors. The frequency of CEMP stars near the main-sequence turnoff, which are not expected to have experienced mixing, increases for [Fe/H] < -3.0. [abridged

  15. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. IV. THE TWO POPULATIONS WITH [Fe/H] {approx}< -3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M. E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au; and others

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the carbon-normal and carbon-rich populations of Galactic halo stars having [Fe/H] {approx}< -3.0, utilizing chemical abundances from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise model-atmosphere analyses. The C-rich population represents {approx}28% of stars below [Fe/H] = -3.1, with the present C-rich sample comprising 16 CEMP-no stars, and two others with [Fe/H] {approx} -5.5 and uncertain classification. The population is O-rich ([O/Fe] {approx}> +1.5); the light elements Na, Mg, and Al are enhanced relative to Fe in half the sample; and for Z > 20 (Ca) there is little evidence for enhancements relative to solar values. These results are best explained in terms of the admixing and processing of material from H-burning and He-burning regions as achieved by nucleosynthesis in zero-heavy-element models in the literature of 'mixing and fallback' supernovae (SNe); of rotating, massive, and intermediate-mass stars; and of Type II SNe with relativistic jets. The available (limited) radial velocities offer little support for the C-rich stars with [Fe/H] < -3.1 being binary. More data are required before one could conclude that binarity is key to an understanding of this population. We suggest that the C-rich and C-normal populations result from two different gas cooling channels in the very early universe of material that formed the progenitors of the two populations. The first was cooling by fine-structure line transitions of C II and O I (to form the C-rich population); the second, while not well defined (perhaps dust-induced cooling?), led to the C-normal group. In this scenario, the C-rich population contains the oldest stars currently observed.

  16. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    current ESO-ESA CERN educational programme on "Life in the Universe". [3] In the case of exoplanets, the planet itself is not visible, but the spectral lines from the star are seen to wobble due to the gravitational influence of the planet, cf. ESO PR 07/01. [4] Several ESO Press Releases concern observations of the element Lithium in stars, e.g., PR 03/99 (in a giant star), PR 08/00 (in a metal-poor star) and PR 10/01 (from a "swallowed" exoplanet).

  17. New Fe i Level Energies and Line Identifications from Stellar Spectra. II. Initial Results from New Ultraviolet Spectra of Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2017-04-01

    The Fe i spectrum is critical to many areas of astrophysics, yet many of the high-lying levels remain uncharacterized. To remedy this deficiency, Peterson & Kurucz identified Fe i lines in archival ultraviolet and optical spectra of metal-poor stars, whose warm temperatures favor moderate Fe i excitation. Sixty-five new levels were recovered, with 1500 detectable lines, including several bound levels in the ionization continuum of Fe i. Here, we extend the previous work by identifying 59 additional levels, with 1400 detectable lines, by incorporating new high-resolution UV spectra of warm metal-poor stars recently obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We provide gf values for these transitions, both computed as well as adjusted to fit the stellar spectra. We also expand our spectral calculations to the infrared, confirming three levels by matching high-quality spectra of the Sun and two cool stars in the H-band. The predicted gf values suggest that an additional 3700 Fe i lines should be detectable in existing solar infrared spectra. Extending the empirical line identification work to the infrared would help confirm additional Fe i levels, as would new high-resolution UV spectra of metal-poor turnoff stars below 1900 Å.

  18. Stellar yields of rotating first stars. I. Yields of weak supernovae and abundances of carbon-enhanced hyper-metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2014-10-10

    We perform a stellar evolution simulation of first stars and calculate stellar yields from the first supernovae. The initial masses are taken from 12 to 140 M {sub ☉} to cover the whole range of core-collapse supernova progenitors, and stellar rotation is included, which results in efficient internal mixing. A weak explosion is assumed in supernova yield calculations, thus only outer distributed matter, which is not affected by the explosive nucleosynthesis, is ejected in the models. We show that the initial mass and the rotation affect the explosion yield. All the weak explosion models have abundances of [C/O] larger than unity. Stellar yields from massive progenitors of >40-60 M {sub ☉} show enhancement of Mg and Si. Rotating models yield abundant Na and Al, and Ca is synthesized in nonrotating heavy massive models of >80 M {sub ☉}. We fit the stellar yields to the three most iron-deficient stars and constrain the initial parameters of the mother progenitor stars. The abundance pattern in SMSS 0313–6708 is well explained by 50-80 M {sub ☉} nonrotating models, rotating 30-40 M {sub ☉} models well fit the abundance of HE 0107-5240, and both nonrotating and rotating 15-40 M {sub ☉} models explain HE 1327-2326. The presented analysis will be applicable to other carbon-enhanced hyper-metal-poor stars observed in the future. The abundance analyses will give valuable information about the characteristics of the first stars.

  19. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope "Chemical Abundances Of Stars In The Halo" (CASH) Project. I. The Lithium-, r-, and s-enhanced Metal-poor Giant HK-II 17435-00532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Frebel, A.; Shetrone, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Rhee, J.; Gallino, R.; Bisterzo, S.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T. C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first detailed abundance analysis of the metal-poor giant HK-II 17435-00532. This star was observed as part of the University of Texas Long-Term "Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo" (CASH) Project. A spectrum was obtained with the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with a resolving power of R 15,000. Our analysis reveals that this star may be located on the red giant branch, red horizontal branch, or early asymptotic giant branch. We find that this metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-2.2) star has an unusually high lithium abundance (log ɛ (Li)=+2.1), mild carbon ([C/Fe]=+0.7) and sodium ([Na/Fe]=+0.6) enhancement, as well as enhancement of both s-process ([Ba/Fe]=+0.8) and r-process ([Eu/Fe]=+0.5) material. The high Li abundance can be explained by self-enrichment through extra mixing mechanisms that connect the convective envelope with the outer regions of the H-burning shell. If so, HK-II 17435-00532 is the most metal-poor star in which this short-lived phase of Li enrichment has been observed. The r- and s-process material was not produced in this star but was either present in the gas from which HK-II 17435-00532 formed or was transferred to it from a more massive binary companion. Despite the current non-detection of radial velocity variations (over a time span of 180 days), it is possible that HK-II 17435-00532 is in a long-period binary system, similar to other stars with both r and s enrichment. We acknowledge support from the W.J. McDonald Fellowship of McDonald Observatory (to A.F), NASA's AAS Small Research Grant Program and the GALEX GI grant 05-GALEX05-27 (to J.R.), the Italian MIUR-PRIN06 Project "Late phases of Stellar Evolution: Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae, AGB Stars, Planetary Nebulae" (to R.G.), and the U.S. National Science Foundation (grants AST06-07708 to C.S., AST04-06784, AST07-07776 and PHY02-15783 to T.C.B., and AST 07-07447 to J.J.C.).

  20. Manganese Abundances In Three Metal-poor Stars Using Improved log(gf) Data For Mn I And Mn II Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Sobeck, J. S.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.; Truran, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    We present accurate Mn abundances for three very metal-poor stars using new log(gf) measurements [Den Hartog et al. 2011] for transitions of Mn I and Mn II spanning a wavelength range from 2300 to 6050 Å. The three metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.0) program stars are HD 84937 (a warm main sequence turn-off star), HD 122563 (a cool giant deficient in n-capture elements) and HD115444 (a cool giant with extreme enhancements of n-capture elements). Using approximately 20 transitions of Mn I and more than 10 transitions of Mn II we find for each star a highly consistent abundance value, log ɛ(Mn) = 2.9 for HD 84937, log ɛ(Mn) = 1.6 for HD 115444, and log ɛ(Mn) = 1.9 for HD 122563, except for the resonance (E.P. = 0.0) multiplet of Mn I. This multiplet consistently yields lower abundance values with differences ranging from 0.3 dex for HD 84937 (a main sequence star) to 0.7 and 0.9 dex for the giant stars included in the study. We have critically examined aspects of radiative transfer for each of the Mn I and II transitions including depth of formation. Using estimates of the Fe abundances for these three well-studied metal-poor stars, we conclude that [Mn/Fe] = -0.70 ± 0.2 in the metalicity regime [Fe/H] = -2.5 ± 0.3. Supported by NASA grant NNX09AL13G and NSF grants AST-0907732, AST-0908978, and AST-0707447. Den Hartog, E A, Lawler J E, Sobeck J S, Sneden C, and Cowan J J 2011, ApJS 194, 35

  1. Automatic Identification, Classification, and Abundance Estimation for Metal-Poor Stars in the Galaxy from Objective-Prism Spectroscopy via Artificial Neural Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, J.; Beers, T. C.; Irwin, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The HK prism survey of Beers and collaborators has been extremely successful in the identification of large numbers of metal-deficient stars in the thick disk and halo of the Galaxy. Such stars provide vital clues for unraveling the chemical and dynamical history of the Milky Way, and large spiral galaxies in general. The original selection of candidate metal-poor stars from the HK prism plates was carried out using visual inspection, which introduces a number of (avoidable) biases in the resulting target lists (in particular a tendency to overlook metal-poor stars of low temperature). We are in the process of selecting new candidate metal-poor stars based on automated scans of the HK survey plates with the APM facility in Cambridge. Here we present the results of an artificial neural network analysis of this data, which enables us to objectively select, to classify by color and metallicity class, and to predict the metallicities of stars on the prism plates directly from the extracted spectra. The training set consists of about 370 stars with abundances obtained from previous HK survey follow-up efforts, chosen from some of the 320,000 stars in the ``digital'' HK survey to date (over 1,500,000 stars are expected in the final sample). For first-pass classification, external estimates of the broadband color index, (B-V)_o, and equivalent widths of the CaII H and K lines from the extracted prism spectra are used as input variables to separate the prism spectra into regions of similar (B-V)_o and [Fe/H]. Currently, a correct classification rate is achieved for more than 70% of the stars. In the prediction step, these same quantities are used as input variables to predict stellar [Fe/H]. We presently obtain correlation coefficients between the predicted and known [Fe/H] for stars in our test sample of greater than 0.75, with an rms error of 0.1 dex, which is extremely encouraging. We discuss steps that are underway to improve on these results, primarily by obtaining

  2. Kinematics of Metal-poor Stars in the Galaxy. III. Formation of the Stellar Halo and Thick Disk as Revealed from a Large Sample of Nonkinematically Selected Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Beers, Timothy C.

    2000-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the space motions of 1203 solar-neighborhood stars with metal abundances [Fe/H]<=-0.6, on the basis of a catalog, of metal-poor stars selected without kinematic bias recently revised and supplemented by Beers et al. This sample, having available proper motions, radial velocities, and distance estimates for stars with a wide range of metal abundances, is by far the largest such catalog to be assembled to date. We show that the stars in our sample with [Fe/H]<=-2.2, which likely represent a ``pure'' halo component, are characterized by a radially elongated velocity ellipsoid (σU,σV,σW)=(141+/-11, 106+/-9, 94+/-8) km s-1 and small prograde rotation =30 to 50 km s-1, consistent with previous analysis of this sample by Beers and Sommer-Larsen based on radial velocity information alone. In contrast to the previous analysis, we find a decrease in with increasing distance from the Galactic plane for stars that are likely to be members of the halo population (Δ/Δ|Z|=-52+/-6 km s-1 kpc-1), which may represent the signature of a dissipatively formed flattened inner halo. Unlike essentially all previous kinematically selected catalogs, the metal-poor stars in our sample exhibit a diverse distribution of orbital eccentricities, e, with no apparent correlation between [Fe/H] and e. This demonstrates, clearly and convincingly, that the evidence offered in 1962 by Eggen, Lynden-Bell, & Sandage for a rapid collapse of the Galaxy, an apparent correlation between the orbital eccentricity of halo stars with metallicity, is basically the result of their proper-motion selection bias. However, even in our nonkinematically selected sample, we have identified a small concentration of high-e stars at [Fe/H]~-1.7, which may originate, in part, from infalling gas during the early formation of the Galaxy. We find no evidence for an additional thick disk component for stellar abundances [Fe/H]<=-2.2. The kinematics of the intermediate

  3. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTiNGS). II. DISCOVERY OF METAL-POOR DUSTY AGB STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan; Barmby, Pauline; Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Lagadec, Eric; Lennon, Daniel; Marengo, Massimo; McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert; Sloan, G. C.; Van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2015-02-10

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of ≈30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, 1 star in IC 1613, and 1 star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirm that 70 of the x-AGB variables are confirmed or likely carbon stars. We see an increase in the pulsation amplitude with increased dust production, supporting previous studies suggesting that dust production and pulsation are linked. We find no strong evidence linking dust production with metallicity, indicating that dust can form in very metal-poor environments.

  4. THE X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF LOW MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES, THEIR METAL-RICH, AND METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2016-02-10

    We present the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the globular clusters (GCs) and fields of seven early-type galaxies. These galaxies are selected to have both deep Chandra observations, which allow their LMXB populations to be observed to X-ray luminosities of 10{sup 37}–10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}, and Hubble Space Telescope optical mosaics that enable the X-ray sources to be separated into field LMXBs, GC LMXBs, and contaminating background and foreground sources. We find that at all luminosities the number of field LMXBs per stellar mass is similar in these galaxies. This suggests that the field LMXB populations in these galaxies are not effected by the GC specific frequency, and that properties such as binary fraction and the stellar initial mass function are either similar across the sample or change in a way that does not affect the number of LMXBs. We compare the XLF of the field LMXBs to that of the GC LMXBs and find that they are significantly different with a p-value of 3 × 10{sup −6} (equivalent to 4.7σ for a normal distribution). The difference is such that the XLF of the GC LMXBs is flatter than that of the field LMXBs, with the GCs hosting relatively more bright sources and fewer faint sources. A comparison of the XLF of the metal-rich and metal-poor GCs hints that the metal-poor clusters may have more bright LMXBs, but the difference is not statistically significant.

  5. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. I. The Lithium-, s-, and r-enhanced Metal-poor Giant HKII 17435-00532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Frebel, Anna; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rhee, Jaehyon; Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara; Sneden, Christopher; Beers, Timothy C.; Cowan, John J.

    2008-06-01

    We present the first detailed abundance analysis of the metal-poor giant HKII 17435-00532. This star was observed as part of the University of Texas long-term project Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH). A spectrum was obtained with the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with a resolving power of R ~ 15,000. Our analysis reveals that this star may be located on the red giant branch, red horizontal branch, or early asymptotic giant branch. We find that this metal-poor ([Fe/H] = - 2.2) star has an unusually high lithium abundance [log ɛ (Li) = + 2.1], mild carbon ([C/Fe] = + 0.7) and sodium ([Na/Fe] = + 0.6) enhancement, as well as enhancement of both s-process ([Ba/Fe] = + 0.8) and r-process ([Eu/Fe] = + 0.5) material. The high Li abundance can be explained by self-enrichment through extra mixing that connects the convective envelope with the outer regions of the H-burning shell. If so, HKII 17435-00532 is the most metal-poor star in which this short-lived phase of Li enrichment has been observed. The Na and n-capture enrichment can be explained by mass transfer from a companion that passed through the thermally pulsing AGB phase of evolution with only a small initial enrichment of r-process material present in the birth cloud. Despite the current nondetection of radial velocity variations (over ~180 days), it is possible that HKII 17435-00532 is in a long-period or highly inclined binary system, similar to other stars with similar n-capture enrichment patterns. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  6. METAL-POOR, COOL GAS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A z = 2.4 STAR-FORMING GALAXY: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR COLD ACCRETION?

    SciTech Connect

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-10-20

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (N{sub H{sup 0}}=10{sup 19.50±0.16} cm{sup -2}) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log{sub 10}(Z/Z {sub ☉}) = –2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10{sup –3} solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature <20,000 K. Given the striking similarities between this system and the predictions of simulations, we argue that it represents the direct detection of a high-redshift cold-accretion stream. The low-metallicity gas cloud is a single component of an absorption system exhibiting a complex velocity, ionization, and enrichment structure. Two other components have metallicities >0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM.

  7. BINARIES AMONG DEBRIS DISK STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, David R.; Zuckerman, B.

    2012-02-01

    We have gathered a sample of 112 main-sequence stars with known debris disks. We collected published information and performed adaptive optics observations at Lick Observatory to determine if these debris disks are associated with binary or multiple stars. We discovered a previously unknown M-star companion to HD 1051 at a projected separation of 628 AU. We found that 25% {+-} 4% of our debris disk systems are binary or triple star systems, substantially less than the expected {approx}50%. The period distribution for these suggests a relative lack of systems with 1-100 AU separations. Only a few systems have blackbody disk radii comparable to the binary/triple separation. Together, these two characteristics suggest that binaries with intermediate separations of 1-100 AU readily clear out their disks. We find that the fractional disk luminosity, as a proxy for disk mass, is generally lower for multiple systems than for single stars at any given age. Hence, for a binary to possess a disk (or form planets) it must either be a very widely separated binary with disk particles orbiting a single star or it must be a small separation binary with a circumbinary disk.

  8. Using the multi-object adaptive optics demonstrator RAVEN to observe metal-poor stars in and towards the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, M.; Venn, K.; Andersen, D.; Oya, S.; Shetrone, M.; Fattahi, A.; Howes, L.; Asplund, M.; Lardière, O.; Akiyama, M.; Ono, Y.; Terada, H.; Hayano, Y.; Suzuki, G.; Blain, C.; Jackson, K.; Correia, C.; Youakim, K.; Bradley, C.

    2017-03-01

    The chemical abundances for five metal-poor stars in and towards the Galactic bulge have been determined from the H-band infrared spectroscopy taken with the RAVEN multi-object adaptive optics science demonstrator and the Infrared Camera and Spectrograph at the Subaru 8.2-m telescope. Three of these stars are in the Galactic bulge and have metallicities between -2.1 < [Fe/H] < -1.5, and high [α/Fe] ∼ +0.3, typical of Galactic disc and bulge stars in this metallicity range; [Al/Fe] and [N/Fe] are also high, whereas [C/Fe] < +0.3. An examination of their orbits suggests that two of these stars may be confined to the Galactic bulge and one is a halo trespasser, though proper motion values used to calculate orbits are quite uncertain. An additional two stars in the globular cluster M22 show [Fe/H] values consistent to within 1σ, although one of these two stars has [Fe/H] = -2.01 ± 0.09, which is on the low end for this cluster. The [α/Fe] and [Ni/Fe] values differ by 2σ, with the most metal-poor star showing significantly higher values for these elements. M22 is known to show element abundance variations, consistent with a multipopulation scenario though our results cannot discriminate this clearly given our abundance uncertainties. This is the first science demonstration of multi-object adaptive optics with high-resolution infrared spectroscopy, and we also discuss the feasibility of this technique for use in the upcoming era of 30-m class telescope facilities.

  9. Dependence of the Sr-to-Ba and Sr-to-Eu Ratio on the Nuclear Equation of State in Metal-poor Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiano, M. A.; Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Suda, T.

    2016-10-01

    A model is proposed in which the dependence on the equation of state (EOS) of the scatter of [Sr/Ba] in metal-poor stars is studied. Light r-process element enrichment in these stars has been explained via a truncated r-process, or “tr-process.” The truncation of the r-process from a generic core-collapse event followed by a collapse into an accretion-induced black hole is examined in the framework of a galactic chemical evolution model. The constraints on this model imposed by observations of extremely metal-poor stars are explained, and the upper limits in the [Sr/Ba] distributions are found to be related to the nuclear EOS in a collapse scenario. The scatter in [Sr/Ba] and [Sr/Eu] as a function of metallicity has been found to be consistent with turbulent ejection in core-collapse supernovae. Adaptations of this model are evaluated to account for the scatter in isotopic observables. This is done by assuming mixing in ejecta in a supernova event. Stiff EOS are eliminated by this model.

  10. Explaining the Ba, Y, Sr, and Eu abundance scatter in metal-poor halo stars: constraints to the r-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescutti, G.; Chiappini, C.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Thanks to the heroic observational campaigns carried out in recent years we now have large samples of metal-poor stars for which measurements of detailed abundances exist. In particular, large samples of stars with metallicities -5 < [Fe/H] <-1 and measured abundances of Sr, Ba, Y, and Eu are now available. These data hold important clues on the nature of the contribution of the first stellar generations to the enrichment of our Galaxy. Aims: We aim to explain the scatter in Sr, Ba, Y, and Eu abundance ratio diagrams unveiled by the metal-poor halo stars. Methods: We computed inhomogeneous chemical evolution models for the Galactic halo assuming different scenarios for the r-process site: the electron-capture (EC) supernovae and the magnetorotationally driven (MRD) supernovae scenarios. We also considered models with and without the contribution of fast-rotating massive stars (spinstars) to an early enrichment by the s-process. A detailed comparison with the now large sample of stars with measured abundances of Sr, Ba, Y, Eu, and Fe is provided (both in terms of scatter plots and number distributions for several abundance ratios). Results: The scatter observed in these abundance ratios of the very metal-poor stars (with [Fe/H] <-2.5) can be explained by combining the s-process production in spinstars, and the r-process contribution coming from massive stars. For the r-process we have developed models for both the EC and the MRD scenarios that match the observations. Conclusions: With the present observational and theoretical constraints we cannot distinguish between the EC and the MRD scenarios in the Galactic halo. Independently of the r-process scenarios adopted, the production of elements by an s-process in spinstars is needed to reproduce the spread in abundances of the light neutron capture elements (Sr and Y) over heavy neutron capture elements (Ba and Eu). We provide a way to test our suggestions by means of the distribution of the Ba isotopic

  11. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor star frequencies in the galaxy: corrections for the effect of evolutionary status on carbon abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2014-12-10

    We revisit the observed frequencies of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars as a function of the metallicity in the Galaxy, using data from the literature with available high-resolution spectroscopy. Our analysis excludes stars exhibiting clear overabundances of neutron-capture elements and takes into account the expected depletion of surface carbon abundance that occurs due to CN processing on the upper red giant branch. This allows for the recovery of the initial carbon abundance of these stars, and thus for an accurate assessment of the frequencies of carbon-enhanced stars. The correction procedure we develop is based on stellar-evolution models and depends on the surface gravity, log g, of a given star. Our analysis indicates that for stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.0, 20% exhibit [C/Fe] ≥+0.7. This fraction increases to 43% for [Fe/H] ≤–3.0 and 81% for [Fe/H] ≤–4.0, which is higher than have been previously inferred without taking the carbon abundance correction into account. These CEMP star frequencies provide important inputs for Galactic and stellar chemical evolution models, as they constrain the evolution of carbon at early times and the possible formation channels for the CEMP-no stars. We also have developed a public online tool with which carbon corrections using our procedure can be easily obtained.

  12. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. III. A New Classification Scheme for Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars with s-process Element Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Frebel, Anna; Placco, Vinicius M.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Shetrone, Matthew; Sneden, Christopher; Christlieb, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of 23 elements for a newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star, HE 0414-0343, from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo Project. Its spectroscopic stellar parameters are Teff = 4863 K, {log}g=1.25,\\ξ = 2.20 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = -2.24. Radial velocity measurements covering seven years indicate HE 0414-0343 to be a binary. HE 0414-0343 has {{[C/Fe]}}=1.44 and is strongly enhanced in neutron-capture elements but its abundances cannot be reproduced by a solar-type s-process pattern alone. Traditionally, it could be classified as a “CEMP-r/s” star. Based on abundance comparisons with asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star nucleosynthesis models, we suggest a new physically motivated origin and classification scheme for CEMP-s stars and the still poorly understood CEMP-r/s. The new scheme describes a continuous transition between these two so-far distinctly treated subgroups: CEMP-sA, CEMP-sB, and CEMP-sC. Possible causes for a continuous transition include the number of thermal pulses the AGB companion underwent, the effect of different AGB star masses on their nucleosynthetic yields, and physics that is not well approximated in 1D stellar models such as proton ingestion episodes and rotation. Based on a set of detailed AGB models, we suggest the abundance signature of HE 0414-0343 to have arisen from a >1.3 M⊙ mass AGB star and a late-time mass transfer that transformed HE 0414-0343 into a CEMP-sC star. We also find that the [Y/Ba] ratio well parametrizes the classification and can thus be used to easily classify any future such stars. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  13. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P. S.; Collet, R.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D hydrodynamic STAGGER model atmospheres, and employ a new model atom that includes new quantum-mechanical neutral hydrogen collisional rate coefficients. With the exception of the red giant HD122563, we find that the 3D non-LTE models achieve Fe I/Fe II excitation and ionization balance as well as not having any trends with equivalent width to within modelling uncertainties of 0.05 dex, all without having to invoke any microturbulent broadening; for HD122563 we predict that the current best parallax-based surface gravity is overestimated by 0.5 dex. Using a 3D non-LTE analysis, we infer iron abundances from the 3D model atmospheres that are roughly 0.1 dex higher than corresponding abundances from 1D MARCS model atmospheres; these differences go in the same direction as the non-LTE effects themselves. We make available grids of departure coefficients, equivalent widths and abundance corrections, calculated on 1D MARCS model atmospheres and horizontally and temporally averaged 3D STAGGER model atmospheres.

  14. IMPROVED Co i log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2015-09-15

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 898 lines of the first spectrum of cobalt (Co i) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak, AZ and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. Published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements are combined with the branching fractions to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 898 lines. Hyperfine structure (hfs) constants for levels of neutral Co in the literature are surveyed and selected values are used to generate complete hfs component patterns for 195 transitions of Co i. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Co abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ϵ(Co) = 4.955 ± 0.007 (σ = 0.059) based on 82 Co i lines and log ϵ(Co) = 2.785 ± 0.008 (σ = 0.065) based on 66 Co i lines, respectively. A Saha or ionization balance test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is performed using 16 UV lines of Co ii, and good agreement is found with the Co i result in this metal-poor ([Fe i/H] = −2.32, [Fe ii/H] = −2.32) dwarf star. The resulting value of [Co/Fe] = +0.14 supports a rise of Co/Fe at low metallicity that has been suggested in other studies.

  15. Axial Rotation and Incidence of Binaries Among BMP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.

    1996-04-01

    An echelle survey conducted at Las Campanas Observatory during the past four years has been used to study the chemical heterogeneity, derive axial rotations (V_e sini) and estimate the spectroscopic binary fraction for a sample of blue metal-poor stars (hereafter BMP). Metal abundances estimated from the strength of CaII(K) exceed the BMP photometric lower bound, [Fe/H] < --1, for 25 percent of the sample. Slopes of blanketing vectors, d(U-B)/d(B-V), are used to calculate the blanketed colors, (B-V)bl, that BMPs would have were their Fe abundances increased to the solar value. The mean projected rotational velocity of BMP stars exhibits a decline with increasing (B-V)bl similar to that found for ordinary A- and F- type stars in the solar neighborhood. Examination of radial velocity dispersions suggests that the fraction of BMP stars in binaries with P<1500 days is probably larger ( ~ 0.35) than the corresponding binary fractions ( ~ 0.17) of disk main sequence stars. This difference can arise, if a significant fraction of the BMP stars are blue stragglers among which the binary fraction is sufficiently high.

  16. The Michigan Binary Star Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Rudi P.

    2007-07-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, William J. Hussey and Robert G. Aitken, both at Lick Observatory, began a systematic search for unrecorded binary stars with the aid of the 12" and 36" refracting telescopes at Lick Observatory. Aitken's work (and book on binary stars) are well known, Hussey's contributions less so. In 1905 Hussey, a Michigan engineering graduate, returned to direct the Ann Arbor astronomy program, and immediately he began to design new instrumentation for the study of binary stars and to train potential observers. For a time, he spent six months a year at the La Plata Observatory, where he discovered a number of new pairs and decided upon a major southern hemisphere campaign. He spent a decade obtaining the lenses for a large refractor, through the vicissitudes of war and depression. Finally, he obtained a site in South Africa, a 26" refractor, and a small corps of observers, but he died in London en route to fulfill his dream. His right hand man, Richard Rossiter, established the observatory and spent the next thirty years discovering and measuring binary stars: his personal total is a record for the field. This talk is an account of the methods, results, and utility of the extraordinary binary star factory in the veldt.

  17. Binary Stars in SBS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erastova, L. K.

    2016-06-01

    Thirty spectroscopic binary stars were found in the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS). They show composite spectra - WD(DA)+dM or dC (for example Liebert et al. 1994). They may have red color, if the radiation of the red star dominates, and blue one, if the blue star is brighter and have peculiar spectrum in our survey plate. We obtained slit spectra for most of such objects. But we often see the spectrum of one component, because our slit spectra did not cover all optical range. We examine by eye the slit spectra of all SBS stellar objects (˜700) in SDSS DR7, DR8 or DR9 independent on our observations. We confirmed or discovered the duplicity of 30 stars. Usually they are spectroscopic binaries, where one component is WD (DA) and the second one is a red star with or without emission. There also are other components combinations. Sometimes there are emission lines, probably, indicating variable ones.

  18. The Diverse Origins of Neutron-capture Elements in the Metal-poor Star HD 94028: Possible Detection of Products of i-Process Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.62 ± 0.09) star HD 94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s process; e.g., [Pb/Fe] = +0.79 ± 0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r process; e.g., [Eu/Fe] = +0.22 ± 0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe] = +0.97 ± 0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe] = +0.69 ± 0.17) enhancements. However, this star is not enhanced in carbon ([C/Fe] = -0.06 ± 0.19). We analyze an archival near-ultraviolet spectrum of HD 94028, collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and other archival optical spectra collected from ground-based telescopes. We report abundances or upper limits derived from 64 species of 56 elements. We compare these observations with s-process yields from low-metallicity AGB evolution and nucleosynthesis models. No combination of s- and r-process patterns can adequately reproduce the observed abundances, including the super-solar [As/Ge] ratio (+0.99 ± 0.23) and the enhanced [Mo/Fe] and [Ru/Fe] ratios. We can fit these features when including an additional contribution from the intermediate neutron-capture process (i process), which perhaps operated through the ingestion of H in He-burning convective regions in massive stars, super-AGB stars, or low-mass AGB stars. Currently, only the i process appears capable of consistently producing the super-solar [As/Ge] ratios and ratios among neighboring heavy elements found in HD 94028. Other metal-poor stars also show enhanced [As/Ge] ratios, hinting that operation of the i process may have been common in the early Galaxy. These data are associated with Program 072.B-0585(A), PI. Silva. Some data presented in this paper were obtained from the Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The Space Telescope Science Institute is

  19. THE DIVERSE ORIGINS OF NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENTS IN THE METAL-POOR STAR HD 94028: POSSIBLE DETECTION OF PRODUCTS OF i-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk E-mail: amanda.karakas@monash.edu E-mail: fherwig@uvic.ca

    2016-04-10

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = −1.62 ± 0.09) star HD 94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s process; e.g., [Pb/Fe] = +0.79 ± 0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r process; e.g., [Eu/Fe] = +0.22 ± 0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe] = +0.97 ± 0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe] = +0.69 ± 0.17) enhancements. However, this star is not enhanced in carbon ([C/Fe] = −0.06 ± 0.19). We analyze an archival near-ultraviolet spectrum of HD 94028, collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and other archival optical spectra collected from ground-based telescopes. We report abundances or upper limits derived from 64 species of 56 elements. We compare these observations with s-process yields from low-metallicity AGB evolution and nucleosynthesis models. No combination of s- and r-process patterns can adequately reproduce the observed abundances, including the super-solar [As/Ge] ratio (+0.99 ± 0.23) and the enhanced [Mo/Fe] and [Ru/Fe] ratios. We can fit these features when including an additional contribution from the intermediate neutron-capture process (i process), which perhaps operated through the ingestion of H in He-burning convective regions in massive stars, super-AGB stars, or low-mass AGB stars. Currently, only the i process appears capable of consistently producing the super-solar [As/Ge] ratios and ratios among neighboring heavy elements found in HD 94028. Other metal-poor stars also show enhanced [As/Ge] ratios, hinting that operation of the i process may have been common in the early Galaxy.

  20. Boo-1137—an Extremely Metal-Poor Star in the Ultra-Faint Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Boötes I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2010-03-01

    We present high-resolution (R ~ 40,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio (20-90) spectra of an extremely metal-poor giant star Boo-1137 in the "ultra-faint" dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Boötes I, absolute magnitude M V ~ -6.3. We derive an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.7, making this the most metal-poor star as yet identified in an ultra-faint dSph. Our derived effective temperature and gravity are consistent with its identification as a red giant in Boötes I. Abundances for a further 15 elements have also been determined. Comparison of the relative abundances, [X/Fe], with those of the extremely metal-poor red giants of the Galactic halo shows that Boo-1137 is "normal" with respect to C and N, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the iron-peak elements, and the neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, in comparison with the bulk of the Milky Way halo population having [Fe/H] lsim-3.0. The α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti are all higher by Δ[X/Fe] ~ 0.2 than the average halo values. Monte Carlo analysis indicates that Δ[α/Fe] values this large are expected with a probability ~0.02. The elemental abundance pattern in Boo-1137 suggests inhomogeneous chemical evolution, consistent with the wide internal spread in iron abundances we previously reported. The similarity of most of the Boo-1137 relative abundances with respect to halo values, and the fact that the α-elements are all offset by a similar small amount from the halo averages, points to the same underlying galaxy-scale stellar initial mass function, but that Boo-1137 likely originated in a star-forming region where the abundances reflect either poor mixing of supernova (SN) ejecta, or poor sampling of the SN progenitor mass range, or both. Observations obtained for ESO program P383.B-0038, using VLT-UT2/UVES.

  1. THE ORIGINS OF LIGHT AND HEAVY R-PROCESS ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED BY CHEMICAL TAGGING OF METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-11-01

    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration γ-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A > 130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] ≳ +1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  2. The Origins of Light and Heavy R-process Elements Identified by Chemical Tagging of Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-11-01

    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration γ-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A > 130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] gsim +1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  3. KELT-6b: A P ~ 7.9 Day Hot Saturn Transiting a Metal-poor Star with a Long-period Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Kielkopf, John F.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Fischer, Debra A.; Manner, Mark; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Street, Rachel A.; Cargile, Phillip; Mack, Claude E.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Avril, Ryan L.; Mellon, Samuel N.; McLeod, Kim K.; Penny, Matthew T.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mao, Qingqing; Richert, Alexander J. W.; DePoy, Darren L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Gould, Andrew; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Pogge, Richard W.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was established using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.38 host star (BD+31 2447) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T eff = 6102 ± 43 K, log g_\\star =4.07_{-0.07}^{+0.04}, and [Fe/H] = -0.28 ± 0.04, with an inferred mass M sstarf = 1.09 ± 0.04 M ⊙ and radius R_\\star =1.58_{-0.09}^{+0.16} \\,R_\\odot. The planetary companion has mass MP = 0.43 ± 0.05 M Jup, radius R_{P}=1.19_{-0.08}^{+0.13} \\,R_Jup, surface gravity log g_{P}=2.86_{-0.08}^{+0.06}, and density \\rho _{P}=0.31_{-0.08}^{+0.07}\\,g\\,cm^{-3}. The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a = 0.079 ± 0.001 AU and eccentricity e=0.22_{-0.10}^{+0.12}, which is roughly consistent with circular, and has ephemeris of T c(BJDTDB) = 2456347.79679 ± 0.00036 and P = 7.845631 ± 0.000046 days. Equally plausible fits that employ empirical constraints on the host-star parameters rather than isochrones yield a larger planet mass and radius by ~4}-7}. KELT-6b has surface gravity and incident flux similar to HD 209458b, but orbits a host that is more metal poor than HD 209458 by ~0.3 dex. Thus, the KELT-6 system offers an opportunity to perform a comparative measurement of two similar planets in similar environments around stars of very different metallicities. The precise radial velocity data also reveal an acceleration indicative of a longer-period third body in the system, although the companion is not detected in Keck adaptive optics images. KELT is a joint project of The Ohio State University, Vanderbilt University, and Lehigh University.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Effective temperature of metal-poor A-type stars (Kinman+, 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T.; Castelli, F.

    2002-07-01

    Effective temperatures (Teff) can be determined from (V- (V-H)0 and (V-K)0 colours that are derived from 2MASS magnitudes. This gives another way to estimate the Teff of faint blue halo stars (V<~15) whose temperatures are now usually deduced from (BV)0_. Transformations (adapted from Carpenter, 2001AJ....121.2851C) are used to change colours derived from the 2MASS data to the Johnson system. Teff is then derived from these colours using an updated Kurucz model. Tables are given to derive Teff as a function of (V-J)0, (V-H)0 and (V-K)0 for a variety of metallicities and suitable for blue horizontal branch and main sequence stars. The temperatures obtained in this way are compared with those in the recent literature for various stars with 5<=V<=15 and Teff in the range 6500 to 9500K; systematic differences are ~100K. An exception is the sample of BHB stars observed by Wilhelm et al. (1999, Cat. ) whose Teff are significantly cooler than those we derive by an amount that increases with increasing temperature. Description: (2 data files).

  5. IMPROVED Ni I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2014-04-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 371 Ni I lines in the UV through near-IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrograph are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to previously reported Ni I transition probability measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrograph, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability uncertainty over previous measurements. The new Ni I data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ni abundances. Lines covering a wide range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects.

  6. A New View of the Dwarf Spheroidal Satellites of the Milky Way From VLT/FLAMES: Where are the Very Metal Poor Stars?

    SciTech Connect

    Helmi, Amina; Irwin, M.J.; Tolstoy, E.; Battaglia, G.; Hill, V.; Jablonka, P.; Venn, K.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Arimoto, N.; Abel, T.; Francois, P.; Kaufer, A.; Primas, F.; Sadakane, K.; Szeifert, T.; /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron. /Meudon Observ. /LASTRO Observ. /Victoria U. /Texas U., McDonald Observ. /Tokyo, Astron. Observ. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /European Southern Obs., Chile /European Southern Observ. /Osaka Kyoiku U.

    2006-11-20

    As part of the Dwarf galaxies Abundances and Radial-velocities Team (DART) Programme, we have measured the metallicities of a large sample of stars in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph): Sculptor, Sextans, Fornax and Carina. The low mean metal abundances and the presence of very old stellar populations in these galaxies have supported the view that they are fossils from the early Universe. However, contrary to naive expectations, we find a significant lack of stars with metallicities below [Fe/H] {approx} -3 dex in all four systems. This suggests that the gas that made up the stars in these systems had been uniformly enriched prior to their formation. Furthermore, the metal-poor tail of the dSph metallicity distribution is significantly different from that of the Galactic halo. These findings show that the progenitors of nearby dSph appear to have been fundamentally different from the building blocks of the Milky Way, even at the earliest epochs.

  7. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. V. Star-forming dwarf galaxies - dust in metal-poor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Vlahakis, C.; Bomans, D. J.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Hughes, T. M.; Jones, A. P.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    We present the dust properties of a small sample of Virgo cluster dwarf galaxies drawn from the science demonstration phase data set of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. These galaxies have low metallicities (7.8 < 12 + log(O/H) < 8.3) and star-formation rates ≲10-1 M⊙ yr-1. We measure the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 100 to 500 μm and derive dust temperatures and dust masses. The SEDs are fitted by a cool component of temperature T ≲ 20 K, implying dust masses around 105 M⊙ and dust-to-gas ratios D within the range 10-3-10-2. The completion of the full survey will yield a larger set of galaxies, which will provide more stringent constraints on the dust content of star-forming dwarf galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  8. WASP-37b: A 1.8 M{sub J} EXOPLANET TRANSITING A METAL-POOR STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, E. K.; Faedi, F.; Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D.; Todd, I.; McCormac, J.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cameron, A. Collier; Miller, G. R. M.; Hebb, L.; Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Butters, O. W.; Hebrard, G.; Boisse, I.; Santerne, A.; Street, R. A.; Skillen, I.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Bento, J.

    2011-01-15

    We report on the discovery of WASP-37b, a transiting hot Jupiter orbiting an m{sub v} = 12.7 G2-type dwarf, with a period of 3.577469 {+-} 0.000011 d, transit epoch T{sub 0} = 2455338.6188 {+-} 0.0006 (HJD; dates throughout the paper are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)), and a transit duration 0.1304{sup +0.0018}{sub -0.0017} d. The planetary companion has a mass M{sub p} = 1.80 {+-} 0.17 M{sub J} and radius R{sub p} = 1.16{sup +0.07}{sub -0.06} R{sub J}, yielding a mean density of 1.15{sup +0.12}{sub -0.15} {rho}{sub J}. From a spectral analysis, we find that the host star has M{sub *} = 0.925 {+-} 0.120 M{sub sun}, R{sub *} = 1.003 {+-} 0.053 R{sub sun}, T{sub eff} = 5800 {+-} 150 K, and [Fe/H] = -0.40 {+-} 0.12. WASP-37 is therefore one of the lowest metallicity stars to host a transiting planet.

  9. KELT-6b: A P ∼ 7.9 day hot Saturn transiting a metal-poor star with a long-period companion

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Manner, Mark; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; and others

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was established using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.38 host star (BD+31 2447) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T {sub eff} = 6102 ± 43 K, log g{sub ⋆}=4.07{sub −0.07}{sup +0.04}, and [Fe/H] = –0.28 ± 0.04, with an inferred mass M {sub *} = 1.09 ± 0.04 M {sub ☉} and radius R{sub ⋆}=1.58{sub −0.09}{sup +0.16} R{sub ⊙}. The planetary companion has mass M{sub P} = 0.43 ± 0.05 M {sub Jup}, radius R{sub P}=1.19{sub −0.08}{sup +0.13} R{sub Jup}, surface gravity log g{sub P}=2.86{sub −0.08}{sup +0.06}, and density ρ{sub P}=0.31{sub −0.08}{sup +0.07} g cm{sup −3}. The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a = 0.079 ± 0.001 AU and eccentricity e=0.22{sub −0.10}{sup +0.12}, which is roughly consistent with circular, and has ephemeris of T {sub c}(BJD{sub TDB}) = 2456347.79679 ± 0.00036 and P = 7.845631 ± 0.000046 days. Equally plausible fits that employ empirical constraints on the host-star parameters rather than isochrones yield a larger planet mass and radius by ∼4)-7). KELT-6b has surface gravity and incident flux similar to HD 209458b, but orbits a host that is more metal poor than HD 209458 by ∼0.3 dex. Thus, the KELT-6 system offers an opportunity to perform a comparative measurement of two similar planets in similar environments around stars of very different metallicities. The precise radial velocity data also reveal an acceleration indicative of a longer-period third body in the system, although the companion is not detected in Keck adaptive optics images.

  10. Neutron Star Mass Distribution in Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Young-Min

    2016-05-01

    Massive neutron stars with ∼ 2Mʘ have been observed in neutron star-white dwarf binaries. On the other hand, well-measured neutron star masses in double-neutron-star binaries are still consistent with the limit of 1.5Mʘ. These observations raised questions on the neutron star equations of state and the neutron star binary evolution processes. In this presentation, a hypothesis of super-Eddington accretion and its implications are discussed. We argue that a 2Mʘ neutron star is an outcome of the super-Eddington accretion during the evolution of neutron star-white dwarf binary progenitors. We also suggest the possibility of the existence of new type of neutron star binary which consists of a typical neutron star and a massive compact companion (high-mass neutron star or black hole) with M ≥ 2Mʘ.

  11. Evolution and CNO yields of Z = 10-5 stars and possible effects on carbon-enhanced metal-poor production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Pons, P.; Doherty, C. L.; Lau, H.; Campbell, S. W.; Suda, T.; Guilani, S.; Gutiérrez, J.; Lattanzio, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: Our main goals are to get a deeper insight into the evolution and final fates of intermediate-mass, extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. We also aim to investigate the C, N, and O yields of these stars. Methods: Using the Monash University Stellar Evolution code MONSTAR we computed and analysed the evolution of stars of metallicity Z = 10-5 and masses between 4 and 9 M⊙, from their main sequence until the late thermally pulsing (super) asymptotic giant branch, TP-(S)AGB phase. Results: Our model stars experience a strong C, N, and O envelope enrichment either due to the second dredge-up process, the dredge-out phenomenon, or the third dredge-up early during the TP-(S)AGB phase. Their late evolution is therefore similar to that of higher metallicity objects. When using a standard prescription for the mass loss rates during the TP-(S)AGB phase, the computed stars are able to lose most of their envelopes before their cores reach the Chandrasekhar mass (mCh), so our standard models do not predict the occurrence of SNI1/2 for Z = 10-5 stars. However, we find that the reduction of only one order of magnitude in the mass-loss rates, which are particularly uncertain at this metallicity, would prevent the complete ejection of the envelope, allowing the stars to either explode as an SNI1/2 or become an electron-capture SN. Our calculations stop due to an instability near the base of the convective envelope that hampers further convergence and leaves remnant envelope masses between 0.25 M⊙ for our 4 M⊙ model and 1.5 M⊙ for our 9 M⊙ model. We present two sets of C, N, and O yields derived from our full calculations and computed under two different assumptions, namely, that the instability causes a practically instant loss of the remnant envelope or that the stars recover and proceed with further thermal pulses. Conclusions: Our results have implications for the early chemical evolution of the Universe and might provide another piece for the puzzle of the carbon

  12. IMPROVED Ti II log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2013-10-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 364 lines of Ti II in the UV through near-IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a new echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. The new results are in generally good agreement with previously reported FTS measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrometer, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enables a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability accuracy over previous measurements. The new Ti II data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ti abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. The Ti abundances derived using Ti II for these two stars match those derived using Ti I and support the relative Ti/Fe abundance ratio versus metallicity seen in previous studies.

  13. Discovering extremely compact and metal-poor, star-forming dwarf galaxies out to z ~ 0.9 in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, R.; Sommariva, V.; Castellano, M.; Grazian, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Capak, P.; Cassará, L. P.; Cimatti, A.; Cuby, J. G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Durkalec, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Lemaux, B. C.; Moreau, C.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Salvato, M.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Talia, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Wang, P. W.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Fotopoulou, S.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Scoville, N.

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of 31 low-luminosity (-14.5 ≳ MAB(B) ≳ -18.8), extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at 0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.9 identified by their unusually high rest-frame equivalent widths (100 ≤ EW[O iii] ≤ 1700 Å) as part of the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). VIMOS optical spectra of unprecedented sensitivity (IAB ~ 25 mag) along with multiwavelength photometry and HST imaging are used to investigate spectrophotometric properties of this unique sample and to explore, for the first time, the very low stellar mass end (M⋆ ≲ 108M⊙) of the luminosity-metallicity (LZR) and mass-metallicity (MZR) relations at z < 1. Characterized by their extreme compactness (R50 < 1 kpc), low stellar mass and enhanced specific star formation rates (sSFR = SFR/M⋆ ~ 10-9-10-7 yr-1), the VUDS EELGs are blue dwarf galaxies likely experiencing the first stages of a vigorous galaxy-wide starburst. Using Te-sensitive direct and strong-line methods, we find that VUDS EELGs are low-metallicity (7.5 ≲ 12 + log (O/H) ≲ 8.3) galaxies with high ionization conditions (log (qion) ≳ 8 cm s-1), including at least three EELGs showing Heiiλ 4686 Å emission and four extremely metal-poor (≲10% solar) galaxies. The LZR and MZR followed by VUDS EELGs show relatively large scatter, being broadly consistent with the extrapolation toward low luminosity and mass from previous studies at similar redshift. However, we find evidence that galaxies with younger and more vigorous star formation - as characterized by their larger EWs, ionization and sSFR - tend to be more metal poor at a given stellar mass. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, under Large Program 185.A-0791.Figure A.1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/L8

  14. Improved log(gf) Values for Lines of V I and V II, New Vanadium Abundances in the Sun and the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Feigenson, Thomas; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) and 203 lines of V II are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with new radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for 1039 lines of V I and V II. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for both spectra. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ɛ(V) = 3.96 (σ = 0.04) based on 93 V I lines and log ɛ(V) = 1.89 (σ = 0.07) based on nine V I lines respectively, and yielding log ɛ(V) = 3.95 (σ = 0.05) based on 15 V II lines and log ɛ(V) = 1.87 (σ = 0.07) based on 68 V II lines respectively1-3.1. Wood et al., ApJS 214:18 (2014), 2. Den Hartog et al. ApJS in press (2014), 3. Lawler et al. ApJS submitted (2014). This work is supported by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (JEL), NSF AST-1211055 (EDH & JEL), and NSF AST-1211585 (CS).

  15. IMPROVED V I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu E-mail: tfeigenson@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ε(V) = 3.956 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.037) based on 93 V I lines and log ε(V) = 1.89 ± 0.03 (σ = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Müller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

  16. IMPROVED V II log(gf) VALUES, HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS, AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2014-10-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ε(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = –2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

  17. Improved Ti I log(gf) Values and New Titanium Abundances in the Sun and the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Guzman, A.; Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Cowan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    New atomic transition probability measurements for 948 lines of Ti I are reported. Branching fractions from Fourier transform spectra and from spectra recorded using a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. These Ti I transition probability data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and the very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff dwarf star HD 84937 to provide new, more accurate values of their titanium abundances. For the solar photosphere we use 168 lines to derive = 4.97 (σ = 0.04), in good agreement with the Ti abundance recommended in previous solar abundance reviews. For HD 84937 we derive = 3.12 (σ = 0.05, 54 lines), or [Ti/H] -1.85. We also determine a new HD 84937 iron metallicity from over 400 Fe I lines in the NIST atomic spectra database, obtaining = 5.18 (σ = 0.08) or [Fe/H] = -2.32. Combining these two results, for HD 84937 we derive [Ti/Fe] = +0.47. This work has been supported by grants NSF AST-0908978 and AST-1211585 (CS), AST-1211055 (JEL), and AST-1004881 (REU at University of Wisconsin).

  18. Improved Cr II log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Nave, G.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Emrahoğlu, N.; Cowan, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    New emission branching fraction (BF) measurements for 183 lines of the second spectrum of chromium (Cr ii) and new radiative lifetime measurements from laser-induced fluorescence for 8 levels of Cr+ are reported. The goals of this study are to improve transition probability measurements in Cr ii and reconcile solar and stellar Cr abundance values based on Cr i and Cr ii lines. Eighteen spectra from three Fourier Transform Spectrometers supplemented with ultraviolet spectra from a high-resolution echelle spectrometer are used in the BF measurements. Radiative lifetimes from this study and earlier publications are used to convert the BFs into absolute transition probabilities. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Cr abundance log ε in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937. The mean result in the Sun is < {log}\\varepsilon ({Cr} {{II}})> = 5.624 ± 0.009 compared to < {log}\\varepsilon ({Cr} {{I}})> = 5.644 ± 0.006 on a scale with the hydrogen abundance log ε(H) = 12 and with the uncertainty representing only line-to-line scatter. A Saha (ionization balance) test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is also performed, yielding < {log}\\varepsilon ({Cr} {{II}})> = 3.417 ± 0.006 and 0 eV)> = 3.374 ± 0.011 for this dwarf star. We find a correlation of Cr with the iron-peak element Ti, suggesting an associated nucleosynthetic production. Four iron-peak elements (Cr along with Ti, V, and Sc) appear to have a similar (or correlated) production history—other iron-peak elements appear not to be associated with Cr.

  19. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  20. Measuring Close Binary Stars with Speckle Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Measuring Close Binary Stars with Speckle Interferometry Keith T. Knox Air Force Research Laboratory ABSTRACT Speckle interferometry...Labeyrie, 1970) is a well-tested and still used method for detecting and measuring binary stars that are closer together than the width of the...orientation of the binary star system (Horch, 1996, Tokovinin, 2010). In this talk, a method for analyzing the fringes in the power spectrum will be

  1. Mass transfer between binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. L.; Kondo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of mass from one component of a binary system to another by mass ejection is analyzed through a stellar wind mechanism, using a model which integrates the equations of motion, including the energy equation, with an initial static atmosphere and various temperature fluctuations imposed at the base of the star's corona. The model is applied to several situations and the energy flow is calculated along the line of centers between the two binary components, in the rotating frame of the system, thereby incorporating the centrifugal force. It is shown that relatively small disturbances in the lower chromosphere or photosphere can produce mass loss through a stellar wind mechanism, due to the amplification of the disturbance propagating into the thinner atmosphere. Since there are many possible sources of the disturbance, the model can be used to explain many mass ejection phenomena.

  2. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. I. Formation of the G-band in metal-poor dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Recent developments in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral synthesis code Linfor3D have meant that for the first time, large spectral wavelength regions, such as molecular bands, can be synthesised with it in a short amount of time. Aims: A detailed spectral analysis of the synthetic G-band for several dwarf turn-off-type 3D atmospheres (5850 ≲ Teff [ K ] ≲ 6550, 4.0 ≤ log g ≤ 4.5, - 3.0 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-1.0) was conducted, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We also examine carbon and oxygen molecule formation at various metallicity regimes and discuss the impact it has on the G-band. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, we describe the different behaviours between the 3D atmospheres and the traditional one-dimensional (1D) atmospheres and how the different physics involved inevitably leads to abundance corrections, which differ over varying metallicities. Spectra computed in 1D were fit to every 3D spectrum to determine the 3D abundance correction. Results: Early analysis revealed that the CH molecules that make up the G-band exhibited an oxygen abundance dependency; a higher oxygen abundance leads to weaker CH features. Nitrogen abundances showed zero impact to CH formation. The 3D corrections are also stronger at lower metallicity. Analysis of the 3D corrections to the G-band allows us to assign estimations of the 3D abundance correction to most dwarf stars presented in the literature. Conclusions: The 3D corrections suggest that A(C) in carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with high A(C) would remain unchanged, but would decrease in CEMP stars with lower A(C). It was found that the C/O ratio is an important parameter to the G-band in 3D. Additional testing confirmed that the C/O ratio is an equally important parameter for OH transitions under 3D. This presents a clear interrelation between the carbon and oxygen abundances in 3D atmospheres through their molecular species, which is not seen in 1D.

  3. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. V. Oxygen abundance in the metal-poor giant HD 122563 from OH UV lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakapavičius, D.; Kučinskas, A.; Dobrovolskas, V.; Klevas, J.; Steffen, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Spite, M.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of the early Galactic evolution, its abundance trends with metallicity are still relatively poorly known at [Fe/H] ≲ -2.5. This is in part due to a lack of reliable oxygen abundance indicators in the metal-poor stars, and in part due to shortcomings in 1D LTE abundance analyses where different abundance indicators, such as OH lines located in the UV and IR or the forbidden [O I] line at 630 nm, frequently provide inconsistent results. Aims: In this study, we determined the oxygen abundance in the metal-poor halo giant HD 122563 using a 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmosphere. Our main goal was to understand whether a 3D LTE analysis can help to improve the reliability of oxygen abundances that are determined from OH UV lines in comparison to those obtained using standard 1D LTE methodology. Methods: The oxygen abundance in HD 122563 was determined using 71 OH UV lines located in the wavelength range between 308-330 nm. The analysis was performed using a high-resolution VLT UVES spectrum with a 1D LTE spectral line synthesis performed using the SYNTHE package and classical ATLAS9 model atmosphere. Subsequently, a 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD and 1D hydrostatic LHD model atmospheres were used to compute 3D-1D abundance corrections. For this, the microturbulence velocity used with the 1D LHD model atmosphere was derived from the hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmosphere of HD 122563. The obtained abundance corrections were then applied to determine 3D LTE oxygen abundances from each individual OH UV line. Results: As in previous studies, we found trends in the 1D LTE oxygen abundances determined from OH UV lines with line parameters, such as the line excitation potential, χ, and the line equivalent width, W. These trends become significantly less pronounced in 3D LTE. Using OH UV lines, we determined a 3D LTE oxygen abundance in HD 122563 of A(O)3D LTE = 6.23 ± 0.13 ([O/Fe] = 0.07 ± 0.13). This is in fair agreement

  4. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. IV. Oxygen diagnostics in extremely metal-poor red giants with infrared OH lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. This is mainly because only a few spectral lines are available for the abundance diagnostics. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O i] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O i] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~ 0.3-0.4 dex. Aims: We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Our ultimate goal is to clarify whether a realistic treatment of convection with state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres may help to bring the oxygen abundances obtained using the two indicators into closer agreement. Methods: We used high-resolution (R = 50 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 200-600) spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH vibrational-rotational lines located in the spectral range of 1514-1548 and 1595-1632 nm were used to determine oxygen abundances by employing standard 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis methodology. We then corrected the 1D LTE abundances obtained from each individual OH line for the 3D hydrodynamical effects, which was done by applying 3D-1D LTE abundance corrections that were determined using 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD and 1D hydrostatic LHD model atmospheres. Results: We find that the influence of convection on the formation of [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of EMP giants

  5. Close binary neutron star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    1999-12-01

    We present a method to calculate solutions to the initial value problem in (3 + 1) general relativity corresponding to binary neutron-star systems (BNS) in irrotational quasi-equilibrium orbits. The initial value equations are solved using a conformally flat spatial metric tensor. The stellar fluid dynamics corresponds to that of systems with zero vorticity in the inertial reference frame. Irrotational systems like the ones analyzed in the present work are likely to resemble the final stages of the evolution of neutron-star binaries, thus providing insights on the inspiral process. The fluid velocity is derived from the gradient of a scalar potential. A numerical program was developed to solve the elliptic equations for the metric fields and the fluid velocity potential. We discuss the different numerical techniques employed to achieve high resolution across the stellar volume, as well as the methods used to find solutions to the Poisson-like equations with their corresponding boundary conditions. We present sequences of quasi-stable circular orbits which conserve baryonic mass. These sequences mimic the time evolution of the inspiral and are obtained without solving the complex evolution equations. They also provide sets of initial value data for future time evolution codes, which should be valid very close to the final merger. We evaluate the emission of gravitational radiation during the evolution through multipole expansions methods.

  6. Visual binary stars: data to investigate formation of binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva,, D.; Malkov,, O.; Yungelson, L.; Chulkov, D.

    Statistics of orbital parameters of binary stars as well as statistics of their physical characteristics bear traces of star formation history. However, statistical investigations of binaries are complicated by incomplete or missing observational data and by a number of observational selection effects. Visual binaries are the most common type of observed binary stars, with the number of pairs exceeding 130 000. The most complete list of presently known visual binary stars was compiled by cross-matching objects and combining data of the three largest catalogues of visual binaries. This list was supplemented by the data on parallaxes, multicolor photometry, and spectral characteristics taken from other catalogues. This allowed us to compensate partly for the lack of observational data for these objects. The combined data allowed us to check the validity of observational values and to investigate statistics of the orbital and physical parameters of visual binaries. Corrections for incompleteness of observational data are discussed. The datasets obtained, together with modern distributions of binary parameters, will be used to reconstruct the initial distributions and parameters of the function of star formation for binary systems.

  7. Improved Cr II log(gf)s and Cr Abundances in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Chris; Nave, Gillian; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Emrahoglu, Nuri; Cowan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    New laser induced fluorescence (LIF) data for eight levels of singly ionized chromium (Cr) and emission branching fraction (BF) measurements for 183 lines of the second spectrum of chromium (Cr II) are reported. A goal of this study is to reconcile Solar and stellar Cr abundance values based on Cr I and Cr II lines. Analyses of eighteen spectra from three Fourier Transform Spectrometers supplemented with ultraviolet spectra from a high resolution echelle spectrometer yield the BF measurements. Radiative lifetimes from LIF measurements are used to convert the BFs to absolute transition probabilities. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Cr abundance log eps in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937. The mean result in the Sun is = 5.624 ± 0.009 compared to = 5.644 ± 0.006 on a scale with the H abundance log eps(H) = 12. Similarily the photosphere of HD 84937 is found to be in Saha balance with = 3.417 ± 0.006 and 0 eV) > = 3.374 ± 0.011 for this dwarf star. The resonance (E.P. = 0 eV) lines of Cr I reveal overionization of the ground level of neutral Cr. We find a correlation of Cr with the iron-peak element Ti, suggesting an associated or related nucleosynthetic production. Four iron-peak elements (Cr along with Ti, V and Sc) appear to have a similar (or correlated) production history - other iron-peak elements appear not to be associated with Cr.This work is supported in part by NASA grant NNX16AE96G (J.E.L.), by NSF grant AST-1516182 (J.E.L. & E.D.H.), by NASA interagency agreement NNH10AN381 (G.N.), and NSF grant AST-1211585 (C.S.). Postdoctoral research support for N. E. is from the Technological and Scientific Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK).

  8. Terrestrial Planet Formation Around Close Binary Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2003-01-01

    Most stars reside in multiple star systems; however, virtually all models of planetary growth have assumed an isolated single star. Numerical simulations of the collapse of molecular cloud cores to form binary stars suggest that disks will form within such systems. Observations indirectly suggest disk material around one or both components within young binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such circumstellar disks, they can remain in stable orbits within the binary star systems for eons. We are simulating the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets around close binary stars, using a new, ultrafast, symplectic integrator that we have developed for this purpose. The sum of the masses of the two stars is one solar mass, and the initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and in the Alpha Centauri wide binary star system. Giant planets &are included in the simulations, as they are in most simulations of the late stages of terrestrial planet accumulation in our Solar System. When the stars travel on a circular orbit with semimajor axis of up to 0.1 AU about their mutual center of mass, the planetary embryos grow into a system of terrestrial planets that is statistically identical to those formed about single stars, but a larger semimajor axis and/or a significantly eccentric binary orbit can lead to significantly more dynamically hot terrestrial planet systems.

  9. Cool Star Binaries with ALEXIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    We proposed to search for high-temperature, flare-produced Fe XXIII line emission from active cool star binary systems using the ALEXIS all-sky survey. Previous X-ray transient searches with ARIEL V and HEAO-1, and subsequent shorter duration monitoring with the GINGA and EXOSAT satellites demonstrated that active binaries can produce large (EM approximately equals 10(exp 55-56/cu cm) X-ray flares lasting several hours or longer. Hot plasma from these flares at temperatures of 10(exp 7)K or more should produce Fe XXIII line emission at lambda = 132.8 A, very near the peak response of ALEXIS telescopes 1A and 2A. Our primary goals were to estimate flare frequency for the largest flares in the active binary systems, and, if the data permitted, to derive a distribution of flare energy vs. frequency for the sample as a whole. After a long delay due to the initial problems with the ALEXIS attitude control, the heroic efforts on the part of the ALEXIS satellite team enabled us to carry out this survey. However, the combination of the higher than expected and variable background in the ALEXIS detectors, and the lower throughput of the ALEXIS telescopes resulted in no convincing detections of large flares from the active binary systems. In addition, vignetting-corrected effective exposure times from the ALEXIS aspect solution were not available prior to the end of this contract; therefore, we were unable to convert upper limits measured in ALEXIS counts to the equivalent L(sub EUV).

  10. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Chambers, John; Duncan, Martin J.; Adams, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Most stars reside in multiple star systems; however, virtually all models of planetary growth have assumed an isolated single star. Numerical simulations of the collapse of molecular cloud cores to form binary stars suggest that disks will form within such systems. Observations indirectly suggest disk material around one or both components within young binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such circumstellar disks, they can remain in stable orbits within the binary star systems for eons. We are simulating the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets within binary star systems, using a new, ultrafast, symplectic integrator that we have developed for this purpose. We show that the late stages of terrestrial planet formation can indeed take place in a wide variety of binary systems and we have begun to delineate the range of parameter space for which this statement is true. Results of our initial simulations of planetary growth around each star in the alpha Centauri system and other 'wide' binary systems, as well as around both stars in very close binary systems, will be presented.

  11. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Lissauer, Jack J.

    More than half of all main sequence stars, and an even larger fraction of pre-main sequence stars, reside in binary or multiple systems (Duquennoy and Mayor 1991; Mathieu et al. 2000). The presence of planet-forming material has been indirectly observed around one or both components of some young binaries, and (Mathieu et al. 2000) numerical simulations of the formation of binary stars suggest that disks form within these systems, as well (Bodenheimer et al. 2000). Terrestrial planets and the cores of giant planets are thought to form by an accretion process within a disk of dust and gas (Safronov 1969; Lissauer 1993), and therefore may be common in binary star systems. In this chapter, we present the results from numerical simulations of the final stages of terrestrial planet formation around one or both stars of a binary.

  12. Gravitational waves from neutron star binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Hwan

    With H. A. Bethe, G. E. Brown worked on the merger rate of neutron star binaries for the gravitational wave detection. Their prediction has to be modified significantly due to the observations of 2M⊙ neutron stars and the detection of gravitational waves. There still, however, remains a possibility that neutron star-low mass black hole binaries are significant sources of gravitational waves for the ground-based detectors. In this paper, I review the evolution of neutron star binaries with super-Eddington accretion and discuss the future prospect.

  13. Improved Log(gf) Values for Lines of Ti I and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-Poor Star HD 84937 (Accurate Transition Probabilities for Ti I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Guzman, A.; Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2013-04-01

    New atomic transition probability measurements for 948 lines of Ti I are reported. Branching fractions from Fourier transform spectra and from spectra recorded using a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The new Ti I data are applied to re-determine the Ti abundance in the photospheres of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 using many lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential to explore possible non-local thermal equilibrium effects. The variation of relative Ti/Fe abundance with metallicity in metal-poor stars observed in earlier studies is supported in this study.

  14. IMPROVED log(gf) VALUES FOR LINES OF Ti I AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937 (ACCURATE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES FOR Ti I)

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Guzman, A.; Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: adrianaguzman2014@u.northwestern.edu E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2013-04-01

    New atomic transition probability measurements for 948 lines of Ti I are reported. Branching fractions from Fourier transform spectra and from spectra recorded using a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The new Ti I data are applied to re-determine the Ti abundance in the photospheres of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 using many lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential to explore possible non-local thermal equilibrium effects. The variation of relative Ti/Fe abundance with metallicity in metal-poor stars observed in earlier studies is supported in this study.

  15. Evolution and nucleosynthesis of extremely metal-poor and metal-free low- and intermediate-mass stars. I. Stellar yield tables and the CEMPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, S. W.; Lattanzio, J. C.

    2008-11-01

    Context: The growing body of spectral observations of the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Galactic Halo provides constraints on theoretical studies of the chemical and stellar evolution of the early Universe. Aims: To calculate yields for EMP stars for use in chemical evolution calculations and to test whether such models can account for some of the recent abundance observations of EMP stars, in particular the highly C-rich EMP (CEMP) halo stars. Methods: We modify an existing 1D stellar structure code to include time-dependent mixing in a diffusion approximation. Using this code and a post-processing nucleosynthesis code we calculate the structural evolution and nucleosynthesis of a grid of models covering the metallicity range: -6.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -3.0 (plus Z = 0), and mass range: 0.85 ≤ M ≤ 3.0 M_⊙, amounting to 20 stars in total. Results: Many of the models experience violent nuclear burning episodes not seen at higher metallicities. We refer to these events as “Dual Flashes” since they are characterised by nearly simultaneous peaks in both hydrogen and helium burning. These events have been reported by previous studies. Some of the material processed by the Dual Flashes is dredged up causing significant surface pollution with a distinct chemical composition. We have calculated the entire evolution of the Z=0 and EMP models, from the ZAMS to the end of the TPAGB, including extensive nucleosynthesis. In this paper, the first of a series describing and analysing this large data set, we present the resulting stellar yields. Although subject to many uncertainties these are, as far as we are aware, the only yields currently available in this mass and metallicity range. We also analyse the yields in terms of C and N, comparing them to the observed CEMP abundances. At the lowest metallicities ([Fe/H] ≲ -4.0) we find the yields to contain ~ 1 to 2 dex too much carbon, in agreement with all previous studies. At higher metallicities ([Fe/H] ~ -3

  16. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.

    PubMed

    Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R

    2014-01-01

    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  17. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.

    PubMed

    Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R

    2006-01-01

    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs) within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA). Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars - compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  18. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Adams, F. C.; Chambers, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around one or both components of various young close binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. We have simulated the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets in both circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations ($a_B$) in the range 0.05 AU $\\le a_B \\le$ 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities in the range $0 \\le e \\le 0.8$ and circumstellar disks around individual stars with binary separations of tens of AU. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and around individual stars in the Alpha Centauri system (Quintana et al. 2002, A.J., 576, 982); giant planets analogous to Jupiter and Saturn are included if their orbits are stable. The planetary systems formed around close binaries with stellar apastron distances less than or equal to 0.2 AU with small stellar eccentricities are very similar to those formed in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn, whereas planetary systems formed around binaries with larger maximum separations tend to be sparser, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. Likewise, when the binary periastron exceeds 10 AU, terrestrial planets can form over essentially the entire range of orbits allowed for single stars with Jupiter-like planets, although fewer terrestrial planets tend to form within high eccentricity binary systems. As the binary periastron decreases, the radial extent of the terrestrial planet systems is reduced accordingly. When the periastron is 5 AU, the formation of Earth-like planets near 1 AU is compromised.

  19. VVV SURVEY NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF KNOWN BULGE RR LYRAE STARS: THE DISTANCE TO THE GALACTIC CENTER AND ABSENCE OF A BARRED DISTRIBUTION OF THE METAL-POOR POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dékány, I.; Minniti, D.; Catelan, M.; Zoccali, M.; Hempel, M.; Saito, R. K.

    2013-10-20

    We have combined optical and near-infrared data of known RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the bulge in order to study the spatial distribution of its metal-poor component by measuring precise reddening values and distances of 7663 fundamental-mode RRL stars with high-quality photometry. We obtain a distance to the Galactic center of R {sub 0} = 8.33 ± 0.05 ± 0.14 kpc. We find that the spatial distribution of the RRL stars differs from the structures traced by the predominantly metal-rich red clump (RC) stars. Unlike the RC stars, the RRL stars do not trace a strong bar, but have a more spheroidal, centrally concentrated distribution, showing only a slight elongation in its very center. We find a hint of bimodality in the density distribution at high southern latitudes (b < –5°), which needs to be confirmed by extending the areal coverage of the current census. The different spatial distributions of the metal-rich and metal-poor stellar populations suggest that the Milky Way has a composite bulge.

  20. Periodicity of Eclipsing Binary Star GK Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Eclipsing Binary stars are stars in which there is some mass exchange taking place between two main bodies. This mass exchange produces a change in the magnitude or “brightness” of the star. The star known as GK Cephius has been listed as an eclipsing binary in number of publications, journal articles, and data tables. If the light curve is examined carefully, it exhibits some behavior that is not typical of simple eclipsing binary stars. A study of this light curve is underway to examine the possibility of another gravitational influence being at work in the region of this star. In this paper we will report on the predictions concerning an additional candidate that may be influencing the light curves of the GK Cephius system.

  1. Population studies. XIII. A new analysis of the Bidelman-Macconnell 'weak-metal' stars - confirmation of metal-poor stars in the thick disk of the galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, Timothy C.; Norris, John E.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Lee, Young Sun; Rossi, Silvia; Carollo, Daniela; Masseron, Thomas E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: youngsun@cnu.ac.kr E-mail: daniela.carollo@mq.edu.au

    2014-10-10

    A new set of very high signal-to-noise (S/N > 100/1), medium-resolution (R ∼ 3000) optical spectra have been obtained for 302 of the candidate 'weak-metal' stars selected by Bidelman and MacConnell. We use these data to calibrate the recently developed generalization of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Exploration and Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Stellar Parameter Pipeline, and obtain estimates of the atmospheric parameters (T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H]) for these non-Sloan Digital Sky Survey/SEGUE data; we also obtain estimates of [C/Fe]. The new abundance measurements are shown to be consistent with available high-resolution spectroscopic determinations, and represent a substantial improvement over the accuracies obtained from the previous photometric estimates reported in Paper I of this series. The apparent offset in the photometric abundances of the giants in this sample noted by several authors is confirmed by our new spectroscopy; no such effect is found for the dwarfs. The presence of a metal-weak thick-disk (MWTD) population is clearly supported by these new abundance data. Some 25% of the stars with metallicities –1.8 < [Fe/H] ≤–0.8 exhibit orbital eccentricities e < 0.4, yet are clearly separated from members of the inner-halo population with similar metallicities by their location in a Lindblad energy versus angular momentum diagram. A comparison is made with recent results for a similar-size sample of Radial Velocity Experiment stars from Ruchti et al. We conclude, based on both of these samples, that the MWTD is real, and must be accounted for in discussions of the formation and evolution of the disk system of the Milky Way.

  2. Numerical Relativity Simulations of Black Holes Binaries, Neutron Star Binaries, and Neutron Star Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosofsky, Shawn; Gold, Roman; Chirenti, Cecilia; Miller, Cole

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of numerical relativity simulations, using the Einstein Toolkit, of black hole binaries, neutron star binaries, and neutron star oscillations. The black hole binary simulations represent the source of LIGO's first gravitational wave detection, GW150914. We compare the gravitational wave output of this simulation with the LIGO data LIGO on GW150914. The neutron star binaries we simulated have different mass ratios and equations of state. These simulations were compared with each other to illustrate the effect of different mass ratios and equations of state on binary evolution and gravitational wave emission. To perform the neutron star oscillation simulations, we applied pressure and density perturbations to the star using specific eigenmodes. These evolutions of the stars were then compared to the expected oscillation frequencies of those excited eigemodes and contrasted with simulations of unperturbed neutron stars.

  3. Recent Minima of 171 Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samolyk, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper continues the publication of times of minima for 171 eclipsing binary stars from observations reported to the AAVSO EB section. Times of minima from observations received by the author from March 2015 thru October 2015 are presented.

  4. Terrestrial planet formation surrounding close binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-11-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around both components of some young close binary star systems. Additionally, it has been shown that if planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. Herein, we numerically simulate the late stages of terrestrial planet growth in circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations 0.05 AU⩽a⩽0.4 AU and binary eccentricities 0⩽e⩽0.8. In each simulation, the sum of the masses of the two stars is 1 M, and giant planets are included. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet formation within our Solar System by Chambers [Chambers, J.E., 2001. Icarus 152, 205-224], and around each individual component of the α Centauri AB binary star system by Quintana et al. [Quintana, E.V., Lissauer, J.J., Chambers, J.E., Duncan, M.J., 2002. Astrophys. J. 576, 982-996]. Multiple simulations are performed for each binary star system under study, and our results are statistically compared to a set of planet formation simulations in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn system that begin with essentially the same initial disk of protoplanets. The planetary systems formed around binaries with apastron distances Q≡a(1+e)≲0.2 AU are very similar to those around single stars, whereas those with larger maximum separations tend to be sparcer, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. We also provide formulae that can be used to scale results of planetary accretion simulations to various systems with different total stellar mass, disk sizes, and planetesimal masses and densities.

  5. Eclipsing Binary B-Star Mass Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Amanda; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    B-stars in binary pairs provide a laboratory for key astrophysical measurements of massive stars, including key insights for the formation of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes). In their paper, Martayan et al (2004) find 23 Be binary star pairs in NGC2004 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, five of which are both eclipsing and spectroscopic binaries with archival data from VLT-Giraffe and photometric data from MACHO. By using the Wilson eclipsing binary code (e.g., Wilson, 1971), we can determine preliminary stellar masses of the binary components. We present the first results from this analysis. This study also serves as proof-of-concept for future observations with the Photonic Synthesis Telescope Array (Eikenberry et al., in prep) that we are currently building for low-cost, precision spectroscopic observations. With higher resolution and dedicated time for observations, we can follow-up observations of these Be stars as well as Be/X-ray binaries, for improved mass measurements of neutron stars and black holes and better constraints on their origin/formation.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Coalescing binary neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1999-06-01

    Coalescing compact binaries with neutron star or black hole components provide the most promising sources of gravitational radiation for detection by the LIGO/VIRGO/GEO/TAMA laser interferometers now under construction. This fact has motivated several different theoretical studies of the inspiral and hydrodynamic merging of compact binaries. Analytic analyses of the inspiral waveforms have been performed in the post-Newtonian approximation. Analytic and numerical treatments of the coalescence waveforms from binary neutron stars have been performed using Newtonian hydrodynamics and the quadrupole radiation approximation. Numerical simulations of coalescing black hole and neutron star binaries are also underway in full general relativity. Recent results from each of these approaches will be described and their virtues and limitations summarized.

  7. Binaries among AP and AM stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, P.; Ginestet, N.; Carquillat, J.-M.; Carrier, F.; Udry, S.

    1998-04-01

    The results of long-term surveys of radial velocities of cool Ap and Am stars are presented. There are two samples, one of about 100 Ap stars and the other of 86 Am stars. Both have been observed with the CORAVEL scanner from Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France. The conspicuous lack of short-period binaries among cool Ap stars seems confirmed, although this may be the result of an observational bias; one system has a period as short as 1.6 days. A dozen new orbits could be determined, including that of one SB2 system. Considering the mass functions of 68 binaries from the literature and from our work, we conclude that the distribution of the mass ratios is the same for the Bp-Ap stars than for normal G dwarfs. Among the Am stars, we found 52 binaries, i.e. 60%; an orbit could be computed for 29 of them. Among these 29, there are 7 SB2 systems, one triple and one quadruple system. The 21 stars with an apparently constant radial velocity may show up later as long-period binaries with a high eccentricity. The mass functions of the SB1 systems are compatible with cool main-sequence companions, also suggested by ongoing spectral observations.

  8. Radio Emission from Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjellming, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Stellar radio emission is most common in double star systems where each star provides something essential in producing the large amounts of radio radiation needed for it to be detectable by RADIO TELESCOPES. They transfer mass, supply energy or, when one of the stars is a NEUTRON STAR or BLACK HOLE, have the strong gravitational fields needed for the energetic particles and magnetic fields needed...

  9. Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rebecca

    About half of observed exoplanets are estimated to be in binary systems. Understanding planet formation and evolution in binaries is therefore essential for explaining observed exoplanet properties. Recently, we discovered that a highly misaligned circumstellar disk in a binary system can undergo global Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations of the disk inclination and eccentricity. These oscillations likely have a significant impact on the formation and orbital evolution of planets in binary star systems. Planet formation by core accretion cannot operate during KL oscillations of the disk. First, we propose to consider the process of disk mass transfer between the binary members. Secondly, we will investigate the possibility of planet formation by disk fragmentation. Disk self gravity can weaken or suppress the oscillations during the early disk evolution when the disk mass is relatively high for a narrow range of parameters. Thirdly, we will investigate the evolution of a planet whose orbit is initially aligned with respect to the disk, but misaligned with respect to the orbit of the binary. We will study how these processes relate to observations of star-spin and planet orbit misalignment and to observations of planets that appear to be undergoing KL oscillations. Finally, we will analyze the evolution of misaligned multi-planet systems. This theoretical work will involve a combination of analytic and numerical techniques. The aim of this research is to shed some light on the formation of planets in binary star systems and to contribute to NASA's goal of understanding of the origins of exoplanetary systems.

  10. Kepler as a Binary Star Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Stefano, Rosanne

    2010-12-01

    The Kepler observatory was designed to discover transits by Earth-like planets orbiting Sun-like stars. Its first major discoveries, however, are hot objects in close orbits around main-sequence stars. These are likely to be white-dwarf remnants of stars that have transferred mass to the present-day main sequence stars. These particular main-sequence stars are among the Kepler targets because they are bright. The question is: how many of the other Kepler target stars are also orbited by white dwarfs? We have shown that several hundred white dwarfs are likely to transit the Kepler target stars during the mission. In some cases, the signature will be dominated by gravitational lensing, producing distinctive ``antitransits''. Neutron stars and black holes may also be discovered this way. The lensing signature provides a measurement of the gravitational mass of the compact object. Through the discovery of both transits and antitransits caused by white dwarfs, Kepler will discover and study binaries that have already experienced a phase of mass transfer or a common envelope phase. Thus, Kepler will become a premier tool for the study of interacting binaries. During the next phase of interaction, some of the Kepler binaries may become nuclear-burning white dwarfs, and may be candidates for Type Ia supernovae or accretion-induced collapse.

  11. Exploring the Birth of Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    More than half of all stars are thought to be in binary or multiple star systems. But how do these systems form? The misaligned spins of some binary protostars might provide a clue.Two Formation ModelsIts hard to tell how multiple-star systems form, since these systems are difficult to observe in their early stages. But based on numerical simulations, there are two proposed models for the formation of stellar binaries:Turbulent fragmentationTurbulence within a single core leads to multiple dense clumps. These clumps independently collapse to form stars that orbit each other.Disk fragmentationGravitational instabilities in a massive accretion disk cause the formation of a smaller, secondary disk within the first, resulting in two stars that orbit each other.Log column density for one of the authors simulated binary systems, just after the formation of two protostars. Diamonds indicate the protostar positions. [Adapted from Offner et al. 2016]Outflows as CluesHow can we differentiate between these formation mechanisms? Led by Stella Offner (University of Massachusetts), a team of scientists has suggested that the key isto examine the alignment of the stars protostellar outflows jets that are often emitted from the poles of young, newly forming stars.Naively, wed expect that disk fragmentation would produce binary stars with common angular momentum. As the stars spins would be aligned, they would therefore also launch protostellar jets that were aligned with each other. Turbulent fragmentation, on the other hand, would cause the stars to have independent angular momentum. This would lead to randomly oriented spins, so the protostellar jets would be misaligned.Snapshots from the authors simulations. Left panel of each pair: column density; green arrows giveprotostellar spin directions. Right panel: synthetic observations produced from the simulations; cyan arrows giveprotostellar outflow directions. [Offner et al. 2016]Simulations of FragmentationIn order to better

  12. Last orbits of binary strange quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Limousin, Francois; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Gondek-Rosinska, Dorota

    2005-03-15

    We present the first relativistic calculations of the final phase of inspiral of a binary system consisting of two stars built predominantly of strange quark matter (strange quark stars). We study the precoalescing stage within the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews approximation of general relativity using a multidomain spectral method. A hydrodynamical treatment is performed under the assumption that the flow is either rigidly rotating or irrotational, taking into account the finite density at the stellar surface--a distinctive feature with respect to the neutron star case. The gravitational-radiation driven evolution of the binary system is approximated by a sequence of quasiequilibrium configurations at fixed baryon number and decreasing separation. We find that the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) is given by an orbital instability both for synchronized and irrotational systems. This contrasts with neutron stars for which the ISCO is given by the mass-shedding limit in the irrotational case. The gravitational wave frequency at the ISCO, which marks the end of the inspiral phase, is found to be {approx}1400 Hz for two irrotational 1.35 M{sub {center_dot}} strange stars and for the MIT bag model of strange matter with massless quarks and a bag constant B=60 MeV fm{sup -3}. Detailed comparisons with binary neutrons star models, as well as with third order post-Newtonian point-mass binaries are given.

  13. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Geller, Aaron M.; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Binary mass transfer (MT) is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including SNe Ia, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this timescale to the mean time for stable MT to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing MT that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster properties. We find that for lower-mass clusters (≲ {10}4 {M}⊙ ), on the order of a few to a few tens of percent of binaries undergoing MT are expected to be interrupted by an interloping single, or more often binary, star, over the course of the cluster lifetime, whereas in more massive globular clusters we expect \\ll 1% to be interrupted. Furthermore, using numerical scattering experiments performed with the FEWBODY code, we show that the probability of interruption increases if perturbative fly-bys are considered as well, by a factor ˜2.

  14. Binary star database: binaries discovered in non-optical bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg Yu.; Tessema, Solomon B.; Kniazev, Alexei Yu.

    The Binary star Database (BDB) is the world's principal database of binary and multiple systems of all observational types. In particular, it should contain data on binaries discovered in non-optical bands, X-ray binaries (XRBs) and radio pulsars in binaries. The goal of the present study was to compile complete lists of such objects. Due to the lack of a unified identification system for XRBs, we had to select them from five principal catalogues of X-ray sources. After cross-identification and positional cross-matching, a general catalogue of 373 XRBs was constructed for the first time. It contains coordinates, indication of photometric and spectroscopic binarity, and extensive cross-identification. In the preparation of the catalogue, a number of XRB classification disagreements were resolved, some catalogued identifiers and coordinates were corrected, and duplicated entries in the original catalogues were found. We have also compiled a general list of 239 radio pulsars in binary systems. The list is supplied with indication of photometric, spectroscopic or X-ray binarity, and with cross-identification data.

  15. Circumgalactic gas absorption in extremely metal-poor dwarf dalaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filho, M. E.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz Tuñón, C.

    2017-03-01

    Accretion of metal-poor gas via cold accretion flows has been recently proposed as a means to trigger/sustain star formation in extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs), a scenario in agreement with theoretical predictions. We report on the tentative detection of CaII absorption used to trace the conditions of the gas clouds in the halo of the XMP UGCA 20.

  16. Division G Commission 42: Close Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Pribulla, Theodor; Ribas, Ignasi; Bradstreet, David H.; Dreschsel, Horst; Maceroni, Carla; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Munari, Ulisse; Prsa, Andrej; Scharfe, Colin; Southworth, John; Trimble, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Commission 42 began life as Photometric Double Stars in 1948 at the 7th General Assembly in Zurich, under the presidency of Zdenek Kopal. As early as 1961, then General Secretary Lukas Plaut recommended a merger between C42 and C26, Double Stars, one of the original 32 commissions going back to 1919-22 (first president Aitken, assistant director at Lick). C42 became Close Binary Stars in 1970, at the 14th GA in Brighton (the first one I attended). Table 1 shows the presidents of C42, and vice presidents, from when the office started, through the history of the Commission.

  17. Massive binary stars as a probe of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.

    2010-10-01

    Massive stars are among the largest and most influential objects we know of on a sub-galactic scale. Binary systems, composed of at least one of these stars, may be responsible for several types of phenomena, including type Ib/c supernovae, short and long gamma ray bursts, high-velocity runaway O and B-type stars, and the density of the parent star clusters. Our understanding of these stars has met with limited success, especially in the area of their formation. Current formation theories rely on the accumulated statistics of massive binary systems that are limited because of their sample size or the inhomogeneous environments from which the statistics are collected. The purpose of this work is to provide a higher-level analysis of close massive binary characteristics using the radial velocity information of 113 massive stars (B3 and earlier) and binary orbital properties for the 19 known close massive binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association. This work provides an analysis using the largest amount of massive star and binary information ever compiled for an O-star rich cluster like Cygnus OB2, and compliments other O-star binary studies such as NGC 6231, NGC 2244, and NGC 6611. I first report the discovery of 73 new O or B-type stars and 13 new massive binaries by this survey. This work involved the use of 75 successful nights of spectroscopic observation at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory in addition to observations obtained using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph at WIYN, the HIRES echelle spectrograph at KECK, and the Hamilton spectrograph at LICK. I use these data to estimate the spectrophotometric distance to the cluster and to measure the mean systemic velocity and the one-sided velocity dispersion of the cluster. Finally, I compare these data to a series of Monte Carlo models, the results of which indicate that the binary fraction of the cluster is 57 +/- 5% and that the indices for the power law distributions, describing the log of the periods, mass

  18. Tidal resonances in binary star systems. II - Slowly rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. E.

    1988-12-01

    The potential energy of tidal interactions in a binary system with rotating components is formulated as a perturbation Hamiltonian which self-consistently couples the dynamics of the rotating stars' oscillations and orbital motion. The action-angle formalism used to discuss tidal resonances in the nonrotating case (Alexander, 1987) is extended to rotating stars. The behavior of a two-mode system and the procedure for treating an arbitrary number of modes are discussed.

  19. Stellivore extraterrestrials? Binary stars as living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Clément

    2016-11-01

    We lack signs of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) despite decades of observation in the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Could evidence be buried in existing data? To recognize ETI, we first propose criteria discerning life from non-life based on thermodynamics and living systems theory. Then we extrapolate civilizational development to both external and internal growth. Taken together, these two trends lead to an argument that some existing binary stars might actually be ETI. Since these hypothetical beings feed actively on stars, we call them "stellivores". I present an independent thermodynamic argument for their existence, with a metabolic interpretation of interacting binary stars. The jury is still out, but the hypothesis is empirically testable with existing astrophysical data.

  20. Observational Investigations on Contact Binaries in Multiple-star Systems and Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.

    2013-01-01

    ER Cep is three times larger than that of the star at the turn-off point of the cluster's main-sequence, suggesting that ER Cep is at least a triple system. There is weak evidence showing that the system has another small cyclic oscillation with a period of 17.6 years. If this is true, ER Cep is likely to be a quadruple system. It is not surprise that such system can be found in an old open cluster like NGC 188. The periodic long-term increase of EQ Cep may be caused by mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. As the mass ratio decreases, the system will evolve into a blue straggler. This conclusion is supported by the fact that 76% of the blue stragglers in NGC 188 are currently in binary systems. The values of the acceleration of gravity on the surface of V371 Cep reveal that this system is composed of two post main-sequence stars. It is the first example whose components are post main-sequence stars. Because of the short evolutionary time scale for the subgiants, V371 Cep is a rare object which will demonstrate a picture of a contact binary at the end of its evolution stage. (4) The contact binary QX And in the moderate-age open cluster NGC 752 has a very strong magnetic activity, with a period of about 2 years. (5) The contact binary V47 in the globular cluster M4 has an extreme mass ratio and a moderate contact factor. The mass ratio is the smallest one in this thesis. However, V53, which is also in the M4, is a system with a large mass ratio and a deep contact factor. It is meanwhile a blue straggler, which is a good target for the study of the merging binaries. (6) The contact binary V95 in the globular cluster 47 Tuc has an extreme mass ratio and a deep contact factor. The most interesting thing is that V95 shows strong magnetic activity in a metal poor cluster. (7) Through analyzing the data of the ASAS survey, we find that the distribution of the detached and semi-detached binaries tend to be located in the galactic plane

  1. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE VERY METAL-POOR BLUE COMPACT DWARF I Zw 18 FROM HST/ACS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Annibali, F.; Cignoni, M.; Tosi, M.; Clementini, G.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Fiorentino, G.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.

    2013-12-01

    We have derived the star formation history (SFH) of the blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 through comparison of deep HST/ACS data with synthetic color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). A statistical analysis was implemented for the identification of the best-fit SFH and relative uncertainties. We confirm that I Zw 18 is not a truly young galaxy, having started forming stars earlier than ∼1 Gyr ago, and possibly at epochs as old as a Hubble time. In I Zw 18's main body we infer a lower limit of ≈2 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} for the mass locked up in old stars. I Zw 18's main body has been forming stars very actively during the last ∼10 Myr, with an average star formation rate (SFR) as high as ≈1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (or ≈2 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} pc{sup –2}). On the other hand, the secondary body was much less active at these epochs, in agreement with the absence of significant nebular emission. The high current SFR can explain the very blue colors and the high ionized gas content in I Zw 18, resembling primeval galaxies in the early universe. Detailed chemical evolution models are required to quantitatively check whether the SFH from the synthetic CMDs can explain the low measured element abundances, or if galactic winds with loss of metals are needed.

  2. Rotating and Binary Stars in General Relativit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Stuart

    The inspiral and coalescence of compact binary stars is one of the most challenging problems in theoretical astrophysics. Only recently have advances in numerical relativity made it possible to explore this topic in full general relativity (GR). The mergers of compact binaries have important consequences for the detection of gravitational waves. In addition, the coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSNSs) and binary black-hole neutron stars (BHNSs) may hold the key for resolving other astrophysical puzzles, such as the origin of short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). While simulations of these systems in full GR are now possible, only the most idealized treatments have been performed to date. More detailed physics, including magnetic fields, black hole spin, a realistic hot, nuclear equation of state and neutrino transport must be incorporated. Only then will we be able to identify reliably future sources that may be detected simultaneously in gravitational waves and as GRBs. Likewise, the coalescence of binary black holes (BHBHs) is now a solved problem in GR, but only in vacuum. Simulating the coalescence of BHBHs in the gaseous environments likely to be found in nearby galaxy cores or in merging galaxies is crucial to identifying an electromagnetic signal that might accompany the gravitational waves produced during the merger. The coalescence of a binary white dwarf-neutron star (WDNS) has only recently been treated in GR, but GR is necessary to explore tidal disruption scenarios in which the capture of WD debris by the NS may lead to catastrophic collapse. Alternatively, the NS may survive and the merger might result in the formation of pulsar planets. The stability of rotating neutron stars in these and other systems has not been fully explored in GR, and the final fate of unstable stars has not been determined in many cases, especially in the presence of magnetic fields and differential rotation. These systems will be probed observationally by current NASA

  3. The impact of IUE on binary star studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of IUE observations in the investigation of binary stars is discussed. The results of data analysis of several classes of binary systems are briefly reviewed including zeta Aurigae and VV Cephei stars, mu Sagittarii, epsilon Aurigae, beta Lyrae and the W Serpentis stars, symbiotic stars, and the Algols.

  4. Fission: A Mechanism for Forming Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohline, J. E.; Cazes, J. E.

    2000-05-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible for short period binary star systems to form from a single, rapidly rotating, equilibrium protostellar gas cloud via a natural fission process. This is analogous to the process by which rapidly spinning drops of fluid have been observed to break in two during drop dynamics experiments onboard the space shuttle. In order to demonstrate that fission works in the context of binary star formation, we have used a three-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics technique to, first, construct a rapidly rotating, self-gravitating, equilibrium barlike structure that, by all accounts, appears to be a compressible analog of an incompressible Riemann ellipsoid. Then by slowly cooling this configuration and following its cooling evolution in a fully self-consistent fashion, we have demonstrated that the system contracts along an ellipsoid-dumbbell-binary sequence. Although the hypothesis that binary stars may form via a process of fission has been around for more than 100 years, it has been a difficult hypothesis to test because of the nonlinear dynamical processes involved. This is the first demonstration that fission works in the context of realistic protostellar gas clouds. This work has been supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through grant AST-9528424, by NASA through grant NAG5-8497, and by a grant of high-performance-computing time through NPACI on machines at the San Diego Supercomputing Center.

  5. Simulations of binary neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Kenta

    2017-01-01

    The merger of a binary composed of a neutron star and/or a black hole is one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves. If we detected gravitational waves from them, it could tell us a validity of the general relativity in a strong gravitational field and the equation of state of neutron star matter. Furthermore, if gravitational waves from a compact binary merger and a short-hard gamma-ray burst are observed simultaneously, a long-standing puzzle on the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts could be resolved. In addition, compact binary mergers are a theoretical candidate of the rapid process nucleosynthesis site. Motivated by these facts, it is mandatory to build a physically reliable model of compact binary mergers and numerical relativity is a unique approach for this purpose. We are tackling this problem from several directions; the magneto-hydrodynamics, the neutrino radiation transfer, and a comprehensive study with simplified models. I will talk a current status of Kyoto Numerical Relativity group and future prospect on the compact binary mergers.

  6. Transit Timing Variations In Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansone, Eric; Haghighipour, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the effect of a stellar companion on the transit timing variations (TTV) of a planetary system. The purpose of our study is to determine the ranges of the orbital elements of a secondary star for which the amplitude of a currently existing TTV is enhanced. We chose the system of Kepler 9 as this system represents the first planetary system detected by the transit timing variation method, and studied its TTVs by considering a hypothetical secondary star in this system. By varying the mass, semi-major axis, and eccentricity of the fictitious binary companion, we tested the stability of the known planets Kepler-9c and Kepler-9b and identified the region of the parameter-space for which the binary planetary system would be stable. We calculated TTVs for the two planets of the system for different values of the orbital elements of the secondary star and calculated its difference with the system's already existing TTVs. Results of our study indicate that the effect of the binary companion is significant only when the secondary star is in a highly eccentric orbit and/or the planets of the system are within the range of Super-Earth or terrestrial sizes. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation in the form of a Research Experience for Undergraduates program at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

  7. On the formation of Be stars through binary interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2014-11-20

    Be stars are rapidly rotating B-type stars. The origin of their rapid rotation is not certain, but binary interaction remains as a possibility. In this work, we investigate the formation of Be stars resulting from mass transfer in binaries in the Galaxy. We calculate binary evolution with both stars evolving simultaneously and consider different possible mass accretion histories for the accretor. From the calculated results, we obtain the critical mass ratios q {sub cr} that determine the stability of the mass transfer. We also numerically calculate the parameter λ in common envelope evolution and then incorporate both q {sub cr} and λ into the population synthesis calculations. We present the predicted numbers and characteristics of Be stars in binary systems with different types of companions, including helium stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. We find that in Be/neutron star binaries, the Be stars can have a lower mass limit ∼8 M {sub ☉} if they are formed by stable (i.e., without the occurrence of common envelope evolution) and nonconservative mass transfer. We demonstrate that isolated Be stars may originate from both mergers of two main-sequence stars and disrupted Be binaries during the supernova explosions of the primary stars, but mergers seem to play a much more important role. Finally, the fraction of Be stars that have involved binary interactions in all B-type stars can be as high as ∼13%-30%, implying that most Be stars may result from binary interaction.

  8. Binary stars: Mass transfer and chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that mass exchange (and mass loss) within a binary system should produce observable changes in the surface chemical composition of both the mass losing and mass gaining stars as a stellar interior exposed to nucleosyntheses is uncovered. Three topics relating mass exchange and/or mass loss to nucleosynthesis are sketched: the chemical composition of Algol systems; the accretion disk of a cataclysmic variable fed by mass from a dwarf secondary star; and the hypothesis that classical Ba II giants result from mass transfer from a more evolved companion now present as a white dwarf.

  9. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars.

    PubMed

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Gosset, E; Izzard, R G; Le Bouquin, J-B; Schneider, F R N

    2012-07-27

    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. More than 70% of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one-third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae.

  10. The temperatures of very metal-poor subdwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of ages for metal poor globular cluster stars using the relationship between stellar effective temperature and color, in order to transform isochrones from the L, Teff plane to the M(V), color plane is described. Estimates of the effective temperatures of metal-poor field subdwarfs deduced from the ratios of the integrated fluxes to the 12000 A fluxes of the 4 subdwarfs are in good agreement with published results. The stars are fainter than the models in the infrared, but the UV fluxes are in good agreement with model predictions.

  11. B-type stars in eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Milena; Pigulski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    B-type stars in eclipsing binary systems are unique astrophysical tools to test several aspects of stellar evolution. Such objects can be used e.g. to determine the masses of Beta Cephei variable stars, as well as help to place tighter constraints on the value of the convective core overshooting parameter α. Both precise photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy with high SNR are required to achieve these goals, but since many of the targets are bright enough, the challenge is fair. Following this assumption, we shall explain how we plan to examine both the aforementioned aspects of stellar evolution using observations of B-type stars obtained with a wide range of spectrographs, as well as BRITE-Constellation satellites.

  12. HAT-P-24b: An Inflated Hot Jupiter on a 3.36 Day Period Transiting a Hot, Metal-poor Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, D. M.; Bakos, G. Á.; Hartman, J.; Torres, G.; Shporer, A.; Latham, D. W.; Kovács, Géza; Noyes, R. W.; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Béky, B.; Perumpilly, G.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2010-12-01

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-24b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V = 11.818 F8 dwarf star GSC 0774-01441, with a period P = 3.3552464 ± 0.0000071 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455216.97669 ± 0.00024 (BJD)11, and transit duration 3.653 ± 0.025 hr. The host star has a mass of 1.191 ± 0.042 M sun, radius of 1.317 ± 0.068 R sun, effective temperature 6373 ± 80 K, and a low metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.16 ± 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.681 ± 0.031 M J and radius of 1.243 ± 0.072 R J yielding a mean density of 0.439 ± 0.069 g cm-3. By repeating our global fits with different parameter sets, we have performed a critical investigation of the fitting techniques used for previous Hungarian-made Automated Telescope planetary discoveries. We find that the system properties are robust against the choice of priors. The effects of fixed versus fitted limb darkening are also examined. HAT-P-24b probably maintains a small eccentricity of e = 0.052+0.022 -0.017, which is accepted over the circular orbit model with false alarm probability 5.8%. In the absence of eccentricity pumping, this result suggests that HAT-P-24b experiences less tidal dissipation than Jupiter. Due to relatively rapid stellar rotation, we estimate that HAT-P-24b should exhibit one of the largest known Rossiter-McLaughlin effect amplitudes for an exoplanet (ΔV RM ~= 95 m s-1) and thus a precise measurement of the sky-projected spin-orbit alignment should be possible. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NOAO and NASA.

  13. Stellar and Binary Evolution in Star Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Stephen L. W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a final report on research activities covered on Stellar and Binary Evolution in Star Clusters. Substantial progress was made in the development and dissemination of the "Starlab" software environment. Significant improvements were made to "kira," an N-body simulation program tailored to the study of dense stellar systems such as star clusters and galactic nuclei. Key advances include (1) the inclusion of stellar and binary evolution in a self-consistent manner, (2) proper treatment of the anisotropic Galactic tidal field, (3) numerous technical enhancements in the treatment of binary dynamics and interactions, and (4) full support for the special-purpose GRAPE-4 hardware, boosting the program's performance by a factor of 10-100 over the accelerated version. The data-reduction and analysis tools in Starlab were also substantially expanded. A Starlab Web site (http://www.sns.ias.edu/-starlab) was created and developed. The site contains detailed information on the structure and function of the various tools that comprise the package, as well as download information, "how to" tips and examples of common operations, demonstration programs, animations, etc. All versions of the software are freely distributed to all interested users, along with detailed installation instructions.

  14. Numerical relativity simulations of binary neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierfelder, Marcus; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brügmann, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    We present a new numerical relativity code designed for simulations of compact binaries involving matter. The code is an upgrade of the BAM code to include general relativistic hydrodynamics and implements state-of-the-art high-resolution-shock-capturing schemes on a hierarchy of mesh refined Cartesian grids with moving boxes. We test and validate the code in a series of standard experiments involving single neutron star spacetimes. We present test evolutions of quasiequilibrium equal-mass irrotational binary neutron star configurations in quasicircular orbits which describe the late inspiral to merger phases. Neutron star matter is modeled as a zero-temperature fluid; thermal effects can be included by means of a simple ideal gas prescription. We analyze the impact that the use of different values of damping parameter in the Gamma-driver shift condition has on the dynamics of the system. The use of different reconstruction schemes and their impact in the post-merger dynamics is investigated. We compute and characterize the gravitational radiation emitted by the system. Self-convergence of the waves is tested, and we consistently estimate error bars on the numerically generated waveforms in the inspiral phase.

  15. Automatic Spectral Classification of Unresolved Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, W. B.

    2000-12-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) technique has been developed to perform two-dimensional classification of the components of binary stars of any temperature or luminosity classifications. Using 15 Angstrom-resolution spectra, a single ANN can classify the unresolved components with an average accuracy of 2.5 subclasses in temperature and about 0.45 classes in luminostiy for up to 3 magnitudes difference in luminosity. The use of two ANNs, the first providing coarse classification while the second provides specialist classification, reduces the mean absolute errors to about 0.5 subclasses in temperature and 0.33 classes in luminosity. The system operates with no human intervention except initial wavelength registration and can classify about 20 binaries per second on a Pentium-class computer. This research was supported by the Friends of MIRA.

  16. Neutron star binaries, pulsars and burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, F. K.

    1981-01-01

    Unresolved issues involving neutron star binaries, pulsars, and burst sources are described. Attention is drawn to the types of observations most likely to resolve them. Many of these observations are likely to be carried out during the next decade by one or more missions that have been approved or proposed. Flux measurements with an imaging detector and broad-band spectroscopic studies in the energy range 30-150 keV are discussed. The need for soft X-ray and X-ray observations with an instrument which has arcminute angular resolution and an effective area substantially greater than of ROSAT or EXOSAT is also discussed.

  17. Eclipsing Binary Star Detection Using Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vydra, Ekaterina; Buzasi, Derek L.

    2017-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries (EBs) are laboratories for precision astrophysics, because use of the orbital information of the system allows the determination of the physical parameters of the stars to a much higher degree of precision than is possible for single stars. The Kepler Space Telescope, while designed to hunt for planets, has also been a valuable tool in detecting and characterizing EBs and has already observed over 2200 specimens. Kepler suffered a failure in 2013 that affected its pointing ability, but some ingenious engineering adjustments have allowed it to continue collecting photometric data from new fields of view. Our goals were to develop an algorithm for EB detection using Kepler data, and then with the help of FGCU's K2 Aperture Photometry Pipeline to extend that algorithm to discover new EBs in the K2 fields. Here we report on our progess to date as well as future plans.

  18. Interacting binary stars - Freaks or rosetta stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to semidetached binaries of the Algol type and to related interacting systems, such as Beta Lyrae and the W Serpentis stars. A brief description is given of observational problems. The basic properties of the Algol variables are satisfactorily explained by means of evolutionary models that assume considerable mass transfer between the components. It is pointed out that ultraviolet spectra obtained with the IUE satellite corroborate the view that the present subgiant secondary component was initially the more massive star and that it has been stripped of a large fraction of its mass so that the deep layers affected by CNO processing are now denuded. It is believed that the present-day 'classical' Algols must have undergone a phase of rapid mass transfer in the past and that Beta Lyrae and the W Serpentis stars are probably closer to that stage than ordinary Algols. Around the accreting star a complex structure is formed, and an induced stellar wind may blow a large part of the transferred matter out of the system.

  19. Light Curve Modeling of Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.

    In the two decades since the development of the first eclipsing-binary modeling code, new analytic techniques and the availability of powerful, sometimes dedicated computing facilities have made possible vastly improved determinations of fundamental and even transient stellar parameters. The scale of these developments, of course, raises questions about modeling tools, techniques, and philosophies, such as: Who will maintain and upgrade the codes? Will the codes be open to improvement by outsiders, and if so, how? And, indeed, what should be the goals of a modeling program? Such questions had not been aired for a long time and, for this reason alone, deserved to be discussed in as general a forum as the community provides. This volume contains material presented by Commission 42 (Close Binary Stars) during the International Astronomical Union's XXI General Assembly in Argentina, July 1991, and during IAU Colloquium 151, Cordoba, Argentina, August 1991. The techniques discussed include simulations of stellar bright and dark spots, streams, partial and complete stellar disks, prominences, and other features characterizing active stars; modeling of polarization parameters; models that use radial velocities as well as line profile simulations to model velocity field variation across stellar disks; the weighted effects of brightness asymmetries; and models for translucent eclipsing agents such as stellar winds.

  20. Matter effects on binary neutron star waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Jocelyn S.; Baiotti, Luca; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Friedman, John L.; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Markakis, Charalampos; Rezzolla, Luciano; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2013-08-01

    Using an extended set of equations of state and a multiple-group multiple-code collaborative effort to generate waveforms, we improve numerical-relativity-based data-analysis estimates of the measurability of matter effects in neutron-star binaries. We vary two parameters of a parametrized piecewise-polytropic equation of state (EOS) to analyze the measurability of EOS properties, via a parameter Λ that characterizes the quadrupole deformability of an isolated neutron star. We find that, to within the accuracy of the simulations, the departure of the waveform from point-particle (or spinless double black-hole binary) inspiral increases monotonically with Λ and changes in the EOS that did not change Λ are not measurable. We estimate with two methods the minimal and expected measurability of Λ in second- and third-generation gravitational-wave detectors. The first estimate using numerical waveforms alone shows that two EOSs which vary in radius by 1.3 km are distinguishable in mergers at 100 Mpc. The second estimate relies on the construction of hybrid waveforms by matching to post-Newtonian inspiral and estimates that the same EOSs are distinguishable in mergers at 300 Mpc. We calculate systematic errors arising from numerical uncertainties and hybrid construction, and we estimate the frequency at which such effects would interfere with template-based searches.

  1. Planetesimal Accretion in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.; Scholl, H.

    2000-11-01

    Planetesimal accretion in close binary systems is a complex process for the gravitational perturbations of the companion star on the planetesimal orbits. These perturbations excite high eccentricities that can halt the accumulation process of planetesimals into planets also in those regions around the star where stable planetary orbits would eventually be possible. However, the evolution of a planetesimal swarm is also affected by collisions and gas drag. In particular, gas drag combined with the secular perturbations of the secondary star forces a strong alignment of all the planetesimal periastra. Since periastra are also coupled to eccentricities via the secular perturbations of the companion, the orbits of the planetesimals, besides all being aligned, also have very close values of eccentricity. This orbital ``phasing'' strongly reduces the contribution of the eccentricity to the relative velocities between planetesimals, and the impact speeds are dominated by the Keplerian shear: accretion becomes possible. This behavior is not limited to small planetesimals but also affects bodies as large as 100 km in diameter. The effects of gas drag are in fact enhanced by the presence of the constant forced component in the orbital eccentricity of the planetesimals. We describe analytically the periastron alignment by using the secular equations developed by Heppenheimer, and we test the prediction of the theory with a numerical code that integrates the orbits of a swarm of planetesimals perturbed by gas drag and collisions. The gas density is assumed to decrease outward, and the collisions are modeled as inelastic. Our computations are focused on the α Centauri system, which is a good candidate for terrestrial planets as we will show. The impact velocities between planetesimals of different sizes are computed at progressively increasing distances from the primary star and are compared with estimates for the maximum velocity for accretion. According to our simulations in

  2. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  3. Merger of binary neutron stars: Gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-12-01

    Late inspiral and merger phases of binary neutron stars are the valuable new experimental fields for exploring nuclear physics because (i) gravitational waves from them will bring information for the neutron-star equation of state and (ii) the matter ejected after the onset of the merger could be the main site for the r-process nucleosynthesis. We will summarize these aspects of the binary neutron stars, describing the current understanding for the merger process of binary neutron stars that has been revealed by numerical-relativity simulations.

  4. Planetary system disruption by Galactic perturbations to wide binary stars.

    PubMed

    Kaib, Nathan A; Raymond, Sean N; Duncan, Martin

    2013-01-17

    Nearly half the exoplanets found within binary star systems reside in very wide binaries with average stellar separations greater than 1,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit (AU) being the Earth-Sun distance), yet the influence of such distant binary companions on planetary evolution remains largely unstudied. Unlike their tighter counterparts, the stellar orbits of wide binaries continually change under the influence of the Milky Way's tidal field and impulses from other passing stars. Here we report numerical simulations demonstrating that the variable nature of wide binary star orbits dramatically reshapes the planetary systems they host, typically billions of years after formation. Contrary to previous understanding, wide binary companions may often strongly perturb planetary systems, triggering planetary ejections and increasing the orbital eccentricities of surviving planets. Although hitherto not recognized, orbits of giant exoplanets within wide binaries are statistically more eccentric than those around isolated stars. Both eccentricity distributions are well reproduced when we assume that isolated stars and wide binaries host similar planetary systems whose outermost giant planets are scattered beyond about 10 AU from their parent stars by early internal instabilities. Consequently, our results suggest that although wide binaries eventually remove the most distant planets from many planetary systems, most isolated giant exoplanet systems harbour additional distant, still undetected planets.

  5. Neutron Stars in Binaries and in Isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yancopoulos, Sophia

    1996-01-01

    This thesis is a study of neutron stars in three distinct classes. After a brief overview of neutron stars in Chapter 1, the three systems are discussed in order of decreasing luminosity. In Chapter 2, we present a new model for the normal branch of a class of low mass X-ray binaries which show quasiperiodic oscillations: a quasi -periodic modulation in the intensity of their X-ray signal. Chapter 3 discusses a particular radio pulsar which we observed in X-rays with the ROSAT PSPC. Chapter 4 rounds out the thesis with a discussion of a class of neutron stars which have not, to date, been definitively shown to exist. We describe a search for these isolated old neutron stars in the Einstein database, and present the results of our finds. As part of a search for thermal surface radiation from nearby neutron stars, we have carried out a 45,000 s observation of the nearby radio pulsar PSR 1929+10 with the ROSAT PSPC. After background subtraction, a net of 420+/-25 photons in the 0.1-2.0 keV band were detected at the position of the pulsar, corresponding to a luminosity of position of the pulsar, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.2 times 1030 erg/s for a source distance of 250 pc, or {~}3 times 10^{-4} of the pulsar's spin-down luminosity. We find coherent pulsations from PSR 1929+10 at the radio period of 0.2265 s. The folded light curve is well fit by a sinusoidal oscillation with a pulsed fraction of about 30%. The total spectrum is fit by a blackbody with a temperature T_ infty~3.2times10^6 K; the implied emitting area has a radius of less than 50 meters. The maximum of the X-ray light curve coincides with the radio pulse, suggesting we are detecting the hot magnetic polar cap of the star. We discuss the implications of our results for the temperature distribution over the surface of the star, and use this detection to constrain various heating mechanisms for rotation-powered neutron stars. We also use a simple model of general relativistic light bending near the

  6. Can binary stars test solar models?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, D. M.; Ulrich, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The position in the H-R diagram of the approximately solar-mass component of the Hyades eclipsing binary, HD 27130, is compared with the predictions of stellar structure theory. The stellar models are calibrated by matching a model with the solar heavy element composition and age to the solar radius and luminosity. The comparison to the Hyades binary then is a test of the prediction that the initial solar luminosity was only about 0.7 times the present solar luminosity. The agreement is satisfactory, lending a measure of confidence to the solar model employed, provided that the initial helium abundance of the Hyades stars is not greater than that of the sun and is not less by more than about 0.03 in Y. Unless the model is grossly incorrect, the inference of Stromgren, Olsen, and Gustafsson (1982) from the 'Hyades anomaly' in intermediate-band photometry that Y(Hyades) is less than Y(solar) by 0.1 or 0.15 is rejected by the observed properties of HD 27130.

  7. Effective Temperatures for Young Stars in Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, Ryan; Avilez, Ian; Prato, Lisa A.; Biddle, Lauren I.; Allen, Thomas; Wright-Garba, Nuria Meilani Laure; Wittal, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    We have observed about 100 multi-star systems, within the star forming regions Taurus and Ophiuchus, to investigate the individual stellar and circumstellar properties of both components in young T Tauri binaries. Near-infrared spectra were collected using the Keck II telescope’s NIRSPEC spectrograph and imaging data were taken with Keck II’s NIRC2 camera, both behind adaptive optics. Some properties are straightforward to measure; however, determining effective temperature is challenging as the standard method of estimating spectral type and relating spectral type to effective temperature can be subjective and unreliable. We explicitly looked for a relationship between effective temperatures empirically determined in Mann et al. (2015) and equivalent width ratios of H-band Fe and OH lines for main sequence spectral type templates common to both our infrared observations and to the sample of Mann et al. We find a fit for a wide range of temperatures and are currently testing the validity of using this method as a way to determine effective temperature robustly. Support for this research was provided by an REU supplement to NSF award AST-1313399.

  8. STAR HOPPERS: PLANET INSTABILITY AND CAPTURE IN EVOLVING BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Perets, Hagai B.

    2012-07-01

    Many planets are observed in stellar binary systems, and their frequency may be comparable to that of planetary systems around single stars. Binary stellar evolution in such systems influences the dynamical evolution of the resident planets. Here, we study the evolution of a single planet orbiting one star in an evolving binary system. We find that stellar evolution can trigger dynamical instabilities that drive planets into chaotic orbits. This instability leads to planet-star collisions, exchange of the planet between the binary stars ('star hoppers'), and ejection of the planet from the system. The means by which planets can be recaptured is similar to the pull-down capture mechanism for irregular solar system satellites. Because planets often suffer close encounters with the primary on the asymptotic giant branch, captures during a collision with the stellar envelope are also possible for more massive planets. Such capture could populate the habitable zone around white dwarfs.

  9. NIP of Stars: early results and new eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaque Arancibia, M.; Barba, R.; Morrell, N.; Roman Lopes, A.; Torres Robledo, S.; Gunthardt, G.; Soto, M.; Ferrero, G.; Arias, J. I.; Gamen, R.; Fernadez Lajus, E.

    2014-10-01

    We have performed a near-infrared photometric monitoring of 39 galactic young star clusters and star-forming regions, known as NIP of Stars, between the years 2009-2011, using the Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (Chile) and the RetroCam camera, in H- and Y-bands. This monitoring program is complementary to the Vista Variables in the Via Láctea (VVV), as the brightest sources observed in NIP of Stars are saturated in VVV. The aim of this campaign is to perform a census of photometric variability of such clusters and star-forming regions, with the main goal of discovering massive eclipsing binary stars. In this work, we present a preliminary analysis of this photometric monitoring program with the discovery of tens of candidates for variable stars, among them candidates for massive eclipsing binaries. We included also to the analysis of variability, a small set of images obtained in the Ks with the VISTA telescope in the framework of VVV survey (Minniti et al. 2010). In special, we announce the infrared discovering of four massive eclipsing binaries in the massive young cluster NGC 3603. The stars have been classified spectroscopically as O-type stars, and one of them, MTT 58, has a rare star with a spectral type of O2 If*/WN6, as one of its components. We present a preliminary analysis of the light-curves of these binaries.

  10. New spectroscopic binary companions of giant stars and updated metallicity distribution for binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluhm, P.; Jones, M. I.; Vanzi, L.; Soto, M. G.; Vos, J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Drass, H.; Jenkins, J. S.; Olivares, F.; Mennickent, R. E.; Vučković, M.; Rojo, P.; Melo, C. H. F.

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of 24 spectroscopic binary companions to giant stars. We fully constrain the orbital solution for 6 of these systems. We cannot unambiguously derive the orbital elements for the remaining stars because the phase coverage is incomplete. Of these stars, 6 present radial velocity trends that are compatible with long-period brown dwarf companions. The orbital solutions of the 24 binary systems indicate that these giant binary systems have a wide range in orbital periods, eccentricities, and companion masses. For the binaries with restricted orbital solutions, we find a range of orbital periods of between ~97-1600 days and eccentricities of between ~0.1-0.4. In addition, we studied the metallicity distribution of single and binary giant stars. We computed the metallicity of a total of 395 evolved stars, 59 of wich are in binary systems. We find a flat distribution for these binary stars and therefore conclude that stellar binary systems, and potentially brown dwarfs, have a different formation mechanism than planets. This result is confirmed by recent works showing that extrasolar planets orbiting giants are more frequent around metal-rich stars. Finally, we investigate the eccentricity as a function of the orbital period. We analyzed a total of 130 spectroscopic binaries, including those presented here and systems from the literature. We find that most of the binary stars with periods ≲30 days have circular orbits, while at longer orbital periods we observe a wide spread in their eccentricities. Based on observations collected at La Silla - Paranal Observatory under programs IDs IDs 085.C-0557, 087.C.0476, 089.C-0524, 090.C-0345, 096.A-9020 and through the Chilean Telescope Time under programs IDs CN2012A-73, CN2012B-47, CN2013A-111, CN2013B-51, CN2014A-52 and CN2015A-48.

  11. Indoor Astronomy: A Model Eclipsing Binary Star System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomer, Raymond H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a two-hour physics laboratory experiment modeling the phenomena of eclipsing binary stars developed by the Air Force Academy as part of a week-long laboratory-oriented experience for visiting high school students. (BT)

  12. Contamination of RR Lyrae stars from Binary Evolution Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Belczyński, Krzysztof; Stępień, Kazimierz; Wiktorowicz, Grzegorz; Iłkiewicz, Krystian

    2016-06-01

    Binary Evolution Pulsator (BEP) is an extremely low-mass member of a binary system, which pulsates as a result of a former mass transfer to its companion. BEP mimics RR Lyrae-type pulsations but has different internal structure and evolution history. We present possible evolution channels to produce BEPs, and evaluate the contamination value, i.e. how many objects classified as RR Lyrae stars can be undetected BEPs. In this analysis we use population synthesis code StarTrack.

  13. BINARY STAR SYNTHETIC PHOTOMETRY AND DISTANCE DETERMINATION USING BINSYN

    SciTech Connect

    Linnell, Albert P.; DeStefano, Paul; Hubeny, Ivan E-mail: pdestefa@uw.edu

    2013-09-15

    This paper extends synthetic photometry to components of binary star systems. The paper demonstrates accurate recovery of single star photometric properties for four photometric standards, Vega, Sirius, GD153, and HD209458, ranging over the HR diagram, when their model synthetic spectra are placed in fictitious binary systems and subjected to synthetic photometry processing. Techniques for photometric distance determination have been validated for all four photometric standards.

  14. Remnant massive neutron stars of binary neutron star mergers: Evolution process and gravitational waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Muranushi, Takayuki; Sekiguchi, Yu-ichiro; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2013-08-01

    Massive (hypermassive and supramassive) neutron stars are likely to be often formed after the merger of binary neutron stars. We explore the evolution process of the remnant massive neutron stars and gravitational waves emitted by them, based on numerical-relativity simulations for binary neutron star mergers employing a variety of equations of state and choosing a plausible range of the neutron star mass of binaries. We show that the lifetime of remnant hypermassive neutron stars depends strongly on the total binary mass and also on the equations of state. Gravitational waves emitted by the remnant massive neutron stars universally have a quasiperiodic nature of an approximately constant frequency although the frequency varies with time. We also show that the frequency and time-variation feature of gravitational waves depend strongly on the equations of state. We derive a fitting formula for the quasiperiodic gravitational waveforms, which may be used for the data analysis of a gravitational-wave signal.

  15. Mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Ioka, Kunihito; Shibata, Masaru

    2014-03-01

    Black hole-neutron star binaries are ones of the most promising sources of gravitational waves for upcoming second-generation detectors. To confirm gravitational-wave detection and obtain as much information as possible, it is desirable to observe electromagnetic counterparts simultaneously. It has been pointed out by many authors that various electromagnetic signals are reasonably expected if substantial material is ejected during the binary merger. One plausible mechanism of mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries is tidal disruption of neutron stars by the tidal force exerted by black holes. A quantitative study of this dynamical mass ejection requires numerical-relativity simulations. We perform simulations of black hole-neutron star binaries focusing on the dynamical mass ejection for a range of binary parameters including equations of state of neutron star matter. We present important results such as masses and velocities of ejecta obtained by our simulations, and also discuss possible characteristics of electromagnetic counterparts to black hole-neutron star binaries. In particular, we focus on anisotropy and bulk velocity (i.e., the velocity component other than the expansion velocity) of the ejecta, and electromagnetic features resulting from them.

  16. COMPACT STELLAR BINARY ASSEMBLY IN THE FIRST NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND r-PROCESS SYNTHESIS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; MacLeod, Morgan; Trenti, Michele; Roberts, Luke F.; Lee, William H.; Saladino-Rosas, Martha I.

    2015-04-01

    Investigations of elemental abundances in the ancient and most metal deficient stars are extremely important because they serve as tests of variable nucleosynthesis pathways and can provide critical inferences of the type of stars that lived and died before them. The presence of r-process elements in a handful of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP-r) stars, which are assumed to be closely connected to the chemical yield from the first stars, is hard to reconcile with standard neutron star mergers. Here we show that the production rate of dynamically assembled compact binaries in high-z nuclear star clusters can attain a sufficient high value to be a potential viable source of heavy r-process material in CEMP-r stars. The predicted frequency of such events in the early Galaxy, much lower than the frequency of Type II supernovae but with significantly higher mass ejected per event, can naturally lead to a high level of scatter of Eu as observed in CEMP-r stars.

  17. Binary nature of the HADS stars AN Lyn & BE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. H.; Rentería, A.; Villarreal, C.; Pani, A.; Huepa, H.; Huepa, J. L.; Bernal, A.; Arenas, A.; García, C.; León, R.; Ramírez, E.; Trejo, O.; Colorado, E.; Sánchez-Cruces, M.; Rechy-García, J. S.

    2015-04-01

    From newly determined times of maxima from CCD photometry of the HADS stars AN Lyn & BE Lyn and a compilation of previous times of maxima, we are able to determine the binary nature of these stars. We determine their physical parameters by means of uvby-β photometry.

  18. Pro-Am Collaborations on Eclipsing Binary Star Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, D.

    2004-05-01

    I discuss the fruits of a decade of amateur-professional collaboration on eclipsing binary stars. Our team consists of a mix of visual, photoelectric and CCD observers that use the strengths of each observing approach to study newly discovered and neglected eclipsing binary systems. We have active programs on time of minimum measurements and high-precision photometry that results in detailed analysis of the binaries to find fundamental parameters such as masses and radii. We have also discovered and/or characterized several unusal binaries that have had an influence on stellar evolution theory.

  19. Binary Black Holes from Dense Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The recent detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of compact object astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the universe, we must compare these observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. In this talk, I will review our current understanding of cluster dynamics, describing how binary black holes can be formed through gravitational interactions in dense stellar environments, such as globular clusters and galactic nuclei. I will review the properties and merger rates of binary black holes from the dynamical formation channel. Finally, I will describe how the spins of a binary black hole are determined by its formation history, and how we can use this to discriminate between dynamically-formed binaries and those formed from isolated evolution in galactic fields.

  20. Formation and Evolution of Binary Systems Containing Collapsed Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, Saul; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This research includes theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of five types of interacting binary systems. Our main focus has been on developing a number of comprehensive population synthesis codes to study the following types of binary systems: (i) cataclysmic variables (#3, #8, #12, #15), (ii) low- and intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (#13, #20, #21), (iii) high-mass X-ray binaries (#14, #17, #22), (iv) recycled binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters (#5, #10, #ll), and (v) planetary nebulae which form in interacting binaries (#6, #9). The numbers in parentheses refer to papers published or in preparation that are listed in this paper. These codes take a new unified approach to population synthesis studies. The first step involves a Monte Carlo selection of the primordial binaries, including the constituent masses, and orbital separations and eccentricities. Next, a variety of analytic methods are used to evolve the primary star to the point where either a dynamical episode of mass transfer to the secondary occurs (the common envelope phase), or the system evolves down an alternate path. If the residual core of the primary is greater than 2.5 solar mass, it will evolve to Fe core collapse and the production of a neutron star and a supernova explosion. In the case of systems involving neutron stars, a kick velocity is chosen randomly from an appropriate distribution and added to the orbital dynamics which determine the state of the binary system after the supernova explosion. In the third step, all binaries which commence stable mass transfer from the donor star (the original secondary in the binary system) to the compact object, are followed with a detailed binary evolution code. Finally, we include all the relevant dynamics of the binary system. For example, in the case of LMXBs, the binary system, with its recoil velocity from the supernova explosion, is followed in time through its path in the Galactic potential. For our globular cluster

  1. Sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster NGC 6397

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A.; Caffau, E.

    2011-10-01

    Sulphur (S) is a non-refractory α-element that is not locked into dust grains in the interstellar medium. Thus no correction to the measured, interstellar sulphur abundance is needed and it can be readily compared to the S content in stellar photospheres. Here we present the first measurement of sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, as detected in a MIKE/Magellan high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectrum of one red giant star. While abundance ratios of sulphur are available for a larger number of Galactic stars down to an [Fe/H] of ~ -3.5 dex, no measurements in globular clusters more metal poor than -1.5 dex have been reported so far. We find aNLTE, 3-D abundance ratio of [S/Fe] = +0.52 ± 0.20 (stat.) ± 0.08 (sys.), based on theS I, Multiplet 1 line at 9212.8 Å. This value is consistent with a Galactic halo plateau as typical of other α-elements in GCs and field stars, but we cannot rule out its membership with a second branch of increasing [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H], claimed in the literature, which leads to a large scatter at metallicities around - 2 dex. The [S/Mg] and [S/Ca] ratios in this star are compatible with a Solar value to within the (large) uncertainties. Despite the very large scatter in these ratios across Galactic stars between literature samples, this indicates that sulphur traces the chemical imprints of the other α-elements in metal poor GCs. Combined with its moderate sodium abundance ([S/Na]NLTE = 0.48), the [S/Fe] ratio in this GC extends a global, positive S-Na correlation that is not seen in field stars and might indicate that proton-capture reactions contributed to the production of sulphur in the (metal poor) early GC environments. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  2. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886.

  3. Photometric binary stars in Praesepe and the search for globular cluster binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolte, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A radial velocity study of the stars which are located on a second sequence above the single-star zero-age main sequence at a given color in the color-magnitude diagram of the open cluster Praesepe, (NGC 2632) shows that 10, and possibly 11, of 17 are binary systems. Of the binary systems, five have full amplitudes for their velocity variations that are greater than 50 km/s. To the extent that they can be applied to globular clusters, these results suggests that (1) observations of 'second-sequence' stars in globular clusters would be an efficient way of finding main-sequence binary systems in globulars, and (2) current instrumentation on large telescopes is sufficient for establishing unambiguously the existence of main-sequence binary systems in nearby globular clusters.

  4. A Photometric Study of Three Eclipsing Binary Stars (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, A.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) As part of a program to study eclipsing binary stars that exhibit the O'Connell Effect (OCE) we are observing a selection of binary stars in a long term study. The OCE is a difference in maximum light across the ligthcurve possibly cause by starspots. We observed for 7 nights at McDonald Observatory using the 30-inch telescope in July 2015, and used the same telescope remotely for a total of 20 additional nights in August, October, December, and January. We will present lightcurves for three stars from this study, characterize the OCE for these stars, and present our model results for the physical parameters of the star making up each of these systems.

  5. KOI-3278: a self-lensing binary star system.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Ethan; Agol, Eric

    2014-04-18

    Over 40% of Sun-like stars are bound in binary or multistar systems. Stellar remnants in edge-on binary systems can gravitationally magnify their companions, as predicted 40 years ago. By using data from the Kepler spacecraft, we report the detection of such a "self-lensing" system, in which a 5-hour pulse of 0.1% amplitude occurs every orbital period. The white dwarf stellar remnant and its Sun-like companion orbit one another every 88.18 days, a long period for a white dwarf-eclipsing binary. By modeling the pulse as gravitational magnification (microlensing) along with Kepler's laws and stellar models, we constrain the mass of the white dwarf to be ~63% of the mass of our Sun. Further study of this system, and any others discovered like it, will help to constrain the physics of white dwarfs and binary star evolution.

  6. Reducing orbital eccentricity in initial data of binary neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2014-09-01

    We develop a method to compute low-eccentricity initial data of binary neutron stars required to perform realistic simulations in numerical relativity. The orbital eccentricity is controlled by adjusting the orbital angular velocity of a binary and incorporating an approaching relative velocity of the neutron stars. These modifications improve the solution primarily through the hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the binary initial data. The orbital angular velocity and approaching velocity of initial data are updated iteratively by performing time evolutions over ˜3 orbits. We find that the eccentricity can be reduced by an order of magnitude compared to standard quasicircular initial data, specifically from ˜0.01 to ≲0.001, by three successive iterations for equal-mass binaries leaving ˜10 orbits before the merger.

  7. Deep Imaging of Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Michael

    2006-07-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether the most metal-poor and actively star-forming galaxies in the local universe such as I Zw 18 contain evolved stars. We propose to help settle this issue by obtaining deep ACS/HRC U, narrow-V, I, and H-alpha images of nine nearby {z < 0.01} extremely metal-poor {12 + O/H < 7.65} galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects are only marginally resolved from the ground and appear uniformly blue, strongly motivating HST imaging. The continuum images will establish: 1.} If underlying populations of evolved stars are present, by revealing the objects' colors on scales 10 pc, and 2.} The presence of any faint tidal features, dust lanes, and globular or super star clusters, all of which constrain the objects' evolutionary states. The H-alpha images, in combination with ground-based echelle spectroscopy, will reveal 1.} Whether the objects are producing "superwinds" that are depleting them of their metals; ground-based images of some of them indeed show large halos of ionized gas, and 2.} The correspondence of their nebular and stellar emission on scales of a few parsecs, which is important for understanding the "feedback" process by which supernovae and stellar winds regulate star formation. One of the sample objects, CGCG 269-049, lies only 2 Mpc away, allowing the detection of individual red giant stars in it if any are present. We have recently obtained Spitzer images and spectra of this galaxy to determine its dust content and star formation history, which will complement the proposed HST observations. [NOTE: THIS PROPOSAL WAS REDUCED TO FIVE ORBITS, AND ONLY ONE OF THE ORIGINAL TARGETS, CGCG 269-049, AFTER THE PHASE I REVIEW

  8. On the Habitability of Planets in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Eggl, S.; Gyergyovits, M.

    2012-04-01

    The discovery of more and more extra-solar planets in and around binary star systems cause questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone (HZ). We present calculations of the radiative and gravitational perturbations of two stars on a terrestrial planet moving in the HZ in different binary - planet configurations. Two types of planetary motion will be considered, i.e. S-type motion (or circumprimary motion) where the planet orbits one star only and P-type (or circumbinary motion) where the binary revolves inside the planet's orbit. It was found that the HZ in S-type configurations tend to be gravitationally dominated, the radiative input due to the second star is negligible compared to its dynamical influence causing secular changes in the eccentricity of the planets. This alters the amount of incident radiation significantly. In P-type configurations the radiation estimates can be determined on shorter time-scales. The radiation amplitude depends on the eccentricity of the binary in both configurations. Finally we present time independent analytical estimates about the habitability of a terrestrial planet in the HZ of a binary star system as shown by Eggl et al.(2012). This work was financed by the Austrian Science Fonds (FWF) P22603-N16 and AS11608-N16 and S.Eggl was financed by the University of Vienna (Forschungsstipendium 2012). Ref.: Eggl, S., Pilat-Lohinger, E., Gerogakarakos, N., Gyergyovits, M. and Funk, B., "Habitable Zones in S-Type Binary Star Systems", ApJ, submitted.

  9. General Model for Light Curves of Chromospherically Active Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, L.; Henry, G. W.; Lehtinen, J.

    2017-04-01

    The starspots on the surface of many chromospherically active binary stars concentrate on long-lived active longitudes separated by 180°. Shifts in activity between these two longitudes, the “flip-flop” events, have been observed in single stars like FK Comae and binary stars like σ Geminorum. Recently, interferometry has revealed that ellipticity may at least partly explain the flip-flop events in σ Geminorum. This idea was supported by the double-peaked shape of the long-term mean light curve of this star. Here we show that the long-term mean light curves of 14 chromospherically active binaries follow a general model that explains the connection between orbital motion, changes in starspot distribution, ellipticity, and flip-flop events. Surface differential rotation is probably weak in these stars, because the interference of two constant period waves may explain the observed light curve changes. These two constant periods are the active longitude period ({P}{act}) and the orbital period ({P}{orb}). We also show how to apply the same model to single stars, where only the value of P act is known. Finally, we present a tentative interference hypothesis about the origin of magnetic fields in all spectral types of stars. The CPS results are available electronically at the Vizier database.

  10. Eclipse timing variations to detect exoplanets in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to study the circumstances favorable to detect planets in S- or P-Type orbits in close binary star systems by the help of eclipse timing variations (ETVs). A planet in S-Type motion orbits one of the two stars while a planet in P-Type Motion orbits both stars. One can detect ETV signals with the help of former (CoRoT and Kepler) and future space missions Plato, Tess and Cheops). To determine the probability of the detection of such ETV signals with ground based and space telescopes we investigated the dynamics of close binary star systems (stars separated by 0.5 to 3 AU). Therefore we did numerical simulations by using the full three-body problem as dynamical model. The stability and the ETVs are investigated by computing ETV maps for different masses of the secondary star and the exoplanet (Earth, Neptune and Jupiter mass). In addition we changed the planets eccentricity. We can conclude that many ETV amplitudes are large enough to detect planets in S- or P-Type orbits in binary star systems.

  11. TRIPLE-STAR CANDIDATES AMONG THE KEPLER BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, S.; Deck, K.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Levine, A.; Borkovits, T.; Carter, J.; El Mellah, I.; Kalomeni, B. E-mail: kdeck@mit.edu E-mail: aml@space.mit.edu E-mail: jacarter@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a search through the photometric database of Kepler eclipsing binaries looking for evidence of hierarchical triple-star systems. The presence of a third star orbiting the binary can be inferred from eclipse timing variations. We apply a simple algorithm in an automated determination of the eclipse times for all 2157 binaries. The ''calculated'' eclipse times, based on a constant period model, are subtracted from those observed. The resulting O - C (observed minus calculated times) curves are then visually inspected for periodicities in order to find triple-star candidates. After eliminating false positives due to the beat frequency between the {approx}1/2 hr Kepler cadence and the binary period, 39 candidate triple systems were identified. The periodic O - C curves for these candidates were then fit for contributions from both the classical Roemer delay and so-called physical delay, in an attempt to extract a number of the system parameters of the triple. We discuss the limitations of the information that can be inferred from these O - C curves without further supplemental input, e.g., ground-based spectroscopy. Based on the limited range of orbital periods for the triple-star systems to which this search is sensitive, we can extrapolate to estimate that at least 20% of all close binaries have tertiary companions.

  12. The Merger Rate of Neutron Star Binaries in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailes, M.

    The major uncertainties in the merger rates of neutron star binaries are discussed, as well as a method of placing an upper limit on the binary neutron star population using simple ratios. We find that the merger rate is most unlikely to be greater than 10-5 yr -1 in our Galaxy, but is almost certainly greater than 10-7 yr-1. The prospects for hardening the merger rate in the near future are relatively bleak, with recent deep surveys failing to discover any systems capable of merging within a Hubble time. Other possible mergers involving black holes are briefly discussed.

  13. Modelling binary rotating stars by new population synthesis code bonnfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, H. H. B.; Izzard, R. G.; Schneider, F. R. N.

    2013-02-01

    bonnfires, a new generation of population synthesis code, can calculate nuclear reaction, various mixing processes and binary interaction in a timely fashion. We use this new population synthesis code to study the interplay between binary mass transfer and rotation. We aim to compare theoretical models with observations, in particular the surface nitrogen abundance and rotational velocity. Preliminary results show binary interactions may explain the formation of nitrogen-rich slow rotators and nitrogen-poor fast rotators, but more work needs to be done to estimate whether the observed frequencies of those stars can be matched.

  14. N-Body Integrators for Planets in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, John E.

    The discovery of planets orbiting in binary star systems represents an exciting new field of astrophysics. The stability of planetary orbits in binary systems can only be addressed analytically in special cases, so most researchers have studied stability using long-term N-body integrations of test particles, examining binary systems with a range of masses and orbits (e.g. Wiegert and Holman 1997; Haghighipour and Wiegert 1999; Haghighipour 2006). This has led to a good understanding of the likely regions of stability and instability in binary systems. Integrators can also been used to study the more complex problem of several finite-mass planets orbiting in a binary system, where interactions between the planets are significant. However, at the time of writing, this problem has been explored in less detail than the test-particle case, and we still lack a general theory for the stability of these systems.

  15. HEARTBEAT STARS: SPECTROSCOPIC ORBITAL SOLUTIONS FOR SIX ECCENTRIC BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.

    2015-08-01

    We present multi-epoch spectroscopy of “heartbeat stars,” eccentric binaries with dynamic tidal distortions and tidally induced pulsations originally discovered with the Kepler satellite. Optical spectra of six known heartbeat stars using the Wyoming Infrared Observatory 2.3 m telescope allow measurement of stellar effective temperatures and radial velocities from which we determine orbital parameters including the periods, eccentricities, approximate mass ratios, and component masses. These spectroscopic solutions confirm that the stars are members of eccentric binary systems with eccentricities e > 0.34 and periods P = 7–20 days, strengthening conclusions from prior works that utilized purely photometric methods. Heartbeat stars in this sample have A- or F-type primary components. Constraints on orbital inclinations indicate that four of the six systems have minimum mass ratios q = 0.3–0.5, implying that most secondaries are probable M dwarfs or earlier. One system is an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary with roughly equal-mass mid-A components (q = 0.95), while another shows double-lined behavior only near periastron, indicating that the F0V primary has a G1V secondary (q = 0.65). This work constitutes the first measurements of the masses of secondaries in a statistical sample of heartbeat stars. The good agreement between our spectroscopic orbital elements and those derived using a photometric model support the idea that photometric data are sufficient to derive reliable orbital parameters for heartbeat stars.

  16. Milankovitch cycles of terrestrial planets in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgan, Duncan

    2016-12-01

    The habitability of planets in binary star systems depends not only on the radiation environment created by the two stars, but also on the perturbations to planetary orbits and rotation produced by the gravitational field of the binary and neighbouring planets. Habitable planets in binaries may therefore experience significant perturbations in orbit and spin. The direct effects of orbital resonances and secular evolution on the climate of binary planets remain largely unconsidered. We present latitudinal energy balance modelling of exoplanet climates with direct coupling to an N-Body integrator and an obliquity evolution model. This allows us to simultaneously investigate the thermal and dynamical evolution of planets orbiting binary stars, and discover gravito-climatic oscillations on dynamical and secular time-scales. We investigate the Kepler-47 and Alpha Centauri systems as archetypes of P- and S-type binary systems, respectively. In the first case, Earth-like planets would experience rapid Milankovitch cycles (of order 1000 yr) in eccentricity, obliquity and precession, inducing temperature oscillations of similar periods (modulated by other planets in the system). These secular temperature variations have amplitudes similar to those induced on the much shorter time-scale of the binary period. In the Alpha Centauri system, the influence of the secondary produces eccentricity variations on 15 000 yr time-scales. This produces climate oscillations of similar strength to the variation on the orbital time-scale of the binary. Phase drifts between eccentricity and obliquity oscillations creates further cycles that are of order 100 000 yr in duration, which are further modulated by neighbouring planets.

  17. Tugboat model for OB binaries, X-ray stars and pulsars.

    PubMed

    Helfand, D J; Tademaru, E

    1977-05-12

    An examination of the kinematical properties of binary OB stars, binary X-ray sources and pulsars suggests an evolutionary sequence linking an apparent low-velocity class of pulsars to the binary nature of their extreme Population I progenitors.

  18. Binary star orbits from speckle interferometry. 5: A combined speckle/spectroscopic study of the O star binary 15 Monocerotis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gies, Douglas R.; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mcalister, Harold A.; Frazin, Richard A.; Hahula, Michael E.; Penny, Laura R.; Thaller, Michelle L.; Fullerton, Alexander W.; Shara, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a speckle binary companion to the O7 V (f) star 15 Monocerotis. A study of published radial velocities in conjunction with new measurements from Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and IUE suggests that the star is also a spectroscopic binary with a period of 25 years and a large eccentricity. Thus, 15 Mon is the first O star to bridge the gap between the spectroscopic and visual separation regimes. We have used the star's membership in the cluster NGC 2264 together with the cluster distance to derive masses of 34 and 19 solar mass for the primary and secondary, respectively. Several of the He I line profiles display a broad shallow component which we associate with the secondary, and we estimate the secondary's classification to be O9.5 Vn. The new orbit leads to several important predictions that can be tested over the next few years.

  19. HE 0017+0055: A probable pulsating CEMP-rs star and long-period binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, A.; Hansen, T.; Van Eck, S.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Siess, L.; Torres, G.; Masseron, T.; Van Winckel, H.

    2016-02-01

    Context. A large fraction of the carbon-enhanced, extremely metal-poor halo giants ([Fe/H] < -2.5) are also strongly enriched in neutron-capture elements from the s process (CEMP-s stars). The conventional explanation for the properties of these stars is mass transfer from a nearby binary companion on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). This scenario leads to a number of testable predictions in terms of the properties of the putative binary system and the resulting abundance pattern. Among the CEMP stars, some stars further exhibit overabundances in r-process elements on top of the s-process enrichment, and are tagged CEMP-rs stars. Although the nucleosynthesis process responsible for this kind of mixed abundance pattern is still under debate, CEMP-rs stars seem to belong to binary systems as do CEMP-s stars. Aims: Our aim is to present and analyse in detail our comprehensive data set of systematic radial-velocity measurements and high-resolution spectroscopy of the CEMP star HE 0017+0055. Methods: Our precise radial-velocity monitoring of HE 0017+0055 over 2940 days (8 yr) with the Nordic Optical Telescope and Mercator telescopes exhibits variability, with a period of 384 d and amplitude of 540 ± 27 m s-1 superimposed on a nearly linear long-term decline of ~1 m s-1 day-1. We used high-resolution HERMES/Mercator and Keck/HIRES spectra to derive elemental abundances with 1D LTE MARCS models. A metallicity of [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 is found, along with s-process overabundances of the order of 2 dex (with the exception of [Y/Fe] ~ + 0.5), and most notably overabundances of r-process elements like Sm, Eu, Dy, and Er in the range 0.9-2.0 dex. With [Ba/Fe] > 1.9 dex and [Eu/Fe] = 2.3 dex, HE 0017+0055 is a CEMP-rs star. We used the derived atmospheric parameters and abundances to infer HE 0017+0055 evolutionary status from a comparison with evolutionary tracks. Results: HE 0017+0055 appears to be a giant star below the tip of the red giant branch. The s-process pollution must

  20. Elucidating the True Binary Fraction of VLM Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Spectral Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; SAHLMANN, JOHANNES; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagne, Jonathan; Skrzypek, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The very lowest-mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs are found in abundance in nearly all Galactic environments, yet their formation mechanism(s) remain an open question. One means of testing current formation theories is to use multiplicity statistics. The majority of VLM binaries have been discovered through direct imaging, and current angular resolution limits (0.05”-0.1") are coincident with the 1-4 AU peak in the projected separation distribution of known systems, suggesting an observational bias. I have developed a separation-independent method to detect T dwarf companions to late-M/early-L dwarfs by identifying methane absorption in their unresolved, low-resolution, near-infrared spectra using spectral indices and template fitting. Over 60 spectral binary candidates have been identified with this and comparable methods. I discuss follow-up observations, including laser-guide star adaptive optics imaging with Keck/NIRC2, which have confirmed 9 systems; and radial velocity and astrometric monitoring observations that have confirmed 7 others. The direct imaging results indicate a resolved binary fraction of 18%, coincident with current estimates of the VLM binary fraction; however, our sample contained 5 previously confirmed binaries, raising its true binary fraction to 47%. To more accurately measure the true VLM binary fraction, I describe the construction of an unbiased, volume-limited, near-infrared spectral sample of M7-L5 dwarfs within 25 pc, of which 4 (1%) are found to be spectral binary candidates. I model the complex selection biases of this method through a population simulation, set constraints on the true binary fraction as traced by these systems, and compare to the predictions of current formation theories. I also describe how this method may be applied to conduct a separation-unbiased search for giant exoplanets orbiting young VLM stars and brown dwarfs.

  1. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than 10°, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masses increase. This study may help restrict future stability analyses to architectures which resemble exoplanetary systems, and might hint at where observers may discover dust, asteroids and/or planets in binary-star systems.

  2. Visual Astrometry Observations of the Binary Star Beta Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, S. Jananne; Berlin, Kyle; Cardoza, Clare; Jordano, Chris; Waymire, Tatum; Shore, Doug; Baxter, John; Johnson, Robert; Carro, Joseph; Genet, Russell M.

    2012-04-01

    Students from Arroyo Grande High School and Cuesta College observed the separation and position angle of the binary star Beta Lyrae (WDS 18501+3322 ). The separation and position angle were found to be 46.7 arc seconds and 149.6° respectively. These values compared favorably to past observations.

  3. CCD Photometry of Five Neglected Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Stephen P.

    Differential V-magnitude CCD photometric data are presented for five neglected eclipsing binary stars with shallow eclipses. An improved period is derived for SV Equ, past O-C trends are confirmed for AN And and DL Vir, and an unexpectedly large O-C values are found for BW DEL nad CS Lac.

  4. Modeling of debris disks in Single and Binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, L.; Gómez, M.

    2016-10-01

    Infrared space observatories such as Spitzer and Herschel have allowed the detection of likely analogs to the Kuiper Belt in single as well as binary systems. The aim of this work is to characterize debris disks in single and binary stars and to identify features shared by the disks in both types of systems, as well as possible differences. We compiled a sample of 25 single and 14 binary stars (ages > 100 Myr) with flux measurements at λ >100 μm and evidence of infrared excesses attributed to the presence of debris disks. Then, we constructed and modeled the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and compared the parameters of the disks of both samples. Both types of disks are relatively free of dust in the inner region (< 3-5 AU) and extend beyond 100 AU. No significant differences in the mass and dust size distributions of both samples are found.

  5. Electromagnetic and gravitational outputs from binary-neutron-star coalescence.

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Ponce, Marcelo; Liebling, Steven L; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Motl, Patrick

    2013-08-09

    The late stage of an inspiraling neutron-star binary gives rise to strong gravitational wave emission due to its highly dynamic, strong gravity. Moreover, interactions between the stellar magnetospheres can produce considerable electromagnetic radiation. We study this scenario using fully general relativistic, resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that these interactions extract kinetic energy from the system, dissipate heat, and power radiative Poynting flux, as well as develop current sheets. Our results indicate that this power can (i) outshine pulsars in binaries, (ii) display a distinctive angular- and time-dependent pattern, and (iii) radiate within large opening angles. These properties suggest that some binary neutron-star mergers are ideal candidates for multimessenger astronomy.

  6. Contamination of RR Lyrae stars from Binary Evolution Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarek, P.

    2015-09-01

    A Binary Evolution Pulsator (BEP) is a low-mass (0.26 M_⊙) member of a binary system, which pulsates as a result of a former mass transfer to its companion. The BEP mimics RR~Lyrae-type pulsations, but has completely different internal structure and evolution history. Although there is only one known BEP (OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792), it has been estimated that approximately 0.2% of objects classified as RR Lyrae stars can be undetected Binary Evolution Pulsators. In the present work, this contamination value is re-evaluated using the population synthesis method. The output falls inside a range of values dependent on tuning the parameters in the StarTrack code, and varies from 0.06% to 0.43%.

  7. Surface imaging of eclipsing binary stars. 1: Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, A.; Piskunov, N. E.; Tuominen, I.

    1993-11-01

    Surface (Doppler) imaging techniques for mapping the temperature distribution of a single star are generalized to the case of an eclipsing spectroscopic binary. In this paper we study three main questions, crucial for further application of the techniques. We found that the method described in this paper can be successfully used for imaging eclipsing binary systems. The resulting map is more sensitive to the errors in the parameters of the system than is the case of a single star. Characteristic distortions of the map can be used as indicators for fine tuning of some of the parameters. We also found that a good phase coverage of the observations is most important for reducing the artificial equatorial symmetry, typical for the line profile inversion when used for high inclination binary systems.

  8. Cool and luminous transients from mass-losing binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Metzger, Brian D.; Tomida, Kengo

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the recently established link between luminous red novae (LRN) and catastrophic phases of binary star evolution, we perform smoothed particle hydrodynamic calculations of outflows from binary stars with realistic equation of state and opacities. We focus on the case of mass loss from the outer Lagrangian point (L2), where the resulting spiral stream experiences tidal torques from the binary and becomes unbound. As the individual spiral arms merge and collide near the binary, the outflow thermalizes about 5% of its kinetic energy. For reasonable binary parameters, the outflow can produce luminosities up to 106 L ⨀ with effective temperatures between 500 and 6000 K, depending on the optical depth through the outflow. This is compatible with many examples of the LRN such as V838 Mon and V1309 Sco. The luminosity and the expansion velocity are correlated, as is roughly observed in the known LRN. The outflow readily forms dust, leading to great variations of the appearance of the transient as a function of the viewing angle. Our results are relevant for a more general class of equatorial outflows with asymptotic velocity and heating rate near the binary proportional to its orbital speed.

  9. A quintuple star system containing two eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, S.; Lehmann, H.; Kalomeni, B.; Borkovits, T.; Latham, D.; Bieryla, A.; Ngo, H.; Mawet, D.; Howell, S.; Horch, E.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D.; Sódor, Á.; Vanderburg, A.; Pavlovski, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a quintuple star system that contains two eclipsing binaries. The unusual architecture includes two stellar images separated by 11 arcsec on the sky: EPIC 212651213 and EPIC 212651234. The more easterly image (212651213) actually hosts both eclipsing binaries which are resolved within that image at 0.09 arcsec, while the westerly image (212651234) appears to be single in adaptive optics (AO), speckle imaging, and radial velocity (RV) studies. The `A' binary is circular with a 5.1-d period, while the `B' binary is eccentric with a 13.1-d period. The γ velocities of the A and B binaries are different by ˜10 km s-1. That, coupled with their resolved projected separation of 0.09 arcsec, indicates that the orbital period and separation of the `C' binary (consisting of A orbiting B) are ≃65 yr and ≃25 au, respectively, under the simplifying assumption of a circular orbit. Motion within the C orbit should be discernible via future RV, AO, and speckle imaging studies within a couple of years. The C system (i.e. 212651213) has an RV and proper motion that differ from that of 212651234 by only ˜1.4 km s-1 and ˜3 mas yr-1. This set of similar space velocities in three dimensions strongly implies that these two objects are also physically bound, making this at least a quintuple star system.

  10. Resolving the Birth of High-Mass Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    New observations may help us to learn more about the birth of high-mass star systems. For the first time, scientists have imaged a very young, high-mass binary system and resolved the individual disks that surround each star and the binary.Massive MultiplesIts unusually common for high-mass stars to be discovered in multiple-star systems. More than 80% of all O-type stars which have masses greater than 16 times that of the Sun are in close multiple systems, compared with a multiplicity fraction of only 20% for stars of 3 solar masses, for instance.Reconstructed VLTI observations of the two components of the high-mass binary IRAS17216-3801. [Adapted from Kraus et al. 2017]Why do more massive stars preferentially form in multiple-star systems? Many different models of high-mass star formation have been invoked to explain this observation, but before we can better understand the process, we need better observations. In particular, past observations have placed few constraints on the architecture and disk structure of early high-mass stars.Conveniently, a team of scientists led by Stefan Kraus (University of Exeter) may have found exactly what we need: a high-mass protobinary that is still in the process of forming. Using ESOs Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), Kraus and collaborators have captured the first observations of a very young, high-mass binary system in which the circumbinary disk and the two circumstellar dust disks could all be spatially resolved.Clues from Resolved DisksThe VLTI near-infrared observations reveal that IRAS17216-3801, originally thought to be a single high-mass star, is instead a close binary separated by only 170 AU. Its two components are both surrounded by disks from which the protostars are actively accreting mass, and both of these circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the separation vector of the binary. This confirms that the system is very young, as tidal forces havent yet had time to align the disks

  11. Δ μ binaries among stars with large proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khovritchev, M. Yu.; Kulikova, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Based on observations performed with the Pulkovo normal astrograph in 2008-2015 and data from sky surveys (DSS, 2MASS, SDSS DR12, WISE), we have investigated the motions of 1308 stars with proper motions larger than 300 mas yr-1 down to magnitude 17. The main idea of our search for binary stars based on this material is reduced to comparing the quasi-mean (POSS2-POSS1; an epoch difference of ≈50 yr) and quasi-instantaneous (2МASS, SDSS, WISE, Pulkovo; an epoch difference of ≈10 yr) proper motions. If the difference is statistically significant compared to the proper motion errors, then the object may be considered as a Δ μ-binary candidate. One hundred and twenty one stars from among those included in the observational program satisfy this requirement. Additional confirmations of binarity for a number of stars have been obtained by comparing the calculated proper motions with the data from several programs of stellar trigonometric parallax determinations and by analyzing the asymmetry of stellar images on sky-survey CCD frames. Analysis of the highly accurate SDSS photometric data for four stars (J0656+3827, J0838+3940, J1229+5332, J2330+4639) allows us to reach a conclusion about the probability that these Δ μ binaries are white dwarf +Mdwarf pairs.

  12. High Resolution Studies of Mass Loss from Massive Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Gull, Theodore R.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richardson, Noel; Madura, Thomas; Post Russell, Christopher Michael; Teodoro, Mairan; Nichols, Joy S.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shenar, Tomer; Pablo, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss from hot luminous single and binary stars has a significant, perhaps decisive, effect on their evolution. The combination of X-ray observations of hot shocked gas embedded in the stellar winds and high-resolution optical/UV spectra of the cooler mass in the outflow provides unique ways to study the unstable process by which massive stars lose mass both through continuous stellar winds and rare, impulsive, large-scale mass ejections. The ability to obtain coordinated observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) and other X-ray observatories has allowed, for the first time, studies of resolved line emisssion over the temperature range of 104- 108K, and has provided observations to confront numerical dynamical models in three dimensions. Such observations advance our knowledge of mass-loss asymmetries, spatial and temporal variabilities, and the fundamental underlying physics of the hot shocked outflow, providing more realistic constraints on the amount of mass lost by different luminous stars in a variety of evolutionary stages. We discuss the impact that these joint observational studies have had on our understanding of dynamical mass outflows from massive stars, with particular emphasis on two important massive binaries, Delta Ori Aa, a linchpin of the mass luminosity relation for upper HRD main sequence stars, and the supermassive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae.

  13. A radio-pulsing white dwarf binary star.

    PubMed

    Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, B T; Hümmerich, S; Hambsch, F-J; Bernhard, K; Lloyd, C; Breedt, E; Stanway, E R; Steeghs, D T; Parsons, S G; Toloza, O; Schreiber, M R; Jonker, P G; van Roestel, J; Kupfer, T; Pala, A F; Dhillon, V S; Hardy, L K; Littlefair, S P; Aungwerojwit, A; Arjyotha, S; Koester, D; Bochinski, J J; Haswell, C A; Frank, P; Wheatley, P J

    2016-09-15

    White dwarfs are compact stars, similar in size to Earth but approximately 200,000 times more massive. Isolated white dwarfs emit most of their power from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, but when in close orbits with less dense stars, white dwarfs can strip material from their companions and the resulting mass transfer can generate atomic line and X-ray emission, as well as near- and mid-infrared radiation if the white dwarf is magnetic. However, even in binaries, white dwarfs are rarely detected at far-infrared or radio frequencies. Here we report the discovery of a white dwarf/cool star binary that emits from X-ray to radio wavelengths. The star, AR Scorpii (henceforth AR Sco), was classified in the early 1970s as a δ-Scuti star, a common variety of periodic variable star. Our observations reveal instead a 3.56-hour period close binary, pulsing in brightness on a period of 1.97 minutes. The pulses are so intense that AR Sco's optical flux can increase by a factor of four within 30 seconds, and they are also detectable at radio frequencies. They reflect the spin of a magnetic white dwarf, which we find to be slowing down on a 10(7)-year timescale. The spin-down power is an order of magnitude larger than that seen in electromagnetic radiation, which, together with an absence of obvious signs of accretion, suggests that AR Sco is primarily spin-powered. Although the pulsations are driven by the white dwarf's spin, they mainly originate from the cool star. AR Sco's broadband spectrum is characteristic of synchrotron radiation, requiring relativistic electrons. These must either originate from near the white dwarf or be generated in situ at the M star through direct interaction with the white dwarf's magnetosphere.

  14. A radio-pulsing white dwarf binary star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hümmerich, S.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Bernhard, K.; Lloyd, C.; Breedt, E.; Stanway, E. R.; Steeghs, D. T.; Parsons, S. G.; Toloza, O.; Schreiber, M. R.; Jonker, P. G.; van Roestel, J.; Kupfer, T.; Pala, A. F.; Dhillon, V. S.; Hardy, L. K.; Littlefair, S. P.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Arjyotha, S.; Koester, D.; Bochinski, J. J.; Haswell, C. A.; Frank, P.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    White dwarfs are compact stars, similar in size to Earth but approximately 200,000 times more massive. Isolated white dwarfs emit most of their power from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, but when in close orbits with less dense stars, white dwarfs can strip material from their companions and the resulting mass transfer can generate atomic line and X-ray emission, as well as near- and mid-infrared radiation if the white dwarf is magnetic. However, even in binaries, white dwarfs are rarely detected at far-infrared or radio frequencies. Here we report the discovery of a white dwarf/cool star binary that emits from X-ray to radio wavelengths. The star, AR Scorpii (henceforth AR Sco), was classified in the early 1970s as a δ-Scuti star, a common variety of periodic variable star. Our observations reveal instead a 3.56-hour period close binary, pulsing in brightness on a period of 1.97 minutes. The pulses are so intense that AR Sco’s optical flux can increase by a factor of four within 30 seconds, and they are also detectable at radio frequencies. They reflect the spin of a magnetic white dwarf, which we find to be slowing down on a 107-year timescale. The spin-down power is an order of magnitude larger than that seen in electromagnetic radiation, which, together with an absence of obvious signs of accretion, suggests that AR Sco is primarily spin-powered. Although the pulsations are driven by the white dwarf’s spin, they mainly originate from the cool star. AR Sco’s broadband spectrum is characteristic of synchrotron radiation, requiring relativistic electrons. These must either originate from near the white dwarf or be generated in situ at the M star through direct interaction with the white dwarf’s magnetosphere.

  15. Merger of binary neutron stars in numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaru

    2014-09-01

    The merger of binary neutron stars is one of most promising sources of gravitational waves. It is also a promising candidate for the central engine of short-hard gamma-ray bursts and a source of the strong transient electromagnetic signal that could be the counterpart of gravitational-wave signals. Numerical relativity is probably the unique tool for theoretically exploring the merger process, and now, it is powerful enough to provide us a wide variety of aspects of the binary-neutron-star merger. In this talk, I will summarize our current understanding of the entire merger event that is obtained by a large-scale numerical-relativity simulations. In particular, I focus on the relation between the neutron-star equation of state and gravitational waves emitted during the late inspiral and merger phase, and observable electromagnetic signal that is likely to be emitted by the dynamical ejecta through r-process nucleosynthesis.

  16. s-Process Abundances in Binary Stars With White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, T.; Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.; Masseron, T.; van Winckel, H.

    2015-12-01

    The enrichment of barium stars in s-process elements is known to be due to pollution by mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion star, now an extincted C-O white-dwarf (McClure et al. [4]; Gray et al. [1]). We investigate the relationship between the level of enrichment in s-process elements in the barium star and the mass of its white dwarf (WD) companion. It is expected that helium WDs, which have masses smaller than about 0.5 M⊙ and whose progenitor never reached the AGB phase, should not pollute with s-process elements their giant companion. That companion should thus never turn into a barium star. Our results conform to the expectation that binary systems with WD companions less massive than 0.5 M⊙ do not host barium stars.

  17. Carbon monoxide in an extremely metal-poor galaxy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Yu; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, Xiao-Yang; Gu, Qiusheng

    2016-12-09

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies with metallicity below 10% of the solar value in the local universe are the best analogues to investigating the interstellar medium at a quasi-primitive environment in the early universe. In spite of the ongoing formation of stars in these galaxies, the presence of molecular gas (which is known to provide the material reservoir for star formation in galaxies such as our Milky Way) remains unclear. Here we report the detection of carbon monoxide (CO), the primary tracer of molecular gas, in a galaxy with 7% solar metallicity, with additional detections in two galaxies at higher metallicities. Such detections offer direct evidence for the existence of molecular gas in these galaxies that contain few metals. Using archived infrared data, it is shown that the molecular gas mass per CO luminosity at extremely low metallicity is approximately one-thousand times the Milky Way value.

  18. Carbon monoxide in an extremely metal-poor galaxy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yong; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Yu; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, Xiao-Yang; Gu, Qiusheng

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies with metallicity below 10% of the solar value in the local universe are the best analogues to investigating the interstellar medium at a quasi-primitive environment in the early universe. In spite of the ongoing formation of stars in these galaxies, the presence of molecular gas (which is known to provide the material reservoir for star formation in galaxies such as our Milky Way) remains unclear. Here we report the detection of carbon monoxide (CO), the primary tracer of molecular gas, in a galaxy with 7% solar metallicity, with additional detections in two galaxies at higher metallicities. Such detections offer direct evidence for the existence of molecular gas in these galaxies that contain few metals. Using archived infrared data, it is shown that the molecular gas mass per CO luminosity at extremely low metallicity is approximately one-thousand times the Milky Way value. PMID:27934880

  19. Viscosity in accretion discs. [for binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1980-01-01

    Both HerX-1 and SS433 may contain accretion disks slaved to a precessing companion star. If so, it is possible to bound the effective viscosity in these disks. The results, in terms of the disk parameter alpha, are lower bounds of 0.01 for HerX-1 and of 0.1 for SS433.

  20. Binary Star Research Using Micro-Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.; Liška, J.; Svoboda, P.; de Villiers, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays most observatories have replaced photoelectric photometers with CCD cameras. This makes it difficult to obtain new photometric observations of bright stars. We offer a simple solution using micro-telescopes equipped with CCD cameras. Several examples of results are given.

  1. Magnetised winds in single and binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Colin

    2016-07-01

    Stellar winds are fundamentally important for the stellar magnetic activity evolution and for the immediate environment surrounding their host stars. Ionised winds travel at hundreds of km/s, impacting planets and clearing out large regions around the stars called astropheres. Winds influence planets in many ways: for example, by compressing the magnetosphere and picking up atmospheric particles, they can cause significant erosion of a planetary atmosphere. By removing angular momentum, winds cause the rotation rates of stars to decrease as they age. This causes the star's magnetic dynamo to decay, leading to a significant decay in the star's levels of X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission. Despite their importance, little is currently known about the winds of other Sun-like stars. Their small mass fluxes have meant that no direct detections have so far been possible. What is currently known has either been learned indirectly or through analogies with the solar wind. In this talk, I will review what is known about the properties and evolution of the winds of other Sun-like stars. I will also review wind dynamics in binary star systems, where the winds from both stars impact each other, leading to shocks and compression regions.

  2. Synergies in Astrometry: Predicting Navigational Error of Visual Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner Stewart, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Celestial navigation can employ a number of bright stars which are in binary systems. Often these are unresolved, appearing as a single, center-of-light object. A number of these systems are, however, in wide systems which could introduce a margin of error in the navigation solution if not handled properly. To illustrate the importance of good orbital solutions for binary systems - as well as good astrometry in general - the relationship between the center-of-light versus individual catalog position of celestial bodies and the error in terrestrial position derived via celestial navigation is demonstrated. From the list of navigational binary stars, fourteen such binary systems with at least 3.0 arcseconds apparent separation are explored. Maximum navigational error is estimated under the assumption that the bright star in the pair is observed at maximum separation, but the center-of-light is employed in the navigational solution. The relationships between navigational error and separation, orbital periods, and observers' latitude are discussed.

  3. Dynamical mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Ioka, Kunihito; Okawa, Hirotada; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2015-08-01

    We investigate properties of material ejected dynamically in the merger of black hole-neutron star binaries by numerical-relativity simulations. We systematically study the dependence of ejecta properties on the mass ratio of the binary, spin of the black hole, and equation of state of the neutron-star matter. Dynamical mass ejection is driven primarily by tidal torque, and the ejecta is much more anisotropic than that from binary neutron star mergers. In particular, the dynamical ejecta is concentrated around the orbital plane with a half opening angle of 10°-20° and often sweeps out only a half of the plane. The ejecta mass can be as large as ˜0.1 M⊙, and the velocity is subrelativistic with ˜0.2 - 0.3 c for typical cases. The ratio of the ejecta mass to the bound mass (disk and fallback components) is larger, and the ejecta velocity is larger, for larger values of the binary mass ratio, i.e., for larger values of the black-hole mass. The remnant black hole-disk system receives a kick velocity of O (100 ) km s-1 due to the ejecta linear momentum, and this easily dominates the kick velocity due to gravitational radiation. Structures of postmerger material, velocity distribution of the dynamical ejecta, fallback rates, and gravitational waves are also investigated. We also discuss the effect of ejecta anisotropy on electromagnetic counterparts, specifically a macronova/kilonova and synchrotron radio emission, developing analytic models.

  4. Ba STARS AND OTHER BINARIES IN FIRST AND SECOND GENERATION STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Gratton, Raffaele; Lucatello, Sara; Carretta, Eugenio; Bragaglia, Angela; Marino, Anna F.

    2010-08-20

    The determination of the Ba abundance in globular cluster (GC) stars is a very powerful test to address several issues in the framework of multiple population scenarios. We measured the Ba content for a sample of more than 1200 stars in 15 Galactic GCs, using high-resolution FLAMES/Giraffe spectra. We found no variation in [Ba/Fe] ratios for different stellar populations within each cluster; this means that low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars do not significantly contribute to the intracluster pollution. Very interestingly, we found that the fraction of Ba stars in first generation (FG) stars is close to the values derived for field stars ({approx}2%); on the other hand, second generation (SG) stars present a significantly lower fraction. An independent and successful test, based on radial velocity variations among giant stars in NGC 6121, confirms our finding: the binary fraction among FG stars is about {approx}12%, to be compared with {approx}1% of SG stars. This is an evidence that SG stars formed in a denser environment, where infant mortality of binary systems was particularly efficient.

  5. The First Stars: Binary and Small Multiple Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, A.; Greif, T. H.; Bromm, V.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the formation of metal-free, Population III (Pop III), stars within a minihalo at z˜eq 20 with a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation, starting from cosmological initial conditions. Employing a hierarchical, zoom-in procedure, we achieve sufficient numerical resolution to follow the collapsing gas in the center of the minihalo up to number densities of 1012 cm-3. This allows us to study the protostellar accretion onto the initial hydrostatic core, which we represent as a growing sink particle, in improved physical detail. The accretion process, and in particular its termination, governs the final masses that were reached by the first stars. The primordial initial mass function (IMF), in turn, played an important role in determining to what extent the first stars drove early cosmic evolution. We continue our simulation for 5000 yr after the first sink particle has formed. During this time period, a disk-like configuration is assembled around the first protostar. The disk is gravitationally unstable, develops a pronounced spiral structure, and fragments into several other protostellar seeds. At the end of the simulation, a small multiple system has formed, dominated by a binary with masses ˜ 40 Msun and ˜ 10 Msun. If Pop III stars were to form typically in binaries or small multiples, the standard model of primordial star formation, where single, isolated stars are predicted to form in minihaloes, would have to be modified. This would have crucial consequences for the observational signature of the first stars, such as their nucleosynthetic pattern, and the gravitational-wave emission from possible Pop III black-hole binaries.

  6. DOUBLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY STARS IN THE RAVE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Watson, F. G.

    2010-07-15

    We devise a new method for the detection of double-lined binary stars in a sample of the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey spectra. The method is both tested against extensive simulations based on synthetic spectra and compared to direct visual inspection of all RAVE spectra. It is based on the properties and shape of the cross-correlation function, and is able to recover {approx}80% of all binaries with an orbital period of order 1 day. Systems with periods up to 1 yr are still within the detection reach. We have applied the method to 25,850 spectra of the RAVE second data release and found 123 double-lined binary candidates, only eight of which are already marked as binaries in the SIMBAD database. Among the candidates, there are seven that show spectral features consistent with the RS CVn type (solar type with active chromosphere) and seven that might be of W UMa type (over-contact binaries). One star, HD 101167, seems to be a triple system composed of three nearly identical G-type dwarfs. The tested classification method could also be applicable to the data of the upcoming Gaia mission.

  7. The MACHO Project LMC variable star inventory. V. Classification and orbits of 611 eclipsing binary stars

    SciTech Connect

    The MACHO Collaboration

    1997-07-01

    We report the characteristics of 611 eclipsing binary stars in the Large Megallanic Cloud found by using the MACHO Project photometry database. The sample is magnitude limited, and extends down the main sequence to about spectral type A0. Many evolved binaries are also included. Each eclipsing binary is classified according to the traditional scheme of the {ital General Catalogue of Variable Stars} (EA and EB), and also according to a new decimal classification scheme defined in this paper. The new scheme is sensitive to the two major sources of variance in eclipsing binary star light curves{emdash}the sum of radii, and the surface-brightness ratio, and allow greater precision in characterizing the light curves. Examples of each type of light curve and their variations are given. Sixty-four of the eclipsing binaries have eccentric, rather than circular, orbits. The ephemeris and principal photometric characteristics of each eclipsing binary are listed in a table. Photometric orbits based on the Nelson{endash}Davis{endash}Etzel model have been fitted to all light curves. These data will be useful for planning future observations of these binaries. Plots of all data and fitted orbits and a table of the fitted orbital parameters are available on the AAS CD-ROM series, Vol. 9, 1997. These data are also available at the MACHO home page (http://wwwmacho.mcmaster.ca/). {copyright} {ital 1997 American Astronomical Society.}

  8. Unification of binary star ephemeris solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R. E.; Van Hamme, W. E-mail: vanhamme@fiu.edu

    2014-01-10

    Time-related binary system characteristics such as orbital period, its rate of change, apsidal motion, and variable light-time delay due to a third body, are measured in two ways that can be mutually complementary. The older way is via eclipse timings, while ephemerides by simultaneous whole light and velocity curve analysis have appeared recently. Each has its advantages, for example, eclipse timings typically cover relatively long time spans while whole curves often have densely packed data within specific intervals and allow access to systemic properties that carry additional timing information. Synthesis of the two information sources can be realized in a one step process that combines several data types, with automated weighting based on their standard deviations. Simultaneous light-velocity-timing solutions treat parameters of apsidal motion and the light-time effect coherently with those of period and period change, allow the phenomena to interact iteratively, and produce parameter standard errors based on the quantity and precision of the curves and timings. The logic and mathematics of the unification algorithm are given, including computation of theoretical conjunction times as needed for generation of eclipse timing residuals. Automated determination of eclipse type, recovery from inaccurate starting ephemerides, and automated data weighting are also covered. Computational examples are given for three timing-related cases—steady period change (XY Bootis), apsidal motion (V526 Sagittarii), and the light-time effect due to a binary's reflex motion in a triple system (AR Aurigae). Solutions for all combinations of radial velocity, light curve, and eclipse timing input show consistent results, with a few minor exceptions.

  9. A Study of the Low Mass Binary Star Ross 614

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatewood, G.; Han, I.; Tangren, W.

    2001-12-01

    We have combined photograph, MAP, interferometric, and spectroscopic data to determine the orbital characteristics and masses of the Ross 614 binary star system. Attention was first drawn to the star by Frank E. Ross (1927, AJ 37, 193) who noticed its high proper motion in a comparison of new plates with those taken at the Yerkes Observatory by E.E. Barnard. The Binary nature of the star was recognized from accelerations in the star's proper motion (D. Reuyl 1936, AJ 55, 236) and the mass of the companion was first estimated by combining measurements of McCormick and Sproul plates with a separation measured by Walter Baade at the Hale 5-m reflector (S.L. Lippincott 1955, AJ 60, 379). In her paper Lippincott notes the companion's significance as defining the lower end of the observational main sequence. Fifty six years later the star still holds that honor. With a wealth of new data spanning more than 3 additional orbits, we find her value of 0.08 solar masses to be within our error of our value.

  10. Observing Mass Transfer in a Neglected Interacting Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Phillip A.

    2011-05-01

    The eclipsing and interacting binary star R Arae is a very interesting system that has unfortunately been neglected. The few spectroscopic studies of the system report badly blended absorption lines that indicate mass transfer, but until now there has been no orbital period study to conclusively show a real period change resulting from mass transfer. In this study, new data are combined with those found in the available literature and in the database of the American Association of Variable Star Observers to construct the first ephemeris curve for R Ara, which spans more than a century since its discovery in 1894. Average orbital period change and conservative mass transfer rates are presented.

  11. Relativistic model of neutron stars in X-ray binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalam, Mehedi; Hossein, Sk Monowar; Islam, Rabiul; Molla, Sajahan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we study the inner structure of some neutron stars from theoretical as well as observational points of view. We calculate the probable radii, compactness (u) and surface redshift (Zs) of five neutron stars (X-ray binaries) namely 4U 1538-52, LMC X-4, 4U 1820-30, 4U 1608-52, EXO 1745-248. Here, we propose a stiff equation of state (EoS) of matter distribution which relates pressure with matter density. Finally, we check the stability of such kind of theoretical structure.

  12. Binary Star Systems and Extrasolar Planets: The PHASES Search for Planets in Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muterspaugh, M. W.; PTI: Palomar Testbed Interferometer Collaboration; PHASES Team

    2005-12-01

    A new observing method has been developed to perform very high precision differential astrometry on bright binary stars with separations in the range of 0.1-1.0 arcseconds. Typical measurement precisions over an hour of integration are on the order of 10 micro-arcseconds, enabling one to look for perturbations to the Keplerian orbit that would indicate the presence of additional components to the system. This is used as the basis for a new program to find extrasolar planets. The Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems (PHASES) is a search for giant planets orbiting either star in 50 binary systems. The goal of this search is to detect or rule out planets in the systems observed and thus place limits on any enhancements of planet formation in binaries. It is also used to measure fundamental properties of the stars comprising the binary, such as masses and distances, useful for constraining stellar models at the 10-3 level. This work is funded in part by a Michelson Graduate Fellowship, the California Institute of Technology Astronomy Department, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNG05GJ58G issued through the Terrestrial Planet Finder Foundation Science Program.

  13. Cool and luminous transients from mass-losing binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Metzger, Brian D.; Tomida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    We study transients produced by equatorial disc-like outflows from catastrophically mass-losing binary stars with an asymptotic velocity and energy deposition rate near the inner edge which are proportional to the binary escape velocity vesc. As a test case, we present the first smoothed-particle radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the mass loss from the outer Lagrange point with realistic equation of state and opacities. The resulting spiral stream becomes unbound for binary mass ratios 0.06 ≲ q ≲ 0.8. For synchronous binaries with non-degenerate components, the spiral-stream arms merge at a radius of ˜10a, where a is the binary semi-major axis, and the accompanying shock thermalizes about 10 per cent of the kinetic power of the outflow. The mass-losing binary outflows produce luminosities reaching up to ˜106 L⊙ and effective temperatures spanning 500 ≲ Teff ≲ 6000 K, which is compatible with many of the class of recently discovered red transients such as V838 Mon and V1309 Sco. Dust readily forms in the outflow, potentially in a catastrophic global cooling transition. The appearance of the transient is viewing angle-dependent due to vastly different optical depths parallel and perpendicular to the binary plane. We predict a correlation between the peak luminosity and the outflow velocity, which is roughly obeyed by the known red transients. Outflows from mass-losing binaries can produce luminous (105 L⊙) and cool (Teff ≲ 1500 K) transients lasting a year or longer, as has potentially been detected by Spitzer surveys of nearby galaxies.

  14. N-body Simulation of Binary Star Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutyra, Taylor; Sumpter, William

    2017-01-01

    Over 70% of the stars in our galaxy are multiple star systems, many of which are two stars that orbit around a common center of mass. The masses of the individual stars can be found using Newton’s and Kepler’s Laws. This allows astronomers to use these systems as astrophysical laboratories to study properties and processes of stars and galaxies. Among the many types observed, the dynamics of contact systems are the most interesting because they exhibit mass transfer, which changes the composition and function of both stars. The process by which this mass exchange takes place is not well understood. The lack of extensive mass transfer analysis, inadequate theoretical models, and the large time scale of this process are reasons for our limited understanding. In this work, a model was made to give astronomers a method for gaining a deeper knowledge and visual intuition of how the mass transfer between binary stars takes place. We have built the foundations for a simulation of arbitrary systems, which we plan to elaborate on in the future to include thermodynamics and nuclear processes.

  15. VX Her: Eclipsing Binary System or Single Variable Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Kathleen; Castelaz, Michael; Henson, Gary; Boghozian, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    VX Her is a pulsating variable star with a period of .4556504 days. It is believed to be part of an eclipsing binary system (Fitch et al. 1966). This hypothesis originated from Fitch seeing VX Her's minimum point on its light curve reaching a 0.7 magnitude fainter than normal and remaining that way for nearly two hours. If VX Her were indeed a binary system, I would expect to see similar results with a fainter minimum and a broader, more horizontal dip. Having reduced and analyzed images from the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy Observatory in Chile and Kitt Peak, as well as images from a 0.15m reflector at East Tennessee State University, I found that VX Her has the standard light curve of the prototype variable star, RR Lyrae. Using photometry, I found no differing features in its light curve to suggest that it is indeed a binary system. However, more observations are needed in case VX Her is a wide binary.

  16. Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Chris L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Ruffini, R

    2015-12-04

    Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (E_{iso}≳10^{52}  erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.

  17. Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R.

    2015-12-01

    Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (Eiso≳1052 erg ), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.

  18. Predicting the fate of binary red giants using the observed sequence E star population: binary planetary nebula nuclei and post-RGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, J. D.; Wood, P. R.; Nicholls, C. P.

    2012-07-01

    Sequence E variables are close binary red giants that show ellipsoidal light variations. They are likely the immediate precursors of planetary nebulae (PNe) with close binary central stars as well as other binary post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) and binary post-red giant branch (post-RGB) stars. We have made a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the fraction of red giant binaries that go through a common envelope event leading to the production of a close binary system or a merged star. The novel aspect of this simulation is that we use the observed frequency of sequence E binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to normalize our calculations. This normalization allows us to produce predictions that are relatively independent of model assumptions. In our standard model, and assuming that the relative numbers of PNe of various types are proportional to their birth rates, we find that in the LMC today the fraction of PNe with close binary central stars is 7-9 per cent, the fraction of PNe with intermediate period binary central stars having separations capable of influencing the nebula shape (orbital periods less than 500 yr) is 23-27 per cent, the fraction of PNe containing wide binaries that are unable to influence the nebula shape (orbital period greater than 500 yr) is 46-55 per cent, the fraction of PNe derived from single stars is 3-19 per cent, and 5-6 per cent of PNe are produced by previously merged stars. We also predict that the birth rate of post-RGB stars is ˜4 per cent of the total PN birth rate, equivalent to ˜50 per cent of the production rate of PNe with close binary central stars. These post-RGB stars most likely appear initially as luminous low-mass helium white dwarf binaries. The average lifetime of sequence E ellipsoidal variability with amplitude more than 0.02 mag is predicted to be ˜0.95 Myr. We use our model and the observed number of red giant stars in the top one magnitude of the RGB in the LMC to predict the number of PNe in

  19. NGC 1252: a high altitude, metal poor open cluster remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; Moni Bidin, C.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.

    2013-09-01

    If stars form in clusters but most stars belong to the field, understanding the details of the transition from the former to the latter is imperative to explain the observational properties of the field. Aging open clusters are one of the sources of field stars. The disruption rate of open clusters slows down with age but, as an object gets older, the distinction between the remaining cluster or open cluster remnant (OCR) and the surrounding field becomes less and less obvious. As a result, finding good OCR candidates or confirming the OCR nature of some of the best candidates still remain elusive. One of these objects is NGC 1252, a scattered group of about 20 stars in Horologium. Here we use new wide-field photometry in the UBVI passbands, proper motions from the Yale/San Juan SPM 4.0 catalogue and high-resolution spectroscopy concurrently with results from N-body simulations to decipher NGC 1252's enigmatic character. Spectroscopy shows that most of the brightest stars in the studied area are chemically, kinematically and spatially unrelated to each other. However, after analysing proper motions, we find one relevant kinematic group. This sparse object is relatively close (˜1 kpc), metal poor and is probably not only one of the oldest clusters (3 Gyr) within 1.5 kpc from the Sun but also one of the clusters located farthest from the disc, at an altitude of nearly -900 pc. That makes NGC 1252 the first open cluster that can be truly considered a high Galactic altitude OCR: an unusual object that may hint at a star formation event induced on a high Galactic altitude gas cloud. We also conclude that the variable TW Horologii and the blue straggler candidate HD 20286 are unlikely to be part of NGC 1252. NGC 1252 17 is identified as an unrelated, Population II cannonball star moving at about 400 km s-1.

  20. Neutrino flavor evolution in binary neutron star merger remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frensel, Maik; Wu, Meng-Ru; Volpe, Cristina; Perego, Albino

    2017-01-01

    We study the neutrino flavor evolution in the neutrino-driven wind from a binary neutron star merger remnant consisting of a massive neutron star surrounded by an accretion disk. With the neutrino emission characteristics and the hydrodynamical profile of the remnant consistently extracted from a three-dimensional simulation, we compute the flavor evolution by taking into account neutrino coherent forward scattering off ordinary matter and neutrinos themselves. We employ a "single-trajectory" approach to investigate the dependence of the flavor evolution on the neutrino emission location and angle. We also show that the flavor conversion in the merger remnant can affect the (anti)neutrino absorption rates on free nucleons and may thus impact the r -process nucleosynthesis in the wind. We discuss the sensitivity of such results on the change of neutrino emission characteristics, also from different neutron star merger simulations.

  1. Possible binary star progenitor for SN1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Graeme L.; Malin, D. F.

    1987-05-01

    Accurate optical astrometry gives a position (B1950.0) for the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova, SN 1987A, relative to the FK 4 system as right ascension, RA = 05h 35min 49.95 s±0.039 s, declination δ = -69°17arcmin57.9arcsec±0.27arcsec. Differential astrometry carried out on prime-focus plates taken with the AAT indicates that the component, star 1, of Sanduleak's star Sk -69202 is within 0.05±0.13 arc s of the supernova. The authors conclude that the progenitor of SN 1987A was star 1 or a fainter binary companion.

  2. Ultrarelativistic electromagnetic counterpart to binary neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Ioka, Kunihito; Shibata, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    We propose a possibility of ultrarelativistic electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves from binary neutron star mergers at nearly all the viewing angles. Our proposed mechanism relies on the merger-shock propagation accelerating a smaller mass in the outer parts of the neutron star crust to a larger Lorentz factor Γ with smaller energy ˜1047Γ-1 erg. This mechanism is difficult to resolve by current 3D numerical simulations. The outflows emit synchrotron flares for seconds to days by shocking the ambient medium. Ultrarelativistic flares shine at an early time and in high-energy bands, potentially detectable by current X-ray to radio instruments, such as Swift XRT and Pan-STARRS, and even in low ambient density ˜10-2 cm-3 by EVLA. The flares probe the merger position and time, and the merger types as black hole-neutron star outflows would be non-/mildly relativistic.

  3. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10-2 M ⊙ yr-1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr-1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  4. Generalized Solution for Binary Star Ephemerides and Apsidal Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hamme, W. V.; Wilson, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    We demonstrate generalized determination of apsidal motion rates (domega /dt's), orbital periods (P's), and period changes (dP/dt's) in binary stars. Our method can use eclipses but is not restricted to eclipse data. A general binary star program solves for domega /dt and/or ephemeris parameters together with other binary star quantities, and combines radial velocities and light curves within a coherent analysis. We can use data that may have large timewise gaps and may be far less than optimally distributed over time. The method is particularly useful when the apsidal period is long and eclipse timings cover only a small part of the cycle. We show apsidal motion results for AS Cam and find a domega /dt of 18.20+/-0.66 arcdeg /100;yr. This result compares to a domega /dt of 13.2+/-1.8 arcdeg /100;yr obtained from a traditional weighted least squares fit to almost 100 years of times of minima, which is 3.3 times smaller than predicted by theory. Other published estimates for the apsidal motion rate are 15.0+/-5.3 arcdeg /100;yr by Maloney, Guinan & Mukherjee (1991, AJ, 102, 256), and 18.3+/-2.6 arcdeg /100;yr by Wolf, \\u{S}arounova & Diethelm (1996, A&AS, 116, 463). Apsidal motion determined from times of minima depends on the value of the eccentricity e. Our result is for e = 0.1633, obtained from the light and velocity solution. The new domega /dt from the general analysis is 2.4 times smaller than theory, with a standard error 3 times smaller than in the traditional method. Our apsidal period of 1978+/-71 year is based on only 30 years of light and velocity curves, or 1.5% of the cycle. The method also works well in measuring period changes in long period giant binaries (such as symbiotics), considering that these stars are typically observed in fragments and that very few show eclipses that are useful as timing ticks. Our dP/dt results for the symbiotic binary AG Peg have implications for its future evolution. Natural extensions of the idea can include other

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MOST LUMINOUS STAR IN M33: A SUPER SYMBIOTIC BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Mikołajewska, Joanna; Iłkiewicz, Krystian; Caldwell, Nelson; Shara, Michael M.

    2015-01-30

    We present the first spectrum of the most luminous infrared star in M33, and use it to demonstrate that the object is almost certainly a binary composed of a massive O star and a dust-enshrouded red hypergiant. This is the most luminous symbiotic binary ever discovered. Its radial velocity is an excellent match to that of the hydrogen gas in the disk of M33, supporting our interpretation that it is a very young and massive binary star.

  6. Binary stars in the AB Doradus moving group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azulay, R.; Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Ros, E.

    2017-03-01

    We present a study of the radio emission and kinematics of a sample of stars belonging to the AB Doradus moving group through VLBI observations. The main aim of our study is to obtain precise estimates of the dynamical mass of young, low-mass stars, which in combination with photometric measurements provide precise benchmarks for calibrating pre-main-sequence (PMS) stellar evolutionary models. Previous studies show that model predictions are in disagreement with experimental results for masses below 1.2 M_{⊙}. Among the stars included in our study, we emphasize the results obtained in two of them: AB Dor B and HD 160934, from which we have measured both the relative and absolute orbital motion. Accordingly, we obtained precise estimates of the mass of the components of these binaries (ranging from 0.25 to 0.7 M_{⊙}). Comparisons of the dynamical masses with the prediction of PMS evolutionary models show that the models underpredict the dynamical masses of the binary components by 10-40%.

  7. Phenomenological Modelling of a Group of Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, Ivan L.; Tkachenko, Mariia G.; Chinarova, Lidia L.

    2016-03-01

    Phenomenological modeling of variable stars allows determination of a set of the parameters, which are needed for classification in the "General Catalogue of Variable Stars" and similar catalogs. We apply a recent method NAV ("New Algol Variable") to eclipsing binary stars of different types. Although all periodic functions may be represented as Fourier series with an infinite number of coefficients, this is impossible for a finite number of the observations. Thus one may use a restricted Fourier series, i.e. a trigonometric polynomial (TP) of order s either for fitting the light curve, or to make a periodogram analysis. However, the number of parameters needed drastically increases with decreasing width of minimum. In the NAV algorithm, the special shape of minimum is used, so the number of parameters is limited to 10 (if the period and initial epoch are fixed) or 12 (not fixed). We illustrate the NAV method by application to a recently discovered Algol-type eclipsing variable 2MASS J11080308-6145589 (in the field of previously known variable star RS Car) and compare results to that obtained using the TP fits. For this system, the statistically optimal number of parameters is 44, but the fit is still worse than that of the NAV fit. Application to the system GSC 3692-00624 argues that the NAV fit is better than the TP one even for the case of EW-type stars with much wider eclipses. Model parameters are listed.

  8. Winds of Binary AGB Stars as Observed by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Jorissen, A.; Kerschbaum, F.; Ottensamer, R.; Mečina, M.; Paladini, C.; Cox, N. L. J.; Nowotny, W.; Aringer, B.; Pourbaix, D.; Mohamed, S.; Siopis, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2015-08-01

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of the large-scale environments of binary AGB stars as part of the Mass-loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) sample. From the literature we found 18 of the objects to be members of physically bound multiple systems. Several show a large-scale far-IR emission which differs significantly from spherical symmetry. A probable cause is the gravitational force of the companion on the stellar AGB wind and the mass-losing star itself. A spiral pattern is thereby imprinted in the dusty stellar wind. The most remarkable structures are found around o Ceti, W Aquilæ, R Aquarii, and π1 Gruis. The environments of o Cet and W Aql show a spiral pattern while the symbiotic nature of R Aqr is revealed as two opposing arms which reflect a nova outburst. The emission around π1 Gru is dominated by two structures, a disk and an arc, which are presumably not caused by the same companion. We found evidence that π1 Gru is a hierarchical triple system in which a close companion attracts the AGB wind onto the orbital plane and the outer companion forms a spiral arm. These far-IR observations underline the role of a companion as a major external influence in creating asymmetric winds in the AGB phase, even before the star becomes a planetary nebula (PN).

  9. The Relativitic Evolution of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, J. A.; Baumgarte, T. W.; Shapiro, S. L.; Taniguchi, K.

    2004-12-01

    We report results from our new relativistic evolution calculations of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries. The evolution equations of general relativity are treated in the conformally flat (CF) approximation. Assuming that the BH mass is significantly larger than that of the NS allows us to simplify the field equations for the NS, which we solve self-consistently in a fixed BH background spacetime. This approach guarantees that self-gravity is fully included. The NS fluid, assumed here to follow a gamma-law equation of state (EOS), is evolved using a Lagrangian SPH method. The field equations are solved by spectral methods in spheroidal coordinates. The code has been tested by comparing our results to previously computed quasi-equilibrium sequences, showing good agreement. Our results are a crucial first step in evaluating the stability of mass transfer in extremely close BH-NS binaries. They will allow us to describe quantitatively the dynamical tidal disruption of the NS, and to determine the dependence on the initial binary parameters, including the mass ratio and assumed NS EOS. We will also discuss the implications for detecting gravitational waves from the merger of these systems, about which, in contrast to NS-NS binaries, little is currently known for systems with components of comparable mass. JAF is supported by an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-0401533.

  10. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal-poor galaxies*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Shi, Yong; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-05-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal-poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z ≲ Z⊙/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f70μm/f160 μm ratios at a given f160 μm/f250 μm ratio; single modified blackbody (MBB) fittings to the SED at λ ≥ 100 μm still reveal higher dust temperatures and lower emissivity indices compared to that of Spirals, while two MBB fittings to the full SED with a fixed emissivity index (β = 2) show that even at 100 μm, about half of the emission comes from warm (50 K) dust, in contrast to the cold (˜20 K) dust component. Our spatially resolved images furthermore reveal that the far-IR colours including f70 μm/f160 μm, f160 μm/f250 μm and f250 μm/f350 μm are all related to the surface densities of young stars as traced by far-UV, 24 μm and star formation rates (SFRs), but not to the stellar mass surface densities. This suggests that the dust emitting at wavelengths from 70 to 350 μm is primarily heated by radiation from young stars.

  11. Catalogue and properties of δ Scuti stars in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakos, Alexios; Niarchos, Panagiotis

    2017-02-01

    The catalogue contains 199 confirmed cases of binary systems containing at least one pulsating component of δ Sct type. The sample is divided into subgroups in order to describe the properties and characteristics of the δ Sct-type stars in binaries according to their Roche geometry. Demographics describing quantitatively our knowledge for these systems as well as the distributions of their pulsating components in the mass-radius, colour-magnitude, and evolutionary status-temperature diagrams are presented and discussed. It is shown that a threshold of ∼13 d of the orbital period regarding the influence of binarity on the pulsations is established. Finally, the correlations between the pulsation periods and the orbital periods, evolutionary status, and companion's gravity influence are updated based on the largest sample to date.

  12. The frequency of binary star interlopers amongst transitional discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruíz-Rodríguez, D.; Ireland, M.; Cieza, L.; Kraus, A.

    2016-12-01

    Using Non-Redundant Mask interferometry (NRM), we searched for binary companions to objects previously classified as transitional discs (TD). These objects are thought to be an evolutionary stage between an optically thick disc and optically thin disc. We investigate the presence of a stellar companion as a possible mechanism of material depletion in the inner region of these discs, which would rule out an ongoing planetary formation process in distances comparable to the binary separation. For our detection limits, we implement a new method of completeness correction using a combination of randomly sampled binary orbits and Bayesian inference. The selected sample of 24 TDs belongs to the nearby and young star-forming regions: Ophiuchus (˜130 pc), Taurus-Auriga (˜140 pc) and IC348 (˜220 pc). These regions are suitable to resolve faint stellar companions with moderate to high confidence levels at distances as low as 2 au from the central star. With a total of 31 objects, including 11 known TDs and circumbinary discs from the literature, we have found that a fraction of 0.38 ± 0.09 of the SEDs of these objects are likely due to the tidal interaction between a close binary and its disc, while the remaining SEDs are likely the result of other internal processes such as photoevaporation, grain growth, planet-disc interactions. In addition, we detected four companions orbiting outside the area of the truncation radii and propose that the IR excesses of these systems are due to a disc orbiting a secondary companion.

  13. The Possibility of Multiple Habitable Worlds Orbiting Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, P. A.

    2014-03-01

    Are there planetary systems for which there is life on multiple worlds? Where are these fruitful planetary systems and how do we detect them? In order to address these questions; conditions which enable life and those that prevent or destroy it must be considered. Many constraints are specific to planetary systems, independent of the number of worlds in habitable zones. For instance, life on rocky planets or moons likely requires the right abundance of volatiles and radiogenic elements for prolonged geologic activity. Catastrophic sterilization events such as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts affect entire planetary systems not just specific worlds. Giant planets may either enhance or disrupt the development of complex life within a given system. It might be rare for planetary systems to possess qualities that promote life and lucky enough to avoid cataclysm. However, multiple habitable planets may provide enhanced chances for advanced life to develop. The best predictor of life on one habitable zone planet might be the presence of life on its neighbor as panspermia may occur in planetary systems with several habitable worlds. Circumbinary habitability may go hand in hand with habitability of multiple worlds. The circumstances in which the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) operates are reviewed. In some cases, the early synchronization of the primary's rotation with the binary period results in a reduction of XUV flux and stellar winds. Main sequence binaries with periods in the 10-50 days provide excellent habitable environments, within which multiple worlds may thrive. Planets and moons in these habitable zones need less magnetic protection than their single star counterparts. Exomoons orbiting a Neptune-like planet, within a BHM protected habitable zone, are expected to be habitable over a wide range of semimajor axes due to a larger planetary Hill radius. A result confirmed by numerical orbital calculations. Binaries containing a solar type star with a

  14. Quasiequilibrium sequences of binary neutron stars undergoing dynamical scalarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Shibata, Masaru; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    We calculate quasiequilibrium sequences of equal-mass, irrotational binary neutron stars in a scalar-tensor theory of gravity that admits dynamical scalarization. We model neutron stars with realistic equations of state (notably through piecewise polytropic equations of state). Using these quasiequilibrium sequences we compute the binary's scalar charge and binding energy versus orbital angular frequency. We find that the absolute value of the binding energy is smaller than in general relativity, differing at most by ˜14 % at high frequencies for the cases considered. We use the newly computed binding energy and the balance equation to estimate the number of gravitational-wave (GW) cycles during the adiabatic, quasicircular inspiral stage up to the end of the sequence, which is the last stable orbit or the mass-shedding point, depending on which comes first. We find that, depending on the scalar-tensor parameters, the number of GW cycles can be substantially smaller than in general relativity. In particular, we obtain that when dynamical scalarization sets in around a GW frequency of ˜130 Hz , the sole inclusion of the scalar-tensor binding energy causes a reduction of GW cycles from ˜120 Hz up to the end of the sequence (˜1200 Hz ) of ˜11 % with respect to the general-relativity case. (The number of GW cycles from ˜120 Hz to the end of the sequence in general relativity is ˜270 .) We estimate that when the scalar-tensor energy flux is also included the reduction in GW cycles becomes of ˜24 %. Quite interestingly, dynamical scalarization can produce a difference in the number of GW cycles with respect to the general-relativity point-particle case that is much larger than the effect due to tidal interactions, which is on the order of only a few GW cycles. These results further clarify and confirm recent studies that have evolved binary neutron stars either in full numerical relativity or in post-Newtonian theory, and point out the importance of developing

  15. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR V335 SERPENTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Fekel, Francis C.; Claret, Antonio E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu

    2012-08-15

    V335 Ser is now known to be an eccentric double-lined A1+A3 binary star with fairly deep (0.5 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7456 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 5666 from the NFO WebScope, and 67 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope. From dates of minima, the apsidal period is about 880 years. Accurate (better than 2%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the two new light curves and the radial velocity curve. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 380 Myr, though the age agreement for the two components is poor. Tidal theory correctly confirms that the orbit should still be eccentric, but we find that standard tidal theory is unable to match the observed asynchronous rotation rates of the components' surface layers.

  16. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR HY VIRGINIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Fekel, Francis C. E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu

    2011-12-15

    HY Vir is found to be a double-lined F0m+F5 binary star with relatively shallow (0.3 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7509 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 8862 from the NFO WebScope, and 68 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope, and the 1 m coude-feed spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Very accurate (better than 0.5%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the new light curves and radial velocity curves. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 1.35 Gy.

  17. Hybridizing Gravitationl Waveforms of Inspiralling Binary Neutron Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Torrey; LIGO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waves are ripples in space and time and were predicted to be produced by astrophysical systems such as binary neutron stars by Albert Einstein. These are key targets for Laser Interferometer and Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), which uses template waveforms to find weak signals. The simplified template models are known to break down at high frequency, so I wrote code that constructs hybrid waveforms from numerical simulations to accurately cover a large range of frequencies. These hybrid waveforms use Post Newtonian template models at low frequencies and numerical data from simulations at high frequencies. They are constructed by reading in existing Post Newtonian models with the same masses as simulated stars, reading in the numerical data from simulations, and finding the ideal frequency and alignment to ``stitch'' these waveforms together.

  18. Analytical estimates of secular frequencies for binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazsó, Á.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.

    2017-03-01

    Binary and multiple star systems are extreme environments for the formation and long-term presence of extrasolar planets. Circumstellar planets are subject to gravitational perturbations from the distant companion star, and this interaction leads to a long-period precession of their orbits. We investigate analytical models that allow to quantify these perturbations and calculate the secular precession frequency in the dynamical model of the restricted three-body problem. These models are applied to test cases and we discuss some of their shortcomings. In addition, we introduce a modified Laplace-Lagrange model which allows to obtain better frequency estimates than the traditional model for large eccentricities of the perturber. We then generalize this model to any number of perturbers, and present an application to the four-body problem.

  19. Binary dynamics on star networks under external perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Carolina A.; Schneider, David M.; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

    2015-10-01

    We study a binary dynamical process that is a representation of the voter model with two candidates and opinion makers. The voters are represented by nodes of a network of social contacts with internal states labeled 0 or 1 and nodes that are connected can influence each other. The network is also perturbed by opinion makers, a set of external nodes whose states are frozen in 0 or 1 and that can influence all nodes of the network. The quantity of interest is the probability of finding m nodes in state 1 at time t . Here we study this process on star networks, which are simple representations of hubs found in complex systems, and compare the results with those obtained for networks that are fully connected. In both cases a transition from disordered to ordered equilibrium states is observed as the number of external nodes becomes small. For fully connected networks the probability distribution becomes uniform at the critical point. For star networks, on the other hand, we show that the equilibrium distribution splits in two peaks, reflecting the two possible states of the central node. We obtain approximate analytical solutions for the equilibrium distribution that clarify the role of the central node in the process. We show that the network topology also affects the time scale of oscillations in single realizations of the dynamics, which are much faster for the star network. Finally, extending the analysis to two stars we compare our results with simulations in simple scale-free networks.

  20. Rotating and binary relativistic stars with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, Charalampos

    We develop a geometrical treatment of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics for perfectly conducting fluids in Einstein--Maxwell--Euler spacetimes. The theory is applied to describe a neutron star that is rotating or is orbiting a black hole or another neutron star. Under the hypotheses of stationarity and axisymmetry, we obtain the equations governing magnetohydrodynamic equilibria of rotating neutron stars with poloidal, toroidal or mixed magnetic fields. Under the hypothesis of an approximate helical symmetry, we obtain the first law of thermodynamics governing magnetized equilibria of double neutron star or black hole - neutron star systems in close circular orbits. The first law is written as a relation between the change in the asymptotic Noether charge deltaQ and the changes in the area and electric charge of black holes, and in the vorticity, baryon rest mass, entropy, charge and magnetic flux of the magnetofluid. In an attempt to provide a better theoretical understanding of the methods used to construct models of isolated rotating stars and corotating or irrotational binaries and their unexplained convergence properties, we analytically examine the behavior of different iterative schemes near a static solution. We find the spectrum of the linearized iteration operator and show for self-consistent field methods that iterative instability corresponds to unstable modes of this operator. On the other hand, we show that the success of iteratively stable methods is due to (quasi-)nilpotency of this operator. Finally, we examine the integrability of motion of test particles in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. We use a direct approach to seek nontrivial constants of motion polynomial in the momenta---in addition to energy and angular momentum about the symmetry axis. We establish the existence and uniqueness of quadratic constants and the nonexistence of quartic constants for stationary axisymmetric Newtonian potentials with equatorial symmetry

  1. Initial data for black hole-neutron star binaries, with rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacik, Nick; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Muhlberger, Curran; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla

    2016-11-01

    The coalescence of a neutron star with a black hole is a primary science target of ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Constraining or measuring the neutron star spin directly from gravitational wave observations requires knowledge of the dependence of the emission properties of these systems on the neutron star spin. This paper lays foundations for this task, by developing a numerical method to construct initial data for black hole-neutron star binaries with arbitrary spin on the neutron star. We demonstrate the robustness of the code by constructing initial-data sets in large regions of the parameter space. In addition to varying the neutron star spin-magnitude and spin-direction, we also explore neutron star compactness, mass-ratio, black hole spin, and black hole spin-direction. Specifically, we are able to construct initial data sets with neutron stars spinning near centrifugal break-up, and with black hole spins as large as {S}{BH}/{M}{BH}2=0.99.

  2. Approximate universal relations among tidal parameters for neutron star binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    One of largest uncertainties in nuclear physics is the relation between the pressure and density of supranuclear matter: the equation of state. Some of this uncertainty may be removed through future gravitational wave observations of neutron star binaries by extracting the tidal deformabilities (or Love numbers) of neutron stars, a novel way to probe nuclear physics in the high-density regime. Previous studies have shown that only a certain combination of the individual (quadrupolar) deformabilities of each body (the so-called chirp tidal deformability) can be measured with second-generation, gravitational wave interferometers, such as Adv. LIGO, due to correlations between the individual deformabilities. To overcome this, we search for approximately universal (i.e. approximately equation-of-state independent) relations between two combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities, such that once one of them has been measured, the other can be automatically obtained and the individual ones decoupled through these relations. We find an approximately universal relation between the symmetric and the anti-symmetric combination of the individual tidal deformabilities that is equation-of-state-insensitive to 20 % for binaries with masses less than 1.7{{M}⊙} . We show that these relations can be used to eliminate a combination of the tidal parameters from the list of model parameters, thus breaking degeneracies and improving the accuracy in parameter estimation. A simple (Fisher) study shows that the universal binary Love relations can improve the accuracy in the extraction of the symmetric combination of tidal parameters by as much as an order of magnitude, making the overall accuracy in the extraction of this parameter slightly better than that of the chirp tidal deformability. These new universal relations and the improved measurement accuracy on tidal parameters not only are important to astrophysics and nuclear physics, but also impact our ability to probe

  3. New systemic radial velocities of suspected RR Lyrae binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, E.; Barnes, T. G.; Kolenberg, K.

    2016-05-01

    Among the tens of thousands of known RR Lyrae stars there are only a handful that show indications of possible binarity. The question why this is the case is still unsolved, and has recently sparked several studies dedicated to the search for additional RR Lyraes in binary systems. Such systems are particularly valuable because they might allow to constrain the stellar mass. Most of the recent studies, however, are based on photometry by finding a light time effect in the timings of maximum light. This approach is a very promising and successful one, but it has a major drawback: by itself, it cannot serve as a definite proof of binarity, because other phenomena such as the Blazhko effect or intrinsic period changes could lead to similar results. Spectroscopic radial velocity measurements, on the other hand, can serve as definite proof of binarity. We have therefore started a project to study spectroscopically RR Lyrae stars that are suspected to be binaries. We have obtained radial velocity (RV) curves with the 2.1m telescope at McDonald observatory. From these we derive systemic RVs which we will compare to previous measurements in order to find changes induced by orbital motions. We also construct templates of the RV curves that can facilitate future studies. We also observed the most promising RR Lyrae binary candidate, TU UMa, as no recent spectroscopic measurements were available. We present a densely covered pulsational RV curve, which will be used to test the predictions of the orbit models that are based on the O - C variations.

  4. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: black hole - neutron star binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prayush; Pürrer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    The pioneering observations of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO have ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for GW observations, of which black hole - neutron star (BHNS) binaries form an important subset. GWs from coalescing BHNS systems carry signatures of the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, as well as of its disruption close to merger. In this talk, I will discuss how well we can measure tidal effects from individual and populations of LIGO observations of disruptive BHNS mergers. I will also talk about how our measurements of non-tidal parameters can get affected by ignoring tidal effects in BHNS parameter estimation.

  5. METAL-POOR LITHIUM-RICH GIANTS IN THE RADIAL VELOCITY EXPERIMENT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchti, Gregory R.; Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard F.; Grebel, Eva K.; Bienayme, Olivier; Siebert, Arnaud; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Freeman, Ken C.; Gibson, Brad K.; Munari, Ulisse; Navarro, Julio F.; Parker, Quentin A.; Watson, Fred G.; Reid, Warren; Seabroke, George M.; Siviero, Alessandro; Steinmetz, Matthias; Williams, Mary; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2011-12-20

    We report the discovery of eight lithium-rich field giants found in a high-resolution spectroscopic sample of over 700 metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -0.5) selected from the Radial Velocity Experiment survey. The majority of the Li-rich giants in our sample are very metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx}< -1.9), and have a Li abundance (in the form of {sup 7}Li), A(Li) = log (n(Li)/n(H)) + 12, between 2.30 and 3.63, well above the typical upper red giant branch (RGB) limit, A(Li) < 0.5, while two stars, with A(Li) {approx} 1.7-1.8, show similar lithium abundances to normal giants at the same gravity. We further included two metal-poor, Li-rich globular cluster giants in our sample, namely the previously discovered M3-IV101 and newly discovered (in this work) M68-A96. This comprises the largest sample of metal-poor Li-rich giants to date. We performed a detailed abundance analysis of all stars, finding that the majority of our sample stars have elemental abundances similar to that of Li-normal halo giants. Although the evolutionary phase of each Li-rich giant cannot be definitively determined, the Li-rich phase is likely connected to extra mixing at the RGB bump or early asymptotic giant branch that triggers cool bottom processing in which the bottom of the outer convective envelope is connected to the H-burning shell in the star. The surface of a star becomes Li-enhanced as {sup 7}Be (which burns to {sup 7}Li) is transported to the stellar surface via the Cameron-Fowler mechanism. We discuss and discriminate among several models for the extra mixing that can cause Li production, given the detailed abundances of the Li-rich giants in our sample.

  6. Evolution of Intermediate Mass and Massive Binary Stars: Physics, Mass Loss, and Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbeveren, D.; Mennekens, N.

    2017-02-01

    In the present review we discuss the past and present status of the interacting OB-type binary frequency. We critically examine the popular idea that Be-stars and supergiant sgB[e] stars are binary evolutionary products. The effects of rotation on stellar evolution in general, stellar population studies in particular, and the link with binaries will be evaluated. Finally a discussion is presented of massive double compact star binary mergers as possible major sites of chemical enrichment of r-process elements and as the origin of recent aLIGO GW events.

  7. Bowen-York-type initial data for binaries with neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Michael; Laguna, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    A new approach to construct initial data for binary systems with neutron star components is introduced. The approach is a generalization of the puncture initial data method for binary black holes based on Bowen-York solutions to the momentum constraint. As with binary black holes, the method allows setting orbital configurations with direct input from post-Newtonian approximations and involves solving only the Hamiltonian constraint. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated with evolutions of double neutron star and black hole-neutron star binaries in quasicircular orbits.

  8. The VLT Unravels the Nature of the Fastest Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Two Hot White Dwarfs Perform a Tight Dance Summary Observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile and the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) on the Canary Islands during the past two years have enabled an international group of astronomers [1] to unravel the true nature of an exceptional binary stellar system. This system, designated RX J0806.3+1527 , was first discovered as an X-ray source of variable brightness - once every five minutes, it "switches off" for a short moment. The new observations have shown beyond doubt that this period reflects the orbital motion of two "white dwarf" stars that revolve around each other at a distance of only 80,000 km . Each of the stars is about as large as the Earth and this is the shortest orbital period known for any binary stellar system. The VLT spectrum displays lines of ionized helium, indicating that the presence of an exceedingly hot area on one of the stars - a "hot spot" with a temperature of approx. 250,000 degrees. The system is currently in a rarely seen, transitory evolutionary state . PR Photo 10a/02 : U- and R-band images of RX J0806.3+1527. PR Photo 10b/02 : Spectrum of RX J0806.3+1527 An amazing stellar binary system ESO PR Photo 10a/02 ESO PR Photo 10a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 400 pix - 440k] [Normal - JPEG: 1600 x 800 pix - 1.1M] Caption : PR Photo 10a/02 shows U and R filter images of the sky field around RX J0806.3+1527 (at centre of circle), obtained with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument on VLT KUEYEN. The object is brightest at the shorter wavelength (U-band) - reflecting its very high temperature. Technical information about the photo is available below. One year is the time it takes the Earth to move once around the Sun, our central star. This may seem quite fast when measured on the scale of the Universe, but this is a snail's motion compared to the the speed of two recently discovered stars. They revolve around each other 100,000 times faster; one full revolution takes only 321

  9. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Active Binary Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This NASA grant covered EUVE observing and data analysis programs during EUVE Cycle 5 GO observing. The research involved a single Guest Observer project 97-EUVE-061 "Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Active Binary Stars". The grant provided funding that covered 1.25 months of the PI's salary. The activities undertaken included observation planning and data analysis (both temporal and spectral). This project was awarded 910 ksec of observing time to study seven active binary stars, all but one of which were actually observed. Lambda-And was observed on 1997 Jul 30 - Aug 3 and Aug 7-14 for a total of 297 ksec; these observations showed two large complex flares that were analyzed by Osten & Brown (1999). AR Psc, observed for 350 ksec on 1997 Aug 27 - Sep 13, showed only relatively small flares that were also discussed by Osten & Brown (1999). EUVE observations of El Eri were obtained on 1994 August 24-28, simultaneous with ASCA X-ray spectra. Four flares were detected by EUVE with one of these also observed simultaneously, by ASCA. The other three EUVE observations were of the stars BY Dra (1997 Sep 22-28), V478 Lyr (1998 May 18-27), and sigma Gem (1998 Dec 10-22). The first two stars showed a few small flares. The sigma Gem data shows a beautiful complete flare with a factor of ten peak brightness compared to quiescence. The flare rise and almost all the decay phase are observed. Unfortunately no observations in other spectral regions were obtained for these stars. Analysis of the lambda-And and AR Psc observations is complete and the results were published in Osten & Brown (1999). Analysis of the BY Dra, V478 Lyr and sigma Gem EUVE data is complete and will be published in Osten (2000, in prep.). The El Eri EUV analysis is also completed and the simultaneous EUV/X-ray study will be published in Osten et al. (2000, in prep.). Both these latter papers will be submitted in summer 2000. All these results will form part of Rachel Osten's PhD thesis.

  10. Discovering metal-poor circumstellar OH masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Steve; Green, James; van Loon, Jacco; Wood, Peter; Imai, Hiroshi; Groenewegen, Martin; Nanni, Ambra

    2014-10-01

    OH masers are excellent signposts for a variety of phenomenon including winds of highly-evolved stars (1612 MHz). Using the superior angular resolution and sensitivity of the ATCA, high spectral resolution of the CABB backend, and close proximity to the LMC (with half solar metallicity), this observation will allow us to extend an important relation involving the evolution of red giants and supergiants in a lower metallicity (van Loon, 2012). With even fewer detections with clear double-peaked profiles, indicating an expansion velocity of the circumstellar envelope, successful observation is vital for the advancement of our stellar mass-loss models. By refining the metallicity dependence of the mass-loss of highly-evolved red giants and supergiants in their superwind phase, we can better understand the evolution of these stars and their feedback within galaxies.

  11. CARBON-RICH DUST PRODUCTION IN METAL-POOR GALAXIES IN THE LOCAL GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, G. C.; Matsuura, M.; Lagadec, E.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Kraemer, K. E.; McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Wood, P. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2012-06-20

    We have observed a sample of 19 carbon stars in the Sculptor, Carina, Fornax, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra show significant quantities of dust around the carbon stars in Sculptor, Fornax, and Leo I, but little in Carina. Previous comparisons of carbon stars with similar pulsation properties in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds revealed no evidence that metallicity affected the production of dust by carbon stars. However, the more metal-poor stars in the current sample appear to be generating less dust. These data extend two known trends to lower metallicities. In more metal-poor samples, the SiC dust emission weakens, while the acetylene absorption strengthens. The bolometric magnitudes and infrared spectral properties of the carbon stars in Fornax are consistent with metallicities more similar to carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds than in the other dwarf spheroidals in our sample. A study of the carbon budget in these stars reinforces previous considerations that the dredge-up of sufficient quantities of carbon from the stellar cores may trigger the final superwind phase, ending a star's lifetime on the asymptotic giant branch.

  12. Binaries in star clusters and the origin of the field stellar population.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Simon P

    2010-02-28

    Many, possibly most, stars form in binary and higher order multiple systems. Therefore, the properties and frequency of binary systems provide strong clues to the star-formation process, and constraints on star-formation models. However, the majority of stars also form in star clusters in which the birth binary properties and frequency can be altered rapidly by dynamical processing. Thus, we almost never see the birth population, which makes it very difficult to know whether star formation (as traced by binaries, at least) is universal or whether it depends on the environment. In addition, the field population consists of a mixture of systems from different clusters that have all been processed in different ways.

  13. The dynamical importance of binary systems in young massive star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard; Li, Chengyuan; Geller, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    Characterization of the binary fractions in star clusters is of fundamental importance for many fields in astrophysics. Observations indicate that the majority of stars are found in binary systems, while most stars with masses greater than 0.5M ⊙ are formed in star clusters. In addition, since binaries are on average more massive than single stars, in resolved star clusters these systems are thought to be good tracers of (dynamical) mass segregation. Over time, dynamical evolution through two-body relaxation will cause the most massive objects to migrate to the cluster center, while the relatively lower-mass objects remain in or migrate to orbits at greater radii. This process will globally dominate a cluster's stellar distribution. However, close encounters involving binary systems may disrupt `soft' binaries. This process will occur more frequently in a cluster's central, dense region than in its periphery, which may mask the effects of mass segregation. Using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope observations, combined with sophisticated N-body simulations, we investigate the radial distributions of the main-sequence binary fractions in massive young Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters. We show that binary disruption may play an important role on very short timescales, depending on the environmental conditions in the cluster cores. This may lead to radial binary fractions that initially decline in the cluster centers, which is contrary to the effects expected from dynamical mass segregation.

  14. Optical microflaring on the nearby flare star binary UV Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Kanbach, G.; Rau, A.; Steinle, H.

    2016-05-01

    We present extremely high time resolution observations of the visual flare star binary UV Cet obtained with the Optical Pulsar Timing Analyzer (OPTIMA) at the 1.3 m telescope at Skinakas Observatory (SKO) in Crete, Greece. OPTIMA is a fiber-fed optical instrument that uses Single Photon Avalanche Diodes to measure the arrival times of individual optical photons. The time resolution of the observations presented here was 4 μs, allowing to resolve the typical millisecond variability time scales associated with stellar flares. We report the detection of very short impulsive bursts in the blue band with well resolved rise and decay time scales of about 2 s. The overall energetics put these flares at the lower end of the known flare distribution of UV Cet.

  15. Analytic orbit propagation of planets in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytical framework that accurately describes the motion of co-planar planets in binary star systems on orbital as well as secular timescales. The method builds upon analytic solutions of the differential equations governing the behavior of the system's perturbed Laplace-Runge-Lenz vectors. Multiple time-scale analysis is used to derive the short period evolutions of the system, while octupole secular theory is applied to describe its long term behavior. A post Newtonian correction on the stellar orbit is included for circumbinary planets. Our model is tested against results from numerical integrations of the full equations of motion. An application to circumbinary planetary systems discovered by NASA's Kepler satellite reveals that the formation history of the systems Kepler-34 and Kepler-413 has most likely been different from the one of Kepler-16, Kepler-35, Kepler-38 and Kepler-64, as the former systems are not compatible with the assumption of almost circular initial planetary orbits.

  16. Resonant tidal excitation of superfluid neutron stars in coalescing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hang; Weinberg, Nevin N.

    2017-01-01

    We study the resonant tidal excitation of g modes in coalescing superfluid neutron star (NS) binaries and investigate how such tidal driving impacts the gravitational-wave (GW) signal of the inspiral. Previous studies of this type treated the NS core as a normal fluid and thus did not account for its expected superfluidity. The source of buoyancy that supports the g modes is fundamentally different in the two cases: in a normal fluid core, the buoyancy is due to gradients in the proton-to-neutron fraction, whereas in a superfluid core it is due to gradients in the muon-to-electron fraction. The latter yields a stronger stratification and a superfluid NS therefore has a denser spectrum of g modes with frequencies above 10 Hz. As a result, many more g modes undergo resonant tidal excitation as the binary sweeps through the bandwidth of GW detectors such as LIGO. We find that ≃ 10 times more orbital energy is transferred into g-mode oscillations if the NS has a superfluid core rather than a normal fluid core. However, because this energy is transferred later in the inspiral when the orbital decay is faster, the accumulated phase error in the gravitational waveform is comparable for a superfluid and a normal fluid NS (˜10-3-10-2rad). A phase error of this magnitude is too small to be measured from a single event with the current generation of GW detectors.

  17. Heartbeat Stars: A Class Of Tidally Excited Eccentric Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Thomas; Thompson, S. E.; Mullally, F.; Everett, M.; Howell, S. B.; Still, M.; Christiansen, J. L.; Rowe, J.; Kurtz, D. W.; Hambleton, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have discovered a class of eccentric binary systems undergoing dynamic tidal distortions and tidally induced pulsations in the Kepler data. Each has a uniquely shaped light curve that is characterized by periodic brightening or variability at time scales of 4-20 days which is frequently accompanied by shorter period oscillations. We can explain the dominant features of the entire class with changing tidal forces that occur in close, eccentric binary systems. In this case the large variety of light curve shapes arises from viewing systems at different angles. A hypothesis that is confirmed with radial velocity measurements that show an eccentric orbit. Prior to the discovery of these 17 new systems, KOI-54 was the only system with direct detection of these dynamic tides and tidally induced oscillations. While significant work remains to include all the physics required to accurately model these systems and begin to understand how tidal effects influence the system, in this presentation we present preliminary fits to the light curves and describe the properties of this class of stars as a whole.

  18. First period investigation of detached binary star AM Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.-H.; Zhu, L.-Y.

    2016-11-01

    AM Tau is a detached eclipsing binary with the secondary component more evolved than the primary one. The period changes of this neglected eclipsing binary are analyzed based on four times of primary minimum obtained between 2007 and 2016 together with those collected from the literature. It is detected that the general trend of the O-C curve shows a downward parabolic variation, which reveals a continuous period decrease at a rate of dP / dt = - 9.0 ×10-7(± 0.2) d yr-1 , meanwhile, the system undergoes two cyclic oscillations with periods of 24.1 and 8.8 years. The continuous decrease in the orbital period may be caused by angular momentum loss (AML) via an enhanced stellar wind of the evolved secondary star. The two cyclic variations in the O-C diagram are interpreted by the light travel-time effect via the presence of two additional stellar companions with masses estimated as M3sin i3 ∼ 1.36 M⊙ and M4sin i4 ∼ 0.33 M⊙. Their orbital separations are about 14 and 8 AU, respectively, and the orbital periods are almost in 3 : 1 resonance orbits.

  19. Lessons from Darwin: Breeding the Best-fit Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, T. S.

    1998-12-01

    I have developed a procedure utilizing a Genetic-Algorithm-based optimization scheme to fit the observed light curves of an eclipsing binary star with a model produced by the Wilson-Devinney code. The principal advantages of this approach are the objectivity and the uniqueness of the final result. Although this method is more efficient than other comparably global search techniques, the computational requirements of the code are still considerable. I have applied this fitting procedure to my observations of the W UMa type eclipsing binary BH Cassiopeiae. An analysis of V--band CCD data obtained in 1994/95 from Steward Observatory and U-- and B--band photoelectric data obtained in 1996 from McDonald Observatory provided three complete light curves to constrain the fit. In addition, radial velocity curves obtained in 1997 from McDonald Observatory provided a direct measurement of the system mass ratio to restrict the search. The results of the GA-based fit are in excellent agreement with the final orbital solution obtained with the standard differential corrections procedure in the Wilson-Devinney code.

  20. SELF-REGULATED SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, E. R.; Sim, S. A. E-mail: s.sim@qub.ac.uk

    2013-04-20

    In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady-state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, L{sub X}, remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind driving, we term this scenario as self-regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the momenta of the two winds are significantly different. Furthermore, the excessive levels of X-ray ionization close to the shocks completely suppress the line force, and we suggest that this may render radiative braking less effective. Comparisons of model results against observations reveal reasonable agreement in terms of log (L{sub X}/L{sub bol}). The inclusion of self-regulated shocks improves the match for kT values in roughly equal wind momenta systems, but there is a systematic offset for systems with unequal wind momenta (if considered to be a wind-photosphere collision).

  1. Artificial neural network to search for metal-poor galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fei; Liu, Yu-Yan; Kong, Xu; Chen, Yang

    2014-02-01

    Aims: To find a fast and reliable method for selecting metal-poor galaxies (MPGs), especially in large surveys and huge databases, an artificial neural network (ANN) method is applied to a sample of star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 9 (DR9) provided by the Max Planck Institute and the Johns Hopkins University (MPA/JHU). Methods: A two-step approach is adopted: (i) The ANN network must be trained with a subset of objects that are known to be either MPGs or metal rich galaxies (MRGs), treating the strong emission line flux measurements as input feature vectors in n-dimensional space, where n is the number of strong emission line flux ratios. (ii) After the network is trained on a sample of star-forming galaxies, the remaining galaxies are classified in the automatic test analysis as either MPGs or MRGs. We consider several random divisions of the data into training and testing sets; for instance, for our sample, a total of 70 percent of the data are involved in training the algorithm, 15 percent are involved in validating the algorithm, and the remaining 15 percent are used for blind testing the resulting classifier. Results: For target selection, we have achieved an acquisition rate for MPGs of 96 percent and 92 percent for an MPGs threshold of 12 + log (O/H) = 8.00 and 12 + log (O/H) = 8.39, respectively. Running the code takes minutes in most cases under the Matlab 2013a software environment. The ANN method can easily be extended to any MPGs target selection task when the physical property of the target can be expressed as a quantitative variable. The code in the paper is available on the web (http://fshi5388.blog.163.com).

  2. THE TERZAN 5 PUZZLE: DISCOVERY OF A THIRD, METAL-POOR COMPONENT

    SciTech Connect

    Origlia, L.; Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.

    2013-12-10

    We report on the discovery of three metal-poor giant stars in Terzan 5, a complex stellar system in the Galactic bulge, known to have two populations at [Fe/H] = –0.25 and +0.3. For these three stars we present new echelle spectra obtained with NIRSPEC at Keck II, which confirm their radial velocity membership and provide an average [Fe/H] = –0.79 dex iron abundance and [α/Fe] = +0.36 dex enhancement. This new population extends the metallicity range of Terzan 5 to 0.5 dex more metal poor, and it has properties consistent with having formed from a gas polluted by core-collapse supernovae.

  3. THE HOT R CORONAE BOREALIS STAR DY CENTAURI IS A BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; McArthur, Barbara; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Woolf, Vincent M. E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2012-11-20

    The remarkable hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star DY Cen is revealed to be the first and only binary system to be found among the RCB stars and their likely relatives, including the extreme helium stars and the hydrogen-deficient carbon stars. Radial velocity determinations from 1982 to 2010 have shown that DY Cen is a single-lined spectroscopic binary in an eccentric orbit with a period of 39.67 days. It is also one of the hottest and most H-rich member of the class of RCB stars. The system may have evolved from a common envelope to its current form.

  4. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR BF DRACONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Sabby, Jeffrey A.; Claret, Antonio E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jsabby@siue.edu

    2012-06-15

    BF Dra is now known to be an eccentric double-lined F6+F6 binary star with relatively deep (0.7 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7494 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 9700 from the NFO WebScope, 106 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope and the 1 m coude-feed spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and 31 accurate radial velocities from the CfA. Very accurate (better than 0.6%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the two new light curves and four radial velocity curves. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 2.72 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.17, and tidal theory correctly confirms that the orbit should still be eccentric. Our observations of BF Dra constrain the convective core overshooting parameter to be larger than about 0.13 H{sub p}. We find, however, that standard tidal theory is unable to match the observed slow rotation rates of the components' surface layers.

  5. Modeling mergers of known galactic systems of binary neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feo, Alessandra; De Pietri, Roberto; Maione, Francesco; Löffler, Frank

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the merger of six different known galactic systems of binary neutron stars (BNS) of unequal mass with a mass ratio between 0.75 and 0.99. Specifically, these systems are J1756-2251, J0737-3039A, J1906  +  0746, B1534  +  12, J0453  +  1559 and B1913  +  16. We follow the dynamics of the merger from the late stage of the inspiral process up to  ∼20ms after the system has merged, either to form a hyper-massive neutron star (NS) or a rotating black hole (BH), using a semi-realistic equation of state (EOS), namely the seven-segment piece-wise polytropic SLy with a thermal component. For the most extreme of these systems (q  =  0.75, J0453  +  1559), we also investigate the effects of different EOSs: APR4, H4, and MS1. Our numerical simulations are performed using only publicly available open source code such as, the Einstein toolkit code deployed for the dynamical evolution and the LORENE code for the generation of the initial models. We show results on the gravitational wave signals, spectrogram and frequencies of the BNS after the merger and the BH properties in the two cases in which the system collapses within the simulated time.

  6. Very wide binary stars as the primary source of stellar collisions in the galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaib, Nathan A.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2014-02-20

    We present numerical simulations modeling the orbital evolution of very wide binaries, pairs of stars separated by over ∼10{sup 3} AU. Due to perturbations from other passing stars and the Milky Way's tide, the orbits of very wide binary stars occasionally become extremely eccentric, which forces close encounters between the companion stars. We show that this process causes a stellar collision between very wide binary companion stars once every 1000-7500 yr on average in the Milky Way. One of the main uncertainties in this collision rate is the amount of energy dissipated by dynamic tides during close (but not collisional) periastron passages. This dissipation presents a dynamical barrier to stellar collisions and can instead transform very wide binaries into close or contact binaries. However, for any plausible tidal dissipation model, very wide binary stars are an unrealized, and potentially the dominant, source of stellar collisions in our Galaxy. Such collisions should occur throughout the thin disk of the Milky Way. Stellar collisions within very wide binaries should yield a small population of single, Li-depleted, rapidly rotating massive stars.

  7. Binary star formation: gravitational fragmentation followed by capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. A.; Chapman, S. J.; Bhattal, A. S.; Disney, M. J.; Pongracic, H.; Whitworth, A. P.

    1995-11-01

    We describe in detail one of a sequence of numerical simulations which realize the mechanism of binary star formation proposed by Pringle. In these simulations, collisions between stable molecular cloud clumps produce dense shocked layers, which cool radiatively and fragment gravitationally. The resulting fragments then condense to form protostellar discs, which at the same time fall together and, as a result of tidal and viscous interactions, capture one another to form binary systems. We refer to this mechanism as shock-induced gravitational fragmentation followed by capture, or SGF+C. When the initial clumps are sufficiently massive and/or the Mach number of the collision is sufficiently high, a large number (>~10) of protostellar discs is produced; under these circumstances, the layer fragments first into filaments, and then into beads along the filaments. The marriage of two protostellar discs in this way is `arranged' in the sense that the protostellar discs involved do not form independently. First, they both condense out of the same layer, and probably also out of the same filament within this layer; this significantly increases the likelihood of them interacting dynamically. Secondly, there tends to be alignment between the orbital and spin angular momenta of the interacting protostellar discs, reflecting the fact that these angular momenta derive mainly from the systematic global angular momentum of the off-axis collision which produced the layer; this alignment of the various angular momenta pre-disposes the discs to very dissipative interactions, thereby increasing the probability of producing a strongly bound, long-lasting union. It is a marriage because the binary orbit stabilizes itself rather quickly. Any subsequent orbit evolution, as the protostellar discs `mop up' the surrounding residual gas and interact tidally, tends to harden the orbit. Therefore, as long as a third body does not intervene, the union is binding. Even if a third body does

  8. Constraining the neutron star equation of state with gravitational wave signals from coalescing binary neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agathos, M.; Meidam, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Li, T. G. F.; Tompitak, M.; Veitch, J.; Vitale, S.; Van Den Broeck, C.

    2015-07-01

    Recently exploratory studies were performed on the possibility of constraining the neutron star equation of state (EOS) using signals from coalescing binary neutron stars, or neutron star-black hole systems, as they will be seen in upcoming advanced gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. In particular, it was estimated to what extent the combined information from multiple detections would enable one to distinguish between different equations of state through hypothesis ranking or parameter estimation. Under the assumption of zero neutron star spins both in signals and in template waveforms and considering tidal effects to 1 post-Newtonian (1PN) order, it was found that O (20 ) sources would suffice to distinguish between a stiff, moderate, and soft equation of state. Here we revisit these results, this time including neutron star tidal effects to the highest order currently known, termination of gravitational waveforms at the contact frequency, neutron star spins, and the resulting quadrupole-monopole interaction. We also take the masses of neutron stars in simulated sources to be distributed according to a relatively strongly peaked Gaussian, as hinted at by observations, but without assuming that the data analyst will necessarily have accurate knowledge of this distribution for use as a mass prior. We find that especially the effect of the latter is dramatic, necessitating many more detections to distinguish between different EOSs and causing systematic biases in parameter estimation, on top of biases due to imperfect understanding of the signal model pointed out in earlier work. This would get mitigated if reliable prior information about the mass distribution could be folded into the analyses.

  9. Radial-velocity measures and the existence of astrophysical binaries in late-type dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.; Meredith, R.

    1986-01-01

    Radial velocities with errors of 1-2 km/s are presented based on CCD scans obtained with the Kitt Peak National Observatory coude feed telescope between 1982 and 1985 of 48 dK-M stars that lack Balmer emission. Comparison with Gliese's (1969) values shows only two stars to be spectroscopic binary candidates with small velocity amplitudes. No evidence for any short period (less than 10 days) binaries is found, supporting the conclusions of Young et al. (1986) that there are no astrophysical binaries among these chromosherically inactive dM stars.

  10. Life and light: exotic photosynthesis in binary and multiple-star systems.

    PubMed

    O'Malley-James, J T; Raven, J A; Cockell, C S; Greaves, J S

    2012-02-01

    The potential for Earth-like planets within binary/multiple-star systems to host photosynthetic life was evaluated by modeling the levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) such planets receive. Combinations of M and G stars in (i) close-binary systems; (ii) wide-binary systems, and (iii) three-star systems were investigated, and a range of stable radiation environments were found to be possible. These environmental conditions allow for the possibility of familiar, but also more exotic, forms of photosynthetic life, such as IR photosynthesizers and organisms that are specialized for specific spectral niches.

  11. Formation of the widest binary stars from dynamical unfolding of triple systems.

    PubMed

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2012-12-13

    The formation of very wide binary systems, such as the α Centauri system with Proxima (also known as α Centauri C) separated from α Centauri (which itself is a close binary A/B) by 15,000 astronomical units (1 AU is the distance from Earth to the Sun), challenges current theories of star formation, because their separation can exceed the typical size of a collapsing cloud core. Various hypotheses have been proposed to overcome this problem, including the suggestion that ultrawide binaries result from the dissolution of a star cluster--when a cluster star gravitationally captures another, distant, cluster star. Recent observations have shown that very wide binaries are frequently members of triple systems and that close binaries often have a distant third companion. Here we report N-body simulations of the dynamical evolution of newborn triple systems still embedded in their nascent cloud cores that match observations of very wide systems. We find that although the triple systems are born very compact--and therefore initially are more protected against disruption by passing stars--they can develop extreme hierarchical architectures on timescales of millions of years as one component is dynamically scattered into a very distant orbit. The energy of ejection comes from shrinking the orbits of the other two stars, often making them look from a distance like a single star. Such loosely bound triple systems will therefore appear to be very wide binaries.

  12. Detailed Abundance Analysis of a Metal-poor Giant in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Fritz, T. K.; Rich, R. M.; Thorsbro, B.; Schultheis, M.; Origlia, L.; Chatzopoulos, S.

    2016-11-01

    We report the first results from our program to examine the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster connected to Sgr A*, with the goal of inferring the star formation and enrichment history of this system, as well as its connection and relationship with the central 100 pc of the bulge/bar system. We present the first high-resolution (R ˜ 24,000), detailed abundance analysis of a K = 10.2 metal-poor, alpha-enhanced red giant projected at 1.5 pc from the Galactic center, using NIRSPEC on Keck II. A careful analysis of the dynamics and color of the star locates it at about {26}-16+54 pc line-of-sight distance in front of the nuclear cluster. It probably belongs to one of the nuclear components (cluster or disk), not to the bar/bulge or classical disk. A detailed spectroscopic synthesis, using a new line list in the K band, finds [Fe/H] ˜ -1.0 and [α/Fe] ˜ +0.4, consistent with stars of similar metallicity in the bulge. As known giants with comparable [Fe/H] and alpha enhancement are old, we conclude that this star is most likely to be a representative of the ˜10 Gyr old population. This is also the most metal-poor-confirmed red giant yet discovered in the vicinity of the nuclear cluster of the Galactic center. We consider recent reports in the literature of a surprisingly large number of metal-poor giants in the Galactic center, but the reported gravity of {log}g˜ 4 for these stars calls into question their reported metallicities.

  13. In what sense a neutron star-black hole binary is the holy grail for testing gravity?

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, Manjari; Torres, Diego F. E-mail: dtorres@ieec.uab.es

    2014-08-01

    Pulsars in binary systems have been very successful to test the validity of general relativity in the strong field regime [1-4]. So far, such binaries include neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) systems. It is commonly believed that a neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary will be much superior for this purpose. But in what sense is this true? Does it apply to all possible deviations?.

  14. Investigating Exoplanet Orbital Evolution Around Binary Star Systems with Mass Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahoma, Walid A.

    2016-12-01

    A planet revolving around binary star system is a familiar system. Studies of these systems are important because they provide precise knowledge of planet formation and orbit evolution. In this study, a method to determine the evolution of an exoplanet revolving around a binary star system using different rates of stellar mass loss will be introduced. Using a hierarchical triple body system, in which the outer body can be moved with the center of mass of the inner binary star as a two-body problem, the long period evolution of the exoplanet orbit is determined depending on a Hamiltonian formulation. The model is simulated by numerical integrations of the Hamiltonian equations for the system over a long time. As a conclusion, the behavior of the planet orbital elements is quite affected by the rate of the mass loss from the accompanying binary star.

  15. Constraining the Variability and Binary Fraction of Galactic Center Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Abhimat K.; Do, Tuan; Ghez, Andrea M.; Lu, Jessica R.; Morris, Mark R.; Sakai, Shoko; Witzel, Gunther; Sitarski, Breann N.; Chappell, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    We present constraints on the variability and binarity of young stars in the central 10 arcseconds (~ 0.4 pc) of the Milky Way Galactic Center (GC) using Keck Adaptive Optics data over a 12 year baseline. Given our experiment's photometric uncertainties, at least 36% of our sample's known early-type stars are variable. We identified eclipsing binary systems by searching for periodic variability. In our sample of spectroscopically confirmed and likely early-type stars, we detected the two previously discovered GC eclipsing binary systems. We derived the likely binary fraction of main sequence, early-type stars at the GC via Monte Carlo simulations of eclipsing binary systems, and find that it is at least 32% with 90% confidence.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Binary star discoveries in the URAT1 catalog (Nicholson, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, M. P.

    2015-05-01

    Astrometric and photometric data are presented for 9450 common proper motion binary star system using results from the first U.S. Naval Observatory Astrometric Robotic Telescope Catalog (URAT1) (1 data file).

  17. AM CVn Stars: Structure and Evolution of Ultra-Short Period Interacting Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froning, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This is the final report of a FUSE program to study the physics of accretion and outflows in ultra-compact, helium dominated, disk-accreting binaries. With FUSE, we observed the AM CVn binary V803 Cen, which is one of only two AM CVn systems observed by FUSE to date. V803 Cen is a short-period interacting binary in which a hydrogen-deficient white dwarf transfers mass to another white dwarf via a hot, steady-state accretion disk. Unlike other cataclysmic variables (CVs), AM CVn stars have undergone double common envelope evolution (one for each white dwarf in the binary) and so probe an alternate route of evolution in binary stars. Our goals in this project were to investigate how the structure of the accretion disk and the link between the disk and wind outflows are affected by the absence of hydrogen in the system and by the compact size of the binary and the accretion disk.

  18. Wolf-Rayet stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Analysis of the binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenar, T.; Hainich, R.; Todt, H.; Sander, A.; Hamann, W.-R.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Eldridge, J. J.; Pablo, H.; Oskinova, L. M.; Richardson, N. D.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are evolved massive stars (Mi ≳ 20 M⊙) characterized by strong mass-loss. Hypothetically, they can form either as single stars or as mass donors in close binaries. About 40% of all known WR stars are confirmed binaries, raising the question as to the impact of binarity on the WR population. Studying WR binaries is crucial in this context, and furthermore enable one to reliably derive the elusive masses of their components, making them indispensable for the study of massive stars. Aims: By performing a spectral analysis of all multiple WR systems in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), we obtain the full set of stellar parameters for each individual component. Mass-luminosity relations are tested, and the importance of the binary evolution channel is assessed. Methods: The spectral analysis is performed with the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmosphere code by superimposing model spectra that correspond to each component. Evolutionary channels are constrained using the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) evolution tool. Results: Significant hydrogen mass fractions (0.1 stars in our sample are not chemically homogeneous. The WR component in the binary AB 6 is found to be very luminous (log L ≈ 6.3 [L⊙]) given its orbital mass (≈10 M⊙), presumably because of observational contamination by a third component. Evolutionary paths derived for our objects suggest that Roche lobe overflow had occurred in most systems, affecting their evolution. However, the implied initial masses (≳60 M⊙) are large enough for the primaries to have entered the WR phase, regardless of binary interaction. Conclusions: Together with the results for the putatively single SMC WR stars, our study suggests that the binary evolution channel does not dominate the formation of WR stars at

  19. Progress on realistic modeling of black hole-neutron star binary mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duez, Matthew

    2011-04-01

    Black hole-neutron star (BHNS) binary mergers are important gravitational wave sources and (possibly) gamma ray burst progenitors. The current state of the art of BHNS simulations, while an impressive acheivement, is inadequate in a number of ways--most importantly in its treatment of neutron star matter and neutrino emission. We present a status report on the efforts of the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration to accurately model BHNS binaries with realistic microphysics.

  20. Resonant tidal excitation of superfluid neutron stars in coalescing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hang; Weinberg, Nevin

    2017-01-01

    We study the resonant tidal excitation of g-modes in coalescing superfluid neutron star (NS) binaries and investigate how such tidal driving impacts the gravitational-wave signal of the inspiral. Previous studies treated the NS core as a normal fluid and did not account for its superfluidity. The source of buoyancy that supports the g-modes is fundamentally different in the two cases: in a normal fluid core the buoyancy is due to gradients in the proton-to-neutron fraction whereas in a superfluid core it is due to gradients in the muon-to-electron (or hyperon) fraction. The latter yields a stronger stratification and a superfluid NS has a denser spectrum of g-modes. As a result, many more g-modes undergo resonant tidal excitation during the inspiral. We find that = 10 times more orbital energy is transferred into g-mode oscillations if the NS has a superfluid core rather than a normal fluid core. However, because this energy is transferred later in the inspiral when the orbital decay is faster, the accumulated phase error in the gravitational waveform is comparable for a superfluid and normal fluid NS ( 10-3 -10-2rad). A phase error of this magnitude is too small to be measured with the current generation of gravitational wave detectors.

  1. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star AP Andromedae

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W. E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu

    2014-06-01

    AP And is a well-detached F5 eclipsing binary star for which only a very limited amount of information was available before this publication. We have obtained very extensive measurements of the light curve (19,097 differential V magnitude observations) and a radial velocity curve (83 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.277 ± 0.004 and 1.251 ± 0.004 M {sub ☉}, radii of 1.233 ± 0.006 and 1.1953 ± 0.005 R {sub ☉}, and temperatures of 6565 ± 150 K and 6495 ± 150 K. The distance to the system is about 400 ± 30 pc. Comparison with the theoretical properties of the stellar evolutionary models of the Yonsei-Yale series of Yi et al. shows good agreement between the observations and the theory at an age of about 500 Myr and a slightly sub-solar metallicity.

  2. DPI: Symplectic mapping for binary star systems for the Mercury software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrini, D.

    2015-04-01

    DPI is a FORTRAN77 library that supplies the symplectic mapping method for binary star systems for the Mercury N-Body software package (ascl:1201.008). The binary symplectic mapping is implemented as a hybrid symplectic method that allows close encounters and collisions between massive bodies and is therefore suitable for planetary accretion simulations.

  3. A search for binary candidates among the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars observed by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, Elisabeth; Steixner, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Although roughly half of all stars are considered to be part of binary or multiple systems, there are only two confirmed cases of RR Lyrae pulsators with companions. One of them is TU Uma [1] - a classical RR Lyrae star in a very eccentric orbit - and the other is OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792 [2]. Considering the wealth of well-studied RR Lyrae stars, this number is astoundingly low. Having more RR Lyrae stars in binary systems at hand would be extremely valuable to get independent measurements of the masses. The data from the Kepler mission with their unprecedented precision and the long time span of about four years offer a unique possibility to systematically search for the signatures of binarity in RR Lyrae stars. Using the pulsation as a clock, we studied the variations in the timing of maximum light to hunt for possible binary systems in the sample.

  4. Workshop on Colliding Winds in Binary Stars to Honor Jorge Sahade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemela, Virpi; Morrell, Nidia; Pismis, Paris; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia

    1996-12-01

    Topics considered include: the beginning of the story; mass flow in and out of close binaries; winds of massive, main sequence close binaries; chromospheric activity, stellar winds and red stragglers; uv observations of mass transfer in algols; the circumstellar matter in pre-supernovae of type Ia; observations of colliding winds in O-type binaries; colliding winds in massive binaries involving Wolf-Rayet stars; episodic dust formation by Wolf-Rayet stars: smoke signals from colliding winds; x-ray emission from colliding wind binaries; colliding stellar winds: a new method of determining mass-loss rates via x-ray spectroscopy; sudden radiative braking in colliding hot-star winds; optical observations of colliding winds in gamma2 velorum; left overs for dinner; HD 5980: the Wolf-Rayet binary that became a luminous blue variable; the erupting Wolf-Rayet binary HD 5980 in the small magellanic cloud: spectral transition from B1.5Ia(+) to WN6 and the accompanying light curve; the elliptic orbit of the WR binary system CV serpentis; evidence for colliding winds in WR 146; is there wind-wind collision in WR 141 (HD 193928)?; search for interacting winds in the WN7 + O binary; line formation in CH Cyg: a symbiotic binary; period analysis of radial velocity of pleione; H(alpha) detection of colliding winds in O-type binaries; HD 5980 in the infrared; photometric and polarimetric observations of the Wolf-Rayet eclipsing binary HD 5980 in the small magellanic cloud, and analysis of linear polarization in two Wolf-Rayet binary systems.

  5. The Effect of Scattering on the Temperature Stratification of 3D Model Atmospheres of Metal-Poor Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, Remo; Hayek, Wolfgang; Asplund, Martin

    2011-08-01

    We study the effects of different approximations of scattering in 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations on the photospheric temperature stratification of metal-poor red giant stars. We find that assuming a Planckian source function and neglecting the contribution of scattering to extinction in optically thin layers provides a good approximation of the effects of coherent scattering on the photospheric temperature balance.

  6. An interacting binary system powers precessing outflows of an evolved star.

    PubMed

    Boffin, Henri M J; Miszalski, Brent; Rauch, Thomas; Jones, David; Corradi, Romano L M; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Day-Jones, Avril C; Köppen, Joachim

    2012-11-09

    Stars are generally spherical, yet their gaseous envelopes often appear nonspherical when ejected near the end of their lives. This quirk is most notable during the planetary nebula phase, when these envelopes become ionized. Interactions among stars in a binary system are suspected to cause the asymmetry. In particular, a precessing accretion disk around a companion is believed to launch point-symmetric jets, as seen in the prototype Fleming 1. Our finding of a post-common-envelope binary nucleus in Fleming 1 confirms that this scenario is highly favorable. Similar binary interactions are therefore likely to explain these kinds of outflows in a large variety of systems.

  7. γ-ray Binaries : A Bridge Between Be Stars and High Energy Astrophysics Invited Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberts, A.

    2016-11-01

    Advances in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy have opened a new window on our universe and revealed a wide variety of binaries composed of a compact object and a Be star. In Be X-ray binaries, a neutron star accretes the Be disk and truncates it through tidal interactions. Such systems have important X-ray outbursts, some related to the disk structure. In other systems, strong gamma-ray emission is observed. In γ-ray binaries, the neutron star is not accreting but driving a highly relativistic wind. The wind collision region presents similarities to colliding wind binaries composed of massive stars. The high energy emission is coming from particles being accelerated at the relativistic shock. I will review the physics of X-ray and gamma-ray binaries, focusing particularly on the recent developments on gamma-ray binaries. I will describe physical mechanisms such as relativistic hydrodynamics, tidal forces and non thermal emission. I will highlight how high energy astrophysics can shed a new light on Be star physics and vice-versa.

  8. Binary star influence on post-main-sequence multi-planet stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2017-02-01

    Nearly every star known to host planets will become a white dwarf, and nearly 100 planet-hosts are now known to be accompanied by binary stellar companions. Here, we determine how a binary companion triggers instability in otherwise unconditionally stable single-star two-planet systems during the giant branch and white dwarf phases of the planet host. We perform about 700 full-lifetime (14 Gyr) simulations with A0 and F0 primary stars and secondary K2 companions, and identify the critical binary distance within which instability is triggered at any point during stellar evolution. We estimate this distance to be about seven times the outer planet separation for circular binaries. Our results help characterize the fates of planetary systems, and in particular which ones might yield architectures which are conducive to generating observable metal pollution in white dwarf atmospheres.

  9. A search technique for planets in nearby binary stars using a ground-based interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traub, W. A.; Carleton, N. P.; Porro, I. L.

    1996-04-01

    A search for Jovian-type planets in 100 nearby binary stars could be carried out with the existing ground-based infrared-optical telescope array (IOTA) interferometer. We would study binaries with sufficiently great separation (25-50 AU; typical separation around 0.4 arcsec) that such a planet could be in a stable orbit about one member of the pair. The method is to measure the angular separation of stars in each binary, with a single-measurement accuracy sufficient to detect the amplitude of a Uranus orbiting one of the stars. The technique is based on an auxiliary device, the pupil-splitting interferometer (PSI), which substantially reduces systematic and random errors by converting a measurement of angular separation into a measurement of the differential optical delay between the two components of the binary. The program would be relatively economical, and could begin soon.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalog of binary UV Ceti stars (Tamazian+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamazian, V.; Malkov, O.

    2015-01-01

    A catalogue of nearby UV Ceti type flare stars in (137) visual binary systems is presented in the form of two separate tables of information. The catalogue has developed from Catalogue and Bibliography of UV Cet stars (Gershberg et al., 1999, Cat. J/A+AS/139/555) and the list of nearby flare stars (Pettersen, 1991MmSAI..62..217P) by including more recent and additional information from catalogues of binary stars (WDS, Mason et al., 2001-2014, Cat. B/wds; ORB6, Hartkopf et al. 2006-2014; DM3, Mason+ 2006-2014) and data from the Catalog of Nearby Stars, Preliminary 3rd Version (Gliese et al., 1991, Cat. V/70), from Hipparcos, the New Reduction (van Leeuwen 2007, Cat. I/311) and from SIMBAD. Some issues relating to the mass, luminosity and spectrum relations of flare stars are also discussed. (2 data files).

  11. Quasi-equilibrium sequences of binary strange quark stars in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limousin, Francois; Gondek-Rosińska, Dorota; Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2004-12-01

    Inspiraling compact binaries are expected to be the strongest sources of gravitational waves for VIRGO, LIGO and other laser interferometers. We present the first computations of quasi-equilibrium sequences of compact binaries containing two strange quark stars (which are currently considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars). We study a precoalescing stage in the conformal flatness approximation of general relativity using a multidomain spectral method. A hydrodynamical treatment is performed under the assumption that the flow is either rigidly rotating or irrotational. In each of those cases, we show the differences in the gravitational waves signal from neutron stars described by polytropic equation of state.

  12. Estimating the binary fraction of central stars of planetary nebulae using the infrared excess method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douchin, D.; De Marco, O.; Frew, D. J.; Jacoby, G. H.; Fitzgerald, M.; Jasniewicz, G.; Moe, M.; Passy, J. C.; Hillwig, T.; Harmer, D.

    2014-04-01

    There is no quantitative theory to explain why a high 80% of all planetary nebulae are non-spherical. The Binary Hypothesis states that a companion to the progenitor of a central star of planetary nebula is required to shape nebulae whose shapes are not spherical or mildly elliptical, implying that many single post-AGB stars do not make a PN at all. A way to test this hypothesis is to estimate the binary fraction of central stars of planetary nebula and to compare it with that of the main sequence population. Preliminary results from the infrared excess technique indicate that the binary fraction of central stars of planetary nebula is higher than that of the main sequence, implying that PNe could preferentially form via a binary channel. I will present new results from a search of red and infrared flux excess in an extended sample of central stars of planetary nebula and compare the improved estimate of the PN binary fraction with that of main sequence stars.

  13. THE OCCURRENCE OF WIDE-ORBIT PLANETS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.

    2014-08-20

    The occurrence of planets in binary star systems has been investigated via a variety of techniques that sample a wide range of semi-major axes, but with a preponderance of such results applicable to planets with semi-major axes less than a few astronomical units. We utilize a new method—the presence or absence of heavy elements in the atmospheres of white dwarf stars—to elucidate the frequency in main sequence binary star systems of planets with semi-major axes greater than a few astronomical units. We consider only binaries where a putative planetary system orbits one member (no circumbinary planets). For main sequence binaries where the primary star is of spectral type A or F, data in the published literature suggests that the existence of a secondary star with a semi-major axis less than about 1000 AU suppresses the formation and/or long-term stability of an extended planetary system around the primary. For these spectral types and initial semi-major axis ≥1000 AU, extended planetary systems appear to be as common around stars in binary systems as they are around single stars.

  14. Anisotropic mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries: Diversity of electromagnetic counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Ioka, Kunihito; Shibata, Masaru

    2013-08-01

    The merger of black hole-neutron star binaries can eject substantial material with the mass ˜0.01-0.1M⊙ when the neutron star is disrupted prior to the merger. The ejecta shows significant anisotropy, and travels in a particular direction with the bulk velocity ˜0.2c. This is drastically different from the binary neutron star merger, for which ejecta is nearly isotropic. Anisotropic ejecta brings electromagnetic-counterpart diversity which is unique to black hole-neutron star binaries, such as viewing-angle dependence, polarization, and proper motion. The kick velocity of the black hole, gravitational-wave memory emission, and cosmic-ray acceleration are also discussed.

  15. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. I. CATALOG AND PRINCIPAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 1879 ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE FIRST DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Prsa, Andrej; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Batalha, Natalie; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas

    2011-03-15

    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg{sup 2} field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD{sub 0}, P{sub 0}), morphology type, physical parameters (T{sub eff}, log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T{sub 2}/T{sub 1}, q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T{sub 2}/T{sub 1}, (R{sub 1} + R{sub 2})/a, esin {omega}, ecos {omega}, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be {approx}1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.

  16. THE PHASES DIFFERENTIAL ASTROMETRY DATA ARCHIVE. II. UPDATED BINARY STAR ORBITS AND A LONG PERIOD ECLIPSING BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; O'Connell, J.; Hartkopf, William I.; Lane, Benjamin F.; Williamson, M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Konacki, Maciej; Burke, Bernard F.; Colavita, M. M.; Shao, M.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mi E-mail: maciej@ncac.torun.p

    2010-12-15

    Differential astrometry measurements from the Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems have been combined with lower precision single-aperture measurements covering a much longer timespan (from eyepiece measurements, speckle interferometry, and adaptive optics) to determine improved visual orbits for 20 binary stars. In some cases, radial velocity observations exist to constrain the full three-dimensional orbit and determine component masses. The visual orbit of one of these binaries-{alpha} Com (HD 114378)-shows that the system is likely to have eclipses, despite its very long period of 26 years. The next eclipse is predicted to be within a week of 2015 January 24.

  17. Evidence for a metal-poor population in the inner Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultheis, M.; Cunha, K.; Zasowski, G.; García Pérez, A. E.; Sellgren, K.; Smith, V.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, O.; Fritz, T. K.; Anders, F.; Allende Prieto, C.; Bizyaev, D.; Kinemuchi, K.; Pan, K.; Malanushenko, E.; Malanushenko, V.; Shetrone, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The inner Galactic bulge has, until recently, been avoided in chemical evolution studies because of extreme extinction and stellar crowding. Large, near-IR spectroscopic surveys, such as the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), for the first time allow the measurement of metallicities in the inner region of our Galaxy. We study metallicities of 33 K/M giants situated in the Galactic center region from observations obtained with the APOGEE survey. We selected K/M giants with reliable stellar parameters from the APOGEE/ASPCAP pipeline. Distances, interstellar extinction values, and radial velocities were checked to confirm that these stars are indeed situated in the inner Galactic bulge. We find a metal-rich population centered at [M/H] = +0.4 dex, in agreement with earlier studies of other bulge regions, but we also discovered a peak at low metallicity around [M/H] = -1.0 dex. This finding suggests the presence of a metal-poor population, which has not previously been detected in the central region. Our results indicate a dominant metal-rich population with a metal-poor component that is enhanced in the α-elements. This metal-poor population may be associated with the classical bulge and a fast formation scenario.

  18. Abundances in the metal poor dwarf Ross 451

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiesman, William J.

    1990-01-01

    High dispersion echelle spectra of the high velocity subdwarf Ross 451 (= G236-080) were obtained using the 4-m telescope at Kitt Peak. Initial abundance determinations for six elements are presented, using absolute oscillator strengths and metal-poor stellar-atmosphere models.

  19. Multiyear measurements of Position Angle and Separation of selected binary stars from the Washington Double Star Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Rafael J.; Cersosimo, Juan C.; Lopez, Andy J.; Vergara, Nelson; Torres, Brian; Mendoza, Lizyan; Ortiz, Deliris; Del Valle, Yashira; Espinosa, Gabriela; Reyes, Marjory

    2016-01-01

    We present here the multiyear data sets on separation and position angle of binary stars obtained at the NURO telescope, located east of Flagstaff Arizona at an elevation of 7200 feet. The data was analyzed at the Humacao University Observatory of the University of Puerto Rico and will be submitted for publication at the Journal of Double Star Observations. We describe the methodology for the analysis of the images we obtained.

  20. Binary Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae Discovered through Photometric Variability. IV. The Central Stars of HaTr 4 and Hf 2-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillwig, Todd C.; Bond, Howard E.; Frew, David J.; Schaub, S. C.; Bodman, Eva H. L.

    2016-08-01

    We explore the photometrically variable central stars of the planetary nebulae HaTr 4 and Hf 2-2. Both have been classified as close binary star systems previously based on their light curves alone. Here, we present additional arguments and data confirming the identification of both as close binaries with an irradiated cool companion to the hot central star. We include updated light curves, orbital periods, and preliminary binary modeling for both systems. We also identify for the first time the central star of HaTr 4 as an eclipsing binary. Neither system has been well studied in the past, but we utilize the small amount of existing data to limit possible binary parameters, including system inclination. These parameters are then compared to nebular parameters to further our knowledge of the relationship between binary central stars of planetary nebulae and nebular shaping and ejection.

  1. PRODUCTION OF {sup 9}Be THROUGH THE {alpha}-FUSION REACTION OF METAL-POOR COSMIC RAYS AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-04-10

    Spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars have indicated possible {sup 6}Li abundances that are much larger than the primordial abundance predicted in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. Possible mechanisms of {sup 6}Li production in metal-poor stars include pregalactic and cosmological cosmic-ray (CR) nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis by flare-accelerated nuclides. We study {sup 9}Be production via two-step {alpha}-fusion reactions of CR or flare-accelerated {sup 3,4}He through {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li, in pregalactic structure, intergalactic medium, and stellar surfaces. We solve transfer equations of CR or flare particles and calculate nuclear yields of {sup 6}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9}Be taking account of probabilities of processing {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li into {sup 9}Be via fusions with {alpha} particles. Yield ratios, i.e., {sup 9}Be/{sup 6}Li, are then calculated for the CR and flare nucleosynthesis models. We suggest that the future observations of {sup 9}Be in metal-poor stars may find enhanced abundances originating from metal-poor CR or flare activities.

  2. Measuring Ejecta from Inspiralling Binary Neutron Stars using Smoothed-particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Monica; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Faber, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational waves, detectable perturbations in spacetime, can arise from astrophysical systems such as inspiralling binary neutron stars, the remnants of the core collapse of massive stars. In the inspiral process, neutron stars, composed of highly dense nuclear matter, are torn apart by each others gravity and eject matter. Using both gravitational waves and direct observations of ejected matter, we may gain valuable new information about the composition of neutron stars. Using several previously studied test cases, we seek to determine how the amount of ejected matter depends on the physical parameters of these systems. To do this, we use a particle-based hydrodynamics code which can accurately simulate binary neutron star systems with variable equation of state, spin, mass ratio, and eccentricity, and includes the lowest-order effects from gravitational wave emission. I would like to thank RIT's College of Science as well as the Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation for support and funding.

  3. The binary nature of s-process enriched stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantsman, J. L.

    The theoretical populations of s-process enriched stars on the main sequence and on the giant branch are generated using the "population simulation" technique. Barium star abundance syndrome may occur among the main-sequence stars from the spectral class near G0 to early B type stars. Maximum overabundances of s-process elements reach factor ≡10 between A0 and F2. Among the giant branch, barium stars occur between Mbol≡-6.0 with a strongly pronounced peak between 0.4 and 0.8 and typical maximum overabundance of s-process elements ≡8.

  4. Hydrodynamical simulations of the tidal stripping of binary stars by massive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainetti, Deborah; Lupi, Alessandro; Campana, Sergio; Colpi, Monica

    2016-04-01

    In a galactic nucleus, a star on a low angular momentum orbit around the central massive black hole can be fully or partially disrupted by the black hole tidal field, lighting up the compact object via gas accretion. This phenomenon can repeat if the star, not fully disrupted, is on a closed orbit. Because of the multiplicity of stars in binary systems, also binary stars may experience in pairs such a fate, immediately after being tidally separated. The consumption of both the binary components by the black hole is expected to power a double-peaked flare. In this paper, we perform for the first time, with GADGET2, a suite of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of binary stars around a galactic central black hole in the Newtonian regime. We show that accretion luminosity light curves from double tidal disruptions reveal a more prominent knee, rather than a double peak, when decreasing the impact parameter of the encounter and when elevating the difference between the mass of the star which leaves the system after binary separation and the mass of the companion. The detection of a knee can anticipate the onset of periodic accretion luminosity flares if one of the stars, only partially disrupted, remains bound to the black hole after binary separation. Thus knees could be precursors of periodic flares, which can then be predicted, followed up and better modelled. Analytical estimates in the black hole mass range 105-108 M⊙ show that the knee signature is enhanced in the case of black holes of mass 106-107 M⊙.

  5. The helium abundance in the metal-poor globular clusters M30 and NGC 6397

    SciTech Connect

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.

    2014-05-01

    We present the helium abundance of the two metal-poor clusters M30 and NGC 6397. Helium estimates have been obtained by using the high-resolution spectrograph FLAMES at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope and by measuring the He I line at 4471 Å in 24 and 35 horizontal branch (HB) stars in M30 and NGC 6397, respectively. This sample represents the largest data set of He abundances collected so far in metal-poor clusters. The He mass fraction turns out to be Y = 0.252 ± 0.003 (σ = 0.021) for M30 and Y = 0.241 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.023) for NGC 6397. These values are fully compatible with the cosmological abundance, thus suggesting that the HB stars are not strongly enriched in He. The small spread of the Y distributions are compatible with those expected from the observed main sequence splitting. Finally, we find a hint of a weak anticorrelation between Y and [O/Fe] in NGC 6397 in agreement with the prediction that O-poor stars are formed by (He-enriched) gas polluted by the products of hot proton-capture reactions.

  6. Coalescence of binary neutron stars in a scalar-tensor theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Okawa, Hirotada; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    We carry out numerical-relativity simulations of coalescing binary neutron stars in a scalar-tensor theory that admits spontaneous scalarization. We model neutron stars with realistic equations of state. We choose the free parameters of the theory taking into account the constraints imposed by the latest observations of neutron-star-white-dwarf binaries with pulsar timing. We show that even within those severe constraints, scalarization can still affect the evolution of the binary neutron stars, not only during the late inspiral but also during the merger stage. We also confirm that even when both neutron stars have quite small scalar charge at large separations, they can be strongly scalarized dynamically during the final stages of the inspiral. In particular, we identify the binary parameters for which scalarization occurs either during the late inspiral or only after the onset of the merger when a remnant, supramassive, or hypermassive neutron star is formed. We also discuss how those results can impact the extraction of physical information on gravitational waves once they are detected.

  7. Introduction & Overview to Symposium 240: Binary Stars as Critical Tools and Tests in Contemporary Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Harmanec, Petr; Hartkopf, William

    2007-08-01

    The new and exciting developments in the studies of binary and multiple stars are discussed. An overview is given of the major topics and themes of IAU Symposium 240. These include new observing techniques and reduction methods for the study of binary and multiple star systems as well as the important astrophysical quantities that can be uncovered from such observations. Emphasis is given to new developments that include results from high resolution interferometry and high precision photometry and spectroscopy as well as results from multi-wavelength and panoramic photometry programs of binaries both inside and outside the Galaxy. Also discussed are the uses of binary and multiple star systems as critical tools for the study and tests of many important aspects of modern astrophysics. To give a few examples, binary and multiple stars are playing major roles in (1) testing stellar evolution theory (by providing fundamental stellar quantities), (2) cosmology (standard candles for improving the cosmic distance scale), (3) probes of galactic structure (e.g. from fragile binaries), as well as (4) providing tests of stellar structure and General Relativity (apsidal motion studies). Also binary systems with accreting degenerate components (like CVs and XBs) provide miniature laboratories of the study of accretion processes found in AGN galaxies. These are but a few out a very large number of exciting topics discussed at the symposium. Also discussed are the new classes of binary stars that include binary systems with planetary and brown dwarf components. The future of the study of binary stars also will be briefly addressed and discussions of new opportunities and the challenges with upcoming new instrumentation, telescopes and space missions will be be noted. For example, one major (but very exciting) problem will be how get the most scientific rewards from the huge number (millions) of additional binaries expected to be discovered from wide field synoptic surveys both

  8. A Catalog of Eclipsing Binaries and Variable Stars Observed with ASTEP 400 from Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapellier, E.; Mékarnia, D.; Abe, L.; Guillot, T.; Agabi, K.; Rivet, J.-P.; Schmider, F.-X.; Crouzet, N.; Aristidi, E.

    2016-10-01

    We used the large photometric database of the ASTEP program, whose primary goal was to detect exoplanets in the southern hemisphere from Antarctica, to search for eclipsing binaries (EcBs) and variable stars. 673 EcBs and 1166 variable stars were detected, including 31 previously known stars. The resulting online catalogs give the identification, the classification, the period, and the depth or semi-amplitude of each star. Data and light curves for each object are available at http://astep-vo.oca.eu.

  9. THE KENNICUTT–SCHMIDT RELATION IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, M. E.; Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Amorín, R.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Kennicutt–Schmidt (KS) relation between the gas mass and star formation rate (SFR) describes the star formation regulation in disk galaxies. It is a function of gas metallicity, but the low-metallicity regime of the KS diagram is poorly sampled. We have analyzed data for a representative set of extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), as well as auxiliary data, and compared these to empirical and theoretical predictions. The majority of the XMPs possess high specific SFRs, similar to high-redshift star-forming galaxies. On the KS plot, the XMP H i data occupy the same region as dwarfs and extend the relation for low surface brightness galaxies. Considering the H i gas alone, a considerable fraction of the XMPs already fall off the KS law. Significant quantities of “dark” H{sub 2} mass (i.e., not traced by CO) would imply that XMPs possess low star formation efficiencies (SFE{sub gas}). Low SFE{sub gas} in XMPs may be the result of the metal-poor nature of the H i gas. Alternatively, the H i reservoir may be largely inert, the star formation being dominated by cosmological accretion. Time lags between gas accretion and star formation may also reduce the apparent SFE{sub gas}, as may galaxy winds, which can expel most of the gas into the intergalactic medium. Hence, on global scales, XMPs could be H i-dominated, high-specific-SFR (≳10{sup −10} yr{sup −1}), low-SFE{sub gas} (≲10{sup −9} yr{sup −1}) systems, in which the total H i mass is likely not a good predictor of the total H{sub 2} mass, nor of the SFR.

  10. Binaries, cluster dynamics and population studies of stars and stellar phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbeveren, Dany

    2005-10-01

    The effects of binaries on population studies of stars and stellar phenomena have been investigated over the past 3 decades by many research groups. Here we will focus mainly on the work that has been done recently in Brussels and we will consider the following topics: the effect of binaries on overall galactic chemical evolutionary models and on the rates of different types of supernova, the population of point-like X-ray sources where we distinguish the standard high mass X-ray binaries and the ULXs, a UFO-scenario for the formation of WR+OB binaries in dense star systems. Finally we critically discuss the possible effect of rotation on population studies.

  11. Eclipsing binary stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from the MACHO project: The Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, L; Alcock, C; Cook, K; Prochter, G; Protopapas, P; Syphers, D

    2007-03-29

    We present a new sample of 4634 eclipsing binary stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), expanding on a previous sample of 611 objects and a new sample of 1509 eclipsing binary stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), that were identified in the light curve database of the MACHO project. We perform a cross correlation with the OGLE-II LMC sample, finding 1236 matches. A cross correlation with the OGLE-II SMC sample finds 698 matches. We then compare the LMC subsamples corresponding to center and the periphery of the LMC and find only minor differences between the two populations. These samples are sufficiently large and complete that statistical studies of the binary star populations are possible.

  12. Masses of Pre-Main Sequence Binary Stars-Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Michal

    1991-07-01

    There are still no pre-main sequence stars with reliably known masses. This represents a serious gap in our understanding of low-mass star formation. The goal of this long-term program is to measure the masses of pre-main sequence binaries selected from our survey (ref. 3) of the Taurus star forming region by IR lunar occultation and imaging. We propose to use the Fine Guide Sensors in the Transfer Function Mode to determine the apparent orbits of the binaries. Since the distance to the region is known, the apparent orbits will yield the total masses of the binaries. THIS PROPOSAL CONTAINS ONE FOLLOW-UP VISIT TO HV-TAU-C ONLY. THE REST OF THE EXPOSURES ARE IN 3842.

  13. Dark matter in dwarf galaxies: Correcting inferred galaxy masses for the orbital motion of binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, Quinn Eliot

    We introduce a Bayesian methodology for determining the velocity dispersions of dwarf galaxies which takes into account both binarity and contamination by nonmember stars in a self-consistent way. This method can be readily extended to determine masses and related quantities such as the dark matter annihilation cross-section of dwarf galaxies. In addition we show that measured velocity dispersions of dwarf spheroidal galaxies from about 4 to 10 km/s are unlikely to be inflated by more than 30% due to the orbital motion of binary stars, and demonstrate that the intrinsic velocity dispersions can be determined to within a few percent accuracy using multi-epoch observations with 1-2 years as the optimal time interval. This methodology also constrains properties of binary populations (e.g. binary fraction, period distribution) from multi-epoch velocity measurements, and can be applied to both dwarf galaxies as well as star clusters.

  14. STABLE CONIC-HELICAL ORBITS OF PLANETS AROUND BINARY STARS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E.

    2015-05-10

    Studies of planets in binary star systems are especially important because it was estimated that about half of binary stars are capable of supporting habitable terrestrial planets within stable orbital ranges. One-planet binary star systems (OBSS) have a limited analogy to objects studied in atomic/molecular physics: one-electron Rydberg quasimolecules (ORQ). Specifically, ORQ, consisting of two fully stripped ions of the nuclear charges Z and Z′ plus one highly excited electron, are encountered in various plasmas containing more than one kind of ion. Classical analytical studies of ORQ resulted in the discovery of classical stable electronic orbits with the shape of a helix on the surface of a cone. In the present paper we show that despite several important distinctions between OBSS and ORQ, it is possible for OBSS to have stable planetary orbits in the shape of a helix on a conical surface, whose axis of symmetry coincides with the interstellar axis; the stability is not affected by the rotation of the stars. Further, we demonstrate that the eccentricity of the stars’ orbits does not affect the stability of the helical planetary motion if the center of symmetry of the helix is relatively close to the star of the larger mass. We also show that if the center of symmetry of the conic-helical planetary orbit is relatively close to the star of the smaller mass, a sufficiently large eccentricity of stars’ orbits can switch the planetary motion to the unstable mode and the planet would escape the system. We demonstrate that such planets are transitable for the overwhelming majority of inclinations of plane of the stars’ orbits (i.e., the projections of the planet and the adjacent start on the plane of the sky coincide once in a while). This means that conic-helical planetary orbits at binary stars can be detected photometrically. We consider, as an example, Kepler-16 binary stars to provide illustrative numerical data on the possible parameters and the

  15. Radiation-driven Warping of Circumbinary Disks around Eccentric Young Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Sohn, Bong Won; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Jung, Taehyun; Zhao, Guangyao; Naito, Tsuguya

    2014-12-01

    We study a warping instability of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating, circumbinary disk around young binary stars on an eccentric orbit. Such a disk is subject to both the tidal torques due to a time-dependent binary potential and the radiative torques due to radiation emitted from each star. The tilt angle between the circumbinary disk plane and the binary orbital plane is assumed to be very small. We find that there is a radius within/beyond which the circumbinary disk is unstable to radiation-driven warping, depending on the disk density and temperature gradient indices. This marginally stable warping radius is very sensitive to viscosity parameters, a fiducial disk radius and the temperature measured there, the stellar luminosity, and the disk surface density at a radius where the disk changes from optically thick to thin for the irradiation from the central stars. On the other hand, it is insensitive to the orbital eccentricity and binary irradiation parameter, which is a function of the binary mass ratio and luminosity of each star. Since the tidal torques can suppress the warping in the inner part of the circumbinary disk, the disk starts to be warped in the outer part. While the circumbinary disks are most likely to be subject to the radiation-driven warping on an AU to kilo-AU scale for binaries with young massive stars more luminous than 104 L ⊙, the radiation-driven warping does not work for those around young binaries with the luminosity comparable to the solar luminosity.