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Sample records for metal-related parenchymal disorders

  1. Inorganic dust pneumonias: the metal-related parenchymal disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, P; Pacheco, K; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    In recent years the greatest progress in our understanding of pneumoconioses, other than those produced by asbestos, silica, and coal, has been in the arena of metal-induced parenchymal lung disorders. Inhalation of metal dusts and fumes can induce a wide range of lung pathology, including airways disorders, cancer, and parenchymal diseases. The emphasis of this update is on parenchymal diseases caused by metal inhalation, including granulomatous disease, giant cell interstitial pneumonitis, chemical pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis, among others. The clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of disorders arising from exposure to aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, and nickel are presented in detail. Metal fume fever, an inhalation fever syndrome attributed to exposure to a number of metals, is also discussed. Advances in our knowledge of antigen-specific immunologic reactions in the lung are particularly evident in disorders secondary to beryllium and nickel exposure, where immunologic mechanisms have been well characterized. For example, current evidence suggests that beryllium acts as an antigen, or hapten, and is presented by antigen-presenting cells to CD4+ T cells, which possess specific surface antigen receptors. Other metals such as cadmium and mercury induce nonspecific damage, probably by initiating production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, genetic susceptibility markers associated with increased risk have been identified in some metal-related diseases such as chronic beryllium disease and hard metal disease. Future research needs include development of biologic markers of metal-induced immunologic disease, detailed characterization of human exposure, examination of gene alleles that might confer risk, and association of exposure data with that of genetic susceptibility. PMID:10931787

  2. Transcranial parenchymal sonography in patients with Chronic Disorders of Consciousness: Association with neuroimaging data, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Chillura, Antonino; Naro, Antonino; Cacciola, Alberto; Bramanti, Alessia; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2017-07-01

    Differential diagnosis of patients with Chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) is rather challenging, owing to the lack of objective approaches highlighting residual awareness. Sophisticated functional neuroimaging have provided high diagnostic value, but their application in the clinical setting is limited due to their relative complexity, cost, availability and poor collaboration of persons with DoC. By using a specific ultrasound-based methodology, namely Transcranial B-mode Parenchymal Sonography (TCS), it is possible to obtain images of the main parenchymal brain structures. We assessed the TCS abnormalities in three patients with DoC, demonstrating widespread alterations of brain parenchyma morphology that matched to MRI findings and were associated with the degree of consciousness disorders. Thus, TCS might represent a valuable tool for routine assessment and follow-up of brain structures functioning of patients with DoC, potentially helping in differential diagnosis and prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain parenchymal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - A multimodal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Pache, F; Zimmermann, H; Finke, C; Lacheta, A; Papazoglou, S; Kuchling, J; Wuerfel, J; Hamm, B; Ruprecht, K; Paul, F; Brandt, A U; Scheel, M

    2016-12-01

    To investigate different brain regions for grey (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in a well-defined cohort of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and compare advanced MRI techniques (VBM, Subcortical and cortical analyses (Freesurfer), and DTI) for their ability to detect damage in NMOSD. We analyzed 21 NMOSD patients and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. VBM (GW/WM) and DTI whole brain (TBSS) analyses were performed at different statistical thresholds to reflect different statistical approaches in previous studies. In an automated atlas-based approach, Freesurfer and DTI results were compared between NMOSD and controls. DTI TBSS and DTI atlas based analysis demonstrated microstructural impairment only within the optic radiation or in regions associated with the optic radiation (posterior thalamic radiation p < 0.001, 6.9 % reduction of fractional anisotropy). VBM demonstrated widespread brain GM and WM reduction, but only at exploratory statistical thresholds, with no differences remaining after correction for multiple comparisons. Freesurfer analysis demonstrated no group differences. NMOSD specific parenchymal brain damage is predominantly located in the optic radiation, likely due to a secondary degeneration caused by ON. In comparison, DTI appears to be the most reliable and sensitive technique for brain damage detection in NMOSD. • The hypothesis of a widespread brain damage in NMOSD is challenged. • The optic radiation (OR) is the most severely affected region. • OR-affection is likely due to secondary degeneration following optic neuritis. • DTI is currently the most sensitive technique for NMOSD-related brain-damage detection. • DTI is currently the most reliable technique for NMOSD-related brain-damage detection.

  4. Spectrum of fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Padilla, Maria L

    2009-02-01

    The interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by inflammation and/or fibrosis of the pulmonary interstitium. In 2002, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society revised the classification of interstitial lung diseases and introduced the term diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a subtype of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are subdivided into usual interstitial pneumonia (with its clinical counterpart idiopathic interstitial pneumonia), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, and lymphocytic pneumonia. Sarcoidosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis are the 2 most common granulomatous diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis/polymyositis (causing antisynthetase syndrome) are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases of known association because these conditions are associated with connective tissue disease. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a rare genetic diffuse parenchymal lung disease characterized by the clinical triad of pulmonary disease, oculocutaneous albinism, and bleeding diathesis. This review provides an overview of the chronic fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Its primary objective is to illuminate the clinical challenges encountered by clinicians who manage the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases regularly and to offer potential solutions to those challenges. Treatment for the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases is limited, and for many patients with end-stage disease, lung transplantation remains the best option. Although much has been learned about the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases during the past decade, research in these diseases is urgently needed.

  5. Intrahepatic microcirculatory disorder, parenchymal hypoxia and NOX4 upregulation result in zonal differences in hepatocyte apoptosis following lipopolysaccharide- and D-galactosamine-induced acute liver failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masatake; Tanaka, Kosuke; Masaki, Yuko; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Kato, Masaki; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Enjoji, Munechika; Nakamuta, Makoto; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    Although the mechanisms responsible for acute liver failure (ALF) have not yet been fully elucidated, studies have indicated that intrahepatic macrophage activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ALF through intrahepatic microcirculatory disorder and consequent parenchymal cell death. Intrahepatic microcirculatory disorder has been demonstrated in animal models using intravital microscopy; however, the limitations of this method include simultaneously evaluating blood flow and the surrounding pathological changes. Therefore, in this study, we devised a novel method involving tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-dextran administration for the pathological assessment of hepatic microcirculation. In addition, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms through which intrahepatic microcirculatory disorder progresses with relation to activated macrophages. ALF was induced in Wistar rats by exposure to lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine. Intrahepatic microcirculation and microcirculatory disorder in zone 3 (pericentral zone) of the livers of rats with ALF was observed. Immunohistochemical examinations in conjunction with TRITC-dextran images revealed that the macrophages were mainly distributed in zone 2 (intermediate zone), while cleaved caspase-3-positive hepatocytes, pimonidazole and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α were abundant in zone 3. We also found that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)4-positive cells were predominantly located in the zone 3 parenchyma. The majority of apoptotic hepatocytes in zone 3 were co-localized with NOX4. Our results revealed that the apoptotic cells in zone 3 were a result of hypoxic conditions induced by intrahepatic microcirculatory disorder, and were not induced by activated macrophages. The increased levels of oxidative stress in zone 3 may contribute to the progression of hepatocyte apoptosis.

  6. Lung Parenchymal Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Suki, Béla; Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Hubmayr, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The lung parenchyma comprises a large number of thin-walled alveoli, forming an enormous surface area, which serves to maintain proper gas exchange. The alveoli are held open by the transpulmonary pressure, or prestress, which is balanced by tissues forces and alveolar surface film forces. Gas exchange efficiency is thus inextricably linked to three fundamental features of the lung: parenchymal architecture, prestress, and the mechanical properties of the parenchyma. The prestress is a key determinant of lung deformability that influences many phenomena including local ventilation, regional blood flow, tissue stiffness, smooth muscle contractility, and alveolar stability. The main pathway for stress transmission is through the extracellular matrix. Thus, the mechanical properties of the matrix play a key role both in lung function and biology. These mechanical properties in turn are determined by the constituents of the tissue, including elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties are also influenced by the surface tension and, to some extent, the contractile state of the adherent cells. This article focuses on the biomechanical properties of the main constituents of the parenchyma in the presence of prestress and how these properties define normal function or change in disease. An integrated view of lung mechanics is presented and the utility of parenchymal mechanics at the bedside as well as its possible future role in lung physiology and medicine are discussed. PMID:23733644

  7. Lung parenchymal mechanics.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Stamenović, Dimitrije; Hubmayr, Rolf

    2011-07-01

    The lung parenchyma comprises a large number of thin-walled alveoli, forming an enormous surface area, which serves to maintain proper gas exchange. The alveoli are held open by the transpulmonary pressure, or prestress, which is balanced by tissues forces and alveolar surface film forces. Gas exchange efficiency is thus inextricably linked to three fundamental features of the lung: parenchymal architecture, prestress, and the mechanical properties of the parenchyma. The prestress is a key determinant of lung deformability that influences many phenomena including local ventilation, regional blood flow, tissue stiffness, smooth muscle contractility, and alveolar stability. The main pathway for stress transmission is through the extracellular matrix. Thus, the mechanical properties of the matrix play a key role both in lung function and biology. These mechanical properties in turn are determined by the constituents of the tissue, including elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties are also influenced by the surface tension and, to some extent, the contractile state of the adherent cells. This chapter focuses on the biomechanical properties of the main constituents of the parenchyma in the presence of prestress and how these properties define normal function or change in disease. An integrated view of lung mechanics is presented and the utility of parenchymal mechanics at the bedside as well as its possible future role in lung physiology and medicine are discussed.

  8. Influence of Parenchymal Heterogeneity on Airway-Parenchymal Interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Baoshun; Breen, Barbara; Bates, Jason H.T.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the influence of parenchymal heterogeneities on airway-parenchymal interdependence, we considered a circular airway embedded within elastic parenchyma modeled as 1) a hexagonal spring network, 2) a triangular spring network, or 3) a continuum. The deformation in the parenchyma due to active airway contraction was simulated using the finite element method. Random perturbations of elastic moduli in the parenchyma did not significantly affect the overall pattern of force transmission. By contrast, when elastic moduli were increased along a path projecting radially outward from the airway, the hexagonal spring network model predicted significantly increased force along this line as the airway contracted, but this was not observed in other two models. These results indicate that tissue heterogeneities generally have minimal effect on the global nature of airway-parenchymal interdependence. However, in the exceptional circumstance of scar tissue aligned radially from the airway wall, parenchymal distortion forces may propagate much farther from the airway wall than was previously thought. PMID:23770309

  9. Influence of parenchymal heterogeneity on airway-parenchymal interdependence.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshun; Breen, Barbara; Bates, Jason H T

    2013-08-15

    To estimate the influence of parenchymal heterogeneities on airway-parenchymal interdependence, we considered a circular airway embedded within elastic parenchyma modeled as (1) a hexagonal spring network, (2) a triangular spring network, or (3) a continuum. The deformation in the parenchyma due to active airway contraction was simulated using the finite element method. Random perturbations of elastic moduli in the parenchyma did not significantly affect the overall pattern of force transmission. By contrast, when elastic moduli were increased along a path projecting radially outward from the airway, the hexagonal spring network model predicted significantly increased force along this line as the airway contracted, but this was not observed in other two models. These results indicate that tissue heterogeneities generally have minimal effect on the global nature of airway-parenchymal interdependence. However, in the exceptional circumstance of scar tissue aligned radially from the airway wall, parenchymal distortion forces may propagate much farther from the airway wall than was previously thought. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Human parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cell isolation, culture and characterization.

    PubMed

    Damm, Georg; Pfeiffer, Elisa; Burkhardt, Britta; Vermehren, Jan; Nüssler, Andreas K; Weiss, Thomas S

    2013-10-01

    Many reports describing parenchymal liver cell isolation have been published so far. However, recent evidence has clearly demonstrated that non-parenchymal liver cells play an important role in many pathophysiologies of the liver, such as drug-induced liver diseases, inflammation, and the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. In this study, we present an overview of the current methods for isolating and characterizing parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells.

  11. An unusual case of renal failure due to solitary plasmacytoma: parenchymal invasion of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Ozkok, Abdullah; Elcioglu, Omer Celal; Bakan, Ali; Sasak, Gulsah; Atilgan, Kadir Gokhan; Alisir, Sabahat; Odabas, Ali Riza

    2012-01-01

    Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is a rare plasma cell disorder mostly involving the upper airway; however, retroperitoneal infiltration is very rare. Kidney injury associated with EMP is exceptionally rare with only anecdotal reports. Herein we report a case of retroperitoneal EMP causing renal failure by the way of direct renal parenchymal infiltration. Renal parenchymal invasion should be considered in aggressive and refractory plasma cell dyscrasias with unexplained renal failure.

  12. Pulmonary Hypertension in Parenchymal Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsangaris, Iraklis; Tsaknis, Georgios; Anthi, Anastasia; Orfanos, Stylianos E.

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) has been extensively investigated, although it represents a less common form of the pulmonary hypertension (PH) family, as shown by international registries. Interestingly, in types of PH that are encountered in parenchymal lung diseases such as interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and many other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, some of which are very common, the available data is limited. In this paper, we try to browse in the latest available data regarding the occurrence, pathogenesis, and treatment of PH in chronic parenchymal lung diseases. PMID:23094153

  13. Nitrofurantoin: evidence for the oxidant injury of lung parenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, W J

    1983-04-01

    Nitrofurantoin, a commonly used urinary antiseptic, is associated with significant pulmonary toxicity. This study used a 51Cr rat lung explant cytotoxicity assay to demonstrate that nitrofurantoin (10(-3) M), when incubated with lung parenchymal cells for 12 h at 37 degrees C, resulted in significant lung cell injury (cytotoxic index of 43 +/- 2). This injury could be reduced (p less than 0.05) by several antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase, 300 U/ml (37 +/- 2); catalase, 1,100 U/ml (27 +/- 2); alpha tocopherol, 10 micrograms/ml (30 +/- 2); ascorbic acid 50 micrograms/ml (37 +/- 2); ethanol, 0.1% (35 +/- 2); dimethyl sulfoxide, 1.0% (37 +/- 2). Additionally, the nitrofurantoin-induced injury could be accelerated in the presence of hyperoxia (95% O2) from 45 +/- 2 to 62 +/- 1, p less than 0.01. These data suggest that nitrofurantoin can directly injure lung parenchymal cells, probably through oxidant mechanisms, and this might suggest alternative approaches in the evaluation and therapy of patients with this disorder.

  14. Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Meena; Karandikar, Manjiri

    2015-01-01

    The 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system identified "pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation" (PPTID) as a new pineal parenchymal neoplasm, located between pineocytoma and pineoblastoma as grade II or III. Because of the small number of reported cases, the classification of PPT is still a matter of controversy. We report a case of PPTID. A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital with complaints of a headache, nausea, vomiting since 1-year. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed well-defined, mildly enhancing lesion in the region of the pineal gland with areas of calcification. The tumor was excised. After 3 years, she presented with metastasis in thoracic and lumbosacral spinal region. This is a rare event.

  15. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies.

    PubMed

    San Millán Ruíz, Diego; Delavelle, Jacqueline; Yilmaz, Hasan; Gailloud, Philippe; Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca; Rüfenacht, Daniel A

    2007-12-01

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA.

  16. Power spectral analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2006-03-01

    Mammographic density and parenchymal patterns have been shown to be associated with the risk of developing breast cancer. Two groups of women: gene-mutation carriers and low-risk women were included in this study. Power spectral analysis was performed within parenchymal regions of 172 digitized craniocaudal normal mammograms of the BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers and those of women at low-risk of developing breast cancer. The power law spectrum of the form, P(f)=B/f β was evaluated for the mammographic patterns. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the performance of exponent β as a decision variable in the task of distinguishing between high and low-risk subjects. Power spectral analysis of mammograms demonstrated that mammographic parenchymal patterns have a power-law spectrum of the form, P(f)=B/f β where f is radial spatial frequency, with the average β values of 2.92 and 2.47 for the gene-mutation carriers and for the low-risk women, respectively. A z values of 0.90 and 0.89 were achieved in distinguishing between the gene-mutation carriers and the low-risk women with the individual image β value as the decision variable in the entire database and the age-matched group, respectively.

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Shlobin, Oksana A; Brown, A Whitney; Nathan, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can be triggered by any number of disease processes that result in increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Although historically associated with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), most patients with PH do not have the idiopathic subtype, but rather PH associated with another underlying diagnosis, such as left heart or lung disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of PH helps conceptualize the different categories based on presumed etiology. WHO group 3 is PH associated with lung disease. This review focuses on PH in diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs), such as the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and other more rare forms of DPLD. Although there are clear associations of PH with DPLD, the exact pathophysiologic mechanisms and full clinical significance remain uncertain. Treatment of PH related to DPLD remains investigational, but an area of great interest given the negative prognostic implications and the growing number of available pulmonary vasoactive agents.

  18. Nucleoside uptake in rat liver parenchymal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, J; Gomez-Angelats, M; del Santo, B; Casado, F J; Felipe, A; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1996-01-01

    Rat liver parenchymal cells express Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)- independent nucleoside transport activity. The Na(+)-dependent component shows kinetic properties and substrate specificity similar to those reported for plasma membrane vesicles [Ruiz-Montasell, Casado, Felipe and Pastor-Anglada (1992) J. Membr. Biol. 128, 227-233]. This transport activity shows apparent K(m) values for uridine in the range 8-13 microM and a Vmax of 246 pmol of uridine per 3 min per 10(5) cells. Most nucleosides, including the analogue formycin B, cis-inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine transport, although thymidine and cytidine are poor inhibitors. Inosine and adenosine inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake in a dose-dependent manner, reaching total inhibition. Guanosine also inhibits Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake, although there is some residual transport activity (35% of the control values) that is resistant to high concentrations of guanosine but may be inhibited by low concentrations of adenosine. The transport activity that is inhibited by high concentrations of thymidine is similar to the guanosine-resistant fraction. These observations are consistent with the presence of at least two Na(+)-dependent transport systems. Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide treatment, but Na(+)-independent transport is not. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) stimulates Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake. The NBTI effect involves a change in Vmax, it is rapid, dose-dependent, does not need preincubation and can be abolished by depleting the Na+ transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Na(+)-independent uridine transport seems to be insensitive to NBTI. Under the same experimental conditions, NBTI effectively blocks most of the Na(+)-independent uridine uptake in hepatoma cells. Thus the stimulatory effect of NBTI on the concentrative nucleoside transporter of liver parenchymal cells cannot be explained by inhibition of nucleoside efflux. PMID:8760370

  19. Impact of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Parenchymal Arteriolar Function

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, George C.; Koide, Masayo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Intracerebral or parenchymal arterioles play an important role in the regulation of both global and regional blood flow within the brain. Brain cortex lacks significant collateral sources of blood and are thus at risk if blood flow through parenchymal arterioles is restricted. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating that abnormal parenchymal arteriolar constriction contributes to the development of neurological deficits caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For example, parenchymal arterioles isolated from SAH model rats exhibit enhanced constriction in response to increased intravascular pressure. This increased pressure-dependent constriction or myogenic tone would result in a shift in the cerebral autoregulatory response and decreased cerebral perfusion. Here, we summarize our current knowledge regarding cellular mechanisms contributing to enhanced contractility of parenchymal arteriolar myocytes following SAH. Our studies demonstrate SAH-induced membrane potential depolarization involving altered K+ homeostasis leads to enhanced voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activity, increased smooth muscle cytosolic Ca2+ and parenchymal arteriolar constriction. In summary, emerging evidence demonstrates that SAH can profoundly affect parenchymal arteriolar tone promoting decreased cortical blood flow and compromised neuronal viability. PMID:22890665

  20. Pineal parenchymal tumours and pineal cysts.

    PubMed

    Jouvet, A; Vasiljevic, A; Champier, J; Fèvre Montange, M

    2015-01-01

    Pineal parenchymal tumours (PPTs) and pineal cysts represent one third of the pineal region lesions. PPTs are subdivided into pineocytoma (PC), pineoblastoma (PB) and PPT with intermediate differentiation (PPTID). We report morphological and immunochemical features which permit to grade these tumours. The description of histopathological features and grading is based on a large cooperative series and on the WHO 2007 classification. PCs occur in adults between the third and the sixth decade of life. PBs typically occur in children. PPTIDs have a peak incidence in young adults between 20 and 40 years of age. There is no sex preference. PC is characterized by a uniform cell proliferation with large fibrillary pineocytomatous rosettes. PB is a high-density tumour composed of small blue cells with hyper-chromatic, round or carrot shaped nuclei. PPTIDs have lobulated or diffuse patterns. Grading is based on morphological features, count of mitoses and neurofilament protein (NFP) expression. PCs (grade I) have no mitosis and NFP is highly expressed in pineocytomatous rosettes. PBs (grade IV) are high mitotic tumours and present low or no expression of NFPs. PPTIDs are grade II when mitoses are fewer than 6 for 10 high-power fields and NFPs are expressed, and are grade III when mitoses are greater or equal to 6 or are fewer than 6 with NFPs lowly expressed. Pineal cysts may be differentiated from PPTs by the high expression of NFPs and no expression of Ki-67. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Scintigraphic evaluation of parenchymal malakoplakia in a transplanted kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Melloul, M.M.; Shmueli, D.; Mechlis-Frish, S.; Shapira, Z.; Baniel, J.; Rousso, I.; Cohen, M.; Lubin, E.

    1988-07-01

    The scintigraphic evaluation of a rare case of parenchymal malakoplakia in a transplanted kidney is presented. Uptake of Tc-99m DMSA in the involved area was reduced and the Ga-67 uptake was increased.

  2. Imaging parenchymal lung diseases with confocal endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard C; Kemp, Samuel V; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Elson, Daniel S; Darzi, Ara; Shah, Pallav L

    2012-01-01

    "Optical biopsy" using bronchoscopic probe-based confocal endomicrosocopy (pCLE) provides real time images of the autofluorescent elastin scaffold of the healthy acinus. To establish how different parenchymal lung diseases (PLDs) alter the pCLE image, if intravenous fluorescein provides additional diagnostic information, and to assess pCLE's safety for investigating PLDs (UK REC: 09/H0708/18). 116 bronchopulmonary segments were examined in 38 patients and 4 healthy non-smoker volunteers. pCLE images were correlated with consensus multidisciplinary diagnosis from HRCT, bronchoalveolar lavage, and transbronchial/CT guided biopsies. Severe emphysema is evident on pCLE imaging, with increased spacing between septal walls, sudden loss of fluorescence from bullae and a subsequent reticular pleural image. Other PLDs demonstrated marked loss of lobular autofluorescence and distinctiveness. In all diseases imaged, differentiation between septal wall and microvessel elastin is more difficult in diseased versus healthy acini. Smokers displayed a hyperfluorescent 15-30 micron cellular alveolar infiltrate - alveolar macrophages on in vitro BAL analysis. Varied intravenous fluorescein doses only create a hyperfluorescent foreground with bubbles. pCLE can cause pleuritic discomfort but there were no pneumothoraces. 3 patients had transient bleeding, and in vivo tearing of septal walls and microvessels abutting the probe was observed. Marked emphysema is demonstrable from loss of elastic walls. The detail of high-resolution pCLE images is attenuated in other PLDs without further clarity from intravenous fluorescein. Nevertheless, pCLE is safe for PLD investigation. These findings form a basis for future work to harness pCLE's potential utility as part of a multiassessment modality for PLD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression patterns of nuclear receptors in parenchymal and non-parenchymal mouse liver cells and their modulation in cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ester; Firrincieli, Delphine; Housset, Chantal; Chignard, Nicolas

    2017-04-05

    Nuclear receptors (NR), the largest family of transcription factors, control many physiological and pathological processes. To gain insight into hepatic NR and their potential as therapeutic targets in cholestatis, we determined their expression in individual cell types of the mouse liver in normal and cholestatic conditions. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, hepatic stellate cells (HSC), sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) and Kupffer cells (KC) were isolated from the liver of mice with acute or chronic cholestasis (i.e. bile duct-ligated or Abcb4(-/-) mice, respectively) and healthy controls. The expression of 43 out of the 49 NR was evidenced by RT-qPCR in one or several liver cell types. Expression of four NR was restricted to non-parenchymal liver cells. In normal conditions, NR were expressed at higher levels in individual cell types when compared to total liver. Half of the NR expressed in the liver had maximal expression in non-parenchymal cells. After bile duct ligation, NR mRNA changes occurred mostly in non-parenchymal cells and mainly consisted in down-regulations. In Abcb4(-/-) mice, NR mRNA changes were equally frequent in hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. Essentially down-regulations were found in hepatocytes, HSC and cholangiocytes, as opposed to up-regulations in SEC and KC. While undetectable in total liver, Vdr expression was up-regulated in all non-parenchymal cells in Abcb4(-/-) mice. In conclusion, non-parenchymal liver cells are a major site of NR expression. During cholestasis, NR expression is markedly altered mainly by down-regulations, suggesting major changes in metabolic activity. Thus, non-parenchymal cells are important new targets to consider in NR-directed therapies.

  4. Excised Parenchymal Mass During Partial Nephrectomy: Functional Implications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Zhang, Zhiling; Zhao, Juping; Wu, Jitao; Suk-Ouichai, Chalairat; Aguilar Palacios, Diego; Caraballo Antonio, Elvis; Babbar, Sanam; Remer, Erick M; Li, Jianbo; Isharwal, Sudhir; Zabell, Joseph; Campbell, Steven C

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate whether excised parenchymal mass (EPM) during partial nephrectomy (PN) correlates with functional decline and can serve as a surrogate for functional outcomes. All 215 patients managed with PN for unifocal renal mass with necessary studies to determine EPM and percent glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and parenchymal mass preserved (both global and specific to the operated kidney) were analyzed. EPM was estimated from the pathologic specimen by subtracting the tumor mass from the specimen mass, with both calculated using the elliptical formula. Vascularized parenchymal mass preserved was measured from computed tomography scans obtained <2 months prior and 3-12 months after surgery. All functional analyses were required to be within the same time frames, and patients with a contralateral kidney were also required to have nuclear renal scans. The median tumor size was 3.5 cm and the median R.E.N.A.L. was 7. Warm and cold ischemia were utilized in 123 and 92 patients, respectively (median ischemia time = 23 minutes). The median global GFR preserved was 89%, the median total parenchymal mass preserved was 93%, and the median estimated EPM was 16 cm(3). Whereas percent parenchymal mass preserved correlated strongly with global and ipsilateral GFR preserved (both P < .001), EPM failed to correlate with functional outcomes on both univariable and multivariable analyses. Our data suggest that parenchymal mass preserved with standard PN by experienced surgeons associates strongly with function preserved, whereas EPM fails to correlate with functional outcomes. Further study of the functional impact of EPM in other circumstances will be required, such as enucleation or PN performed by less-experienced surgeons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Computerized breast parenchymal analysis on DCE-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Yuan, Yading; Jansen, Sanaz A.; Lan, Li; Bhooshan, Neha; Newstead, Gillian M.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been shown to be associated with the risk of developing breast cancer, and MRI has been recommended for high-risk women screening, however, it is still unknown how the breast parenchymal enhancement on DCE-MRI is associated with breast density and breast cancer risk. Ninety-two DCE-MRI exams of asymptomatic women with normal MR findings were included in this study. The 3D breast volume was automatically segmented using a volume-growing based algorithm. The extracted breast volume was classified into fibroglandular and fatty regions based on the discriminant analysis method. The parenchymal kinetic curves within the breast fibroglandular region were extracted and categorized by use of fuzzy c-means clustering, and various parenchymal kinetic characteristics were extracted from the most enhancing voxels. Correlation analysis between the computer-extracted percent dense measures and radiologist-noted BIRADS density ratings yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.76 (p<0.0001). From kinetic analyses, 70% (64/92) of most enhancing curves showed persistent curve type and reached peak parenchymal intensity at the last postcontrast time point; with 89% (82/92) of most enhancing curves reaching peak intensity at either 4th or 5th post-contrast time points. Women with dense breast (BIRADS 3 and 4) were found to have more parenchymal enhancement at their peak time point (Ep) with an average Ep of 116.5% while those women with fatty breasts (BIRADS 1 and 2) demonstrated an average Ep of 62.0%. In conclusion, breast parenchymal enhancement may be associated with breast density and may be potential useful as an additional characteristic for assessing breast cancer risk.

  6. Age Metallicity Relation in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontizas, E.; Dapergolas, A.; Kontizas, M.; Nordström, B.; Andersen, J.; Prantzos, N.; Kaltcheva, N.

    The age metallicity relation (AMR) is known to be very important for understanding the chemical evolution in a galaxy. LMC, our nearest galaxy offers an ideal target for such studies, considering that with the SMC and our Galaxy are an interacting group, influencing each other's star formation rate and production of metals. An observing program for the determination of AMR from a study of small open LMC clusters using Stroemgren phorometry has been initiated. Three observing runs were granted with the 1.5m Danish Telescope at La Silla. We report on our search within 8 clusters, scattered all over the LMC to cover a wide spatial distribution and metallicity. CMDs using Stroemgren photometry have been produced, in order to find the age of the stellar content. The available isochrones used, although very few are able to give us a good age estimate. The calibration of the y, b, v, magnitudes and colours to metallicity used, is the one by Richter et al. (A&A, 1999), to obtain the adopted metallicities of the clusters. Although our sample is still small, a clear trend is observed in AMR showing a significant increase of metallicity with age. Comparison with previous AMRs from other investigations shows good agreement within the errors. The bursting model of chemical evolution by Pagel and Tautvaisiene (MNRAS, 1999) shows that the burst of star formation (SF) produces a change of slope in their AMRs from 2 Gyr to the present time, the burst assumed to occur from -0.4 dex to 0.0 dex. Although our sample is small the observed trend favours the expected change of the AMRs rather towards the 1 Gyr. Therefore our observations support a bursting model of chemical evolution. More obervations are needed and new theoretical models to strengthen these results. Finally it is found that all young metal rich clusters occupy the central LMC regions whereas the old metal poor ones are found in the LMC periphery giving evidence for a metallicity gradient as well. We would like to

  7. Pulmonary Parenchymal Lymphoma Diagnosed by Bronchoscopic Cryoprobe Lung Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Schiavo, Dante; Batzlaff, Cassandra; Maldonado, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    A 51-year-old man presented with progressively worsening lung infiltrates and respiratory failure. Extensive investigations including bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and conventional transbronchial forceps biopsies failed to establish the diagnosis. After transfer to our institution, he underwent repeat bronchoscopy with transbronchial cryobiopsy, which provided large, high-quality biopsy specimens establishing the diagnosis of parenchymal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  8. Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Cerebellar and Brainstem Parenchymal Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Tobin, W Oliver; Meyer, Fredric B; Keegan, B Mark

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to determine the diagnostic yield and safety of posterior fossa parenchymal biopsy. One-hundred-thirty-six patients who underwent 137 posterior fossa (brainstem or cerebellar) parenchymal biopsies at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota, USA) between 1996 and 2009 were identified by chart review. Case histories; radiologic, surgical, and pathologic reports; and safety outcomes were assessed. Posterior fossa parenchymal biopsies were performed on 78 male and 58 female patients of median age 47 years (interquartile range 28-61). Preoperative clinical diagnosis in the majority of cases was of a malignant neoplasm. Glial neoplasm (51%) was the most common finding followed by lymphoma (7%) and neurosarcoidosis (7%). Normal tissue or nonspecific changes were observed in 28 cases (20%). Three deaths occurred: 2 at the time of biopsy (1%) and 1 due to underlying disease. All deaths occurred in patients who had a cerebellar biopsy. Transient neurologic deficits occurred in 15 patients (11%): worsening of presenting symptoms (4), cardiac arrhythmia (3), vertigo (2), diplopia (2), ataxia (3), seizure (1), decreased consciousness (1), and limb numbness (3). Sustained neurologic deficits occurred in 3 patients: fourth nerve palsy (1), hemiparesis (1), and facial numbness (1). The diagnostic yield of posterior fossa parenchymal biopsy in Mayo Clinic patients with diverse pathologies was 80%. The complication rate was 11% with the majority being transient, but 2 deaths were attributed to biopsy. Evaluation of the diagnostic yield and complication rate at individual neurosurgical centers is needed to determine generalizability of these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Robotic partial nephrectomy with selective parenchymal compression (Simon clamp).

    PubMed

    Castillo, O A; Rodriguez-Carlin, A; Lopez-Fontana, G; Aleman, E

    2013-01-01

    To present our initial experience using selective renal parenchymal ischemia, without hilar clamping, in robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy. In four patients with T1a renal tumor we performed robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy, using the Simon's clamp (Aesculap). It provides selective parenchymal compression without the need of vascular clamping. All patients had exofitic renal tumors in polar location. Renal parenchymal reconstruction was done as the standard technique. The median age was 49.6 years (42-59), 3 male and 1 female patient. Median operative time was 71,6 minutes (40-120). Mean stimated bleeding was 250 ml (50-400). Average tumor size was 3,25 cm (1,5-5,3). There were no complications and the average hospital stay was 3,5 days (1-7). The pathology was informed as renal cell carcinoma in three patients and one hemorrhagic cyst. The surgical margins were negative. Our preliminary results shows that selective renal parenchymal compression, with the Simon's clamp, provides an alternative to vascular control in selected patients with polar renal tumors. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns using fractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Huo, Zhimin; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Chinander, Michael R.; Lan, Li; Bonta, Ioana R.

    2003-05-01

    Mammographic parenchymal patterns have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk. Fractal-based texture analyses, including box-counting methods and Minkowski dimension, were performed within parenchymal regions of normal mammograms of BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutation carriers and within those of women at low risk for developing breast cancer. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the performance of the computerized radiographic markers in the task of distinguishing between high and low-risk subjects. A multifractal phenomenon was observed with the fractal analyses. The high frequency component of fractal dimension from the conventional box-counting technique yielded an Az value of 0.84 in differentiating between two groups, while using the LDA to estimate the fractal dimension yielded an Az value of 0.91 for the high frequency component. An Az value of 0.82 was obtained with fractal dimensions extracted using the Minkowski algorithm.

  11. Spontaneous Intra-Parenchymal Rupture of Craniopharyngioma - A Rare Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Vivakaran Thanga Tirupathi; Janani, Asogan Vaishnavi; Kumar, Aiyappan Senthil; Sundar, Ilangovan Vijay

    2017-07-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a relatively benign intracranial tumour that involves sellar and supra-sellar regions. Spontaneous rupture of craniopharyngioma into the sub-arachnoid space or into the ventricles is a rare phenomenon and few cases are reported in literature. We hereby report a case of sellar-suprasellar craniopharyngioma with focal intra-parenchymal rupture into brain causing aggravation of headache in a 12-year-old female child. This complication is a relatively rare phenomenon, which requires attention for early intervention. This was managed by trans-nasal endoscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery. Usually rupture of craniopharyngioma causes chemical meningitis or it can be asymptomatic. Sometimes rupture can cause complete resolution of cyst and symptoms. In the present case, there was only focal rupture and it was into brain parenchyma causing brain oedema with aggravation of headache. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in intra-parenchymal rupture of craniopharyngioma has been emphasized in this case report.

  12. CO2 relaxation of the rat lung parenchymal strip.

    PubMed

    Emery, Michael J; Eveland, Randy L; Min, Jin-Hye; Hildebrandt, Jacob; Swenson, Erik R

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from liquid-filled rat lungs supported the presence of CO2-dependent, active relaxation of parenchyma under normoxia by unknown mechanisms (Emery et al., 2007). This response may improve matching of alveolar ventilation (V˙A) to perfusion (Q˙) by increasing compliance and V˙A in overperfused (high CO2) regions, and decrease V˙A in underperfused regions. Here, we have more directly studied CO2-dependent parenchymal relaxation and tested a hypothesized role for actin-myosin interaction in this effect. Lung parenchymal strips (∼1.5mm×1.5mm×15mm) from 16 rats were alternately exposed to normoxic hypocapnia ( [Formula: see text] ) or hypercapnia ( [Formula: see text] ). Seven specimens were used to construct length-tension curves, and nine were tested with and without the myosin blocker 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM). The results demonstrate substantial, reversible CO2-dependent changes in parenchyma strip recoil (up to 23%) and BDM eliminates this effect, supporting a potentially important role for parenchymal myosin in V˙A/Q˙ matching. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome associated with brain parenchymal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kazato, Yuko; Fujii, Katsunori; Oba, Hiroshi; Hino, Moeko; Ochiai, Hidemasa; Uchikawa, Hideki; Kohno, Yoichi

    2012-09-01

    We described a 7-year-old girl with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome associated with brain parenchymal hemorrhage. She initially presented with high fever and pancytopenia, leading to a diagnosis of most severe type aplastic anemia. We treated her with cyclosporine, methylprednisolone and anti-thymocyte globulin. Thereafter she recurrently complained of a very severe headache called as thunderclap, and finally exhibited loss of consciousness. Brain imaging revealed massive parenchymal hemorrhage between the left occipital and parietal lobes on computed tomography, and diffuse cerebral vasoconstriction on magnetic resonance angiography. The cerebral vasoconstriction resolved within two months, and thus we diagnosed her as having reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome associated with brain parenchymal hemorrhage. This syndrome has been frequently reported in adult females, but rarely in children. However, even in children, a so called thunderclap headache may become a clue for the diagnosis of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, especially in cases taking immunosuppressive agents. Immediate magnetic resonance angiography is essential to diagnose this syndrome, and a prompt application of calcium channel inhibitors should be considered to resolve constriction of the vessels and to prevent subsequent brain damage. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early prediction of renal parenchymal injury with serum procalcitonin

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Leila; Safaeian, Baranak; Mehrjerdian, Mahshid; Vakili, Mohammad-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in children that can be associated with renal parenchymal injuries and late scars. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan is known as golden standard for detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) that has a lot of difficulties and limitations. Objectives: we designed this study the accuracy of one inflammatory marker, serum procalcitonin (PCT) to identify as an early predictor of renal injuries. Patients and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in 95 patients who admitted in the hospital with the first febrile UTI. Serum PCT of all patients was measured; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) of this marker was analyzed compared to DMSA scan. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In total, 79 females and 16 males were investigated. There are 42 cases in group 1 with normal DMSA scan and 53 patients in group two with renal parenchymal injuries in their scans. Mann-Whitney test showed a meaningful relation between the two groups regarding PCT level (P<0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of PCT reported in optimum cut off were 70%, 88.1%, 88.1% and 70%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of PCT test was 5.8. Conclusion: In the current survey, PCT was the eligible inflammatory marker to predict renal parenchymal injuries in children with proper sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV that play also a pivotal role in the children aged less than 24 months, although, more studies should be undertaken to confirm. PMID:27689104

  15. A rarely seen diffuse parenchymal lung disease: diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis.

    PubMed

    Şen, Nazan; Canpolat, Emine Tuba; Koç, Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary meningothelial-like nodules (MLNs) are usually detected incidentally during pathologic evaluation of resected pulmonary parenchymal specimens and autopsies. These nodules are generally asymptomatic and most often single. Diffuse pulmonary involvement by MLNs is less frequently described. MLNs are benign lesions and have been associated with neoplastic and non-neoplastic pulmonary conditions and occasionally with extrapulmonary diseases. We report a case of a female patient presenting with multiple and bilateral pulmonary nodules diagnosed with "diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis" by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of diffuse bilateral lung nodules in the radiologic studies.

  16. Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Parenchymal Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderjit; Ma, Kevin Cong; Berlin, David Adam

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension commonly complicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The association of chronic lung disease and pulmonary hypertension portends a worse prognosis. The pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension differs in the presence or absence of lung disease. We describe the physiological determinants of the normal pulmonary circulation to better understand the pathophysiological factors implicated in chronic parenchymal lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of 3 forms of chronic lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sarcoidosis.

  17. Upfront Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Pineal Parenchymal Tumors in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Hoon; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kwon, Do Hoon; Kim, Chang Jin; Khang, Shin Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) in adults are rare, and knowledge regarding their optimal management and treatment outcome is limited. Herein, we present the clinical results of our series of PPTs other than pineoblastomas managed by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) at upfront setting. Methods Between 1997 and 2014, nine consecutive adult patients with the diagnosis of PPTs, either pineocytoma or pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, were treated with SRS. There were 6 men and 3 women. The median age was 39 years (range, 31-53 years). All of the patients presented with symptoms of hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy was done for initial management. After histologic diagnosis, patients were treated with Gamma Knife with the mean dose of 13.3 Gy (n=3) or fractionated Cyberknife with 32 Gy (n=6). Results After a mean follow-up of 78.6 months (range, 14-223 months), all patients were alive and all of their tumors were locally controlled except for one instance of cerebrospinal fluid seeding metastasis. On magnetic resonance images, tumor size decreased in all patients, resulting in complete response in 3 patients and partial response in 6. One patient had experienced temporary memory impairment after SRS, which improved spontaneously. Conclusion SRS is effective and safe for PPTs in adults and can be considered as a useful alternative to surgical resection at upfront setting. PMID:26587186

  18. Brain parenchymal, subarachnoid racemose, and intraventricular cysticercosis in an Indian man

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, D; Dubey, T; Prabhakar, S

    1999-01-01

    The coexistence of brain parenchymal cysts at various stages of evolution, both intraventricular and subarachnoid racemose, is reported in a patient with neurocysticercosis. The condition has a variety of presentations, depending on the location of the cyst. This case is of particular interest because of the rarity of this condition in India.


Keywords: brain parenchymal cyst; cysticercosis; albendazole PMID:10448497

  19. Water-jet dissection for parenchymal division during hepatectomy1

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Elijah; Sahajpal, Ajay; Cattral, Mark S.; Grant, David R.; Gallinger, Steven; Taylor, Bryce R.; Greig, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    Background. High-pressure water-jet dissection was originally developed for industry where ultra-precise cutting and engraving were desirable. This technology has been adapted for medical applications with favorable results, but little is understood about its performance in hepatic resections. Blood loss may be limited by the thin laminar liquid-jet effect that provides precise, controllable, tissue-selective dissection with excellent visualization and minimal trauma to surrounding fibrous structures. Patients and methods. The efficacy of the Water-jet system for hepatic parenchymal dissection was examined in a consecutive case series of 101 hepatic resections (including 22 living donor transplantation resections) performed over 11 months. Perioperative outcomes, including blood loss, transfusion requirements, complications, and length of stay (LOS), were assessed. Results. Three-quarters of the cases were major hepatectomies and 22% were cirrhotic. Malignancy was the most common indication (77%). Median operative time was 289 min. Median estimated blood loss (EBL) was 900 ml for all cases, and only 14% of patients had >2000 ml EBL. Furthermore, EBL was 1000 ml for major resections, 775 ml for living donor resections, 600 ml in cirrhotic patients, and 1950 ml for steatotic livers. In all, 14% of patients received heterologous packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions for an average of 0.59 units per case. Median LOS was 7 days. EBL, transfusion requirements, and LOS were slightly increased in the major resection cohort. There was one mortality (1%) overall. These results are equivalent to, or better than, those from our contemporary series of resections performed with ultrasonic dissection. Conclusion. Water-jet dissection minimizes large blood volume loss, requirements for transfusion, and complications. This initial experience suggests that this precision tool is safe and effective for hepatic division, and compares favorably to other established methods for

  20. Water-jet dissection for parenchymal division during hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Charles M; Dixon, Elijah; Sahajpal, Ajay; Cattral, Mark S; Grant, David R; Gallinger, Steven; Taylor, Bryce R; Greig, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    High-pressure water-jet dissection was originally developed for industry where ultra-precise cutting and engraving were desirable. This technology has been adapted for medical applications with favorable results, but little is understood about its performance in hepatic resections. Blood loss may be limited by the thin laminar liquid-jet effect that provides precise, controllable, tissue-selective dissection with excellent visualization and minimal trauma to surrounding fibrous structures. The efficacy of the Water-jet system for hepatic parenchymal dissection was examined in a consecutive case series of 101 hepatic resections (including 22 living donor transplantation resections) performed over 11 months. Perioperative outcomes, including blood loss, transfusion requirements, complications, and length of stay (LOS), were assessed. Three-quarters of the cases were major hepatectomies and 22% were cirrhotic. Malignancy was the most common indication (77%). Median operative time was 289 min. Median estimated blood loss (EBL) was 900 ml for all cases, and only 14% of patients had >2000 ml EBL. Furthermore, EBL was 1000 ml for major resections, 775 ml for living donor resections, 600 ml in cirrhotic patients, and 1950 ml for steatotic livers. In all, 14% of patients received heterologous packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions for an average of 0.59 units per case. Median LOS was 7 days. EBL, transfusion requirements, and LOS were slightly increased in the major resection cohort. There was one mortality (1%) overall. These results are equivalent to, or better than, those from our contemporary series of resections performed with ultrasonic dissection. Water-jet dissection minimizes large blood volume loss, requirements for transfusion, and complications. This initial experience suggests that this precision tool is safe and effective for hepatic division, and compares favorably to other established methods for hepatic parenchymal transection.

  1. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectrum of Parenchymal, Meningeal, and Vascular Lesions at Baseline.

    PubMed

    Boulouis, Grégoire; de Boysson, Hubert; Zuber, Mathieu; Guillevin, Loïc; Meary, Eric; Costalat, Vincent; Pagnoux, Christian; Naggara, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included. A systematic imaging review was performed blinded to clinical data. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 45 years (±12.9). Patients initially presented focal deficit(s) (83%), headaches (53%), cognitive disorder (40%), and seizures (38.3%). The most common magnetic resonance imaging finding observed in 42% of patients was multiterritorial, bilateral, distal acute stroke lesions after small to medium artery distribution, with a predominant carotid circulation distribution. Hemorrhagic infarctions and parenchymal hemorrhages were also frequently found in the cohort (55%). Acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage was found in 26% of patients and 42% demonstrated pre-eminent leptomeningeal enhancement, which is found to be significantly more prevalent in biopsy-proven patients (60% versus 28%; P=0.04). Seven patients had tumor-like presentations. Seventy-seven percent of magnetic resonance angiographic studies were abnormal, revealing proximal/distal stenoses in 57% and 61% of patients, respectively. Adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a heterogenous disease, with multiterritorial, distal, and bilateral acute stroke being the most common pattern of parenchymal lesions found on magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings suggest a higher than previously thought prevalence of hemorrhagic transformation and other hemorrhagic

  2. Clinicopathologic study of pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tamio; Kanno, Hiromi; Sato, Ken-ichi; Oikawa, Mitsuteru; Ozaki, Yoshimaru; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Hatanaka, Kanako; Murata, Jyun-ichi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) are extremely rare tumor entities, and only limited data are available regarding their pathologic features and biologic behaviors. Because grading criteria of pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) have yet to be established, the treatment strategy and prognosis of PPTIDs remain controversial. We describe the clinicopathologic study of six patients with PPTID and compare responses for the treatment and prognosis with cases of pineocytoma (PC) and pineoblastoma (PB). From this analysis, we attempt to clarify the treatment strategy for PPTIDs. This study included 15 patients with PPTs, consisting of 6 PCs, 6 PPTIDs, and 3 PBs. We focused on the 6 patients with PPTIDs. All PPTID cases were treated surgically, and radiotherapy and chemotherapy were administered as adjuvant therapies in some cases. We have earlier reported the histopathologic study (Neuropathology 32:647-653, 2012). Briefly, we examined mitotic figures and necrosis by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical markers such as neuronal markers (synaptophysin, neurofilament (NF), and neuronal nuclear antigen), and an MIB-1 labeling index was determined. In the PPTID cases, the extent of resection was variable and the recurrence rates among patients varied according to stage and treatment. All PC patients underwent total resection with no recurrence. All PB patients underwent resection and adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There were no recurrences in patients with PC or PB. The results of histopathologic findings have been already reported as mentioned above. Briefly, the results indicated no mitotic figure or necrosis in any of the six cases of PPTID, but those features were observed in PB cases. All cases even including PC and PB were immunopositive for neuronal markers. The MIB-1 labeling index of PPTID was 3.5%, whereas it was 0% in PC and 10.5% in PB. Good radiosensitivity of PPTIDs was observed in our series

  3. Sonographic Renal Parenchymal Measurements for the Evaluation and Management of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jeremy C; White, Jeffrey T; Goetz, Jessica T; Romero, Elena; Leslie, Jeffrey A; Prieto, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    To correlate sonographic renal parenchymal measurements among patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) labeled society of fetal urology (SFU) hydronephrosis grades 1-4 and to examine whether sonographic renal parenchymal measurements could be used to differentiate conservative vs. surgical management. Retrospective chart review and sonographic renal parenchymal measurements (renal length, medullary pyramid thickness, and renal parenchymal thickness) were performed in patients with SFU grades 1-4 hydronephrosis secondary to UPJO managed between 2009 and 2014. Exclusion criteria included other concomitant genitourinary pathology or incomplete follow-up. Anterior-posterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD) and radionuclide renography were also evaluated when available. One hundred four patients with UPJO underwent 244 renal and bladder ultrasound (1,464 sonographic renal parenchymal measurements in 488 kidneys). Medullary pyramid thickness and renal parenchymal thickness progressively decreased from SFU grades 1-4 (p < 0.05). A similar trend was appreciated when comparing SFU grades 1 and 2 vs. 3 and 4, as well as SFU grades 3 vs. 4 (p < 0.05). SFU grade 3 and 4 patients who underwent pyeloplasty had longer renal length in comparison to those who were managed conservatively (p < 0.02). This is the first study that evaluates these objective, quantifiable sonographic renal parenchymal measurements in children with unilateral UPJO. These sonographic renal parenchymal measurements correlate closely with worsening of hydronephrosis graded by the SFU and APRPD classification systems. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate the role of sonographic renal parenchymal measurements in the management of children with UPJO.

  4. Tidal dwarf galaxies and the luminosity-metallicity relation .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, S. M.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Meurer, G.; Bekki, K.; Dopita, M. A.; Kilborn, V.; Nicholls, D.

    We present a recalibration of the luminosity-metallicity relation for gas-rich, star-forming dwarfs to magnitudes as faint as M_R˜ -13. We use the \\citet{Dopita2013} metallicity calibrations to calibrate the relation for all of the data in this analysis. Metal-rich dwarfs classified as tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates in the literature are typically of metallicity 12 + log(O/H) = 8.70 ± 0.05, while SDSS dwarfs fainter than M_R = -16 have a mean metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.28 ± 0.10, regardless of their luminosity. Our hydrodynamical simuations predict that TDGs should have metallicities elevated above the normal luminosity-metallicity relation. Metallicity can therefore be a useful diagnostic for identifying TDG candidate populations in the absence of tidal tails. At magnitudes brighter than M_R˜ -16 our sample of 53 star-forming galaxies in 9 HI gas-rich groups is consistent with the normal relation defined by the SDSS sample. At fainter magnitudes there is an increase in dispersion in metallicity of our sample. In our sample we identify three (16% of dwarfs) strong TDG candidates (12 + log(O/H) > 8.6), and four (21%) very metal poor dwarfs (12 + log(O/H) < 8.0), which are likely gas-rich dwarfs with recently ignited star formation. Further details of this analysis are available in Sweet et al. (2013, ApJ submitted).

  5. Parenchymal cystatin C focal deposits and glial scar formation around brain arteries in Hereditary Cystatin C Amyloid Angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Osk Snorradottir, Asbjorg; Isaksson, Helgi J; Kaeser, Stephan A; Skodras, Angelos A; Olafsson, Elias; Palsdottir, Astridur; Thor Bragason, Birkir

    2015-10-05

    Hereditary Cystatin C Amyloid Angiopathy (HCCAA) is an amyloid disorder in Icelandic families caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in the cystatin C gene. Mutant cystatin C forms amyloid deposits in brain arteries and arterioles which are associated with changes in the arterial wall structure, notably deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. In this post-mortem study we examined the neuroinflammatory response relative to the topographical distribution of cystatin C deposition, and associated haemorrhages, in the leptomeninges, cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, and midbrain of HCCAA patients. Cystatin C was deposited in all brain areas, grey and white matter alike, most prominently in arteries and arterioles; capillaries and veins were not, or minimally, affected. We also observed perivascular deposits and parenchymal focal deposits proximal to affected arteries. This study shows for the first time, that cystatin C does not exclusively form CAA and perivascular amyloid but also focal deposits in the brain parenchyma. Haemorrhages were observed in all patients and occurred in all brain areas, variable between patients. Microinfarcts were observed in 34.6% of patients. The neuroinflammatory response was limited to the close vicinity of affected arteries and perivascular as well as parenchymal focal deposits. Taken together with previously reported arterial accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in HCCAA, our results indicate that the central nervous system pathology of HCCAA is characterised by the formation of a glial scar within and around affected arteries.

  6. A Review on Automatic Mammographic Density and Parenchymal Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenda; Juette, Arne; Denton, Erika R. E.; Oliver, Arnau

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. However, the exact cause(s) of breast cancer still remains unknown. Early detection, precise identification of women at risk, and application of appropriate disease prevention measures are by far the most effective way to tackle breast cancer. There are more than 70 common genetic susceptibility factors included in the current non-image-based risk prediction models (e.g., the Gail and the Tyrer-Cuzick models). Image-based risk factors, such as mammographic densities and parenchymal patterns, have been established as biomarkers but have not been fully incorporated in the risk prediction models used for risk stratification in screening and/or measuring responsiveness to preventive approaches. Within computer aided mammography, automatic mammographic tissue segmentation methods have been developed for estimation of breast tissue composition to facilitate mammographic risk assessment. This paper presents a comprehensive review of automatic mammographic tissue segmentation methodologies developed over the past two decades and the evidence for risk assessment/density classification using segmentation. The aim of this review is to analyse how engineering advances have progressed and the impact automatic mammographic tissue segmentation has in a clinical environment, as well as to understand the current research gaps with respect to the incorporation of image-based risk factors in non-image-based risk prediction models. PMID:26171249

  7. Sensitivity of ultrasonography in detecting renal parenchymal defects in children.

    PubMed

    Levart, Tanja Kersnik; Kenig, Anton; Fettich, Jure J; Kljucevsek, Damjana; Novljan, Gregor; Kenda, Rajko B

    2002-12-01

    Renal parenchymal defects (RPD) -- scars, hypoplasia/dysplasia -- in children are a major risk factor for chronic renal failure. Most authors would agree that RPD should be detected and followed by a 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan (DMSA), as ultrasonography (US) does not seem to be sensitive enough for this purpose. However, it might well be that DMSA is too sensitive and detects RPD that are too small to be clinically significant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of US in identifying patients with clinically significant RPD and in detecting RPD of various grades as seen by DMSA. In 89 children with abnormal DMSA, a second DMSA, US, and other tests for evaluating renal function were performed at least 1 year after the first DMSA. The extent of RPD detected by DMSA and US was correlated with renal function parameters. In all 5 patients with diminished renal function, RPD were detected by both DMSA scan and US. In addition, US detected clinically insignificant RPD in 48 of 67 cases (71.6%). The present study has shown that, compared with DMSA, US is sensitive enough to detect clinically significant RPD in children. The substitution of DMSA with US would be beneficial, as this would eliminate radiation exposure, reduce costs, and increase availability.

  8. Renal parenchymal oxygenation and hypoxia adaptation in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Christian; Rosen, Seymour; Heyman, Samuel N

    2006-10-01

    The pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI), formally termed acute tubular necrosis, is complex and, phenotypically, may range from functional dysregulation without overt morphological features to literal tubular destruction. Hypoxia results from imbalanced oxygen supply and consumption. Increasing evidence supports the view that regional renal hypoxia occurs in AKI irrespective of the underlying condition, even under circumstances basically believed to reflect 'direct' tubulotoxicity. However, at present, it is remains unclear whether hypoxia per se or, rather, re-oxygenation (possibly through reactive oxygen species) causes AKI. Data regarding renal hypoxia in the clinical situation of AKI are lacking and our current concepts regarding renal oxygenation during acute renal failure are presumptive and largely derived from experimental studies. There is robust experimental evidence that AKI is often associated with altered intrarenal microcirculation and oxygenation. Furthermore, renal parenchymal oxygen deprivation seems to participate in the pathogenesis of experimental AKI, induced by exogenous nephrotoxins (such as contrast media, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or amphotericin), sepsis, pigment and obstructive nephropathies. Sub-lethal cellular hypoxia engenders adaptational responses through hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). Forthcoming technologies to modulate the HIF system form a novel potential therapeutic approach for AKI.

  9. Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Interactions between Liver Parenchymal and Nonparenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Nancy; Zou, An

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning), inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of NASH is a complex process and implicates cell interactions between liver parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells as well as crosstalk between various immune cell populations in liver. Lipotoxicity appears to be the central driver of hepatic cellular injury via oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This review focuses on the contributions of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells to NASH, assessing their potential applications to the development of novel therapeutic agents. Currently, there are limited pharmacological treatments for NASH; therefore, an increased understanding of NASH pathogenesis is pertinent to improve disease interventions in the future. PMID:27822476

  10. Brain Parenchymal Fraction in Healthy Adults—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Granåsen, Gabriel; Svenningsson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Brain atrophy is an important feature of many neurodegenerative disorders. It can be described in terms of change in the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). In order to interpret the BPF in disease, knowledge on the BPF in healthy individuals is required. The aim of this study was to establish a normal range of values for the BPF of healthy individuals via a systematic review of the literature. The databases PubMed and Scopus were searched and 95 articles, including a total of 9269 individuals, were identified including the required data. We present values of BPF from healthy individuals stratified by age and post-processing method. The mean BPF correlated with mean age and there were significant differences in age-adjusted mean BPF between methods. This study contributes to increased knowledge about BPF in healthy individuals, which may assist in the interpretation of BPF in the setting of disease. We highlight the differences between post-processing methods and the need for a consensus gold standard. PMID:28095463

  11. Solitary parenchymal splenic recurrence of ovarian adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tserkezoglou, Aliki; Kontou, Sofia; Hatjieleftheriou, George; Nikolaidou, Maria-Evangellia; Plataniotis, George; Apostolikas, Nikiforos; Magiakos, George

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of solitary parenchymal splenic recurrence of epithelial ovarian cancer which developed 27 months after the initial treatment. The patient, a 53-year-old woman, with a history of breast cancer, underwent total abdominal hysterectomy bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy (TAH & BSO), omentectomy and pelvic lymph node sampling for a serous carcinoma of the ovaries (stage IIIB). She subsequently received 6 cycles of cisplatinum chemotherapy. During follow-up, rising CA 125 serum levels heralded the 6 x 6 cm parenchymal splenic lesion which was documented by CT scan. She underwent splenectomy after pneumococcal vaccination, sandostatin and chemoprophylaxis. Histopathological evaluation revealed metastatic parenchymal disease consistent with recurrent ovarian cancer. She remains alive and disease-free for 20 months since the last operation. Isolated parenchymal splenic lesions are very rare and may occur as a late recurrence in epithelial ovarian cancer. Splenectomy can be performed with acceptable morbidity and confers a substantial survival benefit to patients.

  12. Estimation of parenchymal cell content of human parathyroid glands using the image analyzing computer technique.

    PubMed Central

    Grimelius, L.; Akerström, G.; Johansson, H.; Lundqvist, H.

    1978-01-01

    By means of the image analyzing computer technique, a complete determination of the parenchymal tissue distribution in serially sectioned parathyroid glands were accomplished. The technique had good reproducibility. Taking into account the shrinkage of the different tissue components during histotechnical procedures and the tissue densities, it was possible to calculate the parenchymal cell mass of unfixed glands. The cell distribution varied considerably, and in most glands as many as 10 sections at different levels had to be examined to get a reliable ratio between the parenchymal and fat cell tissue. The results seriously question the validity of histopathologic examination of one or a few sections of parathyroid glands in evaluation of the parenchymal cell mass, as well as diagnoses based on examination of partial glandular biopsy specimens. PMID:717545

  13. Isolation and co-culture of rat parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells to evaluate cellular interactions and response

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Geerts, Sharon; Jindal, Rohit; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a central organ in the human body, and first line of defense between host and external environment. Liver response to any external perturbation is a collective reaction of resident liver cells. Most of the current in vitro liver models focus on hepatocytes, the primary metabolic component, omitting interactions and cues from surrounding environment and non-parenchymal cells (NPCs). Recent studies suggest that contributions of NPCs are vital, particularly in disease conditions, and outcomes of drugs and their metabolites. Along with hepatocytes, NPCs–Kupffer (KC), sinusoidal endothelial (LSEC) and stellate cells (SC) are major cellular components of the liver. Incorporation of primary cells in in vitro liver platforms is essential to emulate the functions of the liver, and its overall response. Herein, we isolate individual NPC cell fractions from rat livers and co-culture them in a transwell format incorporating primary rat hepatocytes with LSECs, SCs, and KCs. Our results indicate that the presence and contributions of multiple cells within the co-culture capture the interactions between hepatocytes and NPC, and modulates the responses to inflammatory stimulus such as LPS. The isolation and co-culture methods could provide a stable platform for creating in vitro liver models that provide defined functionality beyond hepatocytes alone. PMID:27142224

  14. Bronchial Artery Embolization in the Management of Pulmonary Parenchymal Endometriosis with Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kervancioglu, Selim Andic, Cagatay; Bayram, Nazan; Telli, Cumali; Sarica, Akif; Sirikci, Akif

    2008-07-15

    Pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis is extremely rare and usually manifests itself with a recurrent hemoptysis associated with the menstrual cycle. The therapies proposed for women with endometriosis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization has become a well-established and minimally invasive treatment modality for hemoptysis, and to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in pulmonary endometriosis. We report a case of pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis treated with embolotheraphy for hemoptysis.

  15. Effect of denoising on supervised lung parenchymal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamani, Padmapriya; Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Denoising is a critical preconditioning step for quantitative analysis of medical images. Despite promises for more consistent diagnosis, denoising techniques are seldom explored in clinical settings. While this may be attributed to the esoteric nature of the parameter sensitve algorithms, lack of quantitative measures on their ecacy to enhance the clinical decision making is a primary cause of physician apathy. This paper addresses this issue by exploring the eect of denoising on the integrity of supervised lung parenchymal clusters. Multiple Volumes of Interests (VOIs) were selected across multiple high resolution CT scans to represent samples of dierent patterns (normal, emphysema, ground glass, honey combing and reticular). The VOIs were labeled through consensus of four radiologists. The original datasets were ltered by multiple denoising techniques (median ltering, anisotropic diusion, bilateral ltering and non-local means) and the corresponding ltered VOIs were extracted. Plurality of cluster indices based on multiple histogram-based pair-wise similarity measures were used to assess the quality of supervised clusters in the original and ltered space. The resultant rank orders were analyzed using the Borda criteria to nd the denoising-similarity measure combination that has the best cluster quality. Our exhaustive analyis reveals (a) for a number of similarity measures, the cluster quality is inferior in the ltered space; and (b) for measures that benet from denoising, a simple median ltering outperforms non-local means and bilateral ltering. Our study suggests the need to judiciously choose, if required, a denoising technique that does not deteriorate the integrity of supervised clusters.

  16. Parenchymal lung involvement in adult-onset Still disease

    PubMed Central

    Gerfaud-Valentin, Mathieu; Cottin, Vincent; Jamilloux, Yvan; Hot, Arnaud; Gaillard-Coadon, Agathe; Durieu, Isabelle; Broussolle, Christiane; Iwaz, Jean; Sève, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Parenchymal lung involvement (PLI) in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) has seldom, if ever, been studied. We examine here retrospective cohort AOSD cases and present a review of the literature (1971–2014) on AOSD-related PLI cases. Patients with PLI were identified in 57 AOSD cases. For inclusion, the patients had to fulfill Yamaguchi or Fautrel classification criteria, show respiratory symptoms, and have imaging evidence of pulmonary involvement, and data allowing exclusion of infectious, cardiogenic, toxic, or iatrogenic cause of PLI should be available. This AOSD + PLI group was compared with a control group (non–PLI-complicated AOSD cases from the same cohort). AOSD + PLI was found in 3 out of the 57 patients with AOSD (5.3%) and the literature mentioned 27 patients. Among these 30 AOSD + PLI cases, 12 presented an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the remaining 18 another PLI. In the latter, a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia computed tomography pattern prevailed in the lower lobes, pulmonary function tests showed a restrictive lung function, the alveolar differential cell count was neutrophilic in half of the cases, and the histological findings were consistent with bronchiolitis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Corticosteroids were fully efficient in all but 3 patients. Ten out of 12 ARDS cases occurred during the first year of the disease course. All ARDS-complicated AOSD cases received corticosteroids with favorable outcomes in 10 (2 deceased). Most PLIs occurred during the systemic onset of AOSD. PLI may occur in 5% of AOSDs, of which ARDS is the most severe. Very often, corticosteroids are efficient in controlling this complication. PMID:27472698

  17. MRI Background Parenchymal Enhancement Is Not Associated with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bennani-Baiti, Barbara; Dietzel, Matthias; Baltzer, Pascal Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a strong positive association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and breast cancer was reported in high-risk populations. We sought to determine, whether this was also true for non-high-risk patients. 540 consecutive patients underwent breast MRI for assessment of breast findings (BI-RADS 0-5, non-high-risk screening (no familial history of breast cancer, no known genetic mutation, no prior chest irradiation, or previous breast cancer diagnosis)) and subsequent histological work-up. For this IRB-approved study, BPE and fibroglandular tissue FGT were retrospectively assessed by two experienced radiologists according to the BI-RADS lexicon. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to explore associations between BPE, FGT, age and final diagnosis of breast cancer. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis, considering covariate colinearities, was performed, using final diagnosis as the target variable and BPE, FGT and age as covariates. Age showed a moderate negative correlation with FGT (r = -0.43, p<0.001) and a weak negative correlation with BPE (r = -0.28, p<0.001). FGT and BPE correlated moderately (r = 0.35, p<0.001). Final diagnosis of breast cancer displayed very weak negative correlations with FGT (r = -0.09, p = 0.046) and BPE (r = -0.156, p<0.001) and weak positive correlation with age (r = 0.353, p<0.001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only independent covariate for prediction of breast cancer was age (OR 1.032, p<0.001). Based on our data, neither BPE nor FGT independently correlate with breast cancer risk in non-high-risk patients at MRI. Our model retained only age as an independent risk factor for breast cancer in this setting.

  18. MRI Background Parenchymal Enhancement Is Not Associated with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bennani-Baiti, Barbara; Dietzel, Matthias; Baltzer, Pascal Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, a strong positive association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and breast cancer was reported in high-risk populations. We sought to determine, whether this was also true for non-high-risk patients. Methods 540 consecutive patients underwent breast MRI for assessment of breast findings (BI-RADS 0–5, non-high-risk screening (no familial history of breast cancer, no known genetic mutation, no prior chest irradiation, or previous breast cancer diagnosis)) and subsequent histological work-up. For this IRB-approved study, BPE and fibroglandular tissue FGT were retrospectively assessed by two experienced radiologists according to the BI-RADS lexicon. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to explore associations between BPE, FGT, age and final diagnosis of breast cancer. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis, considering covariate colinearities, was performed, using final diagnosis as the target variable and BPE, FGT and age as covariates. Results Age showed a moderate negative correlation with FGT (r = -0.43, p<0.001) and a weak negative correlation with BPE (r = -0.28, p<0.001). FGT and BPE correlated moderately (r = 0.35, p<0.001). Final diagnosis of breast cancer displayed very weak negative correlations with FGT (r = -0.09, p = 0.046) and BPE (r = -0.156, p<0.001) and weak positive correlation with age (r = 0.353, p<0.001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only independent covariate for prediction of breast cancer was age (OR 1.032, p<0.001). Conclusions Based on our data, neither BPE nor FGT independently correlate with breast cancer risk in non-high-risk patients at MRI. Our model retained only age as an independent risk factor for breast cancer in this setting. PMID:27379395

  19. Renal Parenchymal Area and Risk of ESRD in Boys with Posterior Urethral Valves

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Jose E.; Furth, Susan L.; Zderic, Stephen A.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Approximately 20% of boys with posterior urethral valves develop ESRD; however, few factors associated with the risk of ESRD have been identified. The objective of this study was to determine if renal parenchymal area, defined as the area of the kidney minus the area of the pelvicaliceal system on first postnatal ultrasound, is associated with the risk of ESRD in infants with posterior urethral valves. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A retrospective cohort of boys who were diagnosed with posterior urethral valves at less than 6 months of age between 1988 and 2011 and followed for at least 1 year at a free-standing children’s hospital was assembled. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan–Meier analysis were used to estimate the association between renal parenchymal area and time to ESRD. Cox models were adjusted for age at presentation, minimum creatinine 1 month after bladder decompression, and vesicoureteral reflux. Results Sixty patients were followed for 393 person-years. Eight patients developed ESRD. Median renal parenchymal area was 15.9 cm2 (interquartile range=13.0–21.6 cm2). Each 1-cm2 increase in renal parenchymal area was associated with a lower risk of ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42 to 0.98). The rate of time to ESRD was 10 times higher in boys with renal parenchymal area<12.4 cm2 than boys with renal parenchymal area≥12.4 cm2 (P<0.001). Renal parenchymal area could best discriminate children at risk for ESRD when the minimum creatinine in the first 1 month after bladder decompression was between 0.8 and 1.1 mg/dl. Conclusion In boys with posterior urethral valves presenting during the first 6 months of life, lower renal parenchymal area is associated with an increased risk of ESRD during childhood. The predictive ability of renal parenchymal area, which is available at time of diagnosis, should be validated in a larger, prospectively-enrolled cohort. PMID:24311709

  20. The Relationship between Localized Subarachnoid Inflammation and Parenchymal Pathophysiology after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Austin, James W.; Afshar, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Subarachnoid inflammation following spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to the formation of localized subarachnoid scarring and the development of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS). While PTS is a devastating complication of SCI, its relative rarity (occurring symptomatically in about 5% of clinical cases), and lack of fundamental physiological insights, have led us to examine an animal model of traumatic SCI with induced arachnoiditis. We hypothesized that arachnoiditis associated with SCI would potentiate early parenchymal pathophysiology. To test this theory, we examined early spatial pathophysiology in four groups: (1) sham (non-injured controls), (2) arachnoiditis (intrathecal injection of kaolin), (3) SCI (35-g clip contusion/compression injury), and (4) PTS (intrathecal kaolin+SCI). Overall, there was greater parenchymal inflammation and scarring in the PTS group relative to the SCI group. This was demonstrated by significant increases in cytokine (IL-1α and IL-1β) and chemokine (MCP-1, GRO/KC, and MIP-1α) production, MPO activity, blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability, and MMP-9 activity. However, parenchymal inflammatory mediator production (acute IL-1α and IL-1β, subacute chemokines), BSCB permeability, and fibrous scarring in the PTS group were larger than the sum of the SCI group and arachnoiditis group combined, suggesting that arachnoiditis does indeed potentiate parenchymal pathophysiology. Accordingly, these findings suggest that the development of arachnoiditis associated with SCI can lead to an exacerbation of the parenchymal injury, potentially impacting the outcome of this devastating condition. PMID:22655536

  1. Ryanodine receptors, calcium signaling and regulation of vascular tone in the cerebral parenchymal microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Dabertrand, Fabrice; Nelson, Mark T.; Brayden, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    The cerebral blood supply is delivered by a surface network of pial arteries and arterioles from which arise (parenchymal) arterioles that penetrate into the cortex and terminate in a rich capillary bed. The critical regulation of cerebral blood flow, locally and globally, requires precise vasomotor regulation of the intracerebral microvasculature. This vascular region is anatomically unique as illustrated by the presence of astrocytic processes that envelope almost the entire basolateral surface of parenchymal arterioles. There are, moreover, notable functional differences between pial arteries and parenchymal arterioles. For example, in pial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), local calcium release events (“calcium sparks”) through ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane activate large conductance, calcium-sensitive potassium (BK) channels to modulate vascular diameter. In contrast, VSMCs in parenchymal arterioles express functional RyR and BK channels, but under physiological conditions these channels do not oppose pressure-induced vasoconstriction. Here we summarize the roles of ryanodine receptors in the parenchymal microvasculature under physiologic and pathologic conditions, and discuss their importance in the control of cerebral blood flow. PMID:23216877

  2. Multicentre evaluation of multidisciplinary team meeting agreement on diagnosis in diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon L F; Wells, Athol U; Desai, Sujal R; Poletti, Venerino; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Nunes, Hilario; Valeyre, Dominique; Brillet, Pierre Y; Kambouchner, Marianne; Morais, António; Pereira, José M; Moura, Conceição Souto; Grutters, Jan C; van den Heuvel, Daniel A; van Es, Hendrik W; van Oosterhout, Matthijs F; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Rasmussen, Finn; Madsen, Line B; Gooptu, Bibek; Pomplun, Sabine; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuoka, Junya; Johkoh, Takeshi; Nicholson, Andrew G; Sayer, Charlie; Edmunds, Lilian; Jacob, Joseph; Kokosi, Maria A; Myers, Jeffrey L; Flaherty, Kevin R; Hansell, David M

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease represents a diverse and challenging group of pulmonary disorders. A consistent diagnostic approach to diffuse parenchymal lung disease is crucial if clinical trial data are to be applied to individual patients. We aimed to evaluate inter-multidisciplinary team agreement for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. We did a multicentre evaluation of clinical data of patients who presented to the interstitial lung disease unit of the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust (London, UK; host institution) and required multidisciplinary team meeting (MDTM) characterisation between March 1, 2010, and Aug 31, 2010. Only patients whose baseline clinical, radiological, and, if biopsy was taken, pathological data were undertaken at the host institution were included. Seven MDTMs, consisting of at least one clinician, radiologist, and pathologist, from seven countries (Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, and the UK) evaluated cases of diffuse parenchymal lung disease in a two-stage process between Jan 1, and Oct 15, 2015. First, the clinician, radiologist, and pathologist (if lung biopsy was completed) independently evaluated each case, selected up to five differential diagnoses from a choice of diffuse lung diseases, and chose likelihoods (censored at 5% and summing to 100% in each case) for each of their differential diagnoses, without inter-disciplinary consultation. Second, these specialists convened at an MDTM and reviewed all data, selected up to five differential diagnoses, and chose diagnosis likelihoods. We compared inter-observer and inter-MDTM agreements on patient first-choice diagnoses using Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ). We then estimated inter-observer and inter-MDTM agreement on the probability of diagnosis using weighted kappa coefficient (κw). We compared inter-observer and inter-MDTM confidence of patient first-choice diagnosis. Finally, we evaluated the prognostic significance of a

  3. A clinical study of new cases of parenchymal neurosyphilis: has tabes dorsalis disappeared or been missed?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Qing; Huang, Ming; Jia, Xiao-Yan; Zou, Ya-Fen; Chen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Tabes dorsalis (TD) was documented as the most common parenchymal neurosyphilis, but its incidence dramatically declined in the antibiotic era. Syphilis has resurged on the China mainland since the 1980s. In recent years, physicians have been reporting parenchymal neurosyphilis, and the overwhelming majority was general paresis, but this was not the case in the authors' hospital. To make clear the real situation of parenchymal neurosyphilis in the authors' hospital, a retrospective review was carried out of the records of patients during 2009-2012. Overrepresented clinical new cases of tabetic and paretic parenchymal neurosyphilis were collected. Clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, laboratory data, and responses to penicillin were analyzed in two groups. The efficiency of two current criteria based on CSF antibodies tests was inspected. In the 43 cases with positive serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and TPPA tests, 18 patients met the criteria of this study: 11 presented with symptoms of general paresis, and seven had typical presentations of TD. There were statistical differences in serum RPR titers, CSF RPR, white blood cell count, and TP between the paretic and tabetic groups. The response to penicillin was relatively poor in TD. The efficiency of two current criteria was lower in the diagnosis of TD. TD was not uncommon in our area. Its clinical features remained typical, but underdiagnosis with CSF-based criteria and a decreased response to penicillin were prominent issues.

  4. Parenchymal opacification in chronic infiltrative lung diseases: CT-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Leung, A N; Miller, R R; Müller, N L

    1993-07-01

    To correlate areas of parenchymal opacification on thin-section computed tomographic (CT) scans with histologic findings in patients with chronic infiltrative lung disease, the CT and histologic findings were evaluated in 29 patients with 11 such diseases. Open-lung biopsy was performed after CT. The area of predominant involvement was classified as air space, interstitium, or a mixture of both. A pathologic score of disease activity was assigned, and the extent of fibrosis was assessed whenever fibrosis was present. Parenchymal opacification on CT scans corresponded to abnormalities that affected mainly the air spaces in three patients (10%), the interstitium in 13 patients (45%), or both to a similar degree in 13 patients (45%). In 25 of 29 patients (86%), parenchymal opacification was associated with potentially treatable or reversible disease. Abnormalities considered irreversible were seen in three patients with end-stage fibrosis and one patient with talcosis. Parenchymal opacification on thin-section CT scans is a nonspecific finding in diseases that affect the air spaces, interstitium, or both but usually indicates potentially treatable or reversible disease.

  5. The Subaru FMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey (FastSound): The Mass-Metallicity Relation and the Fundamental Metallicity Relation at z˜1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, K.; Ohta, K.; Akiyama, M.; Tamura, N.; Iwamuro, F.; Totani, T.; Dalton, G.; Bunker, A.; FastSound Team

    2016-10-01

    We present results from a large NIR spectroscopic survey (FastSound) with Subaru/FMOS, consisting of ˜4,000 galaxies at z˜1.4 with significant Hα detection. The resulting mass-metallicity relation generally agrees with those obtained previously in a similar redshift range to our sample. No clear dependence on the mass-metallicity relation on star-formation rate is found, which is not in agreement with the extrapolation of the local fundamental metallicity relation. We estimate the nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio (N/O) from the N2S2 index, and find that the N/O in galaxies at z˜1.4 is significantly higher than the local values at a fixed metallicity and stellar mass. The metallicity derived by using the N2 method calibrated in the local universe decreases by ˜0.2 dex if we correct the N/O enhancement.

  6. Parenchymal texture measures weighted by breast anatomy: preliminary optimization in a case-control study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Keller, Brad M.; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that quantitative descriptors of the parenchymal texture patterns hold a valuable role in assessing an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. In this work, we assess the hypothesis that breast cancer risk factors are not uniformly expressed in the breast parenchymal tissue and, therefore, breast-anatomy-weighted parenchymal texture descriptors, where different breasts ROIs have non uniform contributions, may enhance breast cancer risk assessment. To this end, we introduce an automated breast-anatomy-driven methodology which generates a breast atlas, which is then used to produce a weight map that reinforces the contributions of the central and upper-outer breast areas. We incorporate this methodology to our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis. In the framework of a pilot case-control study, including digital mammograms from 424 women, our proposed breast-anatomy-weighted texture descriptors are optimized and evaluated against non weighted texture features, using regression analysis with leave-one-out cross validation. The classification performance is assessed in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The collective discriminatory capacity of the weighted texture features was maximized (AUC=0.87) when the central breast area was considered more important than the upperouter area, with significant performance improvement (DeLong's test, p-value<0.05) against the non-weighted texture features (AUC=0.82). Our results suggest that breast-anatomy-driven methodologies have the potential to further upgrade the promising role of parenchymal texture analysis in breast cancer risk assessment and may serve as a reference in the design of future studies towards image-driven personalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation.

  7. The universal relation of galactic chemical evolution: the origin of the mass-metallicity relation

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Dima, Gabriel I.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Kewley, Lisa J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Silverman, John D.; Kashino, Daichi

    2014-08-20

    We examine the mass-metallicity relation for z ≲ 1.6. The mass-metallicity relation follows a steep slope with a turnover, or 'knee', at stellar masses around 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. At stellar masses higher than the characteristic turnover mass, the mass-metallicity relation flattens as metallicities begin to saturate. We show that the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation depends only on the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass. The relationship between metallicity and the stellar mass normalized to the characteristic turnover mass is independent of redshift. We find that the redshift-independent slope of the mass-metallicity relation is set by the slope of the relationship between gas mass and stellar mass. The turnover in the mass-metallicity relation occurs when the gas-phase oxygen abundance is high enough that the amount of oxygen locked up in low-mass stars is an appreciable fraction of the amount of oxygen produced by massive stars. The characteristic turnover mass is the stellar mass, where the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is unity. Numerical modeling suggests that the relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is a redshift-independent, universal relationship followed by all galaxies as they evolve. The mass-metallicity relation originates from this more fundamental universal relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio. We test the validity of this universal metallicity relation in local galaxies where stellar mass, metallicity, and gas mass measurements are available. The data are consistent with a universal metallicity relation. We derive an equation for estimating the hydrogen gas mass from measurements of stellar mass and metallicity valid for z ≲ 1.6 and predict the cosmological evolution of galactic gas masses.

  8. Diffuse Parenchymal Diseases Associated With Aluminum Use and Primary Aluminum Production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum use and primary aluminum production results in the generation of various particles, fumes, gases, and airborne materials with the potential for inducing a wide range of lung pathology. Nevertheless, the presence of diffuse parenchymal or interstitial lung disease related to these processes remains controversial. The relatively uncommon occurrence of interstitial lung diseases in aluminum-exposed workers—despite the extensive industrial use of aluminum—the potential for concurrent exposure to other fibrogenic fibers, and the previous use of inhaled aluminum powder for the prevention of silicosis without apparent adverse respiratory effects are some of the reasons for this continuing controversy. Specific aluminum-induced parenchymal diseases described in the literature, including existing evidence of interstitial lung diseases, associated with primary aluminum production are reviewed. PMID:24806728

  9. Newly Recognized Occupational and Environmental Causes of Chronic Terminal Airways and Parenchymal Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sauler, Maor; Gulati, Mridu

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis With the introduction of new materials and changes in manufacturing practices, occupational health investigators continue to uncover associations between novel exposures and chronic forms of diffuse parenchymal lung disease and terminal airways disease. In order to discern exposure disease relationships, clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for the potential toxicity of occupational and environmental exposures. This article details several newly recognized chronic parenchymal and terminal airways. Diseases related to exposure to Indium, Nylon Flock, Diacetyl used in the flavorings industry, nanoparticles, and the World Trade Center disaster are reviewed. Additionally, this article will review methods in worker surveillance as well as the potential use of biomarkers in the evaluation of exposure disease relationships. PMID:23153608

  10. Spontaneous Intra-Parenchymal Rupture of Craniopharyngioma – A Rare Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Vivakaran Thanga Tirupathi; Kumar, Aiyappan Senthil; Sundar, Ilangovan Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a relatively benign intracranial tumour that involves sellar and supra-sellar regions. Spontaneous rupture of craniopharyngioma into the sub-arachnoid space or into the ventricles is a rare phenomenon and few cases are reported in literature. We hereby report a case of sellar-suprasellar craniopharyngioma with focal intra-parenchymal rupture into brain causing aggravation of headache in a 12-year-old female child. This complication is a relatively rare phenomenon, which requires attention for early intervention. This was managed by trans-nasal endoscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery. Usually rupture of craniopharyngioma causes chemical meningitis or it can be asymptomatic. Sometimes rupture can cause complete resolution of cyst and symptoms. In the present case, there was only focal rupture and it was into brain parenchyma causing brain oedema with aggravation of headache. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in intra-parenchymal rupture of craniopharyngioma has been emphasized in this case report.

  11. Iron content and acid phosphatase activity in hepatic parenchymal lysosomes of patients with hemochromatosis before and after phlebotomy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Cleton, M.I.; de Bruijn, W.C.; van Blokland, W.T.; Marx, J.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Rademakers, L.H.

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal structures in liver parenchymal cells of 3 patients with iron overload and of 3 subjects without iron-storage disorders were investigated. A combination of enzyme cytochemistry--with cerium as a captive ion to demonstrate lysosomal acid phosphatase activity--and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) was used. We were able (1) to define and quantify lysosomal structures as lysosomes, siderosomes, or residual bodies, (2) to quantify the amount of iron and cerium simultaneously in these structures, and (3) to evaluate a possible relation between iron storage and enzyme activity. With histopathologically increased iron storage, the number of siderosomes had increased at the cost of lysosomes, with a corresponding increase in acid phosphatase activity in both organelles. In histopahtologically severe iron overload, however, acid phosphatase activity was low or not detectable and most of the iron was stored in residual bodies. After phlebotomy treatment, the number of siderosomes had decreased in favor of the lysosomes, approaching values obtained in control subjects, and acid phosphatase activity was present in all iron-containing structures. In this way a relationship between iron storage and enzyme activity was established. The iron content of the individual lysosomal structures per unit area had increased with histopathologically increased iron storage and had decreased after phlebotomy treatment. From this observation, it is concluded that the iron status of the patient is not only reflected by the amount of iron-containing hepatocytes but, as well, by the iron content lysosomal unit area.

  12. Differential effects of fluticasone on extracellular matrix production by airway and parenchymal fibroblasts in severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Timens, Wim; Jonker, Marnix R; Rutgers, Bea; Noordhoek, Jacobien A; Postma, Dirkje S

    2013-10-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by abnormal repair in the lung resulting in airway obstruction associated with emphysema and peripheral airway fibrosis. Because the presence and degree of airways disease and emphysema varies between COPD patients, this may explain the heterogeneity in the response to treatment. It is currently unknown whether and to what extent inhaled steroids can affect the abnormal repair process in the airways and lung parenchyma in COPD. We investigated the effects of fluticasone on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β- and cigarette smoke-induced changes in mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad) signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in airway and parenchymal lung fibroblasts from patients with severe COPD. We showed that TGF-β-induced ECM production by pulmonary fibroblasts, but not activation of the Smad pathway, was sensitive to the effects of fluticasone. Fluticasone induced decorin production by airway fibroblasts and partly reversed the negative effects of TGF-β treatment. Fluticasone inhibited biglycan production in both airway and parenchymal fibroblasts and procollagen 1 production only in parenchymal fibroblasts, thereby restoring the basal difference in procollagen 1 production between airway and parenchymal fibroblasts. Our findings suggest that the effects of steroids on the airway compartment may be beneficial for patients with severe COPD, i.e., restoration of decorin loss around the airways, whereas the effects of steroids on the parenchyma may be detrimental, since the tissue repair response, i.e., biglycan and procollagen production, is inhibited. More research is needed to further disentangle these differential effects of steroid treatment on the different lung compartments and its impact on tissue repair and remodeling in COPD.

  13. Alveolar septal patterning during compensatory lung growth: Part II the effect of parenchymal pressure gradients.

    PubMed

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mentzer, Steven J; Tsuda, Akira

    2017-05-21

    In most mammals, compensatory lung growth occurs after the removal of one lung (pneumonectomy). Although the mechanism of alveolar growth is unknown, the patterning of complex alveolar geometry over organ-sized length scales is a central question in regenerative lung biology. Because shear forces appear capable of signaling the differentiation of important cells involved in neoalveolarization (fibroblasts and myofibroblasts), interstitial fluid mechanics provide a potential mechanism for the patterning of alveolar growth. The movement of interstitial fluid is created by two basic mechanisms: 1) the non-uniform motion of the boundary walls, and 2) parenchymal pressure gradients external to the interstitial fluid. In a previous study (Haber et al., Journal of Theoretical Biology 400: 118-128, 2016), we investigated the effects of non-uniform stretching of the primary septum (associated with its heterogeneous mechanical properties) during breathing on generating non-uniform Stokes flow in the interstitial space. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of parenchymal pressure gradients on interstitial flow. Dependent upon lung microarchitecture and physiologic conditions, parenchymal pressure gradients had a significant effect on the shear stress distribution in the interstitial space of primary septa. A dimensionless parameter δ described the ratio between the effects of a pressure gradient and the influence of non-uniform primary septal wall motion. Assuming that secondary septa are formed where shear stresses were the largest, it is shown that the geometry of the newly generated secondary septa was governed by the value of δ. For δ smaller than 0.26, the alveolus size was halved while for higher values its original size was unaltered. We conclude that the movement of interstitial fluid, governed by parenchymal pressure gradients and non-uniform primary septa wall motion, provides a plausible mechanism for the patterning of alveolar growth. Copyright © 2017

  14. Sarcoidosis: correlation of pulmonary parenchymal pattern at CT with results of pulmonary function tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Bell, D.Y.; Coblentz, C.L.; Chiles, C.; Gamsu, G.; MacIntyre, N.R.; Coleman, R.E.; Putman, C.E.

    1989-06-01

    The appearances of the lungs on radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans were correlated with degree of uptake on gallium scans and results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 27 patients with sarcoidosis. CT scans were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were divided into five categories on the basis of the pattern of abnormality at CT: 1 = normal (n = 4); 2 = segmental air-space disease (n = 4); 3 = spherical (alveolar) masslike opacities (n = 4); 4 = multiple, discrete, small nodules (n = 6); and 5 = distortion of parenchymal structures (fibrotic end-stage sarcoidosis) (n = 9). The percentage of the volume judged to be abnormal (CT grade) was correlated with PFT results for each CT and radiographic category. CT grades were also correlated with gallium scanning results and percentage of lymphocytes recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Patients in CT categories 1 and 2 had normal lung function, those in category 3 had mild functional impairment, and those in categories 4 and 5 showed moderate to severe dysfunction. The overall CT grade correlated well with PFT results expressed as a percentage of the predicted value. In five patients, CT scans showed extensive parenchymal disease not seen on radiographs. CT grades did not correlate with the results of gallium scanning or BAL lymphocytes. The authors conclude that patterns of parenchymal sarcoidosis seen at CT correlate with the PFT results and can be used to indicate respiratory impairment.

  15. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Berg, G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F. )

    1991-08-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (less than 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver, anemia, low plasma ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and increased 64Cu whole-body retention. Freshly isolated liver parenchymal cells from copper-deficient rats showed a higher 64Cu influx, which was associated with a higher apparent Vmax of 45 {plus minus} 4 pmol Cu.mg protein-1.min-1 as compared with 30 {plus minus} 3 pmol Cu.mg protein-1.min-1 for cells isolated from copper-sufficient rats. No significant difference in the apparent Km (approximately 30 mumol/L) was observed. Relative 64Cu efflux from cells from copper-deficient rats was significantly smaller than the efflux from cells from copper-sufficient rats after prelabeling as determined by 2-h efflux experiments. Analysis of the medium after efflux from cells from copper-deficient rats showed elevated protein-associated 64Cu, suggesting a higher incorporation of radioactive copper during metalloprotein synthesis. Effects of copper deficiency persist in primary cultures of parenchymal cells derived from copper-deficient rats, and short-term cultures of these cells offer a prospect for the study of cell biological aspects of the metabolic adaptation of the liver to copper deficiency.

  16. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation Using Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Kontos, Despina; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-10-11

    Mammographic parenchymal texture has been shown to correlate with genetic markers of developing breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel x-ray imaging technique in which tomographic images of the breast are reconstructed from multiple source projections acquired at different angles of the x-ray tube. Compared to digital mammography (DM), DBT eliminates breast tissue overlap, offering superior parenchymal tissue visualization. We hypothesize that texture analysis in DBT could potentially provide a better assessment of parenchymal texture and ultimately result in more accurate assessment of breast cancer risk. As a first step towards validating this hypothesis, we investigated the association between DBT parenchymal texture and breast percent density (PD), a known breast cancer risk factor, and compared it to DM. Bilateral DBT and DM images from 71 women participating in a breast cancer screening trial were analyzed. Filtered-backprojection was used to reconstruct DBT tomographic planes in 1 mm increments with 0.22 mm in-plane resolution. Corresponding DM images were acquired at 0.1 mm pixel resolution. Retroareolar regions of interest (ROIs) equivalent to 2.5 cm{sup 3} were segmented from the DBT images and corresponding 2.5 cm{sup 2} ROIs were segmented from the DM images. Breast PD was mammographically estimated using the Cumulus scale. Overall, DBT texture features demonstrated a stronger correlation than DM to PD. The Pearson correlation coefficients for DBT were r = 0.40 (p<0.001) for contrast and r = -0.52 (p<0.001) for homogeneity; the corresponding DM correlations were r = 0.26 (p = 0.002) and r = -0.33 (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression of the texture features versus breast PD also demonstrated significantly stronger associations in DBT (R{sup 2} = 0.39) compared to DM (R{sup 2} = 0.33). We attribute these observations to the superior parenchymal tissue visualization in DBT. Our study is the first to perform DBT texture analysis in a

  17. The Subaru FMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey (FastSound). III. The mass-metallicity relation and the fundamental metallicity relation at z ˜ 1.4*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Kiyoto; Ohta, Kouji; Akiyama, Masayuki; Bunker, Andrew; Dalton, Gavin; Ellis, Richard; Glazebrook, Karl; Goto, Tomotsugu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Okada, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Tonegawa, Motonari; Totani, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    We present the results from a large near-infrared spectroscopic survey made with Subaru/FMOS (FastSound) consisting of ˜ 4000 galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 with significant Hα detection. We measure the gas-phase metallicity from the [N II]λ6583/Hα emission line ratio of the composite spectra in various stellar mass and star-formation rate bins. The resulting mass-metallicity relation generally agrees with previous studies obtained in a similar redshift range to that of our sample. No clear dependence of the mass-metallicity relation on star-formation rate is found. Our result at z ˜ 1.4 is roughly in agreement with the fundamental metallicity relation at z ˜ 0.1 with a fiber aperture corrected star-formation rate. We detect significant [S II]λλ6716,6731 emission lines from the composite spectra. The electron density estimated from the [S II]λλ6716,6731 line ratio ranges from 10-500 cm-3, which generally agrees with that of local galaxies. On the other hand, the distribution of our sample on [N II]λ6583/Hα vs. [S II]λλ6716,6731/Hα is different to that found locally. We estimate the nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio (N/O) from the N2S2 index, and find that the N/O in galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 is significantly higher than the local values at a fixed metallicity and stellar mass. The metallicity at z ˜ 1.4 recalculated with this N/O enhancement taken into account decreases by 0.1-0.2 dex. The resulting metallicity is lower than the local fundamental metallicity relation.

  18. Parenchymal texture analysis in digital mammography: A fully automated pipeline for breast cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Keller, Brad M; Ray, Shonket; Wang, Yan; Conant, Emily F; Gee, James C; Kontos, Despina

    2015-07-01

    Mammographic percent density (PD%) is known to be a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Recent studies also suggest that parenchymal texture features, which are more granular descriptors of the parenchymal pattern, can provide additional information about breast cancer risk. To date, most studies have measured mammographic texture within selected regions of interest (ROIs) in the breast, which cannot adequately capture the complexity of the parenchymal pattern throughout the whole breast. To better characterize patterns of the parenchymal tissue, the authors have developed a fully automated software pipeline based on a novel lattice-based strategy to extract a range of parenchymal texture features from the entire breast region. Digital mammograms from 106 cases with 318 age-matched controls were retrospectively analyzed. The lattice-based approach is based on a regular grid virtually overlaid on each mammographic image. Texture features are computed from the intersection (i.e., lattice) points of the grid lines within the breast, using a local window centered at each lattice point. Using this strategy, a range of statistical (gray-level histogram, co-occurrence, and run-length) and structural (edge-enhancing, local binary pattern, and fractal dimension) features are extracted. To cover the entire breast, the size of the local window for feature extraction is set equal to the lattice grid spacing and optimized experimentally by evaluating different windows sizes. The association between their lattice-based texture features and breast cancer was evaluated using logistic regression with leave-one-out cross validation and further compared to that of breast PD% and commonly used single-ROI texture features extracted from the retroareolar or the central breast region. Classification performance was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). DeLong's test was used to compare the different ROCs in terms of AUC

  19. Parenchymal texture analysis in digital mammography: A fully automated pipeline for breast cancer risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Keller, Brad M.; Ray, Shonket; Wang, Yan; Conant, Emily F.; Gee, James C.; Kontos, Despina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic percent density (PD%) is known to be a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Recent studies also suggest that parenchymal texture features, which are more granular descriptors of the parenchymal pattern, can provide additional information about breast cancer risk. To date, most studies have measured mammographic texture within selected regions of interest (ROIs) in the breast, which cannot adequately capture the complexity of the parenchymal pattern throughout the whole breast. To better characterize patterns of the parenchymal tissue, the authors have developed a fully automated software pipeline based on a novel lattice-based strategy to extract a range of parenchymal texture features from the entire breast region. Methods: Digital mammograms from 106 cases with 318 age-matched controls were retrospectively analyzed. The lattice-based approach is based on a regular grid virtually overlaid on each mammographic image. Texture features are computed from the intersection (i.e., lattice) points of the grid lines within the breast, using a local window centered at each lattice point. Using this strategy, a range of statistical (gray-level histogram, co-occurrence, and run-length) and structural (edge-enhancing, local binary pattern, and fractal dimension) features are extracted. To cover the entire breast, the size of the local window for feature extraction is set equal to the lattice grid spacing and optimized experimentally by evaluating different windows sizes. The association between their lattice-based texture features and breast cancer was evaluated using logistic regression with leave-one-out cross validation and further compared to that of breast PD% and commonly used single-ROI texture features extracted from the retroareolar or the central breast region. Classification performance was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). DeLong’s test was used to compare the different ROCs in

  20. Effects of Parenchymal Thickness and Stone Density Values on Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Karalar, Mustafa; Tuzel, Emre; Keles, Ibrahim; Okur, Nazan; Sarici, Hasmet; Ates, Mutlu

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether parenchymal thickness (PT), in combination with stone density measured by Hounsfield Units (HU), affects stone-free rates after PCNL. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PT in combination with stone density values and the outcomes of PCNL. Material/Methods From 2009 to 2014, data from 216 PCNL patients were prospectively analyzed. In total, 120 patients were included in the study. Using NCCT images, stone burden, stone localization, stone density as HU values, PT, and operative-postoperative parameters were recorded. Results Stone localization, stone type, stone burden, and presence of hydronephrosis were statistically significant factors affecting stone-free status (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.01, and p<0.01, respectively). The stone-free rate in patients with thicker renal parenchyma was higher than in patients with lower parenchymal thickness (p<0.01). No correlation was detected between stone density and success rate (p>0.05). Drop in Hb (%) was only correlated with parenchymal thickness (p<0.01). In univariate analyses, factors that affected blood transfusion requirement were PT, BMI, and operative times (p<0.01, p<0.05, and p<0.05, respectively). Conclusions Stone location, stone burden, and presence of hydronephrosis detected with NCCT were factors affecting PCNL outcome. Stone density values did not correlate with the rate of bleeding or success of PCNL. PT measured by NCCT may predict bleeding and may guide surgeons in determining preoperative blood requirements. The outcome of PCNL appeared to be better in patients with thicker renal parenchyma and should be taken into consideration in the clinical evaluation of patients undergoing PCNL. PMID:27842051

  1. Nuclear receptor atlas of female mouse liver parenchymal, endothelial, and Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaosha; Kruijt, J Kar; van der Sluis, Ronald J; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Hoekstra, Menno

    2013-04-01

    The liver consists of different cell types that together synchronize crucial roles in liver homeostasis. Since nuclear receptors constitute an important class of drug targets that are involved in a wide variety of physiological processes, we have composed the hepatic cell type-specific expression profile of nuclear receptors to uncover the pharmacological potential of liver-enriched nuclear receptors. Parenchymal liver cells (hepatocytes) and liver endothelial and Kupffer cells were isolated from virgin female C57BL/6 wild-type mice using collagenase perfusion and counterflow centrifugal elutriation. The hepatic expression pattern of 49 nuclear receptors was generated by real-time quantitative PCR using the NUclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) program resources. Thirty-six nuclear receptors were expressed in total liver. FXR-α, EAR2, LXR-α, HNF4-α, and CAR were the most abundantly expressed nuclear receptors in liver parenchymal cells. In contrast, NUR77, COUP-TFII, LXR-α/β, FXR-α, and EAR2 were the most highly expressed nuclear receptors in endothelial and Kupffer cells. Interestingly, members of orphan receptor COUP-TF family showed a distinct expression pattern. EAR2 was highly and exclusively expressed in parenchymal cells, while COUP-TFII was moderately and exclusively expressed in endothelial and Kupffer cells. Of interest, the orphan receptor TR4 showed a similar expression pattern as the established lipid sensor PPAR-γ. In conclusion, our study provides the most complete quantitative assessment of the nuclear receptor distribution in liver reported to date. Our gene expression catalog suggests that orphan nuclear receptors such as COUP-TFII, EAR2, and TR4 may be of significant importance as novel targets for pharmaceutical interventions in liver.

  2. [The clinicopathological analysis of pulmonary parenchymal involvement of multicentric giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease)].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinlun; Ge, Li; Feng, Rui'e; Liu, Tao; Huang, Hui; Xu, Zuojun; Xu, Wenbing; Liu, Hongrui

    2014-05-01

    To observe the clinicopathological features of pulmonary parenchymal involvement of multicentric Castleman's disease(MCD). Retrospective analysis was carried out for 6 patients of MCD with pulmonary parenchymal involvement who had been admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from July 2008 to March 2013. Relevant literatures were reviewed. The diagnosis was established by surgical lung biopsy and all specimens were fixed in neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were cut for HE and immunohistochemical stain. B cell and T cell gene rearrangement were tested in 3 cases. These 6 patients (all females) aged 31-68 years, with a median of 49.5 years. The presenting symptoms were fever (4/6), cough (3/6), and lymphadenopathy (6/6). Laboratory study showed elevated ESR (5/6) and CRP (4/6), and hypergammaglobulinaemia (2/6). Chest CT showed multiple nodules with perilymphatic distribution and ground-glass opacity (GGO). Pathologically, there were 5 cases of plasma cell type and 1 case of hyaline vascular type. The plasma cell variant showed dense mature plasma cell infiltration in pulmonary interstitium. The hyaline vascular variant was characterized by the presence of regressed germinal centers and broad concentric mantle zones. The gene arrangement tests were all negative. During the follow-up period (range: 2-60 months; mean: 31 months), 2 cases with plasma cell type received CHOP chemotherapy and then remained stable. One case with hyaline vascular type received CHOP chemotherapy but died due to deterioration of the disease. In the thorax, Castleman's disease usually manifests as hilar and mediastinal lymph node enlargement. Pulmonary parenchymal involvement by MCD is very rare. It is mostly seen in the elderly female, and can manifest with systemic symptoms. Chest CT usually reveals multiple nodules and GGO. It shows similar morphological characteristics to those found in lymph nodes. Immunohistochemistry and gene rearrangement test can help to

  3. The role of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury and liver parenchymal quality on cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Orci, Lorenzo A; Lacotte, Stéphanie; Oldani, Graziano; Morel, Philippe; Mentha, Gilles; Toso, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common clinical challenge. Despite accumulating evidence regarding its mechanisms and potential therapeutic approaches, hepatic I/R is still a leading cause of organ dysfunction, morbidity, and resource utilization, especially in those patients with underlying parenchymal abnormalities. In the oncological setting, there are growing concerns regarding the deleterious impact of I/R injury on the risk of post-surgical tumor recurrence. This review aims at giving the last updates regarding the role of hepatic I/R and liver parenchymal quality injury in the setting of oncological liver surgery, using a "bench-to-bedside" approach. Relevant medical literature was identified by searching PubMed and hand scanning of the reference lists of articles considered for inclusion. Numerous preclinical models have depicted the impact of I/R injury and hepatic parenchymal quality (steatosis, age) on increased cancer growth in the injured liver. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking I/R injury and liver cancer recurrence include an increased implantation of circulating cancer cells in the ischemic liver and the upregulation of proliferation and angiogenic factors following the ischemic insult. Although limited, there is growing clinical evidence that I/R injury and liver quality are associated with the risk of post-surgical cancer recurrence. In conclusion, on top of its harmful early impact on organ function, I/R injury is linked to increased tumor growth. Therapeutic strategies tackling I/R injury could not only improve post-surgical organ function, but also allow a reduction in the risk of cancer recurrence.

  4. Seizure recurrence in patients with solitary cystic granuloma or single parenchymal cerebral calcification: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Laxmi Narayan; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh

    2013-12-01

    Solitary cysticercus granuloma and single parenchymal calcified lesion are two common neuroimaging abnormalities in Indian patients with epilepsy. In this study, we evaluated the frequency and predictors of seizure recurrence in patients presenting with new onset epilepsy or single epileptic seizures and these two different imaging findings. We enrolled 115 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. All patients were clinically evaluated and were treated with oxcarbazepine. No anti-helminthic treatment was prescribed. The patients were followed up for 6 months. In the solitary cystic granuloma group, repeat computed tomography was done after 6 months. The study included 80 patients with solitary cysticercus granuloma and 35 patients with a single calcified lesion. Twenty (25%) patients with solitary cysticercus granuloma and 12 (34.3%) patients with parenchymal calcified lesion had a seizure recurrence during the study period (p = 0.307). After 6 months, 57 (71.3%) patients in the solitary cysticercus granuloma group demonstrated complete resolution of the granuloma and in 21 (26.2%) patients the granuloma transformed into a calcified lesion. In the solitary cysticercus granuloma group, a family history of seizure, serial seizures and calcification on follow-up neuroimaging (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with recurrence of seizures. In patients with a single parenchymal calcified lesions, electroencephalographic abnormalities and serial seizures (p = < 0.05) were significant predictors of recurrence. Kaplan-Meier statistics revealed that the seizure recurrence rate was insignificantly higher in patients with calcified lesions than in patients with solitary cysticercosis granulomas. In conclusion, in patients with solitary cysticercus granuloma, a family history of seizures, serial seizures and calcification of the granuloma, and in patients with a calcified brain lesion, electroencephalographic abnormalities, family history of epilepsy and serial seizures

  5. Clinical-Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Smoking-Related Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Kligerman, Seth; Franks, Teri J; Galvin, Jeffrey R

    2016-11-01

    The direct toxicity of cigarette smoke and the body's subsequent response to this lung injury leads to a wide array of pathologic manifestations and disease states that lead to both reversible and irreversible injury to the large airways, small airways, alveolar walls, and alveolar spaces. These include emphysema, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, respiratory bronchiolitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis. Although these various forms of injury have different pathologic and imaging manifestations, they are all part of the spectrum of smoking-related diffuse parenchymal lung disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of intense renal parenchymal activity (hot kidneys) on bone scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, M.S.; Hayward, M.; Hayward, C.; Mundy, L. )

    1990-04-01

    The bone scintigrams of 600 patients performed over a 12-month period were reviewed. Thirty-six demonstrated abnormalities of the urinary tract of which six cases of intense renal parenchymal activity (hot kidneys) were found. Two cases were related to treatment with the new antineoplastic agent mitoxantrone. In one patient it was related to treatment with calcitonin. Neither of these associations has been previously reported. Recognized causes of hypercalcemia and recent radiotherapy were present in two patients. No cause could be found in the final patient.

  7. Acute respiratory failure mimicking acute respiratory distress syndrome due to parenchymal infiltration by metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and carries a predisposition for metastasis to many different organs. Pulmonary dissemination is common, most often presenting as multiple discrete pulmonary nodules. While a variety of other intrathoracic patterns can occur, diffuse parenchymal infiltration causing acute respiratory failure is an extremely rare manifestation of metastatic disease. We present a case of an otherwise healthy man who developed rapidly progressive respiratory failure mimicking acute respiratory distress syndrome due to melanomatous infiltration of the lung parenchyma and airways. PMID:25006412

  8. Cold-mode Accretion: Driving the Fundamental Mass-Metallicity Relation at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; van de Voort, Freeke; Glazebrook, Karl; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Yuan, Tiantian; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Allen, Rebecca J.; Alcorn, Leo; Cowley, Michael; Labbé, Ivo; Spitler, Lee; Straatman, Caroline; Tomczak, Adam

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the star formation rate (SFR) dependence on the stellar mass and gas-phase metallicity relation at z = 2 with MOSFIRE/Keck as part of the ZFIRE survey. We have identified 117 galaxies (1.98 ≤ z ≤ 2.56), with 8.9 ≤ log(M/M ⊙) ≤ 11.0, for which we can measure gas-phase metallicities. For the first time, we show a discernible difference between the mass-metallicity relation, using individual galaxies, when dividing the sample by low (<10 M ⊙ yr-1) and high (>10 M ⊙ yr-1) SFRs. At fixed mass, low star-forming galaxies tend to have higher metallicity than high star-forming galaxies. Using a few basic assumptions, we further show that the gas masses and metallicities required to produce the fundamental mass-metallicity relation and its intrinsic scatter are consistent with cold-mode accretion predictions obtained from the OWLS hydrodynamical simulations. Our results from both simulations and observations are suggestive that cold-mode accretion is responsible for the fundamental mass-metallicity relation at z = 2 and it demonstrates the direct relationship between cosmological accretion and the fundamental properties of galaxies.

  9. Nanometallomics: an emerging field studying the biological effects of metal-related nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Feng; Gao, Yuxi; Chai, Zhifang; Chen, Chunying

    2014-02-01

    Metallomics, focusing on the global and systematic understanding of the metal uptake, trafficking, role and excretion in biological systems, has attracted more and more attention. Metal-related nanomaterials, including metallic and metal-containing nanomaterials, have unique properties compared to their micro-scaled counterparts and therefore require special attention. The small size effect, surface effect, and quantum size effect directly influence the physicochemical properties of nanostructured materials and their fate and behavior in biota. However, to our knowledge, the metallomics itself did not touch this special category of materials yet. Therefore, the term "nanometallomics" is proposed and the systematic study on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) behavior of metal-related nanomaterials in biological systems and their interactions with genes, proteins and other biomolecules will be reviewed. The ADME behavior of metal-related nanomaterials in the biological systems is influenced by their physicochemical properties, the exposure route, and the microenvironment of the deposition site. Nanomaterials may not only interact directly or indirectly with genes, proteins and other molecules to cause DNA damage, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and cytotoxicity, but also stimulate the immune responses, circumvent tumor resistance and inhibit tumor metastasis. Nanometallomics needs to be integrated with other omics sciences, such as genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, to explore the biomedical data and obtain the overall knowledge of underlying mechanisms, and therefore to improve the application performance and to reduce the potential risk of metal-related nanomaterials.

  10. Expression of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase enzyme in the human central nervous system and in pineal parenchymal cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Takahiro; Akiyama, Nobutake; Ikegami, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Atsushi; Oka, Hidehiro; Komori, Takashi; Tanaka, Yuko; Nakazato, Youichi; Akimoto, Jiro; Tanaka, Masahiko; Okada, Yoshikazu; Saito, Saburo

    2010-05-01

    Pineal parenchymal tumor (PPT) cells usually show immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament protein, class III beta-tubulin, tau protein, PGP9.5, chromogranin, serotonin, retinal S-antigen, and rhodopsin, but these markers are not specific for PPTs. Melatonin is produced and secreted mainly bypineal parenchymal cells; hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) catalyzes the final reaction in melatonin biosynthesis. We hypothesized that HIOMT could serve as a tumor marker of PPTs, and we investigated HIOMT localization and HIOMT expression in samples of normal human tissue and in PPTs, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and medulloblastomas. In normal tissue, HIOMT was expressed in retinal cells, pineal parenchymal cells, neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, microglia, macrophages, thyroid follicular epithelium, principal and oxyphil cells of parathyroid gland, adrenal cortical cells, hepatic parenchymal cells, renal tubule epithelium, and enteroendocrine cells of stomach and duodenum. The HIOMT was also expressed in all 46 PPTs studied. The proportions of HIOMT-immunoreactive cells successively decreased in the following tumors: pineocytoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, and pineoblastoma. A few HIOMT-immunoreactive cells were observed in one of 6 primitive neuroectodermal tumors and 23 of 42 medulloblastomas. These results indicate that HIOMT immunohistochemistry may be useful for the diagnosis of PPTs and be a prognostic factor in PPTs.

  11. Disparate roles of marrow- and parenchymal cell-derived TLR4 signaling in murine LPS-induced systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Juskewitch, Justin E.; Platt, Jeffrey L.; Knudsen, Bruce E.; Knutson, Keith L.; Brunn, Gregory J.; Grande, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) occurs in a range of infectious and non-infectious disease processes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate such responses. We have shown that parenchymal cell TLR4 activation drives LPS-induced systemic inflammation; SIRS does not develop in mice lacking TLR4 expression on parenchymal cells. The parenchymal cell types whose TLR4 activation directs this process have not been identified. Employing a bone marrow transplant model to compartmentalize TLR4 signaling, we characterized blood neutrophil and cytokine responses, NF-κB1 activation, and Tnf-α, Il6, and Ccl2 induction in several organs (spleen, aorta, liver, lung) near the time of LPS-induced symptom onset. Aorta, liver, and lung gene responses corresponded with both LPS-induced symptom onset patterns and plasma cytokine/chemokine levels. Parenchymal cells in aorta, liver, and lung bearing TLR4 responded to LPS with chemokine generation and were associated with increased plasma chemokine levels. We propose that parenchymal cells direct SIRS in response to LPS. PMID:23213355

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Breast Parenchymal Uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Background Parenchymal Enhancement, and Amount of Fibroglandular Tissue on MRI.

    PubMed

    Leithner, Doris; Baltzer, Pascal A; Magometschnigg, Heinrich F; Wengert, Georg J; Karanikas, Georgios; Helbich, Thomas H; Weber, Michael; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Pinker, Katja

    2016-10-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) assessed with MRI have been implicated as sensitive imaging biomarkers for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess breast parenchymal uptake (BPU) on (18)F-FDG PET/CT as another valuable imaging biomarker and examine its correlation with BPE, FGT, and age. This study included 129 patients with suspected breast cancer and normal imaging findings in one breast (BI-RADS 1), whose cases were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent prone (18)F-FDG PET/CT and 3-T contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast. In all patients, interpreter 1 assessed BPU quantitatively using SUVmax Interpreters 1 and 2 assessed amount of FGT and BPE in the normal contralateral breast by subjective visual estimation, as recommended by BI-RADS. Interpreter 1 reassessed all cases and repeated the BPU measurements. Statistical tests were used to assess correlations between BPU, BPE, FGT, and age, as well as inter- and intrainterpreter agreement. BPU on (18)F-FDG PET/CT varied among patients. The mean BPU SUVmax ± SD was 1.57 ± 0.6 for patients with minimal BPE, 1.93 ± 0.6 for mild BPE, 2.42 ± 0.5 for moderate BPE, and 1.45 ± 0.3 for marked BPE. There were significant (P < 0.001) moderate to strong correlations among BPU, BPE, and FGT. BPU directly correlated with both BPE and FGT on MRI. Patient age showed a moderate to strong indirect correlation with all 3 imaging-derived tissue biomarkers. The coefficient of variation for quantitative BPU measurements with SUVmax was 5.6%, indicating a high reproducibility. Interinterpreter and intrainterpreter agreement for BPE and FGT was almost perfect, with a κ-value of 0.860 and 0.822, respectively. The results of our study demonstrate that BPU varied among patients. BPU directly correlated with both BPE and FGT on MRI, and BPU measurements were highly reproducible. Patient age showed a strong inverse correlation with all 3 imaging

  13. Transport systems of serine at the brain barriers and in brain parenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Yasuyuki; Tachikawa, Masanori; Hirose, Shirou; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2011-07-01

    D-Serine is a co-agonist for NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Although D-serine levels in CSF and interstitial fluid (ISF) affect CNS function, the regulatory system remains to be fully understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate d-serine transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) and in brain parenchymal cells. D-Serine microinjected into the cerebrum was not eliminated, suggesting a negligible contribution of D-serine efflux transport at the BBB. In contrast, D-serine was taken up from the circulating blood across the BBB via a carrier-mediated process. D-Serine elimination clearance from CSF was fourfold greater than that of d-mannitol, which is considered to reflect CSF bulk flow. The characteristics of D-serine uptake by isolated choroid plexus were consistent with those of Na(+)-independent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 (asc-1). Uptake of D-serine by brain slices appeared to occur predominantly via asc-1 and Na(+)-dependent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 2. These findings suggest that the regulatory system of D-serine levels in ISF and CSF involves (i) asc-1 at the BCSFB, acting as a major pathway of D-serine elimination from the CSF, (ii) blood-to-brain and blood-to-CSF influx transport of D-serine across the BBB and BCSFB, and (iii) concentrative uptake of D-serine by brain parenchymal cells.

  14. An adaptive knowledge-driven medical image search engine for interactive diffuse parenchymal lung disease quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yimo; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Bi, Jinbo; Jerebkoa, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnana, Arun

    2009-02-01

    Characterization and quantification of the severity of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) using Computed Tomography (CT) is an important issue in clinical research. Recently, several classification-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems [1-3] for DPLD have been proposed. For some of those systems, a degradation of performance [2] was reported on unseen data because of considerable inter-patient variances of parenchymal tissue patterns. We believe that a CAD system of real clinical value should be robust to inter-patient variances and be able to classify unseen cases online more effectively. In this work, we have developed a novel adaptive knowledge-driven CT image search engine that combines offline learning aspects of classification-based CAD systems with online learning aspects of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. Our system can seamlessly and adaptively fuse offline accumulated knowledge with online feedback, leading to an improved online performance in detecting DPLD in both accuracy and speed aspects. Our contribution lies in: (1) newly developed 3D texture-based and morphology-based features; (2) a multi-class offline feature selection method; and, (3) a novel image search engine framework for detecting DPLD. Very promising results have been obtained on a small test set.

  15. Effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper and calcium alginate in experimental model of hepatic parenchymal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Aydin, O; Tuncal, S; Kilicoglu, B; Onalan, A K; Gonultas, M A; Ozer, H; Durhan, A; Tasova, V; Hucumenoglu, S; Kismet, K

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study compared the hemostatic effects of calcium alginate and Anka-ferd Blood Stopper in hepatic parenchymal bleedings. The study comprised 39 male Wistar albino rats (weight 230±30 g). Laceration model was created in the left lateral lobe of the liver. Standard cotton gauze that was impregnated 0.9% NaCl solution and Calcium alginate cover was compared to ABS tampon. The amount of preoperative bleeding, preoperative and postoperative Day 1 hematocrit levels, and the difference between them were assessed and statistically analyzed. Comparing the hematocrit levels between the groups, we found that the amount of bleeding was significantly higher in the control group versus the study groups (p<0.001). Histopathological examination revealed the portal area enlargement and biliary canaliculi proliferation. In the Ca2+ Alginate group, it was observed that the fibres were still present in the incision line with massive fibrotic area around. In the Ankaferd group, examination of the preparations revealed patchy focal necrosis areas but no fibrotic area. With this study, we demonstrated that both calcium alginate and Ankaferd have hemostatic effect in preventing hepatic parenchymal bleeding and that calcium alginate causes fibrosis in the liver, where ABS causes focal necrosis areas(Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 19).

  16. Characterization of renal parenchymal perfusion during experimental infrarenal aortic clamping and declamping with enhanced thermodiffusion electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kraus, T; Mehrabi, A; Angelescu, M; Golling, M; Allenberg, J R; Klar, E

    2001-07-01

    Despite multiple previous experimental and clinical investigations, it has not been fully clarified until now whether infrarenal aortic cross-clamping (IRAC) induces a significant disturbance of renal parenchymal perfusion. Most renal cortical flow data collected thus far have been heterogenous because of inherent limitations of available measurement technology. The enhanced thermal diffusion (TD) electrode is a newly developed and previously validated prototype device that allows continuous quantification of parenchymal kidney perfusion after local probe implantation. We monitored renal perfusion during experimental IRAC with TD for the first time, thereby also evaluating the potential applicability of the method in clinical aortic surgery. IRAC (20 min) followed by sudden declamping was performed in pigs under general anesthesia (n = 14). Renal cortical blood flow (RCBF) was continuously quantified by TD, total aortic flow (TABF) and renal artery flow (RABF) were measured by ultrasonic flow probes, and parameters of systemic circulation were determined by Swan-Ganz catheter. Our results showed that kidney perfusion can be continuously quantified using TD electrodes during experimental aortic surgery in a porcine model. IRAC does not lead to a significant impairment of RCBF in young pigs as measured by TD. Renal perfusion appears to be predominantly pressure driven. Consequently, abrubt aortic declamping can bring about prolonged renal ischemia. Transfer of the TD method to RCBF monitoring during clinical aortic surgery appears to be feasible and should be investigated in selected cases.

  17. Parenchymal-sparing liver surgery in patients with colorectal carcinoma liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Fernando A; Sanchez Claria, Rodrigo; Oggero, Sebastian; de Santibañes, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Liver resection is the treatment of choice for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM). However, major resections are often required to achieve R0 resection, which are associated with substantial rates of morbidity and mortality. Maximizing the amount of residual liver gained increasing significance in modern liver surgery due to the high incidence of chemotherapy-associated parenchymal injury. This fact, along with the progressive expansion of resectability criteria, has led to the development of a surgical philosophy known as “parenchymal-sparing liver surgery” (PSLS). This philosophy includes a variety of resection strategies, either performed alone or in combination with ablative therapies. A profound knowledge of liver anatomy and expert intraoperative ultrasound skills are required to perform PSLS appropriately and safely. There is a clear trend toward PSLS in hepatobiliary centers worldwide as current evidence indicates that tumor biology is the most important predictor of intrahepatic recurrence and survival, rather than the extent of a negative resection margin. Tumor removal avoiding the unnecessary sacrifice of functional parenchyma has been associated with less surgical stress, fewer postoperative complications, uncompromised cancer-related outcomes and higher feasibility of future resections. The increasing evidence supporting PSLS prompts its consideration as the gold-standard surgical approach for CLM. PMID:27358673

  18. The degree of roentgenographic parenchymal opacities attributable to smoking among asbestos-exposed subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, S.; Thornquist, M.; Omenn, G.S.; Goodman, G.; Feigl, P.; Rosenstock, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Considerable controversy surrounds the question of whether cigarette smoking has the potential to increase the prevalence of small opacities on chest roentgenographs among asbestos-exposed workers. To compare the relative contribution of smoking with other predictors of the presence of roentgenographic small opacities, we examined 661 men enrolled in a double-blind, randomized trial designed to assess the efficacy of vitamin A and beta-carotene in the prevention of lung cancer among workers with heavy occupational asbestos exposure. Subjects in the study population had a mean latency of 35 yr from first asbestos exposure and a mean of 28 yr in their trade. The prevalence of roentgenographic abnormalities consistent with asbestos exposure was 26% for pleural abnormalities alone, 10% for parenchymal abnormalities alone, and 20% for pleural and parenchymal abnormalities together. We investigated occupation, age, latency from first asbestos exposure, and smoking status as predictors of roentgenographic small opacities. Smoking history, independent of latency, contributed to the prevalence and extent of small opacities, but its effect was less than that of latency. We conclude, that in the setting of heavy occupational exposure to asbestos, cigarette smoking confers added risk for the development of roentgenographic small opacities.

  19. Potent spinal parenchymal AAV9-mediated gene delivery by subpial injection in adult rats and pigs

    PubMed Central

    Miyanohara, Atsushi; Kamizato, Kota; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Navarro, Michael; Marsala, Silvia; Lukacova, Nada; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Curtis, Erik; Gabel, Brandon; Ciacci, Joseph; Ahrens, Eric T; Kaspar, Brian K; Cleveland, Don; Marsala, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal). Here, we demonstrate that the spinal pia membrane represents the primary barrier limiting effective AAV9 penetration into the spinal parenchyma after intrathecal AAV9 delivery. We develop a novel subpial AAV9 delivery technique and AAV9-dextran formulation. We use these in adult rats and pigs to show (i) potent spinal parenchymal transgene expression in white and gray matter including neurons, glial and endothelial cells after single bolus subpial AAV9 delivery; (ii) delivery to almost all apparent descending motor axons throughout the length of the spinal cord after cervical or thoracic subpial AAV9 injection; (iii) potent retrograde transgene expression in brain motor centers (motor cortex and brain stem); and (iv) the relative safety of this approach by defining normal neurological function for up to 6 months after AAV9 delivery. Thus, subpial delivery of AAV9 enables gene-based therapies with a wide range of potential experimental and clinical utilizations in adult animals and human patients. PMID:27462649

  20. Hepatic non-parenchymal cells and extracellular matrix participate in oval cell-mediated liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Wan-Guang; Zhang, Feng; Xiang, Shuai; Dong, Han-Hua; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the interaction between non-parenchymal cells, extracellular matrix and oval cells during the restituting process of liver injury induced by partial hepatectomy (PH). METHODS: We examined the localization of oval cells, non-parenchymal cells, and the extracellular matrix components using immunohistochemical and double immunofluorescent analysis during the proliferation and differentiation of oval cells in N-2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)/PH rat model. RESULTS: By day 2 after PH, small oval cells began to proliferate around the portal area. Most of stellate cells and laminin were present along the hepatic sinusoids in the periportal area. Kupffer cells and fibronectin markedly increased in the whole hepatic lobule. From day 4 to 9, oval cells spread further into hepatic parenchyma, closely associated with stellate cells, fibronectin and laminin. Kupffer cells admixed with oval cells by day 6 and then decreased in the periportal zone. From day 12 to 15, most of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), laminin and fibronectin located around the small hepatocyte nodus, and minority of them appeared in the nodus. Kupffer cells were mainly limited in the pericentral sinusoids. After day 18, the normal liver lobule structures began to recover. CONCLUSION: Local hepatic microenvironment may participate in the oval cell-mediated liver regeneration through the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. PMID:19195056

  1. Renal transplantation parenchymal complications: what Doppler ultrasound can and cannot do.

    PubMed

    Granata, Antonio; Di Nicolò, Pierpaolo; Scarfia, Viviana R; Insalaco, Monica; Lentini, Paolo; Veroux, Massimiliano; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-06-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice in end-stage renal disease, given the better quality of life of transplanted patients when compared with patients on maintenance dialysis. In spite of surgical improvements and new immunosuppressive regimens, parts of transplanted grafts still develop chronic dysfunction. Ultrasonography, both in B-mode and with Doppler ultrasound, is an important diagnostic tool in case of clinical conditions which might impair kidney function. Even though ultrasonography is considered fundamental in the diagnosis of vascular and surgical complications of the transplanted kidney, its role is not fully understood in case of parenchymal complications of the graft. The specificity of Doppler is low both in case of acute complications, such as acute tubular necrosis, drugs toxicity and acute rejection, and in case of chronic conditions, such as chronic allograft nephropathy. Single determinations of resistance indices present low diagnostic accuracy, which is higher in case of successive measurements performed during the follow-up of the graft. Modern techniques such as tissue pulsatility index, maximal fractional area and contrast-enhanced ultrasound increase ultrasonography diagnostic power in case of parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney.

  2. Pulmonary hypertension in the course of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases - state of art and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Szturmowicz, Monika; Kacprzak, Aneta; Błasińska-Przerwa, Katarzyna; Kuś, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Lung diseases are one of the most frequent causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The development of PH influences the course of lung disease, worsening the clinical symptoms and prognosis. According to the most recent publications, PH in the course of lung diseases develops as a result of both "parenchymal" and vascular pathology, in the patients with genetic predisposition. Prolonged infection (especially viral one) may be an additional promoting factor. Right heart catheterization (RHC), which is an invasive procedure, is the only objective method of diagnosing PH. According to the latest recommendations, the management algorithm of PH and coexisting interstitial lung disease is based on RHC and the results of pulmonary function tests. Majority of the patients develop mild PH in the course of advanced lung disease. Best treatment of underlying lung pathology combined with long term oxygen treatment is recommended in this group. In case of severe PH (mean resting pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥ 35 mm Hg) the alternate cause of PH has to be sought. PAH-specific drugs use should be limited to patients with severe PH participating in clinical trials. In this review, the value of various non-invasive methods (echocardiography, radiological examination, exercise capacity and brain natriuretic peptides assessment) in the process of screening for PH is presented, and the results of recent randomized clinical trials with PAH-specific drugs in patients with diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are discussed.

  3. Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration for the Diagnosis of Central Lung Parenchymal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akash; Jeon, Kyeongman; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of convex probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for detecting malignancy in parenchymal pulmonary lesions located adjacent to the central airways. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic performance of EBUS-TBNA in consecutive patients with high clinical suspicion of a centrally located primary lung cancer who had undergone EBUS-TBNA at the Samsung Medical Center between May 2009 and June 2011. Results Thirty-seven patients underwent EBUS-TBNA for intrapulmonary lesions adjacent to the central airways. Seven lesions were located adjacent to the trachea and 30 lesions were located adjacent to the bronchi. Cytologic and histologic samples obtained via EBUS-TBNA were diagnostic in 32 of 37 (86.4%) of patients. The final diagnosis was lung cancer in 30 patients (7 small cell lung cancer, 23 non-small cell lung cancer), lymphoma in one and malignant fibrous histiocytoma in one patient. The diagnostic sensitivity of EBUS-TBNA in detecting malignancy and detecting both malignancy and benignity was 91.4% and 86.5%, respectively. Two patients experienced minor complications. Conclusion EBUS-TBNA is an effective and safe method for tissue diagnosis of parenchymal lesions that lie centrally close to the airways. EBUS-TBNA should be considered the procedure of choice for patients with centrally located lesions without endobronchial involvement. PMID:23549813

  4. Assessment of pathologically diagnosed patients with Castleman's disease associated with diffuse parenchymal lung involvement using the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Ogoshi, Takaaki; Kido, Takashi; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Oda, Keishi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Noriho; Sano, Arisa; Yoshii, Chiharu; Shimajiri, Shohei; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognized disease entity. Differentiating IgG4RD from plasma cell type Castleman's disease (PCD) is important but also difficult using only pathological findings. In addition, little is known about the association between these two diseases with diffuse parenchymal lung involvement. We analyzed the serum IgG4 levels and the ratio of IgG4/IgG-positive plasmacytes in the lung and lymph node specimens of eight patients previously pathologically diagnosed of PCD with diffuse parenchymal lung involvement (DL-PCD). We also compared the clinical and laboratory findings observed in these patients. Six of the eight patients exhibited abundant IgG4-positive plasmacytes in the lung and lymph node tissues and elevated serum IgG4 levels, thereby fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of IgG4RD with DL (DL-IgG4RD) in addition to having obstructive phlebitis and massive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with fibrosis. However, three of these six patients exhibited higher levels of serum interleukin-6 and were still diagnosed with DL-PCD. Accordingly, three of these eight patients were considered as IgG4RD with DL (DL-IgG4RD), and the other five patients were ultimately given a diagnosis of DL-PCD. These two diseases have different characteristics in terms of age, symptoms, serum levels of C-reactive protein, and IgA, complicating allergic disorders, response to corticosteroids, and prognosis. This is the first report to show a high prevalence of DL-IgG4RD in DL-PCD patients, although additional large investigations are necessary. Clinical and laboratory findings are important for distinguishing between these two diseases in other organs, as previously described.

  5. Hepatic uptake of (TH)retinol bound to the serum retinol binding protein involves both parenchymal and perisinusoidal stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blomhoff, R.; Norum, K.R.; Berg, T.

    1985-11-05

    We have studied the hepatic uptake of retinol bound to the circulating retinol binding protein-transthyretin complex. Labeled complex was obtained from the plasma of donor rats that were fed radioactive retinol. When labeled retinol-retinol binding protein-transthyretin complex was injected intravenously into control rats, about 45% of the administered dose was recovered in liver after 56 h. Parenchymal liver cells were responsible for an initial rapid uptake. Perisinusoidal stellate cells initially accumulated radioactivity more slowly than did the parenchymal cells, but after 16 h, these cells contained more radioactivity than the parenchymal cells. After 56 h, about 70% of the radioactivity recovered in liver was present in stellate cells. For the first 2 h after injection, most of the radioactivity in parenchymal cells was recovered as unesterified retinol. The radioactivity in the retinyl ester fraction increased after a lag period of about 2 h, and after 5 h more than 60% of the radioactivity was recovered as retinyl esters. In stellate cells, radioactivity was mostly present as retinyl esters at all time points examined. Uptake of retinol in both parenchymal cells and stellate cells was reduced considerably in vitamin A-deficient rats. Less than 5% of the injected dose of radioactivity was found in liver after 5-6 h (as compared to 25% in control rats), and the radioactivity recovered in liver from these animals was mostly in the unesterified retinol fraction. Studies with separated cells in vitro suggested that both parenchymal and stellate cells isolated from control rats were able to take up retinol from the retinol-retinol binding protein-transthyretin complex. This uptake was temperature dependent.

  6. Preliminary report on digitalization of renal microangiograms used in analysing renal parenchymal diseases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Kaneko, M

    1983-01-01

    Glomerulography is a useful method for the angiographic diagnosis of various renal parenchymal diseases. A new system for digitalization of the glomerulogram has been developed using a high resolution television camera and a CT computer. We describe the fundamental procedures involved in the clinical application of digital glomerulography by applying this method to a renal microangiogram of a cow. This new method aids a clearer understanding of the detailed microvasculatures by providing better magnification and storage and allowing for further processing of the original analogue images. With a computer printout of any part of the glomerulogram also possible, an estimation of the glomerular counts and their distribution can now be given for any unit of cross-sectional area of the renal cortex.

  7. Quantitative consensus of supervised learners for diffuse lung parenchymal HRCT patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2013-03-01

    Automated lung parenchymal classification usually relies on supervised learning of expert chosen regions representative of the visually differentiable HRCT patterns specific to different pathologies (eg. emphysema, ground glass, honey combing, reticular and normal). Considering the elusiveness of a single most discriminating similarity measure, a plurality of weak learners can be combined to improve the machine learnability. Though a number of quantitative combination strategies exist, their efficacy is data and domain dependent. In this paper, we investigate multiple (N=12) quantitative consensus approaches to combine the clusters obtained with multiple (n=33) probability density-based similarity measures. Our study shows that hypergraph based meta-clustering and probabilistic clustering provides optimal expert-metric agreement.

  8. Hepatic vein, hepatic parenchymal, and inferior vena caval mechanoreceptors with phrenic afferents.

    PubMed

    Kostreva, D R; Pontus, S P

    1993-07-01

    Dogs were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and placed on positive-pressure ventilation. The right phrenic nerve and/or its C5 branch were prepared for afferent recording. The hepatic veins, hepatic parenchyma, diaphragm, and inferior vena cava were studied for mechanoreceptors using light pressure and stroking as the stimuli. Mechanosensitive areas were found in the hepatic veins, hepatic parenchyma of the right medial lobe, and inferior vena cava. The hepatic vein and inferior vena caval receptors are located in the same 1- to 2-cm region as the sphincters that are found in these vessels. This study presents the first experimental evidence for the existence of hepatic vein receptors, hepatic parenchymal receptors, and inferior vena caval mechanoreceptors with phrenic afferents in the dog. These sensory areas of the circulation may be involved in the neural control of venous return as well as mediating changes in intrahepatic and portal venous blood pressure during normal respiration.

  9. Amiodarone-induced loculated pleural effusion without pulmonary parenchymal involvement: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hawatmeh, Amer; Thawabi, Mohammad; Jmeian, Ashraf; Shaaban, Hamid; Shamoon, Fayez

    2017-01-01

    Amiodarone is an extremely effective antiarrhythmic drug that is known to cause many adverse effects such as pulmonary, thyroid, and liver toxicities. Of these, pulmonary toxicity is most serious. Pulmonary toxicity can present as interstitial pneumonitis, organizing pneumonia, pulmonary nodules and masses, and very rarely pleural effusions. We present a case of a 73-year-old male who presented with progressive exertional dyspnea, nonproductive cough, generalized fatigue, and weakness. He was found to have multiorgan toxicity secondary to long-term treatment with high doses of amiodarone. This case illustrates that amiodarone may cause toxicity involving multiple organs simultaneously in patients receiving long-term therapy and represents the first reported case of amiodarone-induced loculated pleural effusion without associated lung parenchymal involvement. PMID:28250689

  10. Epidermal growth factor counteracts the glycogenic effect of insulin in parenchymal hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, M H; Agius, L

    1987-01-01

    Rat parenchymal hepatocytes in monolayer culture were used to study the metabolic effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin on ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism. EGF, unlike insulin, did not inhibit ketogenesis from palmitate or gluconeogenesis from pyruvate in hepatocyte cultures. It also had no effect on these pathways in the presence of insulin. In contrast, EGF potently counteracted the stimulation of [14C]pyruvate incorporation into glycogen by insulin, and also glycogen deposition from both gluconeogenic precursors and glucose. The EGF concentration causing half-maximal effect was about 0.1 nM. The anti-glycogenic effect of EGF was observed after both long-term (24 h) and short-term (1 h) exposure to EGF, and was more marked in the presence of insulin than in its absence. EGF did not displace bound insulin, suggesting that it neither competes for the insulin receptor nor affects the affinity of the receptor for insulin. EGF did not alter cellular cyclic AMP; and inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity did not prevent the anti-glycogenic effect of EGF. In liver-derived dividing epithelial cells, Hep-G2 cells and fibroblasts, which have no capacity for gluconeogenesis, EGF did not counteract the stimulatory effect of insulin on [14C]glucose incorporation into glycogen, and in the epithelial cells EGF increased [14C]glucose incorporation into glycogen. The counter-effect of EGF on the glycogenic action of insulin in parenchymal hepatocytes may be due to a direct effect on glycogen metabolism or to an interaction with the post-receptor events in insulin action. PMID:2827626

  11. Genetic Polymorphisms in Inflammasome-Dependent Innate Immunity among Pediatric Patients with Severe Renal Parenchymal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Hui; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chang, Chee-Jen; Lin, Jui-Che; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammasome innate immune response activation has been demonstrated in various inflammatory diseases and microbial infections. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined the inflammasome-dependent pathways in patients with urinary tract infection. Defective or variant genes associated with innate immunity are believed to alter the host’s susceptibility to microbial infection. This study investigated genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding inflammasomes and the subsequent released cytokines in pediatric patients with severe renal parenchymal infections. Methodology This study included patients diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis (APN) and acute lobar nephronia (ALN) who had no underlying disease or structural anomalies other than vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed in the genes associated with inflammasome formation and activation (NLRP3, CARD8) and subsequent IL–1β cytokine generation (IL–1β). Principal Findings A total of 40 SNPs were selected for initial genotyping. Analysis of samples from 48 patients each and 96 controls revealed that only nine SNPs (five SNPs in NLRP3; three SNPs in CARD8; one SNP in IL–1β) had heterozygosity rates >0.01. Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was satisfied for the observed genotype frequencies of these SNPs. Analysis excluding patients with VUR, a well-known risk factor for severe UTIs, revealed a lower frequency of the CC genotype in NLRP3 (rs4612666) in patients with APN and ALN than in controls. Correction for multiple-SNP testing showed that the non-VUR subgroup of the APN+ALN combined patient groups remained significantly different from the control group (P < 0.0055). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that the inflammasome-dependent innate immunity pathway is associated with the pathogenesis of pediatric severe renal parenchymal infections. Further investigation is warranted to clarify its pathogenic mechanism. PMID:26444566

  12. Parenchymal Signal Intensity in 3-T Body MRI of Dogs with Hematopoietic Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Daniel A; Sharkey, Leslie C; Steward, Susan M; Bahr, Katherine L; Henson, Michael S; Ito, Daisuke; O'Brien, Timothy D; Jessen, Carl R; Husbands, Brian D; Borgatti, Antonella; Modiano, Jaime F

    2013-01-01

    We performed a preliminary study involving 10 dogs to assess the applicability of body MRI for staging of canine diffuse hematopoietic neoplasia. T1-weighted (before and after intravenous gadolinium), T2-weighted, in-phase, out-of-phase, and short tau inversion recovery pulse sequences were used. By using digital region of interest (ROI) and visual comparison techniques, relative parenchymal organ (medial iliac lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla) signal intensity was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than that of skeletal muscle in 2 clinically normal young adult dogs and 10 dogs affected with either B-cell lymphoma (n = 7) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 3). Falciform fat and urinary bladder were evaluated to provide additional perspective regarding signal intensity from the pulse sequences. Dogs with nonfocal disease could be distinguished from normal dogs according to both the visual and ROI signal-intensity relationships. In normal dogs, liver signal intensity on the T2-weighted sequence was greater than that of skeletal muscle by using either the visual or ROI approach. However in affected dogs, T2-weighted liver signal intensity was less than that of skeletal muscle by using either the ROI approach (10 of 10 dogs) or the visual approach (9 of 10 dogs). These findings suggest that the comparison of relative signal intensity among organs may have merit as a research model for infiltrative parenchymal disease (ROI approach) or metabolic effects of disease; this comparison may have practical clinical applicability (visual comparison approach) as well. PMID:23582424

  13. Nonlinear Color-Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line index versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  14. The metallicity spread and the age-metallicity relation of ω Centauri

    SciTech Connect

    Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Gratton, R. G.; Cassisi, S.

    2014-08-20

    ω Centauri is a peculiar globular cluster formed by a complex stellar population. To investigate it, we studied 172 stars belonging to the five SGBs that we can identify in our photometry, in order to measure their [Fe/H] content as well as estimate their age dispersion and the age-metallicity relation. The first important result is that all of these SGBs have a distribution in metallicity with a spread that exceeds the observational errors and typically displays several peaks that indicate the presence of several subpopulations. We were able to identify at least six of them based on their mean [Fe/H] content. These metallicity-based subpopulations are seen to varying extents in each of the five SGBs. Taking advantage of the age sensitivity of the SGB, we showed that, first of all, at least half of the subpopulations have an age spread of at least 2 Gyr. Then, we obtained an age-metallicity relation that is the most complete to date for this cluster. Interpretation of the age-metallicity relation is not straightforward, but it is possible that the cluster (or what we can call its progenitor) was initially composed of two populations with different metallicities. Because of their age, it is very unlikely that the most metal-rich derives from the most metal-poor by some kind of chemical evolution process, so they can be assumed to be two independent primordial objects, or perhaps two separate parts of a single larger object, that merged in the past to form the present-day cluster.

  15. The Metallicity Spread and the Age-Metallicity Relation of ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Gratton, R. G.; Cassisi, S.

    2014-08-01

    ω Centauri is a peculiar globular cluster formed by a complex stellar population. To investigate it, we studied 172 stars belonging to the five SGBs that we can identify in our photometry, in order to measure their [Fe/H] content as well as estimate their age dispersion and the age-metallicity relation. The first important result is that all of these SGBs have a distribution in metallicity with a spread that exceeds the observational errors and typically displays several peaks that indicate the presence of several subpopulations. We were able to identify at least six of them based on their mean [Fe/H] content. These metallicity-based subpopulations are seen to varying extents in each of the five SGBs. Taking advantage of the age sensitivity of the SGB, we showed that, first of all, at least half of the subpopulations have an age spread of at least 2 Gyr. Then, we obtained an age-metallicity relation that is the most complete to date for this cluster. Interpretation of the age-metallicity relation is not straightforward, but it is possible that the cluster (or what we can call its progenitor) was initially composed of two populations with different metallicities. Because of their age, it is very unlikely that the most metal-rich derives from the most metal-poor by some kind of chemical evolution process, so they can be assumed to be two independent primordial objects, or perhaps two separate parts of a single larger object, that merged in the past to form the present-day cluster. Based on FLAMES+GIRAFFE@VLT observations under the program 082.D-0424(A).

  16. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease as first clinical manifestation of GATA-2 deficiency in childhood.

    PubMed

    Svobodova, Tamara; Mejstrikova, Ester; Salzer, Ulrich; Sukova, Martina; Hubacek, Petr; Matej, Radoslav; Vasakova, Martina; Hornofova, Ludmila; Dvorakova, Marcela; Fronkova, Eva; Votava, Felix; Freiberger, Tomas; Pohunek, Petr; Stary, Jan; Janda, Ales

    2015-02-10

    GATA-2 transcription factor deficiency has recently been described in patients with a propensity towards myeloid malignancy associated with other highly variable phenotypic features: chronic leukocytopenias (dendritic cell-, monocyto-, granulocyto-, lymphocytopenia), increased susceptibility to infections, lymphatic vasculature abnormalities, and sensorineural deafness. Patients often suffer from opportunistic respiratory infections; chronic pulmonary changes have been found in advanced disease. We present a case of a 17-year-old previously healthy Caucasian male who was admitted to the hospital with fever, malaise, headache, cough and dyspnea. A chest X-ray revealed bilateral interstitial infiltrates and pneumonia was diagnosed. Despite prompt clinical improvement under antibiotic therapy, interstitial changes remained stable. A high resolution computer tomography showed severe diffuse parenchymal lung disease, while the patient's pulmonary function tests were normal and he was asymptomatic. Lung tissue biopsy revealed chronic reparative and resorptive reaction with organizing vasculitis. At the time of the initial presentation to the hospital, serological signs of acute infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were present; EBV viremia with atypical serological response persisted during two-year follow up. No other infectious agents were found. Marked monocytopenia combined with B-cell lymphopenia led to a suspicion of GATA-2 deficiency. Diagnosis was confirmed by detection of the previously published heterozygous mutation in GATA2 (c.1081 C > T, p.R361C). The patient's brother and father were both carriers of the same genetic defect. The brother had no clinically relevant ailments despite leukocyte changes similar to the index patient. The father suffered from spondylarthritis, and apart from B-cell lymphopenia, no other changes within the leukocyte pool were seen. We conclude that a diagnosis of GATA-2 deficiency should be considered in all patients with

  17. Humoral immune response in patients with cerebral parenchymal cysticercosis treated with praziquantel.

    PubMed Central

    Estañol, B; Juárez, H; Irigoyen, M del C; González-Barranco, D; Corona, T

    1989-01-01

    The humoral immune response to treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) was studied in eight patients with parenchymal cerebral cysticercosis (CC). In the serum and in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) before, during and after the administration of the drug, the following were quantitated (a) levels of specific anticysticercous antibodies measured in optical densities by the ELISA method; (b) levels of IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE; (c) levels of complement fraction C3, C4; (d) presence of immune complexes; (e) total number of white blood cells in the CSF. It was found that after treatment with PZQ, the level of specific anticysticercous antibodies and the level of IgG rose significantly in the CSF but not in the blood. The levels of the fractions of the complement and the immunoglobulins IgM, IgA and IgE did not change significantly either in the serum or in the CSF. The blood-brain barrier was found ruptured in three patients before therapy and in five patients after the therapy as measured by the albumin index. Nevertheless, the IgG index showed that there was local production of IgG in five patients before treatment and in seven after the end of it. The relative specific antibody index was greater than 1.0 in five patients before therapy and in seven after therapy. This data strongly supports the idea that the specific antibodies are produced intrathecally and are not derived from the serum pool through a ruptured blood-brain barrier. It was concluded that patients with parenchymal CC have an elevation of specific anticysticercous probably due to a combination of a ruptured blood-brain barrier and intrathecal synthesis. The relatively small rupture of the blood-brain barrier and the high IgG and relative specific antibody index suggest that intrathecal synthesis is the most important mechanism. The humoral immune response may be of importance not only in the elimination of the parasite but also in the genesis of the illness. PMID:2703841

  18. Mass-metallicity relations and metallicity gradients of galaxies in chemodynamical simulations with AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2015-08-01

    I show metallicities of high-redshift galaxies and their time evolution in our cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations with the feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). We have applied a new model for the formation of black holes motivated by the first star formation, in contrast to the merging scenario of previous works. The model parameters are determined from observational constraints, namely, the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass-galaxy mass relation, and the size-mass relation of galaxies. We then obtain better agreement with the observed down-sizing phenomena, namely, the colour-magnitude relation, specific star formation rates, and the \\alpha enhancement of early type galaxies. In massive galaxies, AGN-driven outflows transport metals into the circumgalactic medium and the intergalactic medium, which is important for a large-scale chemical enrichment in the Universe. Smaller galaxies can get external enrichment from nearby AGN depending on their environment. Nonetheless, these metallicity changes are negligible, and the mass-metallicity relations, which are mainly generated by supernova feedback at the first star burst, are preserved. The mass-metallicity relations evolve showing a steeper slope at higher redshifts. Metallicity radial gradients dramatically evolve depending on the their merging histories, and at the present we find a weak correlation between the gradients and galaxy mass. These predictions will be tested with on-going spectral and IFU surveys.

  19. The universal stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation for dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S.; Cohen, Judith G.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gallazzi, Anna

    2013-12-20

    We present spectroscopic metallicities of individual stars in seven gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs), and we show that dIrrs obey the same mass-metallicity relation as the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of both the Milky Way and M31: Z{sub ∗}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 0.30±0.02}. The uniformity of the relation is in contradiction to previous estimates of metallicity based on photometry. This relationship is roughly continuous with the stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation for galaxies as massive as M {sub *} = 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}. Although the average metallicities of dwarf galaxies depend only on stellar mass, the shapes of their metallicity distributions depend on galaxy type. The metallicity distributions of dIrrs resemble simple, leaky box chemical evolution models, whereas dSphs require an additional parameter, such as gas accretion, to explain the shapes of their metallicity distributions. Furthermore, the metallicity distributions of the more luminous dSphs have sharp, metal-rich cut-offs that are consistent with the sudden truncation of star formation due to ram pressure stripping.

  20. THE FUNDAMENTAL METALLICITY RELATION REDUCES TYPE Ia SN HUBBLE RESIDUALS MORE THAN HOST MASS ALONE

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, Brian T.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Mannucci, Filippo; Nichol, Robert C.

    2013-02-20

    Type Ia supernova Hubble residuals have been shown to correlate with host galaxy mass, imposing a major obstacle for their use in measuring dark energy properties. Here, we calibrate the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) of Mannucci et al. for host mass and star formation rates measured from broadband colors alone. We apply the FMR to the large number of hosts from the SDSS-II sample of Gupta et al. and find that the scatter in the Hubble residuals is significantly reduced when compared with using only stellar mass (or the mass-metallicity relation) as a fit parameter. Our calibration of the FMR is restricted to only star-forming galaxies and in the Hubble residual calculation we include only hosts with log(SFR) > - 2. Our results strongly suggest that metallicity is the underlying source of the correlation between Hubble residuals and host galaxy mass. Since the FMR is nearly constant between z = 2 and the present, use of the FMR along with light-curve width and color should provide a robust distance measurement method that minimizes systematic errors.

  1. Inter-observer variation between pathologists in diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, A; Addis, B; Bharucha, H; Clelland, C; Corrin, B; Gibbs, A; Hasleton, P; Kerr, K; Ibrahim, N; Stewart, S; Wallace, W; Wells, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: There have been few inter-observer studies of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), but the recent ATS/ERS consensus classification provides a basis for such a study. Methods: A method for categorising numerically the percentage likelihood of these differential diagnoses was developed, and the diagnostic confidence of pathologists using this classification and the reproducibility of their diagnoses were assessed. Results: The overall kappa coefficient of agreement for the first choice diagnosis was 0.38 (n = 133 biopsies), increasing to 0.43 for patients (n = 83) with multiple biopsies. Weighted kappa coefficients of agreement, quantifying the level of probability of individual diagnoses, were moderate to good (mean 0.58, range 0.40–0.75). However, in 18% of biopsy specimens the diagnosis was given with low confidence. Over 50% of inter-observer variation related to the diagnosis of non-specific interstitial pneumonia and, in particular, its distinction from usual interstitial pneumonia. Conclusion: These results show that the ATS/ERS classification can be applied reproducibly by pathologists who evaluate DPLD routinely, and support the practice of taking multiple biopsy specimens. PMID:15170033

  2. Parenchymal texture analysis in digital mammography: robust texture feature identification and equivalence across devices.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brad M; Oustimov, Andrew; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jinbo; Acciavatti, Raymond J; Zheng, Yuanjie; Ray, Shonket; Gee, James C; Maidment, Andrew D A; Kontos, Despina

    2015-04-01

    An analytical framework is presented for evaluating the equivalence of parenchymal texture features across different full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems using a physical breast phantom. Phantom images (FOR PROCESSING) are acquired from three FFDM systems using their automated exposure control setting. A panel of texture features, including gray-level histogram, co-occurrence, run length, and structural descriptors, are extracted. To identify features that are robust across imaging systems, a series of equivalence tests are performed on the feature distributions, in which the extent of their intersystem variation is compared to their intrasystem variation via the Hodges-Lehmann test statistic. Overall, histogram and structural features tend to be most robust across all systems, and certain features, such as edge enhancement, tend to be more robust to intergenerational differences between detectors of a single vendor than to intervendor differences. Texture features extracted from larger regions of interest (i.e., [Formula: see text]) and with a larger offset length (i.e., [Formula: see text]), when applicable, also appear to be more robust across imaging systems. This framework and observations from our experiments may benefit applications utilizing mammographic texture analysis on images acquired in multivendor settings, such as in multicenter studies of computer-aided detection and breast cancer risk assessment.

  3. Perforin-2 is essential for intracellular defense of parenchymal cells and phagocytes against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Ryan M; de Armas, Lesley R; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Fiorentino, Desiree G; Olsson, Melissa L; Lichtenheld, Mathias G; Morales, Alejo; Lyapichev, Kirill; Gonzalez, Louis E; Strbo, Natasa; Sukumar, Neelima; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Plano, Gregory V; Munson, George P; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Kirsner, Robert S; Russell, David G; Podack, Eckhard R

    2015-09-24

    Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is a pore-forming, antibacterial protein with broad-spectrum activity. Perforin-2 is expressed constitutively in phagocytes and inducibly in parenchymal, tissue-forming cells. In vitro, Perforin-2 prevents the intracellular replication and proliferation of bacterial pathogens in these cells. Perforin-2 knockout mice are unable to control the systemic dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Salmonella typhimurium and perish shortly after epicutaneous or orogastric infection respectively. In contrast, Perforin-2-sufficient littermates clear the infection. Perforin-2 is a transmembrane protein of cytosolic vesicles -derived from multiple organelles- that translocate to and fuse with bacterium containing vesicles. Subsequently, Perforin-2 polymerizes and forms large clusters of 100 Å pores in the bacterial surface with Perforin-2 cleavage products present in bacteria. Perforin-2 is also required for the bactericidal activity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and hydrolytic enzymes. Perforin-2 constitutes a novel and apparently essential bactericidal effector molecule of the innate immune system.

  4. Perforin-2 is essential for intracellular defense of parenchymal cells and phagocytes against pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Ryan M; de Armas, Lesley R; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Fiorentino, Desiree G; Olsson, Melissa L; Lichtenheld, Mathias G; Morales, Alejo; Lyapichev, Kirill; Gonzalez, Louis E; Strbo, Natasa; Sukumar, Neelima; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Plano, Gregory V; Munson, George P; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Kirsner, Robert S; Russell, David G; Podack, Eckhard R

    2015-01-01

    Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is a pore-forming, antibacterial protein with broad-spectrum activity. Perforin-2 is expressed constitutively in phagocytes and inducibly in parenchymal, tissue-forming cells. In vitro, Perforin-2 prevents the intracellular replication and proliferation of bacterial pathogens in these cells. Perforin-2 knockout mice are unable to control the systemic dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Salmonella typhimurium and perish shortly after epicutaneous or orogastric infection respectively. In contrast, Perforin-2-sufficient littermates clear the infection. Perforin-2 is a transmembrane protein of cytosolic vesicles -derived from multiple organelles- that translocate to and fuse with bacterium containing vesicles. Subsequently, Perforin-2 polymerizes and forms large clusters of 100 Å pores in the bacterial surface with Perforin-2 cleavage products present in bacteria. Perforin-2 is also required for the bactericidal activity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and hydrolytic enzymes. Perforin-2 constitutes a novel and apparently essential bactericidal effector molecule of the innate immune system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06508.001 PMID:26402460

  5. Renal parenchymal appearance on /sup 123/iodine-hippurate renoscintigrams and excretory urograms

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, J.B.; Taagehoj-Jensen, F.; Andresen, J.H.; Jorgensen, T.M.; Djurhuus, J.C.; Sorensen, S.S.; Charles, P.

    1985-02-01

    In 61 patients with vesicoureteral reflux renal scar formation was diagnosed by excretory urography and /sup 123/iodine-hippurate scintigrams. Scar formation on the nephrograms was detected in the upper, middle and lower zones of the kidneys on tomography exposures. Scintigraphic detection of scars was performed on the computerized uptake of the parenchymal phase. Maximal time elapse between the 2 investigations was 1 year. Excretory urography revealed 37 kidneys with a total of 74 regional scars. On scintigraphy 57 kidneys were judged to have 102 scars. There were 281 regions judged to be identical on the scintigram and the nephrogram. A true positive ratio (sensitivity) of 0.46 and a true negative ratio (specificity) of 0.90 were noted for the excretory urogram, compared to a sensitivity of 0.64 and a specificity of 0.81 for renography. The study confirms an over-representation of scars judged from scintigrams, which calls for further investigation of scar formation detection.

  6. Parotid sialosis: morphometrical analysis of the glandular parenchyme and stroma among diabetic and alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Carolina; Bohl, Luciana; Carda, Carmen; Gómez de Ferraris, María Elsa; Carranza, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Among the agents that cause parotid sialosis, diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic alcoholism are included. In this study, the morphometrical modifications in the diabetic parotid sialosis were determined to compare them with the histopathological characteristics of alcoholic parotid sialosis. Five parotid biopsy samples obtained from patients with diabetic sialosis, 12 samples from patients with alcoholic sialosis and seven from individuals without these pathologies (control group) were analyzed. A morphometrical study of parotid parenchyme and stroma, using a digital image analyzer attached to an optical microscope, was carried out. Dimensions of serous acini and striated ducts, the area occupied by the fatty tissue, and the number of ducts were recorded. Mean values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test (P

  7. Ultrasound tomography imaging with waveform sound speed: parenchymal changes in women undergoing tamoxifen therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Sherman, Mark; Gierach, Gretchen

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging modality that can offer quantitative measurements of breast density. Recent breakthroughs in UST image reconstruction involve the use of a waveform reconstruction as opposed to a raybased reconstruction. The sound speed (SS) images that are created using the waveform reconstruction have a much higher image quality. These waveform images offer improved resolution and contrasts between regions of dense and fatty tissues. As part of a study that was designed to assess breast density changes using UST sound speed imaging among women undergoing tamoxifen therapy, UST waveform sound speed images were then reconstructed for a subset of participants. These initial results show that changes to the parenchymal tissue can more clearly be visualized when using the waveform sound speed images. Additional quantitative testing of the waveform images was also started to test the hypothesis that waveform sound speed images are a more robust measure of breast density than ray-based reconstructions. Further analysis is still needed to better understand how tamoxifen affects breast tissue.

  8. Adaptive multiple feature method (AMFM) for early detecton of parenchymal pathology in a smoking population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uppaluri, Renuka; McLennan, Geoffrey; Enright, Paul; Standen, James; Boyer-Pfersdorf, Pamela; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1998-07-01

    Application of the Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) to identify early changes in a smoking population is discussed. This method was specifically applied to determine if differences in CT images of smokers (with normal lung function) and non-smokers (with normal lung function) could be found through computerized texture analysis. Results demonstrated that these groups could be differentiated with over 80.0% accuracy. Further, differences on CT images between normal appearing lung from non-smokers (with normal lung function) and normal appearing lung from smokers (with abnormal lung function) were also investigated. These groups were differentiated with over 89.5% accuracy. In analyzing the whole lung region by region, the AMFM characterized 38.6% of a smoker lung (with normal lung function) as mild emphysema. We can conclude that the AMFM detects parenchymal patterns in the lungs of smokers which are different from normal patterns occurring in healthy non-smokers. These patterns could perhaps indicate early smoking-related changes.

  9. Procalcitonin for the early prediction of renal parenchymal involvement in children with UTI: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kotoula, Aggeliki; Gardikis, Stefanos; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Mantadakis, Elpis; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Kambouri, Katerina; Deftereos, Savvas; Tripsianis, Gregorios; Manolas, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Vaos, George

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish the most reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infections (UTI) with and without renal parenchymal involvement (RPI), we recorded the clinical features and admission leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in 57 children (including 43 girls) aged 2-108 months admitted with a first episode of UTI. RPI was evaluated by Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. To establish cut-off points for ESR, CRP, and PCT, we used receiver operating characteristics curves and compared the area under the curve for ESR, CRP, and PCT. Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having RPI based on positive renal scintigraphy. A body temperature of >38 degrees C, a history of diarrhea, and poor oral intake were more common in patients with RPI. ESR, CRP, and PCT, but not leukocyte count, were significantly higher in patients with RPI (P < 0.001). PCT was more sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of upper versus lower UTI than ESR and CRP. Using a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/ml, PCT had the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89%, 97%, 96%, and 91% respectively. Serum PCT is a better marker than ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count for the early prediction of RPI in children with a first episode of UTI.

  10. Airway and Parenchymal Strains during Bronchoconstriction in the Precision Cut Lung Slice

    PubMed Central

    Hiorns, Jonathan E.; Bidan, Cécile M.; Jensen, Oliver E.; Gosens, Reinoud; Kistemaker, Loes E. M.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Butler, Jim P.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Brook, Bindi S.

    2016-01-01

    The precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) is a powerful tool for studying airway reactivity, but biomechanical measurements to date have largely focused on changes in airway caliber. Here we describe an image processing tool that reveals the associated spatio-temporal changes in airway and parenchymal strains. Displacements of sub-regions within the PCLS are tracked in phase-contrast movies acquired after addition of contractile and relaxing drugs. From displacement maps, strains are determined across the entire PCLS or along user-specified directions. In a representative mouse PCLS challenged with 10−4M methacholine, as lumen area decreased, compressive circumferential strains were highest in the 50 μm closest to the airway lumen while expansive radial strains were highest in the region 50–100 μm from the lumen. However, at any given distance from the airway the strain distribution varied substantially in the vicinity of neighboring small airways and blood vessels. Upon challenge with the relaxant agonist chloroquine, although most strains disappeared, residual positive strains remained a long time after addition of chloroquine, predominantly in the radial direction. Taken together, these findings establish strain mapping as a new tool to elucidate local dynamic mechanical events within the constricting airway and its supporting parenchyma. PMID:27559314

  11. Metabolism of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol by intact liver parenchymal cells isolated from mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Helton, E D; Casciano, D A; Althaus, Z R; Plant, H D

    1977-12-01

    Liver parenchymal cells isolated by perfusion from female C3H/HeN-MTV+Nctr mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with [6,7-3H] 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2). The incubates were individually fractionated into free steroid (organic phase), steroid conjugates (aqueous), and bound steroids (macromolecular pellet). The rat had significantly less total free radioactive steroid but significantly more total conjugated and irreversibly bound radioactivity than the mouse. However, when the metabolic conversion of EE2 was compared in the rat and the mouse on a cellular basis (metabolic clearance per 10(6) cells), the rat was found to be less efficient than the mouse. The two species were essentially equivalent in their covalent binding when expressed on a per 10(6) cell basis. Purification of the free radiolabeled steriods on LH-20 demonstrated the mouse to have the parent compound and on identifiable 2-OH-EE2 fraction. The rat had EE2 and an identifiable 2-methoxy-EE2 fraction. A major metabolite fraction for both species was very nonpolar and, although not identified, was found to be ethynylated as demonstrated by silver-sulfoethylcellulose chromatography. The conjugate fractions of the mouse were indicative of glucuronide conjugation, whereas the rat had additional conjugate fractions suggestive of sulfoconjugation.

  12. Very low cerebral blood volume predicts parenchymal hematoma in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Ribe, Lars; Baron, Jean-Claude; Østergaard, Leif; Derex, Laurent; Hjort, Niels; Fiehler, Jens; Pedraza, Salvador; Hermier, Marc; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Berthezène, Yves

    2013-08-01

    Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective was to explore the impact of early reperfusion and recanalization. The volume of cerebral tissue with CBV≤2.5th percentile of the normal hemisphere was calculated within the acute diffusion-weighted imaging lesion. Hemorrhagic transformation was assessed on day 2 MRI according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II criteria. Recanalization and reperfusion were assessed on 3-hour follow-up MRI. Of the 110 patients, hemorrhagic transformation occurred in 59 patients, including 7 PH. In univariate analysis, the acute National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (P=0.002), acute diffusion-weighted imaging lesion volume (P=0.02), and thrombolysis (P=0.03), but not very low CBV (P=0.52), were associated with hemorrhagic transformation. The volume of very low CBV was the only predictor of PH (P=0.007). Early reperfusion and recanalization had no influence on either hemorrhagic transformation or PH. Very low CBV was the only independent predictor of PH in patients with acute stroke.

  13. Parenchymal texture analysis in digital mammography: robust texture feature identification and equivalence across devices

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Brad M.; Oustimov, Andrew; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jinbo; Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Zheng, Yuanjie; Ray, Shonket; Gee, James C.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. An analytical framework is presented for evaluating the equivalence of parenchymal texture features across different full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems using a physical breast phantom. Phantom images (FOR PROCESSING) are acquired from three FFDM systems using their automated exposure control setting. A panel of texture features, including gray-level histogram, co-occurrence, run length, and structural descriptors, are extracted. To identify features that are robust across imaging systems, a series of equivalence tests are performed on the feature distributions, in which the extent of their intersystem variation is compared to their intrasystem variation via the Hodges–Lehmann test statistic. Overall, histogram and structural features tend to be most robust across all systems, and certain features, such as edge enhancement, tend to be more robust to intergenerational differences between detectors of a single vendor than to intervendor differences. Texture features extracted from larger regions of interest (i.e., >63  pixels2) and with a larger offset length (i.e., >7  pixels), when applicable, also appear to be more robust across imaging systems. This framework and observations from our experiments may benefit applications utilizing mammographic texture analysis on images acquired in multivendor settings, such as in multicenter studies of computer-aided detection and breast cancer risk assessment. PMID:26158105

  14. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease in a case of chronic arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Somnath; Dey, Atin; Saha, Sayantan; Kar, Saurav

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old housewife, the resident of rural part of West Bengal, presented with gradually progressive exertional dyspnea associated with a dry cough for last 3 years clinical features were suggestive of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD). Her chest X-ray posteroanterior view and high resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities and reticulonodular pattern. Search for the etiology revealed classical skin findings of chronic arsenic exposure in the form of generalized darkening and thickening of skin and keratotic lesions over the palms and soles and classical raindrop pigmentation over leg which was present for last 7 years subsequently her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, hair, nail, and drinking water showed significant amount of arsenic contamination. By exclusion of all known causes of DPLD, we concluded that it was a case of DPLD due to chronic arsenic exposure. To the best of our knowledge, only few case report of DPLD in chronic arsenicosis has been reported till date. PMID:27625453

  15. Effect of background parenchymal enhancement on breast cancer detection with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Telegrafo, M; Rella, L; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G; Moschetta, M

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) may influence the sensitivity of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging in breast cancer detection. A total of 180 consecutive women with 194 breast cancers underwent MR imaging examination. Women were assigned to two different groups depending on the degree of BPE. Group 1 consisted of women with minimal or mild BPE and group 2 of women with moderate or marked BPE. The distributions of histotypes of tumors within the two groups were compared using the χ(2) test. Difference in sensitivities of DCE-MR imaging for tumor detection between the two groups was searched for using the Student t-test. No differences in terms of distributions of histotypes of tumors between the two groups of women were found (P=0.5). The 11% difference in sensitivity of DCE-MR imaging for tumor detection between group 1 (91/92; 99%; 95% CI: 94-100%) and group 2 (90/102; 88%; 95% CI: 80-94%) was statistically significant (P=0.0058). The sensitivity of DCE-MR imaging is significantly lower in women with moderate and marked BPE as compared with women with minimal and mild BPE regardless of cancer histotype. BPE could represent a limitation for breast MR imaging interpretation and should be indicated in MR imaging reports. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain Parenchymal Fraction: A Relatively Simple MRI Measure to Clinically Distinguish ALS Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Venkateswaran; Pioro, Erik P.

    2015-01-01

    Even though neuroimaging and clinical studies indicate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) manifests with distinct clinical phenotypes, no objective test exists to assess upper motor degeneration in ALS. There is great interest in identifying biomarkers of ALS to allow earlier diagnosis and to recognize disease subtypes. Current quantitative neuroimaging techniques such as T2 relaxometry and diffusion tensor imaging are time-consuming to use in clinical settings due to extensive postprocessing requirements. Therefore, we aimed to study the potential role of brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) as a relatively simple quantitative measure for distinguishing ALS phenotypes. T1-weighted MR images of brain were obtained in 15 neurological controls and 88 ALS patients categorized into 4 distinct clinical phenotypes, upper motor neuron- (UMN-) predominant ALS patients with/without corticospinal tract (CST) hyperintensity on T2/PD-weighted images, classic ALS, and ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). BPF was calculated using intracranial grey matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid volumes obtained in control and ALS subgroups using SPM8 software. Only ALS-FTD patients had significant reduction in BPF when compared to controls and nondemented ALS patients. Correlation of clinical measures such as disease duration with BPF further supports the view that the BPF could be a potential biomarker for clinical diagnosis of ALS-FTD patients. PMID:26783524

  17. Early effects of fluoro-edenite: correlation between IL-18 serum levels and pleural and parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Matera, Serena; Massimino, Nicoletta; Cannizzaro, Emanuele; Musumeci, Andrea; Migliore, Marcello; Fenga, Concettina; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-12-01

    Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a natural mineral asbestos-like fibrous species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. In order to clarify potential involvement of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of FE-induced chest abnormalities, we analyzed IL-18 serum levels in FE-exposed workers (FEEW) and correlated them with pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. A total of 21 FEEWs, residing in Biancavilla for >30 years, with a working seniority of 17 ± 6.1 years were examined. High-resolution computed tomography scans revealed low grade of fibrosis in 8 (38%) FEEWs, and pleural plaques (PPs) in 13 (62%) FEEWs. The mean IL-18 level was 203.13 ± 90.43 pg/ml. Pearson correlation showed a significant association (p < 0.0001) between IL-18 and PPs and parenchymal abnormality scores. Data suggest a potential role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  18. Transbronchial lung biopsy in patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease without 'idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis pattern' on HRCT scan - Experience from a tertiary care center of North India.

    PubMed

    Sindhwani, Girish; Shirazi, Nadia; Sodhi, Rakhee; Raghuvanshi, Shailendra; Rawat, Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD) are a group of disorders characterized by chest radiological findings of bilateral diffuse shadowing. Lung biopsy is generally required to make an etiological diagnosis of DPLD's. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) is a minimally invasive method to achieve a lung sample which has been found to be a useful diagnostic tool in patients with DPLD. As per American Thoracic Society guidelines for management of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, TBLB is not required in patients who have findings consistent with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) on HRCT scan thorax. Some Indian researchers have evaluated, on a small number of subjects, the role of TBLB in patients with DPLD, but they had not excluded patients with 'IPF pattern'. This study was planned to assess TBLB in patients with DPLD after excluding patients with 'IPF pattern'. A prospective non-randomized study on 49 patients with DPLD without a characteristic 'IPF pattern' were subjected to TBLB. The overall diagnostic yield of TBLB was 85.7%. Non-specific interstitial pneumonitis, tuberculosis and sarcoidosis were the most common histology patterns found (22.4, 18.4 and 16.3%, respectively). Procedure-related mortality was nil. Iatrogenic pneumothorax occurred in five patients (10.2%). Minor complications included hemorrhage and transient hypoxia. TBLB is a safe and effective tool in the diagnosis of DPLD.

  19. Mammographic parenchymal texture as an imaging marker of hormonal activity: a comparative study between pre- and post-menopausal women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daye, Dania; Bobo, Ezra; Baumann, Bethany; Ioannou, Antonios; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

    2011-03-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture patterns have been shown to be related to breast cancer risk. Yet, little is known about the biological basis underlying this association. Here, we investigate the potential of mammographic parenchymal texture patterns as an inherent phenotypic imaging marker of endogenous hormonal exposure of the breast tissue. Digital mammographic (DM) images in the cranio-caudal (CC) view of the unaffected breast from 138 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Menopause status was used as a surrogate marker of endogenous hormonal activity. Retroareolar 2.5cm2 ROIs were segmented from the post-processed DM images using an automated algorithm. Parenchymal texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, grey-level spatial correlation, and fractal dimension were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance in distinguishing between 72 pre- and 66 post-menopausal women. Logistic regression was performed to assess the independent effect of each texture feature in predicting menopause status. ROC analysis showed that texture features have inherent capacity to distinguish between pre- and post-menopausal statuses (AUC>0.5, p<0.05). Logistic regression including all texture features yielded an ROC curve with an AUC of 0.76. Addition of age at menarche, ethnicity, contraception use and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) use lead to a modest model improvement (AUC=0.78) while texture features maintained significant contribution (p<0.05). The observed differences in parenchymal texture features between pre- and post- menopausal women suggest that mammographic texture can potentially serve as a surrogate imaging marker of endogenous hormonal activity.

  20. Impact of ventilation frequency and parenchymal stiffness on flow and pressure distribution in a canine lung model.

    PubMed

    Amini, Reza; Kaczka, David W

    2013-12-01

    To determine the impact of ventilation frequency, lung volume, and parenchymal stiffness on ventilation distribution, we developed an anatomically-based computational model of the canine lung. Each lobe of the model consists of an asymmetric branching airway network subtended by terminal, viscoelastic acinar units. The model allows for empiric dependencies of airway segment dimensions and parenchymal stiffness on transpulmonary pressure. We simulated the effects of lung volume and parenchymal recoil on global lung impedance and ventilation distribution from 0.1 to 100 Hz, with mean transpulmonary pressures from 5 to 25 cm H2O. With increasing lung volume, the distribution of acinar flows narrowed and became more synchronous for frequencies below resonance. At higher frequencies, large variations in acinar flow were observed. Maximum acinar flow occurred at first antiresonance frequency, where lung impedance achieved a local maximum. The distribution of acinar pressures became very heterogeneous and amplified relative to tracheal pressure at the resonant frequency. These data demonstrate the important interaction between frequency and lung tissue stiffness on the distribution of acinar flows and pressures. These simulations provide useful information for the optimization of frequency, lung volume, and mean airway pressure during conventional ventilation or high frequency oscillation (HFOV). Moreover our model indicates that an optimal HFOV bandwidth exists between the resonant and antiresonant frequencies, for which interregional gas mixing is maximized.

  1. IMPACT OF VENTILATION FREQUENCY AND PARENCHYMAL STIFFNESS ON FLOW AND PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A CANINE LUNG MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Reza; Kaczka, David W.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of ventilation frequency, lung volume, and parenchymal stiffness on ventilation distribution, we developed an anatomically-based computational model of the canine lung. Each lobe of the model consists of an asymmetric branching airway network subtended by terminal, viscoelastic acinar units. The model allows for empiric dependencies of airway segment dimensions and parenchymal stiffness on transpulmonary pressure. We simulated the effects of lung volume and parenchymal recoil on global lung impedance and ventilation distribution from 0.1 to 100 Hz, with mean transpulmonary pressures from 5 to 25 cmH2O. With increasing lung volume, the distribution of acinar flows narrowed and became more synchronous for frequencies below resonance. At higher frequencies, large variations in acinar flow were observed. Maximum acinar flow occurred at first antiresonance frequency, where lung impedance achieved a local maximum. The distribution of acinar pressures became very heterogeneous and amplified relative to tracheal pressure at the resonant frequency. These data demonstrate the important interaction between frequency and lung tissue stiffness on the distribution of acinar flows and pressures. These simulations provide useful information for the optimization of frequency, lung volume, and mean airway pressure during conventional ventilation or high frequency oscillation (HFOV). Moreover our model indicates that an optimal HFOV bandwidth exists between the resonant and antiresonant frequencies, for which interregional gas mixing is maximized. PMID:23872936

  2. Liver transplantation in man: morphometric analysis of the parenchymal alterations following cold ischaemia and warm ischaemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    VIZZOTTO, LAURA; VERTEMATI, MAURIZIO; DEGNA, CARLO TOMMASINI; ASENI, PAOLO

    2001-01-01

    Ischaemia and reperfusion phases represent critical events during liver transplantation. The purpose of this study was to describe morphological alterations of both vascular and parenchymal compartments after ischaemia and reperfusion and to evaluate the possible relationship between morphometric parameters and biochemical/clinical data. Three needle biopsies were drawn from 20 patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. The first biopsy was taken before flushing with preservation solution, and the second and the third to evaluate respectively the effects of cold ischaemia and of warm ischaemia/reperfusion. Biopsies were examined by an image analyser and morphometric parameters related to the liver parenchyma were evaluated. At the second biopsy we observed a decrease of the endothelium volume fraction while the same parameter referred to the sinusoidal lumen achieved a peak value. The hepatocytes showed a lower surface parenchymal/vascular sides ratio. This parameter was reversed at the end of the reperfusion phase; furthermore the third biopsy revealed endothelial swelling and a decreased volume fraction of the sinusoidal lumen. The results quantify the damage to the sinusoidal bed which, as already known, is one of the main targets of cold ischaemia; warm ischaemia and reperfusion accentuate endothelial damage. The end of transplantation is characterised by damage chiefly to parenchymal cells. Hepatocytes show a rearrangement of their surface sides, probably related to the alterations of the sinusoidal bed. In addition, the fluctuations of morphometric parameters during ischaemia/reperfusion correlate positively with biochemical data and clinical course of the patients. PMID:11430699

  3. Observational Constraints on the Age-Metallicity Relation from White Dwarf-Main Sequence Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Anguiano, B.; García-Berro, E.; Freeman, K. C.; Cojocaru, R.; Manser, C. J.; Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X.-W.

    2017-03-01

    The age-metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational property to understand how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet a consensus on the observed properties of the AMR for the solar neighbourhood. This is due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining precise stellar ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign to provide the much needed observational AMR by using white dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries. White dwarfs are natural clocks and can be used to derive accurate ages. Metallicities can be obtained from the main sequence companions. Since white dwarfs and main sequence stars in these binary systems are coeval, these binaries provide an unique opportunity to observationally determine in a robust way the AMR. Here we present the AMR derived from the analysis of a sample of 23 WDMS binaries.

  4. HAADF imaging of the omega (ω) phase in a gum metal-related alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, R. P.; Ophus, C.; Ozdol, B.; Radmilovic, V. R.; Minor, A. M.; Morris, J. W.

    2014-09-01

    Nanosized precipitates have been observed in a Nb-lean gum metal-related alloy, Ti-20.0Nb-0.6Ta-1.7Zr-1.1O at.% (Ti-31.9Nb-2.0Ta-2.7Zr-0.3O wt.%) using probe-corrected high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high-angle annular dark-field detector (HAADF). This characterization yields three distinct atomic motifs and STEM multislice simulations are semi-quantitatively used to verify that each motif can be attributed to the widely observed "athermal" omega phase. However, the presence of chemical ordering cannot be unambiguously ruled out in this system. Data presented here, demonstrate the complexity of interpreting HAADF images of multiphase, multicomponent alloys when complementary experimental data are unavailable.

  5. Acute Kidney Injury after Partial Nephrectomy: Role of Parenchymal Mass Reduction and Ischemia and Impact on Subsequent Functional Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiling; Zhao, Juping; Dong, Wen; Remer, Eric; Li, Jianbo; Demirjian, Sevag; Zabell, Joseph; Campbell, Steven C

    2016-04-01

    Acute increase of serum creatinine (SCr) after partial nephrectomy (PN) is primarily due to parenchymal mass reduction or ischemia; however, only ischemia can impact subsequent functional recovery. We evaluate etiologies of acute kidney injury (AKI) after PN and their prognostic significance. From 2007-2014, 83 solitary kidneys managed with PN had necessary studies for detailed analysis of function and parenchymal mass before/after surgery. AKI was classified by Risk/Injury/Failure/Loss/Endstage classification and defined by either standard criteria (comparison to preoperative SCr) or proposed criteria (comparison to projected postoperative SCr based on parenchymal mass reduction). Subsequent recovery was defined as percent function preserved/percent mass saved. PN. Predictive factors for AKI were evaluated by logistic regression. Relationship between AKI grade and subsequent functional recovery was assessed by linear regression. Median duration warm ischemia (n=39) was 20 min and hypothermia (n=44) was 29 min. Median parenchymal mass reduction was 11%. AKI occurred in 45 patients based on standard criteria and 38 based on proposed criteria, and reflected injury/failure (grade = 2/3) in 23 and 16 patients, respectively. On multivariable analysis, only ischemia time associated with AKI occurrence (p=0.016). Based on the proposed criteria, median recovery from ischemia was 99% in patients without AKI and 95%/90%/88% for patients with grades 1/2/3 AKI, respectively. The coefficient for association between AKI grade based on proposed criteria and subsequent functional recovery was -4.168 (p=0.018). Main limitation is limited patient cohort. Parenchymal mass reduction and ischemia both contribute to acute changes in SCr after PN. Classification of AKI by proposed criteria significantly associates with subsequent functional recovery. However, more robust numbers will be needed to further assess the merits of the proposed criteria. While AKI is associated with suboptimal

  6. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Tuero, Iskra; Palma, Sandra; Cabeza, Franco; Saleemi, Sarah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Mayta, Holger; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection. Methodology Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC), categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control) individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg) stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg. Principal Findings Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13) cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs) frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls. Conclusions/Significance T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a

  7. A Clinicopathologic Correlation of Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns and Associated Risk Factors for Human Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Kirby I.; Kuhns, James G.; Buchanan, Jerry B.; Dwyer, Patricia A.; Heuser, Louis F.; O'Connor, Carol A.; Gray, Laman A.; Polk, Hiram C.

    1982-01-01

    The five-year screening experience for 10,131 asymptomatic women evaluated at the Louisville Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (LBCDDP) disclosed 144 breast carcinomas in 1,209 patients (12%) aged 35 to 74 years in whom 904 biopsies and 305 aspirations were performed. This study included 44,711 high-quality xeromammograms (XM) prospectively classified by the modified Wolfe mammographic parenchymal patterns into low-risk (N1, P1) versus high-risk (P2, DY) groups, with expansion of the P2 cohort into three additional categories. Using BMDP computer-program analysis, each XM pattern was collated with 21 nonneoplastic and 18 malignant pathologic variables and commonly associated risk factors. A separate analysis of epithelial proliferative and nonproliferative fibrocystic disease of the breast (FCDB) was performed. The histopathology for each biopsy, with distinction of FCDB and neoplasms, was analyzed with regard to the statistical probability of influencing the XM pattern. An average of 1.05 biopsies per patient were performed in women with findings suggestive of carcinoma at clinical and/or XM examinations. An equal distribution of the N1, P1, and P2 DYXM patterns was observed in the 10,131 screenees. Of 8.5% of the screened population having biopsies, 623 were observed to have nonproliferative FCDB and 137, proliferative FCDB. For women 50 years of age or younger, these pathologic variables were seen more frequently in the P2 DY patterns (p < 0.001), whereas no difference in XM pattern distribution was observed for the screenee 50 years of age or older for proliferative FCDB (p = 0.65). Sixteen percent of the biopsied/aspirated lesions were carcinomas, yielding a biopsy/cancer ratio of 6.25:1. These in situ and invasive neoplasms were more commonly (p < 0.04) observed in 55% of the P2 (P2f, P2n, P2c) categories, while 64% of all cancers appeared more frequently in the P2 DY subgroup (p <0.001), compared with this pattern in the screened population. An

  8. Reproductive and menstrual factors in relation to mammographic parenchymal patterns among perimenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Gram, I. T.; Funkhouser, E.; Tabar, L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between mammographic patterns and reproductive and menstrual factors was examined in 3640 Norwegian women, aged 40-56 years, participating in the Third Tromsö study conducted in 1986-87. Epidemiological data were obtained from questionnaires. The mammograms were categorised into five groups. This categorisation is based on anatomic-mammographic correlations, following three-dimensional (thick slice technique) histopathologic-mammographic comparisons, rather than simple pattern reading. Patterns 1-3 were combined into a low-risk group and patterns 4 and 5 into a high-risk group for analysis. Women who had more than four children were 90% less likely to have a high-risk pattern than nulliparous women (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.04-0.16) controlling for age, weight, height and menopausal status. Furthermore, those who first gave birth over 34 years of age were more than twice as likely to have a high-risk pattern than those giving birth in their teens (OR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.23-4.56) adjusting for parity. Among post-menopausal women, age at menarche was negatively (P for trend = 0.015) and late age at menopause positively (P for trend = 0.072) related to high-risk patterns. Among premenopausal women, age at menarche was positively related to high-risk patterns (P for trend = 0.001). Also, menopausal status rather than age was associated with high-risk patterns. These findings support the opinion that reproductive and menstrual factors are involved in determining the mammographic parenchymal pattern among perimenopausal women. PMID:7880753

  9. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: correlation with tumour response.

    PubMed

    Preibsch, H; Wanner, L; Bahrs, S D; Wietek, B M; Siegmann-Luz, K C; Oberlecher, E; Hahn, M; Staebler, A; Nikolaou, K; Wiesinger, B

    2016-06-01

    To correlate the decrease in background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and tumour response measured with MRI in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). One hundred and forty-six MRI examinations of 73 patients with 80 biopsy-proven breast cancers who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were retrospectively analysed. All images were reviewed by two blinded readers, who classified BPE into categories (BEC; 1 = minimal, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked) before and after NAC. Histopathological and morphological tumour responses were analysed and compared. The distribution of BEC 1/2/3/4 was 25/46/18/11 % before and 78/20/2/0 % after NAC. On average, BPE decreased by 0.87 BEC. Cohen's kappa showed substantial agreement (k = 0.73-0.77) before and moderate agreement (k = 0.43-0.60) after NAC and moderate agreement (k = 0.62-0.60) concerning the change in BEC. Correlating the change in BPE with tumour response, the average decrease in BEC was 1.3 in cases of complete remission, 0.83 in cases with partial response, 0.85 in cases with stable disease and 0.40 in cases with progressive disease. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the decrease in BEC and tumour response (r = -0.24, p = 0.03). BPE decreased by, on average, 0.87 BEC following NAC for breast cancer. The degree of BPE reduction seemed to correlate with tumour response. • BPE decreases by an average of 0.87 categories under neoadjuvant chemotherapy. • The reduction of BPE following neoadjuvant chemotherapy correlates with the tumour response. • The classification of the BPE shows good agreement among trained readers.

  10. A fully automated system for quantification of background parenchymal enhancement in breast DCE-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ufuk Dalmiş, Mehmet; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Borelli, Cristina; Vreemann, Suzan; Mann, Ritse M.; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2016-03-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) observed in breast dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been identified as an important biomarker associated with risk for developing breast cancer. In this study, we present a fully automated framework for quantification of BPE. We initially segmented fibroglandular tissue (FGT) of the breasts using an improved version of an existing method. Subsequently, we computed BPEabs (volume of the enhancing tissue), BPErf (BPEabs divided by FGT volume) and BPErb (BPEabs divided by breast volume), using different relative enhancement threshold values between 1% and 100%. To evaluate and compare the previous and improved FGT segmentation methods, we used 20 breast DCE-MRI scans and we computed Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) values with respect to manual segmentations. For evaluation of the BPE quantification, we used a dataset of 95 breast DCE-MRI scans. Two radiologists, in individual reading sessions, visually analyzed the dataset and categorized each breast into minimal, mild, moderate and marked BPE. To measure the correlation between automated BPE values to the radiologists' assessments, we converted these values into ordinal categories and we used Spearman's rho as a measure of correlation. According to our results, the new segmentation method obtained an average DSC of 0.81 0.09, which was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to the previous method (0.76 0.10). The highest correlation values between automated BPE categories and radiologists' assessments were obtained with the BPErf measurement (r=0.55, r=0.49, p<0.001 for both), while the correlation between the scores given by the two radiologists was 0.82 (p<0.001). The presented framework can be used to systematically investigate the correlation between BPE and risk in large screening cohorts.

  11. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prediction of Parenchymal Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke After Reperfusion Therapy

    PubMed Central

    R. Knitter, James; Jahan, Reza; Gornbein, Jeffery; Ajani, Zahra; Feng, Lei; Meyer, Brett C.; Schwamm, Lee H.; Yoo, Albert J.; Marshall, Randolph S.; Meyers, Philip M.; Yavagal, Dileep R.; Wintermark, Max; Liebeskind, David S.; Guzy, Judy; Starkman, Sidney; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Patients with acute ischemic stroke are at increased risk of developing parenchymal hemorrhage (PH), particularly in the setting of reperfusion therapies. We have developed a predictive model to examine the risk of PH using combined magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion parameters, including cerebral blood volume (CBV), apparent diffusion coefficient, and microvascular permeability (K2). Methods— Voxel-based values of CBV, K2, and apparent diffusion coefficient from the ischemic core were obtained using pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging data from patients enrolled in the MR RESCUE clinical trial (Mechanical Retrieval and Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy). The associations between PH and extreme values of imaging parameters were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal parameter(s) and threshold for predicting PH. Results— In 83 patients included in this analysis, 20 developed PH. Univariate analysis showed significantly lower 10th percentile CBV and 10th percentile apparent diffusion coefficient values and significantly higher 90th percentile K2 values within the infarction core of patients with PH. Using classification tree analysis, the 10th percentile CBV at threshold of 0.47 and 90th percentile K2 at threshold of 0.28 resulted in overall predictive accuracy of 88.7%, sensitivity of 90.0%, and specificity of 87.3%, which was superior to any individual or combination of other classifiers. Conclusions— Our results suggest that combined 10th percentile CBV and 90th percentile K2 is an independent predictor of PH in patients with acute ischemic stroke with diagnostic accuracy superior to individual classifiers alone. This approach may allow risk stratification for patients undergoing reperfusion therapies. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00389467. PMID

  12. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prediction of Parenchymal Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke After Reperfusion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nael, Kambiz; Knitter, James R; Jahan, Reza; Gornbein, Jeffery; Ajani, Zahra; Feng, Lei; Meyer, Brett C; Schwamm, Lee H; Yoo, Albert J; Marshall, Randolph S; Meyers, Philip M; Yavagal, Dileep R; Wintermark, Max; Liebeskind, David S; Guzy, Judy; Starkman, Sidney; Saver, Jeffrey L; Kidwell, Chelsea S

    2017-03-01

    Patients with acute ischemic stroke are at increased risk of developing parenchymal hemorrhage (PH), particularly in the setting of reperfusion therapies. We have developed a predictive model to examine the risk of PH using combined magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion parameters, including cerebral blood volume (CBV), apparent diffusion coefficient, and microvascular permeability (K2). Voxel-based values of CBV, K2, and apparent diffusion coefficient from the ischemic core were obtained using pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging data from patients enrolled in the MR RESCUE clinical trial (Mechanical Retrieval and Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy). The associations between PH and extreme values of imaging parameters were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal parameter(s) and threshold for predicting PH. In 83 patients included in this analysis, 20 developed PH. Univariate analysis showed significantly lower 10th percentile CBV and 10th percentile apparent diffusion coefficient values and significantly higher 90th percentile K2 values within the infarction core of patients with PH. Using classification tree analysis, the 10th percentile CBV at threshold of 0.47 and 90th percentile K2 at threshold of 0.28 resulted in overall predictive accuracy of 88.7%, sensitivity of 90.0%, and specificity of 87.3%, which was superior to any individual or combination of other classifiers. Our results suggest that combined 10th percentile CBV and 90th percentile K2 is an independent predictor of PH in patients with acute ischemic stroke with diagnostic accuracy superior to individual classifiers alone. This approach may allow risk stratification for patients undergoing reperfusion therapies. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00389467. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Featured Article: Isolation, characterization, and cultivation of human hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Kegel, Victoria; Zeilinger, Katrin; Hengstler, Jan G; Nüssler, Andreas K; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are considered to be the gold standard for in vitro testing of xenobiotic metabolism and hepatotoxicity. However, PHH cultivation in 2D mono-cultures leads to dedifferentiation and a loss of function. It is well known that hepatic non-parenchymal cells (NPC), such as Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC), and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), play a central role in the maintenance of PHH functions. The aims of the present study were to establish a protocol for the simultaneous isolation of human PHH and NPC from the same tissue specimen and to test their suitability for in vitro co-culture. Human PHH and NPC were isolated from tissue obtained by partial liver resection by a two-step EDTA/collagenase perfusion technique. The obtained cell fractions were purified by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. KC, LEC, and HSC contained in the NPC fraction were separated using specific adherence properties and magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS®). Identified NPC revealed a yield of 1.9 × 106 KC, 2.7 × 105 LEC and 4.7 × 105 HSC per gram liver tissue, showing viabilities >90%. Characterization of these NPC showed that all populations went through an activation process, which influenced the cell fate. The activation of KC strongly depended on the tissue quality and donor anamnesis. KC became activated in culture in association with a loss of viability within 4–5 days. LEC lost specific features during culture, while HSC went through a transformation process into myofibroblasts. The testing of different culture conditions for HSC demonstrated that they can attenuate, but not prevent dedifferentiation in vitro. In conclusion, the method described allows the isolation and separation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from the same donor. PMID:25394621

  14. A comparison of deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak plot in parenchymal renal uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Al-Shakhrah, Issa A

    2012-07-01

    Deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak (R-P) plot are two of the most commonly used methods for analyzing dynamic radionuclide renography. Both methods allow estimation of absolute and relative renal uptake of radiopharmaceutical and of its rate of transit through the kidney. Seventeen patients (32 kidneys) were referred for further evaluation by renal scanning. All patients were positioned supine with their backs to the scintillation gamma camera, so that the kidneys and the heart are both in the field of view. Approximately 5-7 mCi of (99m)Tc-DTPA (diethylinetriamine penta-acetic acid) in about 0.5 ml of saline is injected intravenously and sequential 20 s frames were acquired, the study on each patient lasts for approximately 20 min. The time-activity curves of the parenchymal region of interest of each kidney, as well as the heart were obtained for analysis. The data were then analyzed with deconvolution and the R-P plot. A strong positive association (n = 32; r = 0.83; R (2) = 0.68) was found between the values that obtained by applying the two methods. Bland-Altman statistical analysis demonstrated that ninety seven percent of the values in the study (31 cases from 32 cases, 97% of the cases) were within limits of agreement (mean ± 1.96 standard deviation). We believe that R-P analysis method is expected to be more reproducible than iterative deconvolution method, because the deconvolution technique (the iterative method) relies heavily on the accuracy of the first point analyzed, as any errors are carried forward into the calculations of all the subsequent points, whereas R-P technique is based on an initial analysis of the data by means of the R-P plot, and it can be considered as an alternative technique to find and calculate the renal uptake rate.

  15. Parameter optimization of parenchymal texture analysis for prediction of false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology to obtain optimal parameter values for a locally-adaptive texture analysis algorithm that extracts mammographic texture features representative of breast parenchymal complexity for predicting falsepositive (FP) recalls from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. The algorithm has two components: (1) adaptive selection of localized regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) Haralick texture feature extraction via Gray- Level Co-Occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The following parameters were systematically varied: mammographic views used, upper limit of the ROI window size used for adaptive ROI selection, GLCM distance offsets, and gray levels (binning) used for feature extraction. Each iteration per parameter set had logistic regression with stepwise feature selection performed on a clinical screening cohort of 474 non-recalled women and 68 FP recalled women; FP recall prediction was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and associations between the extracted features and FP recall were assessed via odds ratios (OR). A default instance of mediolateral (MLO) view, upper ROI size limit of 143.36 mm (2048 pixels2), GLCM distance offset combination range of 0.07 to 0.84 mm (1 to 12 pixels) and 16 GLCM gray levels was set. The highest ROC performance value of AUC=0.77 [95% confidence intervals: 0.71-0.83] was obtained at three specific instances: the default instance, upper ROI window equal to 17.92 mm (256 pixels2), and gray levels set to 128. The texture feature of sum average was chosen as a statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor and associated with higher odds of FP recall for 12 out of 14 total instances.

  16. Renal parenchymal histopathology predicts life-threatening chronic kidney disease as a result of radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Sejima, Takehiro; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency plays an important role in the decision-making process regarding renal surgery options. Furthermore, the prediction of both postoperative renal insufficiency and postoperative cardiovascular disease occurrence, which is suggested to be an adverse consequence caused by renal insufficiency, contributes to the preoperative policy decision as well as the precise informed consent for a renal cell carcinoma patient. Preoperative nomograms for the prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, calculated using patient backgrounds, are advocated. The use of these nomograms together with other types of nomograms predicting oncological outcome is beneficial. Post-radical nephrectomy attending physicians can predict renal insufficiency based on the normal renal parenchymal pathology in addition to preoperative patient characteristics. It is suggested that a high level of global glomerulosclerosis in nephrectomized normal renal parenchyma is closely associated with severe renal insufficiency. Some studies showed that post-radical nephrectomy severe renal insufficiency might have an association with increased mortality as a result of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, such pathophysiology should be recognized as life-threatening, surgically-related chronic kidney disease. On the contrary, the investigation of the prediction of mild post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, which is not related to adverse consequences in the postoperative long-term period, is also promising because the prediction of mild renal insufficiency might be the basis for the substitution of radical nephrectomy for nephron-sparing surgery in technically difficult or compromised cases. The deterioration of quality of life caused by post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency should be investigated in conjunction with life-threatening matters.

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Parenchymal Brain Development and Growth in the Healthy Fetus.

    PubMed

    Andescavage, Nickie N; DuPlessis, Adre; McCarter, Robert; Vezina, Gilbert; Robertson, Richard; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to characterize absolute cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) development, as well as its relative development to fetal brain parenchyma in the healthy human fetus. We created three-dimensional high-resolution reconstructions of the developing brain for healthy fetuses between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation, segmented the parenchymal and CSF spaces, and calculated the volumes for the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles; extra-axial CSF space; and the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. From these data, we constructed normograms of the resulting volumes according to gestational age and described the relative development of CSF to fetal brain parenchyma. Each CSF space demonstrated major increases in volumetric growth during the second half of gestation: third ventricle (23-fold), extra-axial CSF (11-fold), fourth ventricle (8-fold), and lateral ventricle (2-fold). Total CSF volume was related to total brain volume (p < 0.01), as was lateral ventricle to cerebral volume (p < 0.01); however, the fourth ventricle was not related to cerebellar or brainstem volume (p = 0.18-0.19). Abnormalities of the CSF spaces are the most common anomalies of neurologic development detected on fetal screening using neurosonography. Normative values of absolute CSF volume, as well as relative growth in comparison to intracranial parenchyma, provide valuable insight into normal fetal neurodevelopment. These data may provide important biomarkers of early deviations from normal growth, better distinguish between benign variants and early disease, and serve as reference standards for postnatal growth and development in the premature infant. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Carrie B.; Conners, Amy Lynn; Vachon, Celine M.; O’Connor, Michael K.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bartley, Adam C.; Rhodes, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives The level of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake within normal fibroglandular tissue on molecular breast imaging (MBI), termed background parenchymal uptake (BPU), has been anecdotally observed to fluctuate with menstrual cycle. Our objective was to assess the impact of menstrual cycle phase on BPU appearance. Materials and Methods Premenopausal volunteers who reported regular menstrual cycles and no exogenous hormone use were recruited to undergo serial MBI exams during the follicular and luteal phase. A study radiologist, blinded to cycle phase, categorized BPU as either photopenic, minimal-mild, moderate, or marked. Change in BPU with cycle phase was determined as well as correlations of BPU with mammographic density and hormone levels. Results Among 42 analyzable participants, high BPU (moderate or marked) was observed more often in luteal phase compared to follicular (p = 0.016). BPU did not change with phase in 30 of 42 (71%) and increased in the luteal phase compared to follicular in 12 (29%). High BPU was more frequent in dense breasts compared to non-dense breasts at both the luteal phase (58% [15/26] vs. 13% [2/16], p= 0.004) and follicular phase (35% [9/26] vs. 6% [1/16], p=0.061). Spearman’s correlation coefficients did not show any correlation of BPU with hormone levels measured at either cycle phase, and suggested a weak correlation between change in BPU and changes in estrone and estradiol between phases. Conclusion We observed variable effects of menstrual cycle on BPU among our cohort of premenopausal women, however, when high BPU was observed, it was most frequently seen during the luteal phase compared to follicular phase, and in women with dense breasts compared to non-dense breasts. PMID:26112057

  19. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-05-02

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m(2)) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend < 0.05 for all) after adjustment for body weight. Higher renal-sinus-fat was associated with lower estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate and with higher microalbuminuria and %HbA1C beyond body weight. After 18 months of intervention, overall renal-sinus-fat (-9%; p < 0.05 vs. baseline) but not %renal-parenchymal-fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p < 0.05). In a model adjusted for age, sex, and visceral-adipose-tissue changes, 18 months reduction in renal-sinus-fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p < 0.05 for all) and with decreased cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), triglycerides/HDL-c (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), insulin (β = 0.12; p = 0.05) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (β = 0.24; p = 0.001), but not with improved renal function parameters or blood pressure. Decreased intake of sodium was associated with a reduction in

  20. Transbronchial Cryobiopsy in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease: Retrospective Analysis of 74 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ussavarungsi, Kamonpun; Kern, Ryan M; Roden, Anja C; Ryu, Jay H; Edell, Eric S

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostic evaluation of patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) is best achieved by a multidisciplinary team correlating clinical, radiological, and pathologic features. Surgical lung biopsy remains the gold standard for histopathologic diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Emerging data suggest an increasing role for transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBC) in DPLD evaluation. We describe our experience with TBC in patients with DPLD. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with radiographic features of DPLD who underwent TBC at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota from June 2013 to September 2015. Seventy-four patients (33 women [45%]) with a mean age of 63 years (SD, 13.8) were included. The mean maximal diameter of the samples was 9.2 mm (range, 2-20 mm [SD, 3.9]). The median number of samples per procedure was three (range, one to seven). Diagnostic yield was 51% (38 of 74 specimens). The most frequent histopathologic patterns were granulomatous inflammation (12 patients) and organizing pneumonia (OP) (11 patients), resulting in the final diagnoses of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (six patients), cryptogenic OP (six patients), connective tissue disease-associated OP (three patients), drug toxicity (three patients), infection-related OP (two patients), sarcoidosis (two patients), and aspiration (one patient). Other histopathologic patterns included respiratory bronchiolitis (three patients), acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (two patients), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (1 patient), diffuse alveolar damage (one patient), pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (one patient), amyloidosis (one patient), eosinophilic pneumonia (one patient), necrotizing vasculitis (one patient), bronchiolitis with food particles (one patient), and malignancy (three patients). Pneumothorax developed in one patient (1.4%), and bleeding occurred in 16 patients (22%). Our single-center cohort demonstrated a 51% diagnostic yield from TBC; the

  1. The sitting position during neurosurgical procedures does not influence serum biomarkers of pulmonary parenchymal injury.

    PubMed

    Duda, Izabela; Grzybowska, Konstancja; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2012-12-05

    affect the concentration of plasma biomarkers of pulmonary parenchymal injury such as SP-D and CC16.

  2. Three-Dimensional Quantitative Validation of Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Background Parenchymal Enhancement Assessments.

    PubMed

    Ha, Richard; Mema, Eralda; Guo, Xiaotao; Mango, Victoria; Desperito, Elise; Ha, Jason; Wynn, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and its clinical significance as a biomarker of breast cancer risk has been proposed based on qualitative studies. Previous BPE quantification studies lack appropriate correlation with BPE qualitative assessments. The purpose of this study is to validate our three-dimensional BPE quantification method with standardized BPE qualitative cases. An Institutional Review Board-approved study reviewed 500 consecutive magnetic resonance imaging cases (from January 2013-December 2014) using a strict inclusion criteria and 120 cases that best represented each of the BPE qualitative categories (minimal or mild or moderate or marked) were selected. Blinded to the qualitative data, fibroglandular tissue contours of precontrast and postcontrast images were delineated using an in-house, proprietary segmentation algorithm. Metrics of BPE were calculated including %BPE ([ratio of BPE volume to fibroglandular tissue volume] × 100) at multiple threshold levels to determine the optimal cutoff point for BPE quantification that best correlated with the reference BPE qualitative cases. The highest positive correlation was present at ×1.5 precontrast average signal intensity threshold level (r = 0.84, P < 0.001). At this level, the BPE qualitative assessment of minimal, mild, moderate, and marked correlated with the mean quantitative %BPE of 14.1% (95% CI: 10.9-17.2), 26.1% (95% CI: 22.8-29.3), 45.9% (95% CI: 40.2-51.7), and 74.0% (95% CI: 68.6-79.5), respectively. A one-way analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis showed that at ×1.5 precontrast average signal intensity level, the quantitative %BPE measurements best differentiated the four reference BPE qualitative groups (F [3,117] = 106.8, P < 0.001). Our three-dimensional BPE quantification methodology was validated using the reference BPE qualitative cases and could become an invaluable clinical tool to more accurately assess breast cancer risk and to

  3. Fundamental metallicity relation at z>3: Are galaxies gas-regulated systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, Masato

    2014-01-01

    This proposal is a resubmission of an accepted proposal S13B-088 in which we got no data due to bad weather. Star-forming galaxies in the local Universe are known to lie on a tight surface in the stellar mass (M_*)-star formation rate (SFR)-metallicity (Z) space, with a strikingly small scatter of 0.05 dex. Studies of the Z(M_*,SFR) have suggested it may be constant to z~2.5 even as the SFR at given mass increases by a factor of twenty --- leading to the idea of a "fundamental metallicity relation'' (FMR). There is some observational evidence for a change in behavior at z>3. Theoretically, a simple model of star-formation in galaxies naturally reproduces the form and constancy of the FMR. However, this gas-regulated system may break down at very high redshifts because of the convergence of a number of timescales. Here we propose a Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy for ~50 galaxies at 33 across a wide range of M_* and SFR yet being explored. Using metallicities and SFRs from the emission lines, and M_* from SED fitting, we will investigate the existence and form of Z(M_*,SFR) at z>3 in detail and thereby gain new insights into the flow of gas into and out of galaxies at high redshifts.

  4. A new Phi_31-period-metallicity relation for RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Vazquez, C. E.; Monelli, M.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Gallart, C.; Bernard, E. J.; Fiorentino, G.; Dall'Ora, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new calibration of the 31-period-metallicity relation based on cluster instead of field RR Lyrae stars. The novel approach relies on mean Fourier decomposition parameters of their optical light curves, mean periods and metal abundances rooted on a solid metallicity scale. The key advantage when compared with similar relations in the literature is that individual cluster samples cover a broad range in periods, and therefore the opportunity to fully characterize, at fixed metal content, their pulsational behaviour. To accomplish this goal, we used data for seven globular clusters hosting at least 20 RR Lyrae stars and covering a broad range in metallicity (from -2.3 to -1.1 dex). To further extend the metallicity range, we also included field RR Lyrae stars with a good sampling of the light curve (ASAS, Catalina), and for which iron measurements based on high-resolution spectra are available. We applied the new calibration to 167 fundamental RR Lyrae in the Sculptor dSph and we found a considerable spread in metallicity, thus confirming the fast early chemical evolution of this galaxy (Martinez-Vazquez et al. 2015).

  5. Local Stellar Kinematics from RAVE Data: IV. Solar Neighbourhood Age-Metallicity Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Ş.; Ak, S.; Bilir, S.; Karaali, S.; Ak, T.; Bostancı, Z. F.; Coşkunoğlu, B.

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the age-metallicity relation using a sample of 5691 F- and G-type dwarfs from RAdial Velocity Experiment Data Release 3 (RAVE DR3) by applying several constraints. (i) We selected stars with surface gravities log g(cm s-2) ≥ 3.8 and effective temperatures in the 5310 ≤ T_{eff}(K) ≤ 7300 range and obtained a dwarf sample. (ii) We plotted the dwarfs in metallicity sub-samples in the T_{eff}-(J-K_s)_0 plane to compare with the corresponding data of González Hernández & Bonifacio (2009) and identified the ones in agreement. (iii) We fitted the reduced dwarf sample obtained from constraints (i) and (ii) to the Padova isochrones and re-identified those which occupy the plane defined by isochrones with ages t ≤ 13 Gyr. (iv) Finally, we omitted dwarfs with total velocity errors larger than 10.63 km s-1. We estimated the ages using the Bayesian procedure of Jørgensen & Lindegren (2005). The largest age-metallicity slope was found for early F-type dwarfs. We found steeper slopes when we plotted the data as a function of spectral type rather than Galactic population. We noticed a substantial scatter in metallicity distribution at all ages. The metal-rich old dwarfs turned out to be G-type stars which can be interpreted as they migrated from the inner disc or bulge.

  6. The dependence of the mass-metallicity relation on large-scale environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Po-Feng; Zahid, H. Jabran; Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.

    2017-03-01

    We examine the relation between gas-phase oxygen abundance and stellar mass - the MZ relation - as a function of the large-scale galaxy environment parametrized by the local density. The dependence of the MZ relation on the environment is small. The metallicity where the MZ relation saturates and the slope of the MZ relation are both independent of the local density. The impact of the large-scale environment is completely parametrized by the anticorrelation between local density and the turnover stellar mass where the MZ relation begins to saturate. Analytical modelling suggests that the anticorrelation between the local density and turnover stellar mass is a consequence of a variation in the gas content of star-forming galaxies. Across ∼1 order of magnitude in local density, the gas content at a fixed stellar mass varies by ∼5 per cent. Variation of the specific star formation rate with the environment is consistent with this interpretation. At a fixed stellar mass, galaxies in low-density environments have lower metallicities because they are slightly more gas-rich than galaxies in high-density environments. Modelling the shape of the mass-metallicity relation thus provides an indirect means to probe subtle variations in the gas content of star-forming galaxies.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF GALAXY SURFACE BRIGHTNESS ON THE MASS–METALLICITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Po-Feng; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Tully, R. Brent; Neill, J. D.

    2015-09-10

    We study the effect of surface brightness on the mass–metallicity relation using nearby galaxies whose gas content and metallicity profiles are available. Previous studies using fiber spectra indicated that lower surface brightness galaxies have systematically lower metallicities for their stellar mass, but the results were uncertain because of aperture effects. With stellar masses and surface brightnesses measured at Wide-field Infrared Explorer W1 and W2 bands, we re-investigate the surface brightness dependence with spatially resolved metallicity profiles and find similar results. We further demonstrate that the systematical difference cannot be explained by the gas content of galaxies. For two galaxies with similar stellar and gas masses, the one with lower surface brightness tends to have a lower metallicity. Using chemical evolution models, we investigate the inflow and outflow properties of galaxies of different masses and surface brightnesses. We find that, on average, high mass galaxies have lower inflow and outflow rates relative to the star formation rate. On the other hand, galaxies with a lower surface brightness experience stronger inflow than galaxies with a higher surface brightness of a similar mass. The surface brightness effect is more significant for low-mass galaxies. We discuss implications on the different inflow properties between low and high surface brightness galaxies, including star formation efficiency, environment, and mass assembly history.

  8. Use of C-Arm Cone Beam CT During Hepatic Radioembolization: Protocol Optimization for Extrahepatic Shunting and Parenchymal Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Hoven, Andor F. van den Prince, Jip F.; Keizer, Bart de; Vonken, Evert-Jan P. A.; Bruijnen, Rutger C. G.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo optimize a C-arm computed tomography (CT) protocol for radioembolization (RE), specifically for extrahepatic shunting and parenchymal enhancement.Materials and MethodsA prospective development study was performed per IDEAL recommendations. A literature-based protocol was applied in patients with unresectable and chemorefractory liver malignancies undergoing an angiography before radioembolization. Contrast and scan settings were adjusted stepwise and repeatedly reviewed in a consensus meeting. Afterwards, two independent raters analyzed all scans. A third rater evaluated the SPECT/CT scans as a reference standard for extrahepatic shunting and lack of target segment perfusion.ResultsFifty scans were obtained in 29 procedures. The first protocol, using a 6 s delay and 10 s scan, showed insufficient parenchymal enhancement. In the second protocol, the delay was determined by timing parenchymal enhancement on DSA power injection (median 8 s, range 4–10 s): enhancement improved, but breathing artifacts increased (from 0 to 27 %). Since the third protocol with a 5 s scan decremented subjective image quality, the second protocol was deemed optimal. Median CNR (range) was 1.7 (0.6–3.2), 2.2 (−1.4–4.0), and 2.1 (−0.3–3.0) for protocol 1, 2, and 3 (p = 0.80). Delineation of perfused segments was possible in 57, 73, and 44 % of scans (p = 0.13). In all C-arm CTs combined, the negative predictive value was 95 % for extrahepatic shunting and 83 % for lack of target segment perfusion.ConclusionAn optimized C-arm CT protocol was developed that can be used to detect extrahepatic shunts and non-perfusion of target segments during RE.

  9. Predictive Accuracy of Urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) for renal parenchymal involvement in Children with Acute Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Kambiz; Esteghamati, Maryam; Borzoo, Sara; Parvaneh, Erfan; Borzoo, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most prevalent infections in children and infants. Early and accurate detection of renal parenchymal involvement in UTI is necessary for decision making and determining treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive accuracy of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for renal parenchymal involvement in children with acute pyelonephritis. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 on children who had been diagnosed with UTI. Children who were admitted to Koodakan Hospital in Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan Province, Iran, and whose ages ranged from two months to 14 years were enrolled in the study. Urine samples were taken to conduct urinary NGAL tests, urine cultures, and urinalyses. In addition, some blood samples were collected for the purpose of determining leukocyte count and C-reactive protein (CRP) and to conduct erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) tests. All patients underwent a dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Results Among the participants in the study, 29 were male (32%), and 60 were female (68%). The mean age of the children who participated in the study was 2.99 ± 2.94 years. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase in the urinary NGAL level, an increase in the CRP level, and higher DMSA scan grades (p < 0.001). The cutoff point amounted to > 5 mg/l, having the negative predictive value (NPV) of 76.3%, the specificity of 97.83%, the positive predictive value (PPV) of 96.7%, and the sensitivity of 67.4%. Conclusion Urinary NGAL is not sensitive enough for the prediction of renal parenchymal involvement, but it is a specific marker. PMID:27053998

  10. Nature of the Fatty Acid Synthetase Systems in Parenchymal and Epidermal Cells of Allium porrum L. Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Lessire, Rene; Stumpe, Paul K.

    1983-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis was compared in cell-free extracts of epidermis and parenchyma of Allium porrum L. leaves. Parenchyma extracts had the major fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activity (70-90%) of the whole leaf; palmitic acid was also the major fatty acid synthesized when acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) was the primer, but when acetyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) was employed, C18:0 and C16:0 were synthesized in equal proportion. With the epidermal FAS system when either acetyl-CoA or acetyl-ACP was tested in the presence of labeled malonyl-CoA, palmitic acid was the only product synthesized. Specific activities of the FAS enzyme activities were determined in both tissue extracts. The properties of malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase were examined from the two different tissues. The molecular weights estimated by Sephadex G-200 chromatography were 38,000 for the epidermal enzyme and 45,000 for parenchymal enzyme. The optimal pH was for both enzymes 7.8 to 8.0 and the maximal velocity 0.4 to 0.5 micromoles per milligram protein per minute. These enzymes had different affinities for malonyl-CoA and ACP. For the malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase of epidermis, the Km values were 5.6 and 13.7 micromolar for malonyl-CoA and ACP, respectively, and 4.2 and 21.7 micromolar for the parenchymal enzyme. These results suggest that the FAS system in both tissues are nonassociated, that the malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylases are isozymes, and that both in epidermis and in parenchyma tissue two independent FAS system occur. Evidence would suggest that β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II is present in the parenchymal cells but missing in the epidermal cell. PMID:16663268

  11. [Histological and cytological study of neoblasts and fixed parenchymal cells in Dendrocoelum lacteum planarians deprived of their anterior region].

    PubMed

    Stéphan-Dubois, F; Bautz, A

    1975-01-01

    On amputating either at the root of the pharynx or between the mouth and the genital pore, the posterior parts which are thereby isolated do not regenerate. However they are capable of surviving for ever a year, without feeding. The wounded region is occupied by neoblasts which degenerate within a few days after an initial secretory activity. Their degeneration is of autophagic type. The abortive blastems disappear only slowly, because the degeneration of their neoblasts is partly compensated by the continual immigration of new regeneration cells which come from the posterior region. Several months after amputation, under the effect of prolonged starvation, neoblasts and fixed parenchymal cells begin to degenerate.

  12. The application of capnography to differentiate peri-chest tube air leak from parenchymal leak following pulmonary surgery

    PubMed Central

    Walker, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged air leak is a common complication of pulmonary resection. However, while a bubbling chest drain is commonly related to parenchymal air leakage, it may also be caused by air entering the pleural cavity via an incomplete seal of the tissues at the chest tube insertion site. Examination alone is not sufficient to guide the surgeon as to which of the above complications is responsible for drain bubbling. We describe a simple method, whereby a CO2 monitoring device is attached to the chest drain to determine whether the air loss observed is in fact due to a pulmonary air leak. PMID:24790853

  13. Analysis of Parenchymal Texture with Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Comparison with Digital Mammography and Implications for Cancer Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate the parenchymal texture features at digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and digital mammography with breast percent density (PD), an established breast cancer risk factor, in a screening population of women. Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. Bilateral DBT images and digital mammograms from 71 women (mean age, 54 years; age range, 34–75 years) with negative or benign findings at screening mammography were retrospectively collected from a separate institutional review board–approved DBT screening trial (performed from July 2007 to March 2008) in which all women had given written informed consent. Parenchymal texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, and fractal dimension were computed from the retroareolar region. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to obtain orthogonal texture components. Mammographic PD was estimated with software. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equations were performed to determine the association between texture features and breast PD. Regression was adjusted for age to determine the independent association of texture to breast PD when age was also considered as a predictor variable. Results: Texture feature correlations to breast PD were stronger with DBT than with digital mammography. Statistically significant correlations (P < .001) were observed for contrast (r = 0.48), energy (r = −0.47), and homogeneity (r = −0.56) at DBT and for contrast (r = 0.26), energy (r = −0.26), and homogeneity (r = −0.33) at digital mammography. Multiple linear regression analysis of PCA texture components as predictors of PD also demonstrated significantly stronger associations with DBT. The association was strongest when age was also considered as a predictor of PD (R2 = 0.41 for DBT and 0.28 for digital mammography; P < .001). Conclusion: Parenchymal texture features are more

  14. Vascular and parenchymal amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer disease knock-in mouse model: interplay with cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in the brain is a central event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Besides the parenchymal pathology, Aβ is known to undergo active transport across the blood–brain barrier and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a prominent feature in the majority of AD. Although impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been implicated in faulty Aβ transport and clearance, and cerebral hypoperfusion can exist in the pre-clinical phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it is still unclear whether it is one of the causal factors for AD pathogenesis, or an early consequence of a multi-factor condition that would lead to AD at late stage. To study the potential interaction between faulty CBF and amyloid accumulation in clinical-relevant situation, we generated a new amyloid precursor protein (APP) knock-in allele that expresses humanized Aβ and a Dutch mutation in addition to Swedish/London mutations and compared this line with an equivalent knock-in line but in the absence of the Dutch mutation, both crossed onto the PS1M146V knock-in background. Results Introduction of the Dutch mutation results in robust CAA and parenchymal Aβ pathology, age-dependent reduction of spatial learning and memory deficits, and CBF reduction as detected by fMRI. Direct manipulation of CBF by transverse aortic constriction surgery on the left common carotid artery caused differential changes in CBF in the anterior and middle region of the cortex, where it is reduced on the left side and increased on the right side. However these perturbations in CBF resulted in the same effect: both significantly exacerbate CAA and amyloid pathology. Conclusions Our study reveals a direct and positive link between vascular and parenchymal Aβ; both can be modulated by CBF. The new APP knock-in mouse model recapitulates many symptoms of AD including progressive vascular and parenchymal Aβ pathology and behavioral deficits in the absence

  15. Breast MRI fibroglandular volume and parenchymal enhancement in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers before and immediately after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy.

    PubMed

    DeLeo, Michael J; Domchek, Susan M; Kontos, Despina; Conant, Emily; Chen, Jinbo; Weinstein, Susan

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to assess the difference in fibroglandular volume and background parenchymal enhancement in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers on contrast-enhanced breast MRI (CE-MRI) performed before and immediately after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively compared fibroglandular volume and background parenchymal enhancement in 55 female BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers before and after RRSO using standard BI-RADS categories and a paired Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test. A two-sample Wilcoxon test was performed to compare fibroglandular volume and background parenchymal enhancement in women with and without subsequent breast cancer diagnosis on follow-up. RESULTS. The median time to post-RRSO CE-MRI was 8 months (range, 1-40 months). There was no difference in fibroglandular volume before and after RRSO (p = 0.65). The mean background parenchymal enhancement was 2.5 (range, 1-4) before and 1.5 (range, 1-4) after RRSO (overall range, -2.5 to 1.5; p = 0.0001). Breast cancer was detected in nine women at a median time of 4.8 years (range, 1.8-13.3 years) after RRSO. For women who received a diagnosis of breast cancer after RRSO compared with those who did not, mean background parenchymal enhancement before RRSO was 3 (range, 2-4) versus 2.5 (range, 1-4; p = 0.001), and mean background parenchymal enhancement after RRSO was 2.5 (range, 1.5-4) versus 1.5 (range 2-4; p = 0.0018). There was no difference in fibroglandular volume before and after RRSO. CONCLUSION. In BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed a significant reduction in background parenchymal enhancement on the first CE-MRI after RRSO and no significant change in fibroglandular volume. Higher background parenchymal enhancement before and after RRSO was observed in women who subsequently received a diagnosis of breast cancer. This suggests that background parenchymal enhancement, rather than fibro-glandular volume, may be a

  16. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: whitmore@stsci.edu

    2009-09-15

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z {approx} M {sup 0.30{+-}}{sup 0.05}. No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  17. INSIGHTS ON THE STELLAR MASS-METALLICITY RELATION FROM THE CALIFA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    González Delgado, R. M.; García-Benito, R.; Pérez, E.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; López Fernández, R.; Sánchez, S. F.; Alves, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; Husemann, B.; Bekeraite, S.; Jungwiert, B.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Marino, R. A. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s Collaboration: CALIFA collaboration920; and others

    2014-08-10

    We use spatially and temporally resolved maps of stellar population properties of 300 galaxies from the CALIFA integral field survey to investigate how the stellar metallicity (Z {sub *}) relates to the total stellar mass (M {sub *}) and the local mass surface density (μ{sub *}) in both spheroidal- and disk-dominated galaxies. The galaxies are shown to follow a clear stellar mass-metallicity relation (MZR) over the whole 10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} range. This relation is steeper than the one derived from nebular abundances, which is similar to the flatter stellar MZR derived when we consider only young stars. We also find a strong relation between the local values of μ{sub *} and Z {sub *} (the μZR), betraying the influence of local factors in determining Z {sub *}. This shows that both local (μ{sub *}-driven) and global (M {sub *}-driven) processes are important in determining metallicity in galaxies. We find that the overall balance between local and global effects varies with the location within a galaxy. In disks, μ{sub *} regulates Z {sub *}, producing a strong μZR whose amplitude is modulated by M {sub *}. In spheroids it is M {sub *} that dominates the physics of star formation and chemical enrichment, with μ{sub *} playing a minor, secondary role. These findings agree with our previous analysis of the star formation histories of CALIFA galaxies, which showed that mean stellar ages are mainly governed by surface density in galaxy disks and by total mass in spheroids.

  18. HIPPARCOS age-metallicity relation of the solar neighbourhood disc stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibukiyama, A.; Arimoto, N.

    2002-11-01

    We derive age-metallicity relations (AMRs) and orbital parameters for the 1658 solar neighbourhood stars to which accurate distances are measured by the HIPPARCOS satellite. The sample stars comprise 1382 thin disc stars, 229 thick disc stars, and 47 halo stars according to their orbital parameters. We find a considerable scatter for thin disc AMR along the one-zone Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) model. Orbits and metallicities of thin disc stars show now clear relation each other. The scatter along the AMR exists even if the stars with the same orbits are selected. We examine simple extension of one-zone GCE models which account for inhomogeneity in the effective yield and inhomogeneous star formation rate in the Galaxy. Both extensions of the one-zone GCE model cannot account for the scatter in age - [Fe/H] - [Ca/Fe] relation simultaneously. We conclude, therefore, that the scatter along the thin disc AMR is an essential feature in the formation and evolution of the Galaxy. The AMR for thick disc stars shows that the star formation terminated 8 Gyr ago in the thick disc. As already reported by Gratton et al. (\\cite{Gratton_et.al.2000}) and Prochaska et al. (\\cite{Prochaska_et.al.2000}), thick disc stars are more Ca-rich than thin disc stars with the same [Fe/H]. We find that thick disc stars show a vertical abundance gradient. These three facts, the AMR, vertical gradient, and [Ca/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation, support monolithic collapse and/or accretion of satellite dwarf galaxies as likely thick disc formation scenarios. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http:/ /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ cgi-bin/qcat?J/ A+A/394/927

  19. Blood-brain barrier damage, but not parenchymal white blood cells, is a hallmark of seizure activity.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Nicola; Teng, Qingshan; Ghosh, Chaitali; Fan, Qingyuan; Nguyen, Minh T; Desai, Nirav K; Bawa, Harpreet; Rasmussen, Peter; Masaryk, Thomas K; Janigro, Damir

    2010-09-24

    It has long been held that chronic seizures cause blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. Recent studies have also demonstrated that BBB damage triggers seizures. We have used the BBB osmotic disruption procedure (BBBD) to examine the correlation between BBB opening, pattern of white blood cell (WBCs) entry into the brain and seizure occurrence. These findings were compared to results from resected epileptic brain tissue from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. We confirmed that a successful BBB osmotic opening (BBBD) leads to the occurrence of acute epileptiform discharges. Electroencephalography (EEG) and time-joint frequency analysis reveal EEG slowing followed by an increase in the 10-20Hz frequency range. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled WBCs (GFP-WBCs) suspended in Evans Blue we found that, at time of BBB-induced epileptiform discharges, WBCs populated the perivascular space of a leaky BBB. Similar results were obtained at time of pilocarpine seizure. No frank WBCs extravasation in the brain parenchyma was observed. In TLE brain specimens, CD45-positive leukocytes were detected only in the vascular and perivascular spaces while albumin and IgG extravasates were parenchymal. The pattern was similar to those observed in rats. Our data suggest that neither acute-induced nor chronic seizures correlate with WBC brain parenchymal migration while albumin and IgG brain leakage is a hallmark of acute and chronic seizures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Blood-brain barrier damage, but not parenchymal white blood cells, is a hallmark of seizure activity

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Nicola; Teng, Qingshan; Ghosh, Chaitali; Fan, Qingyuan; Nguyen, Minh T; Desai, Nirav K; Bawa, Harpreet; Rasmussen, Peter; Masaryk, Thomas K; Janigro, Damir

    2010-01-01

    It has long been held that chronic seizures cause blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. Recent studies have also demonstrated that BBB damage triggers seizures. We have used the BBB osmotic disruption procedure (BBBD) to examine the correlation between BBB opening, pattern of white blood cells (WBCs) entry into the brain and seizure occurrence. These findings were compared to results from resected epileptic brain tissue from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. We confirmed that a successful BBB osmotic opening (BBBD) leads to the occurrence of acute epileptiform discharges. Electroencephalography (EEG) and time-joint frequency analysis reveal EEG slowing followed by an increase in the 10-20 Hz frequency range. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled WBCs (GFP-WBCs) suspended in Evans Blue we found that, at time of BBB-induced epileptiform discharges, WBCs populated the perivascular space of a leaky BBB. Similar results were obtained at time of pilocarpine seizure. No frank WBCs extravasation in the brain parenchyma was observed. In TLE brain specimens, CD45-positive leukocytes were detected only in the vascular and perivascular spaces while albumin and IgG extravasates were parenchymal. The pattern was similar to those observed in rats. Our data suggest that neither acute-induced nor chronic seizures correlate with WBC brain parenchymal migration while albumin and IgG brain leakage is a hallmark of acute and chronic seizures. PMID:20599815

  1. Convolutional neural network approach for enhanced capture of breast parenchymal complexity patterns associated with breast cancer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oustimov, Andrew; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2017-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of a parenchymal texture feature fusion approach, utilizing a convolutional neural network (ConvNet) architecture, to benefit breast cancer risk assessment. Hypothesizing that by capturing sparse, subtle interactions between localized motifs present in two-dimensional texture feature maps derived from mammographic images, a multitude of texture feature descriptors can be optimally reduced to five meta-features capable of serving as a basis on which a linear classifier, such as logistic regression, can efficiently assess breast cancer risk. We combine this methodology with our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis and we evaluate the feasibility of this approach in a case-control study with 424 digital mammograms. In a randomized split-sample setting, we optimize our framework in training/validation sets (N=300) and evaluate its descriminatory performance in an independent test set (N=124). The discriminatory capacity is assessed in terms of the the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC). The resulting meta-features exhibited strong classification capability in the test dataset (AUC = 0.90), outperforming conventional, non-fused, texture analysis which previously resulted in an AUC=0.85 on the same case-control dataset. Our results suggest that informative interactions between localized motifs exist and can be extracted and summarized via a fairly simple ConvNet architecture.

  2. Reorganizing metals: the use of chelating compounds as potential therapies for metal-related neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Badrick, Alison C; Jones, Christopher E

    2011-01-01

    Metal ions, particularly copper, zinc and iron, are implicated in several amyloidogenic neurodegenerative disorders. In the brain, as elsewhere in the body, metal ion excess or deficiency can potentially inhibit protein function, interfere with correct protein folding or, in the case of iron or copper, promote oxidative stress. The involvement of metal ions in neurodegenerative disorders has made them an emerging target for therapeutic interventions. One approach has been to chelate and sequester the ions and thus limit their potential to interfere with protein folding or render them unable to undergo redox processes. Newer approaches suggest that redistributing metal ions has therapeutic benefits, and recent studies indicate that alleviating cellular copper deficiency may be a plausible way to limit neurodegeneration. In this review we discuss the role of metals in amyloidogenic, neurodegenerative disorders and highlight some mechanisms and compounds used in various therapeutic approaches.

  3. Increased Iron Loading Induces Bmp6 Expression in the Non-Parenchymal Cells of the Liver Independent of the BMP-Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Enns, Caroline A.; Ahmed, Riffat; Wang, Jiaohong; Ueno, Akiko; Worthen, Christal; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Zhang, An-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is an essential cytokine for the expression of hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone secreted predominantly by hepatocytes. Bmp6 expression is upregulated by increased iron-levels in the liver. Both hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells have detectable Bmp6 mRNA. Here we showed that induction of hepcidin expression in hepatocytes by dietary iron is associated with an elevation of Bmp6 mRNA in the non-parenchymal cells of the liver. Consistently, incubation with iron-saturated transferrin induces Bmp6 mRNA expression in isolated hepatic stellate cells, but not in hepatocytes. These observations suggest an important role of the non-parenchymal liver cells in regulating iron-homeostasis by acting as a source of Bmp6. PMID:23565256

  4. Understanding The Baryonic Cycle: Confronting Galaxy Physics With The Mass; Metallicity Relation And Dust Content Of Galaxies Over Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popping, Gergö; Somerville, Rachel; Galametz, Maud

    2016-09-01

    The mass-metallicity relation combines the star formation, metal enrichment, feedback, and baryon accretion history of galaxies and acts as a superb probe of the cycle of baryons through galaxies. Reproducing its cosmic evolution is a stringent constraint on models of galaxy formation. I will present new cosmological models of galaxy formation that include various ejective and preventive feedback schemes and detailed chemical evolution and dust chemistry models. I will present the impact of the different feedback schemes on the evolution of the mass;metallicity relation, compare my predictions with observations, and discuss how this comparison helps us constrain the galaxy physics acting on the baryonic cycle. I will further show that proper accounting for dust emphasizes a serious caveat in our understanding of galaxy formation. Galaxies are too metal enriched at early times.

  5. Micropatterned co-culture of hepatocyte spheroids layered on non-parenchymal cells to understand heterotypic cellular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Hidenori; Sasaki, Kohei; Okimura, Saya; Nagamura, Masako; Nakasone, Yuichi

    2013-12-01

    Microfabrication and micropatterning techniques in tissue engineering offer great potential for creating and controlling cellular microenvironments including cell-matrix interactions, soluble stimuli and cell-cell interactions. Here, we present a novel approach to generate layered patterning of hepatocyte spheroids on micropatterned non-parenchymal feeder cells using microfabricated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Micropatterned PEG-hydrogel-treated substrates with two-dimensional arrays of gelatin circular domains (ϕ = 100 μm) were prepared by photolithographic method. Only on the critical structure of PEG hydrogel with perfect protein rejection, hepatocytes were co-cultured with non-parenchymal cells to be led to enhanced hepatocyte functions. Then, we investigated the mechanism of the functional enhancement in co-culture with respect to the contributions of soluble factors and direct cell-cell interactions. In particular, to elucidate the influence of soluble factors on hepatocyte function, hepatocyte spheroids underlaid with fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts) or endothelial cells (BAECs: bovine aortic endothelial cells) were compared with physically separated co-culture of hepatocyte monospheroids with NIH3T3 or BAEC using trans-well culture systems. Our results suggested that direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors, both of these between hepatocytes and fibroblasts, significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions. In contrast, direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact between hepatocytes and endothelial cells only contributed to enhance hepatocyte functions. This patterning technique can be a useful experimental tool for applications in basic science, drug screening and tissue engineering, as well as in the design of artificial liver devices.

  6. Debakey forceps crushing technique for hepatic parenchymal transection in liver surgery: a review of 100 cases and ergonomic advantages.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sundeep; Sharma, Bharat; Kaushik, Mitesh; Jain, Lokendra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objective. Bleeding is an important complication in liver transections. To determine the safety and efficacy of Debakey forceps for liver parenchymal transection and its ergonomic advantages over clamp crushing method we analysed our data. Methods. We used Debakey crushing technique in 100 liver resections and analysed data for transection time, transfusion rate, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, influence of different types of liver conditions, and ergonomi features of Debakey forceps. Results. Mean age, transection time and hospital stay of 100 patients were 52.38 ± 17.44 years, 63.36 ± 33.4 minutes, and 10.27 ± 5.7 days. Transection time, and hospital stay in patients with cirrhotic liver (130.4 ± 44.4 mins, 14.6 ± 5.5 days) and cholestatic liver (75.8 ± 19.7 mins, 16.5 ± 5.1 days) were significantly greater than in patients with normal liver (48.1 ± 20.1 mins, 6.7 ± 1.8 days) (P < 0.01). Transection time improved significantly with experience (first fifty versus second fifty cases-70.2 ± 31.1 mins versus 56.5 ± 34.5 mins, P < 0.04). Qualitative evaluation revealed that Debakey forceps had ergonomic advantages over Kelly clamp. Conclusions. Debakey forceps crushing technique is safe and effective for liver parenchymal transection in all kinds of liver. Transection time improves with surgeon's experience. It has ergonomic advantages over Kelly clamp and is a better choice for liver transection.

  7. Debakey Forceps Crushing Technique for Hepatic Parenchymal Transection in Liver Surgery: A Review of 100 Cases and Ergonomic Advantages

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sundeep; Sharma, Bharat; Kaushik, Mitesh; Jain, Lokendra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objective. Bleeding is an important complication in liver transections. To determine the safety and efficacy of Debakey forceps for liver parenchymal transection and its ergonomic advantages over clamp crushing method we analysed our data. Methods. We used Debakey crushing technique in 100 liver resections and analysed data for transection time, transfusion rate, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, influence of different types of liver conditions, and ergonomi features of Debakey forceps. Results. Mean age, transection time and hospital stay of 100 patients were 52.38 ± 17.44 years, 63.36 ± 33.4 minutes, and 10.27 ± 5.7 days. Transection time, and hospital stay in patients with cirrhotic liver (130.4 ± 44.4 mins, 14.6 ± 5.5 days) and cholestatic liver (75.8 ± 19.7 mins, 16.5 ± 5.1 days) were significantly greater than in patients with normal liver (48.1 ± 20.1 mins, 6.7 ± 1.8 days) (P < 0.01). Transection time improved significantly with experience (first fifty versus second fifty cases—70.2 ± 31.1 mins versus 56.5 ± 34.5 mins, P < 0.04). Qualitative evaluation revealed that Debakey forceps had ergonomic advantages over Kelly clamp. Conclusions. Debakey forceps crushing technique is safe and effective for liver parenchymal transection in all kinds of liver. Transection time improves with surgeon's experience. It has ergonomic advantages over Kelly clamp and is a better choice for liver transection. PMID:25009367

  8. Non-invasive parenchymal, vascular and metabolic high-frequency ultrasound and photoacoustic rat deep brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Giustetto, Pierangela; Filippi, Miriam; Castano, Mauro; Terreno, Enzo

    2015-03-02

    Photoacoustics and high frequency ultrasound stands out as powerful tools for neurobiological applications enabling high-resolution imaging on the central nervous system of small animals. However, transdermal and transcranial neuroimaging is frequently affected by low sensitivity, image aberrations and loss of space resolution, requiring scalp or even skull removal before imaging. To overcome this challenge, a new protocol is presented to gain significant insights in brain hemodynamics by photoacoustic and high-frequency ultrasounds imaging with the animal skin and skull intact. The procedure relies on the passage of ultrasound (US) waves and laser directly through the fissures that are naturally present on the animal cranium. By juxtaposing the imaging transducer device exactly in correspondence to these selected areas where the skull has a reduced thickness or is totally absent, one can acquire high quality deep images and explore internal brain regions that are usually difficult to anatomically or functionally describe without an invasive approach. By applying this experimental procedure, significant data can be collected in both sonic and optoacoustic modalities, enabling to image the parenchymal and the vascular anatomy far below the head surface. Deep brain features such as parenchymal convolutions and fissures separating the lobes were clearly visible. Moreover, the configuration of large and small blood vessels was imaged at several millimeters of depth, and precise information were collected about blood fluxes, vascular stream velocities and the hemoglobin chemical state. This repertoire of data could be crucial in several research contests, ranging from brain vascular disease studies to experimental techniques involving the systemic administration of exogenous chemicals or other objects endowed with imaging contrast enhancement properties. In conclusion, thanks to the presented protocol, the US and PA techniques become an attractive noninvasive

  9. Human recombinant apolipoprotein E redirects lipopolysaccharide from Kupffer cells to liver parenchymal cells in rats In vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Rensen, P C; Oosten, M; Bilt, E; Eck, M; Kuiper, J; Berkel, T J

    1997-01-01

    Chylomicrons have been shown to protect mice and rats against a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide and may serve as a therapeutic means to protect against endotoxemia. However, the requisite of isolation from human lymph hampers pharmaceutical application. Recently, we developed recombinant chylomicrons from commercially available lipids and human recombinant apolipoprotein E. The current study explored the effectiveness of these apoE-enriched emulsions in redirecting LPS from Kupffer cells to liver parenchymal cells. Upon injection into rats, 125I-LPS rapidly and specifically associated with the liver (64.3+/-3.1% of the injected dose) and spleen (4.1+/-0.7%). The uptake of LPS by the spleen was four- to fivefold reduced upon incubation with the apoE-enriched emulsion or free apoE (P < 0.0001), but not with emulsion alone or Lipofundin. Within the liver, 125I-LPS mainly associated with Kupffer cells. The uptake by Kupffer cells was eight- to ninefold reduced by the apoE-enriched emulsion or apoE alone (P < 0.01), and a 19.6-fold increased uptake ratio by liver parenchymal cells over Kupffer cells was observed. The emulsion without apoE had no effect on the in vivo kinetics of LPS. LPS interacted selectively with the apoE moiety of the recombinant chylomicron. Emulsion-associated and free apoE bound approximately two molecules of LPS, possibly by its exposed hydrophilic domain involving arginine residues. We anticipate that the protecting effect of endogenous chylomicrons against LPS-induced endotoxemia may result from the apoE moiety and that human recombinant apoE may serve as a therapeuticum to protect against endotoxemia. PMID:9153287

  10. Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?

    PubMed

    Kakigi, Takahide; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Ryo; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Mikami, Yoshiki; Shimono, Taro; Takahashi, Jun C; Togashi, Kaori

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification ("exploded" or "engulfed") were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p > .05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p < .05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p = .039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree.

  11. Lung parenchymal invasion in pulmonary carcinoid tumor: an important histologic feature suggesting the diagnosis of atypical carcinoid and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Yun; Lee, Jae Jun; Cho, Junhun; Hyeon, Jiyeon; Han, Joungho; Kim, Hong Kwan

    2013-05-01

    The majority of previous studies on pulmonary carcinoid tumor have usually focused on clinical behavior or outcome, seldom considering histopathologic features. We retrospectively collected 63 cases of resected pulmonary carcinoid tumors from 1995 to 2011 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. The clinical and pathological features were correlated and survival analyses were performed. Forty cases (63.5%) were classified as typical carcinoid (TC) and 23 cases (36.5%) were classified as atypical carcinoid (AC) according to WHO classification criteria. AC patients showed a higher frequency of current smoking status and a higher stage of the tumor by the American Joint Committee on Cancer than TC patients. The disease was associated with death and recurrence in five and seven patients, respectively, with almost all of the associations found in AC patients. The five-year survival rate of TC and AC were 100% and 83.5%, respectively, with AC showing poorer prognosis than TC in overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) (p=0.005 and p=0.002). Lung parenchymal invasion was observed more commonly in AC than in TC (39.1% vs 12.5%, p=0.01) and was a poor prognostic factor in OS and DFS. Rosette-like arrangements were found only in six cases of AC, while abundant basophilic cytoplasm mimicking paraganglioma and ossification were found only in TC. Through the comprehensive study of pulmonary carcinoid tumor in Korea, we suggest that lung parenchymal invasion could be a useful histologic feature to suspect the diagnosis of AC in daily practice as well as to predict the prognosis of carcinoid tumor.

  12. Breast density and parenchymal texture measures as potential risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2014-03-01

    Accurate assessment of a woman's risk to develop specific subtypes of breast cancer is critical for appropriate utilization of chemopreventative measures, such as with tamoxifen in preventing estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer. In this context, we investigate quantitative measures of breast density and parenchymal texture, measures of glandular tissue content and tissue structure, as risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Mediolateral oblique (MLO) view digital mammograms of the contralateral breast from 106 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Breast density and parenchymal texture were analyzed via fully-automated software. Logistic regression with feature selection and was performed to predict ER+ versus ER- cancer status. A combined model considering all imaging measures extracted was compared to baseline models consisting of density-alone and texture-alone features. Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Delong's test were used to compare the models' discriminatory capacity for receptor status. The density-alone model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.62 AUC (p=0.05). The texture-alone model had a higher discriminatory capacity of 0.70 AUC (p=0.001), which was not significantly different compared to the density-alone model (p=0.37). In contrast the combined density-texture logistic regression model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.82 AUC (p<0.001), which was statistically significantly higher than both the density-alone (p<0.001) and texture-alone regression models (p=0.04). The combination of breast density and texture measures may have the potential to identify women specifically at risk for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer and could be useful in triaging women into appropriate risk-reduction strategies.

  13. Protocol for Isolation of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Corresponding Major Populations of Non-parenchymal Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Victoria; Deharde, Daniela; Pfeiffer, Elisa; Zeilinger, Katrin; Seehofer, Daniel; Damm, Georg

    2016-03-30

    Beside parenchymal hepatocytes, the liver consists of non-parenchymal cells (NPC) namely Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC) and hepatic Stellate cells (HSC). Two-dimensional (2D) culture of primary human hepatocyte (PHH) is still considered as the "gold standard" for in vitro testing of drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. It is well-known that the 2D monoculture of PHH suffers from dedifferentiation and loss of function. Recently it was shown that hepatic NPC play a central role in liver (patho-) physiology and the maintenance of PHH functions. Current research focuses on the reconstruction of in vivo tissue architecture by 3D- and co-culture models to overcome the limitations of 2D monocultures. Previously we published a method to isolate human liver cells and investigated the suitability of these cells for their use in cell cultures in Experimental Biology and Medicine(1). Based on the broad interest in this technique the aim of this article was to provide a more detailed protocol for the liver cell isolation process including a video, which will allow an easy reproduction of this technique. Human liver cells were isolated from human liver tissue samples of surgical interventions by a two-step EGTA/collagenase P perfusion technique. PHH were separated from the NPC by an initial centrifugation at 50 x g. Density gradient centrifugation steps were used for removal of dead cells. Individual liver cell populations were isolated from the enriched NPC fraction using specific cell properties and cell sorting procedures. Beside the PHH isolation we were able to separate KC, LEC and HSC for further cultivation. Taken together, the presented protocol allows the isolation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from one donor tissue sample. The access to purified liver cell populations could allow the creation of in vivo like human liver models.

  14. Non-invasive Parenchymal, Vascular and Metabolic High-frequency Ultrasound and Photoacoustic Rat Deep Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Giustetto, Pierangela; Filippi, Miriam; Castano, Mauro; Terreno, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustics and high frequency ultrasound stands out as powerful tools for neurobiological applications enabling high-resolution imaging on the central nervous system of small animals. However, transdermal and transcranial neuroimaging is frequently affected by low sensitivity, image aberrations and loss of space resolution, requiring scalp or even skull removal before imaging. To overcome this challenge, a new protocol is presented to gain significant insights in brain hemodynamics by photoacoustic and high-frequency ultrasounds imaging with the animal skin and skull intact. The procedure relies on the passage of ultrasound (US) waves and laser directly through the fissures that are naturally present on the animal cranium. By juxtaposing the imaging transducer device exactly in correspondence to these selected areas where the skull has a reduced thickness or is totally absent, one can acquire high quality deep images and explore internal brain regions that are usually difficult to anatomically or functionally describe without an invasive approach. By applying this experimental procedure, significant data can be collected in both sonic and optoacoustic modalities, enabling to image the parenchymal and the vascular anatomy far below the head surface. Deep brain features such as parenchymal convolutions and fissures separating the lobes were clearly visible. Moreover, the configuration of large and small blood vessels was imaged at several millimeters of depth, and precise information were collected about blood fluxes, vascular stream velocities and the hemoglobin chemical state. This repertoire of data could be crucial in several research contests, ranging from brain vascular disease studies to experimental techniques involving the systemic administration of exogenous chemicals or other objects endowed with imaging contrast enhancement properties. In conclusion, thanks to the presented protocol, the US and PA techniques become an attractive noninvasive

  15. Velocity-metallicity correlation for high-z DLA galaxies: evidence of a mass-metallicity relation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Møller, P.; Srianand, R.

    2006-10-01

    We used our database of VLT-UVES quasar spectra to build up a sample of 70 Damped Lyman-α (DLA) or strong sub-DLA systems with total neutral hydrogen column densities of log N(H i)⪆ 20 and redshifts in the range 1.7metallicities relative to solar in an homogeneous manner, [X/H] (with X=Zn, or S or Si), and the velocity widths of low-ionization line profiles, Δ V. For the first time, we provide evidence for a correlation between DLA metallicity and line profile velocity width, which is detected at the 6.1σ significance level. This confirms the trend previously observed in a much smaller sample by Wolfe & Prochaska (1998). The best-fit linear relation is [X/H]=1.55(± 0.12)logΔ V -4.33(± 0.23), with Δ V expressed in km s-1. The slope of the DLA velocity-metallicity relation is the same within uncertainties between the higher (z_abs>2.43) and the lower (z_abs≤ 2.43) redshift halves of our sample. However, the two populations of systems are statistically different. There is a strong redshift evolution in the sense that the median metallicity and median velocity width increase with decreasing redshift. We argue that the existence of a DLA velocity-metallicity correlation, over more than a factor of 100 spread in metallicity, is probably the consequence of an underlying mass-metallicity relation for the galaxies responsible for DLA absorption lines. Assuming a simple linear scaling of the galaxy luminosity with the mass of the dark-matter halo, we find that the slope of the DLA velocity-metallicity relation is consistent with that of the luminosity-metallicity relation derived for local galaxies. If the galaxy dynamical mass is indeed the dominant factor setting up the observed DLA velocity-metallicity correlation, then the DLA systems exhibiting the lowest metallicities among the DLA population should, on average, be associated with galaxies of lower masses (e.g., gas-rich dwarf galaxies). In turn

  16. Evaluation of renal function following treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL): the use of whole-kidney, parenchymal and pelvic transit times.

    PubMed

    Ilgin, N; Iftehar, S A; Vural, G; Bozkirli, I; Gokcora, N

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of using whole-kidney, mean parenchymal and pelvic transit times to evaluate renal function following treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Fifteen patients were evaluated 24-48 h before and after ESWL therapy using 99Tcm-DTPA renal scintigraphy. Using deconvolution analysis, whole-kidney, mean parenchymal and pelvic transit times were calculated and the pre-ESWL values were compared with the post-ESWL values. In both kidneys, there were no significant changes in the glomerular filtration rate or relative renal uptake when compared with the pre-ESWL values. The mean whole-kidney transit time of the tracer did not change significantly during the post-ESWL period. In the treated kidney, the mean post-ESWL parenchymal transit time was significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the mean pelvic transit time was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In the untreated kidney, there were no significant changes in any of these parameters. We conclude that the dual use of parenchymal and pelvic transit times is more sensitive than the mean whole-kidney transit time and other measures, such as glomerular filtration rate and relative renal uptake, for the assessment of outcome of therapy and other related post-ESWL changes.

  17. Color Doppler dynamic tissue perfusion measurement: a novel tool in the assessment of renal parenchymal perfusion in children with vesicoureteral reflux

    PubMed Central

    Scholbach, Thomas M.; Scholbach, Jakob; Pawelec, Agata; Nachulewicz, Paweł; Wieczorek, Andrzej P.; Brodzisz, Agnieszka; Zajączkowska, Maria M.; Borzęcka, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) occurs in 20–50% of children suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is associated with an increased risk of renal scarring and impaired renal function. Early detection of renal perfusion deterioration would allow for the implementation of more aggressive treatment and potentially prevent further damage to the renal parenchyma. The aim of the study was to assess renal parenchymal perfusions in children with recurrent UTIs with and without coexisting VUR, and compare the findings with the results of healthy patients. Material and methods Color Doppler sonographic dynamic renal parenchymal perfusion measurements were performed with PixelFlux (Chameleon-Software, Germany) software in 77 children with recurrent UTIs and coexisting VUR and in 30 children with UTIs without VUR. The findings were compared with the results of 53 healthy children. Results Cortical parenchymal perfusion of children suffering from UTIs and VUR was significantly reduced when compared to the control group. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in all perfusion parameters (i.e. mean velocity (vmix), mean perfused area (Amix), mean perfusion intensity (Imix), tissue pulsatility index (TPI), and tissue resistance index (TRI)) between the control group and children suffering from UTIs and VUR, particularly VUR grades III and IV. There were no significant differences between the UTI group and the control group. No differences were found between the controls and VUR grade II. Conclusions Renal parenchymal perfusion decreases significantly with higher grades of VUR. PMID:27279857

  18. A diet enriched in docosahexanoic Acid exacerbates brain parenchymal extravasation of apo B lipoproteins induced by chronic ingestion of saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Pallebage-Gamarallage, Menuka M; Lam, Virginie; Takechi, Ryusuke; Galloway, Susan; Mamo, John C L

    2012-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was previously shown to compromise blood-brain barrier integrity, leading to brain parenchymal extravasation of apolipoprotein B (apo B) lipoproteins enriched in amyloid beta. In contrast, diets enriched in mono- or polyunsaturated (PUFA) oils had no detrimental effect. Rather, n3 and n6 oils generally confer protection via suppression of inflammation. This study investigated in wild-type mice if a PUFA diet enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA) restored blood-brain barrier integrity and attenuated parenchymal apo B abundance induced by chronic ingestion of SFA. Cerebrovascular leakage of apo B was quantitated utilising immunofluorescent staining. The plasma concentration of brain-derived S100β was measured as a marker of cerebrovascular inflammation. In mice fed SFA for 3 months, provision thereafter of a DHA-enriched diet exacerbated parenchymal apo B retention, concomitant with a significant increase in plasma cholesterol. In contrast, provision of a low-fat diet following chronic SFA feeding had no effect on SFA-induced parenchymal apo B. The findings suggest that in a heightened state of cerebrovascular inflammation, the provision of unsaturated fatty acids may be detrimental, possibly as a consequence of a greater susceptibility for oxidation.

  19. A Comparative Study of Sonographic Grading of Renal Parenchymal Changes and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) using Modified Diet in Renal Disease Formula

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Pai, B.H. Santhosh; Acharya, Koteshwara Devadasa; Gopalakrishnan, Ravichandra; Srikanth, Vivek; Reddy, Vishwanath; Haris, Arafat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The sonographic findings are of help in evaluating the nephrological diseases. Glomerular filtration rate is another parameter for assessing the reserved renal function and an indicator of prognosis. In clinical practice GFR estimation (eGFR) is done by using a mathematical formula. In our study, we compared the sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes with eGFR calculated using Modified Diet in Renal Diseases formula based on serum creatinine, age, gender and ethnicity. Aim To evaluate the relevance of sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes in assessing the severity of the renal disease and comparing it to the eGFR calculated using MDRD formula based on the age, gender and serum creatinine value of the patient. Materials and Methods The adult patients with suspected kidney disease referred for sonography of abdomen were our study participants. As per our study design following strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients were selected as study participants and for each of the patient’s renal parenchymal status, serum creatinine, age, gender and ethnicity were documented. Results A total of 70 patients were our study participants, out of which 67.1% were males and 32.9% were females. Our study showed a linear correlation between sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes with eGFR. Conclusion We conclude that by evaluating the kidneys with sonography and calculating eGFR using MDRD formula the renal status will be more accurately interpreted. PMID:27042555

  20. Perpetual dilemma: Pleural or parenchymal/congenital or acquired solitary cystic lesion with fluid level.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Deepak; Jha, Onkar; Sharma, Rahul Kumar; Saxena, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAMs) are rare congenital, nonhereditary developmental anomalies of the lung with unknown etiology. CCAM is predominantly a disorder of infancy with the majority of the cases being diagnosed within the first 2 years of life. When CCAM presents in adults, it represents a diagnostic dilemma and requires careful evaluation. We here report a case of large solitary congenital pulmonary cystic adenomatoid malformation with infection and hemorrhage, which was diagnosed as encysted hydropneumothorax on computerized tomography scans but turned out to be infected pulmonary cystic adenomatoid malformation after surgical excision.

  1. Perpetual dilemma: Pleural or parenchymal/congenital or acquired solitary cystic lesion with fluid level

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Deepak; Jha, Onkar; Sharma, Rahul Kumar; Saxena, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAMs) are rare congenital, nonhereditary developmental anomalies of the lung with unknown etiology. CCAM is predominantly a disorder of infancy with the majority of the cases being diagnosed within the first 2 years of life. When CCAM presents in adults, it represents a diagnostic dilemma and requires careful evaluation. We here report a case of large solitary congenital pulmonary cystic adenomatoid malformation with infection and hemorrhage, which was diagnosed as encysted hydropneumothorax on computerized tomography scans but turned out to be infected pulmonary cystic adenomatoid malformation after surgical excision. PMID:28144070

  2. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE CONTEXT OF NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICTY RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeslee, John P.; Cantiello, Michele; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-02-10

    Two recent empirical developments in the study of extragalactic globular cluster (GC) populations are the color-magnitude relation of the blue GCs (the 'blue tilt') and the nonlinearity of the dependence of optical GC colors on metallicity. The color-magnitude relation, interpreted as a mass-metallicity relation, is thought to be a consequence of self-enrichment. Nonlinear color-metallicity relations have been shown to produce bimodal color distributions from unimodal metallicity distributions. We simulate GC populations including both a mass-metallicity scaling relation and nonlinear color-metallicity relations motivated by theory and observations. Depending on the assumed range of metallicities and the width of the GC luminosity function (GCLF), we find that the simulated populations can have bimodal color distributions with a 'blue tilt' similar to observations, even though the metallicity distribution appears unimodal. The models that produce these features have the relatively high mean GC metallicities and nearly equal blue and red peaks characteristic of giant elliptical galaxies. The blue tilt is less apparent in the models with metallicities typical of dwarf ellipticals; the narrower GCLF in these galaxies has an even bigger effect in reducing the significance of their color-magnitude slopes. We critically examine the evidence for nonlinearity versus bimodal metallicities as explanations for the characteristic double-peaked color histograms of giant ellipticals and conclude that the question remains open. We discuss the prospects for further theoretical and observational progress in constraining the models presented here and for uncovering the true metallicity distributions of extragalactic GC systems.

  3. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Parenchymal Chronic Renal Diseases - Part 2.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Ilaria; Samoni, Sara; Meola, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Secondary nephropathies can be associated with disreactive immunological disorders or with a non-inflammatory glomerular damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis as in other connective tissue diseases, kidney volume and cortex echogenicity are the parameters that best correlate with clinical severity of the disease, even if the morphological aspect is generally non-specific. Doppler studies in SLE document the correlation between resistance indexes (RIs) values and renal function. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) causes different types of renal damage. At ultrasound (US), kidneys have almost a normal volume, while during superinfection they enlarge (coronal diameter >13 cm) and become globular, loosing their normal aspect. Cortex appears highly hyperechoic, uniform or patchy. Microcalcifications of renal cortex and medulla are a US sign that can suggest HIV. In amyloidosis, kidneys appear normal or increased in volume in the early stages of disease. Renal cortex is diffusely hyperechoic and pyramids can show normal size and morphology, but more often they appear poorly defined and hyperechoic. RIs are very high since the early stages of the disease. Nephromegaly with normal kidney shape is the first sign of lymphoma or multiple myeloma. In systemic vasculitis, renal cortex is diffusely hyperechoic, while pyramids appear hypoechoic and globular due to interstitial edema. When vasculitis determines advanced chronic kidney disease stages, kidneys show no specific signs. Microcirculation damage is highlighted by increased RIs values >0.70 in the chronic phase. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Unusual Late Onset of Parenchymal Neuro-Behçet Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Neuro-Behçet disease (NBD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by oral lesions, genital lesions, uveitis, and neurological deficits. If left untreated, it may lead to worsening neurological function and can be fatal. Here we present a case of a 52-year-old woman who was diagnosed with Behçet disease (BD) as a teenager and had a relatively mild disease course. Decades later after her initial DB diagnosis, she presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of headache. She did not have focal neurological deficits or any active mucosal lesions. Upon further investigation, the patient was found to have multiple inflammatory changes on neuroimaging and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), consistent with the diagnosis of NBD. She was treated with intravenous corticosteroid therapy and her symptoms resolved. Although our patient presented with minimal symptoms decades after her initial diagnosis, any neurological complaint warranted a thorough investigation for a proper diagnosis and treatment given the multisystem involvement of BD. PMID:27529041

  5. Incidental parenchymal magnetic resonance imaging findings in the brains of patients with neurofibromatosis type 2☆

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Wendy S.; Heier, Linda A.; Rodriguez, Fausto; Bergner, Amanda; Yohay, Kaleb

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Whereas T2 hyperintensities known as NF-associated bright spots are well described in patients with neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1), there is a paucity of data on incidental findings in patients with neurofibromatosis type II (NF-2). We aim to characterize unexplained imaging findings in the brains of patients with NF-2. Materials and methods This study is retrospective, HIPAA-compliant and approved by the institutional review board. 34 patients with NF-2 underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between January 2000 and December 2012. T2 and T1-weighted imaging characteristics, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) characteristics, and enhancement patterns were analyzed by visual inspection. Clinical information at time of imaging was available for all patients. Neuropathologic data was available for one patient. Results We found unexplained T2 hyperintensities present on initial imaging in 23/34 patients (67%). Of the 23 patients with unexplained MRI findings, 15 (65%) had wedge-shaped T2 hyperintensities in the subcortical white matter extending to the cortex suggestive of a cortical dysplasia. 3 additional cases (17%) had a lesion within the cerebellum suggestive of a neuronal migration anomaly. In one patient where the MRI was suggestive of focal cortical dysplasia, histopathologic analysis revealed dysplastic glial foci without other alterations of cortical architecture or other cytologic abnormalities. Conclusion Unexplained T2 hyperintensities occur frequently in patients with NF-2. While they may not be the NF-2 equivalent of NF-associated bright spots seen in NF-1, some of these T2 hyperintensities in patients with NF-2 may represent underlying disorders of neuronal migration. Further studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID:24501699

  6. Sonographic parenchymal and brain perfusion imaging: preliminary results in four patients following decompressive surgery for malignant middle cerebral artery infarct.

    PubMed

    Schlachetzki, F; Hoelscher, T; Dorenbeck, U; Greiffenberg, B; Marienhagen, J; Ullrich, O W; Bogdahn, U

    2001-01-01

    To investigate new methods of diagnostic transcranial sonography for brain parenchymal, vascular and perfusion imaging, we performed 3-D native tissue harmonic transcranial sonography (3D-nthTCS), 3-D transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (3D-TCCS), and "loss-of-correlation" imaging (LOC-TCCS) in four patients following early hemicraniectomy due to space-occupying "malignant" middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI). Three-dimensional datasets, utilizing 3D-nthTCS and 3D-TCCS, were created and up to 10 axial 2-D B-mode image planes, similar to CCT, reconstructed in each patient. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the circle of Willis documented one persistent carotid-T occlusion and three recanalizations of the MCA. LOC-TCCS, based on stimulated acoustic emission from an ultrasound (US) contrast agent, demonstrated a perfusion deficit in 2 of 3 patients, with regard to their infarcts. Concluding, 3D-nthTCS, 3D-TCCS and LOC-TCCS are promising tools for bedside monitoring, early prognosis and treatment evaluation for MMCAI in the postoperative period. Further studies should be performed to standardize these new methods and evaluate their applications through the intact calvarina.

  7. Parenchymal and Stromal Cells Contribute to Pro-Inflammatory Myocardial Environment at Early Stages of Diabetes: Protective Role of Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Savi, Monia; Bocchi, Leonardo; Sala, Roberto; Frati, Caterina; Lagrasta, Costanza; Madeddu, Denise; Falco, Angela; Pollino, Serena; Bresciani, Letizia; Miragoli, Michele; Zaniboni, Massimiliano; Quaini, Federico; Del Rio, Daniele; Stilli, Donatella

    2016-11-16

    Background: Little information is currently available concerning the relative contribution of cardiac parenchymal and stromal cells in the activation of the pro-inflammatory signal cascade, at the initial stages of diabetes. Similarly, the effects of early resveratrol (RSV) treatment on the negative impact of diabetes on the different myocardial cell compartments remain to be defined. Methods: In vitro challenge of neonatal cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts to high glucose and in vivo/ex vivo experiments on a rat model of Streptozotocin-induced diabetes were used to specifically address these issues. Results: In vitro data indicated that, besides cardiomyocytes, neonatal fibroblasts contribute to generating initial changes in the myocardial environment, in terms of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings were mostly confirmed at the myocardial tissue level in diabetic rats, after three weeks of hyperglycemia. Specifically, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and Fractalkine were up-regulated and initial abnormalities in cardiomyocyte contractility occurred. At later stages of diabetes, a selective enhancement of pro-inflammatory macrophage M1 phenotype and a parallel reduction of anti-inflammatory macrophage M2 phenotype were associated with a marked disorganization of cardiomyocyte ultrastructural properties. RSV treatment inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leading to a recovery of cardiomyocyte contractile efficiency and a reduced inflammatory cell recruitment. Conclusion: Early RSV administration could inhibit the pro-inflammatory diabetic milieu sustained by different cardiac cell types.

  8. Parenchymal and Stromal Cells Contribute to Pro-Inflammatory Myocardial Environment at Early Stages of Diabetes: Protective Role of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Savi, Monia; Bocchi, Leonardo; Sala, Roberto; Frati, Caterina; Lagrasta, Costanza; Madeddu, Denise; Falco, Angela; Pollino, Serena; Bresciani, Letizia; Miragoli, Michele; Zaniboni, Massimiliano; Quaini, Federico; Del Rio, Daniele; Stilli, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little information is currently available concerning the relative contribution of cardiac parenchymal and stromal cells in the activation of the pro-inflammatory signal cascade, at the initial stages of diabetes. Similarly, the effects of early resveratrol (RSV) treatment on the negative impact of diabetes on the different myocardial cell compartments remain to be defined. Methods: In vitro challenge of neonatal cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts to high glucose and in vivo/ex vivo experiments on a rat model of Streptozotocin-induced diabetes were used to specifically address these issues. Results: In vitro data indicated that, besides cardiomyocytes, neonatal fibroblasts contribute to generating initial changes in the myocardial environment, in terms of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings were mostly confirmed at the myocardial tissue level in diabetic rats, after three weeks of hyperglycemia. Specifically, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and Fractalkine were up-regulated and initial abnormalities in cardiomyocyte contractility occurred. At later stages of diabetes, a selective enhancement of pro-inflammatory macrophage M1 phenotype and a parallel reduction of anti-inflammatory macrophage M2 phenotype were associated with a marked disorganization of cardiomyocyte ultrastructural properties. RSV treatment inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leading to a recovery of cardiomyocyte contractile efficiency and a reduced inflammatory cell recruitment. Conclusion: Early RSV administration could inhibit the pro-inflammatory diabetic milieu sustained by different cardiac cell types. PMID:27854328

  9. Novel algorithm to identify and differentiate specific digital signature of breath sound in patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Parthasarathi; Mondal, Ashok; Dey, Rana; Saha, Dipanjan; Saha, Goutam

    2015-05-01

    Auscultation is an important part of the clinical examination of different lung diseases. Objective analysis of lung sounds based on underlying characteristics and its subsequent automatic interpretations may help a clinical practice. We collected the breath sounds from 8 normal subjects and 20 diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) patients using a newly developed instrument and then filtered off the heart sounds using a novel technology. The collected sounds were thereafter analysed digitally on several characteristics as dynamical complexity, texture information and regularity index to find and define their unique digital signatures for differentiating normality and abnormality. For convenience of testing, these characteristic signatures of normal and DPLD lung sounds were transformed into coloured visual representations. The predictive power of these images has been validated by six independent observers that include three physicians. The proposed method gives a classification accuracy of 100% for composite features for both the normal as well as lung sound signals from DPLD patients. When tested by independent observers on the visually transformed images, the positive predictive value to diagnose the normality and DPLD remained 100%. The lung sounds from the normal and DPLD subjects could be differentiated and expressed according to their digital signatures. On visual transformation to coloured images, they retain 100% predictive power. This technique may assist physicians to diagnose DPLD from visual images bearing the digital signature of the condition. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  10. Radiographic parenchymal opacity, matching perfusion defect, and normal ventilation: a sign of pulmonary embolism. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, E.B.; Sostman, H.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1987-05-01

    By conventional criteria, perfusion defects that correspond to radiographic parenchymal opacities of similar size have less diagnostic significance for pulmonary embolism (PE) than perfusion defects in areas that are radiographically clear, regardless of the findings on ventilation scan. It was proposed that the demonstration of normal ventilation in areas with matched radiographic opacity and perfusion defects does support the diagnosis of PE. To test this hypothesis, a retrospective review was done of selected cases from a consecutive series of 85 pulmonary angiography studies. Cases were reviewed if the following criteria were met: chest radiography, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, and angiography of the relevant regions had all been performed within 24 hours of one another, and there was a radiographic opacity corresponding to the perfusion defect. Sixteen cases fulfilled these criteria. Six patients had normal ventilation in the regions of the radiographic infiltrate and perfusion defect, and all had PE. No patient had an area of opacity and perfusion defect and normal ventilation without PE.

  11. The effects of hemorrhagic parenchymal infarction on the establishment of sensori-motor structural and functional connectivity in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Arichi, T; Counsell, S J; Allievi, A G; Chew, A T; Martinez-Biarge, M; Mondi, V; Tusor, N; Merchant, N; Burdet, E; Cowan, F M; Edwards, A D

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize alterations of structural and functional connectivity within the developing sensori-motor system in infants with focal perinatal brain injury and at high risk of cerebral palsy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were used to study the developing functional and structural connectivity framework in six infants born prematurely at term equivalent age. This was first characterised in three infants without focal pathology, which was then compared to that derived from three infants with unilateral haemorrhagic parenchymal infarction and a subsequent focal periventricular white matter lesion who developed later haemiparesis. Functional responses to passive hand movement were in the contralateral perirolandic cortex, regardless of focal pathology. In infants with unilateral periventricular injury, afferent thalamo-cortical tracts appeared to have developed compensatory trajectories which circumvented areas of damage. In contrast, efferent corticospinal tracts showed marked asymmetry at term equivalent age following focal brain injury. Sensori-motor network analysis suggested that inter-hemispheric functional connectivity is largely preserved despite pathology and that impairment may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Following focal perinatal brain injury, altered structural and functional connectivity is already present and can be characterized with MRI at term equivalent age. The results of this small case series suggest that these techniques may provide valuable new information about prognosis and the pathophysiology underlying cerebral palsy.

  12. Intracellular transport of endocytosed chylomicron (TH)retinyl ester in rat liver parenchymal cells. Evidence for translocation of a (TH)retinoid from endosomes to endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Blomhoff, R.; Eskild, W.; Kindberg, G.M.; Prydz, K.; Berg, T.

    1985-11-05

    The intracellular transport of chylomicron remnants labeled with (TH)retinyl ester was studied in rat liver parenchymal cells by means of subcellular fractionation in Nycodenz and sucrose density gradients. The data presented indicate that endocytosed chylomicron remnant (TH)retinyl ester initially is located in low density endosomes. Radioactivity is subsequently transferred to a denser vesicle. Equilibrium as well as rate zonal centrifugation suggest that this denser (TH) retinoid-containing vesicle may represent endoplasmic reticulum. We have compared the intracellular transport of chylomicron remnant (TH)retinyl ester and SVI-asialofetuin. The receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins in rat liver parenchymal cells is a thoroughly studied system. Our results suggest that the (TH) retinoid and SVI-asialofetuin follow the same path initially to the endosomes. After transit in endosomes, the intracellular transport differs. While asialofetuin is transported to the lysosomes, the retinoid is probably transferred to the endoplasmic reticulum.

  13. A cost effectiveness based safety and efficacy study of resterilized intra-parenchymal catheter based intracranial pressure monitoring in developing world

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Bisht, Ajay; Batra, Priyam; Mathur, Purva; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) aims to maintain the normal cerebral perfusion in spite of the mass lesions that may occur (haematoma, contusion, and oedema). The monitoring of the intracranial pressure (ICP) is a step in that direction. The intra-parenchymal catheters have the lowest incidence of infection compared to intra-ventricular/subdural catheters with reliable and accurate pressure recordings. The major disadvantage of the intra-parenchymal catheters is the cost, especially in developing nations. Hypothesis: Resterilized intra-parenchymal strain gauge catheters can be used safely for ICP monitoring without any added risk of meningitis. The reusage of catheters can bring down the costs. Resterilized catheters/equipment have been approved for usage in cardiac usage, but such study on ICP catheters has not been carried out so far in any part of the world. Methodology: A total of 100 consecutive cases of severe TBI receiving ICP monitoring at a level 1 trauma center of a developing nation were prospectively studied (34 cases had fresh catheters, and 66 had resterilized [using ethylene oxide] catheters). Observations: The use of reused resterilized catheters was not associated with increased incidence of meningitis or fever (the surrogate marker for infection in this study). Also, there was concordance between the pressure recording of reused catheters and operative finding/subsequent computed tomography scans. These catheters after sterilization could be reused 2–4 times and reliably recorded the ICP (insignificant drift) with no increase in the incidence of meningitis. Conclusions: Usage of resterilized intra-parenchymal ICP catheters is feasible, safe, efficacious, and cost effective and brings down the cost of monitoring significantly. PMID:27695548

  14. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jeff; Kato, Fumi; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Li, Ruijiang; Cui, Yi; Tha, Khin Khin; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying “triple-negative" breast cancers. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) using cross-validation. Results Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01). Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement. Conclusions Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly

  15. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood ...

  16. The Gas Phase Mass Metallicity Relation for Dwarf Galaxies: Dependence on Star Formation Rate and H I Gas Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino; Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMRSFR) as well as HI-gas mass (FMRHI). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMRSFR and FMRHI across the stellar mass range 106.6-108.8 M⊙, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMRSFR (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMRSFR is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10-2.4 M⊙ yr-1, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMRHI. We also find that the FMRHI is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FMLSFR) and HI-gas mass (FMLHI). We find that the FMLHI relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FMLHI relation is not improved over the FMRHI scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMRHI is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation. Based on VLT service mode observations (Programs 081.B-0649 and 083.B-0662) gathered at the European Southern Observatory, Chile.

  17. Elastase-Induced Parenchymal Disruption and Airway Hyper Responsiveness in Mouse Precision Cut Lung Slices: Toward an Ex vivo COPD Model

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Eline M.; Culha, Sule; Menzen, Mark H.; Bidan, Cécile M.; Gosens, Reinoud

    2017-01-01

    Background: COPD is a progressive lung disease characterized by emphysema and enhanced bronchoconstriction. Current treatments focused on bronchodilation can delay disease progression to some extent, but recovery or normalization of loss of lung function is impossible. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets are needed. The importance of the parenchyma in airway narrowing is increasingly recognized. In COPD, the parenchyma and extracellular matrix are altered, possibly affecting airway mechanics and enhancing bronchoconstriction. Our aim was to set up a comprehensive ex vivo Precision Cut Lung Slice (PCLS) model with a pathophysiology resembling that of COPD and integrate multiple readouts in order to study the relationship between parenchyma, airway functionality, and lung repair processes. Methods: Lungs of C57Bl/6J mice were sliced and treated ex vivo with elastase (2.5 μg/ml) or H2O2 (200 μM) for 16 h. Following treatment, parenchymal structure, airway narrowing, and gene expression levels of alveolar Type I and II cell repair were assessed. Results: Following elastase, but not H2O2 treatment, slices showed a significant increase in mean linear intercept (Lmi), reflective of emphysema. Only elastase-treated slices showed disorganization of elastin and collagen fibers. In addition, elastase treatment lowered both alveolar Type I and II marker expression, whereas H2O2 stimulation lowered alveolar Type I marker expression only. Furthermore, elastase-treated slices showed enhanced methacholine-induced airway narrowing as reflected by increased pEC50 (5.87 at basal vs. 6.50 after elastase treatment) and Emax values (47.96 vs. 67.30%), and impaired chloroquine-induced airway opening. The increase in pEC50 correlated with an increase in mean Lmi. Conclusion: Using this model, we show that structural disruption of elastin fibers leads to impaired alveolar repair, disruption of the parenchymal compartment, and altered airway biomechanics, enhancing airway contraction

  18. Minimally invasive cone beam CT-guided evacuation of parenchymal and ventricular hemorrhage using the Apollo system: proof of concept in a cadaver model

    PubMed Central

    Fiorella, David; Arthur, Adam; Schafer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Apollo system (Penumbra Inc, Alameda, California, USA) is a low profile irrigation–aspiration system designed for the evacuation of intracranial hemorrhage. Objective To demonstrate the feasibility of using Apollo in combination with cone beam CT guidance. Methods Parenchymal (n=1) and mixed parenchymal–intraventricular hematomas (n=1) were created in cadaver heads using a transvascular (n=1) or transcranial (n=1) approach. Hematomas were then imaged with cone beam CT (CB-CT), and the long axis of the hematoma defined. The CB-CT data were then used to guide transcranial access to the hematoma—defining the location of the burr hole and the path to the leading edge of the hematoma. An 8F vascular sheath was then placed under live fluoroscopic guidance into the hematoma. A second CB-CT was performed to confirm localization of the sheath. The hematoma was then demarcated on the CB-CT and the Apollo wand was introduced through the 8F sheath and irrigation–aspiration was performed under (periodic) live fluoroscopic guidance. The operators manipulated the wand within the visible boundaries of the hematoma. After irrigation–aspiration, a control CB-CT was performed to document reduction in hematoma volume. Results Transvascular and transcranial techniques were both successful in creating intracranial hematomas. Hematomas could be defined with conspicuity sufficient for localization and volumetric measurement using CB-CT. Live fluoroscopic guidance was effective in navigating a sheath into the leading aspect of a parenchymal hematoma and guiding irrigation–aspiration with the Apollo system. Irrigation–aspiration reduced the parenchymal hemorrhage volume from 14.8 to 1.7 cc in 189 s in the first case (parenchymal hemorrhage) and from 26.4 to 4.1 cc in 300 s in the second case (parenchymal and intraventricular hemorrhage). Conclusions The cadaver model described is a useful means of studying interventional techniques for intracranial

  19. Interferon regulatory factor 3 and Type I interferons are protective in alcoholic liver injury in mice via cross-talk of parenchymal and myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Jan; Dolganiuc, Angela; Csak, Timea; Nath, Bharath; Hritz, Istvan; Kodys, Karen; Catalano, Donna; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) features increased hepatic exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) recognizes LPS and activates signaling pathways depending on MyD88 or TRIF adaptors. We previously showed that MyD88 is dispensable in ALD. TLR4 induces Type-I interferons (IFN) in MyD88-independent manner that involves interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3). We fed alcohol or control diets to wild-type (WT) and IRF3 knock-out (KO) mice, and to mice with selective IRF3 deficiency in liver parenchymal and bone marrow-derived cells. Whole-body IRF3-KO mice were protected from alcohol-induced liver injury, steatosis and inflammation. In contrast to WT or bone-marrow specific IRF3-KO mice, deficiency of IRF3 only in parenchymal cells aggravated alcohol-induced liver injury, associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, lower anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and lower Type-I IFNs compared to WT mice. Co-culture of WT primary murine hepatocytes with liver mononuclear cells (LMNC) resulted in higher LPS-induced IL-10 and IFN-β, and lower TNF-α levels compared to LMNC alone. Type-I IFN was important since co-cultures of hepatocytes with LMNC from Type-I IFN receptor KO mice showed attenuated IL-10 levels compared to control co-cultures from WT mice. We further identified that Type-I IFNs potentiated LPS-induced IL-10 and inhibited inflammatory cytokine production in both murine macrophages and human leukocytes, indicating preserved cross-species effects. These findings suggest that liver parenchymal cells are the dominant source of Type-I IFN in TLR4/IRF3-dependent manner. Further, parenchymal cell-derived Type-I IFNs increase anti-inflammatory and suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines production by LMNC in paracrine manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that IRF3 activation in parenchymal cells and resulting type I IFNs have protective effects in ALD via modulation of inflammatory functions in macrophages. These results suggest

  20. Interferon regulatory factor 3 and type I interferons are protective in alcoholic liver injury in mice by way of crosstalk of parenchymal and myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Petrasek, Jan; Dolganiuc, Angela; Csak, Timea; Nath, Bharath; Hritz, Istvan; Kodys, Karen; Catalano, Donna; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2011-02-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) features increased hepatic exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) recognizes LPS and activates signaling pathways depending on MyD88 or TRIF adaptors. We previously showed that MyD88 is dispensable in ALD. TLR4 induces Type I interferons (IFNs) in an MyD88-independent manner that involves interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3). We fed alcohol or control diets to wild-type (WT) and IRF3 knock-out (KO) mice, and to mice with selective IRF3 deficiency in liver parenchymal and bone marrow-derived cells. Whole-body IRF3-KO mice were protected from alcohol-induced liver injury, steatosis, and inflammation. In contrast to WT or bone marrow-specific IRF3-KO mice, deficiency of IRF3 only in parenchymal cells aggravated alcohol-induced liver injury, associated with increased proinflammatory cytokines, lower antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10), and lower Type I IFNs compared to WT mice. Coculture of WT primary murine hepatocytes with liver mononuclear cells (LMNC) resulted in higher LPS-induced IL-10 and IFN-β, and lower tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels compared to LMNC alone. Type I IFN was important because cocultures of hepatocytes with LMNC from Type I IFN receptor KO mice showed attenuated IL-10 levels compared to control cocultures from WT mice. We further identified that Type I IFNs potentiated LPS-induced IL-10 and inhibited inflammatory cytokine production in both murine macrophages and human leukocytes, indicating preserved cross-species effects. These findings suggest that liver parenchymal cells are the dominant source of Type I IFN in a TLR4/IRF3-dependent manner. Further, parenchymal cell-derived Type I IFNs increase antiinflammatory and suppress proinflammatory cytokines production by LMNC in paracrine manner. Our results indicate that IRF3 activation in parenchymal cells and resulting type I IFNs have protective effects in ALD by way of modulation of inflammatory

  1. Does breast MRI background parenchymal enhancement indicate metabolic activity? Qualitative and 3D quantitative computer imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Mema, Eralda; Mango, Victoria L; Guo, Xiaotao; Karcich, Jenika; Yeh, Randy; Wynn, Ralph T; Zhao, Binsheng; Ha, Richard S

    2017-06-24

    To investigate whether the degree of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) is associated with the amount of breast metabolic activity measured by breast parenchymal uptake (BPU) of 18F-FDG on positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT). An Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved retrospective study was performed. Of 327 patients who underwent preoperative breast MRI from 1/1/12 to 12/31/15, 73 patients had 18F-FDG PET/CT evaluation performed within 1 week of breast MRI and no suspicious findings in the contralateral breast. MRI was performed on a 1.5T or 3.0T system. The imaging sequence included a triplane localizing sequence followed by sagittal fat-suppressed T2 -weighted sequence, and a bilateral sagittal T1 -weighted fat-suppressed fast spoiled gradient-echo sequence, which was performed before and three times after a rapid bolus injection (gadobenate dimeglumine, Multihance; Bracco Imaging; 0.1 mmol/kg) delivered through an IV catheter. The unaffected contralateral breast in these 73 patients underwent BPE and BPU assessments. For PET/CT BPU calculation, a 3D region of interest (ROI) was drawn around the glandular breast tissue and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax ) was determined. Qualitative MRI BPE assessments were performed on a 4-point scale, in accordance with BI-RADS categories. Additional 3D quantitative MRI BPE analysis was performed using a previously published in-house technique. Spearman's correlation test and linear regression analysis was performed (SPSS, v. 24). The median time interval between breast MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT evaluation was 3 days (range, 0-6 days). BPU SUVmax mean value was 1.6 (SD, 0.53). Minimum and maximum BPU SUVmax values were 0.71 and 4.0. The BPU SUVmax values significantly correlated with both the qualitative and quantitative measurements of BPE, respectively (r(71) = 0.59, P < 0.001 and r(71) = 0.54, P < 0.001). Qualitatively assessed high

  2. MR microscopy of human amyloid-β deposits: characterization of parenchymal amyloid, diffuse plaques, and vascular amyloid.

    PubMed

    Nabuurs, Rob J A; Natté, Remco; de Ronde, Fenna M; Hegeman-Kleinn, Ingrid; Dijkstra, Jouke; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Webb, Andrew G; Rozemuller, Annemieke J; van Buchem, Mark A; van der Weerd, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral deposits of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) form the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). In the brain, Aβ can aggregate as insoluble fibrils present in amyloid plaques and vascular amyloid, or as diffuse plaques consisting of mainly non-fibrillar Aβ. Previously, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be capable of detecting individual amyloid plaques, not only via the associated iron, but also Aβ itself has been suggested to be responsible for a decrease in the image intensity. In this current study we aim to investigate the MRI properties of the different cerebral Aβ deposits including diffuse plaques and vascular amyloid. Postmortem 60-μm-thick brain sections of AD, CAA, and Down's syndrome patients, known to contain Aβ, were studied. High resolution T2*- and T2-weighted MRI scans and quantitative relaxation maps were acquired using a microcoil on a Bruker 9.4T MRI system. Specific MRI characteristics of each type of Aβ deposit were examined by co-registration of the MRI with Congo Red and Aβ-immunostainings of the same sections. Our results show that only fibrillar Aβ, present in both vascular and parenchymal amyloid, induced a significant change in T2* and T2 values. However, signal changes were not as consistent for all of the vessels affected by CAA, irrespective of possible dyshoric changes. In contrast, the non-fibrillar diffuse plaques did not create any detectable MRI signal changes. These findings are relevant for the interpretation and further development of (quantitative) MRI methods for the detection and follow-up of AD and CAA.

  3. EUS-guided liver biopsy for parenchymal disease: a comparison of diagnostic yield between two core biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    Sey, Michael Sai Lai; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Imperiale, Thomas F; McGreevy, Kathleen; Lin, Jingmei; DeWitt, John M

    2016-02-01

    EUS-guided biopsy of the liver has a variable diagnostic accuracy and specimen adequacy. A new core biopsy needle has been developed that may improve performance. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic yield of a new core biopsy needle with the previous standard needle. In this cross-sectional study, consecutive patients who underwent EUS-guided core liver biopsy over a 7-year period for suspected parenchymal disease were prospectively evaluated. Between 2007 and 2011, all biopsies were performed with a 19-gauge Tru-cut biopsy needle (Quick-core [QC]), whereas a novel reverse bevel needle (PC) was used exclusively from 2011 to 2014. All specimens were examined by 1 of 3 experienced, blinded pathologists for the following: presence of visible core, aggregate specimen length, number of complete portal tracts, and specimen adequacy. A total of 75 patients (mean age 51 years, 51 female) underwent liver biopsy by using the QC (n = 45) or PC (n = 30) needle. The QC and PC groups had similar demographics, indications for EUS, indications for liver biopsy, and liver findings on EUS. Compared with those of the QC, biopsies with the PC required fewer passes (median 2 vs 3; P < .0001) but produced longer aggregate length (median 20 mm vs 9 mm; P < .0001) with more complete portal tracts (median 5 vs 2; P = .0003) and adequate specimens (P < .01). Two patients had abdominal pain after liver biopsy with the QC needle. Compared with the QC needle, EUS-guided core liver biopsy with the PC needle produced longer aggregate length, more complete portal tracts, and more adequate specimens despite fewer passes (Clinical trial registration number: NCT00586313.). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases with Clinicoradiological Discordance: Role of Transbronchial Lung Biopsy as a Diagnostic Tool - An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Kiran Vishnu; Edakalavan, Jyothi; Kumar, Neethu Kesava

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The diagnosis of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease (DPLD) requires a multidisciplinary approach with reconciliation of clinicoradiological and histopathological data. But when the preliminary clinicoradiological profile fails to suggest a diagnosis, an adequate lung biopsy specimen with meticulous histological examination and a multidisciplinary approach usually yields results. There is also a high chance of sampling error due to patchy and heterogeneous involvement of the disease process and due to the small volume of tissue taken. As seen in our study, Trans-Bronchial Lung Biopsy (TBLB) if performed by an experienced bronchoscopist can be done as an outpatient procedure yielding adequate specimens for diagnosis and guide effective treatment in these patients. Aim To study the utility and diagnostic yield of TBLB in DPLD patients when there is clinicoradiological discordance. Materials and Methods The current retrospective observational study was undertaken in the Institute of Chest Diseases, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, from January 2012 to December 2014. Out of 169 DPLD patients who attended the tertiary care centre, 66 patients without a definite diagnosis by clinicoradiological assessment were included in the study. They underwent TBLB using a fibre-optic video bronchoscope. An open lung biopsy was advised if the TBLB did not yield a definite diagnosis. Results Among the 66 patients, histopathological confirmation was obtained in 51 patients, 39 of which were by TBLB (59%). Few diagnoses like invasive adenocarcinoma, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and Aspergillus infection were least expected. Conclusion TBLB if performed correctly can be an effective intervening modality in establishing the diagnosis of DPLD before going for an invasive surgical biopsy. PMID:28050417

  5. Clues for the differential diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis as an expectant variant of diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Kupeli, E; Karnak, D; Kayacan, O; Beder, S

    2004-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, a type of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is an immunologically mediated pulmonary disease induced by inhalation of various antigens. As data on the frequency of hypersensitivity pneumonitis are lacking in Turkey, a retrospective analyses was performed in 43 patients with DPLD, followed up over seven years. The objective was to discover cases fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for hypersensitivity pneumonitis, to determine the frequency and/or the new characteristics of the disease, and to pick up clues for differentiating it from other DPLDs. The four subjects with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (9%) who lived in an urban area were studied in detail. The most common symptoms were dry cough and dyspnoea. According to the symptom duration, clinical features, radiological and pathological findings, three were diagnosed with chronic and one with subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis and those with DPLD were compared by means of age, sex, smoking status, symptom duration, haematology, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, peripheral cell count, spirometric parameters, blood gases, and diffusion capacity. No statistically significant difference was detected in these parameters except for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). In conclusion, patients with a history of antigen exposure, with mild symptoms such as dry cough and dyspnoea, and who have diffuse interstitial lung involvement on radiology should be carefully evaluated for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Moreover, among other DPLDs, stable FEV1 or FVC values may be the clues for establishing the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. However, further studies are needed in larger series of patients. PMID:15192166

  6. Detection of transplant renal artery stenosis in the early postoperative period with analysis of parenchymal perfusion with ultrasound contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Grzelak, Piotr; Kurnatowska, Ilona; Nowicki, Michał; Muras, Katarzyna; Podgórski, Michał; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Stefańczyk, Ludomir

    2013-04-26

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a serious vascular complication due to non-specific clinical manifestations, causing serious diagnostic difficulties. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CE-US) can complement standard sonographic examination in evaluation of TRAS. Standard ultrasound B presentation, extended with color Doppler assessment of the flow spectrum and CE-US, was carried out in the early postoperative period in a group of 180 patients who underwent kidney transplantation. In CE-US analysis, the maximum contrast agent perfusion to the cortex and renal pyramids was evaluated. In 15 patients with sonographically diagnosed TRAS, magnetic resonance angiography and computer tomography angiography were performed to confirm the diagnosis. In patients with TRAS, significantly longer time of contrast agent (CE) inflow was observed in comparison to patients without perfusion disturbances (3.47 s vs. 1.5 s, p<0.000 for cortex; 6.01 vs. 2.09 s for pyramids, p<0.000). The rate of CE inflow was strongly positively correlated with severity of stenosis assessed on the basis of CTA/MRA examination (R=0.97 for cortex and 0.9 for pyramids; p<0.001). Six months after kidney transplantation, patients with a history of TRAS had significantly higher serum creatinine level than recipients with normal renal artery blood flow (1.76 mg/dL vs. 1.53 mg/dl, p<0.02). Estimated GFR was decreased to 35.9 ml/min vs. 46.5 ml/min, respectively (p<0.05). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound allows for quick and non-invasive assessment of parenchymal kidney graft perfusion. It enables confirmation of TRAS diagnosis in the early postoperative period and helps assess the degree of stenosis.

  7. Intra-Parenchymal Renal Resistive Index Variation (IRRIV) Describes Renal Functional Reserve (RFR): Pilot Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Samoni, Sara; Nalesso, Federico; Meola, Mario; Villa, Gianluca; De Cal, Massimo; De Rosa, Silvia; Petrucci, Ilaria; Brendolan, Alessandra; Rosner, Mitchell H.; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    An increase of glomerular filtration rate after protein load represents renal functional reserve (RFR) and is due to afferent arteriolar vasodilation. Lack of RFR may be a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI), but is cumbersome to measure. We sought to develop a non-invasive, bedside method that would indirectly measure RFR. Mechanical abdominal pressure, through compression of renal vessels, decreases blood flow and activates the auto-regulatory mechanism which can be measured by a fall in renal resistive index (RRI). The study aims at elucidating the relationship between intra-parenchymal renal resistive index variation (IRRIV) during abdominal pressure and RFR. In healthy volunteers, pressure was applied by a weight on the abdomen (fluid-bag 10% of subject's body weight) while RFR was measured through a protein loading test. We recorded RRI in an interlobular artery after application of pressure using ultrasound. The maximum percentage reduction of RRI from baseline was compared in the same subject to RFR. We enrolled 14 male and 16 female subjects (mean age 38 ± 14 years). Mean creatinine clearance was 106.2 ± 16.4 ml/min/1.73 m2. RFR ranged between −1.9 and 59.7 with a mean value of 28.9 ± 13.1 ml/min/1.73 m2. Mean baseline RRI was 0.61 ± 0.05, compared to 0.49 ± 0.06 during abdominal pressure; IRRIV was 19.6 ± 6.7%, ranging between 3.1% and 29.2%. Pearson's coefficient between RFR and IRRIV was 74.16% (p < 0.001). Our data show the correlation between IRRIV and RFR. Our results can lead to the development of a “stress test” for a rapid screen of RFR to establish renal susceptibility to different exposures and the consequent risk for AKI. PMID:27458386

  8. Intra-Parenchymal Renal Resistive Index Variation (IRRIV) Describes Renal Functional Reserve (RFR): Pilot Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Samoni, Sara; Nalesso, Federico; Meola, Mario; Villa, Gianluca; De Cal, Massimo; De Rosa, Silvia; Petrucci, Ilaria; Brendolan, Alessandra; Rosner, Mitchell H; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    An increase of glomerular filtration rate after protein load represents renal functional reserve (RFR) and is due to afferent arteriolar vasodilation. Lack of RFR may be a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI), but is cumbersome to measure. We sought to develop a non-invasive, bedside method that would indirectly measure RFR. Mechanical abdominal pressure, through compression of renal vessels, decreases blood flow and activates the auto-regulatory mechanism which can be measured by a fall in renal resistive index (RRI). The study aims at elucidating the relationship between intra-parenchymal renal resistive index variation (IRRIV) during abdominal pressure and RFR. In healthy volunteers, pressure was applied by a weight on the abdomen (fluid-bag 10% of subject's body weight) while RFR was measured through a protein loading test. We recorded RRI in an interlobular artery after application of pressure using ultrasound. The maximum percentage reduction of RRI from baseline was compared in the same subject to RFR. We enrolled 14 male and 16 female subjects (mean age 38 ± 14 years). Mean creatinine clearance was 106.2 ± 16.4 ml/min/1.73 m(2). RFR ranged between -1.9 and 59.7 with a mean value of 28.9 ± 13.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Mean baseline RRI was 0.61 ± 0.05, compared to 0.49 ± 0.06 during abdominal pressure; IRRIV was 19.6 ± 6.7%, ranging between 3.1% and 29.2%. Pearson's coefficient between RFR and IRRIV was 74.16% (p < 0.001). Our data show the correlation between IRRIV and RFR. Our results can lead to the development of a "stress test" for a rapid screen of RFR to establish renal susceptibility to different exposures and the consequent risk for AKI.

  9. Increased pressure-induced tone in rat parenchymal arterioles vs. middle cerebral arteries: role of ion channels and calcium sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, Marilyn J; Sweet, Julie; Chan, Siu-Lung; Tavares, Matthew J; Gokina, Natalia; Brayden, Joseph E

    2014-07-01

    Brain parenchymal arterioles (PAs) are high-resistance vessels that branch off pial arteries and perfuse the brain parenchyma. PAs are the target of cerebral small vessel disease and have been shown to have greater pressure-induced tone at lower pressures than pial arteries. We investigated mechanisms by which brain PAs have increased myogenic tone compared with middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), focusing on differences in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) calcium and ion channel function. The amount of myogenic tone and VSM calcium was measured using Fura 2 in isolated and pressurized PAs and MCAs. Increases in intraluminal pressure caused larger increases in tone and cytosolic calcium in PAs compared with MCAs. At 50 mmHg, myogenic tone was 37 ± 5% for PAs vs. 6.5 ± 4% for MCAs (P < 0.01), and VSM calcium was 200 ± 20 nmol/l in PAs vs. 104 ± 15 nmol/l in MCAs (P < 0.01). In vessels permeabilized with Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin, PAs were not more sensitive to calcium, suggesting calcium sensitization was not at the level of the contractile apparatus. PAs were 30-fold more sensitive to the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) inhibitor nifedipine than MCAs (EC50 for PAs was 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. 82.1 ± 2.1 nmol/l for MCAs;P < 0.01); however, electrophysiological properties of the VDCC were not different in VSM. PAs had little to no response to the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitor iberiotoxin, whereas MCAs constricted ∼15%. Thus increased myogenic tone in PAs appears related to differences in ion channel activity that promotes VSM membrane depolarization but not to a direct sensitization of the contractile apparatus to calcium.

  10. Specific renal parenchymal-derived urinary extracellular vesicles identify age-associated structural changes in living donor kidneys.

    PubMed

    Turco, Anne E; Lam, Wing; Rule, Andrew D; Denic, Aleksandar; Lieske, John C; Miller, Virginia M; Larson, Joseph J; Kremers, Walter K; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive tests to identify age and early disease-associated pathology within the kidney are needed. Specific populations of urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) could potentially be used for such a diagnostic test. Random urine samples were obtained from age- and sex-stratified living kidney donors before kidney donation. A biopsy of the donor kidney was obtained at the time of transplantation to identify nephron hypertrophy (larger glomerular volume, cortex per glomerulus and mean profile tubular area) and nephrosclerosis (% fibrosis, % glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis). Renal parenchymal-derived EVs in cell-free urine were quantified by digital flow cytometry. The relationship between these EV populations and structural pathology on the kidney biopsy was assessed. Clinical characteristics of the kidney donors (n=138, age range: 20-70 years, 50% women) were within the normative range. Overall, urine from women contained more EVs than that from men. The number of exosomes, juxtaglomerular cells and podocyte marker-positive EVs decreased (p<0.05) with increasing age. There were fewer total EVs as well as EVs positive for mesangial cell, parietal cell, descending limb of Henle's loop (simple squamous epithelium), collecting tubule-intercalated cell and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 markers (p<0.05) in persons with nephron hypertrophy. The number of EVs positive for intercellular adhesion molecule-1, juxtaglomerular cell, podocyte, parietal cell, proximal tubular epithelial cell, distal tubular epithelial cell and collecting duct cells were fewer (p<0.05) in persons with nephrosclerosis. EVs carrying markers of cells from the renal pelvis epithelium did not associate with any indices of nephron hypertrophy or nephrosclerosis. Therefore, specific populations of EVs derived from cells of the glomerulus and nephron associate with underlying kidney structural changes. Further validation of these findings in other cohorts is needed to determine their

  11. CTNNB1 (β-Catenin)-altered Neoplasia: A Review Focusing on Soft Tissue Neoplasms and Parenchymal Lesions of Uncertain Histogenesis.

    PubMed

    Agaimy, Abbas; Haller, Florian

    2016-01-01

    β-catenin (CTNNB1) is a key regulatory molecule of the Wnt signaling pathway, which is important for tissue homeostasis and regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. Abnormal stabilization and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin as a consequence of missense mutations or alternative molecular mechanisms occurs at a high frequency in a variety of epithelial cancers. In mesenchymal neoplasia, the role of β-catenin has been traditionally considered limited to desmoid-type fibromatosis. However, the spectrum of β-catenin-driven (β-catenin-altered) neoplasia of mesenchymal origin has been steadily widening to include, in addition to desmoid tumors, a variety of benign and intermediate-biology neoplasms of soft tissue (intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma), head and neck (juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and sinonasal hemangiopericytoma/glomangiopericytoma), and ovarian (microcystic stromal tumor) origin. In addition, several old and newly reported distinctive site-specific β-catenin-driven parenchymal neoplasms of uncertain histogenesis have been well characterized in recent studies, including solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas and its recently described ovarian counterpart, sclerosing hemangioma of lung and calcifying nested stromal-epithelial tumor of the liver. This review addresses the most relevant pathobiological and differential diagnostic aspects of β-catenin-altered neoplasms with emphasis on site-specific histologic and biological variations. In addition, the morphologic overlap and analogy as well as distinctness between these uncommon tumors will be presented and discussed. Furthermore, a note is made on association of some of these lesions with hereditary tumor syndromes, in particular with the familial adenomatous polyposis coli.

  12. Treatment for cerebral small vessel disease: effect of relaxin on the function and structure of cerebral parenchymal arterioles during hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Siu-Lung; Sweet, Julie G; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effect of hypertension on the function and structure of cerebral parenchymal arterioles (PAs), a major target of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), and determined whether relaxin is a treatment for SVD during hypertension. PAs were isolated from 18-wk-old female normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs), and SHRs treated with human relaxin 2 for 14 d (4 μg/h; n=8/group) and studied using a pressurized arteriograph system. Hypertension reduced PA inner diameter (58±3 vs. 49±3 μm at 60 mmHg in WKY rats, P<0.05), suggesting inward remodeling that was reversed by relaxin (56±4 μm, P<0.05). Relaxin also increased PA distensibility in SHRs (34±2 vs. 10±2% in SHRs, P<0.05). Relaxin was detected in cerebrospinal fluid (110±30 pg/ml) after systemic administration, suggesting that it crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Relaxin receptors (RXFP1/2) were not detected in cerebral vasculature, but relaxin increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) expression in brain cortex. Inhibition of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase (axitinib, 4 mg/kg/d, 14 d) had no effect on increased distensibility with relaxin, but caused outward hypertrophic remodeling of PAs from SHRs. These results suggest that relaxin crosses the BBB and activates MMP-2 in brain cortex, which may interact with PAs to increase distensibility. VEGF appears to be involved in remodeling of PAs, but not relaxin-induced increased distensibility.

  13. Background Parenchymal Enhancement of the Contralateral Normal Breast: Association with Tumor Response in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeon Hor; Yu, Hon J.; Hsu, Christine; Mehta, Rita S.; Carpenter, Philip M.; Su, Min Ying

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigated the association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: A total of 46 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer were analyzed. Each patient had three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, one pre-treatment and two follow-up (F/U) MRI studies. BPE was measured as the averaged enhancement of the whole fibroglandular tissues. The pre-treatment BPE and the changes in the F/U MRI were compared between patients achieving pathologic complete response (pCR) versus those not. Subgroup analyses based on age, estrogen receptor (ER), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of their cancers were also performed. RESULTS: The pre-treatment BPE was higher in the pCR group than that in the non-pCR group. Compared to baseline, BPE at F/U-1 was significantly decreased in the pCR group but not in the non-pCR group. In subgroup analysis based on age, these results were seen only in the younger group (< 55 years old), not in the older group (≥ 55 years old). Older patients had a significantly lower pre-treatment BPE than younger patients. In analysis based on molecular biomarkers, a significantly decreased BPE at F/U-1 was only found in the ER-negative pCR group but not in the non-pCR, nor in the ER-positive groups. CONCLUSIONS: A higher pre-treatment BPE showing a significant decrease early after starting NAC was related to pCR in pre/peri-menopausal patients. PMID:26055178

  14. Breast Background Parenchymal Enhancement on Screening Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Women Who Received Chest Radiotherapy for Childhood Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liang; Lo, Glen; Moshonov, Hadas; Liang, Jiachao; Hodgson, David; Crystal, Pavel

    2016-02-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for the screening of women with a history of chest radiotherapy and consequent increased breast cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of prior chest radiotherapy on breast tissue background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at screening breast MRI. A departmental database was reviewed to identify asymptomatic women with either a history of chest radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma or age-matched controls who underwent screening breast MRI between 2009 and 2013. MRI studies were analyzed on an automated breast MRI viewing platform to calculate breast BPE and breast density. A total of 61 cases (mean age 41.6 ± 6.75 years) and 61 controls (mean age 40.8 ± 6.99 years) were included. The age of patients at the time of chest radiotherapy was 22.6 ± 8.17 years. Screening MRI was performed 19.0 ± 7.43 years after chest radiotherapy. BPE was significantly higher in patients who received chest radiotherapy (50% vs. 37%, P <0.01). A weak to moderate positive correlation (r > 0.3; P < 0.03) was found between BPE and number of years post radiotherapy. There was a trend toward significant difference between the two groups in the correlation of BPE and age (P = 0.05). Breast density was not significantly different between the two groups. BPE is significantly greater in women who receive chest radiotherapy for childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma, and unexpectedly, it positively correlates with the number of years passed after radiation therapy. Long-term biological effects of radiation therapy on breast parenchyma need further research. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of a mammographic parenchymal pattern (MPP) descriptor with breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Zhou, Chuan; Helvie, Mark A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sahiner, Berkman

    2010-03-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of improving breast cancer risk prediction by computerized mammographic parenchymal pattern (MPP) analysis. A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association of the MPP measures with breast cancer risk. The case group included 168 contralateral CC-view mammograms of breast cancer patients dated at least one year prior to cancer diagnosis, and the control group included 522 CC-view mammograms from one breast of normal subjects. We extracted and compared four types of statistical texture feature spaces that included run length statistics and region size statistics (RLS/RSS) features, spatial gray level dependence (SGLD) features, gray level difference statistics (GLDS) features, and the feature space combining these three types of texture features. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with stepwise feature selection was trained and tested with leave-one-case-out resampling to evaluate whether the breast parenchyma of future cancer patients could be distinguished from those of normal subjects in each feature space. The areas under ROC curves (Az) were 0.71, 0.72, 0.71 and 0.76 for the four feature spaces, respectively. The Az obtained from the combined feature space was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those from the individual feature spaces. Odd ratios (OR) were used to assess the association between breast cancer risk and four categories of MPP measures: <0.1 (C1), 0.1-0.15 (C2), 0.15-0.2 (C3), and >0.2 (C4) while patient age was treated as a confounding factor. The adjusted ORs of breast cancer for C2, C3 and C4 were 3.23, 7.77 and 25.43, respectively. The preliminary result indicated that our proposed computerized MPP measures were strongly associated with breast cancer risk.

  16. Airway-parenchymal interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Paré, Peter D; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript we discuss the interaction of the lung parenchyma and the airways as well as the physiological and pathophysiological significance of this interaction. These two components of the respiratory organ can be thought of as two independent elastic structures but in fact the mechanical properties of one influence the behavior of the other. Traditionally the interaction has focused on the effects of the lung on the airways but there is good evidence that the opposite is also true, i.e., that the mechanical properties of the airways influence the elastic properties of the parenchyma. The interplay between components of the respiratory system including the airways, parenchyma and vasculature is often referred to as “interdependence.” This interdependence transmits the elastic recoil of the lung to create an effective pressure that dilates the airways as transpulmonary pressure and lung volume increase. By using a continuum mechanics analysis of the lung parenchyma, it is possible to predict the effective pressure between the airways and parenchyma, and these predictions can be empirically evaluated. Normal airway caliber is maintained by this pressure in the adventitial interstitium of the airway, and it counteracts airway compression during forced expiration as well as the ability of airway smooth muscle to narrow airways. Interdependence has physiological and pathophysiological significance. Weakening of the forces of interdependence contributes to airway dysfunction and gas exchange impairment in acute and chronic airway diseases including asthma and emphysema. PMID:23723029

  17. Airway-parenchymal interdependence.

    PubMed

    Paré, Peter D; Mitzner, Wayne

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we discuss the interaction of the lung parenchyma and the airways as well as the physiological and pathophysiological significance of this interaction. These two components of the respiratory organ can be thought of as two independent elastic structures but in fact the mechanical properties of one influence the behavior of the other. Traditionally, the interaction has focused on the effects of the lung on the airways but there is good evidence that the opposite is also true, that is, that the mechanical properties of the airways influence the elastic properties of the parenchyma. The interplay between components of the respiratory system including the airways, parenchyma, and vasculature is often referred to as "interdependence." This interdependence transmits the elastic recoil of the lung to create an effective pressure that dilates the airways as transpulmonary pressure and lung volume increase. By using a continuum mechanics analysis of the lung parenchyma, it is possible to predict the effective pressure between the airways and parenchyma, and these predictions can be empirically evaluated. Normal airway caliber is maintained by this pressure in the adventitial interstitium of the airway, and it attenuates the ability of airway smooth muscle to narrow airways. Interdependence has physiological and pathophysiological significance. Weakening of the forces of interdependence contributes to airway dysfunction and gas exchange impairment in acute and chronic airway diseases including asthma and emphysema. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1853-1872, 2012.

  18. THE GAS PHASE MASS METALLICITY RELATION FOR DWARF GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND HI GAS MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino; Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola

    2015-10-20

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMR{sub SFR}) as well as HI-gas mass (FMR{sub HI}). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMR{sub SFR} and FMR{sub HI} across the stellar mass range 10{sup 6.6}–10{sup 8.8} M{sub ⊙}, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMR{sub SFR} (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMR{sub SFR} is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10{sup −2.4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMR{sub HI}. We also find that the FMR{sub HI} is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FML{sub SFR}) and HI-gas mass (FML{sub HI}). We find that the FML{sub HI} relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FML{sub HI} relation is not improved over the FMR{sub HI} scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMR{sub HI} is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation.

  19. The age-metallicity relation in the solar neighbourhood from a pilot sample of white dwarf-main sequence binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Anguiano, B.; García-Berro, E.; Freeman, K. C.; Cojocaru, R.; Manser, C. J.; Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X.-W.

    2016-12-01

    The age-metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational constraint for understanding how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet an agreement on the observational properties of the AMR for the solar neighbourhood, primarily due to the difficulty in obtaining accurate stellar ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign for providing the much needed observational input by using wide white-dwarf-main-sequence (WDMS) binaries. White dwarfs are `natural' clocks and can be used to derive accurate ages. Metallicities can be obtained from the main-sequence companions. Since the progenitors of white dwarfs and the main-sequence stars were born at the same time, WDMS binaries provide a unique opportunity to observationally constrain in a robust way the properties of the AMR. In this work we present the AMR derived from analysing a pilot sample of 23 WDMS binaries and provide clear observational evidence for the lack of correlation between age and metallicity at young and intermediate ages (0-7 Gyr).

  20. Absolute Optical Photometry and a Photometric Metallicity Relation for the Nearby Cool Stars from the MEarth Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jason; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    There is renewed interest in understanding the low mass stars and brown dwarfs of the solar neighborhood. Since M dwarfs make up the vast majority of stars in the universe, it is essential that we understand their fundamental physical properties. Their ubiquitousness makes them excellent kinematic and chemical probes of the Galaxy, provided we can accurately measure their distances, absolute magnitudes, and metallicities. Additionally, current and future exoplanet surveys that are focused on M dwarfs, such as SPIRou, CARMENES, and the Habitable Zone Planet Finder will uncover a plethora of planetary systems around these stars. Unfortunately, many of the nearby low mass stars are poorly characterized with current data. The MEarth survey has been monitoring approximately 1800 mid-to-late M dwarfs since 2008 and each night also observes a set of Landolt standard stars. We measure a precise optical magnitude in our MEarth bandpass, a red broadband filter similar to the Bessel I filter, for 1500 of these systems. By combining this work with our recent work measuring the trigonometric parallaxes and metallicities of a subset of these M dwarfs, we construct a photometric metallicity relation. We then apply it to the full sample of MEarth-North M dwarfs.The MEarth project gratefully acknowledges funding from the David and Lucile Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, the National Science Foundation under grants AST-0807690, AST-1109468, and AST-1004488, and the John Templeton Foundation.

  1. Fundamental stellar parameters and age-metallicity relation of Kepler red giants in comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Y.; Tajitsu, A.; Sato, B.; Liu, Y.-J.; Chen, Y.-Q.; Zhao, G.

    2016-04-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (effective temperature, metallicity, etc) were determined for a large sample of ˜100 red giants in the Kepler field, for which mass, radius, and evolutionary status had already been asteroseismologically established. These two kinds of spectroscopic and seismic information suffice to define the position on the `luminosity versus effective temperature' diagram and to assign an appropriate theoretical evolutionary track to each star. Making use of this advantage, we examined whether the stellar location on this diagram really matches the assigned track, which would make an interesting consistency check between theory and observation. It turned out that satisfactory agreement was confirmed in most cases (˜90 per cent, though appreciable discrepancies were seen for some stars such as higher mass red-clump giants), suggesting that recent stellar evolution calculations are practically reliable. Since the relevant stellar age could also be obtained by this comparison, we derived the age-metallicity relation for these Kepler giants and found the following characteristics: (1) the resulting distribution is quite similar to what was previously concluded for F-, G-, and K-type stars dwarfs; (2) the dispersion of metallicity progressively increases as the age becomes older; (3) nevertheless, the maximum metallicity at any stellar age remains almost flat, which means the existence of super/near-solar metallicity stars in a considerably wide age range from ˜(2-3) × 108 to ˜1010 yr.

  2. Metal-related artifacts in instrumented spine. Techniques for reducing artifacts in CT and MRI: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Stradiotti, P.; Curti, A.; Castellazzi, G.

    2009-01-01

    The projectional nature of radiogram limits its amount of information about the instrumented spine. MRI and CT imaging can be more helpful, using cross-sectional view. However, the presence of metal-related artifacts at both conventional CT and MRI imaging can obscure relevant anatomy and disease. We reviewed the literature about overcoming artifacts from metallic orthopaedic implants at high-field strength MRI imaging and multi-detector CT. The evolution of multichannel CT has made available new techniques that can help minimizing the severe beam-hardening artifacts. The presence of artifacts at CT from metal hardware is related to image reconstruction algorithm (filter), tube current (in mA), X-ray kilovolt peak, pitch, hardware composition, geometry (shape), and location. MRI imaging has been used safely in patients with orthopaedic metallic implants because most of these implants do not have ferromagnetic properties and have been fixed into position. However, on MRI imaging metallic implants may produce geometric distortion, the so-called susceptibility artifact. In conclusion, although 140 kV and high milliamperage second exposures are recommended for imaging patients with hardware, caution should always be exercised, particularly in children, young adults, and patients undergoing multiple examinations. MRI artifacts can be minimized by positioning optimally and correctly the examined anatomy part with metallic implants in the magnet and by choosing fast spin-echo sequences, and in some cases also STIR sequences, with an anterior to posterior frequency-encoding direction and the smallest voxel size. PMID:19437043

  3. Metal-related artifacts in instrumented spine. Techniques for reducing artifacts in CT and MRI: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Stradiotti, P; Curti, A; Castellazzi, G; Zerbi, A

    2009-06-01

    The projectional nature of radiogram limits its amount of information about the instrumented spine. MRI and CT imaging can be more helpful, using cross-sectional view. However, the presence of metal-related artifacts at both conventional CT and MRI imaging can obscure relevant anatomy and disease. We reviewed the literature about overcoming artifacts from metallic orthopaedic implants at high-field strength MRI imaging and multi-detector CT. The evolution of multichannel CT has made available new techniques that can help minimizing the severe beam-hardening artifacts. The presence of artifacts at CT from metal hardware is related to image reconstruction algorithm (filter), tube current (in mA), X-ray kilovolt peak, pitch, hardware composition, geometry (shape), and location. MRI imaging has been used safely in patients with orthopaedic metallic implants because most of these implants do not have ferromagnetic properties and have been fixed into position. However, on MRI imaging metallic implants may produce geometric distortion, the so-called susceptibility artifact. In conclusion, although 140 kV and high milliamperage second exposures are recommended for imaging patients with hardware, caution should always be exercised, particularly in children, young adults, and patients undergoing multiple examinations. MRI artifacts can be minimized by positioning optimally and correctly the examined anatomy part with metallic implants in the magnet and by choosing fast spin-echo sequences, and in some cases also STIR sequences, with an anterior to posterior frequency-encoding direction and the smallest voxel size.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of 3.0T and 1.5T MR imaging of the liver in patients with diffuse parenchymal liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Semelka, Richard C; Zapparoli, Mauricio; Elias, Jorge; Altun, Ersan; Pamuklar, Ertan; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare signal characteristics and image qualities of MR imaging at 3.0T and 1.5T in patients with diffuse parenchymal liver disease. 25 consecutive patients with diffuse parenchymal liver disease underwent abdominal MR imaging at both 3.0T and 1.5T within a 6-month interval. A retrospective study was conducted to obtain quantitative and qualitative data from both 3.0T and 1.5T MRI. Quantitative image analysis was performed by measuring the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) by the Students t-test. Qualitative image analysis was assessed by grading each sequence on a 3- and 4-point scale, regarding the presence of artifacts and image quality, respectively. Statistical analysis consisted of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. the mean SNRs and CNRs of the liver parenchyma and the portal vein were significantly higher at 3.0T than at 1.5T on portal and equilibrium phases of volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) images (P<0.05). The mean SNRs were significantly higher at 3.0T than at 1.5T on T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (SGE) images (P<0.05). However, there were no significantly differences on T2-weighted short-inversion-time inversion recovery (STIR) images. Overall image qualities of the 1.5T non-contrast T1- and T2-weighted sequences were significantly better than 3.0T (P<0.01). In contrast, overall image quality of the 3.0T post-gadolinium VIBE sequence was significantly better than 1.5T (P<0.01). MR imaging of post-gadolinium VIBE sequence at 3.0T has quantitative and qualitative advantages of evaluating for diffuse parenchymal liver disease.

  5. Impact of Abdominal Follow-Up Sonography in Trauma Patients Without Abdominal Parenchymal Organ Lesion or Free Intraabdominal Fluid in Whole-Body Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Emmanuel; Koch, Christian; Borgards, Mara; Reichert, Martin; Hecker, Andreas; Heiß, Christian; Padberg, Winfried; Alejandre-Lafont, Enrique; Röhrig, Rainer; Krombach, Gabriele Anja; Weigand, Markus; Bernhard, Michael; Roller, Fritz Christian

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Patients suffering from severe blunt abdominal trauma are challenging because of their need for accurate diagnostic imaging and fast therapeutic action. Whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) is highly sensitive and represents the gold standard in the trauma room diagnostic setting. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact and therapy relevance of abdominal follow-up sonography (AFS) as part of the tertiary trauma survey (TTS) in patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free abdominal fluid in initial WBCT. Materials and Methods All adult patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free intraabdominal fluid in the initial WBCT examination, who received AFS within 24 hours after trauma, were included in this retrospective analysis between January 2008 and December 2011. Results 316 patients were analyzed (ISS 10 ± 8, NISS 13 ± 11) according to the inclusion criteria. Overall, only small amounts of free intraabdominal fluid were detected in AFS in 3 patients (0.9 %) and remained without therapeutic consequence. None of the patients died due to intraabdominal bleeding. Conclusion AFS as part of the TTS did not show additional benefits and had no impact on further treatment in patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free intraabdominal fluid in the initial WBCT examination. We conclude that AFS is not routinely required but should be performed if indicated on a clinical or laboratory basis because of its fast and less invasive character. Key points  · Seriously injured patients are challenging for medical imaging and treatment.. · Whole-body computed tomography is known for its high accuracy in trauma patients.. · Nonetheless, missed injuries are a major challenge in trauma patients.. · Therefore, follow-up ultrasound is often performed within the tertiary trauma survey.. · Follow-up ultrasound in patients with an inconspicuous abdominal computed tomography scan did not show any

  6. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  7. Cellular and molecular characterization of multipolar Map5-expressing cells: a subset of newly generated, stage-specific parenchymal cells in the mammalian central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Crociara, Paola; Parolisi, Roberta; Conte, Daniele; Fumagalli, Marta; Bonfanti, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Although extremely interesting in adult neuro-glio-genesis and promising as an endogenous source for repair, parenchymal progenitors remain largely obscure in their identity and physiology, due to a scarce availability of stage-specific markers. What appears difficult is the distinction between real cell populations and various differentiation stages of the same population. Here we focused on a subset of multipolar, polydendrocyte-like cells (mMap5 cells) expressing the microtubule associated protein 5 (Map5), which is known to be present in most neurons. We characterized the morphology, phenotype, regional distribution, proliferative dynamics, and stage-specific marker expression of these cells in the rabbit and mouse CNS, also assessing their existence in other mammalian species. mMap5 cells were never found to co-express the Ng2 antigen. They appear to be a population of glial cells sharing features but also differences with Ng2+progenitor cells. We show that mMap5 cells are newly generated, postmitotic parenchymal elements of the oligodendroglial lineage, thus being a stage-specific population of polydendrocytes. Finally, we report that the number of mMap5 cells, although reduced within the brain of adult/old animals, can increase in neurodegenerative and traumatic conditions.

  8. New simple technique for hepatic parenchymal resection using a Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator and bipolar cautery equipped with a channel for water dripping.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Ikai, I; Kume, M; Sakai, Y; Yamauchi, A; Shinohara, H; Morimoto, T; Shimahara, Y; Yamamoto, M; Yamaoka, Y

    1999-10-01

    We have developed a new technique to resect hepatic parenchyma without inflow occlusion by using the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA) and bipolar cautery with a saline irrigation system. The significance of this method in hepatectomy was analyzed in comparison with historical control of hepatectomy using Pringle's maneuver. An ordinary bipolar cautery was remodeled with an infusion line to bring saline droplets down the inner surface of one arm of the tweezers through an opening about 1.5 cm proximal to its tip. The optimal flow rate of saline was approximately one drop per second. The power of bipolar cautery was adjusted to 50 watts. When the tweezer blades were approximated to 1 or 2 mm, saline droplets were directed to the tip of tweezers and could be immediately evaporated. After sonicating parenchymal cells, the tissue of small branches of Glisson's tree or small tributaries of the hepatic vein were coagulated by bipolar cautery. The coagulated cords were then easily cut by scissors. The impact of this technique on ordinary liver resections was evaluated by analyzing the postoperative clinical course in relation to the hepatic functional reserve necessary for major hepatectomy, duration of hepatectomy, and intraoperative blood loss. Hepatic resection without vascular occlusion using this technique could decrease the morbidity in patients who have less hepatic functional reserve. It could also decrease intraoperative blood loss. This new technique effectively decreased the surgical load of the remnant liver during parenchymal resection by avoiding ischemic stress. Consequently it extends the safety limits of major hepatectomy.

  9. Role of Hepatic Stellate Cells in the Early Phase of Liver Regeneration in Rat: Formation of Tight Adhesion to Parenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Ayako; Mullaney, Ian; Sheard, Philip; Hessian, Paul; Zimmermann, Arthur; Senoo, Haruki; Wheatley, Antony M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated activation mechanisms of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that are known to play pivotal roles in the regeneration process after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx). Parenchymal liver cells (PLCs) and non-parenchymal cells (NPLCs) were isolated and purified from the regenerating livers at 1, 3, 7, 14 days after PHx. Each liver cell fraction was stained by immunocytochemistry using an anti-desmin antibody as a marker for HSCs, anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) as a marker for activated HSCs, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for detection of proliferating cells. Tissue sections from regenerating livers were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry and compared with the results obtained for isolated cell fractions. One and 3 days after PHx, PLC-enriched fraction contained HSCs adhered to PLCs. The HSCs adhered to PLCs were double positive for BrdU and alpha-SMA, and formed clusters suggesting that these HSCs were activated. However, HSC-enriched fraction contained HSCs not adhered PLCs showed positive staining for anti-desmin antibody but negative for anti-alpha-SMA antibody. These results suggest that HSCs are activated by adhering to PLCs during the early phase of hepatic regeneration. PMID:14960181

  10. Role of Hepatic Stellate Cells in the Early Phase of Liver Regeneration in Rat: Formation of Tight Adhesion to Parenchymal Cells.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Ayako; Mullaney, Ian; Sheard, Philip; Hessian, Paul; Zimmermann, Arthur; Senoo, Haruki; Wheatley, Antony M

    2004-01-14

    We investigated activation mechanisms of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that are known to play pivotal roles in the regeneration process after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx). Parenchymal liver cells (PLCs) and non-parenchymal cells (NPLCs) were isolated and purified from the regenerating livers at 1, 3, 7, 14 days after PHx. Each liver cell fraction was stained by immunocytochemistry using an anti-desmin antibody as a marker for HSCs, anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) as a marker for activated HSCs, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for detection of proliferating cells. Tissue sections from regenerating livers were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry and compared with the results obtained for isolated cell fractions. One and 3 days after PHx, PLC-enriched fraction contained HSCs adhered to PLCs. The HSCs adhered to PLCs were double positive for BrdU and alpha-SMA, and formed clusters suggesting that these HSCs were activated. However, HSC-enriched fraction contained HSCs not adhered PLCs showed positive staining for anti-desmin antibody but negative for anti-alpha-SMA antibody. These results suggest that HSCs are activated by adhering to PLCs during the early phase of hepatic regeneration.

  11. Intrapancreatic Parenchymal Injection of Cells as a Useful Tool for Allowing a Small Number of Proliferative Cells to Grow In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masahiro; Saitoh, Issei; Murakami, Tomoya; Kubota, Naoko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Inada, Emi

    2017-01-01

    In vivo inoculation of cells such as tumor cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS)/embryonic stem (ES) cells into immunocompromised mice has been considered as a powerful technique to evaluate their potential to proliferate or differentiate into various cell types originating from three germ cell layers. Subcutaneous grafting and grafting under the kidney capsule have been widely used for this purpose, but there are some demerits such as the requirement of a large number of tumor cells for inoculation and frequent failure of tumorigenesis. Therefore, grafting into other sites has been explored, including intratesticular or intramuscular grafting as well as grafting into the cochleae, liver, or salivary glands. In this study, we found that intrapancreatic parenchymal injection of cells is useful for allowing a small number of cells (~15 × 103 cells or ~30 cell clumps μL−1·site−1) to proliferate and sometimes differentiate into various types of cells. It requires only surgical exposure of the pancreas over the dorsal skin and subsequent injection of cells towards the pancreatic parenchyma under dissecting microscope-based observation using a mouthpiece-controlled glass micropipette. We now name this technology “intrapancreatic parenchymal cell transplantation (IPPCT)”, which will be useful, especially when only a small number of cells or colonies are available. PMID:28767080

  12. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades. PMID:25810443

  13. Cellular and Molecular Characterization of Multipolar Map5-Expressing Cells: A Subset of Newly Generated, Stage-Specific Parenchymal Cells in the Mammalian Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Crociara, Paola; Parolisi, Roberta; Conte, Daniele; Fumagalli, Marta; Bonfanti, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Although extremely interesting in adult neuro-glio-genesis and promising as an endogenous source for repair, parenchymal progenitors remain largely obscure in their identity and physiology, due to a scarce availability of stage-specific markers. What appears difficult is the distinction between real cell populations and various differentiation stages of the same population. Here we focused on a subset of multipolar, polydendrocyte-like cells (mMap5 cells) expressing the microtubule associated protein 5 (Map5), which is known to be present in most neurons. We characterized the morphology, phenotype, regional distribution, proliferative dynamics, and stage-specific marker expression of these cells in the rabbit and mouse CNS, also assessing their existence in other mammalian species. mMap5 cells were never found to co-express the Ng2 antigen. They appear to be a population of glial cells sharing features but also differences with Ng2+progenitor cells. We show that mMap5 cells are newly generated, postmitotic parenchymal elements of the oligodendroglial lineage, thus being a stage-specific population of polydendrocytes. Finally, we report that the number of mMap5 cells, although reduced within the brain of adult/old animals, can increase in neurodegenerative and traumatic conditions. PMID:23667595

  14. Background parenchymal enhancement at breast MR imaging: normal patterns, diagnostic challenges, and potential for false-positive and false-negative interpretation.

    PubMed

    Giess, Catherine S; Yeh, Eren D; Raza, Sughra; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2014-01-01

    At magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, both normal and abnormal breast tissue enhances after contrast material administration. The morphology and temporal degree of enhancement of pathologic breast tissue relative to normal breast tissue form the basis of MR imaging's diagnostic accuracy in the detection and diagnosis of breast disease. Normal parenchymal enhancement at breast MR imaging is termed background parenchymal enhancement (BPE). BPE may vary in degree and distribution in different patients as well as in the same patient over time. Typically BPE is minimal or mild in overall degree, with a bilateral, symmetric, diffuse distribution and slow early and persistent delayed kinetic features. However, BPE may sometimes be moderate or marked in degree, with an asymmetric or nondiffuse distribution and rapid early and plateau or washout delayed kinetic features. These patterns cause diagnostic difficulty because these features can be seen with malignancy. This article reviews typical and atypical patterns of BPE seen at breast MR imaging. The anatomic and physiologic influences on BPE in women undergoing diagnostic and screening breast MR imaging are reviewed. The potential for false-positive and false-negative interpretations due to BPE are discussed. Radiologists can improve their interpretive accuracy by increasing their understanding of various BPE patterns, influences on BPE, and the potential effects of BPE on MR imaging interpretation.

  15. Combining semiquantitative measures of fibrosis and qualitative features of parenchymal remodelling to identify fibrosis regression in hepatitis C: a multiple biopsy study.

    PubMed

    Pattullo, Venessa; Thein, Hla-Hla; Heathcote, Elizabeth Jenny; Guindi, Maha

    2012-09-01

    A fall in hepatic fibrosis stage may be observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC); however, parenchymal architectural changes may also signify hepatic remodelling associated with fibrosis regression. The aim of this study was to utilize semiquantitative and qualitative methods to report the prevalence and factors associated with fibrosis regression in CHC. Paired liver biopsies were scored for fibrosis (Ishak), and for the presence of eight qualitative features of parenchymal remodelling, to derive a qualitative regression score (QR score). Combined fibrosis regression was defined as ≥2-stage fall in Ishak stage (Reg-I) or <2-stage fall in Ishak stage with a rise in QR score (Reg-Qual). Among 159 patients (biopsy interval 5.4 ± 3.1 years), Reg-I was observed in 12 (7.5%) and Reg-Qual in 26 (16.4%) patients. The combined diagnostic criteria increased the diagnosis rate for fibrosis regression (38 patients, 23.9%) compared with use of Reg-I alone (P < 0.001). Combined fibrosis regression was observed in nine patients (50%) who achieved sustained virological response (SVR), and in 29 of 141 (21%) patients despite persistent viraemia. SVR was the only clinical factor associated independently with combined fibrosis regression (odds ratio 3.05). The combination of semiquantitative measures and qualitative features aids the identification of fibrosis regression in CHC. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Physical properties of galaxies and their evolution in the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. I. The evolution of the mass-metallicity relation up to z ~ 0.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamareille, F.; Brinchmann, J.; Contini, T.; Walcher, C. J.; Charlot, S.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Zamorani, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Garilli, B.; Paltani, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Radovich, M.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Romano, A.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.

    2009-02-01

    Aims: We want to derive the mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies up to z ~ 0.9, using data from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. The mass-metallicity relation is commonly understood as the relation between the stellar mass and the gas-phase oxygen abundance. Methods: Automatic measurement of emission-line fluxes and equivalent widths have been performed on the full spectroscopic sample of the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. This sample is divided into two sub-samples depending on the apparent magnitude selection: wide (IAB < 22.5) and deep (IAB < 24). These two samples span two different ranges of stellar masses. Emission-line galaxies have been separated into star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei using emission line ratios. For the star-forming galaxies the emission line ratios have also been used to estimate gas-phase oxygen abundance, using empirical calibrations renormalized in order to give consistent results at low and high redshifts. The stellar masses have been estimated by fitting the whole spectral energy distributions with a set of stellar population synthesis models. Results: We assume at first order that the shape of the mass-metallicity relation remains constant with redshift. Then we find a stronger metallicity evolution in the wide sample as compared to the deep sample. We thus conclude that the mass-metallicity relation is flatter at higher redshift. At z ~ 0.77, galaxies at 109.4 solar masses have -0.18 dex lower metallicities than galaxies of similar masses in the local universe, while galaxies at 1010.2 solar masses have -0.28 dex lower metallicities. By comparing the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relations, we also find an evolution in mass-to-light ratio: galaxies at higher redshifts being more active. The observed flattening of the mass-metallicity relation at high redshift is analyzed as evidence in favor of the open-closed model. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope

  17. Different zonal distribution of the asialoglycoprotein receptor, the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the lipoprotein-remnant receptor of rat liver parenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Voorschuur, A H; Kuiper, J; Neelissen, J A; Boers, W; Van Berkel, T J

    1994-11-01

    Periportal and perivenous parenchymal cells were isolated by the digitonin-pulse perfusion method. The digitonin-pulse perfusion was shown to lead to selective lysis of the correct zone with a straight and sharp border of two to three cells. The mean ratios of alanine aminotransferase activity (a marker for periportal parenchymal cells) and glutamine synthetase activity (a perivenous marker) of periportal to perivenous parenchymal cells were 1.76 and 0.025 respectively. Cells were incubated in vitro with 125I-asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR), 125I-trypsin-activated alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M-T) or 125I-beta-migrating very-low-density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), in order to determine the zonal distribution of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPr), the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha 2Mr/LRP) and the lipoprotein-remnant receptor, respectively. Maximum binding capacity for 125I-ASOR on parenchymal cells showed a periportal/perivenous ratio of 0.70. The periportal/perivenous ratio of Bmax. values of binding of 125I-alpha 2M-T to parenchymal cells was 1.51. The Bmax. values of binding of 125I-beta-VLDL, however, were about equal for both cell populations. It is concluded that the maximum binding capacity of the ASGPr on isolated periportal parenchymal cells is 0.70 times that of perivenous parenchymal cells. The 1.51-fold higher expression of the alpha 2Mr/LRP on periportal cells, compared with perivenous parenchymal cells, indicates a zonal specialization for the uptake of the suggested multiple ligands. In contrast, the observed homogeneous distribution of the lipoprotein-remnant receptor is in accordance with the suggestion that lipoprotein remnants bind to a specific receptor, which is different from the alpha 2Mr/LRP. The zonal heterogeneity in the expression of receptors suggests that receptor-dependent uptake pathways are under zonal control, leading to intrahepatic heterogeneity in the removal of ligands from

  18. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns on a large clinical dataset of full-field digital mammograms: robustness study with two high-risk datasets.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L; Lan, Li; Bancroft Brown, Jeremy; MacMahon, Aoife; Mussman, Mary; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Sennett, Charlene

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the robustness of our prior computerized texture analysis method for breast cancer risk assessment, which was developed initially on a limited dataset of screen-film mammograms. This current study investigated the robustness by (1) evaluating on a large clinical dataset, (2) using full-field digital mammograms (FFDM) as opposed to screen-film mammography, and (3) incorporating analyses over two types of high-risk patient sets, as well as patients at low risk for breast cancer. The evaluation included the analyses on the parenchymal patterns of women at high risk of developing of breast cancer, including both BRCA1/2 gene mutation carriers and unilateral cancer patients, and of women at low risk of developing breast cancer. A total of 456 cases, including 53 women with BRCA1/2 gene mutations, 75 women with unilateral cancer, and 328 low-risk women, were retrospectively collected under an institutional review board approved protocol. Regions-of-interest (ROIs), were manually selected from the central breast region immediately behind the nipple. These ROIs were subsequently used in computerized feature extraction to characterize the mammographic parenchymal patterns in the images. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of the computerized texture features in the task of distinguishing between high-risk and low-risk subjects. In a round robin evaluation on the FFDM dataset with Bayesian artificial neural network analysis, AUC values of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [0.75, 0.88]) and 0.73 (95% confidence interval [0.67, 0.78]) were obtained between BRCA1/2 gene mutation carriers and low-risk women, and between unilateral cancer and low-risk women, respectively. These results from computerized texture analysis on digital mammograms demonstrated that high-risk and low-risk women have different mammographic parenchymal patterns. On this large clinical dataset, we validated our methods for

  19. Spectroscopy of Red Giants in the Large Magellanic Cloud Bar: Abundances, Kinematics, and the Age-Metallicity Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Andrew A.; Tolstoy, Eline; Gallagher, John S., III; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2005-03-01

    We report metallicities and radial velocities derived from spectra at the near-infrared calcium triplet for 373 red giants in a 200 arcmin2 area at the optical center of the LMC bar. These are the first spectroscopic abundance measurements of intermediate-age and old field stars in the high surface brightness heart of the LMC. The metallicity distribution is sharply peaked at the median value [Fe/H]=-0.40, with a small tail of stars extending down to [Fe/H]<=-2.1 10% of the red giants are observed to have [Fe/H]<=-0.7. The relative lack of metal-poor stars indicates that the LMC has a ``G dwarf'' problem, similar to the Milky Way. The abundance distribution can be closely approximated by two Gaussians containing 89% and 11% of the stars, respectively: the first component is centered at [Fe/H]=-0.37 with σ=0.15, and the second at [Fe/H]=-1.08 with σ=0.46. The dominant population has a metallicity distribution similar to that of the LMC's intermediate-age star clusters. The mean heliocentric radial velocity of the sample is 257 km s-1, corresponding to the same center-of-mass velocity as the disk (measured at larger radii). Because of the central location of our field, kinematic constraints are not strong, but there is no evidence that the bar deviates from the general motion of the LMC disk. The velocity dispersion of the whole sample is σv=24.7+/-0.4 km s-1. When cut by metallicity, the most metal-poor 5% of stars ([Fe/H]<-1.15) show σv=40.8+/-1.7 km s-1, more than twice the value for the most metal-rich 5%; this suggests that an old, thicker disk or halo population is present. The age-metallicity relation (AMR) is almost flat during the period from 5 to 10 Gyr ago, with an apparent scatter of +/-0.15 dex about the mean metallicity for a given age. Comparing this to chemical evolution models from the literature, we find that a burst of star formation 3 Gyr ago does not reproduce the observed AMR more closely than a steadily declining star formation rate. The

  20. Marked longevity of human lung parenchymal elastic fibers deduced from prevalence of D-aspartate and nuclear weapons-related radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.D.; Endicott, S.K.; Province, M.A.; Pierce, J.A.; Campbell, E.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Normal structure and function of the lung parenchyma depend upon elastic fibers. Amorphous elastin is biochemically stable in vitro, and may provide a metabolically stable structural framework for the lung parenchyma. To test the metabolic stability of elastin in the normal human lung parenchyma, we have (a) estimated the time elapsed since the synthesis of the protein through measurement of aspartic acid racemization and (b) modeled the elastin turnover through measurement of the prevalence of nuclear weapons-related {sup 14}C. Elastin purified by a new technique from normal lung parenchyma was hydrolyzed; then the prevalences of D-aspartate and {sup 14}C were measured by gas chromatography and accelerator-mass spectrometry, respectively. D-aspartate increased linearly with age; Kasp (1.76 x 10{sup {minus} 3} yr{sup {minus} 1}) was similar to that previously found for extraordinarily stable human tissues, indicating that the age of lung parenchymal elastin corresponded with the age of the subject. Radiocarbon prevalence data also were consistent with extraordinary metabolic stability of elastin; the calculated mean carbon residence time in elastin was 74 yr (95% confidence limits, 40-174 yr). These results indicate that airspace enlargement characteristic of 'aging lung' is not associated with appreciable new synthesis of lung parenchymal elastin. The present study provides the first tissue-specific evaluation of turnover of an extracellular matrix component in humans and underscores the potential importance of elastin for maintenance of normal lung structure. Most importantly, the present work provides a foundation for strategies to directly evaluate extracellular matrix injury and repair in diseases of lung (especially pulmonary emphysema), vascular tissue, and skin.

  1. Clinical and Prognostic Factors for Renal Parenchymal, Pelvis, and Ureter Cancers in SEER Registries: Collaborative Stage Data Collection System, Version 2

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, Sean F.; Dickie, Lois; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Wu, Manxia; Lee, Richard; Delacroix, Scott

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The American Joint Committee on Cancer’s (AJCC) 7th edition cancer staging manual reflects recent changes in cancer care practices. This report assesses changes from the AJCC 6th to the AJCC 7th edition stage distributions and the quality of site-specific factors (SSFs). METHODS Incidence data for renal parenchyma and pelvis and ureter cancers from 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries were examined, including staging trends during 2004–2010, stage distribution changes between the AJCC 6th and 7th editions, and SSF completeness for cases diagnosed in 2010. RESULTS From 2004 to 2010, the percentage of stage I renal parenchyma cancers increased from 50% to 58%, whereas stage IV and unknown stage cases decreased (18% to 15%, and 10% to 6%, respectively). During this period, the percentage of stage 0a renal pelvis and ureter cancers increased from 21% to 25%, and stage IV and unknown stage tumors decreased (20% to 18%, and 7% to 5%, respectively). Stage distributions under the AJCC 6th and 7th editions were about the same. For renal parenchymal cancers, 71%–90% of cases had known values for 6 required SSFs. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, 74% of cases were coded as known for SSF1 (WHO/ISUP grade) and 47% as known for SSF2 (depth of renal parenchymal invasion). SSF values were known for larger proportions of cases with reported resections. CONCLUSIONS Stage distributions between the AJCC 6th and 7th editions were similar. SSFs were known for more than two-thirds of cases, providing more detail in the SEER database relevant to prognosis. PMID:25412394

  2. Marked longevity of human lung parenchymal elastic fibers deduced from prevalence of D-aspartate and nuclear weapons-related radiocarbon.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, S D; Endicott, S K; Province, M A; Pierce, J A; Campbell, E J

    1991-01-01

    Normal structure and function of the lung parenchyma depend upon elastic fibers. Amorphous elastin is biochemically stable in vitro, and may provide a metabolically stable structural framework for the lung parenchyma. To test the metabolic stability of elastin in the normal human lung parenchyma, we have (a) estimated the time elapsed since the synthesis of the protein through measurement of aspartic acid racemization and (b) modeled the elastin turnover through measurement of the prevalence of nuclear weapons-related 14C. Elastin purified by a new technique from normal lung parenchyma was hydrolyzed; then the prevalences of D-aspartate and 14C were measured by gas chromatography and accelerator-mass spectrometry, respectively. D-aspartate increased linearly with age; Kasp (1.76 x 10(-3) yr(-1) was similar to that previously found for extraordinarily stable human tissues, indicating that the age of lung parenchymal elastin corresponded with the age of the subject. Radiocarbon prevalence data also were consistent with extraordinary metabolic stability of elastin; the calculated mean carbon residence time in elastin was 74 yr (95% confidence limits, 40-174 yr). These results indicate that airspace enlargement characteristic of "aging lung" is not associated with appreciable new synthesis of lung parenchymal elastin. The present study provides the first tissue-specific evaluation of turnover of an extracellular matrix component in humans and underscores the potential importance of elastin for maintenance of normal lung structure. Most importantly, the present work provides a foundation for strategies to directly evaluate extracellular matrix injury and repair in diseases of lung (especially pulmonary emphysema), vascular tissue, and skin. PMID:2022748

  3. Movement disorders associated with moyamoya disease: a report of 4 new cases and a review of literatures.

    PubMed

    Baik, Jong Sam; Lee, Myung Sik

    2010-07-30

    The aim of this study was to define the clinical characteristics of patients who developed movement disorders in association with moyamoya disease (MMD). Using PubMed and medical records of our hospital from 1985 to 2008, we searched for patients who developed movement disorders in association with MMD. This study included 38 patients described in previous studies and 4 patients found in the medical records. The onset of movement disorders was thought to be sudden. In 13 patients, the movement disorders were precipitated by hyperventilation or emotional stress. Twenty-seven of the 42 patients developed chorea, 4 patients developed dystonia, and 4 developed a mixture of both. The movement disorders of the remaining 7 patients were described as dyskinesia. A third of the 42 patients developed bilateral movement disorders, and their mean age was younger than that of those with unilateral movement disorders. In 37 of the 42 patients, brain imaging studies showed ischemic lesions, but the remaining 5 patients showed no parenchymal lesions. Cerebral perfusion studies showed hypoperfusion in the basal ganglia and in the cerebral cortical areas. Most patients improved whether they were treated or not. MMD must be included in the differential diagnosis of the sudden onset of dyskinesias, particularly chorea and focal dystonia. Even in patients with no parenchymal lesion in brain imaging studies, cerebral angiography and cerebral blood perfusion studies must be performed, if they develop a sudden onset or recurrent movement disorders preceded by emotional stress or hyperventilation.

  4. Dissociative Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... last minutes, hours, or rarely, months or years. Dissociative identity disorder. Formerly known as multiple personality disorder, this disorder ... each identity is with the others. People with dissociative identity disorder typically also have dissociative amnesia and often have ...

  5. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... here. generalized anxiety disorder social phobia panic disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Click for more information All of us ... health, money, or family problems. But people with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are extremely worried about these and many ...

  6. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Eating Disorders A A A ... average weight or can be overweight. continue Binge Eating Disorder This eating disorder is similar to anorexia and ...

  7. Nestin- and Doublecortin-Positive Cells Reside in Adult Spinal Cord Meninges and Participate in Injury-Induced Parenchymal Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier; Malpeli, Giorgio; Dolci, Sissi; Lavarini, Valentina; Pretto, Silvia; Vasquez, Sandra; Sciancalepore, Marina; Montalbano, Alberto; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Adult spinal cord has little regenerative potential, thus limiting patient recovery following injury. In this study, we describe a new population of cells resident in the adult rat spinal cord meninges that express the neural stem/precursor markers nestin and doublecortin. Furthermore, from dissociated meningeal tissue a neural stem cell population was cultured in vitro and subsequently shown to differentiate into functional neurons or mature oligodendrocytes. Proliferation rate and number of nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells increased in vivo in meninges following spinal cord injury. By using a lentivirus-labeling approach, we show that meningeal cells, including nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells, migrate in the spinal cord parenchyma and contribute to the glial scar formation. Our data emphasize the multiple roles of meninges in the reaction of the parenchyma to trauma and indicate for the first time that spinal cord meninges are potential niches harboring stem/precursor cells that can be activated by injury. Meninges may be considered as a new source of adult stem/precursor cells to be further tested for use in regenerative medicine applied to neurological disorders, including repair from spinal cord injury. Stem Cells 2011;29:2062–2076. PMID:22038821

  8. Nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells reside in adult spinal cord meninges and participate in injury-induced parenchymal reaction.

    PubMed

    Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier; Malpeli, Giorgio; Dolci, Sissi; Lavarini, Valentina; Pretto, Silvia; Vasquez, Sandra; Sciancalepore, Marina; Montalbano, Alberto; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido

    2011-12-01

    Adult spinal cord has little regenerative potential, thus limiting patient recovery following injury. In this study, we describe a new population of cells resident in the adult rat spinal cord meninges that express the neural stem/precursor markers nestin and doublecortin. Furthermore, from dissociated meningeal tissue a neural stem cell population was cultured in vitro and subsequently shown to differentiate into functional neurons or mature oligodendrocytes. Proliferation rate and number of nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells increased in vivo in meninges following spinal cord injury. By using a lentivirus-labeling approach, we show that meningeal cells, including nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells, migrate in the spinal cord parenchyma and contribute to the glial scar formation. Our data emphasize the multiple roles of meninges in the reaction of the parenchyma to trauma and indicate for the first time that spinal cord meninges are potential niches harboring stem/precursor cells that can be activated by injury. Meninges may be considered as a new source of adult stem/precursor cells to be further tested for use in regenerative medicine applied to neurological disorders, including repair from spinal cord injury.

  9. Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that is frequently encountered in primary care. Many patients with depression may actually have bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder requires proper diagnosis and awareness or referral for appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Patients with bipolar disorder require primary care management for comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

  10. Costimulator B7-1 confers antigen-presenting-cell function to parenchymal tissue and in conjunction with tumor necrosis factor alpha leads to autoimmunity in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Guerder, S; Picarella, D E; Linsley, P S; Flavell, R A

    1994-01-01

    Tolerance to peripheral antigens is thought to result from the inability of parenchymal tissue to stimulate T cells--an inability that is believed to relate to the lack of expression of the costimulatory signal(s) required for T-cell activation. To test this model, we generated transgenic mice expressing costimulatory molecule B7-1 on the B cells of the pancreas. We find that islets from these transgenic mice are immunogenic for naive T cells in vitro and in vivo. Nonetheless, mice expressing the costimulator B7-1 specifically on beta cells do not develop diabetes, suggesting that expression of the B7-1 costimulator is not sufficient to abrogate the tolerance to peripheral antigens. We have reported that tumor necrosis factor alpha subunit (TNF-alpha) expressed by beta cells leads to a local inflammation but no islet destruction. Strikingly, however, the combination of a local inflammation due to the expression of the cytokine TNF-alpha and the expression of B7-1 results in tissue destruction and diabetes. Images PMID:7515187

  11. Specific binding and uptake of apolipoprotein E-free high density lipoproteins (apo E-free HDL) by cultured liver parenchymal cells of copper-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Carr, T.P.; Lei, K.Y. )

    1989-02-09

    Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to two dietary treatments; copper-deficient (CD, 1.0 ppm) and adequate (CA, 6.7 ppm). After 8 weeks, plasma apo E-free HDL were isolated by a combination of ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, and heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Liver parenchymal cells obtained by collagenase perfusion and Percoll gradient centrifugation were cultured for 16 hr. Cells were then incubated with {sup 125}I-apo E-free HDL, either from the same treatment group or in a crossover design, in order to establish if treatment differences were associated with cells and/or lipoproteins. Cells were incubate with apo E-free HDL for 2, 6, 12, and 24 hr in the presence or absence of excess unlabeled apo E-free HDL. Binding studies at 4{degree}C indicated a small but significant increases in specific binding in CD cells regardless of the source of apo E-free HDL. In cell association studies at 37{degree}C, CD cells demonstrated similar marked increases of apo E-free HDL uptake from both treatment groups. The increase in uptake may be associated with an increased expression of HDL binding sites in CD cells. These findings are consistent with recent in vivo studies which indicate plasma clearance and tissue uptake of total HDL are increased in copper-deficient rats.

  12. Single-cell RNA-seq reveals activation of unique gene groups as a consequence of stem cell-parenchymal cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Brian T; Jung, Jangwook P; Ogle, Brenda M

    2016-03-21

    Fusion of donor mesenchymal stem cells with parenchymal cells of the recipient can occur in the brain, liver, intestine and heart following transplantation. The therapeutic benefit or detriment of resultant hybrids is unknown. Here we sought a global view of phenotypic diversification of mesenchymal stem cell-cardiomyocyte hybrids and associated time course. Using single-cell RNA-seq, we found hybrids consistently increase ribosome components and decrease genes associated with the cell cycle suggesting an increase in protein production and decrease in proliferation to accommodate the fused state. But in the case of most other gene groups, hybrids were individually distinct. In fact, though hybrids can express a transcriptome similar to individual fusion partners, approximately one-third acquired distinct expression profiles in a single day. Some hybrids underwent reprogramming, expressing pluripotency and cardiac precursor genes latent in parental cells and associated with developmental and morphogenic gene groups. Other hybrids expressed genes associated with ontologic cancer sets and two hybrids of separate experimental replicates clustered with breast cancer cells, expressing critical oncogenes and lacking tumor suppressor genes. Rapid transcriptional diversification of this type garners consideration in the context of cellular transplantation to damaged tissues, those with viral infection or other microenvironmental conditions that might promote fusion.

  13. Malignant tracheal-mediastinal-parenchymal-pleural fistula after chemoradiation plus bevacizumab: management with a Y-silicone stent inside a metallic covered stent.

    PubMed

    Machuzak, Michael S; Santacruz, Jose F; Jaber, Wissam; Gildea, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal or bronchial-mediastinal fistulas are a rare entity associated to high mortality. We report a case of a 58-year-old man with an unresectable non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, treated with chemoradiation followed by bevacizumab. Approximately, 6 weeks after starting bevacizumab he developed a severe cough with copious secretions He could not lie supine due to the feeling of drowning. Investigations revealed a large tracheo-mediastinal-parenchymal-pleural fistula. Palliative management was offered with interventional bronchoscopic techniques. He was found to have a large central airway defect that obliterated almost 40% of the trachea. Under general anesthesia and positive pressure ventilation, a unique approach was used to rebuild an eroded tracheal and right main stem bronchial wall. A self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) was placed to provide a scaffold of support, whereas a Dumon Y-stent was placed inside the SEMS. This combination allowed for a patent, stable airway; recreating the normal anatomy in a minimally invasive manner walling off the fistula. The patient was discharged 2 days after the bronchoscopic intervention, with significant palliation of his symptomatology. Eighteen months later, the upper lobe cavity persists with a stable airway and stents perfectly positioned with clinically insignificant evidence of stent related granulation in the upper trachea.

  14. Genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria which could be find in the apoplastic sap of the medullary parenchym of the stem of healthy sugarcane plants.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Encarna; Rojas, Marcia; Lorite, María José; Rivas, Raúl; Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Heydrich, Mayra; Bedmar, Eulogio J

    2008-04-01

    The genetic diversity of 29 endophytic bacterial strains isolated from apoplastic sap of the medullary parenchym of the stem of healthy sugarcane plants grown in Cuba was analysed by Two Primers-Ramdom Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprinting (TP-RAPD) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strains were distributed into 17 groups on the basis of their TP-RAPD patterns, and a representative strain from each group was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of these sequences showed that the isolates belong to a wide variety of phylogenetic groups being closely related to species of genera Bacillus and Staphylococcus from Firmicutes, Microbacterium, Micrococcus and Kokuria from Actinobacteria, Rhizobium and Gluconacetobacter from alpha -Proteobacteria, Comamonas and Xanthomonas from beta-Proteobacteria, and Acinetobacter and Pantoea from gamma-Proteobacteria. These results show the complexity of the bacterial populations present in inner tissues of sugarcane, and indicate the interest and relevance of the studies on microbial diversity to improve our knowledge on the plant endophytic bacterial communities.

  15. Background Parenchymal Enhancement and Fibroglandular Tissue Proportion on Breast MRI: Correlation with Hormone Receptor Expression and Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Mesut; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Süllü, Yurdanur; Tomak, Leman; Polat, Ayfer Kamalı

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) proportion on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hormone receptor expression and molecular subtypes in invasive breast cancer. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 75 breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRI before treatment. T1-weighted images were reviewed to determine the FGT proportion, and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images were reviewed to determine BPE. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2-neu (HER2) status, and molecular subtypes of the tumors were compared with the BPE and FGT proportions. Results Women with high BPE tended to have increased rate of ER and PR positive tumors (p=0.018 and p=0.013). FGT proportion was associated with ER positivity (p=0.009), but no significant differences between FGT proportion and PR positivity were found (p=0.256). There was no significant difference between HER2 status and any of the imaging features (p=0.453 and p=0.922). For premenopausal women, both FGT proportion and BPE were associated with molecular subtypes (p=0.025 and p=0.042). FGT proportion was also associated with BPE (p<0.001). Conclusion In women with invasive breast cancer, both high FGT containing breasts and high BPE breasts tended to have ER positive tumors. PMID:28331765

  16. Effect of Background Parenchymal Enhancement on Pre-Operative Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: How It Affects Interpretation and the Role of Second-Look Ultrasound in Patient Management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may either obscure or mimic malignancy. We evaluated the impact of BPE on the diagnostic performance of pre-operative MRI in breast cancer patients, and how second-look ultrasound (US) can help in guiding patient management. Two hundred fifty-three breast cancer patients with pre-operative MRI were included. In moderate or marked BPE, abnormal interpretation rate (38.9% vs. 12.2%) and biopsy rate (27.8% vs. 8.3%) were higher, and specificity (64.7% vs. 89.8%) was lower, compared with minimal or mild BPE (all p < 0.001). Visibility of MRI-detected additional suspicious lesions on second-look US did not differ between the two groups (86.7% in minimal or mild BPE vs. 77.1% in moderate or marked BPE, p = 0.296). Increased BPE was related to increased abnormal interpretation rate, additional biopsy rate and decreased specificity. Second-look US was useful in visualization of MRI-detected additional suspicious lesions, regardless of BPE.

  17. An open-label, randomized, controlled, 4-week comparative clinical trial of barnidipine hydrochloride, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zheng, F; Chen, P; Tang, L; Wei, R; Yu, Y; Su, Y; Kikkawa, T; Yamamoto, M

    2006-01-01

    This study compared barnidipine, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in 85 Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension (diastolic blood pressure range 95 - 110 mmHg). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg barnidipine or 10 mg benazepril orally daily for 4 weeks. In patients with diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg after 2 weeks of treatment, the dose of barnidipine or benazepril was increased by 5 or 10 mg, respectively. Both the barnidipine-treated group (n = 43) and the benazepril-treated group (n = 42) showed significant mean reductions from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure with benazepril was significantly greater than with barnidipine treatment. Sitting heart rate was not changed by either drug. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. Barnidipine is similar to benazepril for the treatment of renal parenchymal hypertension.

  18. The Metal Abundances across Cosmic Time (MACT) Survey. II. Evolution of the Mass-metallicity Relation over 8 Billion Years, Using [OIII]4363AA-based Metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Rigby, Jane R.; Nagao, Tohru

    2016-09-01

    We present the first results from MMT and Keck spectroscopy for a large sample of 0.1≤slant z≤slant 1 emission-line galaxies selected from our narrowband imaging in the Subaru Deep Field. We measured the weak [O iii] λ4363 emission line for 164 galaxies (66 with at least 3σ detections, and 98 with significant upper limits). The strength of this line is set by the electron temperature for the ionized gas. Because the gas temperature is regulated by the metal content, the gas-phase oxygen abundance is inversely correlated with [O iii] λ4363 line strength. Our temperature-based metallicity study is the first to span ≈ 8 Gyr of cosmic time and ≈ 3 dex in stellar mass for low-mass galaxies, {log}({M}\\star /{M}⊙ )≈ 6.0-9.0. Using extensive multi-wavelength photometry, we measure the evolution of the stellar mass-gas metallicity relation and its dependence on dust-corrected star formation rate (SFR). The latter is obtained from high signal-to-noise Balmer emission-line measurements. Our mass-metallicity relation is consistent with Andrews & Martini at z≤slant 0.3, and evolves toward lower abundances at a given stellar mass, {log}{({{O/H}})\\propto (1+z)}-{2.32-0.26+0.52}. We find that galaxies with lower metallicities have higher SFRs at a given stellar mass and redshift, although the scatter is large (≈ 0.3 dex) and the trend is weaker than seen in local studies. We also compare our mass-metallicity relation against predictions from high-resolution galaxy formation simulations, and find good agreement with models that adopt energy- and momentum-driven stellar feedback. We identified 16 extremely metal-poor galaxies with abundances of less than a tenth of solar; our most metal-poor galaxy at z≈ 0.84 is similar to I Zw 18.

  19. The bifurcated age-metallicity relation of Milky Way globular clusters and its implications for the accretion history of the galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Ryan; VandenBerg, Don A.; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2013-11-01

    We use recently derived ages for 61 Milky Way (MW) globular clusters (GCs) to show that their age-metallicity relation (AMR) can be divided into two distinct, parallel sequences at [Fe/H] ≳ -1.8. Approximately one-third of the clusters form an offset sequence that spans the full range in age (˜10.5-13 Gyr), but is more metal rich at a given age by ˜0.6 dex in [Fe/H]. All but one of the clusters in the offset sequence show orbital properties that are consistent with membership in the MW disc. They are not simply the most metal-rich GCs, which have long been known to have disc-like kinematics, but they are the most metal-rich clusters at all ages. The slope of the mass-metallicity relation (MMR) for galaxies implies that the offset in metallicity of the two branches of the AMR corresponds to a mass decrement of 2 dex, suggesting host galaxy masses of M_{*} ˜ 107-108 { M_{⊙}} for GCs that belong to the more metal poor AMR. We suggest that the metal-rich branch of the AMR consists of clusters that formed in situ in the disc, while the metal-poor GCs were formed in relatively low-mass (dwarf) galaxies and later accreted by the MW. The observed AMR of MW disc stars, and of the Large Magellanic Cloud, Small Magellanic Cloud and WLM dwarf galaxies, is shown to be consistent with this interpretation, and the relative distribution of implied progenitor masses for the halo GC clusters is in excellent agreement with the MW subhalo mass function predicted by simulations. A notable implication of the bifurcated AMR is that the identical mean ages and spread in ages, for the metal-rich and metal-poor GCs, are difficult to reconcile with an in situ formation for the latter population.

  20. Cerebellar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... balance. Problems with the cerebellum include Cancer Genetic disorders Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in ...

  1. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... they're in a bad mood. A mood disorder is different. It affects a person's everyday emotional ... ten people aged 18 and older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also called ...

  2. Schizoaffective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ... Possible Complications Complications are similar to those for schizophrenia and major mood disorders. These include: Drug use ...

  3. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  4. A phase III, randomized, controlled, superiority trial evaluating the fibrin pad versus standard of care in controlling parenchymal bleeding during elective hepatic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Koea, Jonathan B; Batiller, Jonathan; Patel, Babahai; Shen, Jessica; Hammond, Jeffrey; Hart, James; Fischer, Craig; Garden, O James

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Haemostasis after liver resection may be difficult to achieve as a result of the presence of challenging bleeding, the anatomic landscape of the liver and the quality of tissue making up the hepatic parenchyma. The fibrin pad (FP) is a topical absorbable haemostat designed to be effective in a variety of tissues and across multiple bleeding intensities. This is the first clinical trial to evaluate the hemostat's safety and effectiveness in controlling bleeding during elective hepatic resection. Methods This prospective, randomized, controlled superiority trial enrolled 104 subjects undergoing elective hepatectomy in 5 countries. After parenchymal transection, subjects with an appropriately defined target bleeding site (TBS) were stratified according to the type of hepatic parenchyma and immediately randomized 1:1: FP versus Standard of Care (SoC). SoC comprised manual compression with the use of an approved topical absorbable haemostat. The primary endpoint was haemostasis at 4 min from identification of the TBS, with no re-bleeding requiring re-treatment prior to abdominal closure. Results were stratified for both normal and abnormal (steatosis or cirrhosis) hepatic parenchyma. All subjects were followed for 60 days post-operatively. Results The intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed an overall treatment difference of 53.0% (P < 0.001), 82.5% (33/40 FP) versus 29.5% (13/44 SoC) in achieving haemostasis at 4 min with no re-bleeding requiring treatment up to wound closure. The per protocol analysis showed an overall treatment difference of 65.7% (P < 0.001), with 33/35 successes (94.3%) in the FP group and 12/42 in the SoC group (28.6%). The stratification results showed treatment differences between the normal parenchyma group, 63.6% (95.8% FP versus 32.3% SoC P < 0.001) and a larger difference of 72.7% in the abnormal parenchyma group (90.9% FP versus 18.2% SoC P = 0.0003). Post-operative intra-abdominal fluid collections were less frequent in the FP

  5. Identifying the heterogeneity of COPD by V/P SPECT: a new tool for improving the diagnosis of parenchymal defects and grading the severity of small airways disease

    PubMed Central

    Bajc, M; Chen, Y; Wang, J; Li, XY; Shen, WM; Wang, CZ; Huang, H; Lindqvist, A; He, XY

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Airway obstruction and possible concomitant pulmonary diseases in COPD cannot be identified conventionally with any single diagnostic tool. We aimed to diagnose and grade COPD severity and identify pulmonary comorbidities associated with COPD with ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/P SPECT) using Technegas as the functional ventilation imaging agent. Methods 94 COPD patients (aged 43–86 years, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages I–IV) were examined with V/P SPECT and spirometry. Ventilation and perfusion defects were analyzed blindly according to the European guidelines. Penetration grade of Technegas in V SPECT measured the degree of obstructive small airways disease. Total preserved lung function and penetration grade of Technegas in V SPECT were assessed by V/P SPECT and compared to GOLD stages and spirometry. Results Signs of small airway obstruction in the ventilation SPECT images were found in 92 patients. Emphysema was identified in 81 patients. Two patients had no signs of COPD, but both of them had a pulmonary embolism, and in one of them we also suspected a lung tumor. The penetration grade of Technegas in V SPECT and total preserved lung function correlated significantly to GOLD stages (r=0.63 and −0.60, respectively, P<0.0001). V/P SPECT identified pulmonary embolism in 30 patients (32%). A pattern typical for heart failure was present in 26 patients (28%). Parenchymal changes typical for pneumonia or lung tumor were present in several cases. Conclusion V/P SPECT, using Technegas as the functional ventilation imaging agent, is a new tool to diagnose COPD and to grade its severity. Additionally, it revealed heterogeneity of COPD caused by pulmonary comorbidities. The characteristics of these comorbidities suggest their significant impact in clarifying symptoms, and also their influence on the prognosis. PMID:28603413

  6. Levels and Age Dependency of Neurofilament Light and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Healthy Individuals and Their Relation to the Brain Parenchymal Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Vågberg, Mattias; Norgren, Niklas; Dring, Ann; Lindqvist, Thomas; Birgander, Richard; Zetterberg, Henrik; Svenningsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurofilament light (NFL) and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) are integral parts of the axonal and astrocytal cytoskeletons respectively and are released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cases of cellular damage. In order to interpret the levels of these biomarkers in disease states, knowledge on normal levels in the healthy is required. Another biomarker for neurodegeneration is brain atrophy, commonly measured as brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Potential correlations between levels of NFL, GFAP and BPF in healthy individuals have not been investigated. Objectives To present levels of NFL and GFAP in healthy individuals stratified for age, and investigate the correlation between them as well as their correlation with BPF. Methods The CSF was analysed in 53 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 70 (1 sample missing for GFAP analysis) and 48 of the volunteers underwent determination of BPF using MRI. Results Mean (±SD) NFL was 355 ng/L (±214), mean GFAP was 421 ng/L (±129) and mean BPF was 0.867 (±0.035). All three biomarkers correlated with age. NFL also correlated with both GFAP and BPF. When controlled for age, only the correlation between NFL and GFAP retained statistical significance. Conclusions This study presents data on age-stratified levels of NFL and GFAP in the CSF of healthy individuals. There is a correlation between levels of NFL and GFAP and both increase with age. A correlation between NFL and BPF was also found, but did not retain statistical significance if controlled for age. PMID:26317831

  7. Nedocromil sodium inhibits antigen-induced contraction of human lung parenchymal and bronchial strips, and the release of sulphidopeptide-leukotriene and histamine from human lung fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Napier, F. E.; Shearer, M. A.; Temple, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium on antigen-induced release of sulphidopeptide-leukotrienes and histamine from passively sensitized fragments of human lung, and on antigen-induced contraction of sensitized strips of human lung parenchyma and bronchus, have been studied. 2. Nedocromil sodium 0.1 and 1 microM inhibited leukotriene release from fragments of human lung by 30% and 38% respectively, and histamine release by 43% for both concentrations, but 10 microM was ineffective. The lung fragments, which were passively sensitized to house dust mite, Dermataphagoides pteronyssinus, in control experiments released leukotrienes (6.58 +/- 0.12 nmol equiv. leukotriene C4 per g, n = 6) and histamine (10.3 +/- 1.8 of total tissue histamine, n = 5) when challenged with house dust mite extract. 3. Isolated strips of human lung parenchyma, passively sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, contracted when treated with house dust mite extract to a mean value of 40% of the maximal histamine response for each strip. Nedocromil sodium 0.1 and 1 microM inhibited these contractions by 50% and 70% of the control response, but 10 microM had no inhibitory effect. 4. Isolated rings from human bronchus, also passively sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, contracted when treated with house dust mite extract to a mean value of 86% of the maximal histamine response. Nedocromil sodium 1 microM, but not 0.1 or 10 microM, inhibited contractions by 48% of the control response. 5. The therapeutic effects of nedocromil sodium in allergic asthma may depend, partly, on its inhibition of antigen-induced release of leukotrienes and histamine in human lung and its consequent inhibition of antigen-induced contractions of parenchymal and bronchial tissue. PMID:1696152

  8. Can a Six-Minute Walk Distance Predict Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients with Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension?

    PubMed

    Ussavarungsi, Kamonpun; Lee, Augustine S; Burger, Charles D

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is commonly observed in patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD). The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as a simple, non-invasive tool to assess right ventricular (RV) function in patients with DPLD and to identify the need for an echocardiogram (ECHO) to screen for PH. We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients with PH secondary to DPLD, who were evaluated in the PH clinic at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, from January 1999 to December 2014. Fifty-two percent of patients had RV dysfunction. They had a significantly greater right heart pressure by ECHO and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) from right heart catheterization (RHC) than those with normal RV function. A reduced 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) did not predict RV dysfunction (OR 0.995; 95% CI 0.980-1.001, p = 0.138). In addition, worsening restrictive physiology, heart rate at one-minute recovery and desaturation were not different between patients with and without RV dysfunction. However, there were inverse correlations between 6MWD and MPAP from RHC (r = -0.41, 
p = 0.010), 6MWD and RV systolic pressure (r = -0.51, p < 0.001), and 6MWD and MPAP measured by ECHO (r = -0.46, p =0.013). We also found no significant correlation between 6MWD and pulmonary function test parameters. Our single-center cohort of patients with PH secondary to DPLD, PH was found to have an impact on 6MWD. In contrast to our expectations, 6MWD was not useful to predict RV dysfunction. Interestingly, a severe reduction in the 6MWD was related to PH and not to pulmonary function; therefore, it may be used to justify an ECHO to identify patients with a worse prognosis.

  9. Bmp6 expression in murine liver non parenchymal cells: a mechanism to control their high iron exporter activity and protect hepatocytes from iron overload?

    PubMed

    Rausa, Marco; Pagani, Alessia; Nai, Antonella; Campanella, Alessandro; Gilberti, Maria Enrica; Apostoli, Pietro; Camaschella, Clara; Silvestri, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Bmp6 is the main activator of hepcidin, the liver hormone that negatively regulates plasma iron influx by degrading the sole iron exporter ferroportin in enterocytes and macrophages. Bmp6 expression is modulated by iron but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Although hepcidin is expressed almost exclusively by hepatocytes (HCs), Bmp6 is produced also by non-parenchymal cells (NPCs), mainly sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). To investigate the regulation of Bmp6 in HCs and NPCs, liver cells were isolated from adult wild type mice whose diet was modified in iron content in acute or chronic manner and in disease models of iron deficiency (Tmprss6 KO mouse) and overload (Hjv KO mouse). With manipulation of dietary iron in wild-type mice, Bmp6 and Tfr1 expression in both HCs and NPCs was inversely related, as expected. When hepcidin expression is abnormal in murine models of iron overload (Hjv KO mice) and deficiency (Tmprss6 KO mice), Bmp6 expression in NPCs was not related to Tfr1. Despite the low Bmp6 in NPCs from Tmprss6 KO mice, Tfr1 mRNA was also low. Conversely, despite body iron overload and high expression of Bmp6 in NPCs from Hjv KO mice, Tfr1 mRNA and protein were increased. However, in the same cells ferritin L was only slightly increased, but the iron content was not, suggesting that Bmp6 in these cells reflects the high intracellular iron import and export. We propose that NPCs, sensing the iron flux, not only increase hepcidin through Bmp6 with a paracrine mechanism to control systemic iron homeostasis but, controlling hepcidin, they regulate their own ferroportin, inducing iron retention or release and further modulating Bmp6 production in an autocrine manner. This mechanism, that contributes to protect HC from iron loading or deficiency, is lost in disease models of hepcidin production.

  10. Brain parenchymal fraction in an age-stratified healthy population - determined by MRI using manual segmentation and three automated segmentation methods.

    PubMed

    Vågberg, Mattias; Ambarki, Khalid; Lindqvist, Thomas; Birgander, Richard; Svenningsson, Anders

    2016-12-01

    Brain atrophy is a prominent feature in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, but age-related decrease of brain volume occurs regardless of pathological neurodegeneration. Changes in brain volume can be described by use of the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), most often defined as the ratio of total brain parenchyma to total intracranial space. The BPF is of interest both in research and in clinical practice. To be able to properly interpret this variable, the normal range of BPF must be known. The objective of this study is to present normal values for BPF, stratified by age, and compare manual BPF measurement to three automated methods. The BPFs of 106 healthy individuals aged 21 to 85 years were determined by the automated segmentation methods SyMap, VBM8 and SPM12. In a subgroup of 54 randomly selected individuals, the BPF was also determined by manual segmentation. The median (IQR) BPFs of the whole study population were 0.857 (0.064), 0.819 (0.028) and 0.784 (0.073) determined by SyMap, VBM8 and SPM12, respectively. The BPF decreased with increasing age. The correlation coefficients between manual segmentation and SyMap, VBM8 and SPM12 were 0.93 (P<0.001), 0.77 (P<0.001) and 0.56 (P<0.001), respectively. There was a clear relationship between increasing age and decreasing BPF. Knowledge of the range of normal BPF in relation to age group will help in the interpretation of BPF data. The automated segmentation methods displayed varying degrees of similarity to the manual reference, with SyMap being the most similar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Bmp6 Expression in Murine Liver Non Parenchymal Cells: A Mechanism to Control their High Iron Exporter Activity and Protect Hepatocytes from Iron Overload?

    PubMed Central

    Rausa, Marco; Pagani, Alessia; Nai, Antonella; Campanella, Alessandro; Gilberti, Maria Enrica; Apostoli, Pietro; Camaschella, Clara; Silvestri, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Bmp6 is the main activator of hepcidin, the liver hormone that negatively regulates plasma iron influx by degrading the sole iron exporter ferroportin in enterocytes and macrophages. Bmp6 expression is modulated by iron but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Although hepcidin is expressed almost exclusively by hepatocytes (HCs), Bmp6 is produced also by non-parenchymal cells (NPCs), mainly sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). To investigate the regulation of Bmp6 in HCs and NPCs, liver cells were isolated from adult wild type mice whose diet was modified in iron content in acute or chronic manner and in disease models of iron deficiency (Tmprss6 KO mouse) and overload (Hjv KO mouse). With manipulation of dietary iron in wild-type mice, Bmp6 and Tfr1 expression in both HCs and NPCs was inversely related, as expected. When hepcidin expression is abnormal in murine models of iron overload (Hjv KO mice) and deficiency (Tmprss6 KO mice), Bmp6 expression in NPCs was not related to Tfr1. Despite the low Bmp6 in NPCs from Tmprss6 KO mice, Tfr1 mRNA was also low. Conversely, despite body iron overload and high expression of Bmp6 in NPCs from Hjv KO mice, Tfr1 mRNA and protein were increased. However, in the same cells ferritin L was only slightly increased, but the iron content was not, suggesting that Bmp6 in these cells reflects the high intracellular iron import and export. We propose that NPCs, sensing the iron flux, not only increase hepcidin through Bmp6 with a paracrine mechanism to control systemic iron homeostasis but, controlling hepcidin, they regulate their own ferroportin, inducing iron retention or release and further modulating Bmp6 production in an autocrine manner. This mechanism, that contributes to protect HC from iron loading or deficiency, is lost in disease models of hepcidin production. PMID:25860887

  12. Are Qualitative Assessments of Background Parenchymal Enhancement, Amount of Fibroglandular Tissue on MR Images, and Mammographic Density Associated with Breast Cancer Risk?

    PubMed

    Dontchos, Brian N; Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C; Korde, Larissa A; Lam, Diana L; Scheel, John R; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessments of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT), and mammographic density are associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women who are at high risk. In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, all screening breast MR images obtained from January 2006 to December 2011 in women aged 18 years or older and at high risk for but without a history of breast cancer were identified. Women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed after index MR imaging comprised the cancer cohort, and one-to-one matching (age and BRCA status) of each woman with breast cancer to a control subject was performed by using MR images obtained in women who did not develop breast cancer with follow-up time maximized. Amount of BPE, BPE pattern (peripheral vs central), amount of FGT at MR imaging, and mammographic density were assessed on index images. Imaging features were compared between cancer and control cohorts by using conditional logistic regression. Twenty-three women at high risk (mean age, 47 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; six women had BRCA mutations) with no history of breast cancer underwent screening breast MR imaging; in these women, a diagnosis of breast cancer (invasive, n = 12; in situ, n = 11) was made during the follow-up interval. Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were nine times more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer during the follow-up interval than were those with minimal BPE (P = .007; odds ratio = 9.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 71.0). BPE pattern, MR imaging amount of FGT, and mammographic density were not significantly different between the cohorts (P = .5, P = .5, and P = .4, respectively). Greater BPE was associated with a higher probability of developing breast cancer in women at high risk for cancer and warrants further study. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for

  13. Three-dimensional airway lumen volumetry: comparison with bronchial wall area and parenchymal densitometry in assessment of airway obstruction in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Koyama, H; Ohno, Y; Nishio, M; Takenaka, D; Yoshikawa, T; Matsumoto, S; Nishimura, Y; Sugimura, K

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three-dimensional airway lumen volumetry with bronchial wall area and parenchymal densitometry in the assessment of airway obstruction in pulmonary emphysema. 56 patients, who were smokers, underwent CT examination and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). For quantitative assessments, the following parameters were computationally calculated: (1) percentage of voxels -950, -960 and -970 HU in the lung (%LAA(-950), %LAA(-960) and %LAA(-970), respectively); (2) percentage of partial bronchi luminal volumes per total luminal volumes (LV(main), main and distal bronchial volume/total luminal volume; LV(lobe), lobar and distal bronchial volume/total luminal volume); and (3) mean wall area percentages of segmental bronchi of the right apical and left apicoposterior segment (WA%(seg)) and of subsegmental bronchi (WA%(sub)) in the upper lobes. These parameters were correlated with PFTs and statistically compared between a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) group [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC)<70] and a non-COPD group. FEV1, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory flow at 25% vital capacity had significant correlation with LV(main) (r>0.53, p<0.0001), LV(lobe) (r>0.52, p<0.0001), WA%(seg) (|r|>0.29, p<0.05) and WA%(sub) (|r|>0.31, p<0.05). FEV1/FVC had significant correlation with all parameters (0.27<|r|<0.52, p<0.05). LV(main) and LV(lobe) and WA%(seg) and WA%(sub) were significantly different between the two groups (LV(main) and LV(lobe); p<0.0001, WA%(seg) and WA%(sub); p<0.05). Bronchial luminal volumetric assessment better reflected the airflow limitation parameters. Bronchial luminal volumetric assessment can potentially be used to gauge airflow limitation in pulmonary emphysema.

  14. Natural course of typical and atypical parenchymal solitary cysticercus granuloma of the brain: a 3-year prospective clinico-radiological study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Neeraj; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) sequences (fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA), T2 star-weighted angiography (SWAN) and spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR)) in patients with single small enhancing computed tomography lesions and scolex demonstration in typical and atypical parenchymal neurocysticercosis. Methods In this study, 59 patients of new-onset seizures with single small enhancing computed tomography lesions of the brain were included. Along with routine MR sequences, advanced MR sequences, like SWAN, FIESTA, and pre and post-contrast SPGR, were performed. Follow-up MR studies focussing on the morphology of the lesions and demonstration of scolex were performed 6 monthly for 3 years. Results The majority of patients (62.7%) were men with partial seizure as the most common manifestation. On SPGR, contrast lesions were identified as either ‘typical’ (42, 71.2%) or ‘atypical’ (17, 28.8%). In the typical lesion group, SWAN and FIESTA sequences detected scolex in 30 (71.4%) and 32 (76.2%), respectively. The combination of SPGR-contrast, FIESTA and SWAN sequences detected scolex in 35 (83.3%) patients compared to 19 (45.2%) by routine sequences (P < 0.001). In the atypical lesion group, SWAN and FIESTA sequences detected scolex in 15 (88.2%) and 16 (94.1%) patients, respectively. The combination of SPGR-contrast, FIESTA and SWAN sequences detected scolex in 16 (94.1%) patients compared to 10 (58.8%) by routine sequences (P < 0.001). Follow-up showed greater resolution with lesser calcification in the typical group compared to the atypical group. Conclusion This study provides an insight into the natural course of typical and atypical solitary cysticercus granuloma lesions, and the utility of SPGR-contrast, FIESTA and SWAN MR sequences in scolex demonstration and identification of atypical lesions. PMID:26659345

  15. Non-invasive assessment of vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH using C-arm FDCT parenchymal blood volume measurement in the neuro-interventional suite: Technical feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Jonathan; Corkill, Rufus; Byrne, James V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral vasospasm is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) surviving the initial ictus. Commonly used techniques for vasospasm assessment are digital subtraction angiography and transcranial Doppler sonography. These techniques can reliably identify only the major vessel spasm and fail to estimate its haemodynamic significance. To overcome these issues and to enable comprehensive non-invasive assessment of vasospasm inside the interventional suite, a novel protocol involving measurement of parenchymal blood volume (PBV) using C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) was implemented. Materials and methods Patients from the neuro-intensive treatment unit (ITU) with suspected vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH were scanned with a biplane C-arm angiography system using an intravenous contrast injection protocol. The PBV maps were generated using prototype software. Contemporaneous clinically indicated MR scan including the diffusion- and perfusion-weighted sequences was performed. C-arm PBV maps were compared against the MR perfusion maps. Results Distribution of haemodynamic impairment on C-arm PBV maps closely matched the pattern of abnormality on MR perfusion maps. On visual comparison between the two techniques, the extent of abnormality indicated PBV to be both cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume weighted. Conclusion C-arm FDCT PBV measurements allow an objective assessment of the severity and localisation of cerebral hypoperfusion resulting from vasospasm. The technique has proved feasible and useful in very sick patients after aneurysmal SAH. The promise shown in this early study indicates that it deserves further evaluation both for post-SAH vasospasm and in other relevant clinical settings. PMID:26017197

  16. Long Term Follow-Up of the Endovascular Trans-Vessel Wall Technique for Parenchymal Access in Rabbit with Full Clinical Integration

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Johan; Jonsson, Stefan; Holmin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Endovascular techniques are providing options to surgical/percutaneous cell transplantation methods. Some cells, e.g. insulin producing cells, are not suitable for intra-luminal transplantation and for such cells, other options must be found. We have constructed a “nanocatheter” with a penetrating tip for vessel perforation, thereby creating a working channel for parenchymal access by endovascular technique. To finish the procedure safely, the distal tip is detached to provide a securing plug in the vessel wall defect. Materials and Methods We have performed interventions with full clinical integration in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), the subclavian artery and the external carotid artery in rabbits. No hemorrhagic- or thromboembolic events occurred during the procedure. Stenosis formation and distal embolisation were analyzed by angiography and macroscopic inspection during autopsy at five, 30 and 80 days. All animals and implanted devices were also evaluated by micro-dissections and histochemical analysis. Results In this study we show safety data on the trans-vessel wall technique by behavioral, angiographical and histological analysis. No stenosis formation was observed at any of the follow-up time points. No animals or organs have shown any signs of distress due to the intervention. Histological examination showed no signs of hemorrhage, excellent biocompatibility with no inflammation and a very limited fibrous capsule formation around the device, comparable to titanium implants. Further, no histological changes were detected in the endothelia of the vessels subject to intervention. Conclusions The trans-vessel wall technique can be applied for e.g. cell transplantations, local substance administration and tissue sampling with low risk for complications during the procedure and low risk for hemorrhage, stenosis development or adverse tissue reactions with an 80 days follow-up time. The benefit should be greatest in organs that are

  17. Death receptor-independent FADD signalling triggers hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice with liver parenchymal cell-specific NEMO knockout.

    PubMed

    Ehlken, H; Krishna-Subramanian, S; Ochoa-Callejero, L; Kondylis, V; Nadi, N E; Straub, B K; Schirmacher, P; Walczak, H; Kollias, G; Pasparakis, M

    2014-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually develops in the context of chronic hepatitis triggered by viruses or toxic substances causing hepatocyte death, inflammation and compensatory proliferation of liver cells. Death receptors of the TNFR superfamily regulate cell death and inflammation and are implicated in liver disease and cancer. Liver parenchymal cell-specific ablation of NEMO/IKKγ, a subunit of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex that is essential for the activation of canonical NF-κB signalling, sensitized hepatocytes to apoptosis and caused the spontaneous development of chronic hepatitis and HCC in mice. Here we show that hepatitis and HCC development in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice is triggered by death receptor-independent FADD-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis. TNF deficiency in all cells or conditional LPC-specific ablation of TNFR1, Fas or TRAIL-R did not prevent hepatocyte apoptosis, hepatitis and HCC development in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice. To address potential functional redundancies between death receptors we generated and analysed NEMO(LPC-KO) mice with combined LPC-specific deficiency of TNFR1, Fas and TRAIL-R and found that also simultaneous lack of all three death receptors did not prevent hepatocyte apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and HCC development. However, LPC-specific combined deficiency in TNFR1, Fas and TRAIL-R protected the NEMO-deficient liver from LPS-induced liver failure, showing that different mechanisms trigger spontaneous and LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice. In addition, NK cell depletion did not prevent liver damage and hepatitis. Moreover, NEMO(LPC-KO) mice crossed into a RAG-1-deficient genetic background-developed hepatitis and HCC. Collectively, these results show that the spontaneous development of hepatocyte apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and HCC in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice occurs independently of death receptor signalling, NK cells and B and T lymphocytes, arguing against an immunological trigger as the critical stimulus driving

  18. Natural course of typical and atypical parenchymal solitary cysticercus granuloma of the brain: a 3-year prospective clinico-radiological study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the role of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) sequences (fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA), T2 star-weighted angiography (SWAN) and spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR)) in patients with single small enhancing computed tomography lesions and scolex demonstration in typical and atypical parenchymal neurocysticercosis. In this study, 59 patients of new-onset seizures with single small enhancing computed tomography lesions of the brain were included. Along with routine MR sequences, advanced MR sequences, like SWAN, FIESTA, and pre and post-contrast SPGR, were performed. Follow-up MR studies focussing on the morphology of the lesions and demonstration of scolex were performed 6 monthly for 3 years. The majority of patients (62.7%) were men with partial seizure as the most common manifestation. On SPGR, contrast lesions were identified as either 'typical' (42, 71.2%) or 'atypical' (17, 28.8%). In the typical lesion group, SWAN and FIESTA sequences detected scolex in 30 (71.4%) and 32 (76.2%), respectively. The combination of SPGR-contrast, FIESTA and SWAN sequences detected scolex in 35 (83.3%) patients compared to 19 (45.2%) by routine sequences (P < 0.001). In the atypical lesion group, SWAN and FIESTA sequences detected scolex in 15 (88.2%) and 16 (94.1%) patients, respectively. The combination of SPGR-contrast, FIESTA and SWAN sequences detected scolex in 16 (94.1%) patients compared to 10 (58.8%) by routine sequences (P < 0.001). Follow-up showed greater resolution with lesser calcification in the typical group compared to the atypical group. This study provides an insight into the natural course of typical and atypical solitary cysticercus granuloma lesions, and the utility of SPGR-contrast, FIESTA and SWAN MR sequences in scolex demonstration and identification of atypical lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Breast parenchymal signal enhancement ratio at preoperative magnetic resonance imaging: association with early recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Vivian Youngjean; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung

    2016-07-01

    The signal enhancement ratio (SER) of surrounding non-tumor parenchyma at breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be helpful in breast cancer patients, but has not been investigated in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). To investigate the association between background parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with recurrence-free survival in patients with TNBC. Between April 2012 and May 2013, 71 TNBC patients who underwent preoperative MRI were included. SER values were calculated from regions of interest placed in the breast parenchyma around the tumor. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine associations between MRI variables, clinical-pathologic variables, and recurrence-free survival. Recurrence occurred in 8.5% (6/71) of patients. At univariate analysis, a higher SER around the tumor, larger tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, receipt of total mastectomy, and not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were associated with worse recurrence-free survival. At multivariate analysis of preoperative variables, a higher SER around the tumor was independently associated with worse recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.072, P = 0.003 for SER1; HR = 6.268, P = 0.006 for SER2; HR = 3.004, P = 0.039 for SER3). Higher SER around the tumor at preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is an independent predictor for recurrence in TNBC patients. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  20. Neuro-Behçet disease and autoinflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Miller, Julie J; Venna, Nagagopal; Siva, Aksel

    2014-09-01

    Misregulation of innate immunity leads to autoinflammation. Behçet disease is an autoinflammatory condition involving recurrent attacks of inflammation in skin, eyes, joints, and even the nervous system. The etiology may involve vascular inflammation. Central nervous system involvement in neuro-Behçet disease (NBD) comes in the form of parenchymal NBD or nonparenchymal NBD. The parenchymal form has a predilection for the brainstem, diencephalon and cerebral hemispheres, and represents a meningoencephalitis thought to be related to small vessel vasculitis. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, arising from a vasculitic process of large veins, comprises the majority of vascular NBD cases. The rarer monogenetic autoinflammatory syndromes are characterized by periodic fever, and typically present in the pediatric population. Neurologic involvement in these syndromes typically presents in the form of an aseptic meningitis. Treatment of autoinflammatory disorders involves immune modulation with corticosteroids, disease-modifying antirheumatic medications, and increasingly antibodies targeting cytokines like tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Overview of Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Throat Disorders Eye Disorders Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders Liver ...

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  3. THE METALLICITY BIMODALITY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS: A TEST OF GALAXY ASSEMBLY AND OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tonini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    We build a theoretical model to study the origin of the globular cluster metallicity bimodality in the hierarchical galaxy assembly scenario. The model is based on empirical relations such as the galaxy mass-metallicity relation [O/H]-M {sub star} as a function of redshift, and on the observed galaxy stellar mass function up to redshift z {approx} 4. We make use of the theoretical merger rates as a function of mass and redshift from the Millennium simulation to build galaxy merger trees. We derive a new galaxy [Fe/H]-M {sub star} relation as a function of redshift, and by assuming that globular clusters share the metallicity of their original parent galaxy at the time of their formation, we populate the merger tree with globular clusters. We perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations of the galaxy hierarchical assembly, and study the properties of the final globular cluster population as a function of galaxy mass, assembly and star formation history, and under different assumptions for the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation. The main results and predictions of the model are the following. (1) The hierarchical clustering scenario naturally predicts a metallicity bimodality in the galaxy globular cluster population, where the metal-rich subpopulation is composed of globular clusters formed in the galaxy main progenitor around redshift z {approx} 2, and the metal-poor subpopulation is composed of clusters accreted from satellites, and formed at redshifts z {approx} 3-4. (2) The model reproduces the observed relations by Peng et al. for the metallicities of the metal-rich and metal-poor globular cluster subpopulations as a function of galaxy mass; the positions of the metal-poor and metal-rich peaks depend exclusively on the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation and the [O/Fe], both of which can be constrained by this method. In particular, we find that the galaxy [O/Fe] evolves linearly with redshift from a value of {approx}0.5 at redshift

  4. The mass-metallicity relation of AKARI-FMOS infrared galaxies at z ∼ 0.88 in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Deep Survey Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Nagisa; Goto, Tomotsugu; Malkan, Matthew; Pearson, Chris; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    The mass, metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy are crucial parameters in understanding galaxy formation and evolution. However, the relation between these parameters, (i.e., the fundamental relation) is still a matter of debate for luminous infrared (IR) galaxies, which carry a bulk of the SFR budget of the universe at z ∼ 1. We have investigated the relation among stellar mass, gas-phase oxygen abundance, and SFR of the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI-detected mid-IR galaxies at z ∼ 0.88 in the AKARI north ecliptic pole deep field. We observed ∼350 AKARI sources with Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-IR spectrograph, and detected confirmed Hα emission lines from 25 galaxies and expected Hα emission lines from 44 galaxies. The SFRHα, IR of our sample is almost constant (〈SFRHα, IR〉 = ∼ 25 M⊙ yr - 1) over the stellar mass range of our sample. Compared with main-sequence (MS) galaxies at a similar redshift range (z ∼ 0.78), the average SFR of our detected sample is comparable for massive galaxies ( ∼ 1010.58 M⊙), while higher by ∼0.6 dex for less massive galaxies ( ∼ 1010.05 M⊙). We measure metallicities from the [N II]/Hα emission line ratio. We find that the mass-metallicity relation of our individually measured sources agrees with that for optically-selected star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.1, while metallicities of stacked spectra agree with that of MS galaxies at z ∼ 0.78. Considering the high SFR of individually measured sources, the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) of the IR galaxies is different from that at z ∼ 0.1. However, on the mass-metallicity plane, they are consistent with the MS galaxies, highlighting the higher SFR of the IR galaxies. This suggests that the evolutionary path of our infrared galaxies is different from that of MS galaxies. A possible physical interpretation includes that the star-formation activities of IR galaxies at z ∼ 0.88 in our sample are enhanced by

  5. The mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations at z > 2 using very large telescope and Subaru near-infrared spectroscopy of zCOSMOS galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, C.; Ziegler, B. L.; Lilly, S. J.; Peng, Y.; Contini, T.; Pérez Montero, E.; Balestra, I.

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called 'fundamental metallicity relation' (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al.

  6. The Mass-Metallicity and Fundamental Metallicity Relations at z > 2 Using Very Large Telescope and Subaru Near-infrared Spectroscopy of zCOSMOS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Ziegler, B. L.; Contini, T.; Pérez Montero, E.; Peng, Y.; Balestra, I.

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called "fundamental metallicity relation" (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al. AND SUBARU

  7. Gene profile of chemokines on hepatic stellate cells of schistosome-infected mice and antifibrotic roles of CXCL9/10 on liver non-parenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yue-jin; Luo, Jie; Lu, Qiao; Zhou, Ying; Wu, Hai-wei; Zheng, Dan; Ren, Yong-ya; Sun, Ke-yi; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Zhao-song

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the development of liver fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis. Chemokines were widely expressed and involved in cellular activation, proliferation and migration in inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, little is known about the expressions of chemokines on HSCs in the schistosoma infection. In addition, the roles of chemokines in pathogenesis of liver fibrosis are not totally clear. In our study, we used microarray to analyze the temporal gene expressions of primary HSCs isolated from mice with both acute and chronic schistosomiasis. Our microarray data showed that most of the chemokines expressed on HSCs were upregulated at 3 weeks post-infection (p.i) when the egg granulomatous response was not obviously evoked in the liver. However, some of them like CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 were subsequently decreased at 6 weeks p.i when the granulomatous response reached the peak. In the chronic stage, most of the differentially expressed chemokines maintained persistent high-abundances. Furthermore, several chemokines including CCR2, CCR5, CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR4, CCL2, CCL5, CCL21, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were expressed by HCSs and the abundances of them were changed following the praziquantel treatment in the chronic stage, indicating that chemokines were possibly necessary for the persistence of the chronic stage. In vitro experiments, hepatic non-parenchymal cells, primary HSCs and human HSCs line LX-2 were stimulated by chemokines. The results showed that CXCL9 and CXCL10, but not CXCL11 or CXCL4, significantly inhibited the gene expressions of Col1α1, Col3α1 and α-SMA, indicating the potential anti-fibrosis effect of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in schistosomiasis. More interestingly, soluble egg antigen (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum was able to inhibit transcriptional expressions of some chemokines by LX-2 cells, suggesting that SEA was capable of regulating the expression pattern of chemokine family and modulating the hepatic immune

  8. Quantitative evaluation of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast MRI. A feasibility study with a semi-automatic and automatic software compared to observer-based scores

    PubMed Central

    Bignotti, Bianca; Tagliafico, Giulio; Tosto, Simona; Signori, Alessio; Calabrese, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate quantitative measurements of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast MRI and compare them with observer-based scores. Methods: BPE of 48 patients (mean age: 48 years; age range: 36–66 years) referred to 3.0-T breast MRI between 2012 and 2014 was evaluated independently and blindly to each other by two radiologists. BPE was estimated qualitatively with the standard Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scale and quantitatively with a semi-automatic and an automatic software interface. To assess intrareader agreement, MRIs were re-read after a 4-month interval by the same two readers. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and the Bland–Altman method were used to compare the methods used to estimate BPE. p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean value of BPE with the semi-automatic software evaluated by each reader was 14% (range: 2–79%) for Reader 1 and 16% (range: 1–61%) for Reader 2 (p > 0.05). Mean values of BPE percentages for the automatic software were 17.5 ± 13.1 (p > 0.05 vs semi-automatic). The automatic software was unable to produce BPE values for 2 of 48 (4%) patients. With BI-RADS, interreader and intrareader values were κ = 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49–0.91] and κ = 0.69 (95% CI 0.46–0.93), respectively. With semi-automated software, interreader and intrareader values were κ = 0.81 (95% CI 0.59–0.99) and κ = 0.85 (95% CI 0.43–0.99), respectively. BI-RADS scores correlated with the automatic (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and semi-automatic scores (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). Automatic scores correlated with the semi-automatic scores (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). The mean percentage difference between automatic and semi-automatic scores was 3.5% (95% CI 1.5–5.2). Conclusion: BPE quantitative evaluation is feasible with both semi-automatic and automatic software and correlates with radiologists' estimation. Advances in

  9. Are Qualitative Assessments of Background Parenchymal Enhancement, Amount of Fibroglandular Tissue on MR Images, and Mammographic Density Associated with Breast Cancer Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Dontchos, Brian N.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Korde, Larissa A.; Lam, Diana L.; Scheel, John R.; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessments of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT), and mammographic density are associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women who are at high risk. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, all screening breast MR images obtained from January 2006 to December 2011 in women aged 18 years or older and at high risk for but without a history of breast cancer were identified. Women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed after index MR imaging comprised the cancer cohort, and one-to-one matching (age and BRCA status) of each woman with breast cancer to a control subject was performed by using MR images obtained in women who did not develop breast cancer with follow-up time maximized. Amount of BPE, BPE pattern (peripheral vs central), amount of FGT at MR imaging, and mammographic density were assessed on index images. Imaging features were compared between cancer and control cohorts by using conditional logistic regression. Results Twenty-three women at high risk (mean age, 47 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; six women had BRCA mutations) with no history of breast cancer underwent screening breast MR imaging; in these women, a diagnosis of breast cancer (invasive, n = 12; in situ, n = 11) was made during the follow-up interval. Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were nine times more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer during the follow-up interval than were those with minimal BPE (P = .007; odds ratio = 9.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 71.0). BPE pattern, MR imaging amount of FGT, and mammographic density were not significantly different between the cohorts (P = .5, P = .5, and P = .4, respectively). Conclusion Greater BPE was associated with a higher probability of developing breast cancer in women at high risk for cancer and warrants further study. © RSNA

  10. Quantitative evaluation of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast MRI. A feasibility study with a semi-automatic and automatic software compared to observer-based scores.

    PubMed

    Tagliafico, Alberto; Bignotti, Bianca; Tagliafico, Giulio; Tosto, Simona; Signori, Alessio; Calabrese, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate quantitative measurements of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast MRI and compare them with observer-based scores. BPE of 48 patients (mean age: 48 years; age range: 36-66 years) referred to 3.0-T breast MRI between 2012 and 2014 was evaluated independently and blindly to each other by two radiologists. BPE was estimated qualitatively with the standard Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scale and quantitatively with a semi-automatic and an automatic software interface. To assess intrareader agreement, MRIs were re-read after a 4-month interval by the same two readers. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and the Bland-Altman method were used to compare the methods used to estimate BPE. p-value <0.05 was considered significant. The mean value of BPE with the semi-automatic software evaluated by each reader was 14% (range: 2-79%) for Reader 1 and 16% (range: 1-61%) for Reader 2 (p > 0.05). Mean values of BPE percentages for the automatic software were 17.5 ± 13.1 (p > 0.05 vs semi-automatic). The automatic software was unable to produce BPE values for 2 of 48 (4%) patients. With BI-RADS, interreader and intrareader values were κ = 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.91] and κ = 0.69 (95% CI 0.46-0.93), respectively. With semi-automated software, interreader and intrareader values were κ = 0.81 (95% CI 0.59-0.99) and κ = 0.85 (95% CI 0.43-0.99), respectively. BI-RADS scores correlated with the automatic (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and semi-automatic scores (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). Automatic scores correlated with the semi-automatic scores (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). The mean percentage difference between automatic and semi-automatic scores was 3.5% (95% CI 1.5-5.2). BPE quantitative evaluation is feasible with both semi-automatic and automatic software and correlates with radiologists' estimation. Computerized BPE quantitative evaluation is feasible with both semi

  11. Hepatic Parenchymal Heterogeneity on Contrast-enhanced CT Scans Following Oxaliplatin-based Chemotherapy: Natural History and Association with Clinical Evidence of Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, Na Yeon; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Sung, Deuk Jae; Cho, Sung Bum

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the natural history and contrast material-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) features of postoxaliplatin heterogeneity of liver parenchyma (POHL) and to investigate the association of POHL with clinical factors and biomarkers of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). The retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was waived. Two hundred seventy patients (159 men, 111 women; age range, 31-92 years) who underwent oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (OBC) and serial contrast-enhanced CT were consecutively registered. POHL severity was independently scored by two abdominal imagers, who were blinded to the clinical data, using a six-point scale (POHL presence, ≥4), followed by a consensus review. Complete radiologic remission was determined by consensus on the disappearance of heterogeneity on CT images. The association of POHL severity score with CT-based quantitative (ie, change in spleen size and blood-free hepatic parenchymal attenuation) and laboratory values (ie, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, and platelet count), as well as time to complete radiologic remission, were evaluated with the Spearman rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the association between clinical factors of SOS (ie, age, sex, number of OBC sessions, chemotherapy regimen, bevacizumab use, and presence of concomitant hepatic metastasis) and POHL development. RESULTS Interobserver agreement was excellent (κ = 0.90). POHL was present in 167 (61.9%) of 270 patients, and the number of OBC sessions was significantly associated with POHL development (odds ratio, 1.138; 95% confidence interval: 1.039, 1.245; P = .005). POHL severity score was correlated with quantitative CT and laboratory values (P < .05 for all statistical analysis). Peripheral distribution (103 of 167, 61.7%) and right lobar predominance (103 of 165, 62.4%) were the most common POHL features. The mean time to complete radiologic remission

  12. S4a + S5 with caudate lobe (S1) resection using the Taj Mahal liver parenchymal resection for carcinoma of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Kawarada, Y; Isaji, S; Taoka, H; Tabata, M; Das, B C; Yokoi, H

    1999-01-01

    Recently we have been performing S4a + S5 with total resection of the caudate lobe (S1) by using a dome-like dissection along the root of the middle hepatic vein at the pinnacle, which we refer to as the Taj Mahal liver parenchymal resection, for carcinoma of the biliary tract. This procedure offers the following advantages: (1) It allows total resection of the caudate lobe, including the paracaval portion (S9), and (2) because the cut surface of the liver is large, it allows intrahepatic jejunostomy to be performed more easily with a good field of view. The indications for this procedure include hilar bile duct carcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, and choledochal cyst (type IVA). Because of the high rate of hilar liver parenchyma and caudate lobe invasion associated with hilar bile duct carcinoma, the liver must be resected. The Taj Mahal procedure is indicated in cases where extended liver resection is impossible. The dissection limits of this procedure are, on the left side, the B2+3 bifurcation at the right margin of the umbilical portion of the portal vein and, on the right side, the B8 of the anterior branch and the B6+7 bifurcation of the right posterior branch. This procedure could also be described as a reduced form of extended right hepatectomy and extended left hepatectomy. For gallbladder carcinoma, this procedure is indicated to ensure an adequate surgical margin and eradicate transvenous liver metastasis, particularly in cases of pT2 lesions. Hilar and caudate lobe invasion also occurs in liver bed-type gallbladder carcinoma, and bile duct resection and caudate lobe resection are required for the surgery to be curative. We performed this procedure in four cases of hilar bile duct carcinoma, five cases of gallbladder carcinoma, and one case each of choledochal cyst (type IVA) with carcinoma of the bile duct and gallbladder adenomyomatosis. Curative resection was possible in all except the patient with adenomyomatosis, and all of the patients are alive and

  13. A prospective, multicenter pilot study investigating the utility of flat detector derived parenchymal blood volume maps to estimate cerebral blood volume in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Fiorella, David; Turk, Aquilla; Chaudry, Imran; Turner, Raymond; Dunkin, Jared; Roque, Clemente; Sarmiento, Marily; Deuerling-Zheng, Yu; Denice, Christine M; Baumeister, Marlene; Parker, Adrian T; Woo, Henry H

    2014-07-01

    Newer flat panel angiographic detector (FD) systems have the capability to generate parenchymal blood volume (PBV) maps. The ability to generate these maps in the angiographic suite has the potential to markedly expedite the triage and treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The present study compares FP-PBV maps with cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps derived using standard dynamic CT perfusion (CTP) in a population of patients with stroke. 56 patients with cerebrovascular ischemic disease at two participating institutions prospectively underwent both standard dynamic CTP imaging followed by FD-PBV imaging (syngo Neuro PBV IR; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) under a protocol approved by both institutional review boards. The feasibility of the FD system to generate PBV maps was assessed. The radiation doses for both studies were compared. The sensitivity and specificity of the PBV technique to detect (1) any blood volume deficit and (2) a blood volume deficit greater than one-third of a vascular territory, were defined using standard dynamic CTP CBV maps as the gold standard. Of the 56 patients imaged, PBV maps were technically adequate in 42 (75%). The 14 inadequate studies were not interpretable secondary to patient motion/positioning (n=4), an injection issue (n=2), or another reason (n=8). The average dose for FD-PBV was 219 mGy (median 208) versus 204 mGy (median 201) for CT-CBV. On CT-CBV maps 26 of 42 had a CBV deficit (61.9%) and 15 (35.7%) had a deficit that accounted for greater than one-third of a vascular territory. FD-PBV maps were 100% sensitive and 81.3% specific to detect any CBV deficit and 100% sensitive and 62.9% specific to detect any CBV deficit of greater than one-third of a territory. PBV maps can be generated using FP systems. The average radiation dose is similar to a standard CTP examination. PBV maps have a high sensitivity for detecting CBV deficits defined by conventional CTP. PBV maps often overestimate the size of CBV deficits. We

  14. Separate Ways: The Mass-Metallicity Relation Does Not Strongly Correlate with Star Formation Rate in SDSS-IV MaNGA Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Heckman, T.; Blanc, G. A.; The MaNGA Team

    2017-07-01

    We present the integrated stellar mass-metallicity relation (MZR) for more than 1700 galaxies included in the integral field area SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The spatially resolved data allow us to determine the metallicity at the same physical scale (effective radius, R eff) using a heterogeneous set of 10 abundance calibrators. In addition to scale factors, the shape of the MZR is similar for all calibrators, consistent with those reported previously using single-fiber and integral field spectroscopy. We compare the residuals of this relation against the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR). We do not find a strong secondary relation of the MZR with either SFR or sSFR for any of the calibrators, in contrast with previous single-fiber spectroscopic studies. Our results agree with a scenario in which metal enrichment happens at local scales, with global outflows playing a secondary role in shaping the chemistry of galaxies and cold-gas inflows regulating the stellar formation.

  15. A New Scaling Relation for H II Regions in Spiral Galaxies: Unveiling the True Nature of the Mass-Metallicity Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sánchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Díaz, A. I.; Vílchez, J. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Husemann, B.; Mast, D.

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution—the local mass-metallicity relation—extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce—with a noticeable agreement—the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  16. Red Supergiants as Cosmic Abundance Probes: Massive Star Clusters in M83 and the Mass–Metallicity Relation of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ben; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Lardo, Carmela; Bergemann, Maria; Beasor, Emma; Plez, Bertrand; Evans, Chris; Bastian, Nate; Patrick, Lee R.

    2017-10-01

    We present an abundance analysis of seven super star clusters in the disk of M83. The near-infrared spectra of these clusters are dominated by red supergiants, and the spectral similarity in the J-band of such stars at uniform metallicity means that the integrated light from the clusters may be analyzed using the same tools as those applied to single stars. Using data from VLT/KMOS, we estimate metallicities for each cluster in the sample. We find that the abundance gradient in the inner regions of M83 is flat, with a central metallicity of [Z]=0.21+/- 0.11 relative to a solar value of Z ⊙ = 0.014, which is in excellent agreement with the results from an analysis of luminous hot stars in the same regions. Compiling this latest study with our other recent work, we construct a mass–metallicity relation for nearby galaxies based entirely on the analysis of RSGs. We find excellent agreement with the other stellar-based technique—that of blue supergiants—as well as with temperature-sensitive (“auroral” or “direct”) H ii-region studies. Of all the H ii-region strong-line calibrations, those that are empirically calibrated to direct-method studies (N2 and O3N2) provide the most consistent results.

  17. A local leaky-box model for the local stellar surface density-gas surface density-gas phase metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Yan, Renbin; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the relation between the stellar surface density, the gas surface density and the gas-phase metallicity of typical disc galaxies in the local Universe with the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, using the star formation rate surface density as an indicator for the gas surface density. We show that these three local parameters form a tight relationship, confirming previous works (e.g. by the PINGS and CALIFA surveys), but with a larger sample. We present a new local leaky-box model, assuming star-formation history and chemical evolution is localized except for outflowing materials. We derive closed-form solutions for the evolution of stellar surface density, gas surface density and gas-phase metallicity, and show that these parameters form a tight relation independent of initial gas density and time. We show that, with canonical values of model parameters, this predicted relation match the observed one well. In addition, we briefly describe a pathway to improving the current semi-analytic models of galaxy formation by incorporating the local leaky-box model in the cosmological context, which can potentially explain simultaneously multiple properties of Milky Way-type disc galaxies, such as the size growth and the global stellar mass-gas metallicity relation.

  18. Anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B; Eley, Thalia C; Milad, Mohammed R; Holmes, Andrew; Rapee, Ronald M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-05-04

    Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors. In addition, general risk factors for anxiety disorders include female sex and a family history of anxiety, although disorder-specific risk factors have also been identified. The diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders varies for the individual disorders, but are generally similar across the two most common classification systems: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10). Despite their public health significance, the vast majority of anxiety disorders remain undetected and untreated by health care systems, even in economically advanced countries. If untreated, these disorders are usually chronic with waxing and waning symptoms. Impairments associated with anxiety disorders range from limitations in role functioning to severe disabilities, such as the patient being unable to leave their home.

  19. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... because their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing ... or other features. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. ...

  20. Tooth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include eating, speaking and even smiling. But tooth disorders are nothing to smile about. They include problems ... your teeth. Fortunately, you can prevent many tooth disorders by taking care of your teeth and keeping ...

  1. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  2. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  3. Tailbone Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bottom of your backbone, or spine. Tailbone disorders include tailbone injuries, pain, infections, cysts and tumors. ... cause of such injuries. Symptoms of various tailbone disorders include pain in the tailbone area, pain upon ...

  4. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal infections Autoimmune diseases Some cancers Bone marrow disorders In some conditions, the eosinophils can move outside ...

  5. Peritoneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... peritoneal fluid, lubricates the surface of this tissue. Disorders of the peritoneum are not common. They include ... fluid to diagnose the problem. Treatment of peritoneal disorders depends on the cause.

  6. Pituitary Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of other glands in the body. With pituitary disorders, you often have too much or too little ... one of your hormones. Injuries can cause pituitary disorders, but the most common cause is a pituitary ...

  7. Bleeding Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... as clotting factors. If you have a bleeding disorder, you either do not have enough platelets or ... don't work the way they should. Bleeding disorders can be the result of other diseases, such ...

  8. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the vocal cords. Other causes of voice disorders include infections, upward movement of stomach acids into ... become an effort to talk Treatment for voice disorders varies depending on the cause. Most voice problems ...

  9. Conduct disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity. Causes Conduct disorder has been linked to: Child abuse Drug or alcohol abuse in the parents Family ... 2016:chap 23. Read More Antisocial personality disorder Child abuse - physical Review Date 3/4/2015 Updated by: ...

  10. Hoarding disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association. This ... In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; ...

  11. Conversion Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). This manual, published by the American Psychiatric Association, ... In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; ...

  12. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... making life feel overwhelming or out of control. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) . For a person with OCD, anxiety takes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Taking Your Child to a Therapist Posttraumatic Stress ...

  13. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... making life feel overwhelming or out of control. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). For a person with OCD , anxiety takes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Social Phobia 5 Ways to Deal With Anxiety ...

  14. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... will only review a few in each cluster. Cluster A: Schizoid Personality Disorder. Schizoid personalities are introverted, ... into the future or read other people’s minds. Cluster B: Antisocial Personality Disorder . People with antisocial personality ...

  15. Neurocognitive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Organic mental disorder (OMS); Organic brain syndrome ... Beck BJ, Tompkins KJ. Mental disorders due to another medical condition. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical ...

  16. Swallowing Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder, but it is more likely in the elderly. It often happens because of other conditions, including Nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy Problems with your esophagus, ...

  17. Personality disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000939.htm Personality disorders To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in ...

  18. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  19. Rumination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Katzman DK, Kearney SA, Becker AE. Feeding and eating disorders. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Eating Disorders Read more Latest Health News Read more Health ...

  20. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders.

  1. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  2. Dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation.

  3. Phonological disorder

    MedlinePlus

    This disorder is more common in boys. The cause in children is often unknown. Close relatives may have had speech and language problems. Other risk factors may include poverty and coming from a large family. Phonological disorders ...

  4. [Learning disorders].

    PubMed

    Gérard, Christophe-Loïc

    2008-04-15

    Learning disorders are the center of medical process used for the assessment of school failure. We argue here that medical diagnosis is based on analysis of the interaction of three symptomatic clusters: cognitive symptoms, emotional symptoms, conduct disorders.

  5. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  6. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows ( ...

  7. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  8. Factitious Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mayo Clinic Staff Factitious disorder is a serious mental disorder in which someone deceives others by appearing sick, by purposely getting sick or by self-injury. Factitious disorder also can happen when family members or caregivers falsely present others, such as children, as being ill, injured ...

  9. Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

  10. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the baby’s father. What determines my baby’s sex? Your baby’s sex is determined by sex chromosomes. ... be a carrier of the disorder. What are sex-linked disorders? Sex-linked disorders are caused by ...

  11. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  12. Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

  13. Somatic symptom disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder ... a history of abuse. SSD is similar to anxiety disorder . This is when people are overly anxious ...

  14. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder; Speech disorder - stuttering ... a person repeats a sound, word, or phrase. Stuttering may be the most serious disfluency. Articulation disorders ...

  15. The genome sequence of Streptomyces lividans 66 reveals a novel tRNA-dependent peptide biosynthetic system within a metal-related genomic island.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Morales, Pablo; Vijgenboom, Erik; Iruegas-Bocardo, Fernanda; Girard, Geneviève; Yáñez-Guerra, Luis Alfonso; Ramos-Aboites, Hilda E; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Anné, Jozef; van Wezel, Gilles P; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the original isolate of the model actinomycete Streptomyces lividans 66, also referred to as 1326, was deciphered after a combination of next-generation sequencing platforms and a hybrid assembly pipeline. Comparative analysis of the genomes of S. lividans 66 and closely related strains, including S. coelicolor M145 and S. lividans TK24, was used to identify strain-specific genes. The genetic diversity identified included a large genomic island with a mosaic structure, present in S. lividans 66 but not in the strain TK24. Sequence analyses showed that this genomic island has an anomalous (G + C) content, suggesting recent acquisition and that it is rich in metal-related genes. Sequences previously linked to a mobile conjugative element, termed plasmid SLP3 and defined here as a 94 kb region, could also be identified within this locus. Transcriptional analysis of the response of S. lividans 66 to copper was used to corroborate a role of this large genomic island, including two SLP3-borne "cryptic" peptide biosynthetic gene clusters, in metal homeostasis. Notably, one of these predicted biosynthetic systems includes an unprecedented nonribosomal peptide synthetase--tRNA-dependent transferase biosynthetic hybrid organization. This observation implies the recruitment of members of the leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA-protein transferase family to catalyze peptide bond formation within the biosynthesis of natural products. Thus, the genome sequence of S. lividans 66 not only explains long-standing genetic and phenotypic differences but also opens the door for further in-depth comparative genomic analyses of model Streptomyces strains, as well as for the discovery of novel natural products following genome-mining approaches.

  16. The Genome Sequence of Streptomyces lividans 66 Reveals a Novel tRNA-Dependent Peptide Biosynthetic System within a Metal-Related Genomic Island

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Morales, Pablo; Vijgenboom, Erik; Iruegas-Bocardo, Fernanda; Girard, Geneviève; Yáñez-Guerra, Luis Alfonso; Ramos-Aboites, Hilda E.; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Anné, Jozef; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the original isolate of the model actinomycete Streptomyces lividans 66, also referred to as 1326, was deciphered after a combination of next-generation sequencing platforms and a hybrid assembly pipeline. Comparative analysis of the genomes of S. lividans 66 and closely related strains, including S. coelicolor M145 and S. lividans TK24, was used to identify strain-specific genes. The genetic diversity identified included a large genomic island with a mosaic structure, present in S. lividans 66 but not in the strain TK24. Sequence analyses showed that this genomic island has an anomalous (G + C) content, suggesting recent acquisition and that it is rich in metal-related genes. Sequences previously linked to a mobile conjugative element, termed plasmid SLP3 and defined here as a 94 kb region, could also be identified within this locus. Transcriptional analysis of the response of S. lividans 66 to copper was used to corroborate a role of this large genomic island, including two SLP3-borne “cryptic” peptide biosynthetic gene clusters, in metal homeostasis. Notably, one of these predicted biosynthetic systems includes an unprecedented nonribosomal peptide synthetase—tRNA-dependent transferase biosynthetic hybrid organization. This observation implies the recruitment of members of the leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA-protein transferase family to catalyze peptide bond formation within the biosynthesis of natural products. Thus, the genome sequence of S. lividans 66 not only explains long-standing genetic and phenotypic differences but also opens the door for further in-depth comparative genomic analyses of model Streptomyces strains, as well as for the discovery of novel natural products following genome-mining approaches. PMID:23709624

  17. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis.

  18. Influence of copper deficiency on binding and uptake of apolipoprotein E-free high density lipoproteins (APO E-free HDL) by isolated rat liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Brouwer, A.; Bock, I.; De Ruiter, C.S.J.; Knook, D.L. )

    1989-02-01

    Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to two dietary treatments; copper-deficient (CD, 0.7 ppm) and adequate (CA, 7.0 ppm). After 8 weeks, plasma apo E-free HDL were isolated by a combination of ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, and heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Liver parenchymal (P) and Kupffer (K) cells were obtained by collagenase perfusion and purified by elutriation. Freshly isolated cells were then incubated with {sup 125}I-apo E-free HDL, either from the same treatment group or in a crossover design, in order to establish if treatment differences were associated with cells and/or lipoproteins. Binding studies performed at 4{degree}C with increasing apo E-free HDL concentration indicated an increase in specific binding in P cells from CD rats. In cell association studies at 37{degree}C, P cells from CD rats demonstrated increased in trypsin releasable (surface-bound) and total cell-associated apo E-free HDL. In contrast, K cells from CD rats demonstrated a reduction in apo E-free HDL uptake (internalized). These findings confirm data obtained from cultured P cells and indicated that copper deficiency may exert different effects on lipoprotein metabolism in rat liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells.

  19. Bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-04-09

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  1. [Tic disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S

    1993-11-01

    Tics are sudden, rapid, stereotyped, recurrent, nonrythmic, brief and purposeless involuntary movements or vocalization. The characteristics of tics is that they can be suppressed for certain minutes or hours. Tic disorders are classified into three subtypes in DSM-III. They are: transient tic chronic motor or vocal tic and Tourette's disorder. These three disorders are considered to be clinical varieties of a tic spectrum. Tic disorders are male-predominant, age-dependent (most tics appear by puberty) disorders. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been suggested in Tourette's disorder. It is highly interesting and important to investigate the pathogenesis of tic symptoms because tics are thought to be in between neurological symptoms and psychiatric symptoms.

  2. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  3. Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  4. Vascular Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields From * To * DESCRIPTION Vascular disorders are problems with arteries and veins. Arteries are pipes that bring oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the fingers. Veins ...

  5. Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  6. Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Marilyn

    Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of…

  7. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside of the chest cavity. Chest injuries and disorders include Heart diseases Lung diseases and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders ...

  8. Recent advances in 2D and 3D in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes, alternative hepatocyte sources and non-parenchymal liver cells and their use in investigating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, cell signaling and ADME.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Patricio; Hewitt, Nicola J; Albrecht, Ute; Andersen, Melvin E; Ansari, Nariman; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Bode, Johannes Georg; Bolleyn, Jennifer; Borner, Christoph; Böttger, Jan; Braeuning, Albert; Budinsky, Robert A; Burkhardt, Britta; Cameron, Neil R; Camussi, Giovanni; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Craig Rowlands, J; Dahmen, Uta; Damm, Georg; Dirsch, Olaf; Donato, María Teresa; Dong, Jian; Dooley, Steven; Drasdo, Dirk; Eakins, Rowena; Ferreira, Karine Sá; Fonsato, Valentina; Fraczek, Joanna; Gebhardt, Rolf; Gibson, Andrew; Glanemann, Matthias; Goldring, Chris E P; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Groothuis, Geny M M; Gustavsson, Lena; Guyot, Christelle; Hallifax, David; Hammad, Seddik; Hayward, Adam; Häussinger, Dieter; Hellerbrand, Claus; Hewitt, Philip; Hoehme, Stefan; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Houston, J Brian; Hrach, Jens; Ito, Kiyomi; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Keitel, Verena; Kelm, Jens M; Kevin Park, B; Kordes, Claus; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; LeCluyse, Edward L; Lu, Peng; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer; Lutz, Anna; Maltman, Daniel J; Matz-Soja, Madlen; McMullen, Patrick; Merfort, Irmgard; Messner, Simon; Meyer, Christoph; Mwinyi, Jessica; Naisbitt, Dean J; Nussler, Andreas K; Olinga, Peter; Pampaloni, Francesco; Pi, Jingbo; Pluta, Linda; Przyborski, Stefan A; Ramachandran, Anup; Rogiers, Vera; Rowe, Cliff; Schelcher, Celine; Schmich, Kathrin; Schwarz, Michael; Singh, Bijay; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Stieger, Bruno; Stöber, Regina; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Tetta, Ciro; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Weiss, Thomas S; Widera, Agata; Woods, Courtney G; Xu, Jinghai James; Yarborough, Kathy M; Hengstler, Jan G

    2013-08-01

    This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically aggravate the initial damage. Hepatotoxicity, as well as hepatic metabolism, is controlled by a set of nuclear receptors (including PXR, CAR, HNF-4α, FXR, LXR, SHP, VDR and PPAR) and signaling pathways. When isolating liver cells, some pathways are activated, e.g., the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway, whereas others are silenced (e.g. HNF-4α), resulting in up- and downregulation of hundreds of genes. An understanding of these changes is crucial for a correct interpretation of in vitro data. The possibilities and limitations of the most useful liver in vitro systems are summarized, including three-dimensional culture techniques, co-cultures with non-parenchymal cells, hepatospheres, precision cut liver slices and the isolated perfused liver. Also discussed is how closely hepatoma, stem cell and iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like-cells resemble real hepatocytes. Finally, a summary is given of the state of the art of liver in vitro and mathematical modeling systems that are currently used in the pharmaceutical industry with an emphasis on drug metabolism, prediction of clearance, drug interaction, transporter studies and hepatotoxicity. One key message is that despite our enthusiasm for in vitro systems, we must never lose sight of the in vivo situation. Although hepatocytes have been isolated for decades, the hunt for relevant alternative systems has only just begun.

  9. A fully-automated software pipeline for integrating breast density and parenchymal texture analysis for digital mammograms: parameter optimization in a case-control breast cancer risk assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Yan; Keller, Brad M.; Conant, Emily; Gee, James C.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-02-01

    Estimating a woman's risk of breast cancer is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Mammographic density, estimated as the percent of dense (PD) tissue area within the breast, has been shown to be a strong risk factor. Studies also support a relationship between mammographic texture and breast cancer risk. We have developed a fullyautomated software pipeline for computerized analysis of digital mammography parenchymal patterns by quantitatively measuring both breast density and texture properties. Our pipeline combines advanced computer algorithms of pattern recognition, computer vision, and machine learning and offers a standardized tool for breast cancer risk assessment studies. Different from many existing methods performing parenchymal texture analysis within specific breast subregions, our pipeline extracts texture descriptors for points on a spatial regular lattice and from a surrounding window of each lattice point, to characterize the local mammographic appearance throughout the whole breast. To demonstrate the utility of our pipeline, and optimize its parameters, we perform a case-control study by retrospectively analyzing a total of 472 digital mammography studies. Specifically, we investigate the window size, which is a lattice related parameter, and compare the performance of texture features to that of breast PD in classifying case-control status. Our results suggest that different window sizes may be optimal for raw (12.7mm2) versus vendor post-processed images (6.3mm2). We also show that the combination of PD and texture features outperforms PD alone. The improvement is significant (p=0.03) when raw images and window size of 12.7mm2 are used, having an ROC AUC of 0.66. The combination of PD and our texture features computed from post-processed images with a window size of 6.3 mm2 achieves an ROC AUC of 0.75.

  10. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity.

  11. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Rutter, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder, although most commonly considered in childhood, can be lifelong conditions. In this Personal View that is shaped by clinical experience and research, we adopt a conceptual approach. First, we discuss what disorders are neurodevelopmental and why such a grouping is useful. We conclude that both distinction and grouping are helpful and that it is important to take into account the strong overlap across neurodevelopmental disorders. Then we highlight some challenges in bridging research and clinical practice. We discuss the complexity of clinical phenotypes and the importance of the social context. We also argue the importance of viewing neurodevelopmental disorders as traits but highlight that this is not the only approach to use. Finally, we consider developmental change across the life-span. Overall, we argue strongly for a flexible approach in clinical practice that takes into consideration the high level of heterogeneity and overlap in neurodevelopmental disorders and for research to link more closely to what is observed in real-life practice.

  13. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Janet; Claudino, Angélica M; Zucker, Nancy

    2010-02-13

    This Seminar adds to the previous Lancet Seminar about eating disorders, published in 2003, with an emphasis on the biological contributions to illness onset and maintenance. The diagnostic criteria are in the process of review, and the probable four new categories are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. These categories will also be broader than they were previously, which will affect the population prevalence; the present lifetime prevalence of all eating disorders is about 5%. Eating disorders can be associated with profound and protracted physical and psychosocial morbidity. The causal factors underpinning eating disorders have been clarified by understanding about the central control of appetite. Cultural, social, and interpersonal elements can trigger onset, and changes in neural networks can sustain the illness. Overall, apart from studies reporting pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder, advances in treatment for adults have been scarce, other than interest in new forms of treatment delivery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Sleep disorders and mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Gude, Tore

    2002-08-20

    Recent research has revealed a lot of the secrets of sleep and how sleep influences our daily life and mental functioning. Current knowledge on the interaction between sleep disturbances and mental disorders is reviewed. The review is based on relevant literature identified by search in Medline and PsycInfo. Research shows that sleep as a psychobiological phenomenon interacts with the processes of mental disorders. The best evidence for interactions between sleep disturbances and mental problems is found in depression, and sleep disturbances over some weeks have been found to be a predictor for depressive disorders. Clinicians must distinguish between primary chronic sleep disorders of functional origin and secondary sleep disorders as part of a psychiatric condition. The former category should be treated by non-pharmacological interventions, while the latter should be adequately treated in a biopsychosocial model.

  15. Balance Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders. In one NIDCD-funded study, researchers used virtual reality technology to simulate the aisles of a grocery store. The researchers are testing whether practicing in the virtual store will lessen episodes of dizziness in real- ...

  16. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear cause for the periods (episodes) of extreme happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bipolar Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  17. Cyclothymic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... any of the following: Periods (episodes) of extreme happiness and high activity or energy (mania), or low ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Mood Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  18. Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most help. Sometimes tutors or speech or language therapists also work with the children. Learning disorders do not go away, but strategies to work around them can make them less of a problem. ...

  19. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  20. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  1. Immunodeficiency disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect T cells may cause repeated Candida (yeast) infections. Inherited combined immunodeficiency affects both T cells ... infections (including some forms of pneumonia or repeated yeast infections) Symptoms depend on the disorder. For example, ...

  2. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... by recurrent episodes of paralyzing fear, known as panic attacks. Panic disorder, which affects three million to six ... Americans, typically surfaces between ages fifteen and nineteen. Panic attacks may be precipitated by specific events, but they ...

  3. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror when there ... or a cold chill Tingly or numb hands Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere, and without warning. You ...

  4. Corneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injuries Dystrophies - conditions in which parts of the cornea lose clarity due to a buildup of cloudy material Treatments of corneal disorders include medicines, corneal transplantation, and corneal laser surgery. NIH: National Eye Institute

  5. Psychotic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. People with psychoses lose touch with reality. Two ... is sending you secret messages. Hallucinations are false perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or feeling something that ...

  6. Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... combine with a food’s aroma to produce a perception of flavor. It is flavor that lets you ... The most common taste disorder is phantom taste perception : a lingering, often unpleasant taste even though there ...

  7. Parathyroid Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  8. Dissociative Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways ... at bay. Symptoms — ranging from amnesia to alternate identities — depend in part on the type of dissociative ...

  9. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be done to diagnose an autoimmune disorder include: Antinuclear antibody tests Autoantibody tests CBC Comprehensive metabolic panel C-reactive protein (CRP) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Urinalysis

  10. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  11. Disorderly Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ivars

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between theories about electrical conductivity in microscopic wires and laser speckle patterns is described. Practical applications of laser speckle patterns are included. Wave ideas are being used to describe and predict novel phenomena in disordered solids. (KR)

  12. Bleeding disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process. These disorders can lead to heavy and ... II, and III) Causes Watch this video about: Blood clotting Normal blood clotting involves blood components called platelets ...

  13. Conduct Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain damage, child abuse or neglect, genetic vulnerability, school failure, and traumatic life experiences . Children or adolescents with conduct disorder may exhibit some of the following behaviors: Aggression to people and animals bullies , threatens or intimidates ...

  14. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  15. TMJ Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... with TMJ disorders, such as chronic fatigue syndrome, sleep disturbances or fibromyalgia, a painful condition that affects muscles ... reducing stress, practicing gentle jaw stretching and relaxing exercises that may help increase jaw movement. Your health ...

  16. Cartilage Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead to joint damage and deformity. Causes of cartilage problems include Tears and injuries, such as sports injuries Genetic factors Other disorders, such as some types of arthritis Osteoarthritis results from breakdown of cartilage. ...

  17. Learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W

    2003-11-01

    Three broad areas of LDs are recognized in the DSM-IV (RD, mathematics disorder, and disorder of written expression), and many atypical LDs (such as NVLD) also may be found in children with academic underachievement. These disorders are defined by a significant discrepancy between a child's intellectual (learning) ability and specific area of academic achievement, based on individual psychologic testing. Interventions for these disorders begin with careful evaluation and testing, followed by meetings at the school and development of an IEP. The recommendations of the IEP are performed in the school setting, whereas additional interventions may be sought at private learning clinics. Specific treatments for RD have been well defined, whereas those for other LDs must be tailored to match the strengths and weaknesses of the child. Although it is rare for individuals to completely outgrow the academic weaknesses characteristic of an LD, their performance in the area of weakness often can be improved markedly with appropriate interventions.

  18. Dysthymic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to the challenging clinical interface between psychiatry and primary care—two fields that are inexorably linked. Dysthymic disorder is a smoldering mood disturbance characterized by a long duration (at least two years in adults) as well as transient periods of normal mood. The disorder is fairly common in the US general population (3–6%) as well as in primary care (7%) and mental health settings (up to one-third of psychiatric outpatients). While the etiology of dysthymia remains unknown, there appears to be a genetic susceptibility, which may manifest in the presence of various psychosocial stressors. While the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria are fairly clear, the disorder can be easily under-recognized for a variety of reasons. Treatment may include pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, although the overall treatment course is oftentimes characterized by protracted symptoms and relapses. PMID:19724735

  19. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of specialists to address all the issues that led to the eating disorder. Recovery is much more ... and stories with each other, and is usually led by a therapist or counselor. Median body weight: ...

  20. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Clots) Blood clot in a deep vein. Hemophilia Blood does not clot properly. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia ( ... infants. Blood Disorders Homepage Venous Thromboembolism (Blood Clots) Hemophilia Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) Sickle Cell Disease Thalassemia ...

  1. Schizoaffective Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression or mania. The two types of schizoaffective disorder — both of which include some symptoms of schizophrenia — are: Bipolar type , which includes episodes of mania and sometimes major depression Depressive type , which includes only major depressive episodes ...

  2. Talking about GI Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Talking About GI Disorders Personal Stories Social Security Benefits Contact Us About Kids & Teens GI Health ... Disorders Talking About GI Disorders Personal Stories Social Security Benefits Contact Us Talking About GI Disorders Home ...

  3. Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232

  4. Disorders of the Small Intestine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal ... Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the ...

  5. Disorders of the Large Intestine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal ... Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the ...

  6. Peroxisomal disorders.

    PubMed

    Raymond, G V

    2001-12-01

    Peroxisomes are membrane-bound subcellular organelles that are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Disorders of peroxisomes, either in their assembly or single enzyme deficiencies, manifest themselves in the nervous system both in development and later in life. Most peroxisomal matrix proteins are targeted using one of the targeting sequences, whereas integral peroxisomal membrane proteins employ a different method. Peroxisomal importation is unique, allowing the importation of oligomerized proteins, and uses a specific extended shuttle system of receptor and cargo. The understanding of peroxisomal assembly is important because peroxisomal biogenesis disorders such as Zellweger syndrome result from these defects, and the resulting failure causes widespread deficiencies in peroxisomal biochemical function. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, representing the other group of peroxisomal disorders, is caused by the lack of the adrenoleukodystrophy protein, with an accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. New information on clinical incidence, phenotypic variability, and pathogenesis is becoming available and will have implications for possible therapies.

  7. Digested disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  8. Disordered photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2013-03-01

    What do lotus flowers have in common with human bones, liquid crystals with colloidal suspensions, and white beetles with the beautiful stones of the Taj Mahal? The answer is they all feature disordered structures that strongly scatter light, in which light waves entering the material are scattered several times before exiting in random directions. These randomly distributed rays interfere with each other, leading to interesting, and sometimes unexpected, physical phenomena. This Review describes the physics behind the optical properties of disordered structures and how knowledge of multiple light scattering can be used to develop new applications. The field of disordered photonics has grown immensely over the past decade, ranging from investigations into fundamental topics such as Anderson localization and other transport phenomena, to applications in imaging, random lasing and solar energy.

  9. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight–flight response, stressful life circumstances, and learned behavior. A child with a family member who has an anxiety ... disorder, and create a plan to help a child cope. A type of talk therapy called cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is often used. In CBT, kids ...

  10. Other Disorders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental conditions, such as wind, water, and temperature, or genetic disorders can affect beet production but can also cause symptoms that may be confused with those associated with pest or disease damage. Listed below are some the potential abiotic stresses that may occur to beet but are unr...

  11. Eating disorders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  12. Penis Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...

  13. Immunodeficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Max D; Lanier, Lewis L; Conley, Mary Ellen; Puck, Jennifer M

    2003-01-01

    Hematological complications occur frequently in patients with both primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders. Anemia, thrombocytopenia or leukopenias may bring these individuals to the attention of hematologists. Conversely, evidence suggesting a lymphoproliferative disorder may be the cause for referral. This session will provide an update on the diagnosis and treatment of immunodeficiency diseases ranging from isolated defects in antibody production to the severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID). Immunodeficiency diseases have traditionally been defined as defects in the development and function of T and B cells, the primary effector cells of specific cellular and humoral immunity. However, it has become increasingly evident that innate immune mechanisms contribute greatly to host defense, either through acting alone or by enhancing specific T and B cell responses. In Section I, Dr. Lewis Lanier reviews the burgeoning information on the extensive families of activating and inhibitory immunoreceptors that are expressed on NK cells, dendritic cells, T and B cells, and phagocytic cells. He provides an overview on the biological functions of these receptors in host defense. In Section II, Dr. Mary Ellen Conley defines the spectrum of antibody deficiency disorders, the most frequently occurring types of primary immunodeficiencies. She covers the different defects in B-cell development and function that lead to antibody deficiencies, and includes diagnosis and therapy of these disorders. In Section III, Dr. Jennifer Puck discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the different types of SCID. She describes the genetic basis for SCID, and the benefits, pitfalls, and complications of gene therapy and bone marrow transplantation in SCID patients.

  14. Disorder solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, A.

    1982-12-20

    It is shown that in (3+1)-dimensional space-time the recently proposed supersymmetric models of disordered systems can have finite-energy solitonlike solutions. As a consequence, it is suggested that the lower critical dimension of a ferromagnet in a quenched random magnetic field is d/sub c/ = 3. .ID LV2096 .PG 1811 1815

  15. Digested disorder

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is blooming. A simple PubMed search for “intrinsically disordered protein OR natively unfolded protein” returns about 1,800 hits (as of June 17, 2013), with many papers published quite recently. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we are starting a “Digested Disorder” project, which will encompass a series of reader’s digest type of publications aiming at the objective representation of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only two criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest covers papers published during the period of January, February and March of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28516015

  16. [Affective disorders and personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Maurel, M; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Coexistence in an individual of an affective disorder and a personality disorder is very common and there is an abundant literature on it. Articles are numerous and heterogeneous ; the results are sometimes imprecise or discordant. Some data are, despite these reserves, shared by the scientific community. The main consensus is first on a bad prognosis, with a high rate of all DSM axes comorbidities, secondly on the trap of a same phenomenology for different underlying mechanisms. A review is presented. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  17. Autism and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  18. Contribution of the cerebellum to neuropsychological functioning: evidence from a case of cerebellar degenerative disorder.

    PubMed

    Akshoomoff, N A; Courchesne, E; Press, G A; Iragui, V

    1992-04-01

    A detailed neuropsychological evaluation was performed on a patient with an idiopathic cerebellar degenerative disorder. Significant deficits were found in verbal and nonverbal intelligence, verbal associative learning, and visuospatial skills. These deficits were not readily explained by motor control difficulties. In contrast to the patient's moderately impaired language abilities, he was severely impaired on a test of verbal fluency and demonstrated mild naming deficits. Severe cerebellar parenchymal volume loss was demonstrated by magnetic resonance examination. Supratentorial structures showed only minimal posterior parietal and occipital sulcal prominence. On neurological examination, this patient had signs of severe involvement of the cerebellar systems and mild-to-moderate dysfunction of the corticospinal tract. As is characteristic of patients with cerebellar degeneration, there was neurophysiological evidence of subclinical involvement of auditory and somatosensory pathways at the level of the brain stem. Since relatively little cerebral cortical atrophy was noted in this patient, these findings suggest that an intact cerebellum is important for normal cognitive functions.

  19. Characterization of hepatic cellular uptake of α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), part 2: involvement of hemoglobin β-chain on plasma membranes in the uptake of human AGP by liver parenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Komori, Hisakazu; Nishi, Koji; Uehara, Nao; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Suenaga, Ayaka; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2012-04-01

    Human α(1) -acid glycoprotein (AGP), a lipocalin family member, serves as a carrier for basic drugs and endogenous hormones. It is mainly distributed in the liver and also has anti-inflammatory effects. We previously discovered a protein in liver parenchymal cells that interacts with AGP and it was identified as hemoglobin β-chain (HBB). The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of HBB in the hepatic cellular uptake of AGP. Ligand blotting experiments showed that the interaction of (125) I-AGP with hemoglobin was saturable and was significantly suppressed in the presence of excess unlabeled AGP. In addition, the cellular uptake of fluorescein isothiocianate-AGP by HepG2 cells was saturable and temperature dependent. This uptake was inhibited by fillipin and methyl-β-cyclodextrin, but not chlorpromazine, suggesting that AGP is taken up via caveolae/lipid rafts endocytic pathway. Immunostaining showed that HBB and caveolin-1, exclusively expressed in caveolae, were partially colocalized on the plasma membranes of HepG2 cells. HBB knockdown with siRNA decreased the uptake of AGP by HepG2 cells by 40%, and exogenous hemoglobin inhibited the uptake by 40%-50%. These findings indicate that HBB is located on the liver plasma membrane and that it contributes to the intracellular uptake of AGP.

  20. Reading Disorders:

    PubMed Central

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon. PMID:28569728

  1. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  2. Schizoid Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... you mostly work alone. Schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia Although a different disorder, schizoid personality disorder can ... some similar symptoms to schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia, such as a severely limited ability to make ...

  3. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  4. Disorders of Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, C. Woodruff

    1977-01-01

    The author explores the idea that nonverbal communication can be disordered, describes several types of nonverbal disorders (such as impaired eye movement, inappropriate body movements, idiosyncratic mannerisms, and voice disorders), explains sources of nonverbal disorders, and suggests therapeutic procedures. (IM)

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a ... and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people with ASD can have a ...

  6. [Deglutition disorders].

    PubMed

    Walther, E K

    1998-08-01

    Dysphagia is related to the impairment of food passage from the mouth to the stomach. Globus pharyngis implies the frequent and often painful sensation of a lump in the throat that usually does not interfere with swallowing and may even be relieved by food intake. The diagnosis is based upon a careful history, clinical examination, endoscopy, dynamic imaging (videofluoroscopy, cinematography, videosonography) and electrophysiologic procedures (including pharyngoesophageal manometry, electromyography and pH determinations). Structural lesions of the cervical spine such as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis are rare causes of dysphagia. Dysphagia following anterior cervical fusion as well as globus and dysphonia due to dysfunction of the vertebral joints are more likely. Symptoms with swallowing fluids indicate a neurogenic origin. Dyscoordinated swallowing, nasal reflux, dysphonia or general weakness may also occur. Chronic aspiration with respiratory compromize is the main consequence in a variety of neurological disorders as well as in cases of postsurgical dysphagia. Relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter indicates coordinated muscle movement between the pharynx and esophagus. Dysfunction of the pharyngoesophageal segment may lead to cricopharyngeal achalasia. A dyskinetic sphincter commonly represents an extrapharyngeal cause: i.e., disease associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Disorders of the esophageal phase of deglutition can produce retrosternal pain, heartburn, regurgitation and vomiting, as well as laryngeal and respiratory signs. Esophageal motility disorders include lower achalasia, tumors, peptic strictures, inflammatory diseases, drug-induced ulcers, rings and webs. Motility disorders present with aperistaltic, spontaneous contractions, diffuse esophagospasm, or a hypermotile esophagus. Gastroesophageal reflux with esophagitis must always be excluded, especially in patients with a globus sensation. The multiple features of the

  7. Physical properties of galaxies and their evolution in the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. II. Extending the mass-metallicity relation to the range z ≈ 0.89-1.24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Montero, E.; Contini, T.; Lamareille, F.; Brinchmann, J.; Walcher, C. J.; Charlot, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Radovich, M.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2009-02-01

    Aims: We present a continuation of our study about the relation between stellar mass and gas-phase metallicity in the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). In this work we extend the determination of metallicities up to redshift ≈1.24 for a sample of 42 star-forming galaxies with a mean redshift value of 0.99. Methods: For a selected sample of emission-line galaxies, we use both diagnostic diagrams and empirical calibrations based on [Oii] emission lines along with the empirical relation between the intensities of the [Oiii] and [Neiii] emission lines and the theoretical ratios between Balmer recombination emission lines to identify star-forming galaxies and to derive their metallicities. We derive stellar masses by fitting the whole spectral energy distribution with a set of stellar population synthesis models. Results: These new methods allow us to extend the mass-metallicity relation to higher redshift. We show that the metallicity determinations are consistent with more established strong-line methods. Taken together this allows us to study the evolution of the mass-metallicity relation up to z ≈ 1.24 with good control of systematic uncertainties. We find an evolution with redshift of the average metallicity of galaxies very similar to those reported in the literature: for a given stellar mass, galaxies at z ~ 1 have, on average, a metallicity ~ 0.3 dex lower than galaxies in the local universe. However we do not see any significant metallicity evolution between redshifts z ~ 0.7 (Paper I) and z ~ 1.0 (this paper). We find also the same flattening of the mass-metallicity relation for the most massive galaxies as reported in Paper I at lower redshifts, but again no apparent evolution of the slope is seen between z ~ 0.7 and z ~ 1.0. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 070.A-9007, and on data obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the CNRS in France, CNRC in Canada and the

  8. Use of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Stephane; Renard, Felix; Achard, Sophie; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A.; Palace, Jacqueline; Asgari, Nasrin; Klawiter, Eric C.; Tenembaum, Silvia N.; Banwell, Brenda; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Levy, Michael; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert; Fujihara, Kazuo; Chan, Koon Ho; Schippling, Sven; Paul, Friedemann; Kim, Ho Jin; de Seze, Jerome; Wuerfel, Jens T.

    2016-01-01

    Brain parenchymal lesions are frequently observed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder, but the specific morphological and temporal patterns distinguishing them unequivocally from lesions caused by other disorders have not been identified. This literature review summarizes the literature on advanced quantitative imaging measures reported for patients with NMO spectrum disorder, including proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, quantitative MR volumetry, and ultrahigh-field strength MRI. It was undertaken to consider the advanced MRI techniques used for patients with NMO by different specialists in the field. Although quantitative measures such as proton MR spectroscopy or magnetization transfer imaging have not reproducibly revealed diffuse brain injury, preliminary data from diffusion-weighted imaging and brain tissue volumetry indicate greater white matter than gray matter degradation. These findings could be confirmed by ultrahigh-field MRI. The use of nonconventional MRI techniques may further our understanding of the pathogenic processes in NMO spectrum disorders and may help us identify the distinct radiographic features corresponding to specific phenotypic manifestations of this disease. PMID:26010909

  9. Use of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Stephane; Renard, Felix; Achard, Sophie; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A; Palace, Jacqueline; Asgari, Nasrin; Klawiter, Eric C; Tenembaum, Silvia N; Banwell, Brenda; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Levy, Michael; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert; Fujihara, Kazuo; Chan, Koon Ho; Schippling, Sven; Paul, Friedemann; Kim, Ho Jin; de Seze, Jerome; Wuerfel, Jens T; Cabre, Philippe; Marignier, Romain; Tedder, Thomas; van Pelt, Danielle; Broadley, Simon; Chitnis, Tanuja; Wingerchuk, Dean; Pandit, Lekha; Leite, Maria Isabel; Apiwattanakul, Metha; Kleiter, Ingo; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Han, May; Hellwig, Kerstin; van Herle, Katja; John, Gareth; Hooper, D Craig; Nakashima, Ichiro; Sato, Douglas; Yeaman, Michael R; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Zamvil, Scott; Stüve, Olaf; Aktas, Orhan; Smith, Terry J; Jacob, Anu; O'Connor, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    Brain parenchymal lesions are frequently observed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder, but the specific morphological and temporal patterns distinguishing them unequivocally from lesions caused by other disorders have not been identified. This literature review summarizes the literature on advanced quantitative imaging measures reported for patients with NMO spectrum disorder, including proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, quantitative MR volumetry, and ultrahigh-field strength MRI. It was undertaken to consider the advanced MRI techniques used for patients with NMO by different specialists in the field. Although quantitative measures such as proton MR spectroscopy or magnetization transfer imaging have not reproducibly revealed diffuse brain injury, preliminary data from diffusion-weighted imaging and brain tissue volumetry indicate greater white matter than gray matter degradation. These findings could be confirmed by ultrahigh-field MRI. The use of nonconventional MRI techniques may further our understanding of the pathogenic processes in NMO spectrum disorders and may help us identify the distinct radiographic features corresponding to specific phenotypic manifestations of this disease.

  10. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.

  11. Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental study on the fine structure of chicken liver parenchyme with special references to extrasinusoidal macrophages and sinusoidal blood cells. Part 2. Sinusoidal blood cells in normal and India ink perfused livers.

    PubMed

    Ohata, M; Ito, T

    1986-06-01

    Leucocytes and thrombocytes in the chicken liver sinusoids were observed under normal conditions and after intravenous India ink perfusion. The monocytes exhibited conspicuous phagocytic activity. At 30 min or earlier and 4 hr after the perfusion, they ingested considerable amounts of the carbon particles, which were deposited in small vacuoles and/or lysosomes. In this study we revealed two transitional forms of the monocyte changing into the Kupffer cell. In one transitional form, which already at 15 min after the perfusion stored considerable amounts of the particles, the ectoplasmic layer was partly differentiated and projected many pseudopodia into the sinusoid. At 48 hr after the perfusion, the other transitional form was attached by its wide basal surface to the endothelial linig and projected well-developed pseudopodia into the sinusoid like the Kupffer cell without, however, storing the carbon particles. These findings are thought to suggest the transformation of the monocytes into the Kupffer cells. Thus we came to the assumption that the Kupffer cells might be replenished: by self-proliferation; by the macrophages from the hepatic parenchyme into the sinusoid; or by transformation from the monocytes circulating into the sinusoid (the "triple origin" as opposed to the "dual origin" of the Kupffer cell). In the earliest stage after India ink perfusion, the thrombocytes exhibited the most striking reaction comparable to the Kupffer cells toward which they were assembled. The India ink particles were taken up into the "surface connected canalicular system" (SCS), which thickened and made vacuolar expansions as the amount of the particles was increased. At 4 hr after perfusion, the particles disappeared from the majority of the thrombocytes, leaving an empty SCS. The India ink particle uptake and storage by the thrombocyte were thought to be temporary phenomena, different from the true phagocytosis of the macrophages.

  13. Arousal disorders.

    PubMed

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes.

  14. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  15. Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Dosier, Laura Beth Mann; Vaughn, Bradley V; Fan, Zheng

    2017-09-12

    enetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as "rare disease," but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions.

  16. Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dosier, Laura Beth Mann; Vaughn, Bradley V.; Fan, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions. PMID:28895939

  17. Ecotoxicology of metals related to freshwater benthos.

    PubMed

    Fargasová, A

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity of Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, As, Pb, Cr, Hg and Sn on the behaviour and survival of benthic worms Tubifex tubifex was studied. All tested metals were dissolved and determined in tap water under standardized conditions. The adverse effects of the metals were evaluated as acute toxicological effects upon exposure expressed as LC50 value with 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the LC50 values, the toxicity of the metals after an incubation for 96 h was ranked as follows: Cu(II)> Cu(I) > V > Hg > or = Mn > Ni > Cd > Cr > Mo > Pb > Sn(IV) = Sn(II) > As. From this sequence it is evident that copper was the most toxic metal ion. In addition, differences were found between Cu(II) and Cu(I) ions toxicity, the former being 2.5 times more toxic. In contrast, no differences could be confirmed between acute toxic effects of Sn(II) and Sn(IV). Arsenic showed the weakest toxicity of the tested metals. The LC50 value for As was 10,000 times higher than those for both copper ions.

  18. Update in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease 2013

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The period covered by this update can be considered as the most exciting period in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) research. It started with the identification of genetic variants that are associated with IPF in the majority of patients and continued with discovery of molecular and genetic biomarkers that predict distinct clinical presentations of patients with IPF and potential new biological mechanisms. More importantly, the period ends with the publication of two groundbreaking studies that confirmed that two drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, slowed disease progression, leading to a historic approval by the FDA. In this update, we describe these key advances, their scientific and significant clinical implications, and future directions. PMID:25635490

  19. [Basic lung ultrasound. Part 2. Parenchymal diseases].

    PubMed

    de la Quintana Gordon, F B; Nacarino Alcorta, B; Fajardo Pérez, M

    2015-01-01

    In this second part, an analysis is made of the pathology of lung parenchyma. This text is structured into different sections, including the study of atelectasias, pneumonia and abscess, interstitial/alveolar or Blines patterns, and finally an analysis is made of pulmonary embolism. With this second part, the basic knowledge to develop lung ultrasound in the anesthesia department has been presented. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Extracellular matrix mechanics in lung parenchymal diseases.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T

    2008-11-30

    In this review, we examine how the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the lung contributes to the overall mechanical properties of the parenchyma, and how these properties change in disease. The connective tissues of the lung are composed of cells and ECM, which includes a variety of biological macromolecules and water. The macromolecules that are most important in determining the mechanical properties of the ECM are collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. We first discuss the various components of the ECM and how their architectural organization gives rise to the mechanical properties of the parenchyma. Next, we examine how mechanical forces can affect the physiological functioning of the lung parenchyma. Collagen plays an especially important role in determining the homeostasis and cellular responses to injury because it is the most important load-bearing component of the parenchyma. We then demonstrate how the concept of percolation can be used to link microscopic pathologic alterations in the parenchyma to clinically measurable lung function during the progression of emphysema and fibrosis. Finally, we speculate about the possibility of using targeted tissue engineering to optimize treatment of these two major lung diseases.

  1. Diagnosing Tic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ( DSM-5 ) 1 is used by health professionals to ... unwillingly. Three tic disorders are included in the DSM-5 : Tourette’s disorder (also called Tourette Syndrome [TS]) ...

  2. Children with Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... but a common one is a specific learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder may make teachers and parents concerned about their ...

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Helping Kids Cope With Stress Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Special Needs Factsheet Taking Your ... Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Sadness and Depression Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Phobias Five Steps for Fighting Stress Going to ...

  4. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally ...

  5. Paranoid personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - paranoid; PPD ... American Psychiatric Association. Paranoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:649-652. Blais MA, ...

  6. Histrionic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - histrionic; Attention seeking - histrionic personality disorder ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and early childhood events may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in women than ...

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000929.htm Obsessive-compulsive disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder in which people ...

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Walking: A Step in the Right Direction Binge Eating Disorder View or Print All Sections ​​Definition & Facts Binge ... cannot control your eating, you may have binge eating disorder. Symptoms & Causes If you have binge eating disorder, ...

  9. Generalized anxiety disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007687.htm Generalized anxiety disorder - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder in which a ...

  10. Generalized anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000917.htm Generalized anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder in which a ...

  11. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  12. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Rafeul Alam, MD, PhD (July 01, 2012) Eosinophilic lung disorders are a category of lung problems characterized ...

  13. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  14. Panic Disorder and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your state. Panic Attacks, Panic Disorder, and Agoraphobia (Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians) - This online ... and examples of co-existing conditions. Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia (Copyright © Anxiety Disorders Association of America) - This web ...

  15. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  16. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders A ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  17. Autism spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder. It often appears in the first 3 years of life. ASD ... better diagnosis and newer definitions of ASD. Autism spectrum disorder now includes syndromes that used to be ...

  18. Stellar Mass-Gas-phase Metallicity Relation at 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 0.7: A Power Law with Increasing Scatter toward the Low-mass Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Lu, Yu; Forbes, John C.; Rafelski, Marc; Trump, Jonathan R.; Amorín, Ricardo; Barro, Guillermo; Davé, Romeel; Faber, S. M.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Yesuf, Hassen; Cooper, Michael C.; Dekel, Avishai; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kirby, Evan N.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Lin, Lihwai; Newman, Jeffery A.; Primack, Joel R.; Rosario, David J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Yan, Renbin

    2016-05-01

    We present the stellar mass ({M}*)-gas-phase metallicity relation (MZR) and its scatter at intermediate redshifts (0.5≤slant z≤slant 0.7) for 1381 field galaxies collected from deep spectroscopic surveys. The star formation rate (SFR) and color at a given {M}* of this magnitude-limited (R≲ 24 AB) sample are representative of normal star-forming galaxies. For masses below 109 {M}⊙ , our sample of 237 galaxies is ˜10 times larger than those in previous studies beyond the local universe. This huge gain in sample size enables superior constraints on the MZR and its scatter in the low-mass regime. We find a power-law MZR at 108 {M}⊙ < {M}* \\lt {10}11 {M}⊙ : 12+{log}(O/H)=(5.83+/- 0.19) +(0.30+/- 0.02){log}({M}*/{M}⊙ ). At 109 {M}⊙ < {M}* \\lt {10}10.5 {M}⊙ , our MZR shows agreement with others measured at similar redshifts in the literature. Our power-law slope is, however, shallower than the extrapolation of the MZRs of others to masses below 109 {M}⊙ . The SFR dependence of the MZR in our sample is weaker than that found for local galaxies (known as the fundamental metallicity relation). Compared to a variety of theoretical models, the slope of our MZR for low-mass galaxies agrees well with predictions incorporating supernova energy-driven winds. Being robust against currently uncertain metallicity calibrations, the scatter of the MZR serves as a powerful diagnostic of the stochastic history of gas accretion, gas recycling, and star formation of low-mass galaxies. Our major result is that the scatter of our MZR increases as {M}* decreases. Our result implies that either the scatter of the baryonic accretion rate ({σ }\\dot{M}) or the scatter of the {M}*-{M}{halo} relation ({σ }{SHMR}) increases as {M}* decreases. Moreover, our measure of scatter at z=0.7 appears consistent with that found for local galaxies. This lack of redshift evolution constrains models of galaxy evolution to have both {σ }\\dot{M} and {σ }{SHMR} remain unchanged from z=0

  19. Trichotillomania, stereotypic movement disorder, and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Garner, Joseph P; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Walkup, John T; Woods, Douglas W

    2007-08-01

    Trichotillomania is currently classified as an impulse control disorder not otherwise classified, whereas body-focused behaviors other than hair-pulling may be diagnosed as stereotypic movement disorder. A number of disorders characterized by repetitive, body-focused behaviors (eg, skin-picking) are prevalent and disabling and may have phenomenological and psychobiological overlap. Such disorders deserve greater recognition in the official nosology, and there would seem to be clinical utility in classifying them in the same diagnostic category.

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  1. ACE: Health - Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about children reported to have ever been diagnosed with four different neurodevelopmental disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, autism, and intellectual disability.

  2. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  3. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located Early Stage or Isolated Parenchymal Recurrences of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: How to Fly in a “No Fly Zone”

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Joe Y.; Li, Qiao-Qiao; Xu, Qing-Yong; Allen, Pamela K.; Rebueno, Neal; Gomez, Daniel R.; Balter, Peter; Komaki, Ritsuko; Mehran, Reza; Swisher, Stephen G.; Roth, Jack A.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We extended our previous experience with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR; 50 Gy in 4 fractions) for centrally located non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); explored the use of 70 Gy in 10 fractions for cases in which dose-volume constraints could not be met with the previous regimen; and suggested modified dose-volume constraints. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)-based volumetric image-guided SABR was used for 100 patients with biopsy-proven, central T1-T2N0M0 (n=81) or isolated parenchymal recurrence of NSCLC (n=19). All disease was staged with positron emission tomography/CT; all tumors were within 2 cm of the bronchial tree, trachea, major vessels, esophagus, heart, pericardium, brachial plexus, or vertebral body. Endpoints were toxicity, overall survival (OS), local and regional control, and distant metastasis. Results: At a median follow-up time of 30.6 months, median OS time was 55.6 months, and the 3-year OS rate was 70.5%. Three-year cumulative actuarial local, regional, and distant control rates were 96.5%, 87.9%, and 77.2%, respectively. The most common toxicities were chest-wall pain (18% grade 1, 13% grade 2) and radiation pneumonitis (11% grade 2 and 1% grade 3). No patient experienced grade 4 or 5 toxicity. Among the 82 patients receiving 50 Gy in 4 fractions, multivariate analyses showed mean total lung dose >6 Gy, V{sub 20} >12%, or ipsilateral lung V{sub 30} >15% to independently predict radiation pneumonitis; and 3 of 9 patients with brachial plexus D{sub max} >35 Gy experienced brachial neuropathy versus none of 73 patients with brachial D{sub max} <35 Gy (P=.001). Other toxicities were analyzed and new dose-volume constraints are proposed. Conclusions: SABR for centrally located lesions produces clinical outcomes similar to those for peripheral lesions when normal tissue constraints are respected.

  4. Vaginal disorders.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, S F

    1986-05-01

    Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous

  5. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychotic and Bipolar Disorders: Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Holder, Sarah D

    2017-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe chronic mental illness that affects a large number of individuals. This disorder is separated into two major types, bipolar I disorder, with mania and typically recurrent depression, and bipolar II disorder, with recurrent major depression and hypomania. Patients with bipolar disorder spend the majority of time experiencing depression, and this typically is the presenting symptom. Because outcomes are improved with earlier diagnosis and treatment, physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for bipolar disorder. The most effective long-term treatments are lithium and valproic acid, although other drugs also are used. In addition to referral to a mental health subspecialist for initiation and management of drug treatment, patients with bipolar disorder should be provided with resources for psychotherapy. Several comorbidities commonly associated with bipolar disorder include other mental disorders, substance use disorders, migraine headaches, chronic pain, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Family physicians who care for patients with bipolar disorder should focus their efforts on prevention and management of comorbidities. These patients should be assessed continually for risk of suicide because they are at high risk and their suicide attempts tend to be successful. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  7. [Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders].

    PubMed

    Iancu, Iulian

    2014-11-01

    Social anxiety disorder is a mental condition with anxiety and avoidance in social settings and is frequently accompanied by self-medication with alcohol. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that the risk that patients with social anxiety disorder will develop alcohol dependence is more than two-fold. We will discuss epidemiological research findings about this comorbidity, as well as reasons for the comorbidity and the various treatments available for these conditions. Very few studies have analyzed the efficacy of treatments for the combination of these disorders and it is not yet clear whether to treat the social anxiety disorder first, to treat the alcohol use disorder first or to treat both conditions simultaneously. Nevertheless, we propose to treat the symptoms of social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder in combination with the hope of achieving maximal improvement in these patients. Disclosure: I received financial assistance from Lundbeck Israel.

  8. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  9. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    PubMed

    van Grootheest, D S; van den Heuvel, O A; Cath, D C; van Oppen, P; van Balkom, A J L M

    2008-10-25

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessive-compulsive disorder has a relatively high prevalence and is a highly disabling disease. The disorder is associated with shame, which causes long delays in accessing treatment. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is caused by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Effective treatments exist in the form of either pharmacotherapy--clomipramine or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors--or cognitive behaviour therapy.

  10. Learning and Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anil; Uderman, Jodi; Feirsen, Nicole; Bedard, Anne-Claude; Marks, David

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to provide a select review of treatments for addressing reading disorder, mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression, auditory processing disorder and poor working memory. This information will be valuable to practitioners in determining the suitability of certain treatments for these various disorders/problems which has direct implications for providing comprehensive, multi-disciplinary treatment for youth. PMID:23806314

  11. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 1: Executive Summary, of a 15-Volume Set of Skills Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    The Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) consortium was formed to address the shortage of skilled workers for the machine tools and metals-related industries. Featuring six of the nation's leading advanced technology centers, the MAST consortium developed, tested, and disseminated industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for…

  12. Panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Craske, Michelle G; Waters, Allison M

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of recent empirical developments, current controversies, and areas in need of further research in relation to factors that are common as well as specific to the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. The relative contribution of broad risk factors to these disorders is discussed, including temperament, genetics, biological influences, cognition, and familial variables. In addition, the role that specific learning experiences play in relation to each disorder is reviewed. In an overarching hierarchical model, it is proposed that generalized anxiety disorder, and to some extent panic disorder, loads most heavily on broad underlying factors, whereas specific life history contributes most strongly to circumscribed phobias.

  13. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. A TEST ON THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY USING THE u-BAND COLORS: THE CASE OF M87 (NGC 4486)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sub; Cho, Jaeil; Chung, Chul; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Blakeslee, John P.

    2011-12-20

    The optical color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most large elliptical galaxies are bimodal. Based on the assumed linear relationship between GC colors and their metallicities, the bimodality has been taken as evidence of two GC subsystems with different metallicities in each galaxy and has led to a number of theories in the context of galaxy formation. More recent observations and modeling of GCs, however, suggests that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) are inflected, and thus colors likely trace metallicities in a nonlinear manner. The nonlinearity could produce bimodal color distributions from a broad underlying metallicity spread, even if it is unimodal. Despite the far-reaching implications, whether CMRs are nonlinear and whether the nonlinearity indeed causes the color bimodality are still open questions. Given that the spectroscopic refinement of CMRs is still very challenging, we here propose a new photometric technique to probe the possible nonlinear nature of CMRs. In essence, a color distribution of GCs is a 'projected' distribution of their metallicities. Since the form of CMRs hinges on which color is used, the shape of color distributions varies depending significantly on the colors. Among other optical colors, the u-band related colors (e.g., u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to exhibit significantly less inflected CMRs than other preferred CMRs (e.g., for g - z). As a case study, we performed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 archival u-band photometry for the M87 (NGC 4486) GC system with confirmed color bimodality. We show that the u-band color distributions are significantly different from that of g - z and consistent with our model predictions. With more u-band measurements, this method will support or rule out the nonlinear CMR scenario for the origin of GC color bimodality with high confidence. The HST/WFC3 observations in F336W for nearby large elliptical galaxies are highly anticipated in this regard.

  14. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. IV. TESTING THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY VIA HST/WFC3 u-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF M84 (NGC 4374)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Cho, Jaeil; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Blakeslee, John P.

    2013-05-10

    Color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most massive galaxies are bimodal. Assuming linear color-to-metallicity conversions, bimodality is viewed as the presence of merely two GC subsystems with distinct metallicities, which serves as a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Recent studies, however, revealed that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) often used to derive GC metallicities (e.g., CMRs of g - z, V - I, and C - T{sub 1}) are in fact inflected. Such inflection can create bimodal color distributions if the underlying GC metallicity spread is simply broad as expected from the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy formation. In order to test the nonlinear-CMR scenario for GC color bimodality, the u-band photometry is proposed because the u-related CMRs (e.g., CMRs of u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to be least inflected and most distinctive among commonly used optical CMRs. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 F336W (u-band) photometry of the GC system in M84, a giant elliptical in the Virgo galaxy cluster. Combining the u data with the existing HST ACS/WFC g and z data, we find that the u - z and u - g color distributions are different from the g - z distribution in a very systematic manner and remarkably consistent with our model predictions based on the nonlinear-CMR hypothesis. The results lend further confidence to the validity of the nonlinear-CMR scenario as an explanation for GC color bimodality. There are some GC systems showing bimodal spectroscopic metallicity, and in such systems the inflected CMRs often create stronger bimodality in the color domain.

  15. Eating disorders during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Eating disorders during pregnancy, once thought to be rare, occur in a significant number of women. The incidences of the major eating disorders-anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa-are increasing because of cultural pressures on the drive for thinness. Because the age range for these major eating disorders overlaps with the age range for reproductive function, it is not unusual for a clinician to encounter a pregnant patient with a major eating disorder. Eating disorders attributable to the pregnant state include pregnancy sickness, pica, and ptyalism. The diagnostic criteria, etiology, nutritional behavioral influences, evolutionary psychological considerations where elucidated, and treatment of these disorders will be presented. Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to review how the major eating disorders impact pregnancy, to diagnose eating disorders during pregnancy using the diagnostic criteria, and to treat eating disorders during pregnancy.

  16. Asperger disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Arora, Manu; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

  17. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment. PMID:19724751

  18. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  19. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.

  20. [Personality disorders in eating disorder patients].

    PubMed

    Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed.

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  3. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H

    2015-11-01

    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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    American Psychiatric Association. Borderline personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:663-666. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...

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    American Psychiatric Association. Schizotypal personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;655-659. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

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    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Avoidant personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;672-675. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

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    American Psychiatric Association. Schizoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:652-655. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...

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    ... Visit our Photo Gallery Education, Advocacy, Information & Support Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc is a non-profit organization. ... Inc. All Rights Reserved You are donating to : Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc, a 501c non-profit organization. ...

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    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Panic Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

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